Go to home499BC Athens and Eretria
supported an Ionian revolt against Persian rule.
496BC Sophocles (d.406BC), the 2nd Greek dramatist
after Aeschylus, was born about this time. He is considered by some
as the greatest of the Greek dramatists. His works include: "Oedipus
Rex" and "Antigone."
(eawc, p.11)(SFC, 1/10/04, p.D6)
496BC - 406BC Sophocles added valuable elements to
the developing tragic drama. His work involved all men in the tragic
elements of life. His work included the drama Philoctetes. It was
about how the Greeks needed the aged Philoctetes and his magic bow
to capture Troy, but had exiled him to a remote island. They send
Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, to secure the bow by deceit and
trickery. In 1990 the play was rewritten by Seamus Heaney, 1995
Nobel poet laureate, as "The Cure at Troy."
(V.D.-H.K.p.51)(LSA, Spg/97, p.14)(WSJ, 12/3/97,
495BC - 429BC Pericles, Athenian leader during the
early years of the Peloponnesian Wars.
494BC In Rome the first victory of the plebeian
class over the patricians resulted in an agreement between the two
classes to allow the plebeians to elect officers, and tribunes with
the power to veto any unlawful acts of the magistrates.
492BC Goujian, the king of Yue
(later part of China’s Zhejiang province), was taken prisoner after
a disastrous campaign against King Fuchai, a neighbor to the north.
After a few years Fuchai let him return home as his vassal.
(Econ, 12/4/10, SR p.3)
492BC Darius put his son-in-law, Mardonius, in
charge of a Persian expedition against Athens and Eretria, but the
loss of the fleet in a storm off Mount Athos forced him to abandon
490BC Sep 2, Phidippides of Athens set out on his
26-mile run that inspired the Marathon. Phidippides was sent to seek
troops from Sparta to help against the invading Persian army. The
Spartans were unwilling to help, until the next full moon, due to
religious laws. On Sept. 4th, Phidippides returned the 26 miles
Marathon without Spartan troops.
490BC Sep 9, First Persian attack on Greece.
Greeks led by Miltiades defeated the Persians at the Battle of
Marathon. Pheidipiddes, a hemerodromi or long-distance foot
messenger, was dispatched to run 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to
announce the victory. He reached Athens and proclaimed: "Rejoice! We
conquer!" Then he dropped dead. In the Battle of Marathon Darius the
Great of Persia was defeated by the Greeks. The Greeks initiated the
war when Persia, the strongest power in western Asia, established
rule over Greek-speaking cities in Asia Minor. [see Sep 12]
(HFA, '96, p.38)(V.D.-H.K.p.49)(SFC, 7/14/96,
490BC Sep 12, Athenian and Plataean Hoplites
commanded by General Miltiades drove back a Persian invasion force
under General Datis at Marathon. [see Sep 9]
490BC Empedocles (d.430BC), Greek philosopher, was
born. He is best known for being the originator of the cosmogenic
theory of the four classical elements. An important idea in ancient
Greek philosophy is that "Nothing comes from nothing", so that what
exists now has always existed, since no new matter can come into
existence where there was none before. An explicit statement of
this, along with the further principle that nothing can pass away
into nothing, is found in Empedocles (ca. 490-430 BC): "For it
is impossible for anything to come to be from what is not, and it
cannot be brought about or heard of that what is should be utterly
490BC A Persian force under Datis, a Mede,
destroyed Eretria and enslaved its inhabitants but was defeated by
the Athenians at Marathon.
490BC - 479BC The Greco-Persian War is commonly
regarded as one of the most significant wars in all of history. The
Greeks emerged victorious and put an end to the possibility of
c490BC - 430BC The Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea
proposed a number of paradoxes to support the claim of Parmenides
that the world was a motionless, unchanging unity. The race between
Achilles and the tortoise is one example.
(WUD, 1994, p.1660)(SFC, 7/14/97, p.E5)
486BC The first stretch of the north-south Grand
Canal was begun and completed by about 400BC. It became fully
navigable in the 14th century.
(WSJ, 10/25/99, p.A50)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(Econ,
5/22/10, SR p.12)
486BC Darius (b.550), ruler of Persia, died. His
preparations for a 3rd expedition against Greece were delayed by an
insurrection in Egypt. He was succeeded by his son Xerxes.
486BC-465BC Xerxes the Great (b.519BC), king
of Persia, ruled Egypt as the 3rd king of the 27th Dynasty. His rule
extended from India to the lands below the Caspian and Black seas,
to the east coast of the Mediterranean including Egypt and Thrace.
Persia’s great cities Sardis, Ninevah, Babylon, and Susa were joined
by the Royal Road. East of Susa was Persopolis, a vast religious
monument. To the north of Persia were the Scythians.
c485BC Athenian democracy was accompanied by an
intellectual revolution with beginnings in Sophism. Sophists
situated ethics and politics within philosophical discourse, which
before was limited to physics and metaphysics alone. Protagoras, the
leading Sophist, stated: "Man is the measure of all things." For him
all truth, goodness, and beauty are relative to man's necessities
and inquiries. In opposition to the Sophists emerged Socrates, Plato
and Aristotle, each of whom offered alternatives to the Sophist's
484BC - 420BC Herodotus was the first historian to
lay out a coherent story. He authored the 9-book history of the
Graeco-Persian War: "Researches into the Causes and Events of the
Persian Wars," and the "The Histories of Herodotus." He also wrote a
book dedicated to his travels through Egypt.
(V.D.-H.K.p.53)(SFC, 3/26/97, p.A12)(eawc, p.11)
484BC - 420BC Herodotus claimed that the Etruscans
were Lydians who had immigrated to Italy from Asia Minor. But modern
scholars believe the Etruscans evolved from an indigenous population
of Iron Age farmers of the Villanovan culture.
(NG, 6/1988, p.710)
484BC - 420BC The Greeks always called the
Etruscans the Tyrrhenians, after the prince Tyrrhenus who, according
to Herodotus, led them to the shores of Etruria.
(NG, 6/1988, p.718)
484BC - 420BC Herodotus mentioned gold-digging
ants and that some were kept at the palace of the Persian king. It
was later learned that the Persian word for marmot is equivalent to
mountain ant, and that marmots in the Dansar plain of northern
Pakistan bring up gold dust from their burrows.
(SFC, 11/25/96, p.A10)
484BC - 406BC Euripides was an Athenian tragedian
who brought the gods and heroes down to earth. He presented pictures
of human life that were sometimes tragic, sometimes comic, but
always and undeniably real. [see 480-406]
487BC Sep 23, Greek dramatist Euripides, was born.
He wrote "Medea" and "The Trojan Women." His plays used a device
called "Deus ex Machina," literally "God from a machine." Today the
term refers to sudden events that come from nowhere to advance the
plot. [see 484-406, 480-406]
483BC Themistocles, fearing destruction at the
hands of the Persians, persuaded his fellow Athenians to build a
navy of one hundred triremes. He also oversaw the fortification of
the harbor at Piraeus, which then replaced Phaleron as the port of
483BC Gautama Siddhartha Buddha, the founder of
Buddhism, died about this time in Kushinagar, in northern India.
(eawc, p.9)(SSFC, 10/14/07,
482BC Goujian, the king of Yue (later part of
China’a Zhejiang province), marched north with some 50,000 warriors
and attacked King Fuchai putting his kingdom to the sword.
(Econ, 12/4/10, SR p.3)
481BC - 221BC The Waring States period of the Chou
Dynasty. [see 475-221] The states of Ch'in and Ch'u emerged as the
primary competitors in the struggle to found an empire. During this
period a 4-tiered class structure emerged consisting of lesser
nobility (including scholars), the peasant farmers, the artisans,
and the merchants, who held the lowest position in society. This was
also known as the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought with the
emergence of several schools of political philosophy that included:
Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism and Legalism.
480BC Aug 9, The Persian army defeated Leonidas
and his Spartan army at the battle Thermopylae, Persia. In 1998
Steven Pressfield authored: "Gates of Fire, An Epic Novel of the
Battle of Thermopylae." In 2006 Paul Cartledge authored
“Thermopylae: The Battle That Changed the World.”
(HN, 8/9/98)(SFEC, 11/29/98, BR p.3)(WSJ,
480BC Sep 20, Themistocles and his Greek fleet won
one of history's first decisive naval victories over Xerxes' Persian
force off Salamis. Persia under Xerxes attacked Greece. Athens got
burned but the Athenian fleet under Themistocles trapped and
destroyed the Persian navy at Salamis. Phoenician squadrons were at
the heart of Xerxes' fleet; the king of Sidon was among his
admirals. 31 states of the Hellenic League fought Xerxes.
(V.D.-H.K.p.49), (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(HN,
9/20/98)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A18)
480BC Oct 20, Greeks defeated the Persians in a
naval battle at Salamis. [see Sep 20]
480BC Xerxes performed a sacrifice at the site of
Troy on his way to battle the Greeks.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.50)
480BC The Acropolis temples were destroyed during
the Persian invasion. The ruins lay untouched for 30 years until
447, when Pericles initiated a reconstruction program.
(WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 2/19/02, p.A22)
c480BC Vardhamana Mahavira, the semi-legendary
teacher who reformed older doctrines and established Jainism, died.
He is regarded as the 24th and latest Tirthankara, one of the people
to have attained personal immortality through enlightenment. Jainism
was founded as a dualistic, ascetic religion as a revolt against the
caste system and the vague world spirit of Hinduism.
(WUD, 1994, p.762,1488,1580)
c480BC Herodotus said marijuana was cultivated in
Scythia and Thrace, where inhabitants intoxicated themselves by
breathing the vapors given off when the plant was roasted on
(WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)
480BC - 406BC Euripides, Greek tragic dramatist.
He authored "Medea," "Alcestis," "The Cyclops," "The Trojan Woman,"
and "The Bacchae." His drama dealt with situations that were
analogous to human life. In 1997 Greek archeologists claimed to have
discovered the island cave where he worked. [see 484-406, 487]
(WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A9)(WUD, 1994, p.492)(USAT,
1/15/97, p.9A)(LSA, Spg/97, p.14)(EEE, p.12)(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A8)
479BC Aug 27, A combined Greek army stopped the
Persians at the battle at Plataea.
(V.D.-H.K.p.49)(NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)
479BC Confucius (b.551BC), K'ung Fu-tzu [K'ung
Fu-tse], Chinese philosopher, died. In 2008 Kung Te-cheng (b.1920),
the 77th lineal descendent of Confucius, died in Taiwan. In 2006
Kung Yu-jen, the 80th lineal descendent was born.
(WSJ, 11/1/08, p.A6)
479BC In China the philosopher Mo-tzu (d.438BC),
founder of Mohism, was born. He taught a message of universal love
and compassion for the common plight of ordinary people.
478BC Athens led other Greek states in the
formation of the Delian League to provide money for a common defense
against Persia. Athens used much of the money for building projects
that included the Parthenon. The League continued even after the end
of the Greco-Persian War and transformed into a naval empire with
Athens as its leader.
(eawc, p.11)(Econ, 7/11/09, p.19)
475-221BC The Waring States period. [see
(SFC, 4/10/97, p.A16)
474BC The Etruscans were routed by the Greeks of
Syracuse in a sea battle off Cumae near Naples.
(NG, 6/1988, p.739)
c470BC Hanno the Navigator, Carthaginian sailor,
described his encounters with “hairy, wild people” on the west coast
of equatorial Africa.
(ON, 11/04, p.11)
c470BC - 469BC Jun 5, Socrates (d.399BC) was born in Athens. He
served as an infantryman during the Peloponnesian War between Athens
and Sparta. A sophist (teacher of philosophy), he claimed not to
know anything for certain and used the interrogatory method for
teaching. He left no written works. He was a major critic of popular
belief in Athens and was the protagonist of Plato's dialogues.
"Education is the kindling of a flame, not the filling of a vessel."
[3rd source has him born in 469]
(V.D.-H.K.p.43)(CFA, '96, p.48)(WU, p.1350)(Hem.,
1/97, p.96)(eawc, p.11)
469BC Sophocles (d.406BC), the 2nd Greek dramatist
after Aeschylus, was born. He is considered by some as the greatest
of the Greek dramatists. His works include: "Oedipus Rex" and
467BC A meteorite crashed to earth and convinced
Greek philosopher Anaxagoras that heavenly bodies were not divine
beings. He became the world's earliest figure to be indicted for
(WSJ, 11/21/03, p.W4)
465BC Xerxes the Great, king of Persia, was
465BC-424BC Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes I, ruled
Persia in the Achaemenis dynasty and Egypt as the 4th king of the
461-429BC In Athens this was the "Age of
Pericles." Athenian democracy reached perfection and the court
systems were completed. A jury system was put in place with the jury
serving as the absolute authority in judicial matters.
460BC Herodotus turned back in frustration at the
first cataract at Aswan. He stated: "Of the source of the Nile no
one can give any account."
(NG, May 1985, p.629)
460BC Democritus born in Abdera, SW Thrace. First
proposed theory of atoms as the basic particle of all matter. Only
bare fragments of his work survive.
460BC - 400BC Thucydides lived about this time. As
author of the History of the Peloponnesian Wars, he inserted into
his history speeches by important war figures that he made up. He
also wrote on the Athenian slaughter of the Melians. He is
associated with the historical view that cycles of growth, expansion
and decline are a natural part of international life. In 2005 Perez
Zagorin authored “Thucydides: An Introduction for the Common
(WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/19/06,
458BC Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus (520BC-430BC)
was appointed dictator for six months. He was called from retirement
to confront the Aequi, who had trapped a Roman army.
455BC Artaxerxes, ruler of Persia, put down a
revolt in Egypt.
c450BC The golden plate known as the "Phiale
Mesomphalos" was made. In 1998 it was valued at $1.2 million and
held by US Customs.
(WSJ, 10/8/98, p.W14)
450BC In 2006 archaeologists in Bangladesh said
they had uncovered part of a fortified citadel at Wari, northeast of
Dhaka, dating back to this time that could have been a stopping off
point along an ancient trade route.
415BC In Athens the masculine street corner
statues were dismembered in one night en masse.
(Econ, 12/1/12, p.89)
450BC Roman law was codified in the twelve
tablets. The law allowed the plebeians to have knowledge of their
relationship to the law. The plebeians were primarily farmers,
craftsmen and tradesmen with foreign backgrounds. The patricians
made up the aristocracy.
450BC Herodotus journeyed to the Scythian lands
north of the Black Sea and heard tales of women who were fierce
killers of men. He named these women "Amazons," from a Greek word
meaning without one breast. Legend had it that one breast was
removed in order to carry quivers of arrows more conveniently.
(SFC, 1/28/97, p.A1,5)
450BC The Nok people of present day Nigeria began
making iron tools.
450BC Epicharmus, Sicilian Greek comic poet, died:
"The wise man must be wise before, not after."
