1300 Jan 1, A Jubilee Year, the symbolic moment for Dante's Divine Comedy. It marked the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance. Pope Boniface VIII had issued a Papal Bull that declared a Rome Holy Year, "Giubileo." The event was such a success that papal gendarmes had to execute several dozen people to bring the crowds under control.
Pope Bonifacius VIII introduced Jubilee indulgences.
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WSJ, 4/2/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A1)
c1300 Women’s corsets were first developed about this time. See the discussion by Marilyn Yalom in her 1997
book: "History of the Breast."
(SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.3)
c1300 The Panum Crater at Mono Lake, Ca., erupted about this time.
c1300 The Anasazi Indian culture of the American southwest, 15 to 20 thousand people, disappeared from the Four Corners region about this time. All the Anasazi were gone from Mesa Verde. They probably moved south and broke up into present-day Pueblo tribes. Anasazi means enemy
ancestors in Navajo.
(SFC, 5/19/96, T-1)(HN, 2/11/97)(AM, 9/01, p.44)
c1300 The 18-acre Hatalacva Pueblo in Arizona contains the rare Tuzigoot Phase Southern Sinagua pueblo of this time.
c1300 The Mississippian people, the largest pre-Columbian culture north of Mexico, built the earthen city of Cahokia about this time. The site, discovered in southwestern Illinois, probably served as a religious center and may have had a population of up to 80,000. The
Mississippians arose around 800 AD and remained a powerful influence until about the time of the first European explorers. The loose-knit theocracy held sway over much of present-day Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio and, not surprisingly, Mississippi. They also had settlements extending sporadically into the upper Midwest and across the western plains. The
largest of the earthen mounds at Cahokia, called Monks Mound, is 700 feet wide, 100 feet tall and 1000 feet long--representing a colossal public works program and a government stable enough to order the construction.
1300 A drought pervaded the southwest of North America.
(Sm, 3/06, p.74)
1300 Florence was established as the banker of Europe, and its coin, the florin, became the
first international currency. Its citizens sought ... a splendor of art and architecture belonging to all the people that would make their city the envy of people everywhere... The Medici family was most prominent here.
1300 A Jewish merchant ransomed the body of Rabbi Meir, imprisoned in 1284, and buried him in Worms.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)
1300 The Oude Kerk church in Amsterdam dates
to this time.
(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)
c1300 In Tibet the Jonang Buddhist monastery was established. In 1997 Chinese authorities closed down the 700-year old monastery and sent the monks home after they refused to denounce
the Dalai Lama.
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)
1300s England recruited Flemish weavers with promises of "good beer, good food, good bed and good bedfellow."
1300 Paris, with its population between 200,000 and 300,000, was at this time the largest city in the world.
c1300s In Scotland the Dunrobin Castle in the northern Highlands dates top the early 1300s.
(SFEM, 1/31/99, p.6)
1300-1307 The Gladzor Gospels, Armenian
illuminated manuscripts whose images are the work of five artists, T'oros Taronets being the only one whose name is known. These gospels are a defining document of the medieval Armenian church's doctrinal independence.
(SF Chronicle, 5/12/1994, p. E-5)
1300-1358 Jean Buridan, Parisian theologian, attempted to resolve the problem with Aristotle’s law of motion with the idea of impetus, i.e. that a moving body does not need to be continuously pushed to stay in motion due to its impetus provided by a violent motion upon it.
1300-1377 Guillaume de Machaut, French poet and composer.
(WUD, 1994, p.629)(SFC, 2/15/99, p.E7)
1300-1400 Odoric of Pordenone spent 3 years in China in
the 14th century.
(NH, 10/98, p.69)
1300-1400 In China Kublai Khan made Beijing the imperial capital in the 14th century.
1300-1400 In Cameroon the kingdom of Foumban began in the 14th century.
(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.A1)
1300-1400 In Egypt the nose of the Sphinx was lost in the 14th century.
1300-1400 In the 14th century "The Dunmow Flitch" prize was awarded in Dunmow, Essex, England, to any couple who could come after a year of marriage and truthfully swear that they never quarreled and did not regret the marriage and would do it over again.
1300-1400 In Europe the Brethren of the Free Spirit (aka Beghards) flaunted both moral law and church doctrine because they believed that their exalted station as saved Christians raised them above the ranks of ordinary mortals. The heresy was termed Antinomianism.
(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A19)
1300-1400 The Kebra Negast, a 14th cent. Ethiopian text, claims that the Queen of Sheba came from Ethiopia to see Solomon and that he tricked her into sleeping with him and bearing him a son.
1300-1400 The "Chronicle of the Morea" is a 14th century history of southern Greece.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.58)
1300-1400 A family in Deruta, Italy, began producing majolica pottery. In 2008 the Grazia
majolica factory was the 13th oldest family business in the world.
(SFC, 3/5/08, p.G5)
1300-1400 In Portugal a spiritual retreat for monks was built in Redondo. It later became the Hotel Convento de Sao Paolo.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T6)
1300-1400 In Russia the Danilov Monastery was built 3 miles south of the Kremlin by Prince Daniel, founder of Moscow’s 14th century dynasty.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.36)
1300-1400 Vodka is believed to have originated in the 14th century in the grain-growing region that now embraces Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and western Russia. It also has a long tradition in Scandinavia. The first written record of vodka in Poland dates from 1405 in the Sandomierz Court Registry.
1300-1400 In Romania the Sihastra Monastery was founded in the 14th century.
(SFC, 12/7/98, p.A25)
1300-1400 Krusevac, Serbia, was the capital of an empire that
included Yugoslavia, Albania and Greece.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.A28)
c1300-1400 In the early 14th century the Gottscheers settled in the Carniola region of what later became Slovenia. The Germanic people were sent there to till the land and pay taxes to the Carinthian
counts of Ortenburg and to serve as a forward guard for the Holy Roman Empire.
(SFC, 6/16/99, p.A12)
1300-1600 Tombs with decorated pillars called phallic pillars by the locals are widespread among the Oromo of Somalia
and Kenya, where they symbolize manhood and indicate interred men.
(NH, 6/97, p.45)
1300-1700 In Thailand kilns at Intrakil date from the Lanna kingdom of this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)
1300-c1700 The period of the Renaissance. The 1998 book "The Scholar in His Study: Ownership and Experience in Renaissance Italy" by Dora Thornton covered this period. In 1970 Prof. Charles Trinkaus authored the 2-volume work "In Our Image and
Likeness: Humanity and Divinity in Italian Humanist Thought." In 1985 Claude Palisca (d.2001) authored "Humanism in Italian Renaissance Musical Thought."
(SFEC, 2/15/98, BR p.8)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A26)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.C2)
1300-1850 Historical records and scientific data on oxygen isotope ratios of Viking teeth indicate a period of cooling temperatures called a Little Ice Age of Northern Europe.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.32)
1301 Feb 7, Edward of Caernarion (later Edward II) became the 1st prince of Wales.
1301 Jul 4, Battle at Breukelen: Holland vs.
1302 Jan 27, Dante became a Florentine political exile.
1302 Mar 11, Romeo and Juliet were married on this day, according to Shakespeare.
(HN, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/11/02)
1302 May 18, The weaver Peter de Coningk led a massacre of the Flemish oligarchs at the French garrison (Brugse Metten).
(HN, 5/18/99)(SC, 5/18/02)
1302 Jul 11, An army of French knights, led by the Count of Artois, was routed by Flemish pikemen.
1303 May 20, France returned Gascony to England’s
(HN, 5/20/98)(PC, 1992 ed, p121)
1303 Aug 31, The War of Vespers in Sicily ended with an agreement between Charles of Valois, who invaded the country, and Frederick, the ruler of
1303 Sep 8, Anagni: French king Philip IV captured Pope Boniface VIII.
1303 In Egypt the Pharos Lighthouse at Alexandria was toppled by an earthquake.
(SFEC, 4/5/98, Par p.20)
1303 Enrico Scrovegni’s Padova (Padua) Chapel, begun in 1300, was completed. Giotto began painting a fresco cycle there with scenes from the Old and New Testaments. The decorations were completed in 1305.
1303 The Baltic Sea froze over. The event is described by Barbara Tuchman in her book "A Distant Mirror."
1303 Filippo di Amedeo de Peruzzi, Florentine banker, died. He had established bank branches in Naples, Paris and London and underwrote business ventures across Europe. The family went bankrupt when Edward III of England defaulted on his debts after losing the
Hundred Years War.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
1304 Jul 20, Francisco Petrarch (d.1374), Italian poet and scholar, founder of Renaissance Humanism, was born in Arezzo. He was educated at Avignon and saw
himself as a Florentine, Italian, and man of the world. He was a poet and autodidact who never stopped studying until his death.
