Timeline of The Fourteenth Century 1300-1399
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1300 Jan 1, A
Jubilee Year, the symbolic moment for Dante's Divine Comedy. It
marked the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the
Renaissance. Pope Boniface VIII had issued a Papal Bull that
declared a Rome Holy Year, "Giubileo." The event was such a success
that papal gendarmes had to execute several dozen people to bring
the crowds under control. Pope Bonifacius VIII introduced Jubilee
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WSJ, 4/2/97, p.A12)(WSJ,
c1300 Women’s corsets were
first developed about this time. See the discussion by Marilyn Yalom
in her 1997 book: "History of the Breast."
(SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.3)
c1300 The Panum Crater at Mono
Lake, Ca., erupted about this time.
(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.T4)
c1300 The Anasazi Indian
culture of the American southwest, 15 to 20 thousand people,
disappeared from the Four Corners region about this time. All the
Anasazi were gone from Mesa Verde. They probably moved south and
broke up into present-day Pueblo tribes. Anasazi means enemy
ancestors in Navajo.
(SFC, 5/19/96, T-1)(HN, 2/11/97)(AM, 9/01, p.44)
c1300 The 18-acre Hatalacva
Pueblo in Arizona contains the rare Tuzigoot Phase Southern Sinagua
pueblo of this time.
(AM, adv. circular, p.2)
c1300 The Mississippian people,
the largest pre-Columbian culture north of Mexico, built the earthen
city of Cahokia about this time. The site, discovered in
southwestern Illinois, probably served as a religious center and may
have had a population of up to 80,000. The Mississippians arose
around 800 AD and remained a powerful influence until about the time
of the first European explorers. The loose-knit theocracy held sway
over much of present-day Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois,
Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio and, not surprisingly,
Mississippi. They also had settlements extending sporadically into
the upper Midwest and across the western plains. The largest of the
earthen mounds at Cahokia, called Monks Mound, is 700 feet wide, 100
feet tall and 1000 feet long--representing a colossal public works
program and a government stable enough to order the construction.
1300 A drought pervaded the
southwest of North America.
(Sm, 3/06, p.74)
1300 Florence was established
as the banker of Europe, and its coin, the florin, became the first
international currency. Its citizens sought ... a splendor of art
and architecture belonging to all the people that would make their
city the envy of people everywhere... The Medici family was most
1300 A Jewish merchant ransomed
the body of Rabbi Meir, imprisoned in 1284, and buried him in Worms.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)
1300 The Oude Kerk church in
Amsterdam dates to this time.
(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)
c1300 In Tibet the Jonang
Buddhist monastery was established. In 1997 Chinese authorities
closed down the 700-year old monastery and sent the monks home after
they refused to denounce the Dalai Lama.
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)
1300s England recruited Flemish
weavers with promises of "good beer, good food, good bed and good
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1300 Paris, with its population
between 200,000 and 300,000, was at this time the largest city in
c1300s In Scotland the Dunrobin
Castle in the northern Highlands dates top the early 1300s.
(SFEM, 1/31/99, p.6)
1300-1307 The Gladzor Gospels, Armenian
illuminated manuscripts whose images are the work of five artists,
T'oros Taronets being the only one whose name is known. These
gospels are a defining document of the medieval Armenian church's
(SF Chronicle, 5/12/1994, p. E-5)
1300-1358 Jean Buridan, Parisian theologian,
attempted to resolve the problem with Aristotle’s law of motion with
the idea of impetus, i.e. that a moving body does not need to be
continuously pushed to stay in motion due to its impetus provided by
a violent motion upon it.
1300-1377 Guillaume de Machaut, French poet and
(WUD, 1994, p.629)(SFC, 2/15/99, p.E7)
1300-1400 Odoric of Pordenone spent 3 years in
China in the 14th century.
(NH, 10/98, p.69)
1300-1400 In China Kublai Khan made Beijing the
imperial capital in the 14th century.
1300-1400 In Cameroon the kingdom of Foumban began
in the 14th century.
(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.A1)
1300-1400 In Egypt the nose of the Sphinx was lost
in the 14th century.
(SFC, 5/26/98, p.A8)
1300-1400 In the 14th century "The Dunmow Flitch"
prize was awarded in Dunmow, Essex, England, to any couple who could
come after a year of marriage and truthfully swear that they never
quarreled and did not regret the marriage and would do it over
(SFC, 12/26/96, p.C16)
1300-1400 In Europe the Brethren of the Free
Spirit (aka Beghards) flaunted both moral law and church doctrine
because they believed that their exalted station as saved Christians
raised them above the ranks of ordinary mortals. The heresy was
(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A19)
1300-1400 The Kebra Negast, a 14th cent. Ethiopian
text, claims that the Queen of Sheba came from Ethiopia to see
Solomon and that he tricked her into sleeping with him and bearing
him a son.
(WSJ, 5/2/97, p.A6)
1300-1400 The "Chronicle of the Morea" is a 14th
century history of southern Greece.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.58)
1300-1400 A family in Deruta, Italy, began
producing majolica pottery. In 2008 the Grazia majolica factory was
the 13th oldest family business in the world.
(SFC, 3/5/08, p.G5)
1300-1400 In Portugal a spiritual retreat for
monks was built in Redondo. It later became the Hotel Convento de
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T6)
1300-1400 In Russia the Danilov Monastery was
built 3 miles south of the Kremlin by Prince Daniel, founder of
Moscow’s 14th century dynasty.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.36)
1300-1400 Vodka is believed to have originated in
the 14th century in the grain-growing region that now embraces
Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and western Russia. It also has a long
tradition in Scandinavia. The first written record of vodka in
Poland dates from 1405 in the Sandomierz Court Registry.
1300-1400 In Romania the Sihastra Monastery was
founded in the 14th century.
(SFC, 12/7/98, p.A25)
1300-1400 Krusevac, Serbia, was the capital of an
empire that included Yugoslavia, Albania and Greece.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.A28)
c1300-1400 In the early 14th century the
Gottscheers settled in the Carniola region of what later became
Slovenia. The Germanic people were sent there to till the land and
pay taxes to the Carinthian counts of Ortenburg and to serve as a
forward guard for the Holy Roman Empire.
(SFC, 6/16/99, p.A12)
1300-1600 Tombs with decorated pillars called
phallic pillars by the locals are widespread among the Oromo of
Somalia and Kenya, where they symbolize manhood and indicate
(NH, 6/97, p.45)
1300-1700 In Thailand kilns at Intrakil date from
the Lanna kingdom of this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)
1300-c1700 The period of the Renaissance. The 1998
book "The Scholar in His Study: Ownership and Experience in
Renaissance Italy" by Dora Thornton covered this period. In 1970
Prof. Charles Trinkaus authored the 2-volume work "In Our Image and
Likeness: Humanity and Divinity in Italian Humanist Thought." In
1985 Claude Palisca (d.2001) authored "Humanism in Italian
Renaissance Musical Thought."
(SFEC, 2/15/98, BR p.8)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A26)(SFC,
1300-1850 Historical records and scientific data
on oxygen isotope ratios of Viking teeth indicate a period of
cooling temperatures called a Little Ice Age of Northern Europe.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.32)
1301 Feb 7, Edward of
Caernarion (later Edward II) became the 1st prince of Wales.
1301 Jul 4, Battle at
Breukelen: Holland vs. Lichtenberg.
1302 Jan 27, Dante became a
Florentine political exile.
1302 Mar 11, Romeo and Juliet
were married on this day, according to Shakespeare.
(HN, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/11/02)
1302 May 18, The weaver Peter
de Coningk led a massacre of the Flemish oligarchs at the French
garrison (Brugse Metten).
(HN, 5/18/99)(SC, 5/18/02)
1302 Jul 11, An army of French
knights, led by the Count of Artois, was routed by Flemish pikemen.
1303 May 20, France returned
Gascony to England’s Edward I.
(HN, 5/20/98)(PC, 1992 ed, p121)
1303 Aug 31, The War of Vespers
in Sicily ended with an agreement between Charles of Valois, who
invaded the country, and Frederick, the ruler of Sicily.
1303 Sep 8, Anagni: French king
Philip IV captured Pope Boniface VIII.
1303 In Egypt the Pharos
Lighthouse at Alexandria was toppled by an earthquake.
(SFEC, 4/5/98, Par p.20)
1303 Enrico Scrovegni’s Padova
(Padua) Chapel, begun in 1300, was completed. Giotto began painting
a fresco cycle there with scenes from the Old and New Testaments.
The decorations were completed in 1305.
