Timeline 1525-1549

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1525        Feb 24, In the first of the Franco-Habsburg Wars, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V captured the French king Francis I at the battle of Pavia, in Italy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Pavia)

1525        Mar 20, The Paris parliament began the pursuit of Protestants (Papists proudly participated).
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1525        Apr 8, Albert von Brandenburg, the leader of the Teutonic Order, assumed the title "Duke of Prussia" and passed the first laws of the Protestant church, making Prussia a Protestant state.
    (HN, 4/8/99)

1525        May 7, The German peasants' revolt was crushed by the ruling class and church.
    (HN, 5/7/99)

1525        May 10, Church reformer John Pistorius was caught in the Hague.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1525        May 14, A German army under Philip of Hesse surrounded and slaughtered 5,000 ending a peasant revolt led by Thomas Muntzer.
    (MC, 5/15/02)(PCh, 1992, p.173)

1525        May 17, Battle at Zabern: duke of Lutherans beat rebels.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1525        May 27, Thomas Muntzer (28), German vicar, Boer leader, head of the German peasant revolt was beheaded. Some 150,000 peasants died in the uprising.
    (PCh, 1992, p.173)(MC, 5/27/02)

1525        Jul 19, The Catholic princes of Germany formed the Dessau League to fight against the Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 7/19/98)

1525        Aug 21, Estavao Gomes returned to Portugal after failing to find a clear waterway to Asia.
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1525        Sep 15, Jan de Bakker (26), Roman Catholic priest also known under the name Pistorius, was burned during the Reformation in the Netherlands.
    (http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/p/pistorius_joh.shtml)

1525        Dec 30, Jacob Fugger (66), German banker and merchant, died.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1525        Michelangelo worked on the Medici chapel.
    (NH, 9/96, p.67)

c1525        Joos van Cleve, Belgian painter, painted "St. John the Evangelist on Patmos."
    (MT, Spg. u009197, p.20)

1525        Spanish architects established the style of "Plateresque," as exemplified by the gateway of the Univ. of Salamanca.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525        Cardinal Wolsey presented Hampton Court Palace to Henry VIII.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)
1525        The bishop of London recruited Augustine Packington as an agent in Antwerp to buy up all copies of Tyndaleu0092s translation of the New Testament. Packington, a supporter of Tyndale, sent copies to London, where they were burned and passed payments on to Tyndale, who used the money for a new version of his work.
    (www.tyndale.org/TSJ/17/cooper.html)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.103)

1525        Thomas Munzer, a German Anabaptist, set up a communistic theocracy at Mulhausen, Germany.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525        William Tyndale (1494-1536), English religious scholar, completed his translation of the New Testament in Hamburg, Germany. It was published in Worms in Spring 1526, and then smuggled to England.
    (ON, 11/04, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tyndale)

1525        The Capuchin order of friars was founded in Italy. They become among the most effective Catholic preachers and missionaries in the Counter-Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525        The Mennonites, a Protestant branch of the Anabaptists, were established in Zurich, Switz.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525        Martin Luther married Katherine von Bora, a former nun, "to spite the devil."
    (SFC, 2/28/96, D-10)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

1525        In India Babur, a warrior with an Islamic Persian background, invaded Hindu India. He took Delhi and Agra and made Agra his capital.
    (HT, 4/97, p.22)

1525        Andrea della Robbia (b.1435), Italian artist, died. He was the nephew and pupil of Luca della Robbia (1400-1482).
    (SFC, 11/23/05, p.G2)

1525        In Rome public street cleaners were employed and paid through a tax on artisans and tradesmen.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1525        Turkey and Hungary signed a seven year truce.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525        Charles V led the German and Spanish forces over the French and Swiss at the Battle of Pavia and became master of Italy. Francis I was captured and taken to Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525        Thousands of German peasants were slaughtered.
    (NH, 9/96, p.67)

