Return to home1100 Aug 2,
William II (44), [Rufus], king of England, was shot dead in New
1100 Aug 2, Henry I
(1068-1135), the son of William the Conqueror, became King of
England. He soon published the Charter of Liberties to persuade
barons that he would behave more reasonably than his brother William
1100 The Tower of London took
in its 1st prisoner.
(Hem, 9/04, p.28)
c1100 St. Cono was born in Teggiano in southern
Italy. He became a Benedictine monk and went on to perform numerous
miracles. His remains were later embedded in a statue in the church
of Santa Maria Maggiore.
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A1)
c1100 Timbuktu was founded about this time as a
seasonal Tuareg nomad camp around a well that was maintained by a
group of slaves under an old woman, Buktu, "the place of Buktu."
Tuareg is a derisive Arab term meaning abandoned by the gods.
Natives prefer to be know as Kel Tamashek people.
(AM, 11/00, p.51)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(SFC,
1100 In the Netherlands Wittem
Castle in Limburg dates to this time.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T13)
c1100 In Spain the town of Santo Domingo de la
Calzada was founded by a man known as St. Dominic of the Walkway.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T5)
1100 By the 1100s the Chinese
began to use the magnetic compass.
1100 By this time East African
traders in Kilwa controlled the export of gold and ivory from the
southern kingdoms. Kilwa was the most prosperous of the east African
1100 Statue (moai) building
began about this time on Easter Island and continued to the 1700s.
(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E14)
1100 A volcano erupted about
this time in the area of Flagstaff, Arizona.
(SSFC, 7/23/06, p.G4)
1100s Troubadour musicians organized in southern
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1100s Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland
began producing whiskey.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T8)
c1100-1154 Geoffrey of Monmouth, English
chronicler. The Welsh cleric claimed that Merlin used magic to bring
the stones of Stonehenge from Ireland.
(WUD, 1994, p.592)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.12)
1100-1200 The 16-foot scroll titled “Qingming
Shanghe Tu" (Qingming Festival on the River) was created in the 12th
century. It was believed to have been painted by Zhang Zeduan, an
artist of the Song Dynasty.
1100-1200 The Song capital of Kaifeng in northern
China was later believed to have been the most populous city of this
(Econ, 1/21/12, p.44)
1100-1200 Muhammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, Arab
mathematician and astronomer, wrote “hisab al-jabr w’ al muqabalah"
(the science of reduction and comparison) in the 9th cent. The work
dealt with solving equations. It was the first time that algebra was
discussed as a separate branch of mathematics. In the 12th century
it was translated into Latin as “Ludus algebrae et
(Alg, 1990, p.87)
c1100-1200 Shihab el-Din was an anti-Crusader
cleric. He was believed to be buried in Nazareth next to the
Basilica of the Annunciation. A cornerstone for a mosque was laid at
the site in 1999.
(SFC, 11/24/99, p.A16)
c1100-1200 Judah Halevi was a Jewish poet who
lived in Muslim Spain in the 12th century. He wrote “City of the
Great King, for thee my soul is longing."
(WSJ, 12/12/00, p.A24)
1100-1200 Chretien de Troyes of France in the 12th
century introduced Camelot into the Arthurian legend and placed
Lancelot in the saga along with the quest for the Holy Grail.
(WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)
c1100-1200 Albigenses were members of the
Catharistic sect that arose in southern France in the 11th century.
(WUD, 1994 p.34)
1100-1200 In France the Abbot Suger was busy
embellishing the abbey of St. Denis.
(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A16)
1100-1200 In Cambodia the Khmer empire reached its
peak under King Jajavarman II in the 12th century.
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T7)
1100-1200 The German Stammheim Missal was made. It
told stories from Creation to the crucifixion of Christ. In 1997 it
was acquired by the J. Paul Getty Museum.
(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E3)
1100-1200 Berlin was founded amid the sandy plains
and swamps of Brandenburg. In 1998 Alexandra Richie published
“Faust’s Metropolis: A History of Berlin."
(WSJ, 5/1/98, p.W5)
1100-1200 In Germany the Oberburg Castle was built
in the 12th century by the Knights of Leyen.
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T8)
1100-1200 Two 12th century castles along the Rhine
were owned, according to legend, by the brothers Conrad and Heinrich
of Boppard. They came to blows over a woman, Hildegarde, and the
ruins of the castles were named the Warring Brothers.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)
c1100-1200 The Festung Ehrenbreitsen, Europe’s
largest fortress, was built at the convergence of the Mosel and
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T1)
1100-1200 In India the bronze sculpture “Shiva
Nataraya" depicted the Hindu god of creation and destruction doing
the dance that sustains the universe.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)
1100-1200 In India the comic man-elephant
“Ganesha" sculpture was carved in schist.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)
1100-1200 In Ireland Cistercian monks established
an abbey on Clare Island.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)
1100-1200 In Limerick, Ireland a 12th century
cathedral was built.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T11)
c1100-1200 In Japan Nichiren Daishonin, the son of
a fisherman in Awa, established a new sect of Buddhism. In 1930 the
Soka Gakkai (value-creation society) was founded in Tokyo based on
(WSJ, 4/23/99, B1)
1100-1200 The Norse visited Ellesmere Island in
the Canadian Arctic as early as the 12th century and traded with the
Thule, evidenced by chain mail. boat rivets, knife blades, and other
artifacts turned up near Bache Peninsula.
(NG, 6/1988, p.763)
1100-1200 Norwegian Chronicles mentioned a stave
church in the village of Vaga.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)
1100-1200 Era of the 12 century Persian poet
Nizami of Ganja.
(SFC, 5/19/96, p.C-13)
1100-1200 Serbs occupied parts of northern and
eastern Albanian inhabited lands.
(www, Albania, 1998)
c1100-1200 San Isidro, a Spanish farmer, later
became the patron saint of Madrid.
(WSJ, 11/18/97, p.A20)
1100-1200 In Turkey Constantinople was devastated
by fires in the 12th century.
(SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)
1100-1200 The 12th century book “Gyuschi" was a
compilation of Tibetan medicine that described the making and
applications of medications extracted from herbs, roots and minerals
often served as hot teas.
(SFC, 2/20/98, p.C4)
1100-1300 About this period volcanic ash and
molten rock sprayed the area of the Wupatki Basin near Flagstaff,
Arizona for as long as 200 years.