1304 The Hotel Pilgrim Haus was founded in
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)
1305 Aug 23, Scottish patriot William Wallace was hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London.
(HN, 8/23/98)(SFEC, 4/11/99, Z1 p.8)
1305 The House of Taxis operated a courier messenger service for rich European clients.
1305 Giotto (1267-1337) finished a cycle of frescoes, telling the story of Jesus and Mary, inside Enrico Scrovegni’s new chapel in Padua.
(SFC, 11/17/01, p.D4)(WSJ, 11/18/06,
1306 Mar 25, Robert the Bruce (1274-1329) was crowned king of Scotland as the successor to King John.
(HN, 7/11/01)(ON, 2/08, p.6)
1306 Jul 22, King Phillip the Fair ordered the expulsion of Jews from France. They returned to Montpellier in 1319, having been recalled by King Sancho, who protected them in 1320 against the fury of the Pastoureaux.
1306 Aug 8, King Wenceslas of Poland was murdered.
1306 Pierre Dubois, a counselor for the Duke of Burgundy, called for a European federation.
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.39)
English forces defeated Scottish forces under Robert Bruce at Methven near Perth. Bruce escaped to Rathlin Island.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)
1306-1307 The Baltic Sea froze over again. The event is described by
Barbara Tuchman in her book "A Distant Mirror."
(NOHY, 3/90, p.127)
1307 May 10, Forces under Robert Bruce of Scotland defeated the English at Loudoun Hill. Over the next few years Bruce gained control
over much of the Scottish countryside.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)
1307 Jul 7, Edward I (b.1239), King (Longshanks) of England (1272-1307), died.
1307 Oct 13, French king Philip IV convicted the Knights Templar of heresy. Members of the Knights of Templar were arrested throughout France, imprisoned and tortured by the order of the King Philip the Fair.
(HN, 10/13/98)(MC, 10/13/01)
1307 Nov 18, William Tell shot an apple off his son's head.
1307 Edward II ascended the English throne and had his former tutor, Piers Gaston, brought back to England and made him the Earl of Cornwall.
1307 Mansa Musa (d.1337), Mali’s greatest ruler, succeeded to the throne. He commissioned grand mosques.
(ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99,
1307 Poland tried to gain back the Kulm territory but in their struggle with the Teutonic Knights they lost Pomerania and their access to the Baltic.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p.
1308 Feb 25, Edward II was crowned King of England.
May 1, King Albert [of Austria] was murdered by his nephew John, because he refused his share of the Habsburg lands.
1308 Nov 8, John Duns Scotus (42), Scottish-born
theologian and philosopher, died in Germany. Scotus and his adherents came under attack by critics in the 16th century, giving rise to the term "dunce."
Princess Isabella (12) married England’s King Edward II (23). In 2005 Alison Weir authored “Isabella: She-Wolf of France, Queen of England.
(Econ, 9/10/05, p.81)
1308 The "Parchment
of Chinon" contained the decision by Pope Clement V to save the Templars and their order. The document was misplaced for centuries in the archives and found again by researchers in 2001. In 2007 it was published as part of the Vatican’s secret archive documents about the trial of the Knights Templar.
c1308-1385 Wang Meng, Chinese artist, his work included "Temple at Mount Taibai."
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)
1308-1708 The Gonzagas ruled over Mantua, Italy.
(WSJ, 10/10/02, p.D10)
1309 Apr 30, Kazimierz III de Great, King of Poland (1333-70), was
1309-1377 "Babylonian Captivity" during which the popes left Rome and took up residence at Avignon under the wing of the king of France.
1310 May 12, Fifty-four Knights Templar were burned at the stake as heretics in France. They had been established during the Crusades to protect pilgrims traveling to the Holy Land, but came into increasing conflict with Rome until
Pope Clement V officially dissolved them in 1312 at the Council of Vienna.
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)
1310 May 20, Shoes began to be made for both right and left
1310 English forces under Edward II crossed into Scotland to regain control of the territory.
1310 In Korea a hanging silk scroll was painted with an image of Avalokiteshvara.
(SFC, 10/14/03, p.D1)
1311 Oct 16, The general Council of Vienne opened just south of Lyons. During the 2-year council Pope Clement V made the belief in the right to usury heresy and abolished all secular legislation which allowed it.
1312 Jun 19, Piers Gaveston, earl of Cornwall, was beheaded.
1312 Nov 13, Edward III, King of England (1327-77), was born. He later raped the countess of Salisbury.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England)(WUD, 1994 p.454)(HN, 11/13/98)
1312 The Knights Templar were suppressed by Pope Clement at the Council of Vienna. Pressured by King Philip of France, Pope Clement reversed his 1308 decision and suppressed the order.
(AHD, 1971, p.724)(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(AP,
1312 Scots under Robert Bruce attacked Perth, held by the English, and gained control of the city and castle.
(ON, 2/08, p.6)
1313-1375 Giovanni Boccaccio, Florentine writer born in Paris. He learned classical Latin and studied classical Greek under Leonzio Pilato, who had spent some time in Byzantium where Greek works were still available. He traveled with Petrarch around southern Europe looking for ancient books and discovered a number of Cicero's
letters. Boccaccio wrote all of his major works in Italian, including IL Filostroto (the source of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde) and the Decameron.
1313-1905 The four ancient Confucian texts, Ssu Shu,
or "Four Books," were used as subject matter for official Chinese civil service exams in China. The volumes reputedly contain direct quotations from Confucius.
1314 Mar 18, In France
Jacques de Molay (b.1244), Grand Master of the Templars, was burned at the stake along with his aides. Surviving monks fled, with some absorbed by other orders.
Apr 20, Clement V, [Bertrand Got], pope (1305-14) who moved papacy to Avignon, died.
1314 Jun 24, King Robert I (Robert the Bruce) of Scotland with 6,000 men and 500
horses routed English King Edward II with his army of 20,000 at Bannockburn. Bruce secured Scotland’s independence from England and ruled until his death in 1329. A film "The Bruce" was made in 1995 on a $500,000 budget.
(AP, 6/24/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn)(ON, 2/08,
1314 Nov 29, Philippe IV, the Handsome, King of France (1285-1314), died.
1314 England banned football (soccer) for being too violent.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1315 Nov 15, Swiss soldiers ambushed and slaughtered invading Austrians in the
Battle of Morgarten. The Bundesbrief prevailed over a Habsburg army. Voluntary agreements among the cantons led to the formation of the Willensnation, a nation created by acts of free will by a diverse people.
(HN, 11/15/98)(Econ, 2/14/04, p.6)
1315 In France Parisian bakers were found guilty of mixing flour with animal droppings during the Great Famine.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1315 Louis X, Philip's brother
and successor, allowed Jews back into France for financial considerations. Jews were often expelled because of pressure from the Church, economic or political considerations, only to be readmitted at a later date.
1315 Italian immigrants in France began the Western silk industry.
(SFC, 3/11/00, p.B4)
1315 The Church of the Holy Virgin was built in Musutiste, Kosovo. In 1999
returning Albanians blew up the church in retaliation for the Serb destruction of their mosque.
(SFC, 9/7/99, p.A12)
1315-1316 England experienced a great famine brought on by too much
1316 Mar 2, Robert II the Steward, King of Scotland (1371-90), was born.
1316 May 14, Charles IV (d.1378), later King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, was born in the House of Luxembourg.
1316 Jun 4, Louis X (26), King of France (1314-16), died.
1316 Nov 15, Jean I became king of France, and died 4 days later.
1316 In Lithuania Grand Duke
Vytenis died at Skirsnemune while destroying castles built by the Knights of the Cross. Gediminas, brother of Vytenis, took over rule. He wrote a letter to the Pope that requested an end to attacks by the German orders. The Pope responded in accord but the Germans continued their pressure.
(H of L, 1931,
1316-1341 In Lithuania Grand Duke Gediminas pushed back the German orders and extended his territory to the east into Russia. He invited foreign crafts, trades people and engineers. Under his rule, Vilnius became the capital with 2 new castles and the southern and eastern
border of Lithuania was extended to include Smolensk, Kiev and Minsk. His rule did not interfere with local languages, religious beliefs or rights. Gediminas wed one daughter to the Prince of Moscow, another to the son of the Polish King and a third to the Prince of Mozur.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p.
1316-1390 Albert of Saxony (aka Albertuccio or little Al), German Scholastic philosopher and physicist.