1525        Luther wrote his tract: "Against the Murderous and Thieving Hordes of Peasants."
    (NH, 9/96, p.21)

1525        Albrecht Durer, German engraver, compiled the first German manual on geometry.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525        City officials tried to control the street vendors in Mexico City.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A19)

1525        Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conquistador, sailed from Panama to explore Peru.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525        The Spanish made initial contact with the Incas.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)

1526        Jan 14, Francis of France, held captive by Charles V for a year, signed the Treaty of Madrid, giving up most of his claims in France and Italy.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1526        Feb 27, Saxony and Hesse formed the League of Gotha, a league of Protestant princes.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1526        Mar 26, King François I returned Spanish captivity to France.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1526        Apr 21, Mongol Emperor Zahir-ud-din Babur annihilated Indian Army of Ibrahim Lodi at the Battle of Panipat. Babar, King of Kabul, established in this year the Mughal dynasty at Delhi.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)(WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P10)

1526        Jul 6, King Afonso of Kongo (1509-1542) sent a letter of complaint to Portugal regarding the impact of slave trade in his country.
    (www.millersville.edu/~winthrop/Thornton.html)

1526        Jul 26, The Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon and his colonists left Santo Domingo in the Caribbean for Florida.
    (HN, 7/26/98)

1526        Oct 18, Lucas Vazquez de Ayllp, Spanish colonialist who settled in SC, died.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1526        Nov 9, Jews were expelled from Pressburg, Hungary, by Maria of Hapsburg.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1526        Nov 30, Giovanni deu0092 Medici (b.1498), brother to Cosimo the Elder, died soon after his leg was amputated due to a bullet wound.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/372320/Giovanni-de-Medici)(AM, 7/05, p.41)

1526        Nov, The 1st American slave revolt occurred in SC at the Spanish settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.
    (http://whgbetc.com/mind/slave_revolts_2.html)

1526        Albrecht Durer painted the "Four Apostles," his last great religious painting and presented it to the city of Nuremberg.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526        Lucas Cranach the elder (1472-1553) painted the "Adam and Eve," typical of the artistu0092s Gothic style as opposed to the "decadent" Italian style.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(WUD, 1994, p.339)

1526        William Tyndale published the first complete version of the New Testament in English at Worms, Germany. "Tyndale was the first translator of the biblical texts from their original Greek and Hebrew into English."
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A20)

1526        John Taverner, organist and composer, was appointed the Master of Choristers at Oxford Univ.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526        The 1st Africans to the US arrived at a Spanish settlement South Carolina.
    (www.inmotionaame.org/timeline.cfm?bhcp=1)

1526        The Teutonic Knights, a German military and religious order of knights and priests, broke away from the Catholic Church to become Lutherans.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526        Pope Clement VII formed the League of Cognac against Emp. Charles V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526        The slave trade escalated to the point where the Portuguese bribed officials to revolt and provided goods and guns to any chief who would supply slaves. King Affonso wrote to King John of Portugal asking that the Portuguese ban the slave trade in Kongo. Numerous letters were sent but King John did nothing.
    (ATC, p.152)

1526        Ferdinand of Austria was elected King of Bohemia and inaugurated the Austro-Hungarian state.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1526        Zhu Duan (b.1464), Chinese artist, died. His work included the hanging scroll u0093Looking at a Misty River at Dusk.u0094
    (http://wwar.com/masters/z/zhu_duan.html)(SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)

1526        Francis I of France and Emp. Charles V signed the Peace of Madrid wherein Francis renounced claims to much Italian territory.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526        In Italy the Beretta family made crossbows. With advancing technology the family launched into firearms (1550).
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.64)

1526        Conquistador Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba (b.~1475) was beheaded by Pedrarias Dávila, a superior officer, over his claims to Nicaragua.
    (SSFC, 6/26/11, p.G3)

1526        Turkish forces of Suleiman I defeated the Hungarian forces and killed Hungarian King Louis II at the Battle of Mohacs.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526        Peace was concluded between Poland and Russia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526-1712    In northern India the Mughal Dynasty was the last great dynasty to rule.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.55)