1303 The Baltic Sea froze over.
The event is described by Barbara Tuchman in her book "A Distant
(NOHY, 3/90, p.127)
1303 Filippo di Amedeo de
Peruzzi, Florentine banker, died. He had established bank branches
in Naples, Paris and London and underwrote business ventures across
Europe. The family went bankrupt when Edward III of England
defaulted on his debts after losing the Hundred Years War.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
1304 Jul 20, Francisco Petrarch
(d.1374), Italian poet and scholar, founder of Renaissance Humanism,
was born in Arezzo. He was educated at Avignon and saw himself as a
Florentine, Italian, and man of the world. He was a poet and
autodidact who never stopped studying until his death.
1304 The Hotel Pilgrim Haus was
founded in Soest, Germany.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)
1305 Aug 23, Scottish patriot
William Wallace was hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in
(HN, 8/23/98)(SFEC, 4/11/99, Z1 p.8)
1305 The House of Taxis
operated a courier messenger service for rich European clients.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1305 Giotto (1267-1337)
finished a cycle of frescoes, telling the story of Jesus and Mary,
inside Enrico Scrovegni’s new chapel in Padua.
(SFC, 11/17/01, p.D4)(WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P16)
1306 Mar 25, Robert the Bruce
(1274-1329) was crowned king of Scotland as the successor to King
(HN, 7/11/01)(ON, 2/08, p.6)
1306 Jul 22, King Phillip the
Fair ordered the expulsion of Jews from France. They returned to
Montpellier in 1319, having been recalled by King Sancho, who
protected them in 1320 against the fury of the Pastoureaux.
1306 Aug 8, King Wenceslas of
Poland was murdered.
1306 Pierre Dubois, a counselor
for the Duke of Burgundy, called for a European federation.
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.39)
1306 English forces defeated
Scottish forces under Robert Bruce at Methven near Perth. Bruce
escaped to Rathlin Island.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)
1306-1307 The Baltic Sea froze over again. The
event is described by Barbara Tuchman in her book "A Distant
(NOHY, 3/90, p.127)
1307 May 10, Forces under
Robert Bruce of Scotland defeated the English at Loudoun Hill. Over
the next few years Bruce gained control over much of the Scottish
(ON, 2/08, p.6)
1307 Jul 7, Edward I (b.1239),
King (Longshanks) of England (1272-1307), died.
1307 Oct 13, French king Philip
IV convicted the Knights Templar of heresy. Members of the Knights
of Templar were arrested throughout France, imprisoned and tortured
by the order of the King Philip the Fair.
(HN, 10/13/98)(MC, 10/13/01)
1307 Nov 18, William Tell shot
an apple off his son's head.
1307 Edward II ascended the
English throne and had his former tutor, Piers Gaston, brought back
to England and made him the Earl of Cornwall.
1307 Mansa Musa (d.1337),
Mali’s greatest ruler, succeeded to the throne. He commissioned
(ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,6)
1307 Poland tried to gain back
the Kulm territory but in their struggle with the Teutonic Knights
they lost Pomerania and their access to the Baltic.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 69)
1308 Feb 25, Edward II was
crowned King of England.
1308 May 1, King Albert [of
Austria] was murdered by his nephew John, because he refused his
share of the Habsburg lands.
1308 Nov 8, John Duns Scotus
(42), Scottish-born theologian and philosopher, died in Germany.
Scotus and his adherents came under attack by critics in the 16th
century, giving rise to the term "dunce."
1308 Princess Isabella (12)
married England’s King Edward II (23). In 2005 Alison Weir authored
“Isabella: She-Wolf of France, Queen of England.
(Econ, 9/10/05, p.81)
1308 The "Parchment of Chinon"
contained the decision by Pope Clement V to save the Templars and
their order. The document was misplaced for centuries in the
archives and found again by researchers in 2001. In 2007 it was
published as part of the Vatican’s secret archive documents about
the trial of the Knights Templar.
c1308-1385 Wang Meng, Chinese artist, his work
included "Temple at Mount Taibai."
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)
1308-1708 The Gonzagas ruled over Mantua, Italy.
(WSJ, 10/10/02, p.D10)
1309 Apr 30, Kazimierz III de
Great, King of Poland (1333-70), was born.
1309-1377 "Babylonian Captivity" during which the
popes left Rome and took up residence at Avignon under the wing of
the king of France.
1310 May 12, Fifty-four Knights
Templar were burned at the stake as heretics in France. They had
been established during the Crusades to protect pilgrims traveling
to the Holy Land, but came into increasing conflict with Rome until
Pope Clement V officially dissolved them in 1312 at the Council of
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)
1310 May 20, Shoes began to be
made for both right and left feet.
1310 English forces under
Edward II crossed into Scotland to regain control of the territory.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)
1310 In Korea a hanging silk
scroll was painted with an image of Avalokiteshvara.
(SFC, 10/14/03, p.D1)
1311 Oct 16, The general
Council of Vienne opened just south of Lyons. During the 2-year
council Pope Clement V made the belief in the right to usury heresy
and abolished all secular legislation which allowed it.
1312 Jun 19, Piers Gaveston,
earl of Cornwall, was beheaded.
1312 Nov 13, Edward III, King
of England (1327-77), was born. He later raped the countess of
(WUD, 1994 p.454)(HN,
1312 The Knights Templar were
suppressed by Pope Clement at the Council of Vienna. Pressured by
King Philip of France, Pope Clement reversed his 1308 decision and
suppressed the order.
(AHD, 1971, p.724)(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(AP,
1312 Scots under Robert Bruce
attacked Perth, held by the English, and gained control of the city
(ON, 2/08, p.6)
1313-1375 Giovanni Boccaccio, Florentine writer
born in Paris. He learned classical Latin and studied classical
Greek under Leonzio Pilato, who had spent some time in Byzantium
where Greek works were still available. He traveled with Petrarch
around southern Europe looking for ancient books and discovered a
number of Cicero's letters. Boccaccio wrote all of his major works
in Italian, including IL Filostroto (the source of Chaucer's Troilus
and Criseyde) and the Decameron.
1313-1905 The four ancient Confucian texts, Ssu
Shu, or "Four Books," were used as subject matter for official
Chinese civil service exams in China. The volumes reputedly contain
direct quotations from Confucius.
1314 Mar 18, In France Jacques
de Molay (b.1244), Grand Master of the Templars, was burned at the
stake along with his aides. Surviving monks fled, with some absorbed
by other orders.
1314 Apr 20, Clement V,
[Bertrand Got], pope (1305-14) who moved papacy to Avignon, died.
1314 Jun 24, King Robert I
(Robert the Bruce) of Scotland with 6,000 men and 500 horses routed
English King Edward II with his army of 20,000 at Bannockburn. Bruce
secured Scotland’s independence from England and ruled until his
death in 1329. A film "The Bruce" was made in 1995 on a $500,000
1314 Nov 29, Philippe IV, the
Handsome, King of France (1285-1314), died.
1314 England banned football
(soccer) for being too violent.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1315 Nov 15, Swiss soldiers
ambushed and slaughtered invading Austrians in the Battle of
Morgarten. The Bundesbrief prevailed over a Habsburg army. Voluntary
agreements among the cantons led to the formation of the
Willensnation, a nation created by acts of free will by a diverse
(HN, 11/15/98)(Econ, 2/14/04, p.6)
1315 In France Parisian bakers
were found guilty of mixing flour with animal droppings during the
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1315 Louis X, Philip's brother
and successor, allowed Jews back into France for financial
considerations. Jews were often expelled because of pressure from
the Church, economic or political considerations, only to be
readmitted at a later date.
1315 Italian immigrants in
France began the Western silk industry.
(SFC, 3/11/00, p.B4)
1315 The Church of the Holy
Virgin was built in Musutiste, Kosovo. In 1999 returning Albanians
blew up the church in retaliation for the Serb destruction of their
(SFC, 9/7/99, p.A12)
1315-1316 England experienced a great famine
brought on by too much water.
1316 Mar 2, Robert II the
Steward, King of Scotland (1371-90), was born.
1316 May 14, Charles IV
(d.1378), later King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, was born in
the House of Luxembourg.
1316 Jun 4, Louis X (26), King
of France (1314-16), died.
1316 Nov 15, Jean I became king
of France, and died 4 days later.
1316 In Lithuania Grand Duke
Vytenis died at Skirsnemune while destroying castles built by the
Knights of the Cross. Gediminas, brother of Vytenis, took over rule.
He wrote a letter to the Pope that requested an end to attacks by
the German orders. The Pope responded in accord but the Germans
continued their pressure.
(H of L, 1931, p.33,34)
1316-1341 In Lithuania Grand Duke Gediminas pushed
back the German orders and extended his territory to the east into
Russia. He invited foreign crafts, trades people and engineers.
