Timeline The Twelfth Century 1100-1199

Return to home

1100        Aug 2, William II (44), [Rufus], king of England, was shot dead in New Forest.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_II_of_England)
1100        Aug 2, Henry I (1068-1135), the son of William the Conqueror, became King of England. He soon published the Charter of Liberties to persuade barons that he would behave more reasonably than his brother William Rufus.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_I_of_England)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)

1100        The Tower of London took in its 1st prisoner.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.28)

c1100    St. Cono was born in Teggiano in southern Italy. He became a Benedictine monk and went on to perform numerous miracles. His remains were later embedded in a statue in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A1)

c1100    Timbuktu was founded about this time as a seasonal Tuareg nomad camp around a well that was maintained by a group of slaves under an old woman, Buktu, "the place of Buktu." Tuareg is a derisive Arab term meaning abandoned by the gods. Natives prefer to be know as Kel Tamashek people.
    (AM, 11/00, p.51)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(SFC, 10/30/04, p.E1)

1100        In the Netherlands Wittem Castle in Limburg dates to this time.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T13)

c1100    In Spain the town of Santo Domingo de la Calzada was founded by a man known as St. Dominic of the Walkway.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T5)

1100        By the 1100s the Chinese began to use the magnetic compass.
    (ATC, p.11)

1100        By this time East African traders in Kilwa controlled the export of gold and ivory from the southern kingdoms. Kilwa was the most prosperous of the east African city-states.
    (ATC, p.143)

1100        Statue (moai) building began about this time on Easter Island and continued to the 1700s.
    (SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E14)

1100        A volcano erupted about this time in the area of Flagstaff, Arizona.
    (SSFC, 7/23/06, p.G4)

1100s    Troubadour musicians organized in southern France.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1100s    Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland began producing whiskey.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T8)

c1100-1154    Geoffrey of Monmouth, English chronicler. The Welsh cleric claimed that Merlin used magic to bring the stones of Stonehenge from Ireland.
    (WUD, 1994, p.592)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.12)

1100-1200    The 16-foot scroll titled “Qingming Shanghe Tu" (Qingming Festival on the River) was created in the 12th century. It was believed to have been painted by Zhang Zeduan, an artist of the Song Dynasty.
    (SFC, 9/14/05, p.E2)(www.ibiblio.org/ulysses/gec/painting/qingming/)
1100-1200    The Song capital of Kaifeng in northern China was later believed to have been the most populous city of this period.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, p.44)
1100-1200    Muhammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, Arab mathematician and astronomer, wrote “hisab al-jabr w’ al muqabalah" (the science of reduction and comparison) in the 9th cent. The work dealt with solving equations. It was the first time that algebra was discussed as a separate branch of mathematics. In the 12th century it was translated into Latin as “Ludus algebrae et almucgrabalaeque."
    (Alg, 1990, p.87)
c1100-1200    Shihab el-Din was an anti-Crusader cleric. He was believed to be buried in Nazareth next to the Basilica of the Annunciation. A cornerstone for a mosque was laid at the site in 1999.
    (SFC, 11/24/99, p.A16)
c1100-1200    Judah Halevi was a Jewish poet who lived in Muslim Spain in the 12th century. He wrote “City of the Great King, for thee my soul is longing."
    (WSJ, 12/12/00, p.A24)

1100-1200    Chretien de Troyes of France in the 12th century introduced Camelot into the Arthurian legend and placed Lancelot in the saga along with the quest for the Holy Grail.
    (WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)
c1100-1200    Albigenses were members of the Catharistic sect that arose in southern France in the 11th century. [see 1244]
    (WUD, 1994 p.34)
1100-1200    In France the Abbot Suger was busy embellishing the abbey of St. Denis.
    (WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A16)

1100-1200    In Cambodia the Khmer empire reached its peak under King Jajavarman II in the 12th century.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T7)

1100-1200    The German Stammheim Missal was made. It told stories from Creation to the crucifixion of Christ. In 1997 it was acquired by the J. Paul Getty Museum.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.E3)
1100-1200    Berlin was founded amid the sandy plains and swamps of Brandenburg. In 1998 Alexandra Richie published “Faust’s Metropolis: A History of Berlin."
    (WSJ, 5/1/98, p.W5)
1100-1200    In Germany the Oberburg Castle was built in the 12th century by the Knights of Leyen.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T8)
1100-1200    Two 12th century castles along the Rhine were owned, according to legend, by the brothers Conrad and Heinrich of Boppard. They came to blows over a woman, Hildegarde, and the ruins of the castles were named the Warring Brothers.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)
c1100-1200    The Festung Ehrenbreitsen, Europe’s largest fortress, was built at the convergence of the Mosel and Rhine Rivers.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T1)

1100-1200    In India the bronze sculpture “Shiva Nataraya" depicted the Hindu god of creation and destruction doing the dance that sustains the universe.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)
1100-1200    In India the comic man-elephant “Ganesha" sculpture was carved in schist.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)

1100-1200    In Ireland Cistercian monks established an abbey on Clare Island.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)
1100-1200    In Limerick, Ireland a 12th century cathedral was built.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T11)

c1100-1200    In Japan Nichiren Daishonin, the son of a fisherman in Awa, established a new sect of Buddhism. In 1930 the Soka Gakkai (value-creation society) was founded in Tokyo based on his teachings.
    (WSJ, 4/23/99, B1)

1100-1200    The Norse visited Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic as early as the 12th century and traded with the Thule, evidenced by chain mail. boat rivets, knife blades, and other artifacts turned up near Bache Peninsula.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.763)

1100-1200    Norwegian Chronicles mentioned a stave church in the village of Vaga.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)

1100-1200    Era of the 12 century Persian poet Nizami of Ganja.
    (SFC, 5/19/96, p.C-13)

1100-1200    Serbs occupied parts of northern and eastern Albanian inhabited lands.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

c1100-1200    San Isidro, a Spanish farmer, later became the patron saint of Madrid.
    (WSJ, 11/18/97, p.A20)

1100-1200    In Turkey Constantinople was devastated by fires in the 12th century.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

1100-1200    The 12th century book “Gyuschi" was a compilation of Tibetan medicine that described the making and applications of medications extracted from herbs, roots and minerals often served as hot teas.
    (SFC, 2/20/98, p.C4)

1100-1300    About this period volcanic ash and molten rock sprayed the area of the Wupatki Basin near Flagstaff, Arizona for as long as 200 years.
    (SSFC, 7/23/06, p.G5)