1527        Mar 16, The Emperor Babur defeated the Rajputs at the Battle of Kanvaha, removing the main Hindu rivals in Northern India.
    (HN, 3/16/99)

1527        Apr 30, Henry VIII and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1527        May 6, German and Spanish troops under Charles V began sacking Rome, bringing about the end of the Renaissance. Libraries were destroyed,  Pope Clement VII was captured and thousands were killed. 147 of 189 of the Popeu0092s Swiss guard were killed.
    (HN, 5/6/02)(PCh, 1992, p.174)(WSJ, 4/14/06, p.W5)

1527        May 16, Florence expelled the Medici nephews of the Pope and reverted to a republic..
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 5/16/02)

1527        May 21, Philip II (d.1598), king of Spain and Portugal (1556-98), was born. He invaded England and roasted heretics. He collected a fifth of all the wealth generated from the mines and trade in the Americas. He invested heavily into his military and lost it all with the defeat of the Armada in 1588. His debt at his death amounted to 85 million ducats, or 300 tons of gold.
    (HN, 5/21/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(MC, 5/21/02)

1527        May 30, The University of Marburg was founded. It is the oldest Protestant University in Germany.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(AHD, p.797)(HN, 5/30/98)

1527        Jun 21, Nicolo Machiavelli (b.1469), Florentine statesman, author (The Prince), died. u0093When the effect is good... it will always excuse the deed.u0094
    (WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)(www.online-literature.com/machiavelli/)

1527        Jun 24, Gustaaf I began Reformation in Sweden, taking RC possessions.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1527        Nov 18, Luca Cambiaso, Italian painter and sculptor, was born.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1527        Nov 20, Wendelmoet "Weyntjen" Claesdochter, became the 1st Dutch woman to be burned as heretic.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1527        Dec 6, Pope Clemens VII fled to Orvieto.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1527        Adrian Willaert, Flemish composer, was made maestro di capella at St. Marku0092s, in Venice.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527        Henry VIII appealed to the Pope for permission to divorce Catherine of Aragon.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527        Croatia formed a state union with Austria.
    (WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1527        Giuseppe Arcimboldi (d.1593), Italian painter [Arcimboldo], was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.78)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1527        Muslim Somali Chief, Ahmed Gran, used firearms against the Ethiopians for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527        Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish soldier, was appointed 2nd in command under Panfilo de Narvaez (47), to explore the recently discovered land of Florida.
    (ON, 10/03, p.1)

1527        Spanish mercenaries paid by Charles V sacked Rome and left 4,000 dead. Some see this event as marking the close of the Renaissance.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527        Theophrastus von Hohenheim established chemotherapy and the modern school of medical thinking at the Univ. of Basel in Switzerland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527        Hernando Cortez and his conquistadores completed the conquest of New Spain. They brought back to Spain tomatoes, avocados, papayas, and vanilla.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527-1528    Henry VIII imprisoned Pope Clement VII for disobedience. It was to Clement that Henry appealed for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which had been granted under special dispensation in the first place.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.163)

1528        Jan 22, England & France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain. The French army was later expelled from Naples and Genoa.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 1/22/02)

1528        Apr 6, Albrecht Durer (b.1471), German painter, graphic artist, died in Germany. His wife Agnes inherited his 6,874-florin estate.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albrecht_D%C3%BCrer)

1528        Apr 14, A Spanish expedition, led by Panfilo de Narvaez, arrived at the west coast of Florida with 400 soldiers and 42 horses.
    (ON, 10/03, p.1)

1528        May 1, The Spanish Narvaez expedition began an inland march to Florida with some 300 men and 40 horses.
    (ON, 10/03, p.1)

1528        Jul 30, The Spanish Narvaez expedition captured the Indian town of Aute (Florida).
    (ON, 10/03, p.2)

1528        Sep 28, A Spanish fleet sank in Florida hurricane;  380 died.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1528        Nov 2, The Spanish Narvaez expedition, having traveled some 700 miles toward eastern Texas, encountered a massive storm and their 5 barges separated.
    (ON, 10/03, p.2)