(SSFC, 7/23/06, p.G5)
1100-1400 The official stave churches of Norway
were mostly built during this period.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)
1101 William IX, the Duke of
Aquitaine, returned from the Crusades and composed songs about his
adventures, thus becoming the first troubadour. He was
excommunicated for licentious acts, but his lyrics led to the
"courtly love" genre.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1101-1125 Huizong ruled over China. He was a
calligrapher, painter and Confucian advocate of embracing antiquity.
He broadened the scope of Imperial collecting to embrace bronze
ritual objects as well as old paintings and calligraphy.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.36)
1102 In England the Westminster
Council outlawed “the selling of men like brute animals."
(ON, 12/08, p.8)
1102 Coats were forced to enter
into a union with Hungary and to recognize the Hungarian king as
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)
1103 Aug 24, Magnus III
Berbein, [Blootbeen], King of Norway (1093-1103), died.
1105 Nov 24, Rabbi Nathan ben
Yehiel of Rome completed a Talmudic dictionary.
1106 Aug 7, Henry IV
(54), Holy Roman Emperor (1056/84-1105), died.
1106 Sep 28, King Henry I of
England defeated his brother Robert Curthose of Normandy at the
Battle of Tinchebrai and reunited England and Normandy. Robert
remained a prisoner until he died in 1134.
(HN, 9/28/98)(PC, 1992, p.90)
1107 China printed money in 3
colors to thwart counterfeiters.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1107 Mi Fu (b.1051), Chinese
calligrapher of the Northern Song period, died.
(SFC, 5/14/03, p.D3)(SFC, 7/1/06, p.E1)
1107-1205 Enrico Dandolo, ruler of Venice. He was
blind and spearheaded the 4th Crusade. He funded an army to capture
Constantinople and after the "rape of Constantinople" pocketed some
of the city's riches. He stole 4 bronze horses and placed them over
the entry to the Cathedral of San Marco.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
1109 Apr 28, Hugo van Cluny,
6th abbot of Cluny, saint, died.
1109 Jul 12, Crusaders captured
harbor city of Tripoli.
1110 May 13, Crusaders marched
into Beirut causing a bloodbath.
1110 Dec 4, Syria harbor city
of Saida (Sidon) surrendered to the Crusaders.
1111 Feb 12, Henry V of Germany
presented himself to Pope Paschal II for coronation along with
treaty terms that commanded the clergy to restore fiefs of the crown
to Henry. The pope refused to crown and Henry left Rome taking the
pope with him. When Paschal was unable to get help, he confirmed
Henry’s right of investiture and crowned him.
(PCh, 1992, p.91)
1113 Feb 13, Pope Paschal II
issued a papal bull recognizing the Knights of Malta as independent
from bishops or secular authorities. The order traces had
establishment an infirmary in Jerusalem that cared for people of all
faiths making pilgrimages to the Holy Land.
1113 Aug 24, Geoffrey
Plantagenet, conquered Normandy, was born in France.
1114 Trade fairs were held at
Champagne, France, at the crossing of roads from Flanders, Germany,
Italy and Provence.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
c1117 Abelard (1079-1142), master of a school in
Paris, impregnated Heloise, his single female student. [See 1079]
(WSJ, 2/11/05, p.W6)
1118 Apr 2, Boudouin I of
Bologne and Edessa, 1st crusader, king of Jerusalem, died.
1118 Apr 7, Pope Gelasius II
excommunicated Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor.
1118 Dec 18, Afonso the
Battler, the Christian King of Aragon captured Saragossa, Spain, a
major blow to Muslim Spain.
1118 Dec 21, Thomas Becket
(d.1170), archbishop of Canterbury, was born (some sources say
1120). His close friend Henry II of England later ordered his
1118 The military order of the
Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon was founded in
Jerusalem to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land following the First
Crusade. The Knights Templar were founded to protect pilgrims in the
Holy Land during the second Crusade.
(AHD, 1971, p.724)(AP, 10/12/07)
1118 Seborga became the
provenance of nine Knight Templars returning from the crusades.
(SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T7)
1120 Nov 25, Countess of
Perche, bastard daughter of English king Henry I, drowned along with
William (17), English crown prince and son of Henry I.
1121 Mar 2, Dirk VI became
count of Holland.
1122 Mar 2, Floris II, the fat
one, count of Holland, died.
1123 In the film “The Visitors"
The noble Sir Godefroy of this time is transformed to 1996 France to
do battle with short order cooks, rescue bag ladies and learn modern
etiquette in order to find the descendant of his betrothed
sweetheart's descendant, the Duchess Frenegonde.
(SFC, 7/16/96, p.E1)
1123 Omar Khayyam, Persian poet
and mathematician, died.
(WUD, 1994, p.1005)
1124 Apr 27, Alexander I, king
of Scotland (1107-24), died.
1124 May 6, Balak, Emir of
Aleppo (Syria), was murdered.
1124 Jul 7, Tyre [Tyrus]
surrendered to the Crusaders.
1124 The quality of English
silver coins improved after mint masters caught adulterating coins
had their right hands cut off.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1125 May 25, Hendrik V, last
Salische German king, died.
1125 Sinaguan people built a
5-story limestone dwelling, later known as Montezuma Castle, near
(SSFC, 7/6/03, p.C9)
1126 Nov 26, Al-Borsoki, emir
of Aleppo-Mosoel (Syria), was assassinated.
1126AD A drought that lasted 1-2 centuries, as
measured from tree rings in the Sierra Nevada, was centered on this
time. It coincided with a Medieval warm period when Vikings
navigated the waters surrounding Greenland. A 2nd drought centered
(NH, 9/96, p.38)
1126-1198 Averroes (Ibn Rushd), Arab philosopher
and commentator who translated Aristotle from the original Greek to
Arabic, which was then translated to Latin. He wrote a major
reinterpretation of Plato's Republic. He lamented the fact that
Islam had not adopted Plato's view of women as the equal of men and
had thus failed to give them civic equality.
(V.D.-H.K.p.117)(WSJ, 7/7/99, p.A23)
1127 Mar 2, Charles the Good,
Count of Flanders, was murdered. Flemish towns (Ghent, Bruges and
Ypres) forced the selection of Thierry of Alsace as the new count
despite Louis VI’s choice of the son of Normandy’s Robert Curthose.