(NH, 5/97, p.59)
1317 Feb 3, Pope John XXII, under guidance from Gnesen Archbishop Borislav, offered Catholicism to Lithuania.
1317 Apr 20, Agnes van Montepulciano,
Italian mystic, saint, died.
1319 Apr 26, Jean II, the Good, king of France (1350-64), was born.
1319 May 8, Haakon V, King of Norway (1299-1319), died.
Ani, capital of Armenia, was devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)
1320 Apr 6, Scotland declared its independence in the Declaration of Arbroath. Here it said: “As long
as only one hundred of us remain alive we will never on any conditions be brought under English rule.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Arbroath)(Econ, 11/9/13, SR p.12)
1320 Oct 12,
Michael IX Paleologi, emperor of Byzantine (1295-1320), died.
1321 Sep 14, Dante Alighieri, author of the "Divine Comedy," died of malaria just hours after finishing writing "Paradiso."
The poem was completed in Italian rather than Latin. It helped make Italian the dominant linguistic force in European literature for the next few centuries. In 2006 Barbara Reynolds authored “Dante: The Poet, the Political Thinker, the Man.”
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/04628a.htm)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W2)(Econ, 12/2/06,
1322 Jun 24, Jews were expelled from France for a 3rd time.
Arabian writers recorded ideas about artificial insemination.
(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)
1322 The Baltic froze over and a cold spell pervaded Europe.
1322 Zhao Mengfu (b.1254), Chinese calligrapher, died. His work included a hand scroll of “The Sutra on the Lotus of the Sublime Dharma.” Chao Meng-fu was a prince and descendant of
the Song Dynasty's imperial family, and a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty.
(SFC, 11/10/12, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhao_Mengfu)
1323 Oct 16, Amadeus V the
Great, count of Flanders and Savoy, died at 74.
1324 Jan 8, Marco Polo, Venetian explorer, governor of Nanking, died.
1324 Feb 10, The pope officially chastised the Knights of the Cross for ill treatment of Catholics and for pushing pagans away from Christianity.
1324 Feb 26, Dino Compagni, Italian silk seller, poet, chronicler, died.
1324 Mar 5, David II Bruce, king of Scotland (1331-71), was born.
1324-1325 Mansa Musa (Kankan Moussa), king of Mali, made the 3,500 mile pilgrimage to Mecca with gold
valued at $115 million in 1999 prices. He traveled with a very large retinue that included 80 camels and 500 slaves. An Arab chronicler said he was surrounded by over 10,000 of his subjects.
(ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)
1325 The Aztecs founded Tenochtitlan, later known as Mexico City, about this time.
Ibn Battuta (20), a Muslim, left his home in Tangier to journey to Mecca. He traveled in Arabia, Asia, Africa, and Spain and recorded many exciting adventures. His travels lasted some 29 years were described in his book “The Rihla.” In 1986 Ross E. Dunn authored “The Adventures of Ibn Battuta” based on The Rihla.
(ATC, p.13)(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F3)
1325-1382 Nicholos of Oresme, Parisian theologian agreed with Jean Buridan concerning the problem of Aristotelian motion and its resolution: i.e. that a moving body does not need to be continuously pushed to stay in motion due to its impetus provided
by a violent motion upon it.
1326 Mar 5, Louis I (the Great), King of Hungary (1342-1382) and Poland (1370-1382), was born.
(HN, 3/5/98)(MC, 3/5/02)
1326 Osman I (1299-1326) captured Bursa in north-western Anatolia after a 10 year siege. Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) is generally regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish
(WUD, 1994 p.1018)(Ot, 1993, p.5)
1326 Richard de Bas, a paper manufacturer, was founded in Ambert d’Auvergne, France.
1327 Jan 7, Edward II of England was deposed. [see Jan 20, Feb 1]
1327 Jan 20, Edward II of England was deposed by his eldest son, Edward III. [see Jan 7, Feb 1]
1327 Jan 25, King Edward III inherited the British
throne. [see Jan 7,20]
1327 Feb 1, Edward III was crowned King of England. [see Jan 7,20]
1327 Apr 6, Petrarch met Laura de Sade in a church at Avignon, and was inspired for the rest of his life. He wrote his finest poems about her beauty and loveliness... and about his later recognition that he had loved her wrongly, placing
her person ahead of her spirit. This event has been taken to mark the beginning of the Renaissance
1327 Sep 21, Edward II of England, a homosexual, was murdered by
order of his wife, Queen Isabella and Baron Robert Mortimer.
1327 In Germany the Pfalzgrafenstein castle was built on the Rhine near the
village of Bacharach.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)
1328 Feb 1, Charles IV, the Handsome, King of France (1322-28), died.
1328 May 26, William of Ockham was forced to flee from Avignon by Pope John XXII.
1328 May 27, French king Philip VI Valois was crowned.
1328 In Italy a monastery and church of St. Francis was built on the Isola Maggiore on Lake
Trasimeno. In the 19th century it was converted into a castle by a Marquis for his wife Isabella.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.48)
1328 Moscow became the seat of the Russian Orthodox metropolitanate. Peter the
Metropolitan moved from the capital Vladimir to Moscow.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.37)
1328 Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (b.1263), a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in
what is now Turkey, died. He lived during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. As a member of the school founded by Ibn Hanbal, he sought the return of Islam to its sources: the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Taymiyyah)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.30)
1328-1384 John Wycliffe, English theologian and biblical translator. He was posthumously declared a heretic and his body was exhumed for burning in 1428.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)
1329 Jun 7, Robert Bruce (b.1274), King of Scotland (1306-1329), died.
In Korea a foundry was used to print books with metal type.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1330 Mar 23, Riga surrendered to the Livonian Order.
1330 Jun 15, Edward the Black Prince, the eldest son of Edward III and Prince of Wales (1343-1376), was born. He was the first Duke created in England, the Duke of Cornwall.
(HN, 6/15/99)(MC, 6/15/02)
1330 Aug 25, Anti-Pope Nicolaas V overthrew himself.
c1330 In Japan retired Emp. Go-Fushimi authored a plea to the god of the Kamo shrine for help in gaining the thrown for his son, Prince Tokihito. Tokihito got to reign after a short delay when Go-Daigo refused to step down. Two years later Go-Daigo got the thrown
1331 Ibn Battuta, Arab traveler and scholar, visited Kilwa. He described Kilwa as "one of the most beautiful and well-constructed towns in the
1331 Na Prous Boneta was burned at the stake as a female heretic one hundred years before Joan of Arc.
1331 Bernard Gui, Inquisitor in Toulouse, died. He authored “Practica Inquisitionis Heretice Pravitatis” (Conduct of the Inquisition into Heretical Wickedness), a manual for Inquisitors in which he listed heretics including Cathars, Waldensians,
Beghards, Jews and witches.
(WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)(www.languedoc-france.info/121207_guicathars.htm)
1332 Feb 13, Andronicus II Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor (1282-1328), monk,
1332 May 27, Ibn Khaldun (d.1406), Berber historian, was born in Tunis. He was also a social scientist and political activist and developed theories on economics and politics. He
authored the "Muqaddimah" (introduction to history), that gave an in-depth analysis of the cyclical nature of the rise, maturation and decline of political regimes and economies. “Only tribes held together by a group feeling can survive in a desert.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Khaldun)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(Econ, 1/28/12,
1332 Aug 12, Battle of Dupplin Moor; Scottish dynastic battle.
Mansa Musa, King of Mali, died. His successors were not able to protect Mali’s vast territory and Berber nomads began attacking caravan routes in the desert and threatened to take Timbuktu. People from the southern rain forests attacked the southern boundary and to the west the Sohghai of the middle Niger River began to revolt.
1332-1370 Descendants of earlier Ghorid rulers reasserted control over Afghanistan.
1333 Mar 2, Wladyslaw IV, the Short One, Great, duke, king of Poland, died.
1333 Nov 4, In Florence,
Italy, the Arno River flooded causing some 3,000 deaths.
(Econ, 11/1/08, p.97)
1333 The Kamakura Shogunate of Japan fell.
BLDM, p. 214)
1333 The Black Death erupted in China.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)
Ashikaga (or Muromachi) Period of Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
1334 Aug 30, Pedro, the Cruel, King of Castilia & Leon, was born.
1334 Emperor Godaigo of Japan temporarily regained power.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
1334 Heinrich II of Hesse (Germany) commissioned an illuminated manuscript called The Willehalm Codex.
(SSFC, 5/2/04, p.M2)
In Macedonia the Orthodox church of St. Atanasie and the Holy Virgin in Lesok was begun. A monastery was added that played a role in Christian resistance to the Ottoman Empire.