1528        Nov 6, A Spanish barge under Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca landed in East Texas. The survivors of 2 barges spent the winter on an island they named Isla de Malhado, "The Island of Misfortune." By the spring of 1529 there were 15 castaways left and half the native population was dead from disease.
    (ON, 10/03, p.3)

1528        Nov 30, Great Wierd, Dutch Gelderland army commander, was beheaded.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1528        Hans Holbein painted "The Artistu0092s Family." After meeting Sir Thomas More in England, he returned temporarily to Basel.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528        Paracelsus (Theophrastus von Hohenheim), a Swiss physician and alchemist, wrote the first manual of surgery, "Die Kleine Chirurgia." (See Paracelsus in 1537) His middle name was Bombastus.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HC, 1/9/98)

1528        Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529), Italian diplomat and courtier, published "Il Libro del Cortegiano" (The Courtier), an exhaustive study of etiquette and court life that was read and copied throughout Europe. In 1561 Sir Thomas Hoby provided an English translation.
    (WSJ, 5/28/04, p.W3)(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P12)

1528        In Mexico the fortress of San Juan de Ulua was built on a coral reef in Vera Cruz. It was later estimated that half-million slaves died in the process.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1528        The Scottish Reformation began.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528        Cardinal Wolsey dissolved 22 religious houses and used the money for the founding of several colleges.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528        Jacob Hutter (d.1536), Anabaptist evangelist from South Tyrol, founded a "community of love," whose members shared everything. They settled in Moravia due to the religious tolerance there.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_Hutter)

1528        Wheat was introduced into New Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528        Hernando Cortes was recalled to Spain and he brought with him haricot beans.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528        England established its first colony in the New World at St. Johns, Newfoundland.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)

1528        Charles V granted to the Welser family, Augsburg merchants, rights to colonize most of north-eastern South America.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528        Philip Melanchthon, Protestant reformer, proposed German educational reforms.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)
1528        In Germany the Carolinum school was founded in Ansbach, Bavaria.
    (AP, 9/17/09)

1528        Babar the Great ordered a large mosque built in Ayodha, 2 years after he established the Mogul Empire in India. The Babri Mosques was destroyed by a Hindu mob in 1992.
    (AM, 7/04, p.49)

1528        Typhus swept through Italy and killed tens of thousands.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528-1530    Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci) painted "Portrait of a Halberdier."
    (WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1528-1588    Paolo Cagliari Veronese, Venetian painter. He was hauled before the Inquisition in1573 and accused of painting profanities.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1588)(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1529        Apr 16, Louis de Berquin, French humanist, reformer, heretic, was burned at stake.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1529        Apr 19, The 2nd Parliament of Speyer banned Lutheranism. At the Diet of Speyer the Lutheran minority protested against restrictions on their teachings and were called "Protestant" for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speyer)

1529        Apr 22, Spain and Portugal divided the eastern hemisphere in Treaty of Saragosa.
    (HN, 4/22/98)

1529        May 6, Babur defeated the Afghan Chiefs in the Battle of Ghagra, India.
    (HN, 5/6/98)

1529        May 27, 30 Jews of Posing, Hungary, charged with blood ritual, were burned at stake.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1529        Jun 9, Zurich declared war on Catholic cantons.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1529        Jun 21, John Skelton (69), English poet, died.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1529        Jul 26, Francisco Pizarro was made governor for life and captain-general in New Spain. He returned to Peru in a fleet of three ships. Pizarro received a royal warrant in Toledo, Spain, to "discover and conquer" Peru.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 7/26/98)

1529        Sep 8, The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman re-entered Buda and established John Zapolyai as the puppet king of Hungary.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1529        Oct 1-3, Martin Luther met with Huldrych Zwingli.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1529        Oct 15, Ottoman armies under Suleiman ended their siege of Vienna and head back to Belgrade. The Ottomans siege of Vienna was a key battle of world history. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak with the Turks settled in Buda on the left bank of the Danube after failing in their siege of Vienna.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)    (HN, 10/15/98)