1100-1400    The official stave churches of Norway were mostly built during this period.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)

1101        William IX, the Duke of Aquitaine, returned from the Crusades and composed songs about his adventures, thus becoming the first troubadour. He was excommunicated for licentious acts, but his lyrics led to the "courtly love" genre.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1101-1125    Huizong ruled over China. He was a calligrapher, painter and Confucian advocate of embracing antiquity. He broadened the scope of Imperial collecting to embrace bronze ritual objects as well as old paintings and calligraphy.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.36)

1102        In England the Westminster Council outlawed “the selling of men like brute animals."
    (ON, 12/08, p.8)

1102        Coats were forced to enter into a union with Hungary and to recognize the Hungarian king as their own.
    (WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1103        Aug 24, Magnus III Berbein, [Blootbeen], King of Norway (1093-1103), died.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1105        Nov 24, Rabbi Nathan ben Yehiel of Rome completed a Talmudic dictionary.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1106        Aug 7, Henry IV (54),  Holy Roman Emperor (1056/84-1105), died.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1106        Sep 28, King Henry I of England defeated his brother Robert Curthose of Normandy at the Battle of Tinchebrai and reunited England and Normandy. Robert remained a prisoner until he died in 1134.
    (HN, 9/28/98)(PC, 1992, p.90)

1107        China printed money in 3 colors to thwart counterfeiters.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1107        Mi Fu (b.1051), Chinese calligrapher of the Northern Song period, died.
    (SFC, 5/14/03, p.D3)(SFC, 7/1/06, p.E1)

1107-1205    Enrico Dandolo, ruler of Venice. He was blind and spearheaded the 4th Crusade. He funded an army to capture Constantinople and after the "rape of Constantinople" pocketed some of the city's riches. He stole 4 bronze horses and placed them over the entry to the Cathedral of San Marco.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1109        Apr 21, Anselmus, philosopher, archbishop of Canterbury, died.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1109        Apr 28, Hugo van Cluny, 6th abbot of Cluny, saint, died.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1109        Jul 12, Crusaders captured harbor city of Tripoli.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1110        May 13, Crusaders marched into Beirut causing a bloodbath.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1110        Dec 4, Syria harbor city of Saida (Sidon) surrendered to the Crusaders.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1111        Feb 12, Henry V of Germany presented himself to Pope Paschal II for coronation along with treaty terms that commanded the clergy to restore fiefs of the crown to Henry. The pope refused to crown and Henry left Rome taking the pope with him. When Paschal was unable to get help, he confirmed Henry’s right of investiture and crowned him.
    (PCh, 1992, p.91)

1113        Feb 13, Pope Paschal II issued a papal bull recognizing the Knights of Malta as independent from bishops or secular authorities. The order traces had establishment an infirmary in Jerusalem that cared for people of all faiths making pilgrimages to the Holy Land.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

1113        Aug 24, Geoffrey Plantagenet, conquered Normandy, was born in France.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1114        Trade fairs were held at Champagne, France, at the crossing of roads from Flanders, Germany, Italy and Provence.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

c1117    Abelard (1079-1142), master of a school in Paris, impregnated Heloise, his single female student. [See 1079]
    (WSJ, 2/11/05, p.W6)

1118        Apr 2, Boudouin I of Bologne and Edessa, 1st crusader, king of Jerusalem, died.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1118        Apr 7, Pope Gelasius II excommunicated Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1118        Dec 18, Afonso the Battler, the Christian King of Aragon captured Saragossa, Spain, a major blow to Muslim Spain.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1118        Dec 21, Thomas Becket (d.1170), archbishop of Canterbury, was born (some sources say 1120). His close friend Henry II of England later ordered his martyrdom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket)

1118        The military order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon was founded in Jerusalem to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land following the First Crusade. The Knights Templar were founded to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land during the second Crusade.
    (AHD, 1971, p.724)(AP, 10/12/07)
1118        Seborga became the provenance of nine Knight Templars returning from the crusades.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T7)

1120        Nov 25, Countess of Perche, bastard daughter of English king Henry I, drowned along with William (17), English crown prince and son of Henry I.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1121        Mar 2, Dirk VI became count of Holland.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1122        Mar 2, Floris II, the fat one, count of Holland, died.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1123        In the film “The Visitors" The noble Sir Godefroy of this time is transformed to 1996 France to do battle with short order cooks, rescue bag ladies and learn modern etiquette in order to find the descendant of his betrothed sweetheart's descendant, the Duchess Frenegonde.
    (SFC, 7/16/96, p.E1)

1123        Omar Khayyam, Persian poet and mathematician, died.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1005)

1124        Apr 27, Alexander I, king of Scotland (1107-24), died.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1124        May 6, Balak, Emir of Aleppo (Syria), was murdered.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1124        Jul 7, Tyre [Tyrus] surrendered to the Crusaders.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1124        The quality of English silver coins improved after mint masters caught adulterating coins had their right hands cut off.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1125        May 25, Hendrik V, last Salische German king, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1125        Sinaguan people built a 5-story limestone dwelling, later known as Montezuma Castle, near Sedona, Az.
    (SSFC, 7/6/03, p.C9)

1126        Nov 26, Al-Borsoki, emir of Aleppo-Mosoel (Syria), was assassinated.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1126AD    A drought that lasted 1-2 centuries, as measured from tree rings in the Sierra Nevada, was centered on this time. It coincided with a Medieval warm period when Vikings navigated the waters surrounding Greenland. A 2nd drought centered at 1340AD.
    (NH, 9/96, p.38)

1126-1198     Averroes (Ibn Rushd), Arab philosopher and commentator who translated Aristotle from the original Greek to Arabic, which was then translated to Latin. He wrote a major reinterpretation of Plato's Republic. He lamented the fact that Islam had not adopted Plato's view of women as the equal of men and had thus failed to give them civic equality.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.117)(WSJ, 7/7/99, p.A23)

1127        Mar 2, Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, was murdered. Flemish towns (Ghent, Bruges and Ypres) forced the selection of Thierry of Alsace as the new count despite Louis VI’s choice of the son of Normandy’s Robert Curthose.
    (PCh, 1992, p.92)(SC, 3/2/02)

1127-1279    In 2007 Chinese archeologists raised a merchant ship loaded with porcelain and other rare antiques to the surface in a specially built basket. The 100-foot Nanhai No. 1, discovered in 1987, sank off the south China coast during the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279).
    (AP, 12/21/07)

