Return to home600 Feb 16,
Pope Gregory the Great decreed "God bless You" as the religiously
correct response to a sneeze.
600 Li Shimin, son of Chinese
General Li Yuan (the Duke of Tang), was born about this time.
(ON, 5/06, p.1)
600 Yang Di (Yangdi), a Sui
emperor, extended the Grand Canal. He reportedly assumed power by
poisoning his father. Ma Shu-mou, aka Mahu, was one of the canal
overseers and was said to have eaten a steamed 2-year-old child each
day he worked on the canal. On completion the canal extended for
1,100 miles. 5.5 million people were pressed into service to
complete 1,550 mile canal.
(WSJ, 10/25/99, p.A50)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)
600 Quill pens, made from the
outer feathers of crows and other large birds, became popular. The
1st books were printed in China.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)
c600 Small porkers came to
Hawaii with the Polynesians some 1400 years ago, and big pigs
arrived with the Europeans.
(WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-6)
c600 Early settlers from the
Marquesas built the Alakoko fishpond and taro fields on Kauai,
(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.T6)
c600 The Joya de Ceren Maya
site in El Salvador was buried beneath 16 feet of ash from nearby
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.D)
600 Germanic invaders, who
occupied England after 600AD, saw themselves as a nation of
immigrants, according to Prof. Nicholas Howe (1953-2006) of UC
Berkeley, author of “Migration and Mythmaking in Anglo-Saxon
(SFC, 10/16/06, p.B6)
c600 "The Navigatio Sancti
Brendani Abbatis" (Voyage of St. Brendan the Abbott) recounts a
7-year trip to a land across the sea by the Irish saint and a band
of acolytes about this time.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.24)
c600-625 The burial site of the Prince of
Prittlewell, an East Saxon prince or king, dated to about this time.
600-700 The Tantras, Buddhist texts for generating
deep religious experiences, were produced in India.
c600-700 King Songstan Gampo reigned over Tibet in
the 7th century. He introduced Buddhism and started construction of
the Potala Palace and Jokhang Temple. He married the Chinese
princess Wen Cheng.
(WSJ, 8/2/01, p.A12)
600-700 The library at Alexandria, Egypt,
disappeared in the 7th century.
(WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A1)
600-700 In the seventh century the Frisians
clashed with the Franks and resisted Christianity, but succumbed to
Frankish rule and accepted Christianity a century later. Citizens of
the Netherlands’s province of Friesland are still called Frisians
and the Frisian language is still spoken there.
600-700 Irish monastic monks founded a monastery
at Skellig Michael (Michael’s Rock) during the 7th century and for
the next 600 years the island was a center of their monastic life.
In 1996 UNESCO listed it as a World Heritage Site.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skellig_Michael)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.94)
c600-700 St. Willibrord, an Irish missionary,
spread Christianity in the region of Luxembourg.
(SFC, 9/1/96, T3)
600-700 Calinicus (Callinicus), an engineer from
Heliopolis, Syria, is thought to have brought "Greek fire,"
(flammable petrochemicals) to Constantinople. The incendiary liquid
could be fired from siphons toward enemy ships or troops. The weapon
helped save the Byzantine Empire from Islamic conquest for several
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)(NH, 10/98, p.24)
600-700 The Caracol Maya site in Belize was one of
the most prosperous cities in the pre-Columbian world with some
120,000 people in a 65-square-mile metropolis. It has the
140-foot-high platform Caana, or "Sky-Place. "
(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E4)
600-700 Lady K'abel, considered the greatest ruler
of the Mayan Late Classic period, ruled with her husband, K'inich
Bahlam, for at least 20 years in the 7th century. She was the
military governor of the Waka kingdom for her family, the imperial
house of the Snake King, and she carried the title "Kaloomte" —
translated as "Supreme Warrior," higher in authority than her
husband, the king. In 2012 her tomb was discovered in northern
600-700 The martial art of "tie-kwan-doe"
(kick-strike-art) was developed as part of the military training for
young noblemen charged with protecting the kingdoms of what became
(WSJ, 10/3/97, p.A1)
600-700 Serbs and Croats came into Montenegro in a
second wave in the 7th century.
600-700 In Vietnam Hoi An was a port site of the
Cham kingdoms of central Vietnam. It may date back to the 2nd
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)
600-800 In 2003 evidence of an Indian village was
found at an Illinois site some 35 miles east of St. Louis, that
dated to the Late Woodland period.
(SFC, 4/21/03, p.A6)
c600-800 Irish monks began to seek solace in
(NH, 6/96, p.53)
600-800 Polynesian seafarers 1st landed on Easter
Island, 1400 miles from the coast of South America. They later
carved nearly 900 colossi of compressed volcanic ash: the moai. In
1722 A Dutch explorer stopped by on Easter Sunday. It later became a
possession of Chile.
(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.W11C)
c600-850 Late Classic Mayan paintings were found
at a site in eastern Chiapas, Mexico, named "Bonampak," (painted
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.35)
600-900 Late classic period of the Maya. The San
Andres site in El Salvador flourished during the late classic.
The El Tajin civilization thrived on the central coast of what
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.BC)(SFC, 9/14/00, p.C8)
600-900 A three hundred year dynasty ruled over
Palenque. In the Pyramid of Inscriptions is the tomb of Pakal, the
greatest king of the dynasty.
(SFC, 5/19/96, T-9)
600-1100 The Wari ruled during this period and
were the first people to unite diverse tribes into a sophisticated
network across most of the Peruvian Andes. A Wari tomb was
discovered in 2013.
600-1200 In Malaysia ceramic shards at Kampong
Sungai Mas in the Bujang Valley date to this time. Brick foundations
and a block of shale with a Buddhist mantra inscribed in Sanskrit
was also found.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)
600-1600 (See entries under Myanmar) Pagan was the
seat of Burma’s greatest dynasty and the site shows the remains of
more than 7,000 temples and monuments of this period.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)
604 Mar 12, Gregory I the Great
(64), Pope (590-604), died. In 1997 R.A. Markus authored “Gregory
the Great and His World."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_I)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W8)
604 In Japan a 17 article
constitution was promulgated by Prince Shotoku (574-622). It was a
Confucian document that focused more on ethics and virtue than on
the basic laws by which the state was to be run. [see 702]
604-617 King Saebert of Essex reigned in England.
St. Mellitus converted him to Christianity.
607 Mar 13, The 12th recorded
passage of Halley's Comet occurred.
607 The first envoy from Japan
was sent to China.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
609 May 13, Pope Boniface I
turned Roman Pantheon into Catholic church.
610 Apr 6, Lailat-ul Qadar: The
night that the Koran descended to Earth. Muhammad is believed by his
followers to have had a vision of Gabriel. The angel told him to
recite in the name of God. Other visions are supposed to have
Gabriel lead Muhammad to heaven to meet God, and to Jerusalem to
meet Abraham, Moses and Jesus. These visions convinced Mohammad that
he was a messenger of God.
(ATC, p.59)(MC, 4/6/02)
610 Oct 5, Heraclitus' fleet
610-632 A Muslim tradition has it that Mohammed
one day found that his favorite wife, Aisha, had purchased some
cushions decorated with birds and animals. The prophet proclaimed
that only God could bestow life and that pale imitations should be
avoided. Thus the hadith, or tradition of the prophet, holds that:
The house which contains pictures will not be entered by the
(WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A12)
610-632 During Mohammed’s ministry in Mecca and
Medina the definition of jihad moved from persuasive proselytism to
Muslim war against all infidels.
(WSJ, 10/10/01, p.A10)
610-641 Heracles ruled the Byzantine Empire.
611 In Cambodia at Angkor Borei
the earliest known Khmer inscription dates to this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.D)
614 Croats settled in the area
between the Adriatic Sea and the rivers Sava and Drava.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)
614 Christian Palestine was
invaded by the Persians. The 5th century monastery of St. Theodosius
east of Beit Sahour near Bethlehem was destroyed by the Persians.
The Jews of Jerusalem allied with the Persians during the invasion
and entered into the cave beneath the tomb of Christ in the Church
of the Holy Sepulchre.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, p.T3)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)(SFC,
615 May 8, St. Boniface IV
ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
615 May 25, Boniface IV, Pope
615 Nov 23, Columbanus, Irish
explorer, monastery founder, poet and saint (Poenitentiale), died
(aka St. Columba).
615 Yang Di (Yangdi), a Chinese
Sui emperor, announced a 4th attempt to conquer Korea. In response
to peasant rebellions in the north, Yangdi moved to the eastern city
(ON, 5/06, p.1)
615 Pakal (12) became the Mayan
ruler of Palenque. His reign ended with his death in 683.
(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)(WSJ, 9/16/04, p.D12)
617 Jun, Chinese general Li
Yuan (the Duke of Tang) declared his rebellion and ordered the Tang
army to prepare a march against Chang’an (later Xian), capital of
China and the world’s largest city.
(ON, 5/06, p.2)(Econ, 3/15/08, p.101)
617 Dec 12, The Chinese city of
Chang’an fell to the Tang army.
(ON, 5/06, p.2)
617-1279 The Tang Dynasty unified China.
618 Apr, General Li Yuan, the
Duke of Tang, claimed the throne of China after receiving word that
Emperor Yangdi had been assassinated in the city of Yangzhou. Yuan
proclaimed himself Emperor Gaozu, the 1st monarch of the new Tang
(ON, 5/06, p.3)
618-907 The Tang Dynasty was in China. The marble
head of Eleven-headed Avalokiteshvara dates to the Tang period.
Porcelain was invented during the T’ang dynasty.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(NH, 7/96, p.32)(WSJ,
2/19/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)
618-907 The area of Tiananmen Square was first
(SFC, 6/25/98, p.A8)
619 Li Shimin led his armies
against 2 warlords in northern China.
(ON, 5/06, p.3)
620 Aug 22, This day
corresponds to the 27th day of Rajab, 1427, in the Islamic calendar.
It commemorates to the night flight of Muhammad on the winged horse
Buraq to the farthest mosque, usually identified with Jerusalem, and
then to heaven and back.
620 In northern China Gen’l. Li
Shimin (~20) attacked Luoyang, which was held by the warlord Wang
(ON, 5/06, p.3)
620 The town of Cholula was
founded in central Mexico. It was later said to be the oldest
continuously occupied town in all of North America.
(SSFC, 2/26/06, p.F10)
620 Mohammad gained about a
hundred converts including some wealthy Meccan families. This made
other Meccans hostile. Mohammad in this year dreamed of being
transported from Mecca to the Rock of Mariah in Jerusalem, from
which he ascended into heaven and received instructions from God for
himself and his followers.
(ATC, p.59)(ON, 7/03, p.6)
621 Mar, In China a force of
120,000 men from Xia province advanced to rescue the city of
(ON, 5/06, p.3)
621 May 28, In China Dou
Jiande, general of the Xia army, was wounded and captured by the
Tang army under Gen’l. Li Shimin at Hulao Pass. 3,000 Xia were
killed and 50,000 were taken prisoners. The city of Luoyang soon
surrendered. Xia province surrendered in turn.
(ON, 5/06, p.4)
622 Jul 16, Islamic Era began.
Mahomet began his flight from Mecca to Medina (Hegira).
622 Sep 20, Prophet Mohammed
Abu Bakr arrived in Jathrib (Medina).
622 Sep 24, In the Hegira
Muhammed left Mecca for Medina (aka Yathrib) with 75 followers. This
event marked the beginning of the Islamic lunar calendar. The new
faith was called "Islam," which means submission to Allah. Believers
in Islam are called Muslims-- "Those who submit to Allah’s will." In
Medina Mohammad tried to unite the Jews and Arabs and initially
faced Jerusalem to pray. The Jewish leaders did not accept Mohammad
as a prophet and so Mohammad expelled from the city the Jews who
opposed him. From then on he commanded the Muslims to face the Kaaba
in Mecca when praying.
623-658 The first state of the Slavs living on the
Middle Danube was Samo's Realm, a tribal confederation existing
between 623 and 658. It encompassed the territories of Moravia,
Slovakia, Lower Austria, Carantania, Sorbia at the Elbe, and
probably also Bohemia, which lies between Sorbia and other parts of
622 The Constitution of Medina
was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad about this time. It
constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the
significant tribes and families of Yathrib (later known as Medina),
including Muslims, Jews, and pagans.
624 Muslims engaged
non-believers for the 1st time at the Battle of Badr
624-628 Several Jewish clans in the Arabian
peninsula joined forces with an Arab tribe, the Quraysh, to make war
on a renegade Qurayshi named Mohammad, who claimed he was a prophet
(Econ, 8/14/10, p.68)
c625 Raedwald, king of the East
Angles and high king of the English peoples, was buried about this
(Arch, 7/02, p.61)
626 Aug 7, Battle at
Constantinople: Slavs, Persians and Avars were defeated. Emp.
Heraclius repelled the attacks. The attacks began in 625.
(PCh, 1992, p.60)(MC, 8/7/02)
626 In China Gen’l. Li Shimin
foiled an assassination attempt by 2 brothers. He ambushed his older
brother, Jianchen, killing him him with a bow and arrow, and became
the oldest son and crown prince. Li Yuan abdicated 2 months later
and Shimin became the new ruler under the name Emperor Taizong.