(PCh, 1992, p.92)(SC, 3/2/02)
1127-1279 In 2007 Chinese archeologists raised a
merchant ship loaded with porcelain and other rare antiques to the
surface in a specially built basket. The 100-foot Nanhai No. 1,
discovered in 1987, sank off the south China coast during the
Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279).
1128 Jun 24, Afonso I of
Portugal defeated the army of his mother Theresa.
1128 The Royal High School in
Scotland was founded by a group of Edinburgh Friars.
(SFC, 4/22/98, p.A10)
1129 Aug 21, The warrior
Yoritomo was made Shogun without equal in Japan.
1130 Feb 14, Jewish Cardinal
Pietro Pierleone was elected as anti-pope Anacletus II.
1130 The Knights of St. John
(the Hospitallers) became a military order some 60 years after
having been founded in Jerusalem to care for the sick.
(Arch, 9/02, p.27)
1130 China’s Master-of-the-Nets
Garden in Suzhou was built about this time.
(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.A16)
1130 The first travel book was
written by a French priest about travel on the Camino de Santiago
(the road of St. James) in northern Spain.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T5)
1130 The French church at the
abbey at Cluny was completed and measured over 400 feet long.
(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T4)
1130-1150 Tree growth rings revealed that a
drought occurred in the southwest US. This period corresponded with
the abandonment of Anasazi dwelling sites in Arizona.
(Hem., 5/97, p.79)
1131 Mar 1, Stephen II, King of
Hungary (1116-31), died.
1131 Oct 25, Louis VII the
Young, King of France, was crowned.
1132 In China invaders
established what became known as the southern Song dynasty in
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)
1133 Mar 25, Henry II, King of
England (1154-1189) , was born.
1133 Jun 4, In Rome Pope
Innocentius II crowned German King Lothair II as emperor at the
Church of the Lateran.
(MC, 6/4/02)(PCh, 1992, p.92)
1133-1193 Rashid Al-Din Sinan, also known as "The
Old Man of the Mountain," was a leader of the Assassins. He used the
Syrian Masyaf castle as a base for spreading the beliefs of the
Nizari Ismaili sect of Islam to which he and his followers belonged.
1135 Dec 1, Henry I Beauclerc
of England died and the crown was passed to his nephew Stephen of
Bloise. He had decreed that the standard linear measure of one foot
be a third the length of his arm which was 36 inches. He was the 1st
English king able to read.
(HN, 12/1/98)(SFEC, 2/14/99, Z1 p.8)(MC, 12/1/01)
1135 Dec 22, Stephen of Blois
was crowned the king of England.
1135 Maimonides (d.1204),
Jewish scholar, philosopher and rabbi was born in Spain. He analyzed
linkages between wealth and charity and created a ladder of giving
with each rung representing a higher degree of virtue. The most
virtuous way to give was to help a stranger by offering him a loan
or job so that he would no longer need help. The lowest rung was to
make a grudging donation.
(WUD, 1994, p.864)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ,
1136 The people of Novgorod,
Russia, expelled their prince, assigned by Kiev, and transferred his
power to the local nobility and merchant class who formed a sort of
city council known as the vieche.
(AM, 11/00, p.32)
1137 Aug 1, Louis the Younger
(1120-1180) of France was crowned King Louis VII. He had married
Eleanor, the Duchess of Aquitaine, just a few months earlier.
1138 May 29, Anti-Pope Victor
IV (Gregorio) overthrew self for Innocentius II.
1139 Apr 20, The Second Lateran
Council opened in Rome. The crossbow was outlawed in the 12th
century, at least against Christians, by the second Lateran council
(the 10th ecumenical council), called by Pope Innocent II. Capable
of piercing chain mail from a range of up to 1,000 feet, this
formidable missile weapon remained a fixture of technically-advanced
European armies throughout the Middle Ages. Although it was used
after the introduction of firearms, it was eventually succeeded by
the harquebus—a primitive gun—in the late 15th century. The council
attempted universal enforcement of priestly celibacy in the Roman
(HN, 4/20/98)(HN, 4/20/98)(HNQ, 12/5/00)(SFC,
1138 Aug 22, English defeated
Scots at Cowton Moor. Banners of various saints were carried into
battle which led to its being called Battle of the Standard.
1139 Incendiary weapons that
burned people to death were banned by the countries of northern
Europe as “too murderous." The practice was resumed the next
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)
1140 Gratian wrote the
illuminated “Decretum," a standard treatise on canon law in Bologna
about this time. He wrote three volumes on the subject which were
lavishly illustrated. The three volumes were later published by the
Vatican in 1975.
(WSJ, 7/13/95, p.A-12)
1140 Ghorid leaders from
central Afghanistan captured and burned Ghazni, then moved on to
1140 Somerled first appeared in
historical chronicles as the regulus, or King, of Kintyre (Cinn
Tìre) when he marries Raghnailt the daughter of Olaf (or Amhlaibh),
King of Mann and the Scottish Isles.
1141 Jan 31, Pope Innocent II
authorized Bishop Henry of Moravia to preach Catholicism in Prussia.
1141 Dec 29, Yue Fei, Chinese
general, was executed.
1141 The Barone Ricasoli family
founded a wine and oil firm and produced Chianti wine.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)
1142 Apr 21, Pierre Abelard
(62), French philosopher (priestly lover of Heloise), died.
1144 Mar 8, Celestine II
[Guido], Italian Pope (1143-44), died in battle.
1144 The Saracens recaptured
the crusader’s castles along the Palestine coast.
1144 In Syria the Knights
Hospitallers began expanding a fortress 90 miles northwest of
Damascus. It became known as The Crac des Chevaliers. The Mamelukes
captured it in 1271 and converted the chapel into a mosque.
(WSJ, 1/31/09, p.W12)
1146 Aug 30, European leaders
outlawed the crossbow with the intention to end war for all time.
1146 Sep 14, Zangi of the Near
East was murdered. The Sultan Nur ad-Din, his son, pursued the
conquest of Edessa (NW Mesopotamia).
1146 France’s warrior-abbot
Bernard of Clairvaux built the La Cordelle chapel in northern
(SFCM, 10/7/07, p.18)
1147 Oct 25, At the Battle at
Dorylaeum (Turkey) Arabs beat Konrad III's crusaders. Conrad III of
Germany and Louis VII of France had assembled 500,000 men for the
2nd Crusade. Most of the men were lost to starvation, disease and
1147 Moscow was founded by
Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, a ruler of the northeastern Rus. He built the
first fortress, or Kremlin, along the Moscow River.