1128        Jun 24, Afonso I of Portugal defeated the army of his mother Theresa.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1128        The Royal High School in Scotland was founded by a group of Edinburgh Friars.
    (SFC, 4/22/98, p.A10)

1129        Aug 21, The warrior Yoritomo was made Shogun without equal in Japan.
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1130        Feb 14, Jewish Cardinal Pietro Pierleone was elected as anti-pope Anacletus II.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1130        The Knights of St. John (the Hospitallers) became a military order some 60 years after having been founded in Jerusalem to care for the sick.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.27)

1130        China’s Master-of-the-Nets Garden in Suzhou was built about this time.
    (SSFC, 6/25/06, p.A16)

1130        The first travel book was written by a French priest about travel on the Camino de Santiago (the road of St. James) in northern Spain.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T5)
1130        The French church at the abbey at Cluny was completed and measured over 400 feet long.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T4)

1130-1150    Tree growth rings revealed that a drought occurred in the southwest US. This period corresponded with the abandonment of Anasazi dwelling sites in Arizona.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.79)

1130-1200    Chu codified Confucian thought.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, Z1 p.5)

1131        Mar 1, Stephen II, King of Hungary (1116-31), died.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1131        Oct 25, Louis VII the Young, King of France, was crowned.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1132        In China invaders established what became known as the southern Song dynasty in Hangzhou.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1133        Mar 25, Henry II, King of England (1154-1189) , was born.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1133        Jun 4, In Rome Pope Innocentius II crowned German King Lothair II as emperor at the Church of the Lateran.
    (MC, 6/4/02)(PCh, 1992, p.92)

1133-1193    Rashid Al-Din Sinan, also known as "The Old Man of the Mountain," was a leader of the Assassins. He used the Syrian Masyaf castle as a base for spreading the beliefs of the Nizari Ismaili sect of Islam to which he and his followers belonged.
    (www.iis.ac.uk/view_article.asp?ContentID=104843)(Reuters, 7/13/07)

1135        Dec 1, Henry I Beauclerc of England died and the crown was passed to his nephew Stephen of Bloise. He had decreed that the standard linear measure of one foot be a third the length of his arm which was 36 inches. He was the 1st English king able to read.
    (HN, 12/1/98)(SFEC, 2/14/99, Z1 p.8)(MC, 12/1/01)

1135        Dec 22, Stephen of Blois was crowned the king of England.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1135        Maimonides (d.1204), Jewish scholar, philosopher and rabbi was born in Spain. He analyzed linkages between wealth and charity and created a ladder of giving with each rung representing a higher degree of virtue. The most virtuous way to give was to help a stranger by offering him a loan or job so that he would no longer need help. The lowest rung was to make a grudging donation.
    (WUD, 1994, p.864)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ, 10/5/01, p.W17)

1136        The people of Novgorod, Russia, expelled their prince, assigned by Kiev, and transferred his power to the local nobility and merchant class who formed a sort of city council known as the vieche.
    (AM, 11/00, p.32)

1137        Aug 1, Louis the Younger (1120-1180) of France was crowned King Louis VII. He had married Eleanor, the Duchess of Aquitaine, just a few months earlier.
    (ON, 6/12, p.3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_VII_of_France)

1138        May 29, Anti-Pope Victor IV (Gregorio) overthrew self for Innocentius II.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1139        Apr 20, The Second Lateran Council opened in Rome. The crossbow was outlawed in the 12th century, at least against Christians, by the second Lateran council (the 10th ecumenical council), called by Pope Innocent II. Capable of piercing chain mail from a range of up to 1,000 feet, this formidable missile weapon remained a fixture of technically-advanced European armies throughout the Middle Ages. Although it was used after the introduction of firearms, it was eventually succeeded by the harquebus—a primitive gun—in the late 15th century. The council attempted universal enforcement of priestly celibacy in the Roman Catholic Church.
    (HN, 4/20/98)(HN, 4/20/98)(HNQ, 12/5/00)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

1138        Aug 22, English defeated Scots at Cowton Moor. Banners of various saints were carried into battle which led to its being called Battle of the Standard.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1139        Incendiary weapons that burned people to death were banned by the countries of northern Europe as “too murderous." The practice was resumed the next century.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)

1140        Gratian wrote the illuminated “Decretum," a standard treatise on canon law in Bologna about this time. He wrote three volumes on the subject which were lavishly illustrated. The three volumes were later published by the Vatican in 1975.
    (WSJ, 7/13/95, p.A-12)

1140        Ghorid leaders from central Afghanistan captured and burned Ghazni, then moved on to conquer India.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1140        Somerled first appeared in historical chronicles as the regulus, or King, of Kintyre (Cinn Tìre) when he marries Raghnailt the daughter of Olaf (or Amhlaibh), King of Mann and the Scottish Isles.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somerled)

1141        Jan 31, Pope Innocent II authorized Bishop Henry of Moravia to preach Catholicism in Prussia.
    (LHC, 1/31/03)

1141        Sep 8, Battle of Samarkand (Uzbekistan): Yelutashi defeated Islams.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1141        Dec 29, Yue Fei, Chinese general, was executed.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1141        The Barone Ricasoli family founded a wine and oil firm and produced Chianti wine.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1142        Apr 21, Pierre Abelard (62), French philosopher (priestly lover of Heloise), died.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1144        Mar 8, Celestine II [Guido], Italian Pope (1143-44), died in battle.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1144        The Saracens recaptured the crusader’s castles along the Palestine coast.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.109)

1144        In Syria the Knights Hospitallers began expanding a fortress 90 miles northwest of Damascus. It became known as The Crac des Chevaliers. The Mamelukes captured it in 1271 and converted the chapel into a mosque.
    (WSJ, 1/31/09, p.W12)

1146        Aug 30, European leaders outlawed the crossbow with the intention to end war for all time. [see 1139]
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1146        Sep 14, Zangi of the Near East was murdered. The Sultan Nur ad-Din, his son, pursued the conquest of Edessa (NW Mesopotamia).
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1146        France’s warrior-abbot Bernard of Clairvaux built the La Cordelle chapel in northern Burgundy.
    (SFCM, 10/7/07, p.18)

1147        Oct 25, At the Battle at Dorylaeum (Turkey) Arabs beat Konrad III's crusaders. Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France had assembled 500,000 men for the 2nd Crusade. Most of the men were lost to starvation, disease and battle wounds.
    (PCh, 1992, p.94)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dorylaeum_%281147%29)