(SFC, 8/22/01, p.A10)
Feb 25, The Knights of the Cross sieged the Pilenai Castle in Samogitia. The defenders burned all their goods and committed suicide.
1336-1405 Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or
Tamerlane because of a lame leg) was a Tartar conqueror of a vast empire from southern Russia to Mongolia and southward to India, Persia, and Mesopotamia. After his death the empire fell apart. Prince Timur is a national hero of Uzbekistan.
(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(WUD, 1994, p.1451)(WSJ, 7/3/97,
1337 Jan 8, Giotto (b.c.1267), Italian artist, died. His frescoes showed a new realism and vitality. Art historians later held that the Renaissance dawned in Florence with Giotto's paintings. He cracked the formal stylization of Byzantine painting and
reinvented the ancient art of creating depth on a flat surface. In 2000 art historians found evidence that Pietro Cavallini re-introduced depth in his paintings in Rome around 1190.
(www.mediacult.com/art/giotto/chrono.html)(V.D.-H.K.p.128)(WSJ, 11/113/00, p.A24)
1337 Jan 21, Charles V, the Wise, king of France (1364-80), was born.
1337 Edward III’s claim to the
French throne sparked the Hundred year’s War between England and France.
(Econ, 8/24/13, p.75)
1337-1453 The Hundred Years War was a series of wars between England and France in which England lost all possessions in
France except Calais.
(WUD, 1994, p.693)
1338 The founding of the Ashikaga Shogunate in Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p.
1340 Jun 24, The English fleet defeated the French fleet at Sluys, off the Flemish coast.
1340 Nov 28, In the Battle of Salado, Spain, the last Moor invasion was driven back.
1340 Nov 30,
John, Duke de Berry, captain of Paris and art collector, was born.
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping was invented in Italy about this time. [see
(WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A20)
1340 A drought that lasted 1-2 centuries as measured from tree rings in the Sierra Nevada was centered on this time. It coincides with a Medieval warm period when Vikings
navigated the waters surrounding Greenland. An earlier drought centered at 1126AD.
(NH, 9/96, p.38)
c1340-1400 Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet. [see 1343]
(WUD, 1994, p.250)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)
1341 Apr 8, Francesco Petrarch was crowned poet laureate on the Capitol in Rome. He had arranged two invitations to be crowned, one in Paris and the other in Rome (1340-1341). He chose
1341 Jun 19, Juliana van Falconieri, Italian saint, Swedish tenor, died.
1341 German Knights of the Cross negotiated acquisition of Tallinn from Denmark and took over all of Estonia.
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 61)
1341-1345 In Lithuania Jaunutis served as Grand Duke.
1342 Sep 26, John I, ruler of Poland,
1342 In China a tombstone in Yangchou marked the death of an Italian girl named Katerina.
1343 The Peruzzi Bank, Europe's biggest, collapsed following risky loans to English kings.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
c1343-1400 Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet. [see 1340]
(WUD, 1994, p.250)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)
1345 Mar 20, A conjunction of Saturn,
Jupiter and Mars was thought to be the "cause of plague epidemic."
1345 Jul 17, Jacob Van Artevelde, [Manner Man], Flemish broker, was
1345 Oct 31, Ferdinand I, the wise one, king of Portugal (built navy), was born.
1345 The Frisian victory over the Dutch on the beach at Warns was their last before the Dutch took over.
(WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)
1345 The Kramerbrucke merchant bridge was built over the Gera River at Erfurt, Thuringia, Germ.
(Hem., Nov.'95, p.114)
A Florentine wool worker was hanged for holding a public meeting to organize colleagues.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1345-1377 In Lithuania Algirdas served as Grand Duke.
1346 Apr 16, King Stefanus IX of Serbia proclaimed himself czar of Greece.
1346 May, Edward III of England called for a fleet of 1000 ships and an army of 10,000 knights and soldiers to assemble at Portsmouth for an attack on his distant cousin, Philip VI of France.
(ON, 9/00, p.1)
1346 Jul 12, Edward III landed his army on the Normandy beaches unopposed.
(ON, 9/00, p.1)
1346 Jul 18, Edward III divided his army into 3 groups and began a march on Paris.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)
1346 Aug 16, Philip VI offered Edward III sovereignty over
Aquitaine in return for peace. Edward rejected the offer and learned that Philip had raised an army of 36,000 that included 15,000 Genoese crossbowmen. Edward marched toward Flanders in order to meet with allies.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)
1346 Aug 25, Edward III of England defeated Philip VI's army at the Battle of Crecy in France. The English overcame the French at the Battle of Crecy. The longbow proved instrumental in the victory as French knights on horseback outnumbered the British 3 to 1. At the end of the battle 1,542 French lords and knights were killed along with 20,000 soldiers. The
English lost 2 knights and 80 men. [see Aug 26]
(WSJ, 8/3/98, p.A12)(HN, 8/25/98)
1346 Aug 26, During the Hundred Years War, King Edward III's 9,000-man English army annihilated a French force of
27,000 under King Philip VI at the Battle of Crecy in Normandy. The battle is regarded as one of the most decisive in history. [see Aug 25]
(PC, 1992, p.128)(WSJ, 11/4/04, p.D10)
1346 Sep 3, Edward III
of England began the siege of Calais, along the coast of France.
1346 Sep 28, Edward III and Philip VI signed a temporary truce. Their hostilities marked the beginning of the Hundred Years
War, which only ended in 1453.
(ON, 9/00, p.2)
1346 Oct 17, English forces defeated the Scots under David II during the Battle of Neville's Cross,
1346 Nov 26, Charles of Luxembourg was crowned German king. He succeeded his father John of Luxemburg as King of Bohemia and Count of
(PC, 1992 ed, p.128)
1347 May 20, Cola di Rienzo took the title of tribune in Rome.
1347 Aug 3, Six burghers of the surrounded French city of Calais surrendered to Edward III of England in hopes of relieving the siege.
1347 Aug 4, English troops conquered Ft. Calais. After an 11 month siege, French Calais fell to England's King Edward III. English rule lasted for more than two centuries.
(WSJ, 11/6/95, p.
1347 Oct, Sailors from Genoa arrived in Messina, Sicily. Plague had broken out earlier among the troops of the Kipchak Khan, who was besieging the Black Sea port of Kaffa. He catapulted dead bodies over the city walls. When Italian trading vessels in
the harbor returned to Genoa, the carried the plague to Europe. The plague, an infectious fever caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis, appears in several varieties: bubonic (which involves swelling of the lymph glands), pneumonic (which involves the lungs) and septicemia (which involves severe infection in the bloodstream).
10/12/97, p.31)(HNQ, 1/20/01)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B4)
1347 Nov 20, Roman tribune Cola di Rienzi defeated nobles. Stefano Colonna, Roman senator, died in battle (SPQR).
1347 Dec 3, Pope Clemens VI declared Roman tribune, Cola di Rienzi, a heretic.
1347 Charles IV (1316-1378) of the House of Luxembourg was crowned King of Bohemia.
(WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)
1347-1350 The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged
by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria,
Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All
(NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)
1347-1350 British limited records later suggested up to 50,000 victims were buried in less than three years in the Farringdon cemetery as the bubonic plague ravaged
1347-1354 John VI Cantacuzenus ruled over Byzantium. He then abdicated and became and monk and went on to deal with Rome over the unification of Christendom. [see 330
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)
1348 Feb 2, The Knights of the Cross defeated a Lithuanian army at Streva.
1348 Apr 6, Laura, the arch love of Petrarch died of the plague. Boccaccio retired from plague-stricken Florence, and in a country residence began to write the Decameron.
1348 Apr 7, Prague Univ., the 1st in central Europe, was started by Charles IV.
1348 Apr 23, King Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order of knighthood.
(AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)(www.royal.gov.uk/output/page490.asp)
1348 Jun 9, Ambrogio Lorenzetti (b.1290), Italian painter of the Sienese school, died. His work included the 3 murals titled “War,” “Peace” and “Good Government,” in the Chamber of Peace of Siena’s town hall.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambrogio_Lorenzetti)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W14)(Econ, 7/10/10, p.80)
1348 Sep 21, Jews in Zurich Switzerland were accused of poisoning wells.
1348 Nov 15, Rudolph of Oron claimed Jews confessed to poisoning wells.
1348 In Istanbul Genoese merchants rebuilt an old wooden lighthouse that dated from the 6th century. The Galata Tower was rebuilt in stone.
(Econ, 4/7/12, p.81)
The Black Plague struck the Mediterranean Basin.