(SFC, 11/12/96, p.A14)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.27,28)
1148 Jul 24, Crusaders, led by
Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, attacked Damascus. It
was a dismal failure and effectively ended the 2nd Crusade.
1149 In Jerusalem the Church of
the Holy Sepulchre, rebuilt by the Crusaders, was consecrated.
(Arch, 9/02, p.28)
1150 Mar 26, Tichborne family
of Hampshire, England, started tradition of giving a gallon of flour
to each resident to keep deathbed promise.
c1150 The original Hopi territory in the southwest
encompassed some 225,000 sq. miles around villages established about
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)
c1150 A group of Anasazi villages in southwest
Colorado were suddenly abandoned during a period of severe drought.
In 2000 evidence showed that a raiding party had swept through the
area, killed the inhabitants and ate their flesh.
(SFC, 9/6/00, p.A3)
1150 Adelard of Bath (b.1080),
Englishman, died. He had traveled widely and translated the Arabic
version of Euclid's "Elements" into Latin as well as several Arabic
books on astronomy.
(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.M2)
c1150 Suryavarman II, Khmer ruler, died about this
time. He commissioned the building of Angkor Wat, possibly the
largest religious monument in the world. He traded elephant tusks,
rhinoceros horns and kingfisher feathers for gold. The feathers were
prized in China for bridal attire.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
1150 The municipality of Genoa
raised 400 lira by granting to investors the tax revenue raised from
stallholders in the marketplace over a term of 29 years. This became
the first recorded public bond.
(Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)
1151 Sep 7, Geoffrey
Plantagenet, earl of Anjou and duke of Normandy, died at 38.
1151 In Iceland the first known
fire and plague insurance was offered.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1152 Mar 4, Frederick
Barbarossa was chosen as emperor and united the two factions, which
emerged in Germany after the death of Henry V.
1152 Mar, The marriage between
King Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine was annulled at a
royal council in Beaugency.
(ON, 6/12, p.5)
1153 Mar 23, Treaty of Konstanz
between Frederik I "Barbarossa" and Pope Eugene III.
1152 May 18, Eleanor of
Aquitaine married Henry Plantagenet, a rebellious vassal of King
(ON, 6/12, p.5)
1153 May 23, David I (~68),
king of Scotland (1124-53), died.
1153 May 24, Malcolm IV became
king of Scotland.
1153 Aug 20, Bernard de
Clairvaux, French saint, died.
1153 A wandering Arab holy man
converted the king of the Buddhist islanders of the Maldives.
(WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A12)
1153 A chicken restaurant, the
world's oldest existing eatery, opened in Kai-Feng, China.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1153 Anna Komnene (b.1083),
Byzantine princess and scholar, died. She was a daughter of the
Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina. She is one
of the first known female historians, having written the Alexiad.
1154 Feb 26, Rogier II Guiscard
(60), King of Sicily (1101-54), died. William the bad succeeded his
father, Roger the II.
(SC, 2/26/02)(HN, 2/26/99)
1154 Oct 25, King Steven of
England (1135-54), died.
1154 Dec 19, Henry Plantagenet
of the Angevin dynasty was crowned Henry II, King of England with
Eleanor of Aquitaine as queen.
1155 Jan, Sir Thomas Becket
(~1118-1170) was given the high office of Chancellor to the King,
1155 Jun 18, German-born
Frederick I, Barbarossa, was crowned emperor of Rome by Pope Adrian
(HN, 6/18/98)(MC, 6/18/02)
1155 A map of western China was
printed and is the oldest known printed map.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1156 May 28, Battle at
Brindisi: King William of Sicily beat a Byzantine fleet.
1156 The first foreign exchange
contracts were issued and allowed the repayment of Genoese pounds
debt with Byzantine bezants.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1157 Sep 8, Richard I, [Richard
the Lion Hearted], King of England (1189-99), was born.
1157 The Bank of Venice issued
the first government bonds to raise funds for was with
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1158 Aug 31, Sancho III, King
of Castilia, died.
1158 Nov 11, Emperor Frederik I
Barbarossa declared himself ruler of North Italy.
1159 Sep 1, Adrian IV, [Nicole
Breakspear], only English pope (1154-59), died.
1159 John of Salisbury authored
a religious book called “The Metalogicon." It included the phrase:
""We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants. We see
more, and things that are more distant, than they did, not because
our sight is superior or because we are taller than they, but
because they raise us up, and by their great stature add to ours."
In 2003 Robert Merton's book “On the Shoulders of Giants" quotes
Bernard of Chartres as saying in about 1130: "We are like dwarfs
standing [or sitting] upon the shoulders of giants, and so able to
see more and see farther than the ancients."
1160 Feb 3, Emperor Frederick
Barbarossa hurtled prisoners, including children, at the Italian
city of Crema, forcing its surrender.
1160 May 18, Erik IX Helgi (The
Saint), King of Sweden, died. According to legends, the king was
beheaded and miracles occurred after his death. Uppsala Cathedral
was later built on the murder site to house his remains.
1160 Jul 21, Peterus Lombardus,
Italian theologian, bishop of Paris, died.
1160 Dec 6, Jean Bodel's "Jeu
de St Nicholas," premiered in Arras, France.
1160-1216 Giovanni Lotario de' Conti, served as
Pope Innocent III from 1198-1216.
(WUD, 1994, p.733)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
1160-1225 Ma Yuan, an academic painter, made his
Southern Song masterpiece “Banquet by Lantern Light."
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)
1162 May 23, Thomas Becket was
elected archbishop of Canterbury.
1162 This date was given by
Marco Polo for the Tartars settling around the area south of Lake
Baikal and forming a city called Karakoram.
1162 A man in Constantinople
fashioned sail-like wings from fabric into pleats and folds. He
plummeted from the top of a tower and died.
(NPub, 2002, p.2)
1164 Jan 27, Abraham ibn Ezra,
poet, philosopher, died.
1164 Jan 30, Henry II held a
council at the Clarendon hunting lodge and presented a document
called the Constitutions of Clarendon. In sixteen constitutions he
sought less clerical independence and a weaker connection with Rome.
Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, refused to sign.
1164 Apr 20, Victor IV,
[Ottaviano Montecello], Italian antipope (1159-64), died.