1529        Oct 17, Henry VIII removed Cardinal Thomas Wolsey as Lord Chancellor for failing to secure an annulment of his marriage.
    (HN, 10/17/98)(PCh, 1992ed, p.176)

1529        Oct 21, Henry VIII of England was named Defender of the Faith by the Pope after defending the seven sacraments against Luther.
    (HN, 10/21/98)

1529        Oct 26, Thomas More was appointed English Lord Chancellor.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1529        Nov 3, The first Reformation Parliament for five years opened in London, England and the Commons put forward bills against abuses amongst the clergy and in the church courts.
    (HN, 11/3/99)(MC, 11/3/01)

1529        Nov 4, Thomas Wolsey, English Lord Chancellor and cardinal, was arrested.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1529        Bernardino Luini, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, completed his fresco of the Passion and Crucifixion at the Santa Maria Degli Angioli church in Lugano, Switzerland.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1529        Luther published two hymns: "Away in a Manger" and "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529        Civil war commenced between Catholic and the Reformed cantons in Switzerland. The Catholics were ultimately defeated.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)
   
1529        Emp. Charles V ceded the Spanish rights in the Spice Islands to the Portuguese.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529        The Turks at Buda planted paprika from the New World.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529        Maize from America, grown in Turkey, was introduced to England as "turkey corn."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529        Baldassare Castiglione (b.1478), Italian diplomat, courtier and author of "Il Libro del Cortegiano" (The Courtier), died while on a papal mission to Toledo.
    (WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P12)

1529-1608    Giambologna, a Florentine sculptor. A biography was written by Baldinucci.
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1530        Feb 23, Spain's Carlos I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor Charles V by Pope Clement VII in the last coronation of a German king by a Pope. Charles restored the Medici to power after capturing Florence and ceded Malta to the landless religious order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
    (TL-MB, p.14)(MC, 2/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.176)

1530        Mar 7, King Henry VIII's divorce request was denied by the Pope. Henry then declared that he, not the Pope, is supreme head of England's church.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1530        Apr 18, Francois Lambert d'Avignon (~43), French church reformer, died.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1530        May 7, Louis I Conde, French prince, leader of Huguenots, was born.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1530        Aug 25, Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible), 1st tsar of Russia (1533-84), was born.
    (MC, 8/25/02)(http://www.ilstu.edu/~jmalli1/)

1530        Sep 20, Luther advised the Protestant monarch compromise.
    (MC 9/20/01)

1530        Nov 19, Augsburg Emperor Karel I demanded the Edict of Worms.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1530        Nov 29, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (55), former adviser to England's King Henry the VIII, died. He had served as Lord Chancellor from 1514-1529. Wolsey had amassed a fortune second only to that of the king.
    (AP, 11/29/97)(PCh, 1992ed, p.176)

1530        Dec 26, (OS) Zahir al-Din Mohammed Babur Shah (47), founder Moguls dynasty (India), died. Babur left power to his son Humayun, who built a royal city called Purana Qila that is part of Delhi today. His memoirs, known as the Baburnama, are considered the first true autobiography in Islamic literature. The first English translation was made in 1922 by Annette Beveridge.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babur)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.80)