(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F3)
1348 Accused of being a cause of the plague, the Jews in France were dragged from their houses and burned.
Pogroms occurred throughout Europe. When the plague subsided, few Jews were left in Germany or the Low Countries.
(NG, 5/88, p.681)
1348 Plague arrived at Montpellier, France, in the spring and killed
an estimated two-thirds of the 50,000 inhabitants.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)
1348 The population of Siena, Italy, dropped from 97,000 to 45,000 in a few months due to the Black
(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)
1348 Ambrogio Lorenzetti (b.1290), Sienese painter, died. His work included the 3 murals titled “War,” “Peace” and “Good Government,” in the Chamber of Peace of Siena’s
(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W14)
1349 Jan 9, In Basel, Switzerland, 700 Jews were burned alive in their houses.
1349 Feb 13, Jews were expelled from Burgsdorf, Switzerland.
Feb 14, 2,000 Jews were burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.
1349 Feb 22, Jews were expelled from Zurich,
1349 Mar 21, Some 3,000 Jews were killed in Black Death riots in Efurt, Germany.
1349 Apr 30, Jewish community at Radolszell, Germany, was exterminated.
1349 May 28, 60 Jews were murdered in Breslau, Silesia.
1349 Aug 24, Some 6,000 Jews, blamed for the Bubonic Plague, were killed in
1349 Aug 24, Jews of Cologne Germany set themselves on fire to avoid baptism.
1349 Sep 10, The Jews who survived a massacre in Constance, Germany, were burned to death.
1349 Nov 1,
Duke of Brabant ordered the execution of all Jews in Brussels. He accused them of poisoning the wells.
1349 Nov 29, Jews of Augsburg, Germany, were
1349 Dec 5, 500 Jews of Nuremberg were massacred during Black Death riots.
1349 Nearly all the Jews of Worms were murdered on false accusations that they brought on the plague by poisoning the wells.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)
1349 William of Ockham (b.1290), English Franciscan scholastic philosopher, died. He proclaimed that the only real things are singular entities like an apple or man, and that universals have no existence whatever; they are mere names. The divine and nature each has its own validity, but the one is vastly more
important that the other, with the one determining salvation, and the other the mere comfort of the body during its life. [see 1290]
(V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WUD, 1994 p.996)(AP, 2/4/99)
1349 L'Aquila in
central Italy was devastated by an earthquake.
(Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)
1349-1830 The eldest son of the king of France was referred to as the dauphine, as an honor to the Dauphine province after its cession to
(WUD, 1994, p.369)
1350 Mar 27, Alfonso XI of Castile (38) died of the black death while besieging Gibraltar.
3/27/99)(PCh, 1992, p.130)
1350 Aug 22, Philips VI, of Valois, King of France (1328-50), died.
22, John II, also known as John the Good, succeeded Philip VI as king of France.
1350 Sargis Pitsak, Armenian artist, produced illuminated manuscripts of the bible. Color picture "Souls
Ascending the Heavenly Ladder to Christ," featured in:
( SF Chronicle, 5/12/1994, p. E-1)
1350 The Fremont Indians, who had lived in Utah’s Range Creek Canyon since about 200, disappeared from the
(WSJ, 1/31/06, p.B6)(Sm, 3/06, p.74)
c1350 At Powers Fort, Missouri, there was a Mississippian cultural-civic-ceremonial center consisting of a small village and four
(AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)
1350 Maori ancestors arrived at New Zealand on seven legendary canoes from Hawaii, the mother-island of the east Polynesians.
(NG, Aug., 1974, C. McCarry, p.196)
1350 Boccaccio met Petrarch in Florence.
1350 The leaning tower of Pisa was constructed. [see 1173]
(SFC, 8/13/98, p.C5)
1350 In Northumberland, England,
Langley Castle was built with 7-foot thick walls on a wooded estate.
(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.B8)
1351 The east African Kingdom of Dongala became hemmed in by Muslim states such as Kordofan and Darfur and was
forced to surrender to Egypt its territory north of the third cataract. Axum was harried by the Muslims of Funj and the people retreated into the mountains and developed into the isolated Christian kingdom of Ethiopia.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)
1351 In England the Statute of Treasons was passed under which anyone who violated the wife of the heir to the throne was guilty of high treason.
(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)
1351-1767 The port city of Ayutthaya (Thailand) was one of the capitals of the kingdom of Siam until the Burmese invaded, sacked the city and left it in ruins. The capital was then moved to Bangkok. Prior to this Phananchoeng was the capital.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97
p.G)(WSJ, 4/21/05, p.D7)
1352 May 5, Ruprecht, Roman catholic German king, was born.
1352 Dec 18, Etienne Aubert was elected as Pope Innocentius VI.
1352 The Black Death by this year had killed 25
million people in Europe alone.
(NG, 5/88, p.678)
1352 Ibn Battuta decided to cross the Sahara Desert. The journey took two months to complete the 1,200
1352 The gothic Cathedral of Our Lady was begun in Antwerp, Belgium. It was completed in the 16th century.
1353 King Fangum is believed to have established the Kingdom of Lan Xang (Million Elephants), the forerunner of the modern Laos state that was abolished during the communist revolution of 1975.
1353 In Laos Luang Prabang was founded. It was the royal capital of the kingdom of Laos and a center of Laotian Buddhism and court arts.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97
1353 Ibn Battuta spent a few months in Mali and left a full description of his experiences.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)
1354-1720 Catalan conquerors ruled over Sardinia.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T5)
1355 May 7, 1,200 Jews of Toledo, Spain, were killed by Count
Henry of Trastamara.
1355 Nov 1, During the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1457) an English invasion army under Black Prince Edward (25) landed at Calais.
(DoW, 1999, p.213)(PC, 1992 ed, p.131)
1355 Dec 20, Stephen Urosh IV of Serbia died while marching to attack Constantinople.
1355 Charles IV, King of Bohemia, was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire.
(WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)
1356 Sep 19, In a landmark battle of the Hundred Years' War, English Prince Edward, the Black Prince, defeated the French at Poitiers. Jean de Clermont, French marshal, died in battle.
(HN, 9/19/98)(Econ, 8/24/13,
1357 Apr 22, Johan I, King of Portugal (1383-1433), was born.
May 28, Afonso IV (66), King of Portugal (1325-57), died.
1357 The 1999 novel "Timeline" by Michael Crichton catapults its characters to Medieval France and the 20th
year of the Hundred Years War.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W6)
1357 In Switzerland Konrad Mueller killed Heinrich Stucki. To atone Mueller promised to always pay to keep an eternal lamp lit. In 2013 a court in Glarus canton ruled that the current farm owner
no longer has to pay $76 each year for oil and candles because Swiss mortgage reforms in the mid-19th century made the practice invalid.
(SFC, 1/9/13, p.A2)
1358 Jun 10, French Boer leader Guillaume
Cale was captured.
c1359-c1460 Owain Glyndwr (Owen Glendower) of Wales, leader of a bloody revolt against Henry IV in 1400. The event was marked by a comet.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)
1360 Mar 15, French invasion army landed on English south coast and conquered Winchel.
1360 Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Breslau, Silesia.
1360 Oct 25, Louis, founder of house of Anjou,
1360 In Spain Francesc Castello was beheaded in front of his own bank following bankruptcy.
1360s The Flagellants of Thuringia engage in self mortification and refused to work.
1360-1754 Hanseatic traders brought prosperity to Bergen, Norway.
(SSFC, 6/5/05, p.F7)
1361 Feb 26, Wenceslas of Bohemia, Holy Roman Catholic German emperor (1378-1400), was born.
21, Grand duke Kestutis was captured by the Knights of the Cross.
1361 England enacted its first Corn Laws. They barred the export of corn in order to keep local grain supplies
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1361 The Ottomans under Orhan crossed into Europe and captured Adrianople (Edirne), the 2nd major city of Byzantium. Murat I (Orhan) moved the Ottoman capital to Edirne in
(Ot, 1993, p.5)(http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html)
1361-1363 Plague broke out again in Europe.
1362-1363 A 202-pound stone with runic inscriptions, found in 1888 by Olaf and Edward Ohman, Swedish immigrant farmers in Kensington, Minn., seemed to describe how a party of Vikings had returned there after an exploratory survey, and found ten men left behind "red with blood
and dead." Ever since the discovery, scholars have debated the stone’s authenticity.