Under his rule, Vilnius became the capital with 2 new castles and
the southern and eastern border of Lithuania was extended to include
Smolensk, Kiev and Minsk. His rule did not interfere with local
languages, religious beliefs or rights. Gediminas wed one daughter
to the Prince of Moscow, another to the son of the Polish King and a
third to the Prince of Mozur.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 52)
1316-1390 Albert of Saxony (aka Albertuccio or
little Al), German Scholastic philosopher and physicist.
(NH, 5/97, p.59)
1317 Feb 3, Pope John XXII,
under guidance from Gnesen Archbishop Borislav, offered Catholicism
1317 Apr 20, Agnes van
Montepulciano, Italian mystic, saint, died.
1319 Apr 26, Jean II, the Good,
king of France (1350-64), was born.
1319 May 8, Haakon V, King of
Norway (1299-1319), died.
1319 Ani, capital of Armenia,
was devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)
1320 Oct 12, Michael IX
Paleologi, emperor of Byzantine (1295-1320), died.
1321 Sep 14, Dante Alighieri,
author of the "Divine Comedy," died of malaria just hours after
finishing writing "Paradiso." The poem was completed in Italian
rather than Latin. It helped make Italian the dominant linguistic
force in European literature for the next few centuries. In 2006
Barbara Reynolds authored “Dante: The Poet, the Political Thinker,
3/26/99, p.W2)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.84)
1322 Jun 24, Jews were expelled
from France for a 3rd time.
1322 Arabian writers recorded
ideas about artificial insemination.
(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)
1322 The Baltic froze over and
a cold spell pervaded Europe.
1323 Oct 16, Amadeus V the
Great, count of Flanders and Savoy, died at 74.
1324 Jan 8, Marco Polo,
Venetian explorer, governor of Nanking, died.
1324 Feb 10, The pope
officially chastised the Knights of the Cross for ill treatment of
Catholics and for pushing pagans away from Christianity.
1324 Feb 26, Dino Compagni,
Italian silk seller, poet, chronicler, died.
1324 Mar 5, David II Bruce,
king of Scotland (1331-71), was born.
1324-1325 Mansa Musa (Kankan Moussa), king of
Mali, made the 3,500 mile pilgrimage to Mecca with gold valued at
$115 million in 1999 prices. He traveled with a very large retinue
that included 80 camels and 500 slaves. An Arab chronicler said he
was surrounded by over 10,000 of his subjects.
(ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(SSFC, 4/11/04,
1325 The Aztecs founded
Tenochtitlan, later known as Mexico City, about this time.
1325 Ibn Battuta (20), a
Muslim, left his home in Tangier to journey to Mecca. He traveled in
Arabia, Asia, Africa, and Spain and recorded many exciting
adventures. His travels lasted some 29 years were described in his
book “The Rihla.” In 1986 Ross E. Dunn authored “The Adventures of
Ibn Battuta” based on The Rihla.
(ATC, p.13)(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F3)
1325-1382 Nicholos of Oresme, Parisian theologian
agreed with Jean Buridan concerning the problem of Aristotelian
motion and its resolution: i.e. that a moving body does not need to
be continuously pushed to stay in motion due to its impetus provided
by a violent motion upon it.
1326 Mar 5, Louis I (the
Great), King of Hungary (1342-1382) and Poland (1370-1382), was
(HN, 3/5/98)(MC, 3/5/02)
1326 Osman I (1299-1326)
captured Bursa in north-western Anatolia after a 10 year siege.
Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) is generally regarded as the
founder of the Ottoman Turkish state.
(WUD, 1994 p.1018)(Ot, 1993, p.5)
1326 Richard de Bas, a paper
manufacturer, was founded in Ambert d’Auvergne, France.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)
1327 Jan 7, Edward II of
England was deposed. [see Jan 20, Feb 1]
1327 Jan 20, Edward II of
England was deposed by his eldest son, Edward III. [see Jan 7, Feb
1327 Jan 25, King Edward III
inherited the British throne. [see Jan 7,20]
1327 Feb 1, Edward III was
crowned King of England. [see Jan 7,20]
1327 Apr 6,
Petrarch met Laura de Sade in a church at Avignon, and was inspired
for the rest of his life. He wrote his finest poems about her beauty
and loveliness... and about his later recognition that he had loved
her wrongly, placing her person ahead of her spirit. This event has
been taken to mark the beginning of the Renaissance
1327 Sep 21, Edward II of
England, a homosexual, was murdered by order of his wife, Queen
Isabella and Baron Robert Mortimer.
1327 In Germany the
Pfalzgrafenstein castle was built on the Rhine near the village of
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)
1328 Feb 1, Charles IV, the
Handsome, King of France (1322-28), died.
1328 May 26, William of Ockham
was forced to flee from Avignon by Pope John XXII.
1328 May 27, French king Philip
VI Valois was crowned.
1328 In Italy a monastery and
church of St. Francis was built on the Isola Maggiore on Lake
Trasimeno. In the 19th century it was converted into a castle by a
Marquis for his wife Isabella.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.48)
1328 Moscow became the seat of
the Russian Orthodox metropolitanate. Peter the Metropolitan moved
from the capital Vladimir to Moscow.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.37)
1328 Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn
Taymiyyah (b.1263), a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located
in what is now Turkey, died. He lived during the troubled times of
the Mongol invasions. As a member of the school founded by Ibn
Hanbal, he sought the return of Islam to its sources: the Qur'an and
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Taymiyyah)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.30)
1328-1384 John Wycliffe, English theologian and
biblical translator. He was posthumously declared a heretic and his
body was exhumed for burning in 1428.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)
1329 Jun 7, Robert Bruce
(b.1274), King of Scotland (1306-1329), died.
1329 In Korea a foundry was
used to print books with metal type.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1330 Mar 23, Riga surrendered
to the Livonian Order.
1330 Jun 15, Edward the Black
Prince, the eldest son of Edward III and Prince of Wales
(1343-1376), was born. He was the first Duke created in England, the
Duke of Cornwall.
(HN, 6/15/99)(MC, 6/15/02)
1330 Aug 25,
Anti-Pope Nicolaas V overthrew himself.
c1330 In Japan retired Emp.
Go-Fushimi authored a plea to the god of the Kamo shrine for help in
gaining the thrown for his son, Prince Tokihito. Tokihito got to
reign after a short delay when Go-Daigo refused to step down. Two
years later Go-Daigo got the thrown back.
1331 Ibn Battuta, Arab traveler
and scholar, visited Kilwa. He described Kilwa as "one of the most
beautiful and well-constructed towns in the world."
1331 Na Prous Boneta was burned
at the stake as a female heretic one hundred years before Joan of
(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-12)
1331 Bernard Gui, Inquisitor in
Toulouse, died. He authored “Practica Inquisitionis Heretice
Pravitatis” (Conduct of the Inquisition into Heretical Wickedness),
a manual for Inquisitors in which he listed heretics including
Cathars, Waldensians, Beghards, Jews and witches.
1332 Feb 13, Andronicus II
Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor (1282-1328), monk, died.
1332 May 27, Ibn Khaldun
(d.1406), Arab historian, was born in Tunis. He was also a social
scientist and political activist and developed theories on economics
and politics. He authored the "Muqaddimah" (introduction to
history), that gave an in-depth analysis of the cyclical nature of
the rise, maturation and decline of political regimes and economies.
(HN, 5/27/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)
1332 Aug 12, Battle of Dupplin
Moor; Scottish dynastic battle.
1332 Mansa Musa, King of Mali,
died. His successors were not able to protect Mali’s vast territory
and Berber nomads began attacking caravan routes in the desert and
threatened to take Timbuktu. People from the southern rain forests
attacked the southern boundary and to the west the Sohghai of the
middle Niger River began to revolt.
1332-1370 Descendants of earlier Ghorid rulers
reasserted control over Afghanistan.
1333 Mar 2, Wladyslaw IV, the
Short One, Great, duke, king of Poland, died.
1333 Nov 4, In Florence, Italy,
the Arno River flooded causing some 3,000 deaths.
(Econ, 11/1/08, p.97)
1333 The Kamakura Shogunate of
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
1333 The Black Death erupted in
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)
1333-1573 The Ashikaga (or Muromachi) Period of
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
1334 Aug 30, Pedro, the Cruel,
King of Castilia & Leon, was born.
1334 Emperor Godaigo of Japan
temporarily regained power.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
1334 Heinrich II of Hesse
(Germany) commissioned an illuminated manuscript called The
(SSFC, 5/2/04, p.M2)
1335 In Macedonia the Orthodox
church of St. Atanasie and the Holy Virgin in Lesok was begun. A
monastery was added that played a role in Christian resistance to
the Ottoman Empire.