1164 Apr 22, Raynald of Dassel
named Guido di Crema as anti-pope Paschalis III.
1164 Nov 2, Thomas Becket, the
archbishop of Canterbury, fled England and landed in Flanders.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.2)
1164 Somerled, military and
political leader of the Scottish Isles, assembled an army to repel
the Stuarts. He advanced to the centre of the their territory at
Renfrew, where a great battle was fought. Much confusion surrounds
the manner of the battle, and indeed whether a battle occurred at
all, but what is certain is that Somerled was assassinated, after
which his army retreated from the area. DNA evidence later suggested
that Somerled was of Viking descent.
1165 Jul 28, Ibn al-'Arabi,
Muslim mystic, philosopher, was born.
1165 Aug 21, Philip II
Augustus, 1st great Capetian king of France (1179-1223), was born.
1165 Nov 23, Pope Alexander III
returned from exile to Rome
1165 Dec 9, Malcom IV (24),
king of Scotland (1153-65), died.
1166 Diarmaid Mac Murchada,
King of Leinster, met with Henry II in Aquitaine after he was
dispossessed of land by Ruaidhri O Conchobair, the High King of
Ireland. This meeting instigated the Norman invasion of 1169.
(Econ, 5/28/11, p.18)
1166 El-Idrisi (b.1099), a
Muslim geographer, died. The Arab geographer Idrisi claimed that
Indians preferred iron from East Africa over their own because of
(SSFC, 9/2/07, p.A18)(NH, 6/97, p.44)
1167 Feb 27, Robert of Melun,
English philosopher, bishop of Hereford, died.
1167 Aug 14, Raynald van
Dassel, archbishop of Cologne, died.
1167 Dec 1, Northern Italian
towns formed the Lombardi League.
1167 Dec 24, John "Lackland"
Plantagenet, King of England (1199-1216), was born.
(HN, 12/24/98)(MC, 12/24/01)
1167 Sweden’s King Charles VII
was assassinated after ruling for 6 years. Charles VII was the first
Swedish king with the name Charles.
1167 Genghis Khan
(d.1227) was born in the Hentiyn Nuruu mountains north of Ulan
Bator in the early 1160's (it has been argued between 1162 and 1167,
but recently agreement has been made for 1167), the son of the
Kiyat-Borjigid chieftain Yisugei. His given name was Temujin, "the
ironsmith," and he seized control over much of 5 million square
miles that covered China, Iran, Iraq, Burma, Vietnam, and most of
Korea and Russia. His efforts in Vietnam were not successful. "In
Search of Genghis Khan" is a book by Tim Severin. He was succeeded
by his son Ogedai, who was succeeded by Guyuk. Ogedai ignored
numerous pleas from his brother Chaghatai to cut down on his
drinking and died of alcoholism as did Guyuk. [see 1167]
1168 Sep 20, Paschal III,
[Guido di Crema], Italian anti-Pope, died.
1169 Mar 23, Shirkuh,
Kurd General, vizier of Cairo, Saladin's uncle, died.
1169 May 1, The Norman invasion
of Ireland, a two-stage process, began when a force of loosely
associated Norman knights landed near Bannow, County Wexford. This
was at the request of Dermot MacMurrough (Diarmait Mac Murchada),
the ousted King of Leinster, who sought their help in regaining his
kingdom. Stage 2 began in 1171 with the arrival of Henry II.
1169 Dec, Owain Gwynedd, ruler
of North Wales in the twelfth century, died. He had nineteen
children, six of whom were legitimate. MADOC, one of the bastard
sons, was born in a castle at Dolwyddelan, a village at the head of
the Lledr valley between Betws-y-Coed and Blaenau Ffestiniog. The
brothers fought amongst themselves for the right to rule Gwynedd.
MADOC, although being brave and adventurous, was a man of peace. He
and his brother, Riryd, left the quay on the Afon (River) Ganol at
Aber-Kerrik-Gwynan, on the North Wales Coast (now Rhos-on-Sea) in
two ships, the Gorn Gwynant and the Pedr Sant. They sailed west,
leaving the coast of Ireland 'farre north' and landed in Mobile Bay,
in what we now know as Alabama in the USA.
1169-1181 The heyday of the Kiyomori Clan in
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
1170 Jun 14, Henry II of
England crowned his son as heir apparent in a ritual performed by
the archbishop of York.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.2)
1170 Dec 2, Thomas Becket,
archbishop of Canterbury, returned to Canterbury from France.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.3)
1170 Dec 29, Thomas Becket
(b.1117), archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in Canterbury
Cathedral by 4 English knights. Barons had heard Henry II cry out,
"Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?"
c1170 Leonardo Fibonacci, Italian mathematician,
was born. It is believed Fibonacci discovered the relationship of
what are now referred to as Fibonacci numbers while studying the
Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt and by investigating how fast rabbits
could breed in ideal circumstances. Suppose a newborn pair of
rabbits, one male, one female, is put in a field. Rabbits are
able to mate at the age of one month so at the end of its second
month a female can produce another pair of rabbits. Suppose
our rabbits never die and the female always produces one new pair
(one male, one female) every month from the second month on. The
puzzle Fibonacci posed was: How many pairs will there be in
one year? At the end of the first month, they mate, but there
is still one only 1 pair. At the end of the second month the
female produces a new pair, so now there are 2 pairs of rabbits in
the field. At the end of the third month, the original female
produces a second pair, making 3 pairs in all in the field. At
the end of the fourth month, the original female has produced yet
another new pair, the female born two months ago produces her first
pair also, making 5 pairs. The number of pairs of rabbits in
the field at the start of each month is 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21,
34, ... The next number in the Fibonacci sequence is arrived
at by adding the previous two values together. Thus, to get
the next value after 34 add 21 to 34 and arrive at 55. As you
can see, Fibonacci numbers are a sequence of numbers in which each
successive number is the sum of the two previous numbers: 1, 1, 2,
3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, etc. Now, if you
take any two adjacent values and divide each one by their sum, a
peculiar thing occurs, the values converge to 38.2% and 61.8%. These
numbers also possess an intriguing number of natural
interrelationships, such as the fact that any given number is
approximately 1.618 times the preceding number and any given number
is approximately 0.618 times the following number. The booklet
Understanding Fibonacci Numbers by Edward Dobson contains a good
discussion of these interrelationships.
c1170 Hua was chief of Hana, in what is now the
(SFEM, 3/16/97, p.46)
1170 Madoc, a Welsh prince, is
reputed to have discovered America. Many believe that he and his
followers initially settled in the Georgia/Tennessee/ Kentucky area,
eventually moving to the Upper Missouri, where they were assimilated
into a tribe of the Mandans. New evidence is also emerging about a
small band of Madoc's followers who remained in the Ohio area and
are called “White Madoc."