(ON, 5/06, p.4)
627 Byzantine Emperor Heraclius
defeated the Persian army and regained Asia Minor, Syria, Jerusalem
628 Apr 3, In Persia Kavadh
sued for peace with the Byzantines. He handed back Armenia,
Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
(HN, 4/3/99)(AP, 4/3/99)
628 Apr 3, Chosroes II, emperor
of Persia (579-628), was murdered by his son.
629 A Chinese pilgrim reported
seeing a 1000-foot reclining Buddha at Bamiyan, Afghanistan. By 2004
the sleeping Buddha had not been seen for several hundred years.
(SFC, 8/31/04, p.A2)
629-645 Hsuang-Tsang, Chinese pilgrim, journeys
over 5,000 miles from China to India and back to collect Buddhist
teachings. He recorded fantastic tales of his adventures.
630 Mar 21, Heraclius restored
the True Cross, which he had recaptured from the Persians.
630 Mohammad raised an army of
10,000 and took over Mecca (Makkah). He immediately set out to
destroy all the idols at Kaaba. The black stone remained embedded in
the corner. The area around became the first mosque, or Muslim house
of worship. Mohammad returned from Medina and began the Islamic
conquest of Arabia.
(ATC, p.60)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A16)
632 Jun 8, Mohammed, the
founder of Islam and unifier of Arabia, died. Iqra, which means read
in Arabic, was reportedly the first word that the archangel Gabriel
spoke to Mohammed. His companions compiled his words and deeds in a
work called the Sunna. Here are contained the rules for Islam. The
most basic are The Five Pillars of Islam. These are: 1) profession
of faith 2) daily prayer 3) giving alms 4) ritual fast during
Ramadan 5) Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Sunna also calls for
“jihad." The term means struggle, i.e. to do one’s best to resist
temptation and overcome evil. Four contenders stood out to succeed
Mohammad. They were Abu Bakr, his trusted father-in-law. Umar and
Uthman, long-time friends and advisers, and Ali, a cousin and blood
relative. Ali was Mohammad’s son-in-law and the father of Mohammad’s
grandsons. Abu Bakr was chosen as caliph i.e. successor. In 2001
Minou Reeves, Iranian-born scholar, authored “Muhammad in Europe: A
Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making." In 2013 Lesley Hazleton
authored “The First Muslim: The Story of Muhammad."
(ATC, p.60,63)(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A7)(AP,
6/8/03)(SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)(WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A15)(SSFC, 1/27/13,
632 Jun 16, Origin of Persian
632 Hiuan-tsang, an Chinese
pilgrim, visited the great Buddhas of Bamiyan, Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)
632-661 The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the
Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in
Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height,
the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant,
Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and
Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in
history up until that time.
633 Muhammad’s chief clerk
collected Mohammad’s revelations into one work called the Koran
(Quran). Loosely translated it means "recitation." "Whoever
witnesses the crescent of the month, he must fast the month."
(Koran, al Baqarah 2:185) Ramadan begins the day after the crescent
of the new moon is sighted and confirmed by 2 witnesses. Muslims
must abstain from food and sex during daylight hours for a month to
celebrate the revelation of the Koran to Mohammed. The later Sunnah
holy text reported the sayings and deeds of Muhammad. The Muslim
beard tradition is from the Sunnah.
(ATC, p.60)(WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/27/01,
633 Gen Khalid ibn al-Walid
sent a letter to the Persian emperor that said: "Submit to our
authority and we shall leave you and your land and go against
others. If not, you will be conquered against your will by men who
love death as you love life."
(WSJ, 10/19/01, p.W19)
c633 Nikbanou, a 7th century
Persian Zoroastrian princess, fled to a mountain refuge at Chak to
escape Arab horsemen planting the green pennants of Islam in Iranian
633 The 4th Synod of Toledo
took on the right to confirm elected kings. Jews were obliged to be
baptized. The vernacular language, of Latin origin, prevailed over
that of the Visigoths.
634 Aug 22, Abu Bekr Abd Allah
(61), [al-Siddik], successor of Mohammed, died. He was a friend, an
Arabic merchant, Mohammed’s father-in-law and the first Caliph.
Before his death he appointed Mohammed's adviser Omar (Umar) as his
(ATC, p.66)(PC, 1992, p.61)
634 Sophronius (74), Christian
monk, was elected patriarch and political ruler of Jerusalem.
(ON, 7/03, p.3)
635 Damascus was captured by
636 Summer, A Byzantine army
arrived in the region of Jerusalem and was defeated by a much
smaller Muslim army at the Yarmuk River. With Muslims at the gate
Sophronius, head of Jerusalem, requested a meeting with Caliph Omar.
(ON, 7/03, p.5)
636 Jul 23, Arabs gained
control of most of Palestine from Byzantine Empire.
636 Aug 15, At the Battle at
Yarmuk, east of the Sea of Galilee, Islamic forces beat a Byzantine
army and gained control of Syria.
(PC, 1992, p.61)
636 Nov 1, Nicholas
Boileau-Despreaux, French poet, was born. He was also a critic and
official royal historian and wrote "Lutrin. "
637 Ctesiphon, a center of
Christianity southeast of Baghdad, was taken by Arabs, who renamed
(SFC, 3/31/03, p.W5)
637 Muslim armies conquered
638 cJan, Sophronius met with
Caliph Omar and obtained a set of guarantees and regulations that
came to be known as "the Covenant of Omar."
(ON, 7/03, p.3)
638 Mar 11, Sophronius of
Jerusalem, saint, patriarch of Jerusalem, died.
638 Arabs conquered the city of
Hebron. They allowed the Jews to build a synagogue near Abraham’s
(SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)
640 Muslim Arabs invaded
Armenia and capture Dvin, its principal town.
(CO Enc. / Armenia)
640 The Muslim government began
minting coins about this time.
641 Feb 11, Heraclius (~65),
emperor of Byzantium (610-641), died.
641 Fustat was established as
an encampment for the Muslim Arab conqueror of Egypt. The city
reached its peak in the 12th century, with a population of
approximately 200,000. It was the center of administrative power in
Egypt, until it was ordered burned in 1168 by its own vizier,
Shawar, to keep its wealth out of the hands of the invading
Crusaders. The remains of the city were eventually absorbed by
nearby Cairo, which had been built to the north of Fustat in 969
when the Fatimids conquered the region.
642 Sep 17, Arabs conquered
Alexandria and destroyed the great library. Omar, the second caliph,
successor of Mohammed, conquered Alexandria, then the capital of
642 The Arabs conquered the
642 Pope Theodore I began using
the title “Patriarch of the West." In 2006 the Vatican took the
unusual step of explaining its decision to renounce the title,
saying the omission of "patriarch of the West," from the new edition
of the Annuario Pontificio, the Vatican's 2,373-page directory of
prelates, should benefit relations with the Orthodox Church, not
644 Nov 3, Umar of Arabia, the
2nd Caliph of Islam, was stabbed by Abu Lulu while leading the
morning prayers at Medina. He died 4 days later on Nov 7. On his
deathbed Umar named a council to choose the next caliph. The council
appointed Uthman. Uthman continued to expand the Muslim empire.
645 Downfall of the Soga Clan
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
649 May 14, Theodore, Greek
Pope (642-49), excommunicated by Paul II, died.
649 Jul 5, St. Martin I began
his reign as Pope.
650 The Khazars’ aggressive
territorial expansion drove some Bulgars
westward. These Bulgars soon founded a kingdom in the southeastern
Balkans that became known as Bulgaria.
(TJOK, 1999, p.16)
c650 An early Mayan classic
temple in Copan was closed and covered about this time. Ritual items
of flint knives and stingray spines was later discovered.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.28)
c650 The first pyramid of the
Teotihuacan culture was built in Cholula. Over the next 800 years a
nested series of 4 pyramids were constructed. The most important and
largest city of pre-Colombian central Mexico, the Nahuatl meaning of
Teotihuacan was "Where Men Become Gods" or "The City of Gods." Just
north of Mexico City, Teotihuacan was planned at about the beginning
of the Christian era and was sacked and burned by invading Toltecs
in 650 CE.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)(HNQ, 4/24/99)
650-700 In northern Peru archeological evidence
later indicated that civil strife during this period, which followed
some 30 years of drought, led to the demise of the Moche
650-750 In Mexico the Teotihuacan culture began
declining and was almost abandoned by the end of this period.
(SFC, 10/22/98, p.C2)
c650-850 The alliterative epic poem Beowulf was
composed at least 100 years before the manuscript was written. It
was written in the 8th century. In 1999 Seamus Heaney wrote a new
translation of the old English tale of a Scandinavian warrior who
kills a trio of monsters including Grendel. In the Anglo-Saxon epic
Beowulf, the hero of the Geats people, mortally wounds the monster
Grendel--who has been terrorizing the court of the king of Danes--by
tearing off one of his arms with his bare hands. Based on folk tales
known to the Anglo-Saxons prior to their invasion of England, the
work is made up primarily of pagan myths and legends. The poem is
believed to date from the late seventh or early eighth century and
the only surviving text, now in the British Museum, dates from about
(WUD, 1994, p.140)(WSJ, 2/24/00, p.A16)(WSJ,
1/11/99, p.R53)(HNQ, 1/10/02)
651 In Persia Yazdegird III,
the last Sassanian king, was murdered.
(WSJ, 2/2/00, p.A24)
652 Arabs introduced Islam to
653 Pope Martin I was charged
with treason. He was stripped naked in public and exiled to Crimea.
(Econ, 2/16/13, p.61)
654 A Saxon monk founded St.
Botolph’s Town in England. The name gradually changed to Boston.
(SFC, 8/12/00, p.B3)
656 In Saudi Arabia Uthman
(Othman), the 3rd caliph, was murdered. Under his rule a full,
standard text of the Quran was compiled. He had appointed members of
his own family as regional governors and caused bitter jealousy
among other families. This caused an angry mob of 500 to murder him.
This gave Ali an opportunity to claim power. Some claim that Ali
plotted Uthman’s murder. Civil war broke out. Muawija, Uthman’s
cousin and governor of Syria, challenged Ali’s right to rule. Ali
prepared for war but was murdered by an angry former supporter. The
followers of Ali became known as Shiites from the Arabic meaning
"the party of Ali." Those who believe that the election of the first
three caliphs was valid and who claim to follow the Sunna reject the
Shiite idea of the Imam, and are called the Sunnis.
(ATC, p.67-68)(WSJ, 1/12/08, p.A6)
656 The Imam Ali mosque in
Najaf marks the grave of Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed and a
central figure in Shiite Islam.
(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)
657 Jun 2, St. Eugene I ended
his reign as Catholic Pope.
657 Jul 26, Mu'awiyan defeated
Caliph Ali in the Battle of Siffin in Mesopotamia.
658 Hirafu Abe went to meet
with the Ainu on Hokkaido after he had defeated an indigenous tribe
called Emishi in the northeast region of Honshu.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 217)
661 Jan 27, Ali ibn Abu Talib,
caliph of Islam (656-61), was murdered in Kufa, Iraq. Caliph Ali,
son-in-law of Mohammed, was assassinated and his followers (Shiites)
broke from the majority Muslim group. A member of the anarchist sect
of Kharajites assassinated Ali. This sect believed that there are no
verdict’s but God’s.
p.A14) (SSFC, 6/30/02, p.M6)(http://tinyurl.com/44dtom)
661 The Umayyad regime was
founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan (602-680, long-time governor of
Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War.
661 Muawija became caliph. He
moved the capital from Medina to Damascus. His followers were called
the Umayyads. Muawija was one of the soldiers who helped capture
Damascus and for 25 years he had served as governor of Syria.
Muawija began the practice of appointing his own son as the next
caliph, and so the Umayyads ruled for the next 90 years. Muslim
forces expanded into North Africa and completely conquered Persia.
The Islamic Empire continued to expand into Afghanistan and
Pakistan. After the Omayyad Caliphs conquered Damascus, they build
the palace at Qasr Al-Kharaneh (in Jordan) as a recreational lodge.
(ATC, p.67,78)(SFEC, 4/11/99, p.9)
662 Aug 13, Maximus Confessor
(b.c580), Greek theologian, died.
662 By 2004 Simon Martin, Mayan
scholar, worked out an almost day-by-day account of events from this
year in the plain of Tabasco, Mexico.
(Econ, 5/22/04, p.79)
668 Jul 15, Constantine II
(37), emperor of Byzantium, died.
668-1392 In Korea the Silla Kingdom united the
peninsula and began the Koryo Dynasty from which Korea derived its
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.E3)
669 Theodore, a native of
Tarsus in Cilicia, arrived in England to take over the See of
Canterbury under the direction of Pope Vitalian. He was well
received everywhere and was the first Archbishop whose authority the
whole English Church was willing to acknowledge.
c670 A Japanese inventor based
the first design of a folding fan on the structure of a bat’s wing.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)
671 Chinese monk I-Tsing, wrote
that he visited Srivijaya in for 6 months during this year.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya) was a powerful ancient
thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, modern
day Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
c672 The Venerable Bede
(d.735), Beda Venerabilis, English speaking church historian, was
(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.D12)
676 Cairo was built by the Arabs only 1300 years
ago. The name comes from the Egyptian "El Qahir," the name of the
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.165)(SFEC, 8/17/97, Z1
678 Jun 27, St. Agatho began
his reign as Catholic Pope.