(SFC, 8/22/01, p.A10)
1336 Feb 25, The Knights
of the Cross sieged the Pilenai Castle in Samogitia. The defenders
burned all their goods and committed suicide.
1336-1405 Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or
Tamerlane because of a lame leg) was a Tartar conqueror of a vast
empire from southern Russia to Mongolia and southward to India,
Persia, and Mesopotamia. After his death the empire fell apart.
Prince Timur is a national hero of Uzbekistan.
(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(WUD, 1994, p.1451)(WSJ, 7/3/97,
1337 Jan 8, Giotto (b.c.1267),
Italian artist, died. His frescoes showed a new realism and
vitality. Art historians later held that the Renaissance dawned in
Florence with Giotto's paintings. He cracked the formal stylization
of Byzantine painting and reinvented the ancient art of creating
depth on a flat surface. In 2000 art historians found evidence that
Pietro Cavallini re-introduced depth in his paintings in Rome around
1337 Jan 21, Charles V, the
Wise, king of France (1364-80), was born.
1337-1453 The Hundred Years War was a series of
wars between England and France in which England lost all
possessions in France except Calais.
(WUD, 1994, p.693)
1338 The founding of the
Ashikaga Shogunate in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1340 Jun 24, The English fleet
defeated the French fleet at Sluys, off the Flemish coast.
1340 Nov 28, In the Battle of
Salado, Spain, the last Moor invasion was driven back.
1340 Nov 30, John, Duke de
Berry, captain of Paris and art collector, was born.
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping
was invented in Italy about this time. [see 1458]
(WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A20)
1340 A drought that lasted 1-2
centuries as measured from tree rings in the Sierra Nevada was
centered on this time. It coincides with a Medieval warm period when
Vikings navigated the waters surrounding Greenland. An earlier
drought centered at 1126AD.
(NH, 9/96, p.38)
c1340-1400 Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet. [see
(WUD, 1994, p.250)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)
1341 Apr 8, Francesco Petrarch
was crowned poet laureate on the Capitol in Rome. He had arranged
two invitations to be crowned, one in Paris and the other in Rome
(1340-1341). He chose Rome.
1341 Jun 19, Juliana van
Falconieri, Italian saint, Swedish tenor, died.
1341 German Knights of the
Cross negotiated acquisition of Tallinn from Denmark and took over
all of Estonia.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 61)
1341-1345 In Lithuania Jaunutis served as Grand
1342 Sep 26, John I, ruler of
1342 In China a tombstone in
Yangchou marked the death of an Italian girl named Katerina.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A23)
1343 The Peruzzi Bank, Europe's
biggest, collapsed following risky loans to English kings.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
c1343-1400 Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet. [see
(WUD, 1994, p.250)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)
1345 Mar 20, A conjunction of
Saturn, Jupiter and Mars was thought to be the "cause of plague
1345 Jul 17, Jacob Van
Artevelde, [Manner Man], Flemish broker, was lynched.
1345 Oct 31, Ferdinand I, the
wise one, king of Portugal (built navy), was born.
1345 The Frisian victory over
the Dutch on the beach at Warns was their last before the Dutch took
(WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)
1345 The Kramerbrucke merchant
bridge was built over the Gera River at Erfurt, Thuringia, Germ.
(Hem., Nov.'95, p.114)
1345 A Florentine wool worker
was hanged for holding a public meeting to organize colleagues.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1345-1377 In Lithuania Algirdas served as Grand
1346 Apr 16, King Stefanus IX
of Serbia proclaimed himself czar of Greece.
1346 May, Edward III of England
called for a fleet of 1000 ships and an army of 10,000 knights and
soldiers to assemble at Portsmouth for an attack on his distant
cousin, Philip VI of France.
(ON, 9/00, p.1)
1346 Jul 12, Edward III landed
his army on the Normandy beaches unopposed.
(ON, 9/00, p.1)
1346 Jul 18, Edward III divided
his army into 3 groups and began a march on Paris.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)
1346 Aug 16, Philip VI offered
Edward III sovereignty over Aquitaine in return for peace. Edward
rejected the offer and learned that Philip had raised an army of
36,000 that included 15,000 Genoese crossbowmen. Edward marched
toward Flanders in order to meet with allies.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)
1346 Aug 25, Edward III of
England defeated Philip VI's army at the Battle of Crecy in France.
The English overcame the French at the Battle of Crecy. The longbow
proved instrumental in the victory as French knights on horseback
outnumbered the British 3 to 1. At the end of the battle 1,542
French lords and knights were killed along with 20,000 soldiers. The
English lost 2 knights and 80 men. [see Aug 26]
(WSJ, 8/3/98, p.A12)(HN, 8/25/98)
1346 Aug 26, During the Hundred
Years War, King Edward III's 9,000-man English army annihilated a
French force of 27,000 under King Philip VI at the Battle of Crecy
in Normandy. The battle is regarded as one of the most decisive in
history. [see Aug 25]
(PC, 1992, p.128)(WSJ, 11/4/04, p.D10)
1346 Sep 3, Edward III of
England began the siege of Calais, along the coast of France.
1346 Sep 28, Edward III and
Philip VI signed a temporary truce. Their hostilities marked the
beginning of the Hundred Years War, which only ended in 1453.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)
1346 Oct 17, English forces
defeated the Scots under David II during the Battle of Neville's
1346 Nov 26, Charles of
Luxembourg was crowned German king. He succeeded his father John of
Luxemburg as King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.128)
1347 May 20, Cola di Rienzo
took the title of tribune in Rome.
1347 Aug 3, Six burghers of the
surrounded French city of Calais surrendered to Edward III of
England in hopes of relieving the siege.
1347 Aug 4, English troops
conquered Ft. Calais. After an 11 month siege, French Calais fell to
England's King Edward III. English rule lasted for more than two
(WSJ, 11/6/95, p. A-1)(MC, 8/4/02)
1347 Oct, Sailors from Genoa
arrived in Messina, Sicily. Plague had broken out earlier among the
troops of the Kipchak Khan, who was besieging the Black Sea port of
Kaffa. He catapulted dead bodies over the city walls. When Italian
trading vessels in the harbor returned to Genoa, the carried the
plague to Europe. The plague, an infectious fever caused by the
bacillus Yersinia pestis, appears in several varieties: bubonic
(which involves swelling of the lymph glands), pneumonic (which
involves the lungs) and septicemia (which involves severe infection
in the bloodstream).
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.31)(HNQ, 1/20/01)(SSFC,
1347 Nov 20, Roman tribune Cola
di Rienzi defeated nobles. Stefano Colonna, Roman senator, died in
1347 Dec 3, Pope Clemens VI
declared Roman tribune, Cola di Rienzi, a heretic.
1347 Charles IV (1316-1378) of
the House of Luxembourg was crowned King of Bohemia.
(WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)
1347-1350 The Black Death: A Genoese trading post
in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and
Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of
plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into
the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the
disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic.
It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa,
France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low
countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser
outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25
million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005
John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the
Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time.”
(NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC,
3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)
1347-1354 John VI Cantacuzenus ruled over
Byzantium. He then abdicated and became and monk and went on to deal
with Rome over the unification of Christendom. [see 330 AD]
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)
1348 Feb 2, The Knights of the
Cross defeated a Lithuanian army at Streva.
1348 Apr 6, Laura, the arch
love of Petrarch died of the plague. Boccaccio retired from
plague-stricken Florence, and in a country residence began to write
1348 Apr 7, Prague Univ., the
1st in central Europe, was started by Charles IV.
1348 Apr 23, King Edward III of
England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order
1348 Sep 21, Jews in Zurich
Switzerland were accused of poisoning wells.
1348 Nov 15, Rudolph of Oron
claimed Jews confessed to poisoning wells.
1348 The Black Plague struck
the Mediterranean Basin.
(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F3)
1348 Accused of being a cause
of the plague, the Jews in France were dragged from their houses and
burned. Pogroms occurred throughout Europe. When the plague
subsided, few Jews were left in Germany or the Low Countries.
(NG, 5/88, p.681)
1348 Plague arrived at
Montpellier, France, in the spring and killed an estimated
two-thirds of the 50,000 inhabitants.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)
1348 The population of Siena,
Italy, dropped from 97,000 to 45,000 in a few months due to the
(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)
1348 Ambrogio Lorenzetti
(b.1290), Sienese painter, died. His work included the 3 murals
titled “War,” “Peace” and “Good Government,” in the Chamber of Peace
of Siena’s town hall.