448-380BC In Greece Aristophanes, considered by
some as the greatest Greek comedy writer, lived. His work includes
"The Clouds" and "Lysistrata." Greek comedy like Greek tragedy
originated in the Dionysian festivals. In Lysistrata he described
how Greek women abstained from sex until their men stopped fighting
in the Peloponnesian war.
(EEE, p.12)(SFC,11/8/97, p.A10)
447BC Athens under Pericles initiated a
reconstruction program that included the construction of the
Parthenon on the Acropolis.
(WSJ, 2/19/02, p.A22)
447BC - 432BC The marble friezes of the Parthenon
(AM, 5/01, p.14)
444BC Ikos of Tarentum won the Olympic Pentathlon.
He gave up sex as part of his training regimen.
(WSJ, 2/8/06, p.A1)
c444BC - 360BC Agesilaus II, King of Sparta: "If I have done any
deed worthy of remembrance, that deed will be my monument. If not,
no monument can preserve my memory."
440BC-430BC Leucippus, Greek philosopher, founded
a school at Abdera about this time. His pupil, Democritus, was
closely associated with the school. Leucippus was overshadowed by
Democritus, who systematized his views on atoms.
440BC - 420BC Sophocles composed his tragedy "The
Trachinian Women." It described what happened when he put on the
robe woven by his wife Deianeira. In 1680 Pierre Puget made his
bronze sculpture of Herakles (Hercules) struggling in the burning
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.55)
438BC The Parthenon was built atop the Acropolis
in Athens, Greece.
(SFC, 7/14/96, p.T7)
434BC The Greek philosopher Anaxagoras suggested
that the sun is just a ball of fire about as large as the
Peloponnesus, floating in the air about 4,000 miles above the Earth.
He believed that the Earth was flat and thereby estimated the
diameter of the sun to be about 35 miles.
433BC In China the Marquis Yi of Zeng died about
this time. His tomb was discovered in 1978.
(WSJ, 9/27/96, p.A16)
432BC An Athenian devised a 19-year "Metatonic
cycle" to reconcile the lunar and solar years.
(SFC, 11/29/03, p.D2)
431BC Euripides wrote his tragedy "Medea," based
on the legend of the sorceress Medea, daughter of Aeëtes, King
of Colchis, and wife of Jason, whom she assisted in obtaining the
Golden Fleece. It describes how Jason abandoned the sorceress Medea
to marry Glauke, a Corinthian princess.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.55)(WUD, 1994, p.890)
431-404BC The Peloponnesian war between Athens and
Sparta. It was finally won by Sparta. Athenian trade was destroyed
and democracy was overthrown as Athens surrendered to Sparta as a
subject state. Sparta assumed dominance over the Greek world and
replaced many democracies with oligarchies. In 1972 Geoffrey de Ste.
Croix (1910-2000), British Marxist historian, authored "The Origins
of the Peloponnesian War." He pinned the cause of the conflict on
(V.D.-H.K.p.50)(EEE, p.12)(SFC, 2/15/00, p.A21)
430BC Thucydides in his History of the
Peloponnesian War tells how the Spartans attempted to destroy the
city of Plataia with a flaming mixture of pitch and sulfur.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)
430BC Legend has it that the Greek philosopher
Empedocles (b.430) climbed Mount Etna only to leap into its crater
in despair. It is said that he jumped in out of frustration because
he couldn’t figure out how the volcano worked. Empedocles was the
author of a work called "On Nature."
(PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.26)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)
430BC - 410BC A mysterious disease killed
one-third of the Athenian population. Thucydides, who was stricken
but recovered, described the plague in Athens (likely an outbreak of
typhus fever) in Book 2 of his History of the Peloponnesian War.
(NH, 6/97, p.11)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)
429BC Pericles (b.490BC), Athenian statesman, died
of the plague.
(WUD, 1994, p.1071)(NH, 6/97, p.10)
427BC May 21, Plato (d.347BC), Greek philosopher,
was born. His work included the "Republic," and the dialogues
"Critias" and "Timaeus" in which he mentioned the island empire of
Atlantis. He claimed that an Egyptian priest confided information
about Atlantis to Solon, the Athenian legislator, whose memoirs
Plato claimed to have read. In 1998 2 books on Atlantis were
published: "Atlantis Destroyed" by Rodney Castleden and "Imagining
Atlantis" by Richard Ellis.
(HN, 5/21/98)(WSJ, 6/26/98, p.W9)
424BC Brasidas (d.422BC), a Spartan general,
proposed a plan to prevent the Athenians from using their navy to
resupply their city. It called for a small Spartan army to join
forces with King Perdiccas of Macedonia and conquer the northernmost
allies of Athens. The campaign was successful and brought Athens to
the negotiating table. Their armistice lasted only one year.
424BC Thucydides in his history
of the Peloponnesian War tells how the Spartans used pitch and
sulfur against the Athenians at Delium. In this 7th year of the war
unexpected Boeotian horsemen charged on the right flank of Athenian
hoplite column causing many Athenians to flee. Socrates and
Alcibiades retreated into the woods and survived.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.M6)
423BC-404BC Darius II, son of Artaxerxes, ruled
Persia and Egypt.
422BC Apr, Spartan Gen. Brasidas was mortally
wounded at the head of his troops as Athenians prepared to attack
420BC Pissuthnes, satrap of Lydia, revolted
against the Persian king Darius II. The Persian soldier and
statesman Tissaphernes a grandson of Hydarnes, was sent by Darius II
to Lydia to arrest and execute Pissuthnes. Tissaphernes became
satrap of Lydia in 415 BC and continue to fight Amorges, son of
415BC Greece undertook its Sicilian Expedition.
The overseas adventure destroyed Athenian power and freedom.
(WSJ, 1/19/06, p.D8)
413BC Darius II, ruler of Persia, quelled a revolt
411BC Aristocratic Athenians, including students
of Socrates, overthrew Athen’s democracy in conspiracy with
Alcibiades. The oligarchic junta lasted only a few months.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.63)
410BC Darius II, ruler of Persia, quelled a revolt
in Media but lost control of Egypt.
407BC Euripides wrote "The Bacchae" while residing
at the court of the king of Macedon. He had left Athens in the last
years of its war against Sparta. The play dealt with the violent
introduction of the cult of Dionysos into the city of Thebes.
(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A8)
406BC Athenian admirals abandoned scores of
shipwrecked sailors after a victory over the Spartans at Arginusae.
A storm prevented the ships assigned to rescue the survivors of the
25 disabled or sunken Athenian triremes from performing their
duties, and a great number of sailors drowned.
406BC Euripides (b.480/484), Greek tragic
dramatist, died. His plays included Phedre, which tells the story of
a queen’s incestuous love for her stepson.
(EEE, p.12)(Econ, 6/20/09, p.89)
406BC Sophocles (b.496/97BC), the 2nd Greek
dramatist after Aeschylus, died. He is considered by some as the
greatest of the Greek dramatists. His works include: "Oedipus Rex"
(eawc, p.11)(SFC, 1/10/04, p.D6)
405BC Aristophanes wrote his play “The Frogs.” It
tells how Dionysus, the god of theater, travels to Hades with his
slave Xanthias to bring back the shade of a great playwright who
will revive the declining art of drama and make the world a better
(WSJ, 7/23/04, p.W1)
405BC Persian rule of Egypt ended.
404BC Another coup toppled Athen’s democracy.
Leaders included Critias and Charmides, relatives of Plato.
Oligarchs conducted a reign of terror for much of a year before
Athens reclaimed its democracy.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.63)
404BC Artaxerxes II succeeded Darius II over
Persia and ruled to 358BC. It was during this 45-year period of
relative peace that many of the monuments of the era were
404BC-399BC Amyrtaios (Amyrtaeus), believed to be
a Libyan, ruled Egypt following the death of Darius II from Sais as
the 1st and only ruler of the 28th Dynasty.
404-338BC Sparta is not able to persist in the
rule of Greece. Power over Greece shifts from Sparta to Thebes and
then to numerous other city-states, none able to maintain rule over
such a large empire.
403-321BC During the Waring States period in
China, the Pu people buried wedged wooden coffins into the cliffs a
1,000 feet above the Yangtze River in Jingzhu Gorge. [see 475-221BC]
(NH, 7/96, p.36,37)
401BC Oligarchs in Athens schemed a 3rd coup but
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.63)
401BC In the Battle of Cunaxa Cyrus attempted to
oust his brother Artaxerxes from rule over Babylon. Greek forces,
hired to help Cyrus, were left stranded when Cyrus died. The Greek
army elected Xenophon to lead them back home. Xenophon later
authored his “Anabasis” (expedition up country), which told the
story of return home. In 2005 Tim Rood authored “The Sea, The Sea,”
an analysis of Xenophon’s life story following his death.
(WSJ, 5/4/05, p.D10)
400BC In 2007 a 2,400-year-old golden mask that
once belonged to a Thracian king was unearthed in a timber-lined
tomb in southeastern Bulgaria.
c400BC In southern Greece the Phigaleians built a
temple in tribute to Apollo for restoring their homeland taken by
invading Spartans. The temple of Apollo Epikourios near Bassai was
said to have been designed by Iktinos.
(Arch, 9/00, p.16)
c400BC The first temple known to be dedicated to
the "supreme" Zeus was constructed about this time. In 2003 a
2,400BC - year-old headless marble statue was found along with 14
columns depicting eagles, one of the symbols of Hypsistos Zeus, the
chief deity of ancient Greece.
400BC In India Panini's "Sutra," the earliest
Sanskrit grammar, was written.
c400BC In a wave of Celtic expansion tribes poured
through the Alps into Italy.
400BC Korean farmers about this time brought rice
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.66)
400BC By this time the Sarmatians were occupying
outposts of the Roman empire in the Balkans.
(SFC, 1/28/97, p.A5)
c400BC A nomadic tribal chief was buried at
Pazyryk in southern Siberia. This tomb in the Altay Mountains was
later found and discovered to contain wool fabrics, a carpet, a
saddle of felt and leather, felt figures of swans, a horse harness
with carved wooden rams' heads. and a fleece in near perfect
condition. The origin of the carpet with its 1,125,000 knots is
under debate. It might have come from Assyria or Iran.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 567-569)
400BC - 300BC In China the Zhuangzi, the 2nd great
Taoist text, was compiled.
(WSJ, 12/26/00, p.A9)
400BC - 300BC The Chinese began suffering from
fierce attacks of nomadic herdsmen, the Hsiung-nu, from the north
and west. They began to build parts of what came to be called the
Great Wall for protection.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.24)
400BC - 300BC Tamassos was the capital of one of
11 kingdoms on Cyprus that were abolished at the end of the 4th
century and replaced by a unified administrative system.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.20)
400BC-300BC The Greeks founded Neopolis (Naples),
their "New City" in the 4th century B.C. They carved blocks of tufa
stone to build the city structures and left behind cavernous
quarries. Centuries later the Romans turned the quarries into
cisterns and connected them with tunnels. Water was brought in from
the Serino River in the hills of Avellino, 96 miles to the north.
This provided the water supply until 1883.
(SFEC, 1/26/97 , p.T9)
400BC-300BC An Etruscan gate was built in
Volterra, northern Tuscany. The arch remained standing into the 21st
(SSFC, 11/20/11, p.N6)
400BC – 300BC Aeneas the Tactician in his siege
craft manual advised generals defending city walls to throw burning
bags of linen fibers treated with sulfur and pitch on the enemy.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)
400BC - 300BC The Greek writer Ephorus referred to
the Celts, Scythians, Persians and Libyans as the four great
barbarian peoples in the known world.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.11)
c400BC – 300BC Praxiteles sculpted Aphrodite, the
1st known sculpture of a nude woman.
(SFC, 6/3/00, p.D4)
c400BC – 300BC Archestratus was a 4th century
Greek Sicilian. His writings included recipes of the time.
(SFC, 3/31/99, p.A8)
400BC – 300BC Theophrastus, a natural historian,
wrote a treatise on pyrophoric minerals.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.58)
400BC - 300BC King Bardhylus united Illyria,
Molossia (Epirus) and part of Macedonia. The Illyrian kingdom
reached its peak.
(www, Albania, 1998)
400BC - 300BC A mint of this time served
Chersonesos on the Crimean peninsula with a population of 10,000 to
c400BC - 200BC The "creative" phase of classical
Greek geometry. The subject was studied by Prof. Wilbur Richard
Knorr (d.1997 at 51) of Stanford who wrote: "The Evolution of
Euclidean Elements," "Ancient Sources of the Medieval Tradition of
Mechanics," "The Ancient Tradition of Geometric Problems," and
"Textual Studies in Ancient and Medieval Geometry."
(SFC, 3/20/97, p.A24)(SFEC, 3/30/97, p.D5)
400BC - 250CE The Yayoi culture is
identified by its pottery. Mongoloid people from Korea entered Japan
and mixed with the older Jomon populations.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.34,38)
c400BC - 1100CE Anuradhapura served as the capital
of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) during this period.
(SFC, 9/16/96, p.A9)
399BC Feb 15, Socrates was condemned to death on
charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods into Greek
thought. A tribunal of 501 citizens found Socrates guilty of the
charge of impiety and corruption of youth. Socrates b.(469BC) had
been the teacher of two leaders who were held responsible for the
Greek‘s loss to Sparta in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC).
Plato‘s Apology, Crito, and Phaedo describe Socrates‘ trial,
imprisonment and death.
(eawc, p.11)(HNQ, 3/21/00)
399BC May 7, Socrates (b.469BC), Greek
philosopher, committed suicide. He had been indicted for rejecting
the Gods acknowledged by the State, of bringing in strange deities,
and of corrupting the youth. In 2007 Emily Wilson authored
“The Death of Socrates.”
399BC-393BC Nepherites served as the 1st ruler of
Egypt’s 29th Dynasty. During his rule he entered into an alliance
with Sparta against the Persians.
396BC Roman legions sacked the Etruscan city of
Veio, after a ten-year siege, ended the city's long conflict with
(NG, 6/1988, p.711)(SFC, 6/17/06, p.A12)
395BC Agesilaos of Sparta ravaged northwestern
(Arch, 7/02, p.8)
395BC Thucydides (b.~460BC, Greek general and
historian, died about this time. His History of the Peloponnesian
War recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the
year 411 BC.
394BC Athens, Greece, declared an embargo on
Megara about this time. The ensuing 27-year struggle left the
Athenians humiliated and Magara’s ally, Corinth, triumphant.
(Econ, 10/21/06, p.70)
393BC-380BC Hakoris (Hakor) served as the 2nd or
3rd ruler of Egypt’s 29th Dynasty. There is some confusion because a
king named Psammuthis ruled in 393BC. During Hakoris’ reign there
was a 3 year war with Persia.
391BC - 377BC Hecatomnus, satrap of Caria, ruled
over Mylasa about this time. The Persian king Artaxerxes II Mnemon
appointed Hecatomnus as satrap of this part of the Achaemenid
Empire. A 2,800-year-old tomb and carved coffin, decorated with
reliefs of a bearded reclining man, believed to be Hecatomnus, was
discovered in 2010.
387BC Rampaging bands of Celts captured Rome and
then settled down to a life of agriculture in the Po Valley.