680 Oct 10, Imam Hussein,
grandson of prophet Mohammed, was beheaded. He was killed by rival
Muslim forces on the Karbala plain in modern day Iraq. He then
became a saint to Shiite Muslims. Traditionalists and radical
guerrillas alike commemorate his martyrdom as the ceremony of
Ashura. The 10-day mourning period during the holy month of Muharram
commemorates the deaths of Caliph Ali’s male relatives by Sunnis
from Iraq. Shiites went on to believe that new leaders should be
descendants of Mohammad and Ali. Sunnis went on to vest power in a
body of Muslim scholars called the ulema.
3/16/02, p.A14)(SFC, 2/24/06, p.A15)
681 Bulgaria’s 1st kingdom was
(WPR, 3/04, p.28)
682 Aug 17, Leo II, later St.
Leo, began his reign as Catholic Pope.
682-721 Ah Cacaw (Lord of Cocoa) ruled over Tikal
(later Guatemala) during this period. His burial tomb was later
found deep inside the 145-foot high Temple of the Great Jaguar.
(SFEM, 6/13/99, p.8)
683 Pacal, Mayan ruler of
Palenque, died. His sarcophagus, found in 1952, has the intricately
carved lid later suggested to represent an extra-terrestrial
(SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C5)(WSJ, 9/16/04, p.A1)
683-685 Khazars invaded Transcaucasia and
inflicted much damage and stole much booty. The Khazar invaders
killed the rulers of Armenia and Georgia.
684 Jun 26, Benedict II (d.685)
was consecrated as Pope.
(PTA, 1980, p.162)
684-702 Mayan leader Kan Balam II, son of Pakal,
ruled over Palenque.
(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)
685 May 8, St. Benedict II
ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
685 May 21, Battle at
Nechtansmere: Picts trounced the Northumbrians.
685 In China a manual on
calligraphy was made. It summarized the aesthetic ideals and
theories of Chinese writing.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)
685-705 Abd al Malik, Umayyad caliph, influenced
the shaping of Islamic culture. He declared Arabic as the official
language of the empire and established a common coinage system that
was purely Arabic. They had no images but were inscribed with
quotations from the Koran.
686 Aug 2, John V, 1st
Greek-Syrian Pope (685-86), died.
687 Cuthbert, a former monk
hermit and reluctant bishop of Lindisfarne, died. His life and
“miracles" were set down by the Venerable Bede. A gospel
commissioned to honor Cuthbert was placed in his coffin around
698. His remains were carried to the mainland when the monks
and people of the island fled Viking invaders, and ended up in
Durham. In 1104 the coffin was opened in preparation for a formal
reinterment and the book was re-discovered. It was given to the
Jesuits in 1769 and in 2011 they sold it to Britain for £9 million.
(Econ, 7/16/11, p.62)(Reuters, 5/17/12)
687-714 Pepin II united and ruled the Franks.
688 North Africa was conquered
by the Muslims under Abd al Malik.
688-714 The Maya of Tonina and Palenque fought
several battles over watershed areas in the region that fed the
Usumacinta river, which now marks the boundary between Mexico and
691 Muslims built the Dome of
the Rock mosque in Jerusalem. It contained inscriptions that later
were held as the 1st evidence of the Koran.
(SFC, 3/2/02, p.A15)(WSJ, 5/20/06, p.P16)
692 Oct 2, A Mayan prisoner
from Copan, depicted in a well-preserved stone sculpture found in
2011, was captured on this day.
694 Nov 9, Spanish King Egica
accused Jews of aiding Moslems and sentenced them to slavery.
696 Jun 27, A Mayan ballcourt
at Tonina was dedicated and sculptures, found in 2011, were created
to commemorate the dedication.
c696 Feng Du, a 1,300-year-old
Tang dynasty city near the Yangtze River gorges, known as the city
(WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A20)
697 The first Arab Islamic
currency was struck in Damascus by the Umayyad ruler Abd al-Malik
ibn Marwan (697-698 A.D.)
c697 The last major earthquake
occurred in the Salt Lake City region of Utah about this time. A
major quake hits the region about every 1300 years.
(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.C13)
697 In Ireland an assembly was
called at the hill of Tara to put an end to the participation of
Irish women in battle.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.11)
699 Li Po (d.762), classical
Chinese poet, was born. His poems included "Drinking Alone With the
(SFC, 10/30/03, p.A26)
699 En no Ozunu appeared in the
official Japanese national log of events or the 'Shoku Nihongi.' It
is in this year that En was banished from society, following the
charge that he "misused his magical powers to control people." It is
believed that En No Gyoja was historically known as En no Ozunu. The
Japanese ascetic En-no-Gyoja founded the Shugendo religion on Mount
Omine (5,640 feet). He blended aspects of tantric Buddhism,
Shintoism, Taoism, Confucianism and Japanese shamanism.
c700 Nov 1, The Celts of Ireland, Great Britain
and northern France celebrated Oct. 31 to Nov 2 as their New Year
from around 1000-500BC. The pagan harvest event incorporated masks
to ward off evil ones, as dead relatives were believed to visit
families on the first evening. The Catholic holiday of All Saints'
Day, set for Nov. 1, was instituted around 700 CE to supplant the
Druid holiday and Pope Gregory (731-741) made it official. Halloween
was transplanted to the US in the 1840s. [see 835]
(WSJ, 10/28/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 10/29/99, p.W17)
c700 The mound building Caddo
culture began flourishing in the Texas and Oklahoma area. It lasted
to the mid-18th cent.
(AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)
700 The Egypttian port city of
Heracleion, founded about 800BC, was swallowed by the sea about this
time. Researchers later found it—150 feet beneath the surface of
Egypt's Bay of Aboukir.
c700 Abd al Malik issued the
first pure Islamic coins.
c700 The Chinese gained control
over Manchuria from the Koreans about this time.
(WSJ, 10/9/95, p.A-1)
c700 Trade along the coast of
East Africa expanded and promoted the founding of such settlements
as Kismayu, Mogadiscio, Gedi, Malindi, Mombasa, Kilwas and others.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)
c700 In Mexico the Zapotec city
of Monte Alban was abandoned about this time.
(SFEC, 10/3/99, p.A24)
c700 The Potala Palace in
Lhasa, Tibet, was constructed. It became the traditional home of the
(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.D2)
700-800 King Offa decreed that an earthen barrier
be built along the border between Wales and his kingdom of Mercia.
Llwybr Clawdd Offa opened as a hiking trail in 1971.
(SSFC, 4/7/02, p.C10)
700-800 In Bulgaria the Madara Horseman in
Kaspichan was carved into a sandstone cliff.
(SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)
700-800 The Catholic Church changed its rules on
fasting and allowed fish to be eaten on Fridays and during Lent.
(NH, 5/96, p.58)
c700-800 Dionysus Exiguus (Dennis the Short), a
Catholic monk, created a chronology for Pope St. John I with a
calendar that began in the year CE 1.
(SFEC,11/16/97, BR p.5)
700-800 In Bhutan the Taktsang monastery was
founded by tantric master Padmasambhava, often described as "another
(SFEC, 2/23/96, p.T5)
700-800 According to Iraqis Muslim forces
"liberated" Iraq from the Persians in the 8th century qadissiyah
(SFC, 2/1/02, p.A18)
700-800 Escaped slaves called the Zanj took refuge
from the early Islamic empire in the marshes of southern Iraq.
(SSFC, 12/28/03, p.A6)
700-800 The Tanka (short song) poetry form emerged
in Japan about this time. The unrhymed verse formalized to 31
syllables arranged in a 5 line pattern of 5-7-5-7-7. In 2005 it
became popular on cell phones.
(WSJ, 10/4/05, p.A1)
700-800 In Japan a priest in the 8th century
discovered the mineral hot springs at Yamashiro Onsen.
(WSJ, 7/19/05, p.A1)
700-800 The village site of Galu, Kenya, produced
the world’s oldest crucible steel.
(NH, 6/97, p.44)
700-800 The Bonampak site in Chiapas, Mexico, has
frescoes painted on the stucco walls of Structure I from this time.
They depict war, sacrifice and celebration. The name glyph for
Shield Jaguar II, king of nearby Yaxchilan, was recognized.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.F)(AM, May/Jun 97 p.37)
700-800 Invading Slavs assimilated the Thracians
in the area of modern Bulgaria and parts of Greece, Romania,
Macedonia and Turkey.
(SFC, 8/17/05, p.A2)
700-800 Slav tribes settle into the territories of
present-day Slovenia, Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia, and
assimilated the Illyrian populations of these regions. The Illyrians
in the south averted assimilation.
(www, Albania, 1998)
700-800 Vikings settled the Faeroe Islands in the
8th century replacing Irish settlers. In 1948 the group of 18
islands, located between Britain and Iceland, became an autonomous
region of Denmark.
700-800 Vikings began arriving to the Orkney
(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)
700-900 In Nigeria the Yoruba-speaking kingdom of
Ife began to develop as a center of trade and weaving and bead
701 Sep 8, Sergius I, Syrian
and Italian Pope (687-701), died.
702 Japan's first civil and
penal code was promulgated. [see 604CE]
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
705 Mar 1, John VII began his
reign as Catholic Pope.
705 Oct 8, Abd al-Malik, caliph
of Damascus, died.
708 Mar 25, Constantine began
his reign as Catholic Pope.
708 In France Bishop Aubert of
Avranches had a dream in which Archangel Michael persuaded him to
build an oratory dedicated to the saint on the rock off the Normandy
coast known as Mont Tombe. Over the years it grew and became known
as Mont St. Michel.
(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P18)
709 Apr 24, Wilfried (~76),
bishop of York, died.
709 May 25, Aldhelmus (~69) of
Ealdhelm, England, abbot, bishop, poet, saint, died.
710 The Fujiwara clan
established the Kasuga Shrine in Nara, Japan.
(Hem, 9/04, p.46)
710-784 The Nara Period of Japan. Japan’s 1st
permanent capital arose in the Nara basin.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(Hem, 9/04, p.41)
711 Apr 14, Childebert III
(~27), king of the French, died.
711 Jul 19, The Muslim troops
crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and defeated the Visigoth king
Rodrigo at the battle of Guadalete. Berbers under Tarik-ibn Ziyad
occupied Northern Spain. The Umayyads with the help of the Berbers
in North Africa moved across the Strait of Gibraltar and began the
conquest of Spain and Portugal. The word Gibraltar comes from the
term Jabal-al-Tarik, which means the hill of Tarik. Gebel-al-Tarik
means "Rock of Tarik."
(ATC, p.79)(SFEC, 9/29/96, Z1
711 Dec 11, Justitianus II
(~42), emperor of Byzantium, died.
712 The publication of Kojiki
in Japan, the Record of Ancient Matters. The work was compiled by
the court to strengthen its control over various noble lineages.
Fictitious rulers were inserted to project the nation’s founding
back to 660BC
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.34)
712 Muza ben-Nosair completed
the Muslim conquest of Spain. The Visigothic period ended.
713 In China construction began
on the Great Buddha of Leshan under the direction of the monk
Haitong. It was completed after 90 years. In 2002 a $30 million
restoration project aimed to preserve the 233-foot statue, the
largest Buddha in the world.
(Arch, 9/02, p.19)
715 Apr 9, Constantine I,
Greek-Syrian Catholic Pope (708-15), died.
(HN, 4/9/98)(MC, 4/9/02)
715 May 19, St. Gregory II
began his reign as Catholic Pope.
718 The Japanese inn Hoshi
Ryokan was founded in Komatsu.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)
720 The Nihon Shoki (the
Chronicle of Japan), the oldest recorded Japanese document, was
published. It was compiled by the court to strengthen its control
over various noble lineages.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(AM, Mar/Apr 97
p.34)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)
c722 In China a 233-foot Buddha
was built in Sichuan province. In 2002 a $30 million restoration
project was undertaken.
(SFC, 7/4/02, p.A12)
727 May 30, Hubertus (72),
bishop of Tongeren-Maastricht, saint, died.
727 Houei-tch’ao, a Korean pilgrim, visited the
great Buddhas of Bamiyan, Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)
729 Apr 24, Egbertus (89),
English bishop, St. Egbert, died in Iona.
729 Emperor Leo the Isaurian
ordered the destruction of an icon of Christ set in the great Bronze
Gate in Constantinople. Theodosia led a group of enraged women who
killed the officer removing the image. Theodosia was killed in the
forum and became a martyr-saint. Her saint’s day was May 29.
(Ot, 1993, p.3)
730 Khazar commander Barjik
led Khazar troops through the Darial Pass
to invade Azerbaijan. At the Battle of Ardabil, the Khazars defeated
an entire Arab army. The Battle of Ardabil lasted three days, and
resulted in the death of a major Arab general named Jarrah. The
Khazars then conquered Azerbaijan and Armenia and northern Iraq for
a brief time.
(TJOK, pages 160-161)
731 Feb 11, Pope Gregory II
(b.669), born in Rome as Gregorius Sabellus, died.
731-741 Gregory III served as Pope.
(WUD, 1994, p.621)
732 Oct 10, At Tours, France,
Charles Martel killed Yemenite general Abd el-Rahman and halted the
Muslim invasion of Europe. Islam's westward spread was stopped by
the Franks at the Battle of Tours (also known as the Battle of
732 Pope Gregory III banned
horseflesh from Christian tables after he learned that pagans of
northern Europe ate it in their religious rites.