(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W14)
1349 Jan 9, In Basel,
Switzerland, 700 Jews were burned alive in their houses.
1349 Feb 13, Jews were expelled
from Burgsdorf, Switzerland.
1349 Feb 14, 2,000 Jews were
burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.
1349 Feb 22, Jews were expelled
from Zurich, Switzerland.
1349 Mar 21, Some 3,000 Jews
were killed in Black Death riots in Efurt, Germany.
1349 Apr 30, Jewish community
at Radolszell, Germany, was exterminated.
1349 May 28, 60 Jews were
murdered in Breslau, Silesia.
1349 Aug 24, Some 6,000 Jews,
blamed for the Bubonic Plague, were killed in Mainz.
1349 Aug 24, Jews of Cologne
Germany set themselves on fire to avoid baptism.
1349 Sep 10, The Jews who
survived a massacre in Constance, Germany, were burned to death.
1349 Nov 1, Duke of Brabant
ordered the execution of all Jews in Brussels. He accused them of
poisoning the wells.
1349 Nov 29, Jews of Augsburg,
Germany, were massacred.
1349 Dec 5, 500 Jews of
Nuremberg were massacred during Black Death riots.
1349 Nearly all the Jews of
Worms were murdered on false accusations that they brought on the
plague by poisoning the wells.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)
1349 William of Ockham
(b.1290), English Franciscan scholastic philosopher, died. He
proclaimed that the only real things are singular entities like an
apple or man, and that universals have no existence whatever; they
are mere names. The divine and nature each has its own validity, but
the one is vastly more important that the other, with the one
determining salvation, and the other the mere comfort of the body
during its life. [see 1290]
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WUD, 1994 p.996)(AP,
1349-1830 The eldest son of the king of France was
referred to as the dauphine, as an honor to the Dauphine province
after its cession to France.
(WUD, 1994, p.369)
1350 Mar 27, Alfonso XI of
Castile (38) died of the black death while besieging Gibraltar.
(HN, 3/27/99)(PCh, 1992, p.130)
1350 Aug 22, Philips VI, of
Valois, King of France (1328-50), died.
1350 Aug 22, John II, also
known as John the Good, succeeded Philip VI as king of France.
1350 Sargis Pitsak, Armenian
artist, produced illuminated manuscripts of the bible. Color picture
"Souls Ascending the Heavenly Ladder to Christ," featured in:
( SF Chronicle, 5/12/1994, p. E-1)
1350 The Fremont Indians, who
had lived in Utah’s Range Creek Canyon since about 200, disappeared
from the archeological record.
(WSJ, 1/31/06, p.B6)(Sm, 3/06, p.74)
c1350 At Powers Fort, Missouri,
there was a Mississippian cultural-civic-ceremonial center
consisting of a small village and four mounds.
(AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)
1350 Maori ancestors arrived at
New Zealand on seven legendary canoes from Hawaii, the mother-island
of the east Polynesians.
(NG, Aug., 1974, C. McCarry, p.196)
1350 Boccaccio met Petrarch in
1350 The leaning tower of Pisa
was constructed. [see 1173]
(SFC, 8/13/98, p.C5)
1350 In Northumberland,
England, Langley Castle was built with 7-foot thick walls on a
(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.B8)
1351 The east African Kingdom
of Dongala became hemmed in by Muslim states such as Kordofan and
Darfur and was forced to surrender to Egypt its territory north of
the third cataract. Axum was harried by the Muslims of Funj and the
people retreated into the mountains and developed into the isolated
Christian kingdom of Ethiopia.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)
1351 In England the Statute of
Treasons was passed under which anyone who violated the wife of the
heir to the throne was guilty of high treason.
(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)
1351-1767 The port city of Ayutthaya (Thailand)
was one of the capitals of the kingdom of Siam until the Burmese
invaded, sacked the city and left it in ruins. The capital was then
moved to Bangkok. Prior to this Phananchoeng was the capital.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)(WSJ, 4/21/05, p.D7)
1352 May 5, Ruprecht, Roman
catholic German king, was born.
1352 Dec 18, Etienne Aubert was
elected as Pope Innocentius VI.
1352 The Black Death by this
year had killed 25 million people in Europe alone.
(NG, 5/88, p.678)
1352 Ibn Battuta decided to
cross the Sahara Desert. The journey took two months to complete the
1352 The gothic Cathedral of
Our Lady was begun in Antwerp, Belgium. It was completed in the 16th
(Hem., 7/95, p.27)
1353 King Fangum is
believed to have established the Kingdom of Lan Xang (Million
Elephants), the forerunner of the modern Laos state that was
abolished during the communist revolution of 1975.
1353 In Laos Luang Prabang was
founded. It was the royal capital of the kingdom of Laos and a
center of Laotian Buddhism and court arts.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)
1353 Ibn Battuta spent a few
months in Mali and left a full description of his experiences.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)
1354-1720 Catalan conquerors ruled over Sardinia.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T5)
1355 May 7, 1,200 Jews of
Toledo, Spain, were killed by Count Henry of Trastamara.
1355 Nov 1, During the
Hundred Years’ War (1337-1457) an English invasion army under Black
Prince Edward (25) landed at Calais.
(DoW, 1999, p.213)(PC, 1992 ed, p.131)
1355 Dec 20, Stephen Urosh IV
of Serbia died while marching to attack Constantinople.
1355 Charles IV, King of
Bohemia, was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire.
(WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)
1356 Sep 19, In a landmark
battle of the Hundred Years' War, English Prince Edward defeated the
French at Poitiers. Jean de Clermont, French marshal, died in
(HN, 9/19/98)(MC, 9/19/01)
1357 Apr 22, Johan I, King of
Portugal (1383-1433), was born.
1357 May 28, Afonso IV (66),
King of Portugal (1325-57), died.
1357 The 1999 novel "Timeline"
by Michael Crichton catapults its characters to Medieval France and
the 20th year of the Hundred Years War.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W6)
1358 Jun 10, French Boer leader
Guillaume Cale was captured.
c1359-c1460 Owain Glyndwr (Owen Glendower) of
Wales, leader of a bloody revolt against Henry IV in 1400. The event
was marked by a comet.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)
1360 Mar 15, French invasion
army landed on English south coast and conquered Winchel.
1360 Jul 25, Jews were expelled
from Breslau, Silesia.
1360 Oct 25, Louis, founder of
house of Anjou, was born.
1360s The Flagellants of
Thuringia engage in self mortification and refused to work.
1360-1754 Hanseatic traders brought prosperity to
(SSFC, 6/5/05, p.F7)
1361 Feb 26, Wenceslas of
Bohemia, Holy Roman Catholic German emperor (1378-1400), was born.
1361 Mar 21, Grand duke
Kestutis was captured by the Knights of the Cross.
1361 England enacted its first
Corn Laws. They barred the export of corn in order to keep local
grain supplies cheap.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1361 The Ottomans under Orhan
crossed into Europe and captured Adrianople (Edirne), the 2nd major
city of Byzantium. Murat I (Orhan) moved the Ottoman capital to
Edirne in 1366.
1361-1363 Plague broke out again in Europe.
1362-1363 A 202-pound stone with runic
inscriptions, found in 1888 by Olaf and Edward Ohman, Swedish
immigrant farmers in Kensington, Minn., seemed to describe how a
party of Vikings had returned there after an exploratory survey, and
found ten men left behind "red with blood and dead." Ever since the
discovery, scholars have debated the stone’s authenticity.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)(HNQ, 6/4/01)
1364 May 20, Sir Henry Percy
(d.1403), [Harry Hotspur], British soldier, politician, and rebel
leader, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1069)(MC, 5/20/02)
1364 King Charles V (1337-1381)
began his rule of France.
(HNQ, 7/14/01)(WUD, 1994 p.249)
1364 In Cracow, Poland, the
Jagiellonian University was founded. [see 1400]
1365 The University of Vienna
was founded by Duke Rudolph IV.
(StuAus, April '95, p.2,17)
1365 A tax document lists the
feudal property of Niccolo Acciaiuoli, head of a Florentine banking
family. It included the castle of Agios Vasilios overlooking the
road from Corinth to Argos in southern Greece. The territory had
reverted to the Florentine family when the Franks defaulted on
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.55)
1365 Basel, Switzerland, was
wrecked by an earthquake.
1366 Oct 12, King Frederick III
of Sicily forbade decorations on synagogues.
1366 Wang Meng painted
"Dwelling in the Qingbian Mountains."
(SFC, 4/4/98, p.C1)
1366 The Den Hoorn brewery was
founded in Leuven (Belgium). In 1717 Sebastian Artois brought his
name to the brewery.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.124)
1366 Records indicate that
cheese was weighed in Alkmaar [Netherlands] at this time.