384BC Aristotle (d.322 BC) was born in Stagira,
Macedonia. He entered Plato's Academy at age 17. After several years
as tutor to Alexander the Great he returned to Athens and founded
the Lyceum. [see Mar 7, 322 BC]
(V.D.-H.K.p.44,45)(WSJ, 9/30/98, p.A16)(NH,
12/98, p.10)(SFC, 8/13/02, p.A13)
384-322BC Demosthenes, Greek statesman: "He who
confers a favor should at once forget it, if he is not to show a
sordid, ungenerous spirit."
382BC - 336BC Philip II of Macedon, king of
Macedonia (359-336), and father of Alexander the Great.
(WUD, 1994, p.1081)
380BC Nepherites II, son of Hakoris, served as the
4th and final ruler of Egypt’s 29th Dynasty. He reigned for only 4
months before being overthrown.
380BC In Egypt a giant stone was set at the Nile's
exit into the Mediterranean by order of Pharaoh Nektanebo I. A
smaller stela noted the name of the city as Herakleoin. The city was
submerged by an earthquake around 800CE. In 2001 the stones were
pulled from the sea.
(SFC, 6/8/01, p.A9)
380BC - 362BC Nectanebo served as the 1st ruler of
Egypt’s 30th Dynasty.
380BC – 700 The site at Tra Kieu, Vietnam, is
believed to be Simhapura, the former capital of an Indianized Cham
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)
373BC The Greek city of Helike was destroyed by an
earthquake. Historians recorded that rats, snakes and weasels had
abandoned Helice just days before the quake struck.
(NH, 10/02, p.78)(WSJ, 5/16/08, p.A6)
373BC The Persian army moved to attack Egypt. They
abandoned the effort when the Nile flooded over the Delta.
373BC - 288BC In China the Confucianist Meng-Tzu
(Mencius) lived. He departed from the ideas of Confucius by positing
a theory of just rebellion against immoral rulers. [see 371-289BC]
371BC Jul, Sparta, led by King Agesilaus II, was
decisively defeated in the Battle of Leuctra by the Thebans under
Epaminondas (47), commander of the Boeotian League, which was an
alliance of 11 city states in central Greece.
(HNQ, 10/24/00)(ON, 9/06, p.1)
371BC - 289BC Mencius, Chinese philosopher: "The
great man is he who does not lose his child's heart." [see
370BC Epaminondas, commander of the Boeotian
League, led an army into the Peloponnese and captured the prefecture
of Messenia, which had been ruled and enslaved by Sparta for 3
(ON, 9/06, p.3)
c369BC - c286BC Chuang-tzu (Zhuang Zhou), Chinese philosopher and
writer. His work included the spiritual masterpiece "Inner
chapters." "Rewards and punishments are the lowest form of
(AP, 11/11/97)(NH, 7/00, p.59)(SSFC,
2/18/01, DB p.35)
367BC In Rome the first plebian consul was elected
to the assembly. The Plebeians also became eligible to serve as
lesser magistrates, formerly a position reserved for the
aristocratic class. Because an ancient custom allowed promotion from
the magistracy to the Senate, the patrician-dominated Senate was
367BC - 348BC Aristotle studied under Plato at the
Academy in Athens. He left Athens to travel for 12 years and
returned to Macedonia where he tutored Alexander, son of Philip for
3 years. It was Plato who said that "A woman is only a lesser man."
(V.D.-H.K.p.44,45)(SFEC, 10/20/96, Z1 p.2)
367BC - 283BC Ptolemy I (Soter), founder of the
Macedonian dynasty of Egypt. He ruled Egypt from 306-285.
(WUD, 1994, p.1162)
365BC - 360BC Teos, son of Nectanebo, served as
the 2nd ruler of Egypt’s 30th Dynasty. He failed in an attempted
attack on Persia and was deserted by the Egyptians and Greek
mercenaries. He fled to Persia where Artaxerxes II gave him refuge.
364BC Gan De, noted Chinese astronomer, reported a
viewing of Jupiter and one of its 16 moons.
(SFC, 4/10/97, p.A16)
363BC Artaxerxes III (Ochus), son of Artaxerxes
II, became king of Persia.
362BC Epaminondas, commander of the Boeotian
League, confronted an army of Spartan and Athenian troops near
Mantinea. The Boeotians won the battle but Epaminondas died from a
(ON, 9/06, p.3)
360BC Greek philosopher Plato, in his "dialogues"
from about this time, said an island he called Atlantis "in a single
day and night... disappeared into the depths of the sea." He
described Atlantis as "an island situated in front of the straits
which are by you called the Pillars of Hercules." In 2011 a US-led
research team, using a satellite photo of a suspected submerged
city, suggested a site just north of Cadiz, Spain, as the site of
360BC Perdiccas III, the king of Macedonia in
northern Greece, was killed in a battle with Illyrian tribes. His
son was an infant so control of the army passed to his younger
(ON, 4/2011, p.10)
360BC - 343BC Nectanebo II served as the 3rd and
final ruler of Egypt’s 30th Dynasty.
359BC Philip II of Macedonia defeated an Athenian
attempt to replace him with a puppet leader.
(ON, 4/2011, p.10)
359BC-336BC Philip II ruled the Greek kingdom of
Macedonia. During this period he founded Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
(WUD, 1994, p.1081)(SFC, 7/18/96, p.E1)
358BC Philip II of Macedonia marched his men into
territories he had ceded to Paionia, Illyria and Thrace, where he
routed his enemies and forced them to pledge allegiance to
(www, Albania, 1998)(ON, 4/2011, p.10)
356BC Olympias, the forth wife of Philip II of
Macedonia, gave birth to Alexander the Great (d.323) in Pella.
Philip later hired Aristotle to be the boy’s tutor.
p.W11)(ON, 4/2011, p.10)
354BC Demosthenes wrote a series of speeches,
later called the Philippics, which urged Athenians to defend the
city against Philip of Macedon.
(ON, 9/00, p.12)
352BC The Greek Mausoleum of Helicarnassus was
built. It was destroyed by an earthquake in the 1300s.
(WSJ, 10/10/01, p.B1)
350BC First evidence of humans in southwest
Colorado: corn pollen. Nomadic hunter-gatherers planted crops in the
spring, then left to forage and hunt over the summer, returning in
the fall to harvest and seek shelter in caves for the winter. They
made baskets of yucca fibers, sometimes waterproofed with pitch from
c350BC The zi were probably living in Colorado
caves. Their present name comes from a Navajo word meaning "the
ancient ones" or "the ancient enemy."
350BC Babylonian tables of astronomical numbers
regularly use zero.
c350BC The time of Praxiteles, Greek Athenian
(WUD, 1994, p.1129)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.19)
c350BC The new philosophy of the Cynics emerged
led by Greek philosopher Diogenes (404-323). He argued against
conventional life and that people should live naturally and strive
(eawc, p.13)(SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)
c350BC Temples in Greece began to be used by ill
worshippers hoping for a cure from the gods. These were later
considered as the first hospitals.
(SFEC,6/11/00, Z1 p.2)
c350BC The kingdom of Illyria emerged in the
region of Shkoder in what is now Albania.
(CO, Grolier's Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)
350BC The Chavin civilization had a settlement at
this time on the north-western coast of Peru. The elite of this
civilization tracked the movement of the sun throughout the year.
(Econ, 3/3/07, p.84)
350BC - 338BC In China Shang Yang ruled the Ch'in
Dynasty. He operated against the assumptions of a theory of absolute
aggression justified by the "School of Law."
350BC - 283BC Kautilya, Indian political advisor,
lived about this time. He is generally called Chanakya (derived from
his father's name "Chanak") but, in his capacity as author of the
Arthashastra, is generally referred to as Kautilya derived from his
clan's name "Kotil" (Kautilya means "of Kotil"). He was a master of
the shrewd act of diplomacy.
348-345BC Aristotle lived and taught in
Assos, (later Behramkale), Turkey, before he was summoned to teach
Alexander in Macedonia.
(SFC, 10/6/05, p.E8)
347BC Plato (b.427BC), the most distinguished
student of Socrates, died. His real name was Aristocles. Plato meant
broad and he was known to have broad shoulders. He was a prolific
writer and considered by some as the most important of all Greek
philosophers. His works were all in dialogue form and include: the
"Apology," the "Symposium," the "Phaedo," the "Phaedrus," and the
(EEE, p.12)(SFEC, 9/28/97, Z1 p.2)
343BC Artaxerxes III of Persia led a successful
campaign against Egypt and Nectanebo II fled to Ethiopia. Artaxerxes
appointed Pherendares as satrap of Egypt and returned to Babylon
laden with treasures.
343-332BC In Egypt the Persians ruled for a
343BC - 338BC Artaxerxes III (Ochus), king of
Persia, served as 1st ruler of Egypt’s 31st Dynasty.
342BC Menander (c.~291), Greek playwright, was
born about this time in Athens. He wrote more than 100 plays, but
many of his works have been lost. A 9th century manuscript from a
Syrian monastery contains 200 verses from Menander's play "Dyskolos"
("The Grouch"). In 2003 a scholar reported another 200 verses in the
document appear to be by Menander.
341BC-270BC Epicurus, Greek philosopher born
[342BC] in Samos, held that happiness is the supreme good. He had
studied under Democritus and was a confirmed atomist. His happiness
is interpreted to mean the avoidance of pain.
340BC Aristotle argued for the spherical shape of
the Earth in his "On The Heavens."
(BHT, Hawking, p.2)
340BC In 1962 a papyrus scroll was found in a
grave, about five miles northwest of Thessaloniki. It was part of a
rich cemetery belonging to the ancient city of Lete. The original
several yards of papyrus, rolled around two wooden runners, was
found half burnt. It dates to around 340 BC, during the reign of
Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great.
c340BC - 265BC Zeno of Citium, aka Zeno the
Stoic, was born in Cyprus. [see 335-263]
(WUD, 1994, p.1660)
c340BC - 200CE Balathal near Udaipur in
northeast India was reoccupied by a new people who built a massive
rampart around the site and later abandoned it.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.B)
339BC Alexander the Great (17) led the Macedonian
army to defeat Illyrian forces as his father recovered from wounds.
(ON, 4/2011, p.11)
338BC Philip of Macedon conquered Greece and was
succeeded by his son 2 years later. Athens ceased to be a major
power from this point on. Philip’s League of Corinth was composed of
impotent Hellenic states that had lost their collective freedom at
the battle of Chaeronea.
(eawc, p.13)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)(WSJ, 4/26/99,
338BC Philip II erected Olympia’s Philippeion in
Athens following his victory at Chaeronea. The round marble building
was completed by his son, Alexander.
(AM, 7/04, p.24)
338BC Artaxerxes III (Ochus), king of Persia, was
murdered by his own commander Bagoas.
338BC Arses, the youngest son of Ochus, succeeded
his father as king of Persia. He served as the 2nd ruler of Egypt’s
337BC The city states of Greece agreed to terms
set down by Philip II of Macedon unifying the country un Philip.
(ON, 4/2011, p.12)
336BC King Philip II, the father of Alexander the
Great, was murdered at a theater in Aigai in northern Greece.
336BC Alexander inherited the throne of Macedonia
and all of Greece. He went to see the Oracle of Delphi but was
initially refused entry. He forced his way and dragged the seeress
into the temple. Plutarch wrote: "As if conquered by his violence,
she said, 'My son, thou art invincible.'" "That is all the answer I
desire," replied Alexander. He began his campaign to acquire new
territory in Asia at age 22. Within 4 years he conquered the entire
(V.D.-H.K.p.50)(NG,Jan,1968 , p.1,4)(eawc, p.13)
336BC Arses, king of Persia and ruler of Egypt’s
31st Dynasty, was murdered by his commander Bagoas.
335BC Aristotle opened the Lyceum in Athens which
was devoted to scientific work. He invented the science of logic,
and divided the sciences into different fields distinguished by
subject matter and methodology. He believed in the innate
inferiority of slaves and females. He wrote the "Nicomachean
Ethics," a book about virtue and its reward, happiness. He
identified circularity in reasoning as the "fallacy of the
consequent" i.e. A good man is one who makes the right choices.
Greek archeologists claimed to have found the Lyceum site in 1997.
(V.D.-H.K.p.44,45)(USAT, 1/15/97, p.9A)
335BC – 3 32BC Darius III was raised to the
throne of Persia by the eunuch Bagoas, who had killed the 2 previous
rulers. Darius in turn had Bagoas murdered.
c335BC - c263BC Zeno the Stoic set up a school in
Athens at the Stoa Poikile (Painted Colonnade), and taught that
happiness consists in conforming the will to the divine reason,
which governs the universe. Thus a man is happy if he fully accepts
what is and does not desire what cannot be. Zeno was a Phoenician
from Kition on Cyprus. He taught that "events were destined to
repeat themselves" in endless cycles. [see 340-265]
(V.D.-H.K.p.71)(NG, Aug., 1974, p.189)(SFC,
334BC Alexander (22) left Pella, Greece, with
30,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 cavalry and proceeded to conquer
western Asia including Miletus and Samos. His favorite horse was
named Bucephalus. At Gordium, where King Midas is fabled to have
held court, Alexander solved the puzzle of the Gordian knot by
severing it with his sword.
(V.D.-H.K.p.50)(NG, Jan, 1968 , p.1,4,6)(ON,
c334BC Seleukos I, a general under Alexander the
Great, founded Antioch on the banks of the Orontes River.
(AM, 11/00, p.69)
333BC Alexander first confronted Darius, king of
Persia, and defeated him at the battlefield of Issus. During the
Renaissance German painter Albrecht Altdorfer (1480-1538) painted a
depiction of the battle.
(NG, Jan, 1968 , p.18)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W11)
333BC Alexander the Great (353BC-323BC), married a
barbarian (Sogdian) princess, Roxana, the daughter of the Bactrian
chief Oxyartes. Alexander also married the daughter of Darius, whom
he defeated in 333, while staying firmly attached to his comrade,
(V.D.-H.K.p.68)(Hem., 2/97, p.116)(WSJ, 5/15/98,
333BC Alexander’s forces overcame the Pisidians of
(AM, 11/04, p.38)
c333 BC Hittite lands and the village known as
Ancyra (later Angora, Ankora) was conquered by Macedonians led by
Alexander the Great.
332BC Jul, In Phoenicia Alexander stormed the
island of Tyre by building a causeway to the island. He then
besieged the city of Gaza. He moved on to conquer Egypt and founded
(R.M.-P.H.C.p.71), (NG, Aug., 1974, p.162)(Enc.
of Africa, 1976, p.167)
332BC Alexander entered Egypt and founded
Alexandria. A fishing village at the site was called Rhakotis. In
2007 archeologists found evidence of urban settlement at Alexandria
dating back to about 1,000 BC.
332-63BC The Hellenistic period in Israel.
(AM, 9/01, p.32)
331BC Sep 23, Alexander's scouts encountered the
camp of King Darius near Guagamela. The force numbered 25,000
horsemen, 50,000 foot soldiers, 200 chariots and 15 war elephants.