(SFC, 5/30/98, p.E4)
735 May 26, The Venerable Bede
(~62), Beda Venerabilis, English speaking church historian, died.
(MC, 5/26/02)(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.D12)
737 Marwan, an Arab general,
captured the Khazar khagan and forced him to pledge support to the
Caliphate and convert to Islam.
(TJOK, pages 162-163)
738 The great Lord 18 Rabbit
built a ball court at the Mayan city of Copan. In a surprise attack
he was captured and decapitated by Cauac Sky from the city of
Quirigia, some 60 km. to the east. In 1998 Michael D. Coe and Justin
Kerr published "The Art of the Maya Scribe," a look at the progress
made in decoding the Mayan writing system.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.123)(SFEC, 7/5/98, BR
738 Butz Tiliw’ or Cauac Sky
defeated his overlord, Copan’s 13th ruler, 18 Rabbit. Monuments to
this event are at the Quirigua Maya site in Guatemala.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.F)
739 Nov 7, Willibrord (81),
[Clemens], 1st bishop of Utrecht (695-739) and saint , died.
740 Tah ak Chaan (Taj Chan Ank)
began a 50 year rule over the city of Cancuen in what later became
(SFC, 9/9/00, p.A2)(AM, 7/04, p.16)
740 The Virupaksha temple in
Pattadakal, an early capital of the Chalukyas of southern India, was
built by Queen Lokamahadevi about this time to commemorate her
husband's victory over the Pallavas.
741 Jun 18, Leo III de
Isaurier, Byzantine Emperor (717-41), died.
741 Oct 22, Charles Martel of
Gaul died at Quiezy. His mayoral power was divided between his two
sons, Pepin III and Carloman.
741 The Arab slave trade was
one of the elements that sparked the great Berber rebellion in
North Africa and Islamic Spain (http://tinyurl.com/2zrltp).
742 Apr 2, Charlemagne (d.814),
Charles I the Great, King of the Franks and first Holy Roman emperor
(800-14), was born. His capital was at Aachen (Acquisgrana in
(V.D.-H.K.p.105)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.46)(HN,
743 Mar 1, Slave export by
Christians to heathen areas was prohibited.
743-1194 In France five cathedrals were built on
the site of Chartres cathedral over this period.
(Hem., 10/97, p.83)
744 Lords of the Lowland Maya
city of Caracol conducted a burning ritual in the cave at Naj
Tunich, in the Peten of Guatemala.
(AM, 7/97, p.51)
745 Some 200,000 Slovenians,
settled in a pocket of the eastern slopes of the Alps, were
threatened by the Avars and the Bavarians. For safety they adopted
Christianity and accepted the protection of the Frankish emperor
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-5)
745-840 The Uighur of eastern Turkestan formed an
empire in the north that was ended by an invasion of the Kyrgyz
746 Jun 12, The estimated date
for the dedication of the Mayan Temple 22 in Copan.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.31)
748 Wasil ibn Ata, Muslim
theologian and jurist, died. He had left the teaching lessons of
Hasan al-Basri after a theological dispute regarding the issue of
Al-Manzilah bayna al-Manzilatayn. He and his followers, including
Amr ibn Ubayd (d.761), were labeled Mu'tazili. The adherents of the
Mu'tazili school (Mutazilites) are best known for their having
asserted that, because of the perfect unity and eternal nature of
God, the Qur'an must therefore have been created, as it could not be
co-eternal with God. Mutazilites stressed human reason.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wasil_ibn_Ata)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.22)
749 Dec 4, John of Damascus
(b.~676), a Christian Arab theologian, died at the Mar Saba
monastery near Jerusalem. He is considered "the last of the Fathers"
of the Eastern Orthodox church and is best known for his strong
defense of icons.
749 An earthquake cause great
damage in the area of the Sea of Galilee.
(SFC, 6/18/02, p.A2)
c750 The Anasazi built entire cities into cliffs
around the West since at least this time. Before that they were
digging pit houses and even earlier, about 350 B.C., were probably
living in Colorado caves. Their present name comes from a Navajo
word meaning "the ancient ones" or "the ancient enemy."
750 Constantinople, as the
center of eastern rule used the Greek language for communication.
c750 Arab immigrants settled
upstream from Soba, the capital of Alwa, and developed a strong new
state called Funj.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)
c750 Teotihuacan, the 1st major
urban center of Mesoamerica, fell about this time. It was burned,
deserted and its people scattered. It contained the Pyramid of the
Moon and the Pyramid of the Sun.
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T8)
c750-850 The Maya city of La Milpa reached its
peak with about 50,000 people.
(SFC, 6/23/96, p.A10)
750-1258 Muslim power in Persia was held by the
Abbassid caliphs, who claimed lands that stretched from Central Asia
to North Africa and Spain. One Abbasid general, Abdullah, invited 80
Umayyad leaders to a banquet where they were killed by Abdullah’s
men. Only one Umayyad, Abd al Rahman, was able to escape. He fled
all the way to Spain where he united the warring Muslin groups there
and built a new Umayyad government. So now the Muslims were split in
two groups. The Abbassid dynasty of the Moslem Empire ruled Arabia
and the eastern empire. All of the caliphs of this era claim
descended from Abbas, the uncle of Mohammed.
(AHD, 1971, p.2)(ATC, p.84)(SFC, 4/12/03, p.A14)
750-1375 The Sican culture flourished on Peru's
northern desert coast. In 2006 archaeologists unearthed 22 graves
containing a trove of Sican artifacts, including the first "tumi"
ceremonial knives ever discovered by archaeologists rather than
looted by thieves.
751 The Chinese army was beaten
by the Arabs of the Abassid Caliphate at the Battle of Talas
(Kyrgyzstan). Chinese prisoners soon taught Arabs the technology for
(http://tinyurl.com/lwk9h5a)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.87)
751- 987 The Frankish dynasty of Pepin the Short
began the Carolingian period.
(AHD, 1971, p.205)
752 Mar 23, Pope Stephen II was
elected to succeed Pope Zacharias; however, Stephen died 4 days
(AP, 3/23/97)(PTA, 1980, p.184)
752 Mar 26, Pope Stephen II
died 4 days after his election.
(SS, 3/26/02)(PTA, 1980, p.184)
752 Abu Jafar al Mansur, the
second Abbasid caliph, moved the capital to Baghdad.
c752 Emperor Shomu built a
great Buddhist temple and started a collection from the gifts that
were brought to its dedication. Rulers for the next 12 centuries
added to the collection.
(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)
752 The dedication of the Great
Buddha of Todai Temple in Nara.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
754 Jun 5, Friezen murdered
bishop Boniface [Winfrid], English saint, archbishop of Dokkum, and
over 50 companions.
754 The Iconoclasts (image
smashers) prevailed and religious art was banned in churches by an
edict that remained in effect for a century.
(WSJ, 3/10/97, p.A16)
756 May 15, Abd-al-Rahman was
proclaimed the emir of Cordoba, Spain. Abd al Rahman united the
Umayyad forces in Spain and made the ancient Roman city of Cordoba
his new capital.
(ATC, p.95)(HN, 5/15/98)
755 Dec 16, The An Lushan
rebellion began when general An Lushan declared himself emperor in
Northern China, establishing a rival Yan Dynasty. The rebellion was
quashed in 763.
757 Apr 26, Stephen II ended
his reign as Catholic Pope.
757 May 29, St. Paul I (d.767)
began his reign as Catholic Pope.
(PTA, 1980, p.188)(SC, 5/29/02)
760 May 22, The 14th recorded
perihelion passage of Halley's Comet occurred.
762 Jul 30, A Persian
astrologer, selected by caliph al-Mansur (the Victorious), selected
this day as propitious for breaking ground for the city of Baghdad.
Al-Mansur was one of the founders of the Abassid dynasty.
(WSJ, 2/14/09, p.W8)
763 Feb 17, The An Lushan
rebellion, begun in 755, ended. It had spanned the reigns of 3 Tang
emperors before it was quashed. The rebellion and subsequent
disorder resulted in a huge loss of life and large-scale
763 Tibetan armies occupied the
capital of China.
(SFEM, 1/24/99, p.6)
763 Altar Q depicts Yax Pasah
(Yax Pasaj), Copan’s last dynastic ruler, receiving the symbolic
baton of office from founder K’inich Yax K’uk’ Mo’ in this year.
(NG, 12/97, p.80)(AM, 3/04, p.43)
764-770 In Japan Empress Shotoku had a million
miniature pagodas made in thanks for regaining control of the
throne. Sacred text was placed in each one and distributed to the 10
most important temples.
(WSJ, 7/27/00, p.A20)
765 Dec 31, The coffin of
Ho-tse Shen-hui was interred in a stupa built in China.
765-790 The Mayan palace of Cancuen, one of the
largest in Guatemala, was built by King Taj Chan Ahk.
766-787 The Chinese poet Du Fu arrived in Baidi
Cheng and was given the means to write poetry by the local warlord.
He wrote a third of his life’s work with many poems in the regulated
style called lushi.
(NH, 7/96, p.32)
768 Sep 24, Pepin the Short
(54) of Gaul died. His dominions were divided between his sons
Charles (Charlemagne) and Carloman.
(PC, 1992, p.67)
768-814 Charlemagne becomes king of the Franks and
emperor of the former Western Roman Empire.
770 The Syrian Orthodox Church
of St. Thomas (Mar Toma) was built in Mosul (Iraq).
(SFC, 12/24/09, p.A3)
771 Dec 4, With the death of
his brother Carloman, Charlemagne became sole ruler of the Frankish
771-814 Reign of Charlemagne.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
772 Mar 1, Po Tjiu-I (Bai
Juyi), Chinese poet (d.846), Governor of Hang-tsjow, was born. His
work included the narrative poem "Song of the Pipa," which protested
the social evils of his day.
(WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W2)(SC, 3/1/02)
774-814 Charlemagne became king of the Lombards.
776 Al-Jahiz (d.868), Muslim
theologian and scholar, was born in Basra about this time. He is
credited with writing nearly two hundred works, although fewer than
one hundred survive today. His most famous work is Al-Hayawan" (The
Book of animals), which merges discussions of zoology with
776-795 Chan Muan (Sky Screech Owl) reigned over
the Bonampak site in what is now eastern Chiapas, Mexico. The site
was abandoned at the end of his reign.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.35)
778 Aug 15, At the Battle at
Roncesvalles the Basques beat Charlemagne.
(PC, 1992, p.67)
778 In Japan the Kiyomizu-dera
Buddhist temple was founded in Kyoto. Its main hall (Hondo) was
built in 1633 without a single nail.
(SSFC, 3/16/14, p.P4)
779 King Trisong Detsen led
Tibet. Under his rule the first Buddhist monastery, Samye, was
built. It was built under the influence of Padmasambhava (Guru
Rimpoche), Tibet’s greatest saint. Padmasambhava was an 8th century
sorcerer and saint who converted Tibet to Buddhism. Legend has it
that he dictated "sacred geography" texts to his queen consort and
then hid them for future discovery. The texts were discovered by
17th century charismatic lamas.
(Hem., 4/97, p.72,75)(SFEC,12/14/97, p.T5)(WSJ,
780 A group of West Africans
called the Soninke took control of Ghana and developed it into a
major trading empire.
(ATC, p. 113)
781 Yakib ben Laith, a Saffarid
prince from an eastern Iranian dynasty, stripped the sanctuaries of
Bamiyan, Afghanistan, of their metal idols.
(WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)
783 Jul 12, Bertha "with the
great feet", wife of French king Pippin III, died.
786 Feb 4, Harun al-Rashid
succeeded his older brother the Abbasid Caliph al-Hadi as Caliph of
786 Sep 24, Al-Hadi, Arabic
caliph of Islam (185-86), died.
786 Abd al Rahman began
construction of the Great Mosque of Cordoba. It was under
construction for 200 years.
787 Sep 24, The 2nd Council of
Nicaea (7th ecumenical council) opened in Asia Minor.
787 Oct 23, Byzantine
Empress Irene (c. 752-803) attended the final session of the 2nd
church council at Nicaea, Bithynia [now Iznik, a city in Anatolia
(now part of Turkey)]. The council formally revived the adoration of
icons and reunited the Eastern church with that of Rome.
c791 Croats established the
principalities of Primortska Hrvatska on the Adriatic coast and
Posavska Hrvatska in inland Croatia.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)
792 The first paper making
factory in the Islamic Empire was built in Baghdad.
793 Jun 8, Vikings raided the
Northumbrian coast in England. Corfe served as a center of West
Saxon resistance to Viking invaders. Vikings plundered the monastery
and St. Cuthbert convent at Lindsfarne
(HN, 6/8/98)(AM, 7/00, p.64)(PC, 1992, p.68)
794 Aug 10, Fastrada (30), 3rd
wife of French king Charlemagne, died.
794 Charlemagne created a
single currency for his empire.
(Econ, 6/18/11, p.30)
794 The capital of Japan was
moved from Nara to Kyoto and the new Imperial Palace was built
there. It remained there until 1868.
(Hem., 2/96, p.57-58)(Hem, 9/04, p.41)
794-1185 The Heian Period in Japan. The kimono
originated in this period. Prof. Helen McCullough (d.1998) of UC
Berkeley and her husband translated "A Tale of Flowering Fortunes,"
whose notes and appendixes made it an encyclopedia of Heian court
life. She published 11 volumes of studies and translations of
classical Japanese poetry that included: "The Tale of the Heike" and
"The Great Mirror."