1170-1221 Domingo de Guzman, a Spanish monk
founded the Dominicans, also called mendicants, for they abjured
great abbeys and cloisters in favor of a life of utmost simplicity
and poverty. The Order of St. Dominic was fashioned to minister to
the educated classes in the new towns.
1171 May 1, Dermot MacMurrough
(b.1110), last Irish King of Leinster, died.
1171 Oct 18, Henry II
(1133-1189) arrived in Ireland from France with an army and declared
himself "Lord of Ireland". All of the Normans, along with many Irish
princes, took oaths of homage to Henry by November, and he left
after six months. He never returned, but in 1177 he named his
youngest son, Prince John, as Lord of Ireland.
c1171 Benjamin ben Jonah, a Spanish Jew, returned
to his home in Tudela and published an account of his 6-year journey
to Constantinople, Cyprus, Palestine, Damascus, Persia and Egypt:
“The Travels of Benjamin of Tudela."
(WSJ, 8/8/02, p.D10)
1172 Mar 4, Stephan III, King
of Hungary (1162-72), died.
1172-1216 Shota Rustaveli, a Georgian poet, lived
about this time. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest
representatives of the literature of the medieval world. His
literary work included “The Knight in the Panther's Skin"
("Vepkhistkaosani" in Georgian), the Georgian national epic poem.
1173 Feb 21, Pope Alexander III
canonized Thomas Becket (1117-1170) of Canterbury.
1173 Queen Eleanor took the
part of her young son in his rebellion against Henry II. The
rebellion was put down and Henry imprisoned Eleanor. She remained
inprisoned for 16 years.
1173 The first stone of the
Tower of Pisa was laid. It began tilting in 1174 and became known as
the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Work halted for nearly a century as Pisa
warred with Florence.
(WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A1)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C3)
1174 Jul 11, Amalric I, king of
(ON, 6/07, p.5)
1174 Jul 15, Baldwin (13), son
of Amalric I, was crowned Baldwin IV, king of Jerusalem.
(ON, 6/07, p.5)
1174 Nureddin, the ruler of
Syria died. Saladin, the vizier of Egypt, married Nureddin’s widow
and assumed control of both state. The Ayyubids under Saladin spent
the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by
1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria,
northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up
to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.
1174 The earliest known English
horse races were held.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1175 William de Braose
(1130-1211), a court favorite of King John of England, carried out
the Abergavenny Massacre, luring three Welsh princes and other Welsh
leaders to their deaths.
1176 May 22, There was a murder
attempt by "Assassins" (hashish-smoking mountain killers) on Saladin
1176 May 29, Lombard League
defeated Frederick Barbarossa at Battle of Legnano.
1177 Aug 2, Philip of Flanders
arrived in Acre. A Christian army under the joint command of Philip
of Flanders and Raymond of Tripoli marched west to campaign against
the Muslims around Tripoli.
1177 Nov 18, Saladin marched
north from Egypt with 26,000 light cavalry intent on capturing the
Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1177 Nov 25, Baldwin of
Jerusalem and his armored knights encountered the Muslim army of
Saladin below the castle of Montgisard and defeated them in a
(ON, 6/07, p.6)
1177 Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
(d.1274) was born as Seyyed Shah Hussain Marandi in Marand (near the
city of Tabriz) in Azerbaijan (at this time a part of Iran). He is
also known as Shaikh Hussain Marandi. He migrated to Sindh and
settled in Sehwan and was buried there. He was a Sufi in the regions
that lie in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
1178 Aug 29, Anti-Pope
Callistus III gave pope title to Alexander III.
1178 Jun 18, 5 Canterbury monks
reported an explosion on moon (only known observation). This is the
proposed time of origin of lunar crater Giordano Bruno.
1178 Jul 30, Frederick I
(Barbarossa), Holy Roman Emperor, was crowned King of Burgundy.
1178 A Chinese colored scroll
from this time depicted Buddhist guardians washing their clothes in
a mountain stream. Buddha (d.483BCE) was said to have entrusted 16
disciples with the task of guarding the faith.
(SFC, 12/5/03, p.D7)
1178 English raiders attacked
the Irish town of Clonmacnoise but spared the churches.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)
1178 The wise King Giorgi III
of Georgia had his daughter, Tamara (19), crowned as his co-ruler to
provide an orderly succession.
1179 Sep 17, Hildegard von
Bingen (b.1098), mystic and composer (Ordo Virtutum), died at 81.
The abbess Hildegard concocted the Lingua Ignota, an artificial
language. Her work included the morality play "Ordo Virtutum." In
2012 she was named a “doctor" of the Catholic church.
(WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A16)(Wired, 8/96, p.84)(WSJ,
7/30/98, p.A16)(AP, 10/7/12)
1179 Pope Alexander III
established The Apostolic Penitentiary, or Tribunal of Conscience,
for sins considered so heinous by the Catholic Church that only the
Pope can grant absolution to those who perpetrate them.
1180 Aug 11, Guillaume de Sens,
French master builder (Canterbury), died.
1180 Nov 14, Laurcan O'Toole
(b.1128), Archbishop of Dublin (1161-1180), died in France. His name
was later anglicized to Laurence O'Toole. He was canonized only
forty-five years after his death.
1180 The Kingdom of Jerusalem
under Baldwin IV reached a truce with Egypt under Saladin.
(ON, 6/07, p.6)
1180 In Montpellier, France, a
medical school was founded.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)
1180-1185 War between the Taira and Minamoto clans
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
1181 Aug 4, A supernova was
seen in Cassiopeia. Chinese and Japanese astronomers observed a
supernova. The star 3C58 was later identified as the heart of the
explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia. In 2002 it was thought to
be composed of quarks.
(MC, 8/4/02)(SFC, 4/11/02, p.A2)
1182 Francis of Assisi was born
as Guiovanni di Bernardone (d.1226), the son of a rich Umbrian cloth
merchant. He later created an Order to minister to the poor and
destitute clustered in the slums outside the walled towns.