(ON, 1/01, p.11)
331BC Oct 1, Alexander the Great decisively
shattered King Darius III's Persian army at Gaugamela (Arbela), in a
tactical masterstroke that left him master of the Persian Empire.
331BC Alexander left Egypt and left Cleomenes of
Naukratis in charge. This position was later claimed by Ptolemy.
When Alexander died, Ptolemy's generals divided the kingdom.
331BC Alexander conquered the Persian Empire and
made his way to India and conquered part of it.
331BC The Achaemenid King of Persia, Darius III,
died in Bactria. Bessus, the satrap of Bactria had him
331BC Alexander reached Persopolis, the capital of
Persia, and burned it.
(V.D.-H.K.p.50)(Econ, 9/17/05, p.48)
330BC Alexandria became the capital of Egypt.
(SSFC, 5/9/04, p.A17)
c330BC Euclid showed that an infinite number of
Prime numbers exists, but occur in no logical pattern.
(SFC, 11/23/98, p.A3)
330BC - 320BC A Temple of Zeus was built at Nemea,
Greece, on the foundations of an earlier temple.
(SSFC, 8/21/05, p.B2)
329BC Alexander the Great took Samarkand [in what
is now Uzbekistan]. Its ancient name was Marakanda.
(WUD, 1994, p.1264)
329BC - 326BC After conquering Persia, Alexander
the Great invaded Afghanistan. He conquered Afghanistan, but failed
to really subdue its people. Constant revolts plagued Alexander.
327BC - 326BC Alexander the Great passed through
the Indus Valley and installed Greek officials in the area.
326BC Alexander crossed the Indus river at Hund
and then the Jhelum river and defeated King Porus at the edge of
India. This was his last great battle.
(NG, Jan, 1968, p.56)
326BC The Charsadda site (aka Bala Hisar) in
northern Pakistan was besieged by Alexander. It then passed from
Mauryan to Indo-Greek, Parthian, Sassanian, and Kushan rule. The
pagan Kalash of Pakistan later claimed to be descendants of
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A17)
325BC Pytheas (c380BC-310BC), Greek merchant,
geographer and explorer, made a voyage of exploration to
northwestern Europe around this time. He traveled around Great
Britain, circumnavigating it between 330 and 320 BC. He claimed to
have sailed past Scotland and mentioned a land called Thule, where
the surrounding ocean froze and the sun disappeared in winter.
325-300BC Flavius Josephus, historian of the
first century, wrote that a Samaritan Temple was built (on Mt.
Gerizim) that was a copy of the Second Temple of Jerusalem. Josephus
dated it to the late part of the fourth century. The temple's first
chief priest is said to have been Manasseh, a Jewish priest who
married a Samaritan woman named Nikaso. The Jewish elders forced
Manasseh to choose between the Jewish Temple or his wife. He chose
his wife and her father, Sanballat, built for Manasseh a copy of the
Jewish temple on Mt. Gerizim.
(SFC, 5/23/95, p.A-10)
323BC Jun 10, Alexander died in Persia at Babylon
at the age of 32. His general, Ptolemy, took possession of Egypt.
Apelles was a painter in Alexander's court. He had been commissioned
by Alexander to paint a portrait of Campaspe, Alexander's concubine.
Apelles fell in love with Campaspe and Alexander granted her to him
in marriage. In 1984 Curtius Quintas Rufus authored "the History of
Alexander." In 1991 Peter Green authored "Alexander of Macedon, A
Historical Biography." “Alexander the Great” by Norman F. Cantor
(d.2004) was published in 2005.
(BS, 5/3/98, p.12E)(WSJ, 2/11/00, p.W6) (ON,
1/01, p.11)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.M3)
323BC The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, a
Graeco-Roman seaport (later in Turkey), was completed after 125
years of construction. It was acclaimed the most beautiful structure
in the world and considered one of the 7 architectural wonders of
the ancient world. Its ruins were discovered in 1869 by archeologist
John T. Wood (d.1890).
(ON, 11/00, p.3)
323BC The Greeks ruled Bactria (Northern
323BC The death of Alexander provided an
opportunity for an independent state in India. Chandragupta Maurya
founded the Maurya dynasty, the first Indian empire with its capital
(eawc, p.13)(SC, 5/18/02)
323BC-285BC Ptolemy I Soter, son of Lagus and
commander under Alexander, ruled Egypt as the first king of the
Ptolemaic Dynasty. Under his rule the library of Alexandria was
323BC - 30BC In Greece this period is called the
Hellenistic Age, the time from Alexander's death to Roman rule. The
principle work on this period is "Hellenistic Athens" by Prof.
William Scott Ferguson (1875-1954). In 1995 Prof. Christian Habicht
published "Athens from Alexander to Antony" in Germany. An English
edition was translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider in 1997.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)
323BC - 30BC Ptolemy and his descendants ruled
over Egypt. This era came to be known as the Ptolemaic period. At
the ancient library of Alexandria Callimachus of Cyrene was the
first to catalog writings alphabetically.
(Enc. of Africa,1976, p.167)(SFC, 11/4/96,
p.A11)(SFEC, 11/10/96, Parade p.13)
323BC - 30BC During the Hellenistic Age the Grand
Theater of Ephesus was built into the side of Mt. Pion and could
hold 24,000 spectators.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T7)
322BC Athens was brought under the control of the
Macedonian empire. Demosthenes was sentenced to death, but he
escaped and sought refuge on the island of Calauria, where he
committed suicide after troops followed him. In 1927 Charles Darwin
Adams authored "Demosthenes and His Influence."
(ON, 9/00, p.12)
322BC Mar 7, Aristotle (d.322 BC) died. His
writings included treatises on logic, metaphysics, ethics, politics,
rhetoric and natural sciences. He first described language in terms
of subject and predicate as well as parts of speech. Aristotelian
logic is based on a small number of unambiguous constructs, such as,
"if A, then B": the truth of one implies the truth of another. This
celebrated rule gives Aristotelian reasoning the power to establish
facts through inference. The constructs also included A=A,
representing that every entity is equal to itself. He defined
politics as the science of the sciences that looks after well-being.
His writings included "De Generatione Animalum." His "Historia
Animalium" was later translated by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson." "Hope
is a waking dream." The opening of his "Metaphysics" began: "All men
by nature desire to know."
(V.D.-H.K.p.44,45)(I&I, Penzias, p.73)(Hem.,
1/96, p.11)(LSA, Spg/97, p.6)(EEE, p.12)(AP, 8/9/98)(WSJ, 9/30/98,
p.A16)(NH, 12/98, p.10)(SFC, 8/13/02, p.A13)
322BC The Mauryans ruled over India.
(WH, 1994, p.13)
320BC-c235BC In China the philosopher Hsun-tzu,
the founder of Legalism, lived. He was an orthodox Confucianist and
believed strongly in moral education. He repudiated any belief in a
spiritual realm and believed that human beings are evil by nature.
316BC The Ba people on the Yangtze River were
subjugated by the Qin.
(NH, 7/96, p.31)
316BC The Ch'in conquered Shu and Pa (modern-day
Szechuan) and gained a serious advantage over the Ch'u.
315BC Thessaloniki, Greece, was founded about this
time and flourished during the Roman and Byzantine eras. In 2008
Greek workers discovered around 1,000 graves, some filled with
ancient treasures, while excavating for a subway system. Some of the
graves, dated from the first century B.C. to the 5th century A.D.,
contained jewelry, coins and various pieces of art.
312BC Appius Claudius, the Blind, as consul began
the building of the Via Appia. The historian Procopius states that
the road was completed at this time. It ran due south from Rome to
(V.D.-H.K.p.69)(SFC, 6/3/96, p.E5)
312 BC King Glauk of Illyria expelled the Greeks
(www, Albania, 1998)
310BC Aristarchus of Samos founded Hellenistic
astronomy. Contrary to Aristotle he said that the earth and all the
other planets revolve around the sun. [see 300BC-200BC]
310BC Pytheas (b.c380BC), Greek merchant,
geographer and explorer, died about this time. He made a voyage of
exploration to northwestern Europe around 325 BC. He traveled around
a considerable part of Great Britain, circumnavigating it between
330 and 320 BC.
309BC Heracles, the illegitimate teenage son of
Alexander the Great, was murdered about this time during the wars of
succession and buried in secret.
309-247 Ptolemy II (Philadelphus). He ruled Egypt
(WUD, 1994, p.1162)
304BC Cnieus Flavius, a commoner, brought justice
to Rome by stealing a calendar. He posted his purloined tablet in
the Roman Forum. The letters A-H corresponded to an 8-day Roman
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)
304BC In India Chandragupta traded 500 war
elephants to Seleucus in exchange for the Indus region and lands
immediately to the West.
~302BC Mithradates Ktistes shortly after 302 BC
created the Kingdom of Pontus on the southern coast of the Black
Sea. It would be ruled by his descendants mostly bearing the same
name, till 64 BC. He was for a time in the service of Antigonus, one
of Alexander's successors.
301 BC The generals of Alexander fought the Battle
of Ipsus in Phrygia that resulted in the division of the Greek
Empire into 4 divisions ruled by Seleucus, Lysimachus, Cassander and
Ptolemy. Greek cities revolted against Macedonian rule but to no
c300BC In 2005 a well-preserved and colorful mummy
from the 30th pharaonic dynasty was unveiled at Egypt’s Saqqara
(SFC, 5/4/05, p.A1)
300BC Euclid compiled his "Elements of Geometry."
Included was his demonstration for "regular partitioning."
(V.D.-H.K.p.37)(WSJ, 12/9/96, p.B1)
c300BC In Greece Epicureanism and Stoicism
originated in Athens. Both Epicurus and Zeno, the Stoic, believed in
an individualistic and materialistic philosophy. Neither believed in
spiritual substances. The soul was thought to be material. The
Epicureans believed that pleasure is the highest good, and that only
by abandoning the fear of the supernatural can one achieve
tranquility of mind. The Stoics believed that tranquility of mind
was only achieved by surrendering the self to the order of the
300BC Kautilya (aka Chanakya), an Indian statesman
and scholar, authored the Artha-Shastra (the Science of Material
Gain) at the end of the 4th century BC. This is the first known
treatise on government and economy.
300BC In Ireland 2 men were murdered about this
time. In 2005 their preserved remains were found in a peat bog. One
dubbed Clonycavan Man was about 5 feet 2 inches and used hair gel.
The other, dubbed Oldcroghan Man, stood 6 feet 6 inches. "Oldcroghan
Man was stabbed through the chest. He was then decapitated and his
body cut in half while Clonycaven Man had his head split open with
an axe before he was disemboweled.
300BC Carthago Nova (Cartagena, Spain) had coins
minted in the Greek style. One face bears the image of Melqart,
chief god of Tyre, the other face shows a horse and palm tree,
emblems of Carthage.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.171)
300BC Spain was named by the Carthaginians about
this time as Ispania, meaning land of rabbits. The Romans changed
the name slightly to Hispania, which evolved to Espana (Spain).
(SSFC, 12/19/10, p.M2)
c300BC As early as this time, travelers went to
Petra in the northwest corner of the Arabian peninsula for its
abundant spring water.
c300BC Palur in eastern India near Chilika Lake
has yielded red-and-black-ware potsherds, one of which had the image
of a boat.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.B)
300BC Dura-Europos, a Greek colony was built on
the Euphrates in eastern Syria.
(SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)
c300BC By about this time iron-working had spread
all along the savanna belt of West Africa.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)
300BC Seleucia was founded about this time in
southeastern Turkey as a Greek settlement by Seleucus I Nicator one
of Alexander’s generals. Seleucia was on the west bank and Apamea on
the east bank of the Euphrates River. In 64 BC it was conquered and
ruled by the Roman Empire and with this shift the name of the city
was changed into Zeugma, meaning "bridge-passage" or "bridge of
300BC-250CE Late preclassic period of the Maya.
(AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)
c300BC-200BC Aristarchus, Greek philosopher of the
late 3rd cent., proposed the Sun as the center of the universe. [see
(NH, 9/96, p.70)
c300BC-200BC Apollonius, Greek poet emigrant from
Alexandria to Rhodes, and author of the "Argonautica."
(HH, 1932, p.498)(SFC, 9/15/97, p.E3)
c300BC-200BC In China an emperor dispatched the
sailor Hsu Fu to search the Pacific Ocean for the "drug of
immortality." He came back empty-handed after the first trip and set
out again never to return.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, Z1 p.3)
c300BC-200BC In China Qu Wan, a poet and official,
despaired on the possibility of justice in this world and threw
himself into a river.
(WSJ, 9/24/97, p.A20)
c300BC-200BC In Egypt scientists of the Univ. of
Calif. Berkeley expedition of 1899 uncovered hundreds of crocodile
mummies encased and stuffed with papyrus covered with writings from
the ruins of the city of Tebtunis. The site dated from the 3rd
century BC when Ptolemy the Great ruled.
(SFC, 12/4/96, p.A4)
300BC-200BC In 2006 archaeologists at the San
Bartolo site in Guatemala dated Mayan hieroglyphs painted on plaster
and stone to this period.
300BC-200BC The city of Berenice on the
Mediterranean coast (later in Libya) was named by the Greeks.
(SFC, 6/15/99, p.C6)
c300BC-200BC Andronicus Livius, a Roman actor of
the 3rd cent. BC improvised silently and originated pantomime.
300BC-200BC During the 3rd century BC Mongolia
became the center of the Hsiung-nu empire.
300BC-200BC In Thailand Ban Chaibadan on the Pasak
River is one of several sites that has archaeological remains that
show the development of a complex society.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)
300BC-64BC Antioch served as the capital of the
kingdom of Syria.
(WUD, 1994 p.66)
300BC-68BC The Dead Sea Scrolls of Qumran, Jordan,
date to this period. The scrolls are usually identified with the
Jewish-monkish cult, the Essenes, know for their pathological
aversion to stool. In 2004 Chicago Prof. Norman Golb authored “Who
Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls.” In 2009 Israeli scholar Rachel Elior
theorized that the Essenes, did not exist. She suggested they were
really the renegade sons of Zadok, a priestly caste banished from
the Temple of Jerusalem by intriguing Greek rulers in 2nd century
BC. When they left, they took the source of their wisdom - their
scrolls - with them.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.74)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W11)(SFC,
9/6/04, p.A4)(TIME, 3/17/09)
300BC-68BC The Dead Sea Scrolls dating to this
period were discovered by Bedouin at the caves of Qumran in Jordan
in 1947. The scrolls predated the Christian gospels, but contained
many similarities. They also contained some differences from the
traditional (Masoretic) text of the Hebrew Bible. In 1955 Edmund
Wilson published "The Scrolls from the Dead Sea." In 1998 Hershel
Shank published "The Mystery and meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls."
From 1978-1998 over 6,000 books were written about the scrolls. The
discovery date was later contested as were many of the historic
circumstances surrounding the scrolls [see Jordan 1947].