1147        Moscow was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, a ruler of the northeastern Rus. He built the first fortress, or Kremlin, along the Moscow River.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A14)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.27,28)

1148        Jul 24, Crusaders, led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, attacked Damascus. It was a dismal failure and effectively ended the 2nd Crusade.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Crusade)(V.D.-H.K.p.109)(ON, 6/12, p.5)

1149        In Jerusalem the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, rebuilt by the Crusaders, was consecrated.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.28)

1150        Mar 26, Tichborne family of Hampshire, England, started tradition of giving a gallon of flour to each resident to keep deathbed promise.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

c1150    The original Hopi territory in the southwest encompassed some 225,000 sq. miles around villages established about this time.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)

c1150    A group of Anasazi villages in southwest Colorado were suddenly abandoned during a period of severe drought. In 2000 evidence showed that a raiding party had swept through the area, killed the inhabitants and ate their flesh.
    (SFC, 9/6/00, p.A3)

1150        Adelard of Bath (b.1080), Englishman, died. He had traveled widely and translated the Arabic version of Euclid's "Elements" into Latin as well as several Arabic books on astronomy.
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, p.M2)

c1150    Suryavarman II, Khmer ruler, died about this time. He commissioned the building of Angkor Wat, possibly the largest religious monument in the world. He traded elephant tusks, rhinoceros horns and kingfisher feathers for gold. The feathers were prized in China for bridal attire.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1150        The municipality of Genoa raised 400 lira by granting to investors the tax revenue raised from stallholders in the marketplace over a term of 29 years. This became the first recorded public bond.
    (Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)

1151        Sep 7, Geoffrey Plantagenet, earl of Anjou and duke of Normandy, died at 38.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1151        In Iceland the first known fire and plague insurance was offered.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1152        Mar 4, Frederick Barbarossa was chosen as emperor and united the two factions, which emerged in Germany after the death of Henry V.
    (HN, 3/4/99)

1152        Mar, The marriage between King Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine was annulled at a royal council in Beaugency.
    (ON, 6/12, p.5)

1153        Mar 23, Treaty of Konstanz between Frederik I "Barbarossa" and Pope Eugene III.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1152        May 18, Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry Plantagenet, a rebellious vassal of King Louis VII.
    (ON, 6/12, p.5)

1153        May 23, David I (~68), king of Scotland (1124-53), died.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1153        May 24, Malcolm IV became king of Scotland.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1153        Aug 20, Bernard de Clairvaux, French saint, died.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1153        A wandering Arab holy man converted the king of the Buddhist islanders of the Maldives.
    (WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A12)

1153        A chicken restaurant, the world's oldest existing eatery, opened in Kai-Feng, China.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1153        Anna Komnene (b.1083), Byzantine princess and scholar, died. She was a daughter of the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina. She is one of the first known female historians, having written the Alexiad.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Komnene)

1154        Feb 26, Rogier II Guiscard (60), King of Sicily (1101-54), died. William the bad succeeded his father, Roger the II.
    (SC, 2/26/02)(HN, 2/26/99)

1154        Oct 25, King Steven of England (1135-54), died.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1154        Dec 19, Henry Plantagenet of the Angevin dynasty was crowned Henry II, King of England with Eleanor  of Aquitaine as queen.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor,_Duchess_of_Aquitaine)(ON, 6/12, p.5)

1155        Jan, Sir Thomas Becket (~1118-1170) was given the high office of Chancellor to the King, Henry II.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket)

1155        Jun 18, German-born Frederick I, Barbarossa, was crowned emperor of Rome by Pope Adrian IV.
    (HN, 6/18/98)(MC, 6/18/02)

1155        A map of western China was printed and is the oldest known printed map.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1156        May 28, Battle at Brindisi: King William of Sicily beat a Byzantine fleet.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1156        The first foreign exchange contracts were issued and allowed the repayment of Genoese pounds debt with Byzantine bezants.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1157        Sep 8, Richard I, [Richard the Lion Hearted], King of England (1189-99), was born.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1157        The Bank of Venice issued the first government bonds to raise funds for was with Constantinople.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1158        Aug 31, Sancho III, King of Castilia, died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1158        Nov 11, Emperor Frederik I Barbarossa declared himself ruler of North Italy.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1159        Sep 1, Adrian IV, [Nicole Breakspear], only English pope (1154-59), died.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1159        John of Salisbury authored a religious book called “The Metalogicon." It included the phrase: ""We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants. We see more, and things that are more distant, than they did, not because our sight is superior or because we are taller than they, but because they raise us up, and by their great stature add to ours." In 2003 Robert Merton's book “On the Shoulders of Giants" quotes Bernard of Chartres as saying in about 1130: "We are like dwarfs standing [or sitting] upon the shoulders of giants, and so able to see more and see farther than the ancients."
    (www.aerospaceweb.org/question/history/q0162b.shtml)

1160        Feb 3, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa hurtled prisoners, including children, at the Italian city of Crema, forcing its surrender.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1160        May 18, Erik IX Helgi (The Saint), King of Sweden, died. According to legends, the king was beheaded and miracles occurred after his death. Uppsala Cathedral was later built on the murder site to house his remains.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_IX_of_Sweden)(AP, 4/23/14)

1160        Jul 21, Peterus Lombardus, Italian theologian, bishop of Paris, died.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1160        Dec 6, Jean Bodel's "Jeu de St Nicholas," premiered in Arras, France.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1160-1216    Giovanni Lotario de' Conti, served as Pope Innocent III from 1198-1216.
    (WUD, 1994, p.733)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1160-1225    Ma Yuan, an academic painter, made his Southern Song masterpiece “Banquet by Lantern Light."
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1162        May 23, Thomas Becket was elected archbishop of Canterbury.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket)

1162        This date was given by Marco Polo for the Tartars settling around the area south of Lake Baikal and forming a city called Karakoram.
    (TMPV, P.80)

1162        A man in Constantinople fashioned sail-like wings from fabric into pleats and folds. He plummeted from the top of a tower and died.
    (NPub, 2002, p.2)

1164        Jan 27, Abraham ibn Ezra, poet, philosopher, died.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1164        Jan 30, Henry II held a council at the Clarendon hunting lodge and presented a document called the Constitutions of Clarendon. In sixteen constitutions he sought less clerical independence and a weaker connection with Rome. Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, refused to sign.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket)

1164        Apr 20, Victor IV, [Ottaviano Montecello], Italian antipope (1159-64), died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1164        Apr 22, Raynald of Dassel named Guido di Crema as anti-pope Paschalis III.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1164        Nov 2, Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, fled England and landed in Flanders.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.2)