(SFEC, 6/7/98, p.T10)
1367 Jan 6, Richard II, son of
Edward the Black Prince, was born in Bordeaux. He served as king of
England from 1377-1399.
(HN, 1/6/99)(MC, 1/6/02)
1367 Apr 3, Birth of Henry
Bolingbroke, aka Henry of Lancaster and later Henry IV, King of
England (1399-1413) in Lincolnshire.
1367 Apr 3, John of Gaunt and
Edward the Black Prince won the Battle of Najara, in Spain.
1368 Feb 3, Charles VI, King of
France (1380-1422), was born.
1368 Feb 14-1368 Feb 15,
Sigismund (d.1437), son of Charles IV, was born in Nuremberg,
Germany. He served as Holy Roman Emperor from 1433-1437.
1368 Tamerlane lost control of
China as the Mings took over local power. The Ming dynasty overthrew
Mongol rule and slammed shut the Jade Gate to caravan traffic to
(V.D.-H.K.p.172)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
c1368-1600 For several centuries after 1368 the
Mongols were confined to their original homeland in the steppes,
their energies mostly absorbed by internal rivalries.
1368-1644 The period of the Ming Dynasty in China.
Classical Chinese furniture refers to furniture made during the Ming
and early Ching (1644-1912). During the Ming Dynasty the Great Wall
of China was extended and renovated with watch towers and canons.
(AAM, 3/96, p.9)(WSJ, 9/19/96,
1368-1644 "The Ming Dynasty" by Yang Xin is the
3rd section of Wu Hung’s 1997 "The Origins of Chinese Painting." The
period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)
1368-1644 China extended its hegemony over the
Ryukyu Islands legitimating 3 kings in exchange for submission to
the Ming emperor.
(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)
1369 Mar 23, Pedro the Cruel,
King and tyrant of Castile and Leon, was murdered. Enrique, the
illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile, killed his half brother
Pedro I in the Castilian civil war and became King Enrique I "the
Bastard" of Castile.
(SS, 3/23/02)(Reuters, 12/23/06)
1369 Hongwu, the first Ming
emperor, established an imperial kiln at Jungdezhen in south-central
China. It became a famous porcelain center.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)
1369 The goldsmith firm of
Torrini Firenze was founded in Florence, Italy.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)
1369-1371 Plague broke out again in Europe.
1369-1405 Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or
Tamerlane, so-named because of a lame leg) ruled from Samarkand.
(WUD, 1994, p.1451)
1369-1424 Muzio Sforza, father of Francesco,
Italian condotierre (leader of a private band of mercenary
(WUD, 1994, p.1308)
1370 Apr 11, Frederick I the
Warlike, elector of Saxony, was born.
1370 Apr 22, The first stone of
the Bastille was laid by order of King Charles V (1364-1380). The
original design of the Bastille was merely a fortified gate, but it
was later turned into a fortress by Charles VI. It began to be used
as a prison in the 17th century. Following the storming of the
Bastille on July 14, 1789, it was demolished.
1370 May 22, Jews were expelled
(massacred) from Brussels, Belgium.
1370 Nov 5, Kazimierz III
("The Great"), king of Poland (1333-70), died at 61.
1370 Andrei Rublev, Russian
icon painter, was born about this time.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)
1370 Spain’s Prince Sancho de
Castile (7) died. Spaniards for a long time believed Prince his
uncle poisoned him to become king. In 2006 studies of the boy's
mummified body showed the boy died of natural causes.
1370-1404 Timour-i-Lang (Tamerlane) ruled over
Afghanistan. Afghan resistance was active.
1371 Feb 22, David II Bruce
(46), king of Scotland (1331-1371), died.
1371 May 28, John, the
Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, warrior, was born in Burgundy, France.
1371 Dec 4, Reinald III (38),
("The Fat,") duke of Gelre (1343-61), died.
1371 The queen of France sent
the Queen of England several dolls dressed in the latest French
fashion. The outfits were copied by English dressmakers and costumed
dolls from France went wherever French ships sailed. They were
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E3)
1371 Ubaid Zakani, Persian
writer, died. His work included “Mush va Gorbeh” (Mouse and Cat), a
match for Rabelais when it comes to mocking religion.
1371-1435 Cheng Ho, eunuch admiral of the Ming
dynasty, explored the Indian Ocean.
1372 Sep 21, Frederik I van
Hohenzollern, monarch of Brandenburg (1417-40), was born.
1372 The 1st Ryukyuan
emissaries reached Nanjing and presented tribute to the Ming
(NW, 9/10/01, p.56)
1373 Jul 23, Birgitta of
Sweden, Swedish saint, died.
1373 Boccaccio began a course
of public readings of the divine Comedy in the church of Santo
Stefano in Florence. He accompanied the readings with commentaries,
explaining to his largely illiterate audience of common people the
meaning and relevance of what Dante had written. He encountered
raging attacks of the learned against his program of bringing Dante
to the attention and understanding of the common people.
1374-1375 Plague broke out again in Europe.
1373-1415 Jan Huss, Czech populist reformer. He
challenged Church doctrine.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)
1374 Jul 18, Francesco Petrarch
(69), Italian poet (Italia Mia), died.
(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.E3)
1375 Dec 21, Giovanni
Boccaccio, Italian poet (Vita di Dante), died at his home in
1375-1412 Queen Margaret I (b.1353) ruled over
Denmark. In 1388 her rule extended over Norway and in 1389 extended
to include Sweden.
1376 Apr 28, English parliament
demanded the supervision on royal outlay.
Jun 8, Edward (b.1330), the "Black Prince" of Wales, son of King
Edward III of England and Queen Philippa of Hainault, died at
Westminster Palace, Middlesex.
1376 Jul 22, The rats were
piped out of Hamelin, Germany.
(HFA, '96, p.34)
1377 Feb 3, There was a mass
execution of population of Cesena, Italy.
1377 Jun 21, Edward III
(b.1312), King of England (1322-1377), died. Richard II, who was
still a child, succeeded his father. In 1966 H.J. Hewitt authored
"The Organization of War Under Edward III." In 1978 Richard Barber
authored "Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine." In 1980 Michael
Prestwich authored "The Three Edwards: War and State in England
1272-1377." Lines of his 3rd and 4th sons, houses Lancaster and York
engaged in the Wars of the Roses. In 2006 Ian Mortimer authored “The
Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(ON, 9/00, p.2)(AM, 7/01,
p.69)(HN, 6/21/98)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.84)
c1377-1446 Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian
architect. He designed the dome of the Florence Cathedral.
(WUD, 1994, p.190)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)
1378 Mar 27, Gregory XI,
[Pierre R the Beaufort], last French Pope (1370-78), died.
1378 Aug 9, Cardinals declared
pope Urbanus VI lawless (anti-Christian, devil).
1378 Sep 20, The election of
Robert of Geneva as anti-pope by discontented cardinals created a
great schism in the Catholic church.
1378 Nov 29, Charles IV
(b.1316), King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, died.
1378 Dec 18, Charles V
denounced the treachery of John IV of Brittany and confiscated his
1378 Dec 31, Callistus III,
[Alfonso the Borgia], Pope (1455-58), was born.
1378 Wenceslaus IV (1361-1419),
son of Charles IV, became King of Bohemia following the death of his
father. He served as Holy Roman Emperor until 1400, when he was
deposed in favor of Rupert III.
1378 Wool workers in Florence
revolted after being hit with production quotas.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)
1378 The last bishop on
Greenland died. No replacement was sent.
(AM, 7/00, p.66)
1378-1417 The Great Western Schism split the Roman
Catholic Church and involved 2 anti-popes at its height.
1379-1390 Khwaja Shams ud-Din Hafiz
(b.c1310-1326), Persian poet, died.
(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.E3)(www.thesongsofhafiz.com/)
1380 Feb 11, Gianfrancesco
Poggio Bracciolini, Italian humanist, was born.
1380 Jul 24, Giovanni da
Capistrano, Italian monk, was born. He liberated Belgrade from the
Turks and was later canonized a saint as San Juan de Capistrano. His
name was applied to the southern California mission, best known for
its annual convocation of swallows.
1380 Sep 8, Bernardinus of
Siena, Italian saint, was born.
1380 Sep 8, Prince Dmitrii of
Moscow defeated the Mongols at Kulikovo Field. This marked the
beginning of the decline of Mongol control over Russian lands.
1380 Nov 14, King Charles VI of
France was crowned at age 12.
1380 Nov 16, French King
Charles VI declared no taxes forever.