(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W11)(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)
295BC The Battle of Sentinum. Etruria was defeated
by Rome and the Etruscan decline continued for more than 200 years.
(NG, 6/1988, p.739)
290BC Ptolemy I of Egypt authorized the
construction of the Pharos Lighthouse in Alexandria. It became one
of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
290BC The 110-foot Colossus of Rhodes, one of the
ancient seven wonders of the world, was built to the sun god Helios.
(AM, 7/00, p.16)
287BC In Rome the plebeians passed a law that
allowed the decisions of the assembly to override the Senate.
287BC Theophrastus (b.c371BC), Greek philosopher,
died. He produced the 1st known work on plant reproduction “De
historia plantarum. He was a contemporary of Aristotle and succeeded
him as head of the Lyceum.
287BC - 212BC Archimedes, Greek mathematician,
physicist and inventor. He discovered the principles of specific
gravity and of the lever. His works included "Method of Mechanical
Theorems" and "On Floating Bodies." He named the number, later known
as pi, as the Archimedes Constant. Scientists in 2000 began
translating the Floating Bodies treatisse from a single known
parchment copy, dating to about 1000CE, that was scraped and reused
for a prayer book.
(SFC, 10/30/98, p.A7)(SFEC, 3/14/99, p.C5)(SFC,
10/14/00, p.C1)(SFC, 5/23/05, p.A4)
285BC - 246BC Ptolemy II (b.c309BC, Philadelphus)
of Macedonia served as the 2nd king of Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty.
During his reign (285-247) he founded the Cyprian port of Famagusta
and built a canal to link the Nile to the gulf of Suez.
280BC The Achaean League was reformed along
political lines. It had been a confederation of Achaean cities
formed for religious observances and was broken up by the
(AHD, 1971, p.10)
280BC Li Ssu, Legalist scholar, was born in the
kingdom of Ch’u, later a region of China.
(ON, 9/04, p.1)
280BC The army of King Pyrrhus of Epirus, a Greek
state, suffered irreplaceable casualties in defeating the Romans at
Heraclea during the Pyrrhic War.
279BC The army of King Pyrrhus of Epirus, a Greek
state, suffered irreplaceable casualties in defeating the Romans at
Asculum during the Pyrrhic War. The phrase Pyrrhic victory came to
signify a victory gained at a devastating cost.
279BC The Pharos at Alexandria was constructed.
The lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was toppled
by an earthquake in 1303CE. It was rediscovered by archeologists in
the waters off Alexandria in 1996.
(SFEC, 4/5/98, Par p.20)(SFC, 11/4/96,
p.A11)(WSJ, 10/10/01, p.B1)
279BC The Celts plundered the shrine at Delphi and
then retreated north to Thrace. The Thracians later routed the
278BC Qu Yuan (b.~340BC), Chinese poet and
scholar, died. His poems included “The Lament,” written following
the capture of Yingdu, capital of Chu, by General Bai Qi of the
state of Qin.
273BC - 232BC Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta
Maurya, ruled India, an area of a million sq. miles, and 50 million
people. He was the most impressive ruler of the Maurya dynasty and
was strongly disposed in favor of Buddhism, which orientation showed
positively in his public policy.
272BC Pyrrhus (b.319/318), Greek general and
statesman, died. Some of his battles, though successful, cost him
heavy losses, from which the term "Pyrrhic victory" was coined.
270BC The Nubian royals opted for burial at Meroe
about this time and pyramids were built there for some 700 years.
(Arch, 9/02, p.56)
269BC The Roman system of coinage was established.
265BC Rome completed its domination of the entire
Italian peninsula and began its pursuit of a larger empire that
resulted in a series of wars with other nations.
264BC Rome initiated the Punic Wars with Carthage,
an oligarchic empire that stretched from the northern coast of
Africa to the Strait of Gibraltar. The primary cause was the
Carthaginian expansion into the Greek cities of Sicily. Carthage was
forced to surrender its control over the western region of Sicily
and this marked the end of the first Punic War. The three Punic
Wars: 264-241 BC, 218-202 BC, 149-146 BC, also known as the
Carthaginian Wars, finally resulted in the destruction of Carthage
and Roman control of the western Mediterranean.
(eawc, p.14)(HNQ, 8//00)
262BC War broke out between Carthage and Rome.
Three long wars lasted till 146BC when Carthage was destroyed by
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.167-8)
261BC Rome captured a Punic quinquereme. In two
months they copied it plank by plank and built 100 like it and
eventually the Roman fleet was able to defeat the Carthaginians.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.178)
260BC Ashoka, the 3rd ruler of the Mauryan empire
(India), converted to Buddhism after defeating the Kalinga region.
He began promoting Buddhist teaching throughout the subcontinent and
beyond to Sri Lanka and even Greece.
259BC Qin Shi Huangdi (d.210BC), the emperor who
unified China, was born about this time. He became ruler of Qin at
age 13. In 2006 Tan Dun’s opera “The First Emperor,” premiered at
the NY Metropolitan with Placido Domingo as the Emperor. It was
based on the life of Qin Shi Huang (First August and Divine
(WSJ, 12/27/06, p.D8)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.87)
256BC The Carthaginian city of Kerouane was sacked
by the Romans.
(NG, 8/04, p.48)
251BC Aryan Hindus occupied Ceylon. [see Sri
250BC About this time Eratosthenes ascribed the
difference between the positions of the noon sun at Alexandria and
at Styrene at the summer solstice as due to the curvature of the
Earth and not due to the proximity of the sun. He thereby calculated
the radius of the Earth to be about 4,000 miles. The modern value is
250BC About this time Aristarchus of Samos, a
Greek astronomer, proposed the idea of a sun-centered cosmology.
(Econ, 9/24/11, p.106)
250BC In India a general council of Buddhist monks
was held in Patna, where the canon of Buddhist scripture was
250BC In India Emperor Ashoka ordered a sculpture
of four Asiatic lions about this time. The image later became a
model emblazoned on India’s passports and currency.
(WSJ, 6/27/07, p.A9)
c250BC In Patan, Nepal, the 4 corners are marked
by stupas said to be constructed on orders of Emperor Ashoka.
(WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A17)
250BC In Persia about this time two brothers,
Arashk (Arash Pers. Arsaces, Lat.) and Tirdat (Tiridates), with
their forces under the command of five other chiefs, occupied the
district of upper Tejen. Arashk (Arsaces) was to become the first
king of the Ashkanian (Arsacid or Parthian) dynasty. In 2005 the
Ashkali community in Kosovo claimed roots to this period.
250BC A finely burnished red pottery was
introduced by the Parthians into northern Oman.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.53)
250BC - 150BC Punic wars between Rome and
Carthage. [see 264BC & 146BC]
250BC - 1.4k CE The city of Jenne-jeno on the
inland delta of the Niger River (Mali) was inhabited over this
period. Iron tools similar to that of the Nok people indicate that
Nok craftspeople had come to this site. It was discovered by
archeologist in 1977.
247BC Li Ssu left Ch’u and traveled to Ch’in, a
kingdom where Legalist doctrines were practiced. He found employment
with Lu Pu-wei, the king’s grand councilor, who was compiling an
encyclopedia. Lu Ssu soon became tutor to Prince Zheng, heir to the
throne of Ch’in.
(ON, 9/04, p.2)
246BC Jan 9, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, 2nd king of
Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty, died.
246BC In China the Ch'in completed the Chengkuo
canal connecting the Ching and Lo rivers. This created a key
agricultural and economic area in western Szechuan. About the same
time the last Chou ruler was deposed.
246BC Qin Shihuangdi (13), became the head of Qin,
one of 7 major Chinese states.
(AM, 9/01, p.35)
246BC-222BC Ptolemy III Euergeter served as
Egypt’s 3rd ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. In 2010 archeologists
discovered a temple, thought to belong to Queen Berenice, wife of
King Ptolemy III who ruled Egypt in the 3rd century B.C.
Archeologists believed that the temple might have been dedicated to
the ancient cat-goddess Bastet.
241BC Mar 10, The Battle of Aegusa in which the
Roman fleet sank 50 Carthaginian ships occurred.
241BC The Romans incorporated Sicily as a
(AM, 11/00, p.12)
240BC Jun 19, Eratosthenes estimated the
circumference of Earth using two sticks.
(DTnet, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/98)
239BC-169BC Ennius, Roman poet: "A friend in need
is a friend indeed."
(SSFC, 5/18/03, Par p.26)(WUD, 1994, p.474)
238BC The Romans occupied Sardinia.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T4)
238BC-227CE The Parthians (238 B.C.-A.D. 227)
ruled the Persian Empire despite attempts by the Roman Republic
(133-27 B.C.), the Roman Empire (27 B.C.-A.D. 476) to conquer
it. During the centuries-long struggle, border towns and
provinces in the Near East passed back and forth like
Alsace-Lorraine or the Polish Corridor would in nineteenth-and
twentieth-century Europe. Rarely in the history of human conflict
has a feud such as the one between the empires of Rome and Persia
lasted so long and accomplished so little.
236BC Archimedes, according to the Roman architect
Vitruvius, built his first elevator about this time.
(SFC, 8/23/08, p.F4)
234BC - 149BC Cato, Roman statesman and
historian: "If you are ruled by mind, you are a king; if by body, a
233BC General Quintus Fabius Maximus led a Roman
victory against the Ligurian tribes northwest of Italy.
(ON, 9/05, p.6)
232 BC King Agron died, the Illyrian throne was
occupied by Queen Teuta.
(www, Albania, 1998)
231BC King Qin Shihuangdi (28), head of one of 7
major states, embarked on a series of campaigns that in 10 years
created China. The king of Ch’in invaded Han.
(AM, 9/01, p.35)(ON, 9/04, p.3)
230BC Celtic warriors were repelled at Pergamon.
The king of Bithynia had invited some 20,000 Celts as mercenaries
and after 50 years of pillaging they were repelled and settled in
230BC The capital of Han fell. Its king and entire
extended family were massacred. Han was absorbed by Ch’in and under
Li Ssu’s direction was transformed into a Legalist state.
(ON, 9/04, p.3)
228BC The Kingdom of Chao fell to the Ch’in.
(ON, 9/04, p.3)
225BC The Kingdom of Wei fell to the Ch’in.
(ON, 9/04, p.3)
225BC Polybius, a Greek historian, described the
naked gaesatae, Celtic spearmen, at the Battle of Telamon, northwest
of Rome where the Romans defeated the Celts.
224BC An earthquake reportedly broke the Colossus
of Rhodes at his knees.
(AM, 7/00, p.16)
223BC The Kingdom of Ch’u fell to the Ch’in. Li
Ssu had the royal family spared.
(ON, 9/04, p.3)
222BC The Kingdom of Yen fell to the Ch’in. The
royal family was slaughtered.
(ON, 9/04, p.3)
222BC-205BC Ptolemy IV Philopater served as
Egypt’s 4th ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
222BC - 196BC The Romans showed up at the site of
Milan and subdued the Gauls after 26 years of butchery. Mittaland
was Latinized to Medioland, i.e. middle of the plain, and later
transformed to Milano.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T12)
221BC The Kingdom of Ch’i fell to the Ch’in and Li
Ssu advised King Zheng that there were no other countries worth
conquering. King Zheng proclaimed himself Shi Huangdi, “First
Emperor of the World Under Heaven.”
(ON, 9/04, p.3)
221BC The Qin (Ch’in) unified China at the end of
the "Warring States." King Zheng engaged in a process of unifying 7
kingdoms in China under a central bureaucracy. He killed most of the
people in the 6 rival kingdoms and buried alive 400 scholars whose
loyalty he questioned. The 1998 Chinese film "The Emperor’s Shadow"
was directed by Zhou Xiaowen. It was a historical drama of the first
emperor (Ying Zheng or Jiang Wen) of a united China. The 1999 film
"The Emperor and the Assassin," directed by Chen Kaige, was about
(eawc, p.5,14)(NH, 7/96, p.31)(WSJ, 9/27/96,
p.A16)(SFC, 6/24/98, p.E3)(SFEC, 12/12/99, Par p.11)(SFEC, 1/16/00,
221BC - 206BC Qin Shi Huang ruled as the first
emperor of China. His tomb is in X’ian, one of the ancient capitals
of China, and is guarded by thousands of life-sized terra-cotta
soldiers. He fixed Chinese script of 2,500 characters. The Great
Wall of China was completed under Shi Huangdi and his minister Li
Ssu. In 2001 it was found that the Great Wall extended into Gansu
province to Xinjiang and measured 4,470 miles. The wall was extended
during the Ming Dynasty. In 1990 Arthur Waldron authored “The Great
Wall of China.”
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(SFC, 2/23/01, p.A20)(ON,
9/04, p.3)(WSJ, 5/10/06, p.D12)
221BC - 220AD A section of the Great Wall was
built during the Qin (221-206 BC) and Han (206 BC to 220 AD)
dynasties in northeastern Jilin province. In 2009 the Xinhua news
agency reported the discovery of this section, 11km (6.7 miles)
further east than what was previously thought to be the wall's
218BC The Romans renewed their efforts against
Carthage as Carthage expanded into Spain. This 2nd Punic War lasted
16 years (202BC) at the end of which Carthage was forced to
surrender all of its territory to Rome except for its capital city
in North Africa.
(eawc, p.15)(HNQ, 8/9/00)
218BC Hannibal crossed Portugal on his way to
(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.C11)
218 - 201BC Numidia, ancient Roman name for part
of northern Africa roughly equivalent to modern Algeria. In the
Second Punic War (218-201 BC) between Carthage and Rome, western
Numidia supported Carthage. King Masinissa of eastern Numidia joined
the Romans. With the victory of Rome, Masinissa controlled all
(WWW, Encarta, 12/19/98)
217BC Jun 21, Carthaginian forces led by Hannibal
destroyed a Roman army under consul Gaius Flaminicy in a battle at
Lake Trasimenus in central Italy. Hannibal of Carthage attacked
Roman Consul Flaminio at Tuoro on Lake Trasimeno in Umbria.
Hannibal's army of Numidians, Berbers, Libyans, Gascons, and
Iberians was down to one elephant after crossing the Alps with 39.
His army of 40,000 drove the Romans into the lake where 15,000 died
as opposed to 1,500 of Hannibal's men. Two nearby towns were named
Ossaia (boneyard) and Sanguineto (bloodied).
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.37)(HN, 6/21/98)
217BC During the Second Punic War Rome appointed
Quintus Fabius Maximus as dictator to stave off Hannibal’s
(ON, 9/05, p.6)
216BC Aug 2, Hannibal Barca of Carthage won his
greatest victory over the Romans at Cannae. Hannibal seized a grain
depot in the small village of Cannae in order to lure the Romans to
battle. Having crossed over the Alps, Hannibal's forces defeated the
Romans at the Trebia River and also at Lake Trasimene. Thereafter,
the Romans were unwilling to commit a large force to attacking
Hannibal. However, Hannibal's spies had learned two Roman consuls
shared command of the legions and attempted to goad the more
impetuous of the two into battle at Cannae.