1164        Somerled, military and political leader of the Scottish Isles, assembled an army to repel the Stuarts. He advanced to the centre of the their territory at Renfrew, where a great battle was fought. Much confusion surrounds the manner of the battle, and indeed whether a battle occurred at all, but what is certain is that Somerled was assassinated, after which his army retreated from the area. DNA evidence later suggested that Somerled was of Viking descent.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somerled)(AM, 7/05, p.14)

1165        Jul 28, Ibn al-'Arabi, Muslim mystic, philosopher, was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1165        Aug 21, Philip II Augustus, 1st great Capetian king of France (1179-1223), was born.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1165        Nov 23, Pope Alexander III returned from exile to Rome
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1165        Dec 9, Malcom IV (24), king of Scotland (1153-65), died.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1166        Diarmaid Mac Murchada, King of Leinster, met with Henry II in Aquitaine after he was dispossessed of land by Ruaidhri O Conchobair, the High King of Ireland. This meeting instigated the Norman invasion of 1169.
    (Econ, 5/28/11, p.18)
1166        El-Idrisi (b.1099), a Muslim geographer, died. The Arab geographer Idrisi claimed that Indians preferred iron from East Africa over their own because of its malleability.
    (SSFC, 9/2/07, p.A18)(NH, 6/97, p.44)

1167        Feb 27, Robert of Melun, English philosopher, bishop of Hereford, died.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1167        Aug 14, Raynald van Dassel, archbishop of Cologne, died.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1167        Dec 1, Northern Italian towns formed the Lombardi League.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1167        Dec 24, John "Lackland" Plantagenet, King of England (1199-1216), was born.
    (HN, 12/24/98)(MC, 12/24/01)

1167        Sweden’s King Charles VII was assassinated after ruling for 6 years. Charles VII was the first Swedish king with the name Charles.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_VII_of_Sweden)

1167        Genghis Khan (d.1227)  was born in the Hentiyn Nuruu mountains north of Ulan Bator in the early 1160's (it has been argued between 1162 and 1167, but recently agreement has been made for 1167), the son of the Kiyat-Borjigid chieftain Yisugei. His given name was Temujin, "the ironsmith," and he seized control over much of 5 million square miles that covered China, Iran, Iraq, Burma, Vietnam, and most of Korea and Russia. His efforts in Vietnam were not successful. "In Search of Genghis Khan" is a book by Tim Severin. He was succeeded by his son Ogedai, who was succeeded by Guyuk. Ogedai ignored numerous pleas from his brother Chaghatai to cut down on his drinking and died of alcoholism as did Guyuk. [see 1167]
    (www.royalalbertamuseum.ca/vexhibit/genghis/biog.htm)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1168        Sep 20, Paschal III, [Guido di Crema], Italian anti-Pope, died.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1169        Mar 23, Shirkuh,  Kurd General, vizier of Cairo, Saladin's uncle, died.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1169        May 1, The Norman invasion of Ireland, a two-stage process, began when a force of loosely associated Norman knights landed near Bannow, County Wexford. This was at the request of Dermot MacMurrough (Diarmait Mac Murchada), the ousted King of Leinster, who sought their help in regaining his kingdom. Stage 2 began in 1171 with the arrival of Henry II.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarmait_Mac_Murchada)

1169        Dec, Owain Gwynedd, ruler of North Wales in the twelfth century, died. He had nineteen children, six of whom were legitimate. MADOC, one of the bastard sons, was born in a castle at Dolwyddelan, a village at the head of the Lledr valley between Betws-y-Coed and Blaenau Ffestiniog. The brothers fought amongst themselves for the right to rule Gwynedd. MADOC, although being brave and adventurous, was a man of peace. He and his brother, Riryd, left the quay on the Afon (River) Ganol at Aber-Kerrik-Gwynan, on the North Wales Coast (now Rhos-on-Sea) in two ships, the Gorn Gwynant and the Pedr Sant. They sailed west, leaving the coast of Ireland 'farre north' and landed in Mobile Bay, in what we now know as Alabama in the USA.
    (www.madoc1170.com/home.htm)

1169-1181    The heyday of the Kiyomori Clan in Japan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1170        Jun 14, Henry II of England crowned his son as heir apparent in a ritual performed by the archbishop of York.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.2)

1170        Dec 2, Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, returned to Canterbury from France.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.3)

1170        Dec 29, Thomas Becket (b.1117), archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral by 4 English knights. Barons had heard Henry II cry out, "Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?"
    (AP, 12/29/97)(HN, 12/29/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket)

c1170    Leonardo Fibonacci, Italian mathematician, was born. It is believed Fibonacci discovered the relationship of what are now referred to as Fibonacci numbers while studying the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt and by investigating how fast rabbits could breed in ideal circumstances.  Suppose a newborn pair of rabbits, one male, one female, is put in a field.  Rabbits are able to mate at the age of one month so at the end of its second month a female can produce another pair of rabbits.  Suppose our rabbits never die and the female always produces one new pair (one male, one female) every month from the second month on. The puzzle Fibonacci posed was:  How many pairs will there be in one year?  At the end of the first month, they mate, but there is still one only 1 pair.  At the end of the second month the female produces a new pair, so now there are 2 pairs of rabbits in the field.  At the end of the third month, the original female produces a second pair, making 3 pairs in all in the field.  At the end of the fourth month, the original female has produced yet another new pair, the female born two months ago produces her first pair also, making 5 pairs.  The number of pairs of rabbits in the field at the start of each month is 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ...  The next number in the Fibonacci sequence is arrived at by adding the previous two values together.  Thus, to get the next value after 34 add 21 to 34 and arrive at 55.  As you can see, Fibonacci numbers are a sequence of numbers in which each successive number is the sum of the two previous numbers: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, etc. Now, if you take any two adjacent values and divide each one by their sum, a peculiar thing occurs, the values converge to 38.2% and 61.8%. These numbers also possess an intriguing number of natural interrelationships, such as the fact that any given number is approximately 1.618 times the preceding number and any given number is approximately 0.618 times the following number.  The booklet Understanding Fibonacci Numbers by Edward Dobson contains a good discussion of these interrelationships.
    (BMTI, 8/2/00)

c1170    Hua was chief of Hana, in what is now the Hawaiian Islands.
    (SFEM, 3/16/97, p.46)