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)(HNQ, 6/4/01)
1364 May 20, Sir Henry Percy (d.1403), [Harry Hotspur], British soldier,
politician, and rebel leader, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1069)(MC, 5/20/02)
1364 King Charles V (1337-1381) began his rule of France.
(HNQ, 7/14/01)(WUD, 1994 p.249)
1364 In Cracow, Poland, the Jagiellonian University was founded. [see 1400]
1365 The University of Vienna was founded by Duke Rudolph IV.
(StuAus, April '95, p.2,17)
1365 A tax document lists
the feudal property of Niccolo Acciaiuoli, head of a Florentine banking family. It included the castle of Agios Vasilios overlooking the road from Corinth to Argos in southern Greece. The territory had reverted to the Florentine family when the Franks defaulted on loans.
(AM, May/Jun 97
1365 Basel, Switzerland, was wrecked by an earthquake.
Oct 12, King Frederick III of Sicily forbade decorations on synagogues.
1366 Wang Meng painted "Dwelling in the Qingbian
(SFC, 4/4/98, p.C1)
1366 The Den Hoorn brewery was founded in Leuven (Belgium). In 1717 Sebastian Artois brought his name to the brewery.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.124)
1366 Records indicate that cheese was weighed in Alkmaar [Netherlands] at this time.
(SFEC, 6/7/98, p.T10)
1367 Jan 6, Richard II, son of Edward the Black Prince, was born in Bordeaux. He served as king of England from 1377-1399.
(HN, 1/6/99)(MC, 1/6/02)
1367 Apr 3, Birth of Henry Bolingbroke, aka Henry of Lancaster and later Henry IV, King of England (1399-1413) in Lincolnshire.
1367 Apr 3, John of
Gaunt and Edward the Black Prince won the Battle of Najara, in Spain.
1368 Feb 3, Charles VI, King of France (1380-1422), was born.
1368 Feb 14-1368 Feb 15, Sigismund (d.1437), son of Charles IV, was born in Nuremberg, Germany. He served as Holy Roman Emperor from 1433-1437.
1368 Tamerlane lost control of China as the Mings took over local power. The Ming dynasty overthrew Mongol rule and slammed shut the Jade Gate to caravan traffic to Central
(V.D.-H.K.p.172)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
c1368-1600 For several centuries after 1368 the Mongols were confined to their original homeland in the steppes, their energies mostly absorbed by internal rivalries.
1368-1644 The period of the Ming Dynasty in China. Classical Chinese furniture refers to furniture made during the Ming and early Ching (1644-1912). During the Ming Dynasty the Great Wall of
China was extended and renovated with watch towers and canons.
(AAM, 3/96, p.9)(WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wall_of_China)
1368-1644 "The Ming Dynasty" by Yang Xin is the 3rd section of Wu Hung’s 1997 "The Origins of Chinese Painting." The
period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)
1368-1644 China extended its hegemony over the Ryukyu Islands legitimating 3 kings in exchange for submission to the Ming emperor.
(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)
1369 Mar 23, Pedro the Cruel, King and tyrant of Castile and Leon, was murdered. Enrique, the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile, killed his half brother Pedro I in the Castilian civil war and became King Enrique I "the
Bastard" of Castile.
(SS, 3/23/02)(Reuters, 12/23/06)
1369 Hongwu, the first Ming emperor, established an imperial kiln at Jungdezhen in south-central China. It became a famous porcelain
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)
1369 The goldsmith firm of Torrini Firenze was founded in Florence, Italy.
1369-1371 Plague broke out again in Europe.
1369-1405 Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur
Lenk or Tamerlane, so-named because of a lame leg) ruled from Samarkand.
(WUD, 1994, p.1451)
1369-1424 Muzio Sforza, father of Francesco, Italian condotierre (leader of a private band of mercenary
(WUD, 1994, p.1308)
1370 Apr 11, Frederick I the Warlike, elector of Saxony, was born.
1370 Apr 22, The first stone of the Bastille was laid by order of King Charles V (1364-1380). The original design of the Bastille was merely a fortified gate, but it was later turned into a fortress by Charles VI. It began to be used as a prison in the 17th
century. Following the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, it was demolished.
1370 May 22, Jews were expelled (massacred) from Brussels,
1370 Nov 5, Kazimierz III ("The Great"), king of Poland (1333-70), died at 61.
1370 Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, was born about this time.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)
1370 Spain’s Prince Sancho de Castile (7) died. Spaniards for a long time believed Prince his uncle poisoned him to become king. In 2006 studies of the boy's mummified body showed the boy died of natural causes.
1370-1404 Timour-i-Lang (Tamerlane) ruled over Afghanistan. Afghan resistance was active.
1371 Feb 22, David II
Bruce (46), king of Scotland (1331-1371), died.
1371 May 28, John, the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, warrior, was born in Burgundy, France.
1371 Dec 4, Reinald III (38), ("The Fat,") duke of Gelre (1343-61), died.
1371 The queen of France sent the Queen of England several dolls dressed in the latest French fashion. The outfits were copied by English dressmakers and costumed dolls from France went wherever French ships sailed. They were called mannequins.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E3)
1371 Ubaid Zakani, Persian writer, died. His work included “Mush va Gorbeh” (Mouse and Cat), a match for Rabelais when it comes to mocking religion.
1371-1435 Cheng Ho, eunuch admiral of the Ming dynasty, explored the Indian Ocean.
1372 Sep 21, Frederik I van
Hohenzollern, monarch of Brandenburg (1417-40), was born.
1372 The 1st Ryukyuan emissaries reached Nanjing and presented tribute to the Ming
(NW, 9/10/01, p.56)
1373 Jul 23, Birgitta of Sweden, Swedish saint, died.
1373 Boccaccio began a course of public readings of the divine Comedy in the church of Santo Stefano in Florence. He accompanied the readings with commentaries, explaining to his largely illiterate audience of common people the meaning and relevance of what
Dante had written. He encountered raging attacks of the learned against his program of bringing Dante to the attention and understanding of the common people.
1374-1375 Plague broke out again in
1373-1415 Jan Huss, Czech populist reformer. He challenged Church doctrine.
1374 Jul 18, Francesco Petrarch (69), Italian poet (Italia Mia), died.
(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.E3)
1375 Dec 21, Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian poet (Vita di Dante), died at his home in Certaldo.
1375-1412 Queen Margaret I (b.1353) ruled over Denmark. In
1388 her rule extended over Norway and in 1389 extended to include Sweden.
1376 Apr 28, English parliament demanded the supervision on royal
1376 Jun 8, Edward (b.1330), the "Black Prince" of Wales, son of King Edward III of England and Queen Philippa of Hainault, died at Westminster Palace,
1376 Jul 22, The rats were piped out of Hamelin, Germany.
1377 Feb 3, There was a mass execution of population of Cesena, Italy.
1377 Jun 21, Edward III (b.1312), King of England (1322-1377), died. Richard II, who was still a child, succeeded his father. In 1966 H.J. Hewitt authored "The Organization of War Under Edward III." In 1978 Richard Barber authored "Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine." In 1980 Michael Prestwich authored "The Three Edwards: War and State in England
1272-1377." Lines of his 3rd and 4th sons, houses Lancaster and York engaged in the Wars of the Roses. In 2006 Ian Mortimer authored “The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation.”
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(ON, 9/00, p.2)(AM, 7/01, p.69)(HN, 6/21/98)(Econ, 4/15/06,
c1377-1446 Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian architect. He designed the dome of the Florence Cathedral.
(WUD, 1994, p.190)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)
1378 Mar 27, Gregory XI, [Pierre R the Beaufort], last French Pope (1370-78), died.
1378 Aug 9,
Cardinals declared pope Urbanus VI lawless (anti-Christian, devil).
1378 Sep 20, The election of Robert of Geneva as anti-pope by discontented cardinals created a great schism in the
1378 Nov 29, Charles IV (b.1316), King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, died.
1378 Dec 18, Charles V denounced the treachery of John IV of Brittany and confiscated his duchy.
1378 Dec 31, Callistus III, [Alfonso the Borgia], Pope (1455-58), was born.
1378 Wenceslaus IV (1361-1419), son of Charles IV, became King of Bohemia following the death of his father. He served as Holy Roman Emperor until 1400, when he was deposed in favor of Rupert III.
1378 Wool workers in Florence revolted after being hit with production quotas.
1378 The last bishop on Greenland died. No replacement was sent.
(AM, 7/00, p.66)
1378-1417 The Great Western Schism split the Roman Catholic Church and involved 2 anti-popes at its height.