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(SFC, 2/7/97, p.D1)(SFC,
795 Taj Chan Ahk, the Mayan
ruler of Cancuen (Guatemala), died.
(SFC, 11/17/05, p.A17)
795 Vikings first raided
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)
795-1185 The Heian period was a time of elegant
and refined rice papers.
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A20)
796 Jul 26, Offa, king of
Mercia (in central England), died.
796 Frankfurt, Germany. This
1200 year old city of 650,000 is the hub of Germany’s banking and
(SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-7)
796 A 600-pound limestone altar
was carved to honor a treaty in the Mayan city of Cancuen
(Guatemala). It was uncovered in 2001 and soon stolen. It was
retrieved in 2003.
(USAT, 10/30/03, p.12D)(SFC, 10/30/03, p.A11)
796-821 Anglo Saxon king Coenwulf of Mercia, ruled
a kingdom that covered vast swathes of the English midlands and
northern counties to the southeast. In 2001 a metal detector
enthusiast discovered a gold coin beside the River Ivel in
Bedfordshire, southern England. The 4.25 gram coin depicts Anglo
Saxon king Coenwulf of Mercia.
c797 The 1,200 year-old Book of
Kells, an illuminated manuscript of the Gospels, was made by Irish
monks. It was later kept in the library of Dublin’s Trinity College.
The Book of Kells is a richly decorated copy of the four
gospels--Matthew, Mark, Luke and John--produced by Christian monks,
possibly in the late 700s on the Scottish isle of Iona or in the
Irish town of Kells. Joyce later used it as a model for Ulysses.
(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A20)(HNQ, 1/13/99)(SFEM,
799 Nov 29, Pope Leo III, aided
by Charlemagne, returned to Rome.
799 Imam Musa ibn Jaafar
al-Kadhim (55), one of the 12 principle Shiite saints, died from
poisoning in Baghdad.
c799-878 St. Ignatius Nicetas. He served as the
Patriarch of Constantinople from 846-858 and 867-878.
(WUD, 1994 p.708)
800 Dec 25, Pope Leo III
crowned Frankish warrior-king Charlemagne as heir of the Roman
emperors at the basilica of St. Peter's at Rome.
(V.D.-H.K.p.105)(Econ, 9/4/10, p.56)
800 Ohlone Indians occupied the
cliffs near Mussel Rock, later Daly City, Ca., beginning from about
800 The Tairona peoples of
Colombia made Ciudad Perdida their capital from about this time
until the arrival of the conquistadors.
c800 England’s King Lear lived
about this time. Shakespeare wrote his play “King Lear" in 1606.
c800 The inhabitants of the
British Isles did not comb their hair until they were taught by the
Danes about this time.
(SFC, 6/30/96, Z1 p.5)
c800 In Egypt an earthquake
sent the Nile port cities of Herakleion, Canopus and Menouthis into
the Mediterranean Sea.
(SFC, 6/8/01, p.A1)
800 About this time
unidentified conquerors destroyed the Mayan palace at Cancuen
(Guatemala) and killed the members of the court. Archeologists in
2005 reported that King Maax, son of Taj Chan Ahk, was found buried
in full regalia.
(SFC, 11/17/05, p.A17)
c800 The height of the Mayan
city of Copan. Some 20,000 people lived in the Copan pocket, a
fertile section of the Copan River valley in what is now Honduras.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.29)
c800 The stone image of Fudo
Myo-o, a fierce Japanese deity of fire and thunder was carved by a
revered priest in Kyoto about this time. It was transferred to
Narita about 940.
(Hem, 8/95, p.56)
800 The city of Jenne-jeno on
the Niger (Mali) grew to a bustling trade center of about 10,000
people. By 1400 the city was abandoned.
c800 The first Polynesians come
from somewhere in the central Pacific to New Zealand. These people
are called the tangata whenua, which means "people of the land," but
are more commonly called in English the moa-hunters, for hunting the
large grass-eating, ostrich-like bird.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.196)
c800-900 In England Nennius wrote a history in the
early 9th century and mentioned King Arthur as a fabulous figure.
(WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)
c800-900 The Alawi faith was founded in the 9th
century by a Muslim, who declared himself the "gateway" to the
divine truth and abandoned Islam.
(WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)
800-900 Buran, the wife of the Caliph of Baghdad,
had a lavish wedding. The groom was led to a carpet of woven gold
and 1,000 pearls were poured over his head in honor of a poet who
had described the surface of a glass of white wine as: "pearls
scattered like pebbles on a plain of gold."
(SFC, 12/18/96, zz-1 p.8)
800-900 In northern Bangladesh the Buddhist
monastic complex at Paharpur was built by the Pala dynasty.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.B)
800-900 In China the 9th cent. poet Chu Chen Pu
wrote about the hedgehog.
(NH, 7/98, p.54)
c800-900 "The Diamond Sutra,’ a 9th century
Chinese work, was found in 1900 in a cave in Duhuang by Sir Airel
Stein, a British scholar-explorer, and handed over to the British
(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)
800-900 Ninth century monks called Bhutan "the
(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A8)
800-900 In France monks moved inland from the
Loire valley to escape the depredations of the Vikings and revived
the making of Chablis wine with Chardonnay grapes.
(SFC, 7/16/97, Z1 p.4)
c800-900 In Germany Archbishop Hatto of Mainz
supposedly hoarded grain during a time of famine and said that
starving masses were nothing more than mice. He was beleaguered by
rodents and took refuge on his island in the Rhine where legend has
it that mice devoured him.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T4)
800-900 The Mayan site of Xultun (Guatemala) dated
to about this time. It was discovered in 1912. In 2010 paintings
were discovered at the site dating to this period. Figures were
captioned as "Older Brother Obsidian," or "Senior Obsidian," and
"Younger Brother Obsidian," or perhaps "Junior Obsidian."
800-900 The first Khmer or king, know as Kambu,
founded Kambujadesa, which means "The Sons of Kambu" or Kambuja for
short. Construction of the city and temple complex known as Angkor
Wat was begun.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, T5)
800-900 Muhammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, Arab
mathematician and astronomer, wrote his "ab al-jabr w’ al muqabalah"
(the science of reduction and comparison). The work dealt with
solving equations. It was the first time that algebra was discussed
as a separate branch of mathematics. In the 12th century it was
translated into Latin as "Ludus algebrae et almucgrabalaeque."
(Alg, 1990, p.87)
800-900 The Vikings brought ponies to Iceland.
(SFC, 3/21/98, p.A9)
800-900 A timber mosque was built at Shanga,
(NH, 6/97, p.43)
800-900 In Poland a 9th century edict forbade Jews
from baking. The law was supposedly circumvented by boiling bread
and then toasting it. This process is believed to have led to the
creation of the bagel.
(WSJ, 11/29/08, p.W11)
c800-900 In Southern Korea peasant uprisings led
to the establishment of 2 rival states.
(SFEM, 6/20/99, p.6)
800-900 In Scandinavia Futhark evolved around the
9th century. Instead of 24 letters, the Scandinavian "Younger"
Futhark had 16 letters. In England, Anglo-Saxon Futhorc started to
be replaced by the Latin alphabet by the 9th century, and did not
survive much more past the Norman Conquest. Futhark continued to be
used in Scandinavia for centuries longer, but by 1600 CE, it had
become nothing more than curiosities among scholars and
800-900 The Uygur, a Turkic people, fled the
Mongolian steppe and settled in Xinjiang.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.12)
800-900 In Thailand Sadokkokthom was a Khmer
sanctuary on the Thai-Cambodian border in the Aranyaphrathet region.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)
800-1000 At the beginning of the ninth century,
Arabian merchants frequented Lithuania to purchase fine furs,
beeswax and precious amber. Brisk trading between Arabians and
Lithuanians went on for about two hundred years.
800-1050 Ghana controlled West Africa’s rich
trade, yet villagers continued to use cowry shells for money.
Koumbi, Ghana’s capital, became the busiest and wealthiest
marketplace in West Africa.
c800-1200 Wat Phu (mountain temple) in southern
Laos was a religious complex patronized by the Khmer of Cambodia.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)
c800-1700 The Calusa Indian tribe, nicknamed "The
Fierce Ones," dominated Florida’s Gulf coast from about 800 to 1700.
They escaped from Florida to Cuba in the early 1700s after Spanish
soldiers and other tribes overran their region.
(AP, 3/14/04)(AM, 11/04, p.47)
802 Oct 31, Empress Irene was
driven out of Byzantium.
802 Jayavarman II proclaimed
himself a "universal monarch" in a ritual that united religion and
politics (Cambodia) and gave rise to the cult of the Devaraja
(deified king). He declared the region’s independence from Java.
(WSJ, 7/3/97, p.A9)(SFC, 8/14/07, p.A18)
802 Vikings stage their 1st
raid of Iona (Scotland).
(AM, 7/01, p.50)
804 Vikings returned to Iona
and killed 68 of the monastic community.
(AM, 7/01, p.50)
809 Mar 24, Harun al-Rashid
(44), caliph of the Abbasid empire (786-809), died.
810 Jul 8, Pepin, son of
Charlemagne and King of Italy, died.
811 Jul 26, Nicephorus I,
Byzantine Emperor (802-11), died in the Battle at Pliska. The
Bulgarian under monarch Krum beat the Byzantines.
813 Sep 25, Al-Amin, Arabic
Caliph of Islam (809-813), was murdered.
c813 Pelayo to Dantiago, a
Spanish hermit, was guided, according to legend, by strange lights
in the sky to discover the long-forgotten tomb of the apostle St.
James (San Tiago). This led others to make pilgrimages across
northern Spain to the city of Santiago de Compostela. [see 1130]
(SFC, 3/11/04, p.F9)
813-833 Caliph al Ma’mun founded a school in
Baghdad called the House of Wisdom. In this school scholars
translated Greek philosophy classics into Arabic.
814 Jan 28, Charlemagne (71),
German emperor, Holy Roman Emperor (800-814), died. In 1968 Jacques
Boussard authored “The Civilisation of Charlemagne."
(MC, 1/28/02)(Econ, 1/3/04, p.39)
814 Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani
al-Hakami (b.756), one of the greatest of classical Arabic poets,
died. He also composed in Persian on occasion. Born in the city of
Ahvaz in Persia, of an Arab father and a Persian mother, he became a
master of all the contemporary genres of Arabic poetry. Abu Nuwas
has entered the folkloric tradition, and he appears several times in
The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. His witty and humorous
poetry, which dealt not with the traditional desert themes, but with
urban life and the joys of wine and drinking (khamriyyat -
khamriyaat), and ribald humor (mujuniyyat).
12/20/03, p.68)(Econ, 8/18/12, p.55)
816 Fatima, sister of the
eighth Imam, lies buried in a sanctuary at Qum, one of the sacred
cities of the Shia faith.
(NG, 9/1939, p.320)
818 Imam Reza, a descendant of
the Prophet Muhammad, died. Shiites later believed that he was fed
poisonous grapes by a Sunni leader of the Muslim world. Reza was
buried in Sanabad, which later became known as Mashad, “place of
martyrdom." A major shrine grew at the site and by 2007 the Imam
Reza Shrine Foundation was the largest (bonyad) in Iran and
accounted for 7.1% of the country’s GDP.
(WSJ, 6/2/07, p.A12)
820 Jan 20, Abu Abdallah Mibn
Idris al-Sjafi'i, Islamic author of Book of Mother, died.
820 Dec 25, Leo V, the
Armenian, Byzantine gen and Emperor (813-20), was murdered.
c820 The collapse of the Mayan
ruling Classic period dynasty in Copan.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.25)
825 The Buddhist temple of
Borobudur on the island of Java was completed about this time under
the supervision of an architect named Gunadharma. The site was
abandoned after 100-200 years. In 1814 British Gov. Thomas Stamford
Raffles was advised of its location and dispatched an expedition to
locate and excavate the legendary monument.
(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T9)(WSJ, 9/13/08,
828 Venetian merchants stole
the relics of Saint Mark from a Coptic church in Alexandria and
brought them home in triumph.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.125)
830 The Utrecht Psalter was
produced in the Netherlands. Its 166 ink drawings illustrated
passages in the psalms. In the eleventh century an English copy was
made that became known as the Harley Psalter.
833-900 Great Moravia was founded when Mojmir I
unified two neighboring states by force, referred to in modern
historiography as the "Principality of Nitra" and the "Principality
of Moravia". The Slavic state existed in Central Europe from the 9th
century to the early 10th century.
835-1500 Medieval British history for this period
is covered by timeref.com.
833 Jul 20, Ansegis (Ansegius,
63), French abbot of Fontenelle, author, died.
834 Oct 31, This evening became
All Hallow’s Eve with the establishment of Nov 1 as Feast of All
Saints by Pope Gregory IV.
(PTA, 1980, p.204)(SFC, 10/31/01, p.C2)
834 Nov 1, This day was
declared to be All Saints’ Day by the Catholic Church. [see
(SFC, 10/31/01, p.C2)
834 In southeastern Norway's
Vestfold County a 65-foot vessel was buried in an enormous mound as
the grave ship for a rich and powerful Viking woman. In 1904 the
mound surrendered the Oseberg Viking longboat.