1170        Madoc, a Welsh prince, is reputed to have discovered America. Many believe that he and his followers initially settled in the Georgia/Tennessee/ Kentucky area, eventually moving to the Upper Missouri, where they were assimilated into a tribe of the Mandans. New evidence is also emerging about a small band of Madoc's followers who remained in the Ohio area and are called “White Madoc."   
    (www.madoc1170.com/home.htm)

1170-1221    Domingo de Guzman, a Spanish monk founded the Dominicans, also called mendicants, for they abjured great abbeys and cloisters in favor of a life of utmost simplicity and poverty. The Order of St. Dominic was fashioned to minister to the educated classes in the new towns.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.108)(CU, 6/87)

1171        May 1, Dermot MacMurrough (b.1110), last Irish King of Leinster, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarmait_Mac_Murchada)

1171        Oct 18, Henry II (1133-1189) arrived in Ireland from France with an army and declared himself "Lord of Ireland". All of the Normans, along with many Irish princes, took oaths of homage to Henry by November, and he left after six months. He never returned, but in 1177 he named his youngest son, Prince John, as Lord of Ireland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II_of_England)

c1171    Benjamin ben Jonah, a Spanish Jew, returned to his home in Tudela and published an account of his 6-year journey to Constantinople, Cyprus, Palestine, Damascus, Persia and Egypt: “The Travels of Benjamin of Tudela."
    (WSJ, 8/8/02, p.D10)

1172        Mar 4, Stephan III, King of Hungary (1162-72), died.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1172-1216    Shota Rustaveli, a Georgian poet, lived about this time. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest representatives of the literature of the medieval world. His literary work included “The Knight in the Panther's Skin" ("Vepkhistkaosani" in Georgian), the Georgian national epic poem.
    (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9064497)

1173        Feb 21, Pope Alexander III canonized Thomas Becket (1117-1170) of Canterbury.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket)

1173        Queen Eleanor took the part of her young son in his rebellion against Henry II. The rebellion was put down and Henry imprisoned Eleanor. She remained inprisoned for 16 years.
    (ON, 6/12, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor,_Duchess_of_Aquitaine)

1173        The first stone of the Tower of Pisa was laid. It began tilting in 1174 and became known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Work halted for nearly a century as Pisa warred with Florence.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A1)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C3)

1174        Jul 11, Amalric I, king of Jerusalem, died.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)

1174        Jul 15, Baldwin (13), son of Amalric I, was crowned Baldwin IV, king of Jerusalem.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)

1174        Nureddin, the ruler of Syria died. Saladin, the vizier of Egypt, married Nureddin’s widow and assumed control of both state. The Ayyubids under Saladin spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayyubid_dynasty)

1174        The earliest known English horse races were held.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1175        William de Braose (1130-1211), a court favorite of King John of England, carried out the Abergavenny Massacre, luring three Welsh princes and other Welsh leaders to their deaths.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_de_Braose,_4th_Lord_of_Bramber)

1176        May 22, There was a murder attempt by "Assassins" (hashish-smoking mountain killers) on Saladin near Aleppo.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1176        May 29, Lombard League defeated Frederick Barbarossa at Battle of Legnano.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1177        Aug 2, Philip of Flanders arrived in Acre. A Christian army under the joint command of Philip of Flanders and Raymond of Tripoli marched west to campaign against the Muslims around Tripoli.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_of_Flanders)

1177        Nov 18, Saladin marched north from Egypt with 26,000 light cavalry intent on capturing the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ramleh.html)

1177        Nov 25, Baldwin of Jerusalem and his armored knights encountered the Muslim army of Saladin below the castle of Montgisard and defeated them in a surprise attack.
    (ON, 6/07, p.6)

1177        Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (d.1274) was born as Seyyed Shah Hussain Marandi in Marand (near the city of Tabriz) in Azerbaijan (at this time a part of Iran). He is also known as Shaikh Hussain Marandi. He migrated to Sindh and settled in Sehwan and was buried there. He was a Sufi in the regions that lie in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahbaz_Qalander)

1178        Aug 29, Anti-Pope Callistus III gave pope title to Alexander III.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1178        Jun 18, 5 Canterbury monks reported an explosion on moon (only known observation). This is the proposed time of origin of lunar crater Giordano Bruno.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1178        Jul 30, Frederick I (Barbarossa), Holy Roman Emperor, was crowned King of Burgundy.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1178        A Chinese colored scroll from this time depicted Buddhist guardians washing their clothes in a mountain stream. Buddha (d.483BCE) was said to have entrusted 16 disciples with the task of guarding the faith.
    (SFC, 12/5/03, p.D7)

1178        English raiders attacked the Irish town of Clonmacnoise but spared the churches.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1178        The wise King Giorgi III of Georgia had his daughter, Tamara (19), crowned as his co-ruler to provide an orderly succession.
    (www.undelete.org/woa/woa01-18.html)

1179        Sep 17, Hildegard von Bingen (b.1098), mystic and composer (Ordo Virtutum), died at 81. The abbess Hildegard concocted the Lingua Ignota, an artificial language. Her work included the morality play "Ordo Virtutum." In 2012 she was named a “doctor" of the Catholic church.
    (WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A16)(Wired, 8/96, p.84)(WSJ, 7/30/98, p.A16)(AP, 10/7/12)

1179        Pope Alexander III established The Apostolic Penitentiary, or Tribunal of Conscience, for sins considered so heinous by the Catholic Church that only the Pope can grant absolution to those who perpetrate them.
    (www.bishop-accountability.org/AbuseTracker/)(AP, 1/14/09)

1180        Aug 11, Guillaume de Sens, French master builder (Canterbury), died.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1180        Nov 14, Laurcan O'Toole (b.1128), Archbishop of Dublin (1161-1180), died in France. His name was later anglicized to Laurence O'Toole. He was canonized only forty-five years after his death.
    (http://www.cin.org/lauotool.html)(http://tinyurl.com/7zgxqxv)

1180        The Kingdom of Jerusalem under Baldwin IV reached a truce with Egypt under Saladin.
    (ON, 6/07, p.6)

1180        In Montpellier, France, a medical school was founded.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)

1180-1185    War between the Taira and Minamoto clans in Japan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1181        Aug 4, A supernova was seen in Cassiopeia. Chinese and Japanese astronomers observed a supernova. The star 3C58 was later identified as the heart of the explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia. In 2002 it was thought to be composed of quarks.
    (MC, 8/4/02)(SFC, 4/11/02, p.A2)