1530        Antonio Allegri de Correggio (1489-1534), Italian painter, painted his supreme altarpiece the "Adoration of the Shepherds." Only 40 of drawings have survived.
    (TL-MB, p.14)(WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A25)
1530        Titian, Italian artist and chief master of the Venetian school, painted Cardinal Ippolito deu0092Medici. He became court painter in Bologna.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530        In Antwerp William Tyndale published his translation into English of the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament, and shipped copies to England.
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(ON, 11/04, p.2)
1530        Erasmus (1469-1536), Dutch Renaissance humanist, authored u0093On Good Manners for Boysu0094 (De civilitate morum puerorum).
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.102)
1530        Georgius Agricola, German mineralogist and scholar, published "De Re Metallica," the first systematic book on mineralogy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)
1530        Jacobus Calchus, a Carmelite friar, wrote a 34-page Latin treatise on whether a man might marry the widow of his deceased brother. It was used to bolster Henry VIIIu0092s case to divorce Catherine of Aragon in favor of Anne Boleyn.
    (SFC, 5/14/02, p.A2)
1530        Palsgraveu0092s English-French dictionary mentioned bottle corks for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530        The earliest know French contract for comedia dellu0092arte players was drawn up.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530        Etienne Briard introduced round characters in musical engraving.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530        The San Francisco Church and monastery in Valladolid, Mexico, was begun.
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1530        Florence, Italy, held the first lottery, La Lotto de Firenze. It was followed by similar drawings in Genoa and Venice to raise funds for various public projects.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(http://www.logiuocodellotto.com/)
1530        The game of bingo can be traced back to a lottery game called "Il Giuoco del Lotto d'Italia" played in Italy about this time. By the eighteenth century, the game had matured, and in France, playing cards, tokens, the reading out of numbers had been added to the game. In the nineteenth century, Bingo was widely used in Germany for educational purposes to teach children spelling, animal names, and multiplication tables.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bingo_%28U.S.%29)

1530        Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon drew up the Augsburg Confessions and presented them unsuccessfully to the German Diet at Augsburg convened by Charles V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)
   
1530        The carpenteru0092s bench and vice first come into use.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1530        Opium known as laudanum was used as a pain reliever.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1530        The Las Tortugas Islands were renamed the Caymans, They were named after an indigenous type of crocodile that no longer lives there.
    (AP, 5/10/03)

1530-1531    In Belgium the Antwerp exchange was founded for brokers to trade shares and commodities.
    (TL-MB, p.14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1530s        Gonzalo Oviedo, a Spanish colonist, sent back the first reports and pictures of life in North America.
    (MT, Sum. u009198, p.9)

1530s        Khayr Ad-Din (d.1546) known by the European name Barbarossa, meaning Redbeard, united Algeria and Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate. He was a Barbary pirate and became admiral of the Ottoman fleet.
    (HNQ, 4/25/02)

1531        Jan 5, Pope Clemens VII forbade English king Henry VIII to re-marry.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1531        Jan 22, Andrea del Sarto (44), Italian painter, died.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1531        Jan 26, Lisbon was hit by an earthquake and some about 30,000 died.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1531        Feb 11, Henry VIII was recognized as the supreme head of the Church of England.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1531        Feb 27, German Protestants formed the League of Schmalkalden to defend themselves against Charles V and the Roman Catholic states.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(HN, 2/27/99)

1531        Apr 5, Richard Roose was boiled to death for trying to poison an archbishop.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1531        May 31, "Women's Revolt" in Amsterdam: wool house in churchyard.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1531        Sep 14, Philipp Apian (d.1589), German geographer and cartographer, was born.
    (http://www.antiquemaps.co.uk/chapter12.html)

1531        Oct 11, The Catholics defeated the Protestants at Kappel during Switzerlandu0092s second civil war.
    (HN, 10/11/98)
1531        Oct 11, Huldrych Zwingli, Swiss church reformer (Zwinglian), died. Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Protestant reformer, was killed in the Swiss civil war between the Protestant and Catholic cantons.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(MC, 10/11/01)

1531        Oct 24, Bavaria, despite being a Catholic region, joined the League of Schmalkalden, a Protestant group which opposed Charles V.
    (HN, 10/24/98)

1531        Nov 23, Peace of Kappel ended the second civil war in Switzerland.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1531        Dec 6, John Volkertsz Trimaker, Dutch Anabaptist leader, was beheaded.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1531        Dec 12, Legend held that a dark-skinned Virgin Mary appeared to a peasant outside Mexico City and left an imprint on his cactus-fiber poncho. The poncho became an icon for the Virgin of Guadalupe. Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, an Indian peasant, had visions of the Virgin Mary. In 2002 Pope John Paul II planned to canonize him. The Vaticanu0092s main source was a religious work that dated to 1666.
    (SFC, 2/1/99, p.A9)(WSJ, 2/27/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/17/02, p.A1)(AP, 7/30/02)