835 Nov 1, After the
spread of Christianity through the west, the Roman Catholic Church
in 835 A.D. made November 1 a church holiday to honor all the
saints. This celebration was called All Saint's Day or All Hallows
and the day before it--October 31--was called All Hallow's Eve
(later Halloween). Pope Gregory extended the Feast of All Saints on
Nov 1 to France and Germany. [see 834CE]
(PTA, 1980, p.204)(HNPD, 10/31/99)
836 Caliph al-Mutasim built a
new capital at Samarra to replace Baghdad as the capital of the
Abbasid Caliphate. It was abandoned by Caliph al-Mutamid in 892.
(SFC, 2/23/06, p.A15)
837 Apr 13, Best view of
Halley's Comet in 2000 years.
838 Jan 4, Babak, Persian
social and religious reformer, was martyred.
839 Charles III the Fat,
sometimes called Charles II of France, was born. He was the son of
Louis the German and grandson of Charlemagne. Charles III the Fat
was a Frankish king and emperor. His fall in 887 marked the
final disintegration of the empire of Charlemagne. He was the
youngest son of Louis the German and was crowned emperor by Pope
John VIII in 881 and became king of all the East Franks in 882,
succeeding his brother Louis the Younger. Charles III the Fat died
on January 13, 888.
839 The Stone of Scone was
first believed to be used in the coronation of a Scottish king at
the village of Scone in southeast Scotland.
(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A11)
839 The first official mention
of Andorra was recorded in the records of the cathedral at Seu
d’Urgell in Spain.
(Hem., 3/97, p.74)
840 Mar 14, Eginhard (69),
French nobleman, biographer (Vita Karoli Magni), died.
840 Jun 6, Agobard, archbishop
of Lyon (anti-Semite), died.
840 Vikings settled in Ireland.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)
841 Jun 25, Charles the Bald
and Louis the German defeated Lothar at Fontenay.
842 Feb 19, The Medieval
Iconoclastic Controversy ended as a council in Constantinople
formally reinstated the veneration of icons in the churches.
842 Mar 20, Alfonso II the
Chaste, king of Asturia (791-842), died. Asturias was a kingdom in
(MC, 3/20/02)(WUD, 1994 p.92)
842 Vikings attacked the Irish
monastery at Clonmacnoise from bases in Ireland.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)
843 Apr 19, Judith, French
empress, 2nd wife of Louis de Vrome, died.
843 Jun 24, Vikings destroyed
843 Aug 10, Treaty of Verdun:
Brothers Lotharius I, Louis the German and Charles the Bare divided
844 In Scotland the Scotti and
Picts united under Cinaed (Kenneth) Mac Ailpin. The Pict language
disappeared following the union.
(AM, 7/01, p.46)
846 Nov 1, Louis II, the
Stutterer, King of France (877-79), was born.
849 Alfred the Great (d.899)
was said to have been born near Uffington. He became King of the
West Saxons in 871. He was the 5th and youngest son of King
Aethelwulf and Queen Osburga of Wessex.
(AHD, 1971, p.32)(AM, 9/01, p.42)(ON, 4/08, p.4)
c850 Outsiders found coffee in
the region of Ethiopia called Kaffa, hence the name.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, Z1
850 The Chicanna temple in the
Mayan city of Calakmul was built about this time.
(SSFC, 4/25/10, p.M1)
850-930 Hucbaldus Elnonensis, was a French monk
and composer, who became known for writing poetry about the
hairless. He wrote "Ecloga de Calvis," (In Praise of Bald Men) for
Hatto, a bald archbishop. All 150 lines of the Latin verse begin
with the letter c (calvus means bald in Latin).
(WSJ, 11/23/98, p.B1)
850-933 Harold the Fairhaired. Princess Gyda is
said to have incited Harold to gather the whole of Norway under his
scepter. The name Gyda was later corrupted to Gjøe, the name of
Amdunsen’s Northwest Passage sloop (1903-1905).
(Ind, 4/27/02, 5A)
c850-1100 Native Indians in Chaco Canyon [New
Mexico] built multistory buildings and roads. Evidence was later
discovered that they designed a vast map of the yearly sun cycle and
the 19-year cycle of the moon.
(WSJ, 6/16/00, p.W2)
c853 The Baltic shoreline
Curonians repulsed Danish Viking attempts at subjugation. King Olaf
led Swedish Vikings in retaliation and overcame the towns of Seeburg
and Apuole (Apulia).
853 Olaf, King of Sweden, led
his forces across the Baltic Sea and into western Lithuania. They
attacked the castle at Apuole near the town of Skuodas on the Luba
River. A truce was declared after 8 days of fighting. King Olaf took
home much gold, silver and amber, 30 (Kursiu) local inhabitants and
destroyed the castle.
(H of L, 1931, p.14)
855 Sep 28, The Emperor Lothar
died in Gaul, and his kingdom was divided between his three sons.
855 A version of "Cinderella"
came from China about this time.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)
855 Ahmad ibn Hanbal (b.780),
Muslim scholar, died in Iraq. He is considered the founder of the
4th school of Sunni Islam. The four schools of Sunni Islam include:
a) The Hanafi school, named after Imam Abu Hanifa, predominates in
the territories formerly under the Ottoman Empire and in Muslim
India and Pakistan; it relies heavily on consensus and analogical
reasoning in addition to the Quran and sunna. B) The Maliki school,
named after Malik ibn Anas, is dominant in upper Egypt and West
Africa; developed in Medina, it emphasizes use of hadith (sayings or
acts) that were current in the Prophet's city. C) The school of
Muhammad ibn Idris ash Shafii, prevailing in Indonesia, stresses
reasoning by analogy. D) The fourth legal school is that of Ahmad
ibn Hanbal, which is the school adhered to in Saudi Arabia.
858 Apr 24, Nicholas I
succeeded Benedict III as the Catholic Pope.
(HN, 4/24/98)(MC, 4/24/02)
860 Jun 18, Swedish Vikings
860 Aug 1, Peace of Koblenz
involved Charles the Bare, Louis the German & Lotharius II.
c860 Novgorod, Russia, was
founded about this time.
(AM, 11/00, p.32)
861 The Khazar kings converted
to Judaism. A Jewish dynasty of kings presided over the Khazar
kingdom until the 960s. In 2008 Dmitry Vasilyev, a Russian professor
at Astrakhan State University, said his nine-year excavation near
the Caspian Sea has finally unearthed the foundations of a
triangular fortress of flamed brick, along with modest yurt-shaped
dwellings, and he believes these are part of what was once Itil, the
(TJOK, chap. 6)(AP, 9/20/08)
866 Sep 19, Leo VI Sophos,
Byzantine Emperor (886-912) and writer (Problematica), was born.
866 Nov, Danish Viking Ivar the
Boneless first invaded the trading port of Eoforwic, the old Roman
settlement of Eboracum. The Jorvic Viking settlement was discovered
in 1976 when workers in York excavated for a new shopping center.
867 Feb 11, Theodora, the
Saint, beauty queen, Byzantine Empress, died.
867 Nov 13, Pope Nicholas I
(the Great) died at age 67. He served from 858-867.
867 A last surviving older
brother of Alfred, became King Aethelred I of Wessex, an Anglo-Saxon
kingdom in southern England.
(ON, 4/08, p.4)
867 Danes fought Saxons in the
battle of Eoferwic (York).
(WSJ, 1/28/05, p.W6)
867-1057 The Byzantine Empire expanded.
868 The 10th imam, Ali al-Hadi,
died. His remains were placed in the Askariya shrine in Samarra
869 Feb 14, Cyrillus, Greek
apostle of Slavs, died.
869 Aug 8, Lotharius II, King
of Middle-France (Lotharingen) (855-869), died.
870 Aug 8, The Treaty of Mersen
(Meerssen) partitioned the realm of Lothair II by his uncles Louis
the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia, the
two surviving sons of Emperor Louis I the Pious.
870 Dec 31, Skirmish at
Englefield. Ethelred of Wessex beat back a Danish invasion army.
870 Swede Garoar Svavarsson led
the first Vikings to Iceland.
(SSFC, 8/23/15, p.N4)
871 Jan 4, Ethelred of Wessex
was defeated by Danish forces at Reading.
(PCh, 1992, p.72)
871 Jan 8, Ethelred of Wessex
defeated the Danish forces at Ashdown.
(PCh, 1992, p.72)
871 Mar 2, Battle at Marton
(Maeretun): Ethelred van Wessex (d.871) beat the Danish invasion
army. Ethelred died in April and his brother Alfred (22) took over.
Alfred became Alfred the Great and ruled until 899.
(PCh, 1992, p.72)(SC, 3/2/02)
871 Apr 23, Ethelred I, king of
Wessex, brother of Alfred the Great, died.
871-899 Saxon reign under Alfred the Great.
(AHD, 1971, p.32)
872 Dec 14, Adrian II (~80),
Italian Pope (867-72), the last married pope, died.
872-882 Pope John VIII (b.1814). A novel by Donna
Cross in 1996 is based on historical documents that indicate that he
was actually female.
(WUD, 1994, p.769)(SFEC, 11/17/96, BR p.8)
874 The 11th imam, Hassan
al-Askari, son of Ali al-Hadi, died. His remains were also placed in
the Askariya shrine in Samarra (Persia-Iraq). Hassan al-Askari was
the father of Al-Mahdi, the hidden imam.
874 Vikings from Norway began
to survey Iceland. The monks withdrew to Ireland. The
40,000-square-mile island situated 500 miles northwest of Scotland
was first settled by Norwegians.
(NH, 6/96, p.53)(Economist, 8/25/12, p.64)
875 Aug 12, Louis II (~50),
king of Italy, emperor of France, died.
c875-925 Lord Chaak ruled over the Mayan city of
Uxmal in Mexico.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.H)
876 Oct 8, Charles the Bald was
defeated at the Battle of Andernach. Louis the Young beat Charles
(HN, 10/8/98)(MC, 10/8/01)
876 Charles the Bald donated a
relic, the Sancta Camisia, to the city of Chartres. The relic was
believed to the childbirth tunic of the Virgin Mary.
(Hem., 10/97, p.86)
877 Oct 6, Charles II the Kale,
King of France and Roman emperor (875-77), died at 54.
878 Jan, Danish forces from
north of Wessex launched an unexpected attack on Wessex, ruled by
King Alfred. In 1911 G.K. Chesterton authored the historical novel
“The Ballad of the White Horse" set in England during this time.
(SSFC, 4/22/07, p.P10)(ON, 4/08, p.4)
878 Imam Mahdi went into
hiding. Shiites went on to believe that he would return, along with
Jesus, to lead Muslims in a struggle for justice.
(SFC, 1/19/08, p.A7)
879 Apr 10, Louis II, the
Stutterer, King of France (877-79), died and Louis III was crowned
King of France.
879 Sep 17, Charles III, [The
Simple], king of France (893-923), was born.
882 Aug 25, Louis III (19),
King of France (879-82), died.
883 Mar 8, Albumasar [Ahmad
Aboe M Gafar al-Balkhi], Arabic astronomer, died.
884 May 17, St. Adrian III
began his reign as Catholic Pope.
885 Apr 6, Methodius, Greek
apostle to the Slavs, archbishop of Sirmium, died.
886 Aug 29, Basilius I,
the Macedonian, Byzantine emperor (867-886), died.
886 Under Muslim Arabs the
Bagratid family rose to prominence in Armenia and established a line
of kings from this time to the 10th century.
(CO Enc. / Armenia)
887 Ibn Firnas (b.810), a
Muslim Berber, polymath, inventor, engineer, aviator, physician,
Arabic poet, and Andalusian musician, died. He is said to have
jumped from a height, wings attached and covered head to toe in
feathers, in a failed attempt at flying, although he survived the
889 Bhaktapur, Nepal, was
founded under the Malla dynasty.
(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)
889 Ibn Qutayba (b.828), a
renowned Islamic scholar from Kufa, Iraq, died.
889-1324 The Khmer Empire‘s dominions roughly
correspond to present-day Laos and Cambodia and reached its height
during the Angkor period (889-1434 CE). The kingdom flourished from
the 6th to 15th centuries CE and then declined with invasions from
890-1170 The Medieval Warm Period extended across
Asia, Europe and North America.
(SFC, 2/10/06, p.A6)
891 Feb 6, Photius, Byzantine
theologist, patriarch of Constantinople, saint, died.
891 Sep 1, Norse defeated near
891-896 Formosus served as Pope following Stephen
(PTA, 1980, p.224)(WSJ, 6/27/01, p.A14)
894 Japan abolished the sending
of envoys to China.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
895 The Tatev Monastery was
built near the village of Tatev, Armenia. The construction on the
Church of Peter and Paul was completed in 906.
896 Feb 22, Pope Formosa was
crowned king Arnulf of Carinthia, French emperor.
896 Apr 4, Pope Formosus died.
His body was exhumed by his successor in the Cadaver Synod. He was
then put on trial for perjury, found guilty and dumped in the Tiber
(PTA, 1980, p.224)(WSJ, 6/27/01, p.A14)
896 The founding date of
Hungary. Seven tribes of Magyars settled in the Carpathian Basin.
Kingdom of Hungary was formed under Arpad by seven Magyar and three
(WSJ, 12/26/96, p.4)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T5)(TJOK, p.