1182        Francis of Assisi was born as Guiovanni di Bernardone (d.1226), the son of a rich Umbrian cloth merchant. He later created an Order to minister to the poor and destitute clustered in the slums outside the walled towns.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.108)(CU, 6/87)(SFC, 10/4/99, p.A21)

1182        In Constantinople a mob massacred the Latins who ruled as agents of the regent Maria of Antioch. They killed the city officials and proclaimed an uncle of Alexius II Comnenus co-emperor to rule as Andronicus I Comnenus together with his nephew.
    (PCh, 1992, p.98)

1183        James Goldman wrote his 1966 play "The Lion in Winter," set in 1183 England. The 1968 film “The Lion in Winter" focused on Henry II and his estranged wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and their battle over succession. The 1834 opera by Gaetano Donizetti,  “Rosmonda d’Inghilterra," was the story of Rosamond Clifford, who was put in a tower by her lover King Henry II, and offered death by dagger or poison by Queen Eleanor.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/17/99, p.A24)

1184        Jun 15, King Magnus of Norway was defeated by his rival, Sverre.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1184        The first medieval inquisition, the episcopal inquisition, was established by a papal bull entitled Ad abolendam, "For the purpose of doing away with." The inquisition was in response to the growing Catharist heresy in southern France. It is called "episcopal" because it was administered by local bishops, which in Latin is episcopus. In 2012 Cullen Murphy authored “God’s Jury: The Inquisition and the making of the Modern World."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_Inquisition)(SSFC, 2/5/12, p.F7)

1184-1199    In Morocco the Koutoubia Mosque was built during this period in the heart of Marrakesh.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koutoubia_Mosque)

1185        Mar, Baldwin IV (23), king of Jerusalem, succombed to his leprosy.
    (ON, 6/07, p.6)(http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9356429/Baldwin-IV)

1185        Sep 12, Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1183-85), was lynched.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1185        The Bishopric of Livonia was founded by Meinhard of Germany.
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1185-1333    The Kamakura Period of Japan. A sect known as Pure Land Buddhism began to enjoy great popularity.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(SFC, 3/14/03, p.D1)

1186        In Cambodia the temple monastery of Ta Prohm at Angkor was consecrated. Inscriptions say that 79,365 servants were required to for its upkeep. It was paid by funds from over 3,000 villages.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T7)

1186        The Waalo kingdom was founded in the northern plains of what later became known as Senegal, where  communities began to choose their leaders.
    (AP, 2/25/12)

1186        Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia), previously part of the Venetian republic, rebelled against Venice and allied itself with Hungary, posing competition to Venice’s maritime trade.
    (HNQ, 1/23/01)

1187        Jul 4, In the Battle of Hittin (Tiberias) Saladin defeated Reynaud of Chatillon. Salah al Din, who ruled from his imperial seat in ancient Syria, defeated Christian armies of the Crusaders and forced their retreat from the Holy Land. The battle was depicted in a mosaic that was found and restored for the palace of Pres, Hafez Assad of Syria. Saladin personally executed Crusader Reynaud of Chatillon (b.1124/5). Reynaud of Chatillon, Lord of Kerak, Jordan, had violated twice violated a tenuous truce and earlier this year attacked a caravan of pilgrims returning from Mecca.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raynald_of_Chatillon)(WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A1)(Econ, 5/30/09, p.24)

1187        Sep 5, Louis VIII, [Coeur-de-Lion] king of France (1223-26), was born.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1187        Oct 2, Sultan Saladin captured Jerusalem from Crusaders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saladin)

1189        Jan 21, Philip Augustus, Henry II of England and Frederick Barbarossa assembled the troops for the Third Crusade.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.109)(HN, 1/21/99)

1189        Feb 6, Riots of Lynn in Norfolk spread to Norwich,  England.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1189        May 11, Emperor Frederik I Barbarossa and 100,000 crusaders departed Regensburg.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1189        Jul 6, Henry II (56), King of England (1154-89), died.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)(MC, 7/6/02)

1189        Sep 3, After the death of Henry II, Richard Lionheart, King Richard I, was crowned king of England in Westminster. Richard was the 2nd son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
    (AP, 9/3/97)(HN, 9/3/98)(ON, 6/12, p.5)
1189        Sep 3, Jacob of Orleans, Rabbi, was killed in the London anti Jewish riot  in which 30 Jews were massacred.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1189        Giraldus Cambrensis authored "History of the Conquest of Ireland."
    (ON, SC, p.1)

1189        The first lord mayor was elected in London.
    (WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-1)

1190        Mar 16, The Crusades began the massacre of Jews in York, England. The Jewish population of York fled to Clifford’s Tower overlooking the rivers Ouse and Foss during an anti-Jewish riot. A crazed friar set fire to the tower and rather than be captured, the inhabitants committed mass suicide,
    (SFEC,10/26/97, p.T5)(HN, 3/16/99)

1190        Mar 17, Crusaders completed the massacre of Jews of York, England.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1190        Mar 18, Crusaders killed 57 Jews in Bury St. Edmonds, England.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1190        Jun 10, Frederick I van Hohenstaufen, Barbarossa (1123-1190), king of Germany and Italy and the Holy Roman Empire, drowned crossing the Saleph River while leading an army of the Third Crusade. Frederick struggled to extend German influence throughout Europe, maneuvering both politically and militarily. He clashed with the pope, the powerful Lombards and fellow Germans among others throughout the years. He joined the Third Crusade in the Spring of 1189 in their efforts to free Jerusalem from Saladin's army
    (WUD, 1994, p.565)(HN, 6/10/98)(HNQ, 2/3/01)

1190        Matthaeus Platerius, a teaching physician at the School of Salerno, wrote his manuscript “Circa Instans," a Latin work on the medicinal properties of plants.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1190        The Louvre Museum in Paris was built as a fortress.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, T-5)

1190        Emo of Friesland entered Oxford and was later remembered as Oxford’s first recorded foreign student.
    (Econ, 8/7/10, p.13)

1190        Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) lost a battle against Jamuka, a rival war leader, and was forced to retreat. His enemy boiled alive some 70 captives. Several clans deserted Jamuka and joined Temujin.
    (ON, 8/12, p.8)

1191        Apr 14, Giacinto Bobo (85) became Pope Coelestinus III.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1191        May 12, Richard the Lionheart married (Bernegaria) Berengaria of Navarre in Limassol, Cyprus.
    (NH, 4/97, p.62)(EofA, p.161)