(HN, 8/2/98)(HNQ, 11/16/00)
214BC In China the building of the Great Wall was
begun. It was designed to keep out the destitute and starving
nomadic Hsiung Nu people.
214BC Guangdong province became a part of China.
(WSJ, 9/16/99, p.A26)
213BC Minister Li Ssu convinced Ch’in King Zheng
to outlaw all philosophies except Legalism. Some 500 Confucian
scholars resisted and were buried alive. A number of Confucian and
Taoist libraries were burned.
(ON, 9/04, p.4)
212BC Archimedes (b.287BC), Greek mathematician,
died. Legend holds that he was killed by a Roman soldier during an
invasion of Syracuse, because he was too busy doing calculations to
obey the soldier’s orders.
(SFC, 5/23/05, p.A4)
211BC Roman legions overran the Greek settlement
of Morgantina on Sicily.
(SFC, 4/4/98, p.A13)
210BC Qin Shi Huang (b.259BC), the first emperor
of China, died while on a journey. His death was kept quite until
the entourage returned home. He was buried near the city of Xi'ab in
Central China with some 7-8,000 larger-than-life terracotta
soldiers. The soldiers had real weapons and each had distinct facial
features. Villagers found the 1st terracotta figure in 1974. [see
Jul 11, 1975] Qin Shi Huangdi provided his empire with a uniform
script, currency, a measuring system and a bureaucracy.
(Smith., 4/95, p. 33,34)(WSJ, 3/11/97, p.A20)(HN,
7/11/01)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.87)
210BC Crown Prince Fu Su, an anti-Legalist,
committed suicide on orders from a forged message. Prince Hu-hai was
installed as the Second Emperor. Chief eunuch Chao Kao and Li Ssu
shared power at first but Chao Kao gained the backing of Hu-hai.
(ON, 9/04, p.4)
208BC Ch’in Chief eunuch Chao Kao had Li Ssu
arrested and condemned to death. Most of Li Ssu’s reforms, including
standardized writing, measurement and money, survived for over 2,000
(ON, 9/04, p.4)(EWH, 1968, p.57)
207BC In China the Ch'in Dynasty ended.
207-195BC In China Han Kao-tzu (Liu Ping), a man
of humble origins, became the first ruler of the Former Han Dynasty.
The dynasty lasted to 9CE.
206BC Rome destroyed Carthaginian forces at the
Battle of Metaurus in northern Italy.
(ON, 9/05, p.7)
206BC-25CE In 2003 China's Xinhua News Agency
reported that archaeologists in western China had discovered five
earthenware jars of 2,000BC-year-old rice wine in an ancient Han
dynasty tomb (206BC-25CE), and its bouquet was still strong enough
to perk up the nose.
206BC-220CE The Han Dynasty ruled in China. The
Western Han period. In the early Han period Prince Liu Sheng had a
jade suit made of 2,498 pieces sewn together with gold thread for
his death. Jade was also used to make plugs for his bodies orifices.
(NH, 7/96, p.31)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(WSJ,
2/19/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 9/27/96, p.A16)
205BC-180BC Ptolemy V Epiphanes served as Egypt’s
5th ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He became ruler at age 5
following the death of his father. He married Cleopatra I and died
at age 29 while putting down insurgents in the Delta. His wife
became regent for their young son.
204BC The sacred stone of Cybele, the Great
Mother, was brought to Rome, and her worship was established.
204BC-202BC Greece and most of Asia Minor came
under the control of the Romans after the Roman victory over
Carthage in the 2nd Punic War.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)(ON, 9/05, p.7)
203BC Hannibal and his army returned home to
defend Carthage against Roman forces.
(ON, 9/05, p.7)
203BC Quintus Fabius Maximus, Roman general and
dictator, died shortly before Hannibal’s final defeat. He was
nicknamed “The Delayer” for wearing down Hannibal’s invading army by
avoiding pitched battles. The name Fabian has come to mean “using a
cautious strategy of delay and avoidance of battle.”
(ON, 9/05, p.7)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.64)
202BC The Han Dynasty began in China.
202BC Roman forces under Scipio Africanus defeated
Hannibal of Carthage on the Plains of Zama in northern Tunisia.
c200BC Trade between the Arabs and East Africans
on the Indian Ocean was established. It took this long to learn the
seasonal winds known as the monsoons to sail across the Indian
Ocean. Between Nov. and March the monsoon blows from the northeast.
Between April and Oct. the monsoon blows from the southwest.
200BC The Chinese natural history classic "Erya"
said that the Yangtze River was teeming with baiji, a freshwater
white dolphin. By 1998 the baiji were on the verge of extinction.
(SFC, 3/23/98, p.A8)
c200BC At this time the Chinese were using the
sternpost rudder to steer their ships.
c200BC The Egyptian priest Hor cared for the ibis
galleries. His writings explained that hundreds of people were
involved in the animal mummification business at Saqqara.
(AM, 9/01, p.29)
c200BC The Greek Venus de Milo statue of marble
was sculpted about this time. It was found in 1820 on Melos and is
now in the Louvre. [2nd source says 2,500 years old]
(WUD, 1994, p.1586)(SFEC, 3/9/96, Z1 p.5)
200BC In Greece Skepticism arose under the
influence of the Carneades. It had close ties to Sophism and taught
that because all knowledge is achieved through sense perception,
nothing can be known for sure. [see Heisenberg 1901-1976]
c200BC Drawings in stone of this time showed women
milking elk in what later became northern Iran.
(SFEC, 7/19/98, Z1 p.8)
c200BC In Mexico migrations began toward the area
north of Lake Texcoco where the urban center of Teotihuacan
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T8)
c200BC A Sanskrit marriage manual dates back to
(SFEC, 11/17/96, Z1 p.2)
200BC-100BC The excavation of Pergamon (now
Bergama), Turkey, in 1876 by German archeologist uncovered a
monument called the Great Altar with a frieze of the mythological
hero Telephos. The Telephos Frieze recounts the story of Telephos, a
son of Herakles and legendary founder of Pergamon. It is viewed as
political propaganda legitimizing the rule of Pergamon's Attalid
lineage (after Attalos, its first king's father).
(WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)(SFC, 5/4/96, p.E-1)
200BC-100BC The Silk Road made the city of
Ashgabat, Turkmenistan rich. Spice and silk merchants stopped here
on their way from China to Europe.
(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A1)
200BC-500CE The Tunisian city of Leptiminus was a
major port for the shipment of olive oil throughout the Roman
Empire. The ancient city is today largely covered with olive groves.
The entire surface of the city (some 150 hectares) has been surveyed
by teams from the Univ. of Michigan. Two kinds of pottery were made
there: African Red Slip Ware and amphorae.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.7)
c200BC-650CE Caves at Ajanta, India, were painted
and sculpted during this period with court scenes and tales from the
Jataka and Bodhisattvas.
(WSJ, 11/12/98, p.A28)
200BC-1700 The Tairona civilization thrived over
this period. A city (Teyuna) later known as Ciudad Perdida (lost
city) east of Santa Maria, Colombia, was established around 800. Its
ruins were only rediscovered in 1972 and made public in 1975.
199BC-150BC Greco-Bactrian kingdom. Now
Afghanistan, it was then a major stop on the silk route between Rome
(NG, March 1990, Geographica)
199BC-150BC Early in the 2nd century BC the Romans
made Macedonia into a province and obliterated the city of Corinth.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)
c196BC In Egypt the Rosetta Stone, found in 1799,
was inscribed about this time. It affirmed the rule of Ptolemy V
(age 13) in 3 languages.
(WSJ, 6/5/01, p.B1)
195BC China's 1st Han Emperor Liu Pang died and
his empress Lu Zhi took the empire for her own family.
(NG, Feb, 04,
190BC In the US state of New Mexico a volcanic
lava flow occurred at the 114,000 acre El Malpais National Monument
and covered wood that was later dated to this time.
(SFC, 12/24/99, p.A25)
190BC Hipparchus was born in what is now Turkey.
He calculated the length of a year to within 6 1/2 minutes and was
the first to explain the Earth's rotation on its axis. He also
compiled the first comprehensive catalog of the stars. [see
190BC-180BC The “Wisdom of Sirach” was written
about this time in Hebrew. Its apocalyptic tone reflects the shock
of the Jewish religious establishment at the encounter with Hellenic
c190BC-120BC Hypsicles of Alexanderia,
mathematician. He wrote “On the Ascension of Stars,” in which he was
the first to divide the Zodiac into 360 degrees.
186BC In China Li Cang, the prime minister of
Changsha, died. Lady Dai, his wife, died about 20 years later. Her
tomb was found in the early 1970s on Mawangdui, a hill in Changsha,
near the capital of Hunan Province. More than 1,400 equally
well-preserved artifacts were found around her, designed to help her
in the afterlife.
184BC In Rome Cato the Censor (234-149) was
elected as one of two censors, i.e. assessors of property and moral
conduct. He aimed to preserve Roman ways and tried to extirpate
184BC In India the Maurya dynasty ended when the
last ruler was assassinated by an ambitious army commander.
183BC-182BC Hannibal, Carthaginian general,
committed suicide. Some reports said that a comet in the night sky
was an omen of his death.
180BC The Great Altar of Pergamon was built at
Pergamos in Asia Minor (later Turkey). It depicted the battle of the
gods of Olympus against the giants.
(WSJ, 10/27/07, p.W14)
180BC The Liu clan regained control of China and
enthroned Emperor Wen, a surviving son of Liu Bang.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.13)
180BC The state of Meroe in Nubia was a great
cultural center whose scribes developed an alphabet to better
express the Nubian language around this time.
(MT, 10/95, p.10-11)
180BC-164BC Ptolemy VI Philometor served as
Egypt’s 6th ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. His regent mother died
around 176BC and Ptolemy ruled under the control of his guardians,
Eulaeus and Lenaeus.
175BC-164BC King Antiochus IV, Seleucid tyrant,
(MH, 12/96)(SFC, 12/6/04, p.B2)
171BC There was a major wave of migration to Japan
from the Korean Peninsula. The migration of other peoples from
mainland Asia around this time brought metal tools, rice and new
farming techniques. Computer modeling in 2011 showed a that the
migration also had significant impact on linguistic development.
170BC The rebel Maccabees were able to gain
victory in Jerusalem occupied by Antiochus IV During the
re-dedication of the temple they stretched a days worth of oil out
to 8 days for which the holiday of Hanukkah is celebrated.
(SFC, 11/27/96, zz1 p.F1)
170BC Lucius Accius, Roman poet, wrote "Has
oderint dum metuant" (Let them hate us, so long as they fear us).
This became a favorite phrase of Emperor Caligula.
(SFC, 3/16/03, p.D3)
170BC-160BC The Bactrian--Parthian era of
168BC The Greek city of Aigai was destroyed by the
168BC Illyria and Epirus were conquered by
(CO, Grolier's Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)
168BC Syria’s Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes
ruled over Israel and tried to outlaw Judaism. He tried to Hellenize
the Jews by erecting idols. The Jews resisted and began the
Maccabean revolt. The Maccabees were successful until internal
dissension tore them apart.
(eawc, p.15)(PC, 1992 ed, p.27)
167BC Antiochus IV, the Hellenistic tyrant of the
what later became called the Middle East, began to increase
religious persecution against the Jews in Palestine and outlawed
observance of the Torah. This included the circumcision of males,
dietary restrictions and observance of the Sabbath. He installed a
cult of Zeus in the Temple in Jerusalem. The Jewish priest
Mattathias of Modin defied Antiochus, escaped outside Lydda with his
5 sons and began a revolt.
(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W15)(PC, 1992 ed, p.27)
167BC Rome presented to Athens the island of
Delos, whose prosperous slave and commodities market brought large
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)
165BC Romans captured King Gent of Illyria and
sent him to Rome. Illyria went under Roman control.
(www, Albania, 1998)
165BC Jerusalem and sacred temple of Judah were
recaptured by the Maccabees. They used guerrilla tactics and
elephants as tanks to throw off the tyranny of the Greco-Syrian
oppressors. During the cleanup they found one container of the
sacred oil used to light the temple's candelabra known as a menorah.
They gathered to light the oil which was expected to last only a
day, but lasted eight nights. The event was memorialized in the
celebration of Hanukkah (rededication), the Feast of Lights. [see
(SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.4)(SFC,12/23/97, p.A13)(WSJ,
164BC Ptolemy VI Philometor went to Rome and left
Egypt under the rule of his brother Ptolemy VII Euergetes II
164BC The Temple of Jerusalem was recaptured by
forces under Judah Maccabee, religious traditionalists from the
countryside. [see 165BC] The restoration of Jewish law was also a
victory over Jewish factions who wanted to turn Jerusalem to a city
modeled after the Greek pagan city-states.
(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W15)
163BC-145BC Ptolemy VI Philometor was called back
to Egypt and agreed to split their rule. Physcon assumed rule of the
western province of Cyrenaica and Philometor ruled Egypt.
161BC Elara (b.235BC), Tamil king (205BC-161BC),
died. He ruled Sri Lanka from the ancient capital of Anuradhapura.
161BC - 137BC The legendary King Duthagamani ruled
Sri Lanka. He began construction of the Ruvanvali stupa. His brother
Saddhatissa completed the project.
(Arch, 7/02, p.34)
160BC-125BC Hipparchus, Greek mathematician and
astronomer, often called the father of modern astronomy. He
attempted to calculate the distance to the moon and the sun. His
estimate for the distance to the moon was 67r vs. the modern value
of 60.267r. He estimated the sun to be 37 times farther than the
moon and at least 12 times greater in diameter than the Earth. His
figures were accepted for 17 centuries until the invention of the
telescope and precise astronomical instruments. Together with
Ptolemy he graded the visible stars into six magnitudes. The first
magnitude was comprised of about 20 of the brightest stars. He
compiled a stellar catalogue in Alexandria which shows the position
of 1080 stars. [see 190BC]
160BC - 220BC The Weerdinge Couple, 2 men dating
to this period, were found in a Holland bog in 1904.
(AM, 7/97, p.66)
156BC - 141BC In China Han Ching-ti ruled the Han
155BC-213 Some evidence has it that the Ark of the
Covenant was brought to Ethiopia during this period. The 1992 book
"The Sign and the Seal" by Graham Hancock presents the evidence.
(SFC, 1/31/98, p.A18)
154BC In China Han Ching-ti wrote the laws of
inheritance that made all sons co-heirs of their father's estate.
c150BC Agora's Stoa of Attalos, a massive
colonnaded monument at the foot of the Acropolis, was dedicated by
King Attalos of Pergamon.
c150BC The craft of paper making was developed in
China around this time. Paper was made by soaking flattened plant
fibers and then allowing them to dry on a screen.
c150BC Cival was a large and sophisticated Mayan
city of some 10,000 people.
(USAT, 5/11/04, p.7D)
150BC In 2005 archaeologists at the San Bartolo
site in Guatemala led by Guatemalan Monica Pellecer Alecio found the
oldest known Maya royal burial, from around 150 BC. Excavating
beneath a small pyramid, that team found a burial complex that
included ceramic vessels and the bones of a man, with a jade plaque,
the symbol of Maya royalty, on his chest.