899 Oct 26, Alfred the Great
(b.849), writer and king of Wessex (871-99), died. He helped to
bring about the English state, the Royal Navy and English
universities. He translated Pope Gregory’s “Pastoral Care," the
universal history by Orosius, Bede’s Ecclesiastical History, and the
“Consolation of Philosophy" by Boethius. Alfred also compiled
England’s first code of laws, The Doom Book.
p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_the_Great)(ON, 4/08, p.5)
899 Dec 8, Arnulf of Carinthia,
last emperor of Austria-France, died.
c900 By this time the Fatimids
broke away from the Abbasids and migrated to North Africa. They were
descendants of Mohammad’s daughter, Fatima.
c900 The east coast of Africa
was impacted by trade and Arab, Persian and Indian traders mixed
with the indigenous Bantu. Many of the coastal Bantu adopted Islam
and the Arabic word Swahili, meaning "people of the shore," to
describe themselves. By this time they had reached as far south as
Sofala in Mozambique.
(ATC, p.142)(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)
900 The Abbots Bromley Horn
Dance, an Old English pagan ritual, used horns from reindeer that
dated to about this time. A dozen male dancers in Staffordshire
traditionally performed the dance once a year in early September.
(SFC, 9/4/10, p.A1)
c900 The Mayan city-state of
Palenque [in later Mexico] was abandoned
(SFC, 5/19/96, T-10)
c900 The Mayan city-state of
Copan [in later Honduras] was abandoned
(NG, 12/97, p.80)
c900 In Peru the Lambayeque
people established themselves over areas previously developed by the
(NG, 7/04, p.116)
900 Benedict IV succeeded John
IX as Pope.
(PTA, 1980, p.236)
c900-950 The 7-foot hanging scroll, ink-on-silk
masterpiece "Riverbank" by Dong Yuan was created. It is the earliest
surviving example of monumental Chinese landscape painting. The work
was also thought to be a forgery by Chang Da-chien (1899-1983)
through whom it passed to the New York Met.
(WSJ, 7/2/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 7/24/97, p.A16)(WSJ,
900-1000 Alsace became part of Germany in the 10th
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T4)
900-1000 Weimar is believed to date back to the
(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)
900-1000 The French village of Prelenfrey dates
back to the 10th Century.
(SFC, 6/23/96, p.T8)
900-1000 The Korean rice wine Makgeolli, once
known as "farmer drink", dates back at least this time. Its
popularity waned in the early 1960s when the government restricted
the use of rice for making alcohol in order to combat rice
shortages. In 2012 South Korea's Baesangmyun Brewery announced that
a brewery in Chicago will open to produce the drink.
900-1000 Viking longships entered the Douro River
mouth in Portugal. Their ships are believed to be the design form
from which the wine carrying boats "barcos rabelos" were designed.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T7)
900-1000 The Tresco Abbey was a Benedictine
monastery on the Isles of Sicily off the southwest coast of England.
(Hem., 7/96, p.66)
900-1000 The terminal classic period of the Maya.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)
c900-1000 The Japanese discovered the wasabe root
growing near mountain streams and began incorporating it into their
(SFC, 6/3/98, Z1 p.6)
900-1000 In Thailand the site of Prasat Hin Phanom
Wan was an important Khmer sanctuary in the Upper Mun River Valley
of northeastern Thailand.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)
900-1100 A Fremont culture settlement in Horse
Canyon, Utah, left extensive ruins that became known as Range Creek.
(SFC, 6/30/04, p.A2)
900-1200 The Killke people occupied the region
around Cuzco, Peru, from 900 to 1200 A.D., prior to the arrival of
the Incas. In 2008 Archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient
temple, roadway and irrigation systems at Sacsayhuaman, a famed
fortress overlooking Cuzco, that shed light on the pre-Inca cultures
902 Aug 1, The Aghlabid rulers
of Ifriqiyah (modern day Tunisia) captured Taormina, Sicily.
902-970 In China Tao Gu lived. He wrote "Qing yi
lu," (An Examination of Strange Accounts). He mentioned the Chinese
use of cormorants for fishing.
(NH, 10/98, p.69)
903 Benedict IV, Catholic Pope,
(PTA, 1980, p.236)
903 Good King Wenceslaus,
saint, duke of Bohemia (928-935), was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.1622)
904 Jul 31, Arabs captured
Thessalonica of the Byzantine Empire.
905 Persian astronomer Al Sufi
referred to the Andromeda galaxy as the "Little Cloud."
(NH, 11/96, p.78)
907 Fall of the T’ang dynasty
907-1279 "The Five Dynasties and the Song Period"
by Richard M. Barnhart is the first section of Wu Hung’s 1997 "The
Origins of Chinese Painting."
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)
910 The French abbey at Cluny
(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T4)
910 Rhazes, an Arab physician,
wrote the 1st account of smallpox and proposed the earliest theory
(NW, 10/14/02, p.46)
911 Sep 2, Viking monarch Oleg
of Kiev, Russia, signed a treaty with the Byzantines.
911 The Carolingian period of
Frankish rule ended in Germany.
(AHD, 1971, p.205)
911 A relic donated by Charles
the Bald, the Sancta Camisia, was displayed above the city walls of
Chartres and seemed to repel a Viking attack. The relic was believed
to be the Virgin Mary’s childbirth tunic.
(Hem., 10/97, p.86)
912 Nov 23, Otto I, the Great
(d.973), German king and Holy Roman emperor (962-73), was born. Otto
the Great became King of Germany in 936.
(AHD, 1971, p.931)(MC, 11/23/01)
912 Egyptian singer Nehmes
Bastet died about this time. In 2012 Egyptian and Swiss
archaeologists reported a roughly 1,100 year-old tomb of a female
singer in the Valley of the Kings. It was the only tomb of a woman
not related to the ancient royal families ever found in the Valley
of the Kings. The singer's name, Nehmes Bastet, means she was
believed to be protected by the feline deity Bastet. At the time of
her death, Egypt was ruled by Libyan kings, but the high priests who
ruled Thebes were independent.
912-961 Abd al Rahman III, Umayyad caliph in
Spain, purchased Scandinavian, African and German slaves to serve in
his forces. At this time Cordoba was western Europe's largest city
with a population of 200,000 people.
917 Aug 20, A Byzantine
counter-offensive was routed by Syeon at Anchialus, Bulgaria.
917 In Italy the Castle Torre
d’Orlando was built between Paciano and Panicale in Umbria.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.49)
918 Mar 1, Balderik became
bishop of Utrecht.
918 In Ireland there was a
great flood in the region of Clonmacnoise.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)
918-1392 During Korea's Age of Enlightenment, the
period of the Goryeo Dynasty, the Buddhist aristocracy commissioned
many works of art to further the Buddhist ideal.
(SFC, 10/14/03, p.D1)
919 May 12, Duke Henry of Saxon
became King Henry I of Eastern Europe.
919 Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon
Nat'l Monument in Northern New Mexico had its ceremonial room
completed. Occupancy lasted till c1130.
921 Nov 7, Treaty of Bonn: East
France and West France recognized each other.
921 In Turkey the Armenian
Akdamar church, called the Church of Surp Khach, or Holy Cross, was
inaugurated. Written records say the church was near a harbor and a
palace on the island on Lake Van, but only the church survived.
Turkey restored the church in 2007.
922 Mar 27, Al-Hallaj
al-Mughith-al-Hsayn Mansur (64), Persian mystic, was beheaded.
922 Jun 9, French republic
chose Robert I as King of France.
922 Mansur al-Hallaj (b.858), a
Sufi mystic, was crucified in Baghdad for pronouncing in the midst
of a trance that he was the truth, i.e god.
(SFC, 4/21/04, p.A10)(
923 Feb 16, Abu Dja'far
Mohammed Djarir al-Tabari (83), Islamic historian, died.
924 Apr 7, Berengarius I,
Emperor of Italy, was murdered.
924 Jul 17, Edward the Older,
English king (899-924) and son of Alfred the Great, died. He was
succeeded by his son Athelstan.
(PC, 1992, p.75)
924-940 Athelstan ruled as king of England.
925 The Croatian kingdom was
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)
927 May 27, Symeon, czar of
927 Ivan Rilski (later St. John
of Rila), an Orthodox Bulgarian, chose a hermit’s life in a cave in
the mountains above Sofia, Bulgaria. His students built a complex
nearby that grew to become the Rila Monastery.
(SSFC, 7/16/06, p.G4)
929 Sep 28, Wenceslaus I, duke
of Bohemia, was murdered.
929 Eadgyth (910-946), the
sister of King Athelstan and the granddaughter of Alfred the Great,
was given in marriage to Otto I, the king of Saxony and the Holy
Roman Emperor. She had at least two children before her death in 946
at age 36. In 2010 her remains were found in Magdeburg Cathedral in
(AFP, 1/20/10)(AFP, 6/17/10)
930 Jun 23, Icelanders
established the Althing, an open-air national parliament and the
world‘s oldest surviving parliamentary body. This was later credited
as the first example of representative government.
(NH, 6/96, p.53)(DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)(SFC, 1/1/00,
930 The Aleppo Codex was
written on parchment in the Holy Land town of Tiberias by the scribe
Shlomo Ben Boya'a about this time. Its completion marked the end of
a centuries-long process that created final text of the Hebrew
933 Mar 15, Henry the Fowler
routed the raiding Magyars at Merseburg, Germany. The Wagner opera
Lohengrin is about King Henry and how he united the people of
Brabant with the Saxons against the Hungarian foe.
(HN, 3/15/99)(WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A21)
In the Icelandic "Egils-saga" there is an account
of how Thorolf and Egil harried in Curonia (along the eastern Baltic
shore) about this time.
(DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)
935 In southern Korea the last
Shilla king surrendered his throne.
(SFEM, 6/20/99, p.6)
936 Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari
(b.1874), Muslim theologian, died. He had become a pupil of the
great Mutazalite teacher al-Jubba'i (d.915), and himself remained a
Mutazalite until his fortieth year. Disciples of his school are
known as Asharites. It held that complete comprehension of the
unique nature and attributes of God is beyond the capacity of human
reasoning and sense experience.
936-973 Otto the Great became King of Germany and
later the first Holy Roman Emp.
(AHD, 1971, p.931)
936-1531 Aachen in West Germany was the coronation
city for German kings over this period.
(WUD, 1994, p.1)
937 King Athelstan unified the
various Saxon and Celtic kingdoms following the battle of
Brunanburgh. He was the brother of Eadgyth, wife of Holy Roman Emp.
Otto I, and is generally considered to have been the first King of
c938 In the late 930s Khazar
baliqchi Pesakh defeated the Rus. According to an anonymous letter
written by a Khazarian Jew in the 940s, the Rus prince Oleg captured
the Khazar-held city Tmutorokan one night. Pesakh, a prominent
Khazar baliqchi (governor), learned of Oleg’s actions and conquered
several Crimean cities belonging to the Byzantines and also did away
with many Rus. Oleg was badly defeated, and was forced to
surrender to Governor-General Pesakh. This was a major Khazar
victory over the Rus.
(TJOK, pages 191-192)
938-1002 Al-Mansur (the Conqueror), Moorish
leader. He was born Abu'Amir al-Ma'asiri and rose to power by wooing
the caliph's favorite concubine. He raided Christian Spain and
hauled his booty back to Cordoba and built a palace called Madinat
al-Zahira, the Shining City.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,6)
940 The stone image of Fudo
Myo-o, a fierce Japanese deity of fire and thunder, was carved by a
revered priest in Kyoto about 800 CE and transferred to Narita about
(Hem, 8/95, p.56)
940 Mount Paektu, a volcano
straddling the border between North Korea and China, erupted about
this time and covered a swath of North-East Asia in ashes. The
millennium eruption is believed to have occurred between 930 and 940
(Econ, 10/26/13, p.48)(AP, 9/3/14)
942 May 16, Saadiah Gaon, head
of Talmudic Academy of Sura, died.
945 In England monks settled
along the Thames riverbank at Bablock Hythe.
(SFEC, 8/20/00, p.T9)
945 The Buyids (Buwayhids) came
to power in Baghdad. They were ousted by the Seljuks in 1055 under
946 May 25, Edmund the Older,
king of Wessex, England, (939-46), died.
946 Eadgyth, the sister of King
Athelstan and the granddaughter of Alfred the Great, died. She had
been given in marriage to Otto I, the Holy Roman Emperor, in 929.
She was initially buried at the Monastery of Mauritius in Magdeburg.
In 1510 her remains were transferred to Magdeburg Cathedral in
northern Germany, where her bones were found in 2008.
950 Nov 22, Lotharius, King of
Italy (947-50), died.
c950 The Anasazi first came to
Keet Seel, Arizona.
(Hem., 5/97, p.75)
950 Guam’s latte period refers
to the time when lattes were first introduced about this time and
continued up to the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. Latte
stones consist of a pillar capped by a hemispherical stone capital.
951 Sep 23, Otto I, the Great,
became king of Italy.
953 Apr 21, Otto I, the Great,
granted Utrecht fishing rights.
954 Nov 12, Lotharius became
king of France.
954 The Count of Ventimiglia
ceded Seborga (in northwest Italy, twenty minutes from the
Mediterranean north of Bordighera) to the monks who elected their
abbot as sovereign prince.
(SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T5)
955 May 16, Alberich II,
(bastard?) son of Octavianus, was elected pope.