(V.D.-H.K.p.108)(CU, 6/87)(SFC, 10/4/99, p.A21)
1182 In Constantinople a mob
massacred the Latins who ruled as agents of the regent Maria of
Antioch. They killed the city officials and proclaimed an uncle of
Alexius II Comnenus co-emperor to rule as Andronicus I Comnenus
together with his nephew.
(PCh, 1992, p.98)
1183 James Goldman wrote his
1966 play "The Lion in Winter," set in 1183 England. The 1968 film
“The Lion in Winter" focused on Henry II and his estranged wife,
Eleanor of Aquitaine, and their battle over succession. The 1834
opera by Gaetano Donizetti, “Rosmonda d’Inghilterra," was the
story of Rosamond Clifford, who was put in a tower by her lover King
Henry II, and offered death by dagger or poison by Queen Eleanor.
(SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)(WSJ,
1184 Jun 15, King Magnus of
Norway was defeated by his rival, Sverre.
1184 The first medieval
inquisition, the episcopal inquisition, was established by a papal
bull entitled Ad abolendam, "For the purpose of doing away with."
The inquisition was in response to the growing Catharist heresy in
southern France. It is called "episcopal" because it was
administered by local bishops, which in Latin is episcopus. In 2012
Cullen Murphy authored “God’s Jury: The Inquisition and the making
of the Modern World."
1184-1199 In Morocco the Koutoubia Mosque was
built during this period in the heart of Marrakesh.
1185 Mar, Baldwin IV (23), king
of Jerusalem, succombed to his leprosy.
1185 Sep 12, Andronicus I
Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1183-85), was lynched.
1185 The Bishopric of Livonia
was founded by Meinhard of Germany.
1185-1333 The Kamakura Period of Japan. A sect
known as Pure Land Buddhism began to enjoy great popularity.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(SFC, 3/14/03, p.D1)
1186 In Cambodia the temple
monastery of Ta Prohm at Angkor was consecrated. Inscriptions say
that 79,365 servants were required to for its upkeep. It was paid by
funds from over 3,000 villages.
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T7)
1186 The Waalo kingdom was
founded in the northern plains of what later became known as
Senegal, where communities began to choose their leaders.
1186 Zara (present-day Zadar,
Croatia), previously part of the Venetian republic, rebelled against
Venice and allied itself with Hungary, posing competition to
Venice’s maritime trade.
1187 Jul 4, In the Battle of
Hittin (Tiberias) Saladin defeated Reynaud of Chatillon. Salah al
Din, who ruled from his imperial seat in ancient Syria, defeated
Christian armies of the Crusaders and forced their retreat from the
Holy Land. The battle was depicted in a mosaic that was found and
restored for the palace of Pres, Hafez Assad of Syria. Saladin
personally executed Crusader Reynaud of Chatillon (b.1124/5).
Reynaud of Chatillon, Lord of Kerak, Jordan, had violated twice
violated a tenuous truce and earlier this year attacked a caravan of
pilgrims returning from Mecca.
p.A1)(Econ, 5/30/09, p.24)
1187 Sep 5, Louis VIII,
[Coeur-de-Lion] king of France (1223-26), was born.
1187 Oct 2, Sultan Saladin
captured Jerusalem from Crusaders.
1189 Jan 21, Philip Augustus,
Henry II of England and Frederick Barbarossa assembled the troops
for the Third Crusade.
1189 Feb 6, Riots of Lynn in
Norfolk spread to Norwich, England.
1189 May 11, Emperor Frederik I
Barbarossa and 100,000 crusaders departed Regensburg.
1189 Jul 6, Henry II (56), King
of England (1154-89), died.
(SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)(MC, 7/6/02)
1189 Sep 3, After the death of
Henry II, Richard Lionheart, King Richard I, was crowned king of
England in Westminster. Richard was the 2nd son of Henry II and
Eleanor of Aquitaine.
(AP, 9/3/97)(HN, 9/3/98)(ON, 6/12, p.5)
1189 Sep 3, Jacob of Orleans,
Rabbi, was killed in the London anti Jewish riot in which 30
Jews were massacred.
1189 Giraldus Cambrensis
authored "History of the Conquest of Ireland."
(ON, SC, p.1)
1189 The first lord mayor was
elected in London.
1190 Mar 16, The Crusades began
the massacre of Jews in York, England. The Jewish population of York
fled to Clifford’s Tower overlooking the rivers Ouse and Foss during
an anti-Jewish riot. A crazed friar set fire to the tower and rather
than be captured, the inhabitants committed mass suicide,
(SFEC,10/26/97, p.T5)(HN, 3/16/99)
1190 Mar 17, Crusaders
completed the massacre of Jews of York, England.
1190 Mar 18, Crusaders killed
57 Jews in Bury St. Edmonds, England.
1190 Jun 10, Frederick I van
Hohenstaufen, Barbarossa (1123-1190), king of Germany and Italy and
the Holy Roman Empire, drowned crossing the Saleph River while
leading an army of the Third Crusade. Frederick struggled to extend
German influence throughout Europe, maneuvering both politically and
militarily. He clashed with the pope, the powerful Lombards and
fellow Germans among others throughout the years. He joined the
Third Crusade in the Spring of 1189 in their efforts to free
Jerusalem from Saladin's army
(WUD, 1994, p.565)(HN, 6/10/98)(HNQ, 2/3/01)
1190 Matthaeus Platerius, a
teaching physician at the School of Salerno, wrote his manuscript
“Circa Instans," a Latin work on the medicinal properties of plants.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1190 The Louvre Museum in Paris
was built as a fortress.
(SFC, 6/16/96, T-5)
1190 Emo of Friesland entered
Oxford and was later remembered as Oxford’s first recorded foreign
(Econ, 8/7/10, p.13)
1190 Mongol leader Temujin
(Genghis Khan) lost a battle against Jamuka, a rival war leader, and
was forced to retreat. His enemy boiled alive some 70 captives.
Several clans deserted Jamuka and joined Temujin.
(ON, 8/12, p.8)
1191 Apr 14, Giacinto Bobo (85)
became Pope Coelestinus III.
1191 May 12, Richard the
Lionheart married (Bernegaria) Berengaria of Navarre in Limassol,
(NH, 4/97, p.62)(EofA, p.161)
1191 Jul 12, Richard Coeur de
Lion and Crusaders defeated the Saracens at Acre.