150BC-100BC In 1901 pieces of an ancient Greek
calculating machine, called the Antikythera Mechanism, were
discovered by sponge divers exploring the remains of a shipwreck off
the tiny island of Antikythera. Radiocarbon dating suggested it was
built around 65 BC, but in 2006 newly revealed lettering on the
machine indicate a slightly older construction date of 150 to 100
BC. In 2008 researchers said the device, which originally contained
37 gears, included the cycle of the Greek Olympics.
(http://tinyurl.com/y255xr)(SFC, 7/31/08, p.A15)
150BC-200CE In Oman triliths, small, 3-stone
monuments, were set in rows in the Mahra tribal territory. Many were
inscribed with an undeciphered south Arabic script. The Mahra and
Shahra are Semitic, non-Arabic speaking tribes in the Dhofar
Mountains that even today control much of the frankincense region.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.53)
149-146BC Rome and Carthage fought the 3rd Punic
War that resulted in the total defeat of Carthage. All inhabitants
of Carthage were sold into slavery and the city was burned to the
ground. As a result of the Punic wars Rome expanded its empire to
cover Spain, North Africa, Greece, Asia Minor and Egypt.
(eawc, p.15)(HNQ, 8/9/00)
146BC Roman forces breached the walls of Carthage.
All inhabitants were sold into slavery. The city was burned to the
ground and the land was sown with salt.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(NG, 8/04, p.46)
146BC-30BC All Hellenistic territory became
subject to Rome over this period.
146BC-30BC Roman civilization as a result of the
Punic Wars witnessed a series of cultural conflicts and
145BC In China Su-ma Ch'ien, the historian and
author of the "Records of the Historian," was born. He included
social and economic consideration in his history but mentioned
nothing of Han Wu-ti and his administration. He was eventually
castrated by Wu-ti after writing an apology on behalf of the Hsiung
Nu. He died around 90BC.
141BC Wu Di (15) became China's 5th Han emperor.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.14)
141BC The Romans incorporated Macedonia as a
(AM, 11/00, p.12)
137BC Dutugemunu, Sinhalese king of Sri Lanka
(161BC to 137 BC), died. He gained rule after defeating Elara, a
Tamil usurper from India.
133BC China's Emperor Wu Di declared war on the
Xiongnu, a nomadic people in northwest China.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.15)
133BC In Rome Tiberius Gracchus was elected as
tribune. He and his brother, elected in 123BC, strove for reforms in
the Roman Republic, but failed due to the conservative customs of
the upper class and their resistance to change. Marius and Sulla, 2
military leaders, followed the attempts of the Gracchi.
133BC Attalus III of Pergamon bequeathed his
kingdom to Rome. It became the province of Asia.
(AM, 11/00, p.12)
130BC The Huns pushed the Kushan and Scythian
nomads west across the Central Asian steppes.
(NG, March 1990, p.63)
130BC The Great Silk Road opened from China to the
(WH, 1994, p.13)
123BC In Rome Gaius Gracchus was elected as
tribune. [see 133BC]
123BC The Romans won a victory over the Gauls near
a 3,000 foot peak that was named Mt. Sainte-Victoire in
commemoration. It established a marker between civilization and
(WSJ, 2/13/04, p.A12)
c119BC The Huns invaded China.
117BC In China the original salt monopoly was set
up during the Han dynasty.
(WSJ, 6/20/01, p.A1)
116BC-27BC Marcus Terentius Varro, a Roman scholar
(AM, 11/00, p.78)(WUD, 1994 p.1581)
113BC The army of John Hyrcanus, leader of the
Hasmonean rulers in Judea, burns down a Samaritan Temple and the
surrounding city. The temple is thought to be copy of the Second
Temple of Jerusalem. Archeologists in 1995 find stone fragments
inscribed with the Ten Commandments written in the Samaritan script,
similar to an ancient form of Hebrew known as Paleo-Hebrew.
(SFC, 5/23/95, p.A-10)
108BC-62BC Catiline, tyrant of Rome. He was
defeated by Cicero. This was a period when civil conflict had become
106BC Jan 3, Marcus Cicero (d.43BC), Roman
orator, statesman and author, was born. He was elected Consul in 63.
He chose to support Pompey over Caesar and was murdered by Mark
Antony: "What is more unwise than to mistake uncertainty for
certainty, falsehood for truth?"
(V.D.-H.K.p.74)(AP, 4/10/98)(HN, 1/3/99)
106BC-48BC Pompey. He was a rival to Caesar for
105BC The Jihong Bridge across the Lancang River
in Yunnan, China, was built. It linked 2 portions of the Southern
(SFEC, 10/6/96, T5)
105BC The heart of ancient Numidia lay in the
eastern region of what is now Algeria in Northern Africa. The
Numidians were originally nomadic horsemen. They were defeated by
Roman troops in the Jugurthine War in 105 BC and conquered by Rome
in 46 BC. The Vandals and Byzantines ruled successively before Arabs
conquered the area in the seventh century AD. Jugurtha was the king
(HNQ, 6/2/98)(SFC, 2/12/02, p.D3)
104BC Rome faced a slave retaliation in Sicily.
c100BC Jul 12, Gaius Julius Caesar (d.44BC), Roman
general and statesman, was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.208)(AP, 7/12/97)(HN, 7/12/98)
c100BC Camulodunum (later Colchester in
southeastern England) was established about this time as a fortress
dedicated to the Celtic god of war.
(Arch, 7/02, p.46)
c100BC The Bantu-speaking people began expanding
and moving southeast. It is thought that they originated in the
Congo basin (now Zaire) or the mountains of Cameroon. They used
iron, grew millet and kept goats.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)
100BC The Greek poet Meleager gathered a
collection of poems in his “anthologia” (The Greek Anthology).
(WSJ, 11/15/08, p.W10)
100BC In 2005 archaeologist William Saturno said
he was awe-struck when he uncovered a Maya mural not seen for nearly
two millennia. Discovered at the San Bartolo site in Guatemala, the
mural covers the west wall of a room attached to a pyramid.
c100BC The Shilla Dynasty began in southeastern
Korea and grew to become a top-heavy feudal system that covered most
of South Korea for almost 900 years.
(SFEM, 6/20/99, p.6)
c100BC The community situated on an island in the
Seine River was known by the Romans in the first century BC as
Lutetia. At the time, it was occupied by the Gallic tribe called
Parisii. As the city grew into a Roman trading center, it came to be
known as Paris.
c100BC The area around Palenque (Mexico) was 1st
(SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C5)
100BC - 1BC A Roman fortified citadel was built
about this time in Moldova. It may have protected a town occupied by
a late-era Sarmatian king.
(SFC, 1/28/97, p.A5)
100BC - 1BC The painted cave of Naj Tunich in the
Peten of Guatemala began attracting pilgrims.
(AM, 7/97, p.52)
c100BC - 1BC Diodorus Siculus, Greek historian of
the late 1st century.
(WUD, 1994 p.405)(AM, 7/01, p.31)
100BC - 100AD The Mayan site of Palenque was
settled by farmers over this period.
(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)
100BC - 500AD The Hopewell Mounds of Ohio were
erected by a mound building culture of this period that dominated
the eastern US.
(AM, adv. circular, p.2)
100BC - 668AD The Three Kingdoms era of Korea.
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.E3)
100BC - 1300AD This represents the time period of
the Anasazi culture of northern Arizona, New Mexico, southern Utah
(WUD, 1994, p.53)
96BC - 81BC The Circus of Domitian was built in
Rome. It later became the Piazza Navona.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)
95BC - 55BC The Artaxiad King Tigranes I extends
the Armenian state from Georgia in the north to Mesopotamia and
Syria in the south.
(CO Enc. / Armenia)
95BC - 51BC T. Lucretius Carus author of the epic
poem "On the Nature of Things", about the science of physics, yet
dedicated to pleasure. He was a devoted follower of Epicurus.
94BC-56BC Tigranes (Dikran) the Great, a scion of
the Eastern Dynasty, ruled. He welded the two Armenian satrapies
into one kingdom, and so created the first strong native sovereignty
that the country had known since the fall of Urartu five centuries
90BC After centuries of
decline, Etruscans become Roman citizens.
(NG, 6/1988, p.711)
89BC Roman general Cornelius
Sulla sacked Clusium, the Etruscan capital.
(Econ, 11/6/04, p.85)
89BC - 80BC Mithridates, ruler of Pontus in the
north of Asia Minor, made war on Rome and overran much of Asia Minor
and parts of Greece. The Athenians joined Mithridates and was
consequently besieged by the Roman Gen'l. Sulla.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)
87BC Chinese Emperor Wu Di
died. Sima Qian, historian of the era, had been castrated by Wu Di
for daring to stand in support of a disgraced general.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.21)
c81BC - 30BC Mark Antony had Cicero murdered. He
cut off his hands and had them nailed to the senate rostrum as a
warning to other men who might wish to speak the truth.
80BC Roman Gen. Pompey
conquered Domitius Ahenobarbus and King Hiarbus of Numidia. Pompey
restored Hiempsal to his throne.
80BC Cicero journeyed to Greece
and Asia suffering from pthisis [tuberculosis], and returned cured
after 2 years.
(WP, 1951, p.27)
80BC-70BC The Romans built the Flavian Amphiteatre
and named it after the family name of Emperor Vespasian. The
Colosseum could seat 50,000 spectators and had underground chambers,
dens and passageways, an area known as the hypogeum.
(SFC, 10/15/10, p.A5)
74BC According to Pliny the
Roman General Lucullus introduced cherries to Europe. Greeks had
cultivated cherries hundreds of years before this.
(SFC, 4/12/03, p.E3)
73BC Rome faced a 2nd slave
uprising in Sicily.
70BC Oct 15, Virgil (d.19BC)
[Vergil] (Publius Vergilius Maro), Roman poet, was born in Mantua.
He wrote about the mythical founding of Rome in the Aeneid, which
told the legend of Rome's founder and was considered a national
(V.D.-H.K.p.60)(HN, 10/15/98)(AMNHDT, 5/98)
70BC - 15BC Vitruvius, author of De Architecture,
translated to Italian in 1531.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.14)
69BC Cleopatra (d.30BC),
daughter of Ptolemy XII, was born. She was queen of Egypt from
51BC-49BC, 48BC-30BC. During her reign she declared earthworms to be
sacred and her subjects were forbidden to kill them.
(WUD, 1994, p.276)(WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)(SFC,
69BC The Roman Gen'l. Lucullus
experienced an attack by the Samosatans with a flammable mud called
maltha (semisolid petroleum and gases). The event was later recorded
by Pliny the Elder (23-79CE), a Roman naturalist.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)
66BC Tigranes I, King of
Armenia was forced to become a tributary of Rome.
(CO Enc. / Armenia)
65BC Dec 8, Quintus "Horace"
Horatius Flaccus (d.8 BC), Roman poet and satirist best known for
his three books "Odes," was born. "Drop the question what
tomorrow may bring, and count as profit every day that Fate allows
(HN, 12/8/98)(AP, 11/4/00)
64BC The Greek settlement of
Seleucia (in southeastern Turkey) was conquered and ruled by the
Roman Empire and with this shift the name of the city was changed
into Zeugma, meaning "bridge-passage" or "bridge of boats."
63BC Sep 23, Caesar Augustus
(63BC-14CE) was born in Rome. Augustus, first emperor of Rome, ended
the era of the Roman Republic and introduced the Pax Romana, the era
of peace. Augustus held power but shared administrative tasks with
the Senate, consuls, and tribunes who continued to be elected: "Make
(V.D.-H.K.p.63)(AP, 9/23/97)(AP, 11/20/97)(HN,
63BC Cicero was elected Consul
of Rome. During this time he suppressed a conspiracy to murder the
(WSJ, 6/11/02, p.D7)
63BC The Romans conquer the
Jews The Jews appealed to Pompey to settle internal dissention. The
Romans intervened and began their occupation of Palestine.
63BC Caesar's troops plundered
Terena in Portugal's Alentejo province.
(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.C11)
61BC Jul 7, Commagene, a small
kingdom of the upper Euphrates, under the reign of King Antiochus,
had a citadel area in front of which a lion was sculpted in relief
with recognizable constellations on or near the lion's body. Prof.
Otto Neugebauer of Brown Univ. studied the marks and identified the
date of the sculpture.
(K.I.-365D, p.127)(NG., Mar., 1961, pp.390-405)
59BC - 52BC Caesar’s legions battled the
Gallo-Celtic tribesmen of King Vercingetorix in northern Burgundy.
(SSFC, 12/5/04, p.F4)
55BC Aug 26, Roman forces under
Julius Caesar invaded Britain. 80 war galleys with some ten thousand
foot soldiers prevailed over the native Britons.
(AP, 8/26/97)(ON, 6/09, p.6)
55BC Lucretius (b.~99BC), a
Roman poet and philosopher, died about this time. He had authored
“On the Nature of Things” (De Rerum Natura), which laid out in 7,400
lines of Latin verse the radical philosophy of the Greek philosopher
Epicurus (341BC-270BC). The work disappeared in the Middle Ages and
lay largely forgotten until 1417, when bibliophile Poggio
Bracciolini stumbled on the work in a monastery in southern Germany.
55BC Pompey dedicated his
theater, the first to be constructed of stone in Rome.
54BC Jul, Roman forces under
Julius Caesar invaded Britain for a 2nd time. He was accompanied by
Mandubracius, an exiled British chieftain. The expedition of 10,000
foot soldiers and 2,00 cavalry was followed by a number of privately
owned vessels commissioned by Roman merchants eager to take
advantage of Caesar’s anticipated victory.
(ON, 6/09, p.7)
54BC The Eburons, A Belgian
tribe under the command of their King Ambiorix, won a victory
against the Roman Legion.
54BC The Romans under Julius
Caesar fought the first skirmishes with the Celts in England.
British chieftain Cassivellaunus, who had killed the father of
Mandubracius, led a guerilla style war against Caesar’s legions.
Caesar’s forces prevailed and Cassivellaunus agreed not to make was
(SFEC, 6/22/97, BR p.3)(ON, 6/09, p.7)
54BC Gaius Valerius Catullus
(b.~84BC), Roman poet, died about this time. He became famous for
his epicurean lifestyle and erotic poems.
54BC - 52BC The Gauls rose in revolt against
(ON, 6/09, p.7)
53BC Sep 23, Augustus, the
first Roman emperor, or Caesar, was born. His ascension to the title
of emperor marked the end of true Roman democracy, even though the
Senate survived for generations. [see 63BC]
53BC Caesar claimed to have
wiped out the Celtic Eburones after they conspired with other groups
in an attack that killed 6,000 Roman soldiers. The Eburones lived in
an area that later came be known as part of Belgium, Germany and the
53BC The Persians defeated the
Romans in the Battle of Carrhae. Some 20,000 Romans under Crassus
were killed by the Parthian army and 10,000 were captured. The
Parthians then used the Romans as guards on their eastern frontier
in what later became Turkmenistan.