1191        Jul 12, Richard Coeur de Lion and Crusaders defeated the Saracens at Acre.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1191        Aug 20, Crusader King Richard I (1157-1199), Coeur de Lion (the "Lionheart"), executed some 2,700-3,000 Muslim prisoners in Acre (Akko).
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1191        Zen Buddhism, guided by the Dao (The Way) arrived to Japan from China.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.58)

1191        In Cambodia Preah Khan was dedicated on what is thought to be the site where the Khmer defeated their eastern neighbors the Cham. The central temple was dedicated by Jayavarman VII to his father, King Dharanindravavarman II, in the name of Lokesvara, a god who embodies the compassionate qualities of the Buddha. The temple covers 140 acres.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)(Arch, 5/04, p.64)

1192        Sep 2, Sultan Saladin and King Richard the Lion Hearted signed a cease fire.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1192        Oct 9, Richard Coeur de Lion left Jerusalem in disguise. [see Sep 21, 1192]
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1192        Dec 20, English King Richard I the Lionheart was captured in Austria on his return from the Third Crusade. He was held in a castle above Durnstein, Austria, after disrespecting  local Duke Leopold V. An entire year’s supply of wool from the Cistercian and two other monasteries in England was promised as ransom for the King. It was never paid in full.
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 569)(http://tinyurl.com/33kall)(SSFC, 8/5/12, p.N4)

1192        The Order of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary's Hospital in Jerusalem established their headquarters in Acre.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teutonic_Knights)

1192        The founding of the Kamakura Shogunate in Japan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1192        Enrico Dandolo (85) was elected doge of Venice.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1193        Mar 4, Saladin [Salah ed-Din]) Yusuf ibn Ayyub (52), Kurdish sultan of Egypt and Syria (1175-1193), died. Saladin led the Muslims against the Crusaders. He had reimposed Sunni orthodoxy in Egypt after routing the Fatimids, a dynasty of Ismaili Shias which had ruled for two centuries.
    (SSFC, 9/29/02, p.M6) (PC, 1992, p.100)(AP, 3/4/04)(Econ, 5/4/13, p.52)   

1193        In 1779 The German playwright, Gotthold Lessing, wrote a play that was set at this time in Jerusalem. [see 1779, Lessing]
    (WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-6)

1193        The Nalanda Buddhist learning center in Bihar state was sacked by Turkic Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khalji, a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. Khalji was a member of the Muslim Turkic Khilji, or the Khalaj tribe as it is known in Iran and Afghanistan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nalanda)(www.spiritus-temporis.com/bakhtiyar-khalji/)

1193        In Tibet the Karma Kargyu sect preceded the Geluk sect of the Dalai Lama. It introduced the idea of religious succession by reincarnation when a great lama used it to predict his own rebirth.
    (SFEM, 12/20/98, p.18)

1194        Feb 4, Richard I, King of England, was freed from captivity in Austria with the payment of Leopold VI's ransom of 100,000
    (HN, 2/4/99)(ON, 8/07, p.9)

1194        Feb 20, Tancredo of Lecce, King of Sicily, died.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1194        Mar 13, Richard I, King of England, landed at Sandwich and immediately prepared to march north to recover his castles.
    (ON, 8/07, p.9)

1194         Mar 27, The Archbishop of Canterbury, on behalf of King Richard I, talked with the rebels inside the castle at Nottingham, who soon surrendered.
    (ON, 8/07, p.10)

1194        May 5, Kazimierz II, the Justified, grand duke of Poland (1177-94), died.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1194        Dec 26, Frederick II, German Emperor (1212-1250) and King of Sicily, was born in Lesi, Italy.
    (HN, 12/26/98)(MC, 12/26/01)

1194        Dec 27, Frederick II, German Emperor, was born.
    (HN, 12/27/98)

1194        The French cathedral at Chartres was mostly destroyed by fire. The Sancta Camisia relic survived intact and the cathedral was rebuilt in 29 years. In 2008 Leo Hollis authored “Universe of Stone: Chartres Cathedral and the Triumph of the Modern Mind."
    (Hem., 10/97, p.86)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.97)

1195-1270    Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman (Nahmanides) was a Catalan kabbalist.
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)

1196        The Chateau Gaillard in Normandy was built by Richard the Lionhearted, Duke of Normandy, to protect his domain from Philip Augustus, King of France.
    (AMNH, DT, 1998)

1197        Dec 4, Crusaders wounded Rabbi Elezar ben Judah.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1197        Sep 29, Emperor Henry VI died in Messina, Sicily.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

c1197    The sacred cross of Lalibela dates to this time. It was believed to belong to King Lalibela of Ethiopia who ordered "on command of God and with the help of angels" the construction of a holy city hewn from rock. In 1997 it was reported lost.
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.E4)

1197        Scotland’s new Glasgow Cathedral was consecrated. The first stone building was consecrated in about 1136 in the presence of King David I and his Court when John (1117-1147) was Bishop.
    (SSFC, 3/10/13, p.H4)( www.glasgowcathedral.org.uk/history/)

1198        Jan 8, Lotario de Conti di Sengi became Pope Innocent III (d.1216). He raised the papacy to an acme of papal prestige and power, and Christian Europe came close to being a unified theocracy with no internal contradictions. He oversaw 2 crusades and established fees for indulgences to fatten the Church's treasury. He hired Italian merchant bankers to manage papal funds and sanctioned the new Franciscan and Dominican orders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Innocent_III)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1198      The German Bishop Bertold shipped up the Baltic with armed forces and attacked the native people of Livonia. The attack was repulsed.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p.39-40)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1198        The Fourth Crusade was funded by Enrico Dandolo, doge of Venice.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.109)

1198        Fleeing from the Turks, a group of Armenian nobles and their followers settled in Byzantine Cilicia where they established a state know as Lesser or Little Armenia. In this year the area attained the status of kingdom and survived to 1375.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_Kingdom_of_Cilicia)

1198        The Giralda bell tower in Seville, Spain, was built as a Muslim minaret.
    (SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M5)

1199        Apr 6, Richard I "the Lion-hearted" (41), King of England (1189-99), died. Richard was killed by an arrow at the siege of the castle of Chaluz in France.
    (HN, 4/6/99)(MC, 4/6/02)

1199        Sep 30, Rambam (Maimonides) authorized Samuel Ibn Tibbon to translate “Guide of Perplexed" from Arabic into Hebrew.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1199        Prince John (d.1216) was crowned King of England.
    (ON, 7/04, p.1)

Go to 1200