1380 In England Henry Of
Lancaster at 13 married Mary de Bohun, daughter and co-heiress of
Humphrey, the last Earl of Hereford.
1380 In France the rule of King
Charles V (1337-1381) ended.
(HNQ, 7/14/01)(WUD, 1994 p.249)
1380 Iceland fell under Danish
c1380-1471 Thomas a Kempis, German monk and
author: "Would to God that we might spend a single day really well."
"Verily, when the day of judgment comes, we shall not be asked what
we have read, but what we have done."
(AP, 1/28/98)(AP, 7/28/00)
1381 May 30, English peasant
uprising began in Essex.
1381 Jun 14, The Peasant’s
Revolt, led by Wat Tyler, climaxed when rebels marched on Jordan,
plundered, burned and captured the Tower of London and killed the
Archbishop of Canterbury. The revolt was a response to a statute
intended to hold down wages during a labor shortage. The peasant
demands also included access to privately owned land.
(HN, 6/14/98)(SFC, 6/20/99, p.A7)
1381 Jun 15, The English
peasant revolt was crushed in London and Wat Tyler, the rebel
leader, was beheaded.
(HN, 6/15/98)(MC, 6/15/02)
1381 When the peasant’s revolt
subsided England’s King Richard II (14) reneged on his promises to
the peasants, rounded up the surviving ringleaders and had them
(Econ, 11/26/05, p.96)
1382 Mar 1, French Maillotin
rose up against taxes.
1382 Mar 15, Conservative
"Popolo Grasso" regained power in Florence, Italy.
1382 May 5, In the Battle of
Beverhoutsveld, Belgium, the population beat a drunken army.
1382 Sep 10, Louis I, the
Great, King of Hungary and Poland, died. Mary (1372-1395), daughter
of Louis I, became queen of Hungary.
(PC, 1992 ed,
1382 Nov 27, The French
nobility, led by Olivier de Clisson, crushed the Flemish rebels at
1382 John Wycliffe’s heresy
hearing was interrupted by an earthquake that toppled the tower of
(WSJ, 12/31/04, p.W6)
1382 The Bahri Mamluks, rulers
of Egypt, were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of
1382 Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)
arrived in Cairo following a turbulent political career in Tunis. He
is best known for his Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomenon in English),
which was discovered, evaluated and fully appreciated first by 19th
century European scholarship.
1382 In Romania Brasov Saxons
built a castle at Bran, Transylvania.
(SSFC, 10/23/11, p.H6)
1383 Sep 4, Amadeus VIII, duke
of Savoye, and the last antipope (Felix V (1439-48), was born.
c1383-c1436 Masolino, Italian artist. He worked
with Masaccio on "Saints Jerome and John the Baptist," part of an
altarpiece for Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome.
(WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)
1384 Jan 30, Vytautas handed
over Samogitia to the Knights of the Cross and promised to serve as
a vassal to the order following receipt of Trakai.
1384 Sep 2, Louis I, duke of
Anjou and king of Naples (Battle of Poitiers), died.
1384 Oct 16, The Polish
princess Hedwig was crowned King Jadwiga (d.1399) at age 10. She was
crowned as king to make it clear that she was a ruler, not a
(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)(SSFC, 10/2/11,
1384 Dec 31, John Wycliffe,
English religious reformer and bible translator, died.
1385 Jan 18, A Lithuanian
delegation under Skirgaila arrived in Cracow to ask for the hand of
Jadvyga on behalf of Jogaila.
1385 Apr 12, Willem van
Oostervant wed Margaretha (10), Philip the Stout's daughter
1385 Aug 14, Jogaila and his
brothers signed a treaty with Poland at Krievos Castle. Here he
agreed to convert to Christianity and to seek the conversion of all
of Lithuania and that then Lithuania and Poland would unite. The
treaty also included an agreement to free all captive Catholics and
to help Poland regain all the land it had lost to the German
Knights. Vytautas urged Jogaila to go to Poland and leave Lithuania
to be ruled by himself.
(H of L, 1931, p.48)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 68)
1385 Aug 14, Portuguese
defeated Castilians at Aljubarrota and gained independence. John of
Portugal defeated John of Castile.
(PCh, 1992, p.136)(HN, 8/15/98)(MC, 8/14/02)
1385 The Albanian ruler of
Durrës invited Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1385 In Italy Giovanni di
Pietro Antinori branched from his family’s lucrative silk and wool
business to join the Florentine wine makers guild. By 2008 the
family business had vineyards in Hungary, Chile and California’s
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)(WSJ, 4/5/08, p.A6)
1386 Feb 2, Jogaila was elected
King of Poland.
1386 Feb 15, Duke Philip the
Stout formed the Council of Flanders.
1386 Feb 15, Christianity was
introduced to Lithuania when Grand Duke Jogaila and Vytautas
underwent a token Baptism at the cathedral in Cracow. Jogaila
had married Queen Jadvyga (12) and was crowned King in Poland.
Together they began to rule from Cracow over Lithuania and Poland.
Jogaila submitted to restrictions that no major decisions could be
made without the authorization of the Polish nobility.
(Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.5)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p.
69)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)
1386 Mar 4, Jogaila was
crowned King of Poland.
1386 The Duomo Cathedral was
begun in Milan. The Milanese boast that it took 500 years to build.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)
1386 The Univ. of Heidelberg,
the oldest in Germany, was founded.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T8)
1386 The counts of Habsburg
tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated
by Swiss forces at the battle of Sempach.
1386 Sigismund (1368-1437), son
of Charles IV, became King of Hungary by his marriage to Queen Mary
of Hungary (1372-1395).
1386 The Earl of Suffolk,
Michael de la Pole, was the first person to be impeached along
modern lines of procedure.
(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)
1387 Feb 17, Jogaila founded
the archdiocese of Vilnius and provided land for the Bishop’s
1387 Feb 22, Jogaila
issued a proclamation for all Lithuanians to accept Catholicism.
1387 Mar 22, Jogaila gave
Vilnius the rights of Magdeburg. Vilnius became the 1st
self-governed Lithuanian city.
1387 Jul 22, French Ackerman
(c57), Ghent rebel, leader of Reisers, was murdered.
1387 Aug 9, Henry V, British
king famous for his victory at Agincourt, France, was born. [see Aug
1387 Aug 29, Henry V,
king of England (1413-22) / France (1416-19), was born. [see Aug 9]
1387 The Italian painter Fra
Angelico (d.1455), Giovanni da Fiesole, was born about this time.
His work included the "Annunciation." The 1997 book "Fra Angelico"
by John T. Spike was hailed as the art book of the year.
(WUD, 1994, p.57)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.6)
1387 Henry of Lancaster
supported his uncle Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, in an attack on the
government of Richard II.
1387-1388 Henry of Lancaster was a participant in
the "Merciless" Parliament.
1387-1455 Fra Angelico, Giovanni da Fiesole,
Italian painter. His work included the "Annunciation." The 1997 book
"Fra Angelico" by John T. Spike was hailed as the art book of the
(WUD, 1994, p.57)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.6)
1387-1456 Janos Hunyadi, Hungarian soldier and
national hero. He was the father of Matthias Corvinus.
(WUD, 1994, p.693,1672)
1388 Mar 12, Pope Urban
VI authorized Poznan’s Bishop Dobrogost to establish a Vilnius
1388 The counts of Habsburg
tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated
by Swiss forces at the battle of Naefels.
1389 Jan 10, Jogaila authorized
the Bishops of Vilnius to build churches and urged believers to
donate 10% for their upkeep.
1389 Mar 31, Everhard
Tserclaes, sheriff of Brussels, was murdered.
1389 Jun 15, Ottoman Turks
crushed Serbia in the Battle of Kosovo. The Serbs were defeated by
the invading Turkish Ottoman army at the Battle of Kosovo Polje, the
"Field of Blackbirds." In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was
captured by the Turks and beheaded. The Battle of Kosovo, in which
the Serbs chose death rather than surrender, remains a permanent
symbol in the Serbian national consciousness. Lazar's bones were
placed in the monastery at Gracanica in Kosovo. Albanians joined a
Serbian-led Balkan army that was defeated by Ottoman forces at the
Battle of Kosova. [see Jun 28]
(SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(WSJ,
5/5/98, p.A20)(HN, 6/15/98)(HNQ, 3/25/99)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A17)(www,
1389 Jun 28, The Serbs were
defeated in the Battle of Kosovo at the Field of the Blackbirds.
Sultan Murad, the Ottoman leader was killed in the battlefield by
the wounded son-in-law of King Lazar. Serbs say that Albanians aided
the Turkish invaders. Historical evidence shows that both forces
were multinational and that Serbs and Albanian fought on both sides.