1379-1390 Khwaja Shams ud-Din Hafiz (b.c1310-1326), Persian poet,
(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.E3)(www.thesongsofhafiz.com/)
1380 Feb 11, Gianfrancesco Poggio Bracciolini, Italian humanist, was born.
1380 Jul 24, Giovanni da Capistrano, Italian monk, was born. He liberated Belgrade from the Turks and was later canonized a saint as San Juan de Capistrano. His name was applied to the southern California mission, best known for its annual convocation of
1380 Sep 8, Bernardinus of Siena, Italian saint, was born.
1380 Sep 8, Prince Dmitrii of Moscow defeated the Mongols at Kulikovo Field. This marked the beginning of the decline of Mongol control over Russian lands.
1380 Nov 14, King Charles VI of France was crowned at age 12.
1380 Nov 16, French King Charles VI declared no taxes forever.
1380 In England Henry Of Lancaster at
13 married Mary de Bohun, daughter and co-heiress of Humphrey, the last Earl of Hereford.
1380 In France the rule of King Charles V (1337-1381)
(HNQ, 7/14/01)(WUD, 1994 p.249)
1380 Iceland fell under Danish control.
c1380-1471 Thomas a Kempis, German monk and author: "Would to God that we might spend a single day really well." "Verily, when the day of judgment comes, we shall not be asked what we have read, but what we have done."
(AP, 1/28/98)(AP, 7/28/00)
1381 May 30, English peasant uprising began in Essex.
1381 Jun 14, The Peasant’s Revolt, led by Wat Tyler, climaxed when rebels marched on Jordan, plundered, burned and captured the Tower of London and killed the Archbishop of Canterbury. The revolt was a response to a statute intended to hold down wages during a labor shortage. The peasant demands also included
access to privately owned land.
(HN, 6/14/98)(SFC, 6/20/99, p.A7)
1381 Jun 15, The English peasant revolt was crushed in London and Wat Tyler, the rebel leader, was
(HN, 6/15/98)(MC, 6/15/02)
1381 When the peasant’s revolt subsided England’s King Richard II (14) reneged on his promises to the peasants, rounded up the surviving ringleaders and had them
(Econ, 11/26/05, p.96)
1382 Mar 1, French Maillotin rose up against taxes.
1382 Mar 15, Conservative "Popolo Grasso" regained power in Florence, Italy.
1382 May 5, In the Battle of Beverhoutsveld, Belgium, the population beat a drunken army.
1382 Sep 10, Louis I, the Great, King of Hungary and Poland,
died. Mary (1372-1395), daughter of Louis I, became queen of Hungary.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.135)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_of_Hungary)
1382 Nov 27, The French nobility, led by Olivier de Clisson,
crushed the Flemish rebels at Flanders.
1382 John Wycliffe’s heresy hearing was interrupted by an earthquake that toppled the tower of Canterbury
(WSJ, 12/31/04, p.W6)
1382 The Bahri Mamluks, rulers of Egypt, were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks.
1382 Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) arrived in Cairo following a turbulent political career in Tunis. He is best known for his Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomenon in English), which was discovered, evaluated and fully appreciated first by 19th century European
(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Khaldun)
1382 In Romania Brasov Saxons built a castle at Bran, Transylvania.
1383 Sep 4, Amadeus VIII, duke of Savoye, and the last antipope (Felix V (1439-48), was born.
c1383-c1436 Masolino, Italian artist. He worked with Masaccio on "Saints Jerome and John the Baptist," part of an altarpiece for Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome.
(WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)
1384 Jan 30, Vytautas handed over Samogitia to the Knights of the Cross and promised to serve as a vassal to the order following receipt of Trakai.
1384 Sep 2, Louis I, duke of Anjou and king of Naples (Battle of Poitiers), died.
1384 Oct 16, The
Polish princess Hedwig was crowned King Jadwiga (d.1399) at age 10. She was crowned as king to make it clear that she was a ruler, not a consort.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jadwiga_of_Poland)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)(SSFC, 10/2/11, p.N4)
1384 Dec 31, John Wycliffe, English religious reformer and bible translator, died.
1385 Jan 18, A Lithuanian delegation under Skirgaila arrived in
Cracow to ask for the hand of Jadvyga on behalf of Jogaila.
1385 Apr 12, Willem van Oostervant wed Margaretha (10), Philip the Stout's daughter
1385 Aug 14, Jogaila and his brothers signed a treaty with Poland at Krievos Castle. Here he agreed to convert to Christianity and to seek the conversion of all of Lithuania
and that then Lithuania and Poland would unite. The treaty also included an agreement to free all captive Catholics and to help Poland regain all the land it had lost to the German Knights. Vytautas urged Jogaila to go to Poland and leave Lithuania to be ruled by himself.
(H of L, 1931, p.48)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p.
1385 Aug 14, Portuguese defeated Castilians at Aljubarrota and gained independence. John of Portugal defeated John of Castile.
(PCh, 1992, p.136)(HN, 8/15/98)(MC, 8/14/02)
1385 The Albanian ruler of Durrës invited Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.
(www, Albania, 1998)
In Italy Giovanni di Pietro Antinori branched from his family’s lucrative silk and wool business to join the Florentine wine makers guild. By 2008 the family business had vineyards in Hungary, Chile and California’s Napa Valley.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)(WSJ, 4/5/08, p.A6)
1386 Feb 2, Jogaila was elected King of Poland.
1386 Feb 15, Duke Philip the Stout formed the Council
1386 Feb 15, Christianity was introduced to Lithuania when Grand Duke Jogaila and Vytautas underwent a token Baptism at the cathedral in Cracow. Jogaila had married Queen Jadvyga (12) and was crowned King in Poland.
Together they began to rule from Cracow over Lithuania and Poland. Jogaila submitted to restrictions that no major decisions could be made without the authorization of the Polish nobility.
(Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.5)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 69)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)
1386 Mar 4, Jogaila was crowned King of Poland.
1386 The Duomo Cathedral was begun in Milan.
The Milanese boast that it took 500 years to build.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)
1386 The Univ. of Heidelberg, the oldest in Germany, was founded.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T8)
1386 The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Sempach.
1386 Sigismund (1368-1437), son of Charles IV, became King of Hungary by his marriage to Queen Mary of Hungary (1372-1395).
1386 The Earl of Suffolk, Michael de la Pole, was the first person to be impeached along modern lines of procedure.
(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)
1387 Feb 17, Jogaila founded the archdiocese of Vilnius and provided land for the Bishop’s headquarters.
1387 Feb 22, Jogaila issued a proclamation for all Lithuanians to accept Catholicism.
1387 Mar 22, Jogaila gave
Vilnius the rights of Magdeburg. Vilnius became the 1st self-governed Lithuanian city.
1387 Jul 22, French Ackerman (c57), Ghent rebel, leader of Reisers, was
1387 Aug 9, Henry V, British king famous for his victory at Agincourt, France, was born. [see Aug 29]
1387 Aug 29, Henry V, king of England (1413-22) / France (1416-19), was born. [see Aug 9]
1387 The Italian painter Fra Angelico (d.1455), Giovanni da Fiesole, was born about this time. His work included the "Annunciation." The 1997 book "Fra Angelico" by John T. Spike was hailed as the art book of the year.
p.57)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.6)
1387 Henry of Lancaster supported his uncle Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, in an attack on the government of Richard II.
1387-1388 Henry of Lancaster was a participant in the "Merciless" Parliament.
Fra Angelico, Giovanni da Fiesole, Italian painter. His work included the "Annunciation." The 1997 book "Fra Angelico" by John T. Spike was hailed as the art book of the year.
(WUD, 1994, p.57)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.6)
1387-1456 Janos Hunyadi, Hungarian soldier and national hero. He was the father of Matthias Corvinus.
(WUD, 1994, p.693,1672)
1388 Mar 12, Pope Urban VI authorized Poznan’s Bishop Dobrogost to
establish a Vilnius archdiocese.
1388 The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of
1389 Jan 10, Jogaila authorized the Bishops of Vilnius to build churches and urged believers to donate 10%
for their upkeep.
1389 Mar 31, Everhard Tserclaes, sheriff of Brussels, was murdered.
1389 Jun 15, Ottoman Turks crushed Serbia in the Battle of Kosovo. The Serbs were defeated by the invading Turkish Ottoman army at the Battle of Kosovo Polje, the "Field of Blackbirds." In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was captured by the Turks and
beheaded. The Battle of Kosovo, in which the Serbs chose death rather than surrender, remains a permanent symbol in the Serbian national consciousness. Lazar's bones were placed in the monastery at Gracanica in Kosovo. Albanians joined a Serbian-led Balkan army that was defeated by Ottoman forces at the Battle of Kosova. [see Jun 28]
(SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A20)(HN, 6/15/98)(HNQ, 3/25/99)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A17)(www, Albania, 1998)
1389 Jun 28, The Serbs were defeated in the Battle of Kosovo at the Field of the Blackbirds. Sultan Murad, the
Ottoman leader was killed in the battlefield by the wounded son-in-law of King Lazar. Serbs say that Albanians aided the Turkish invaders. Historical evidence shows that both forces were multinational and that Serbs and Albanian fought on both sides. [see Jun 15] In 1999 Ismail Kadare, Albanian author, wrote "Elegy for Kosovo," in which he retells the story of the battle. Bosnian King Tvrtko and
other Balkan princes along with Albanians fought under the command of Serbian Prince Lazar.