1191 Aug 20, Crusader King
Richard I (1157-1199), Coeur de Lion (the "Lionheart"), executed
some 2,700-3,000 Muslim prisoners in Acre (Akko).
1191 Zen Buddhism, guided by
the Dao (The Way) arrived to Japan from China.
(Hem., 2/96, p.58)
1191 In Cambodia Preah Khan was
dedicated on what is thought to be the site where the Khmer defeated
their eastern neighbors the Cham. The central temple was dedicated
by Jayavarman VII to his father, King Dharanindravavarman II, in the
name of Lokesvara, a god who embodies the compassionate qualities of
the Buddha. The temple covers 140 acres.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)(Arch, 5/04, p.64)
1192 Sep 2, Sultan Saladin and
King Richard the Lion Hearted signed a cease fire.
1192 Oct 9, Richard Coeur de
Lion left Jerusalem in disguise. [see Sep 21, 1192]
1192 Dec 20, English King
Richard I the Lionheart was captured in Austria on his return from
the Third Crusade. He was held in a castle above Durnstein, Austria,
after disrespecting local Duke Leopold V. An entire year’s
supply of wool from the Cistercian and two other monasteries in
England was promised as ransom for the King. It was never paid in
(NG, 5.1988, pp.
569)(http://tinyurl.com/33kall)(SSFC, 8/5/12, p.N4)
1192 The Order of the Teutonic
Knights of St. Mary's Hospital in Jerusalem established their
headquarters in Acre.
1192 The founding of the
Kamakura Shogunate in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
1192 Enrico Dandolo (85) was
elected doge of Venice.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
1193 Mar 4, Saladin [Salah
ed-Din]) Yusuf ibn Ayyub (52), Kurdish sultan of Egypt and Syria
(1175-1193), died. Saladin led the Muslims against the Crusaders. He
had reimposed Sunni orthodoxy in Egypt after routing the Fatimids, a
dynasty of Ismaili Shias which had ruled for two centuries.
(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.M6) (PC, 1992, p.100)(AP,
3/4/04)(Econ, 5/4/13, p.52)
1193 In 1779 The German
playwright, Gotthold Lessing, wrote a play that was set at this time
in Jerusalem. [see 1779, Lessing]
1193 The Nalanda Buddhist
learning center in Bihar state was sacked by Turkic Muslim invaders
under Bakhtiyar Khalji, a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in
India. Khalji was a member of the Muslim Turkic Khilji, or the
Khalaj tribe as it is known in Iran and Afghanistan.
1193 In Tibet the Karma Kargyu
sect preceded the Geluk sect of the Dalai Lama. It introduced the
idea of religious succession by reincarnation when a great lama used
it to predict his own rebirth.
(SFEM, 12/20/98, p.18)
1194 Feb 4, Richard I, King of
England, was freed from captivity in Austria with the payment of
Leopold VI's ransom of 100,000
(HN, 2/4/99)(ON, 8/07, p.9)
1194 Feb 20, Tancredo of Lecce,
King of Sicily, died.
1194 Mar 13, Richard I, King of
England, landed at Sandwich and immediately prepared to march north
to recover his castles.
(ON, 8/07, p.9)
1194 Mar 27, The
Archbishop of Canterbury, on behalf of King Richard I, talked with
the rebels inside the castle at Nottingham, who soon surrendered.
(ON, 8/07, p.10)
1194 May 5, Kazimierz II, the
Justified, grand duke of Poland (1177-94), died.
1194 Dec 26, Frederick II,
German Emperor (1212-1250) and King of Sicily, was born in Lesi,
(HN, 12/26/98)(MC, 12/26/01)
1194 Dec 27, Frederick II,
German Emperor, was born.
1194 The French cathedral at
Chartres was mostly destroyed by fire. The Sancta Camisia relic
survived intact and the cathedral was rebuilt in 29 years. In 2008
Leo Hollis authored “Universe of Stone: Chartres Cathedral and the
Triumph of the Modern Mind."
(Hem., 10/97, p.86)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.97)
1195-1270 Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman (Nahmanides) was
a Catalan kabbalist.
(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)
1196 The Chateau Gaillard in
Normandy was built by Richard the Lionhearted, Duke of Normandy, to
protect his domain from Philip Augustus, King of France.
(AMNH, DT, 1998)
1197 Dec 4, Crusaders wounded
Rabbi Elezar ben Judah.
1197 Sep 29, Emperor Henry VI
died in Messina, Sicily.
c1197 The sacred cross of Lalibela dates to this
time. It was believed to belong to King Lalibela of Ethiopia who
ordered "on command of God and with the help of angels" the
construction of a holy city hewn from rock. In 1997 it was reported
(SDUT, 6/6/97, p.E4)
1197 Scotland’s new Glasgow
Cathedral was consecrated. The first stone building was consecrated
in about 1136 in the presence of King David I and his Court when
John (1117-1147) was Bishop.
(SSFC, 3/10/13, p.H4)(
1198 Jan 8, Lotario de Conti di
Sengi became Pope Innocent III (d.1216). He raised the papacy to an
acme of papal prestige and power, and Christian Europe came close to
being a unified theocracy with no internal contradictions. He
oversaw 2 crusades and established fees for indulgences to fatten
the Church's treasury. He hired Italian merchant bankers to manage
papal funds and sanctioned the new Franciscan and Dominican orders.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Innocent_III)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
1198 The German Bishop Bertold shipped up
the Baltic with armed forces and attacked the native people of
Livonia. The attack was repulsed.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p.39-40)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)
1198 The Fourth Crusade was
funded by Enrico Dandolo, doge of Venice.
1198 Fleeing from the Turks, a
group of Armenian nobles and their followers settled in Byzantine
Cilicia where they established a state know as Lesser or Little
Armenia. In this year the area attained the status of kingdom and
survived to 1375.
1198 The Giralda bell tower in
Seville, Spain, was built as a Muslim minaret.
(SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M5)
1199 Apr 6, Richard I "the
Lion-hearted" (41), King of England (1189-99), died. Richard was
killed by an arrow at the siege of the castle of Chaluz in France.
(HN, 4/6/99)(MC, 4/6/02)
1199 Sep 30, Rambam
(Maimonides) authorized Samuel Ibn Tibbon to translate “Guide of
Perplexed" from Arabic into Hebrew.
1199 Prince John (d.1216) was
crowned King of England.
(ON, 7/04, p.1)