[see Jun 15] In 1999 Ismail Kadare, Albanian author, wrote "Elegy
for Kosovo," in which he retells the story of the battle. Bosnian
King Tvrtko and other Balkan princes along with Albanians fought
under the command of Serbian Prince Lazar.
(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1,18)(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.7)
1389 Serbs, defeated by the
Ottoman Turks, moved from Kosovo to the Krajina region of Croatia.
(WSJ, 4/22/99, A12)
1389 A French bishop advised
the Pope that the Shroud of Turin, that had materialized in the
village of Lirey a generation earlier, was a fraud.
(WSJ, 4/10/98, p.W6)
1389 Henry of Lancaster
rejoined King Richard II.
1389-1464 Cosimo de Medici, Florentine merchant
banker. The Medici family served as the world-wide tithe and tax
collector for the Catholic Church.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1390 Jul 1, A French and
Genovese armada sailed out against Barbary pirates.
c1390 Jacques de Baerze made
his statuette "Corpus Christi." It was key work in the transition
from medieval art to realism.
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)
1390 Henry of Lancaster (later
Henry IV) departed England on a Crusade to Lithuania and then to
1390 Plague broke out again in
1391 Mar 15, A Jew-hating monk
in Seville, Spain, stirred up a mob to attack Jews.
1391 Jun 4, A mob led by
Ferrand Martinez surrounded and set fire to the Jewish quarter of
Seville, Spain. The surviving Jews were sold into slavery.
1391 Aug 5, Castilian sailors
in Barcelona, Spain set fire to a Jewish ghetto, killing 100 people
and setting off four days of violence against the Jews.
1391 Aug 24, Jews of Palma
Majorca, Spain, were massacred.
1391 Oct 30, Eduard, [Dom
Duarte], King of Portugal (1433-38) and author, was born.
1391 China's Bureau of Imperial
Supplies produced 2-foot by 3-foot sheets of toilet paper for use by
(WSJ, 9/10/03, p.B1)
1391-1425 Manuel II Palaeologus ruled the
(Econ, 9/23/06, p.59)
c1392 Sir Jean Froissart
authored "The Chronicles of England, France and Scotland."
(ON, 4/00, p.6)
1392 The University at Erfurt
on the Gera River was founded. Erfurt is the capital of the state of
Thuringia and Martin Luther later studied there.
(Hem., Nov.'95, p.114)
1392 The Chosun Dynasty was
established. In 2005 Yi Ku (73), the son of Korea's last crown
prince, died alone of a heart attack in Japan. He was the last
member of the Chosun dynasty that ruled Korea from 1392 until 1910.
(SFC, 5/9/01, p.C18)(AP, 7/24/05)
1392-1910 The Choson Dynasty ruled over Korea.
[the article is about pojagi, Korean wrapping cloth]
(Hem., Oct. '95, p.72)(WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A9)
1393 Henry of Lancaster
returned to England as a hero.
1394 Mar 4, Prince Henry the
Navigator (d.1460), Portuguese explorer and sponsor of Portuguese
voyages of discovery, was born. [see 1420]
(HN, 3/4/98)(WSJ, 1/28/00, p.A18)
1394 Sep 17, In France King
Charles VI decreed as an irrevocable law and statute that
thenceforth no Jew should dwell in his domains. The decree was not
immediately enforced, a respite being granted to the Jews in order
that they might sell their property and pay their debts.
1394 Nov 3, Jews were expelled
from France by Charles VI. The order, signed on Yom Kippur, was
enforced on November 3. Jews continued to live in Lyons and papal
possessions such as Pugnon. [see Sep 17, 1394]
1394 Mary de Bohun, wife of
Henry of Lancaster, died. She and Henry had 4 sons and 2 daughters.
1394 Tamerlane conquered all of
(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)
1394 Seoul, Korea, was founded.
The city celebrated its 600th anniversary in 1994.
1395 Tamerlane burnt Astrakhan
to the ground. Astrakhan is situated in the Volga Delta, a fertile
area that formerly contained the capitals of Khazaria and the Golden
Horde. Astrakhan itself was first mentioned by travelers in the
early 13th century as Xacitarxan.
1395 In Russia the ikon of Our
Lady of Vladimir was brought to Moscow and placed in the Kremlin’s
Assumption Cathedral for protection against the Mongol invaders
under Tamerlane. A monastery, know as Stretenskii, was built on the
spot where the Muscovites met the delegation from Vladimir.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)
1395-1455 Pisanello, an artist who painted with
(SFEC, 2/21/99, BR p.8)
1395-1456 Jacques Coeur, financial adviser to
Charles VII of France. He ran a variety of businesses and sold
luxury goods. He bankrolled Charles' war in 1449 with nearly a ton
of gold. His gothic mansion at Bourges had the family motto etched
in stone: "To valiant hearts nothing is impossible."
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
1396 Apr 30, Crusaders and the
Earl of Nevers departed from Dijon.
1396 Jul 31, Philip the Good,
Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Limburg, count, was born.
1396 Sep 25, A Christian
crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King
Sigismund of Hungary, ended in disaster at the hands of Sultan
Bajezid I's Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
(HN, 9/25/98)(PCh, 1992, p.137)
1396 Sep 26, Sultan Bajezid I
beheaded several hundred crusaders.
c1396 The tabla, a 600-year-old
invention, was evolved from Arabian drums to accompany a fusion of
Islamic Qawali singing and Dhrupad music composed for Sanskrit
couplets usually recited in temples.
(SFC, 5/19/96,Mag, p.25)
c1396 The kirana style of
Hindustani music began.
(SFC, 6/18/96, p.A17)
1397 Jan 13, John of Gaunt
married Katherine Rouet.
1397 Jun 17, The Union of
Kalmar united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under one monarch. The
alliance grew out of the dynastic ties of the Scandinavian countries
of Denmark, Norway and Sweden in response to rising German influence
in the Baltic. The Kalmar Union is a historiographical term meaning
a series of personal unions (1397–1523) that united the three
kingdoms of Denmark, Norway (with Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe
Islands and, prior to their annexation by Scotland in 1471, Shetland
and Orkney), and Sweden (including Finland) under a single monarch.
1397 Jan 26, Vytautas signed a
treaty with the Knights of the Cross but Samogitia was not included.
1397 Aug 16, Albrecht II von
Habsburg, king of Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, was born.
1397 In England Henry of
Lancaster was made Duke of Hereford and then banished from the realm
for a presumed conspiracy to murder the Duke of Gloucester.
1397 Spaten's roots date back
to this time. The company name comes from Munich brewing family
Spaeth, which bought a 225 year-old brewery in 1622 ran the firm for
1397-1475 Paolo Uccello, Italian painter. He
painted battle scenes whose tilting spears put linear perspective to
(WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)
1398 In South Korea a wooden
structure at the top of the Namdaemun gate formed part of a wall
that encircled the Seoul. The two-tiered wooden structure was
renovated in the 1960s, when it was declared South Korea's top
national treasure. In 2008 a fire destroyed the 610-year-old
1399 Aug 19, King Richard II of
England surrendered to his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV).
Henry of Lancaster returned to England to claim his inherited lands.
He marched with an army into Briston and captured Richard II and
claimed the throne. [see Sep 29]
(MC, 8/19/02)(PC, 1992, p.138)
1399 Sep 29, Richard II
(1367-1400) of England signed his "Cession and Renunciation." His
cousin, Henry of Lancaster, declared himself king under the name
Henry IV. Richard had earlier introduced the lace handkerchief,
triple-taxed the citizenry and stole the estates of his relatives.
[see Sep 30, Oct 13]
(HN, 9/29/98)(SFEC, 10/29/00, Z1 p.2)
1399 Sep 30, British Parliament
accepted Richard II's "Cession and Renunciation." [see Sep 29]
1399 Oct 13, Henry IV of
England was crowned.
1399 Oct, Richard II was
imprisoned at Pontefract Castle, where he died 4 months later. [See
(MWH, 1994)(HN, 10/13/98)
1399 Dec 17, Tamerlane's
Mongols destroyed the army of Mahmud Tughluk, Sultan of Delhi, at
1399 Guillame Dufay (d.1474),
composer, was born.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)
1399 Chersonesos in the
southern Crimean peninsula, the Byzantine world’s largest trading
outpost, was sacked by the Mongols.
c1399 In Poland Queen Hedwig
died in childbirth at age 25.
(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)
1399-1413 The reign of Henry IV of England
(1367-1413). He was the first king of the House of Lancaster. During
his reign insurrections occurred under Owen Glendower (c1359-c1460)
with followers in Wales and the Percy Family in Northumberland
(WUD, 1994, p.1671)
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