955 Aug 10, Otto organized his
nobles and defeated the invading Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld
955 In England King Eadwig
failed to appear at his coronation feast. Dunstan, chronicler of the
event, found him cavorting with a young lady and her mother.
(WSJ, 1/29/99, p.W7)
955 Sufi saint Sidi Mahmoudou
died. In 2013 his tomb in Timbuktu, Mali, was destroyed by Islamist
956 Jun 16, Hugo the Great,
duke of France, died.
956-1015 Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev and the first
Christian grand prince of Russia (980-1015). He married the sister
of the Byzantine emperor and thus brought in Orthodox Christianity
(WUD, 1994, p.1598)(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A16)
958-1025 Basil II, Byzantine emperor. His empire
held a monopoly on royal purple silk and he flourished by
manufacturing and trading silk.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
959 The Viking ruler Gorm the
Old, the father of Harald Bluetooth, died.
(AM, 11/00, p.21)
959-987 Harald Bluetooth, or Harald Blatand,
10th-century king of Denmark, attributed to himself the unification
of Denmark and the Christianization of the Danes. He also conquered
Norway and raided Normandy. He was later invaded and defeated by
German emperor Otto II.
(HNQ, 9/3/98)(AM, 11/00, p.21)
960 Denmark's King Harald
Bluetooth was baptized.
(Econ, 6/28/03, p.55)
960 Thorvald Asvaldsson, the
father of Eric the Red (950-1003), committed a murder about this
time and was banished from Norway. He took his family to Iceland.
960-1127 The period of the Northern Song Dynasty.
Most artistic representations of nature during this period carried
auspicious meanings, e.g. bamboo signified resilience in the face of
diversity, and the cicada bespoke immortality.
(NH, 7/00, p.59)(SFC, 5/14/03, p.D3)
960-1279 The Sung (Song) dynasty ruled over China.
It was from this period that the Japanese tea ceremony originated;
the ritual was developed for a tranquility of mind. Since this
period mountainous looking rocks have been prized as objects of
contemplation. Porcelain from this period is particularly beautiful.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.64)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(WSJ,
961 Ani became the capital of
Armenia. At its height it had over 100,000 inhabitants. Within a
century it began falling victim to waves of conquerors including
Seljuk Turks, Georgians and Mongols.
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)
962 Feb 2, Otto I (912-973),
founder of the Holy Roman Empire, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by
Pope John XII.
962 Abd-Er Rahman III
(891-961), Muslim governor of Spain, was succeeded by his son
Al-Hakim. Rahman III is famed for his quote: "I have now reigned
above fifty years in victory and peace, beloved by my subjects,
dreaded by my enemies, and respected by my allies. Riches and
honors, power and pleasure, have waited on my call, nor does any
earthly blessing appear to be wanting for my felicity. In this
situation, I have diligently numbered the days of pure and genuine
happiness which have fallen to my lot: they amount to fourteen."
962-1030 An Islamic era in Afghanistan was
established with the Ghaznavid Dynasty.
962-1140 Under the Ghaznavid Dynasty Afghanistan
became the center of Islamic power and civilization.
963 Mar 15, Romanus II (25),
Byzantine emperor (959-63), died.
964 Jun, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto I forced Pope Benedict V (d.965), who had recently succeeded
John XII as Catholic Pope, to resign in favor of Leo VIII.
(PTA, 1980, p.236)(Econ, 2/16/13, p.61)
964 Arab astronomers described
the Great Nebula in Andromeda, our closest galaxy.
965 Mar 1, Leo VIII, Italian
(anti-)Pope (963-65), died.
965 Part of Khazaria was
conquered by the Kievan Rus prince Svyatoslav.
(TJOK, pp. 193-194)
967 Nov 20, Aboe al-Faradj
al-Isfahani, Arabic author (Book of liederen), died.
969 Oct 28, After a prolonged
siege, the Byzantines ended 300 years of Arab rule in Antioch.
967 Dec 7, Abu Sa'id ibn Aboa
al-Chair, Persian mystic, was born.
969 Dec 10, Nicephorus II
Phocas, Byzantine co-Emperor (963-69), was murdered.
969 Named El Qahira -"the
victorious," Cairo gained power from its position beside the Nile.
(NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.603)
969CE By this time the Fatimids
had conquered most of North Africa and claimed Cairo as their
capital. The Shiites gained control of Egypt.
(ATC, p.91)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.M2)
969-1000 Olaf Tryggvesson, Olav I, King of Norway
(WUD, 1994, p.1002)
970 In Egypt the al-Azhar
madrassa was founded and became the chief center of Arabic
literature and Sunni Islamic learning in the world. It was founded
as mosque by the Fatimid commander Jawhar at the orders of the
Caliph and Ismaili Imam Al-Muizz as he founded the city for Cairo.
In 1961 al-Azhar attained university status.
971-1030 Machmud of Ghazni, ruler of Afghanistan.
He made annual invasions to northern India where he pillaged
temples, captured slaves, and transported his goods back by
elephant. His library had a large collection of erotic manuscripts
and he shared his palace with 400 poets.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
972 John I Tzimiskes, the
Byzantine Emperor at Constantinople (969-976), granted a charter for
the Monastic Republic of Holy Mount Athos in Greece.
973 Jan 19, Benedict VI was
consecrated as Catholic Pope. He succeeded John XIII.
(PTA, 1980, p.236)
973 May 6, Henry II, German
King (1002) and Holy Roman Emperor (1014-1024), was born.
(HN, 5/6/98)(MC, 5/6/02)
973 Otto I, the Great (b.912),
German king and Holy Roman emperor (962-73), died.
(AHD, 1971, p.931)(MC, 11/23/01)
974 Pope Benedict VI was
strangled to death by a priest named Stephen under directions of
anti-Pope Boniface Franco, who called himself Boniface VII.
(PTA, 1980, p.270)
975 Jul 25, Thietmar bishop of
Merseburg, German chronicler, was born.
975-1038 St. Stephen of Hungary. His crown was a
fusion of Greek and Latin elements.
(WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)
0976 Oct 1, Al-Hakam II, the
caliph of Cordoba, died.
976 Nov 14, T'ai tsu, emperor
of China and founder of Sung-dynasty, died.
976 The Great Mosque of Cordoba
(Spain) was completed and served as a religious, social and
educational center. The largest of the 70 libraries in Cordoba
contained 500,000 volumes. 70,000 books a year were hand-copied to
satisfy the citizen’s literary appetites.
976-1025 The reign of Basil the Bulgar-Slayer,
ruler of Byzantium. [see 330CE]
(WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-12)
977 The shrine of Imam Ali, a
gold-domed mosque, was built in Najaf, Iraq, on the burial site of
Imam Ali, son-in-law of the prophet Mohammed.
(SFC, 8/30/03, p.A1)
978 Mar 18, Edward the Martyr
(15), King of Anglo-Saxons (975-78), was murdered.
979 Apr 14, There was a
challenge to throne of King Aethelred II, the Unrede (Unready), of
England (979-1016). He attempted to buy peace with from Scandinavian
invaders and called for England’s 1st general tax, the Danegeld.
Some 140,000 pounds of silver was paid in tribute.
(WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A20)(MC, 4/14/02)
979 The Isle of Man parliament,
the Tynwald Court, was established.
(SSFC, 8/13/06, p.G5)
980-1037 Avicenna (Ibn Sina, Afghan scientist),
the Muslim philosopher-scientist, was born in Bukhara (Balkh). He
wrote "The Book of Healing," a vast philosophical and scientific
encyclopedia, and "The Canon of Medicine," an encyclopedia of the
medical knowledge of his time. Both works were translated to Latin
and exerted great influence on Scholastics in the West.
981 Adherents to the Jainist
faith consecrated a 57-foot statue of their most important siant,
Bahubali, in the town of Shravana Belgola, India.
(Sm, 3/06, p.23)
982 Eric the Red (950-1003),
killed a neighbor and some other men about this time and was
banished from Iceland for 3 years.
982 Eric the Red, father of
Leif Ericson, landed in Greenland and spent the next 3 years
exploring the area.
983 Dec 7, Otto II the Red
(~28), German king and emperor (973-83), died in Italy. Otto
III [aged 3] took the throne after his father's death.
(HN, 12/7/98)(MC, 12/7/01)
983 The Lutici, a federation of
tribes in northeastern Germany, were first recorded by written
sources in the context of the uprising of this year, by which they
annihilated the rule of the Holy Roman Empire in the Billung and
Northern Marches. Hostilities continued until 997.
985 Eric Thorvaldsson, aka Eric
the Red, left Iceland and returned to Greenland establishing his 1st
c985 Montpellier, France, was
founded at the intersection of 3 trade and pilgrimage routes.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)
985-1014 The Brihadeshwarar temple was built in
southeastern India’s Tamil Nadu state.
(WSJ, 10/1/04, p.A10)
985-1200 The Chola Kingdom prospered in southern
India. Arts flourished and the economy prospered under expanding
trade and military conquests. Ganesha, son of Shiva, was the first
god invoked at the beginning of a new enterprise.
(WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W14)(WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W14)
986 Mar 2, Lotharius (44), King
of France (954-86), died.
986 Eric the Red and his
followers began to settle Greenland.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.24)
986 Bjarni Herjolfsson sailed
from Norway to Iceland with cargo for his father, who had moved on
to Greenland. Herjjolfsson was blown off course and reached
Labrador, which he described as "worthless country."
(NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p.4)(WSJ, 7/6/04,
987 May 21, Louis V, last
Carolingian King of France (966-987), died. The Carolingian period
of Frankish rule from the dynasty of Pepin the Short ended in France
with the death of Louis V (20). [see May 22]
(PCh, 1992, p.78)(AHD, 1971, p.205)(MC, 5/21/02)
987 May 22, Louis V le Faineant
(20), the Lazy, king of France (986-87), was allegedly poisoned by
his mother. [see May 21]
987 Jul 3, The count of Paris,
Hugh Capet (49), became king of France. Paris soon emerged as the
center of French political, cultural and religious life, once again
becoming the capital.
(PCh, 1992, p.78)(HNQ, 4/18/02)(MC, 7/3/02)
987 Dec 30, French King Hugh
Capet crowned his son Robert the Compassionate.
988 May 6, Dirk II, West
Frisian count of Holland, died.
988 May 19, Dunstanus, English
archbishop of Canterbury, died.
988 Prince Vladimir of Kiev
accepted Byzantine Orthodoxy. This is the traditional date for the
beginning of Russian Christianity. The Kievan Rus ruler was baptized
in the ancient Crimean Greek city of Chersonesus before bringing
Christianity to the region.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A14)(AP, 8/1/15)
989-1020 Ani, a medieval city-site situated in the
Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia, attained
the peak of its power during the long reign of King Gagik I
(989-1020). It was the capital of a medieval Armenian kingdom that
covered much of present day Armenia and eastern Turkey. Armenian
chroniclers such as Yeghishe and Ghazar Parpetsi first
mentioned Ani in the 5th century AD.
990 A set of instructions on
chess, the Versus de Scachis (Poem About Chess), emerged in
Switzerland about this time. The game had begun in India before the
(Arch, 1/05, p.40)(Econ, 10/29/11, p.97)
991 Aug 11, Danes under Olaf
Tryggvason killed Ealdorman Brihtnoth and defeated the Saxons at
992 Constantinople granted
Venetian goods lower tariffs than other merchandise.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
992 Ghana captured its chief
trading rival, the Berber town of Audoghast.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.172)
993 The south Indian Cola
Empire captured Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka).
(Arch, 7/02, p.34)
994 Nov 7, Muhammad ibn Hazm,
historian, jurist, author of Islamic Spain, was born.
994-1035 Life of Canute, later King of England,
Denmark and Norway.
995 Guido d’Arezzo (d.~1049,
Italian monk and musical theorist, was born. He is generally
credited with developing current musical notation.
(WUD, 1994, p.629)(WSJ, 5/27/97, pB1)
995-1000 In Norway Olaf I was king.
(WUD, 1994, p.1002)
995-1027 Heydey of the Fujiwara Clan in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
995-1030 Olaf Haraldsson, aka Saint Olaf, the
patron saint of Norway. He was king from 1016-1029. He and a crew of
Vikings attacked London and pulled down the London Bridge with
ropes. This is remembered in the nursery rhyme "London Bridge is
(WUD, 1994, p.1002)(SFC, 8/23/97, p.E3)
996 May 21, Otto III (16) was
crowned the Roman Emperor by his cousin Pope Gregory V.
(HN, 5/21/98)(MC, 5/21/02)
996 Oct 24, Hugh Capet, king of
France (987-96), died at 58.
c996 In Iran the Astan Ghods
Ravazi religious foundation was started.
(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A4)
997 The name "Austria" first
appeared in a medieval manuscript.
(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)
997 St. Adalbert was martyred.
He brought Christianity to Bohemia.
(SFC, 4/26/97, p.A12)
997 The Polish city of Gdansk
was founded. From 1920 to 1939 it was known as the Free City of
(SSFC, 3/3/13, p.N4)
c998-1061 Bao Qingtian (Bao Zheng), Chinese judge
of the Song Dynasty, had a reputation for sticking up for the common
999 Feb 18, Gregory V, [Bruno]
1st German Pope, died.
999 Turkish dynasties became
the rulers of Transoxania, and area that covered much of what later
became Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan.
(Econ, 7/26/03, p.46-4 )