(ATC, p.33)(HC, 9/3/04)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.59)
52BC Pompey dedicated his
Temple of Venus Victrix.
c52BC Cicero defended Titus Milo for the murder of
Publius Clodius. The setting is the background for the historical
detective novel: "A Murder on the Appian Way" by Steven Saylor.
(SFC, 6/3/96, p.E5)
52BC Caesar climaxed his
conquest of Gaul at Alesia in northern Burgundy where he vanquished
Celtic forces under Vercingetorix.
(NGM, 5/77)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T4)
51BC - 49BC Cleopatra was queen of Egypt from
51BC-49BC and 48BC-30BC.
(WUD, 1994, p.276)
50BC Jun-Aug, In Egypt the
"Zodiac of Dendera," a map of the stars of this period, was carved
in stone. It is now in the French Louvre.
(WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)
50BC Virgil first described the
(TGR, 1995, p.3)
50BC Maastricht, Netherlands,
began as a Roman settlement.
(SSFC, 2/20/05, p.F2)
49 BC Jan 11, Julius Caesar led his army across
the Rubicon, plunging Rome into civil war. [see Jan 12, Mar 10]
49 BC Jan 12, Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon
River signaling a war between Rome and Gaul. [see Jan 11, Mar 10]
49BC Mar 10, Julius Caesar
crossed the Rubicon and invaded Italy. The event was noted by
Suetonius in the phrase: "The die is cast." [see Jan 11]
(SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.5)(HN, 3/10/98)
49BC Mauretania (now northern
Morocco and Algeria) became a client kingdom of Rome.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.22)
48BC Aug 9, Julius Caesar
defeated Gnaius Pompey at Pharsalus.
48BC Sep 28, On landing in
Egypt, Pompey was murdered on the orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt.
(HN, 9/28/98)(MC, 9/28/01)
48BC The library at Alexandria
was ravaged by fire during the fighting between Caesar and Ptolemy
47 BC Aug 2, Caesar defeated Pharnaces at Zela in
Syria and declares "veni, vidi, vici," (I came, I saw, I conquered).
47BC Julius Caesar adopted a
modified form of the Egyptian Calendar. Together with Sosigenes, an
astronomer from Alexandria, the new calendar spreads the last 5-6
days of the Egyptian calendar amongst alternate months. March 1
began the year as a carry over from the old Roman calendar.
46BC Caesar's calendar went
into effect at the time of the first new moon after the winter
(K.I.-365D, p.86)(AM, 11/04, p.9)
46BC The heart of ancient
Numidia lay in the eastern region of what is now Algeria in Northern
Africa. They were conquered by Rome in 46 BC. The Vandals and
Byzantines ruled successively before Arabs conquered the area in the
seventh century CE.
45BC Jan 1, The Julian calendar
45 BC Feb 29, The first Leap Day was recognized by
proclamation of Julius Caesar. Under the old Roman calendar the last
day of February was the last day of the year.
45BC Mar, Caesar defeated the
least of his rivals and was proclaimed dictator for life.
(ON, 6/09, p.7)
c45BC Colonia Julia Equestris, a Roman veterans'
colony, was founded in what is now Nyon, Switzerland. Nyon is
derived from the Celtic name Noviodunum.
(AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.10)
44BC Mar 15, Roman Emperor
Julius Caesar (b.100BC) was murdered by Brutus, Cassius and other
conspirators on the Ides of March. Caesar had defeated Pompey in
battle and had Pompey murdered in 48BC. He was perceived as a big
threat to the Roman Aristocracy and so his murder was supported by
Cicero and most Romans. In 2006 Adrian Goldsworthy authored “Caesar:
Life of a Colossus.”
(ATC, p.24)(AP, 3/15/97)(WSJ, 10/24/06, p.D6)
44BC Quintilis, the fifth month
was changed to Julius in honor of Julius Caesar. A bright comet was
declared by the Romans to be the soul of Julius Caesar ascending to
join the gods.
(SFC, 3/28/97, p.A12)
44BC Caesar began building a
colony at Butrint, Albania. Titus Pomponius Atticus described the
area as "the quietest, coolest, most pleasant place in the world."
43BC Mar 20, Ovid (d.17?18CE),
Publius Ovidius Naso, Roman poet, was born. His writings included:
"The Art of Love."
(WUD, 1994, p.1032)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.2)(HN,
43 BC Apr 21, Marcus Antonius was defeated by
Octavian near Modena, Italy.
43 BC Nov 27, Octavian, Antony and Lepidus formed
the triumvirate of Rome.
43BC Dec 7, Cicero (b.106BC),
considered one of the greatest sons of Rome was assassinated on the
orders of Marcus Antonius. Cicero, elected Consul in 63, had chosen
to support Pompey over Caesar. He translated Greek works that they
might be understood by his fellow Romans, and tried to apply Greek
ethical thought to Roman business and politics. His last work was
"On Duties," where he propounds a common solution to all social
problems i.e. "Always do the right thing... that which is legal...
that which is honest, open and fair...keeping your word... telling
the truth... and treating everyone alike. In 2002 Anthony Everitt
authored "Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome’s Greatest Politician,"
a biography based on his letters. In 2006 Robert Harris authored
“Imperium,” a novel that covers Cicero’s early courtroom feats.
(V.D.-H.K.p.74)(HN, 12/7/98)(WSJ, 6/11/02,
p.D7)(WSJ, 11/10/06, p.W4)
42BC Oct 23, Marcus Junius
Brutus, a leading conspirator in the assassination of Julius Caesar,
committed suicide after his defeat at the Battle of Philippi.
Octavian and Mark Antony defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi in
(WUD, 1994, p.1081)(MC, 10/23/01)
42BC Nov 16, Tiberius Claudius
Nero (d.37CE, Roman Emperor, was born. Tiberius was chosen by
Augustus in 4CE as emperor of Rome.
(V.D.-H.K.p.77) (HN, 11/16/98)
37BC King Herod (d.4BC) reigned
over Judea. During his reign underground support structures were
built for an expansion of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The Wall of
King Herod's Second Temple is the famed "Wailing Wall."
(SFC, 7/9/96, p.D1)(SFC, 10/10/96, p.A13)(WSJ,
37BC Virgil (b.70BC), Roman
poet, authored the 4th of his Eclogues. This included text regarding
the newborn son of Consul Polio in which Virgil said the child would
initiate a golden age in which lion and lamb would lie together amid
peace and plenty. Early Christians took this as a prediction of
(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.W12)
37BC - 448CE The Koguryo kingdom straddled what
is now North Korea and part of South Korea and the northeastern
Chinese region of Manchuria. It spread Buddhism throughout the
37BC - 668CE The Koguryo kingdom (Gaogouli in
Chinese) flourished during this time. At its height the territory
stretched from central Manchuria to south of Seoul, Korea. It was
later taught to be one of Korea’s three founding kingdoms.
(Econ, 3/31/07, SR p.8)
33BC Agrippa called for the
construction an aqueduct, 500 fountains and 700 basins for central
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)
32BC Pompey's theater was
damaged in a storm and repaired by Augustus who especially noted
that in repairing it he nowhere recorded his own name.
32BC A Roman coin dating from
this time bore the images of Cleopatra on one side and Marc Antony
on the reverse. It represented one three hundredth of a Roman
soldier's salary and was probably minted to pay the wages of those
stationed in Egypt.
32BC - 23BC Octavian ruled as Consul over Rome by
31BC Sep 2, The Naval Battle of
Actium in the Ionian Sea, between Roman leader Octavian and the
alliance of Roman Mark Antony and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt.
Octavian soundly defeated Antony's fleet which was burned and 5000
of his men were killed. Cleopatra committed suicide. The rivals
battled for control of the Roman Empire in the naval battle of
Actium, where Cleopatra, seeing Antony's navy being outmaneuvered by
Octavian's, ordered her 60 ships to turn about and flee to safety.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.18)(HNPD, 7/30/98)(MC, 9/2/01)
c31BC Augustus founded the city of Nikopolis in
Epirus (northwestern Greece) to commemorate his victory over Antony
and Cleopatra at Actium.
(AM, Jul-Aug/99, p.10)
31BC Rome under Emperor
Augustus annexed the Carthage territory.
(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)
31BC An earthquake occurred at
the Qumran caves by the Dead Sea when Herod ruled in Jerusalem. This
was the site where fragments of scrolls from the books of Psalms and
Numbers were later found, as well as a human skeleton beneath
boulders from the earthquake.
30BC Jul 30, Mark Antony, lover
of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII and claimant to the Roman
throne, stabbed himself when faced with certain defeat at the hands
of his rival Octavian. Antony expected to be named the heir to Rome
after the assassination of his friend and confidant Julius Caesar,
but had not counted on Caesar naming his adopted son Octavian as his
successor. Shaken by his loss at Actium and abandoned by his allies,
Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed him in death shortly
afterward when she allowed herself to be bitten by a venomous asp.
30BC Aug 30, Cleopatra, the 7th and most famous
queen of ancient Egypt, committed suicide about this time.
30BC Rome gained control over
Egypt. The wheat fields of Egypt became one of Rome's main sources
of food. Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)(SFC, 11/4/96,
30BC Construction began on the Temple of Isis in
Sabratha, Libya. It was completed in 14CE.
(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)
29BC Cicero complained that
"Two of my shops have fallen down... The tenants have fled... Even
the mice have migrated." [see 43BC]
(SFEC, 9/28/97, Z1 p.2)
28BC Oct 9, The Temple of
Apollo was dedicate on the Palatine Hill in Rome.
28BC In Rome the mausoleum of
Emperor Augustus(d.14AD) was built.
(WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P16)
27BC An earthquake hit Egypt
and devastated the temple of Amenhotep III in Luxor, which dated to
27BC The Roman senatorial
province of Achaea was established. It comprised all of Greece south
(AHD, 1971, p.10)
27BC - 14CE Octavian, adopted son of Julius Caesar
ruled as Rome's first emperor. He was given the name Augustus
(revered or exalted one) and put an end to the chaos and power
struggles that had occurred after Caesar's assassination. He also
expanded the empire by conquering the territory that ran along the
Rhine and Danube rivers.
25BC Augustus received two
trade groups from India.
25BC Strabo, a geographer and
scholar from Alexandria, made the most comprehensive map of the
(SFC, 12/1/98, p.A10)
19BC Sep 20, The Roman poet
Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro, b.70BC) died. His epic "The Aeneid"
became one of the great classics of Western literature. The story it
tells runs from the end of the Trojan War to the start of the Roman
(WUD, 1994 p.1587)(MC 9/20/01)
19BC Agrippa had the Aqua Virgo built in Rome.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)
19BC A wine jug bearing
reference to King Herod was found in an ancient garbage dump near
the synagogue at Masada, Israel. The cone-shaped, two-handled jug
held about 20 gallons of wine and had been shipped from Italy.
(SFC, 7/9/96, p.D1)
19BC Lucius Cornelius Balbus
led 20,000 men of the 3rd Augusta Legion across the Hamada al-Hamra
(Red Rocky Plain) in the first Roman attack on the Garamantian
heartland (Libya). Romans turned Ghadames, Libya, into a garrison
p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garamantes)(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)
16BC Flying Swallow (16) became
empress to China's Emperor Cheng.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.12)
15BC King Herod of Judea built
the coastal settlement of Caesarea. It was razed to the ground in
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.83)
12 BC Aug 31, Caligula (Gaius
Caesar), 3rd Roman emperor (37-41 CE), was born.
10BC Aug 1, Claudius (d.54CE).,
Roman Emperor, was born. Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar Drusus, the
nephew of Tiberius and grandson of the wife of Augustus, was made
emperor after Caligula.
9BC The Ara Pacis (Altar of
Peace), ordered by Augustus Caesar, was constructed in Rome. In 2005
the Museum of the Ara Pacis opened in Rome.
(WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P16)
8BC Augustus, emperor of the
Roman Empire. The Roman Senate changed the name of the month
Sextilis to Augustus, and an extra day was added while subtracting a
day from February.
8BC Augustus Caesar ordered a
census under the consulship of Gaius Censorinus and Gaius Asinius.
4,233,000 Roman citizens were counted.
8BC Horace (b.65BC), Roman
poet, died. In 2002 J.D. McClatchy edited "Horace: The Odes, New
Translations by Contemporary Poets.
(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M2)
c7BC Dionysius of
Helicarnassus, Greek rhetorician and historian in Rome, died. He
said that history is philosophy learned from examples.
(WUD, 1994, p.405)(Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.75)
6BC Apr 17, Jupiter was in a
rare alignment with the constellation Aries and marked an important
date for ancient astrologers. Jesus was believed to have been born
in this year.
(SFC, 4/13/01, p.C1)
6BC - 4BC Publius Quinctilius Varus served as
Roman governor of Syria.
c5BC - 65CE Seneca, Roman statesman:
"Malice drinks one-half of its own poison."
c4BC The Second Temple in
Jerusalem was rebuilt a few years before the birth of Jesus under
King Herod. Jerusalem at this time had a population of about 100,000
(SFC, 8/28/96, p.A10)
4BC Publius Sulpicius Quirinus
served as Roman governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to Syria.
4BC King Herod the Great died.
He governed Judea from 37BC.
(SFC, 6/26/00, p.A12)
4BC Lucius Annaeus Seneca
(d.65) (aka Seneca the younger), Roman intellectual, was born in
4BC - 40CE Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great,
tetrarch of Galilee for this period. He examined Jesus at the
request of Pilate. He executed John the Baptist. Pontius Pilate
served as governor of the island of Ponza before he was made
procurator of Judea.
(AHD, 1971, p.618, 706)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T12)
3BC Sep 14, Jupiter appeared to
pass very close to the star Regulus, "the King's Star."
(SSFC, 12/23/01, Par p.9)
3BC - 2BC Astronomical events occurred at this
time and coincided with the probable birth of Jesus Christ. During
the conjunctions of 3BC, Jupiter, the King Planet, came into contact
with the King Star, Leo the Lion, which was also the sign for the
Jewish tribe of Judah.
(SFEC, 2/16/97, p.A16)
2BC Feb 17, Jupiter again
appeared to pass very close to the star Regulus, "the King's Star."
(SSFC, 12/23/01, Par p.9)
2BC May 8, Jupiter appeared to
pass very close to the star Regulus, "the King's Star" for a 3rd
time in recent months.
(SSFC, 12/23/01, Par p.9)
2BC Jun 17, Jupiter and Venus
drew close together and appeared to fuse as a single star. This was
later thought to be the Biblical star of Bethlehem.
(SSFC, 12/23/01, Par p.9
2BC Heratosthene of Greece drew
a map that showed 3 continents about equal in size labeled: Europe,
Asia and Libya.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, Z1 p.8)
2BC The Maccabeans built an
aqueduct in Jerusalem.
(SFC, 9/26/96, p.A10)
1BC Mar 1, Start of the revised
Julian calendar in Rome.