(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1,18)(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.7)
1389 Serbs, defeated by the Ottoman Turks, moved from Kosovo to
the Krajina region of Croatia.
(WSJ, 4/22/99, A12)
1389 A French bishop advised the Pope that the Shroud of Turin, that had materialized in the village of Lirey a generation earlier, was a
(WSJ, 4/10/98, p.W6)
1389 Henry of Lancaster rejoined King Richard II.
1389-1464 Cosimo de Medici, Florentine merchant banker. The Medici family served as the world-wide tithe and tax collector for the Catholic Church.
1390 Jul 1, A French and Genovese armada sailed out against Barbary pirates.
c1390 Jacques de Baerze made his statuette "Corpus Christi." It was key work in the transition from medieval art to realism.
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)
1390 Henry of
Lancaster (later Henry IV) departed England on a Crusade to Lithuania and then to Jerusalem.
1390 Plague broke out again in Europe.
1391 Mar 15, A Jew-hating monk in Seville, Spain, stirred up a mob to attack Jews.
1391 Jun 4, A mob led by Ferrand Martinez surrounded and set fire to the Jewish quarter of Seville, Spain. The surviving Jews were sold into slavery.
1391 Aug 5, Castilian sailors in Barcelona, Spain set fire to a Jewish ghetto, killing 100 people and setting off four days of violence against the Jews.
1391 Aug 24, Jews of Palma Majorca, Spain, were massacred.
1391 Oct 30, Eduard, [Dom Duarte], King of
Portugal (1433-38) and author, was born.
1391 China's Bureau of Imperial Supplies produced 2-foot by 3-foot sheets of toilet paper for use by the
(WSJ, 9/10/03, p.B1)
1391-1425 Manuel II Palaeologus ruled the Byzantine empire.
c1392 Sir Jean Froissart authored "The Chronicles of England, France and Scotland."
(ON, 4/00, p.6)
1392 The University at Erfurt on the Gera River was founded. Erfurt is the capital of the state of Thuringia and Martin Luther later studied there.
(Hem., Nov.'95, p.114)
The Chosun Dynasty was established. In 2005 Yi Ku (73), the son of Korea's last crown prince, died alone of a heart attack in Japan. He was the last member of the Chosun dynasty that ruled Korea from 1392 until 1910.
(SFC, 5/9/01, p.C18)(AP, 7/24/05)
1392-1910 The Choson Dynasty ruled over Korea. [the article is about pojagi, Korean wrapping cloth]
(Hem., Oct. '95, p.72)(WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A9)
Henry of Lancaster returned to England as a hero.
1394 Mar 4, Prince Henry the Navigator (d.1460), Portuguese explorer and sponsor of Portuguese voyages of discovery, was
born. [see 1420]
(HN, 3/4/98)(WSJ, 1/28/00, p.A18)
1394 Sep 17, In France King Charles VI decreed as an irrevocable law and statute that thenceforth no Jew should dwell in his domains. The decree was
not immediately enforced, a respite being granted to the Jews in order that they might sell their property and pay their debts.
1394 Nov 3,
Jews were expelled from France by Charles VI. The order, signed on Yom Kippur, was enforced on November 3. Jews continued to live in Lyons and papal possessions such as Pugnon. [see Sep 17, 1394]
1394 Mary de Bohun, wife of Henry of Lancaster, died. She and Henry had 4 sons and 2 daughters.
Tamerlane conquered all of Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)
1394 Seoul, Korea, was founded. The city celebrated its 600th anniversary in 1994.
1395 Tamerlane burnt Astrakhan to the ground. Astrakhan is situated in the Volga Delta, a fertile area that formerly contained the capitals of Khazaria and the Golden Horde. Astrakhan itself was first mentioned by travelers in the
early 13th century as Xacitarxan.
1395 In Russia the ikon of Our Lady of Vladimir was brought to Moscow and placed in the Kremlin’s Assumption Cathedral for
protection against the Mongol invaders under Tamerlane. A monastery, know as Stretenskii, was built on the spot where the Muscovites met the delegation from Vladimir.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)
1395-1455 Pisanello, an artist
who painted with scrupulous realism.
(SFEC, 2/21/99, BR p.8)
1395-1456 Jacques Coeur, financial adviser to Charles VII of France. He ran a variety of businesses and sold luxury goods. He bankrolled Charles' war in 1449
with nearly a ton of gold. His gothic mansion at Bourges had the family motto etched in stone: "To valiant hearts nothing is impossible."
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
1396 Apr 30, Crusaders and the Earl of
Nevers departed from Dijon.
1396 Jul 31, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Limburg, count, was born.
1396 Sep 25, A Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ended in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bajezid I's Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
9/25/98)(PCh, 1992, p.137)
1396 Sep 26, Sultan Bajezid I beheaded several hundred crusaders.
c1396 The tabla, a 600-year-old invention, was evolved from Arabian drums to accompany a fusion of Islamic Qawali singing and Dhrupad music composed for Sanskrit couplets usually recited in temples.
(SFC, 5/19/96,Mag, p.25)
c1396 The kirana style of Hindustani music began.
(SFC, 6/18/96, p.A17)
1397 Jan 13, John of Gaunt married Katherine Rouet.
1397 Jun 17, The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under one monarch. The alliance grew out of the dynastic ties of the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Norway and
Sweden in response to rising German influence in the Baltic. The Kalmar Union is a historiographical term meaning a series of personal unions (1397–1523) that united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway (with Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and, prior to their annexation by Scotland in 1471, Shetland and Orkney), and Sweden (including Finland) under a single
1397 Jan 26, Vytautas signed a treaty with the Knights of the Cross but Samogitia was not included.
1397 Aug 16, Albrecht II von Habsburg, king of Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, was born.
1397 In England Henry of Lancaster was made Duke of Hereford and then banished from the realm for a presumed conspiracy to murder the Duke of Gloucester.
1397 Spaten's roots date back to this time. The company name comes from Munich brewing family Spaeth, which bought a 225 year-old brewery in 1622 ran the firm for seven generations.
1397-1475 Paolo Uccello, Italian painter. He painted battle scenes whose tilting spears put linear perspective to dazzling use.
(WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96,
1398 In South Korea a wooden structure at the top of the Namdaemun gate formed part of a wall that encircled the Seoul. The two-tiered wooden structure was renovated in the 1960s, when it was declared South Korea's top national treasure. In 2008 a fire
destroyed the 610-year-old structure.
1399 Aug 19, King Richard II of England surrendered to his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV). Henry of Lancaster returned to England to claim his
inherited lands. He marched with an army into Briston and captured Richard II and claimed the throne. [see Sep 29]
(MC, 8/19/02)(PC, 1992, p.138)
1399 Sep 29, Richard II (1367-1400) of England signed
his "Cession and Renunciation." His cousin, Henry of Lancaster, declared himself king under the name Henry IV. Richard had earlier introduced the lace handkerchief, triple-taxed the citizenry and stole the estates of his relatives. [see Sep 30, Oct 13]
(HN, 9/29/98)(SFEC, 10/29/00, Z1
1399 Sep 30, British Parliament accepted Richard II's "Cession and Renunciation." [see Sep 29]
1399 Oct 13, Henry IV of England was crowned.
1399 Oct, Richard II was imprisoned at Pontefract
Castle, where he died 4 months later. [See Feb 14,1400]
(MWH, 1994)(HN, 10/13/98)
1399 Dec 17, Tamerlane's Mongols destroyed the army of Mahmud Tughluk, Sultan of Delhi, at Panipat.
1399 Guillame Dufay (d.1474), composer, was born.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)
1399 Chersonesos in the southern Crimean peninsula, the Byzantine world’s largest trading outpost, was sacked by the Mongols.
c1399 In Poland Queen Hedwig died in childbirth at age 25.
(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)
1399-1413 The reign of Henry IV of England (1367-1413). He was the first king of the House of Lancaster. During his reign
insurrections occurred under Owen Glendower (c1359-c1460) with followers in Wales and the Percy Family in Northumberland (1403).
(WUD, 1994, p.1671)