1531        Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch humanist and scholar, published the first complete edition of Aristotleu0092s works.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531        Andrea Alciati published the "Emblemata," the first and most influential emblem book.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531        Michael Servetus (1511-1553) published his 1st book: "De Trinitatis Erroribus." He was forced underground by the Inquisition emerged as Michael Villeneuve in Lyons. He later undertook medical studies in Paris. In 2002 Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone authored "Out of the Flames."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(HN, 10/27/98)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)

1531        "De Architecture" by Vitruvius (70-15BC) was translated into Italian.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531        Haleyu0092s comet caused panic in many parts of the world.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531        In Bosnia Gazi Husrev-bey mosque opened. Books and manuscripts were kept there from 1537-1863, then moved to another building.
    (AP, 1/15/14)

1531        Marguerite de Navarre (1492-1549), French noblewoman, authored u0093Le miroir de l'âme pécheresseu0094 (The Mirror of the Sinful Soul) following the death of her young son. It combined her mysticism with her strong ideas for political action within the Church. Her most famous work u0093Heptameron,u0094 a collection of more than 70 short stories about women and their relationships with men, and whether it was possible to be virtuous and also experience real love, was published posthumously in 1558.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heptameron)

1531        German sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider (c71) died. Most of his work was unpainted in wood and stone.
    (WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A20)

1531        The first stage theater of a permanent and public kind was established at Ferrara in Italy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531        The Spaniards founded Puebla, on the route from Veracruz to Mexico City, to house demobilized conquistadors.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)
1531        In Mexico Queretaro was designated the third city of New Spain.
    (SSFC, 1/27/08, p.E5)

1531        Francisco Pizarro left Panama with 180 men to conquer Peru.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531        The Inquisition in Portugal became notably assiduous in reaction to the spread of Protestantism.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)
1531        Ferdinand I was elected King of the Romans, some 27 years before succeeding his brother Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1531-1533    A 12-piece tapestry set was created based on hunting scenes included "The Killing of the Wild Boar" (December). It was later housed in the Louvre.
    (WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

c1531-1537    Ceramicist Francesco Urbini was later believed to have created a plate that shows a male head made up entirely of phalluses. In 2003 a British museum paid $317,000 for it. The head is framed by a garland carrying the inscription: "Ogni homo me guarda come fosse una testa de cazi" (Every man looks at me as if I were a dickhead).
    (Reuters, 9/18/03)

1532        Mar 18, English parliament banned payments by English church to Rome.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1532        Mar 25, Pietro Pontio, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1532        May 16, Sir Thomas More resigned as English Lord Chancellor.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1532        Nov 15, Pope Clemens VII told Henry VIII to end his relationship with Anne Boleyn.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1532        Nov 16, Pizarro first encountered Incan emperor Atahualpa at Cajamarca, who declined conversion to Christianity. Pizzaro and 167 fellow Spaniards, armored and on horseback, killed or wounded some 6,000 to 7,000 natives and captured emperor Atahualpa. In 2007 Kim MacQuarrie authored u0093The Last Days of the Incas.  
    (SSFC, 7/8/07, p.M2)

1532        Ludovico Ariosto, Italian Renaissance poet, published the third and last edition of his epic poem, "Orlando Furioso." This skeptical and humorous work about legendary chivalry later influenced the writing of Edmund Spenser and Miguel de Cervantes.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1532        Francois Rabelais, French satirist, published "La Vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel," a grotesque and humorous satire on almost every aspect of contemporary religion and culture.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.G5)

1532        John Calvin (1509-1564), French theologian, started the Protestant Reformation in France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1532        In Italy the Shroud of Turin was scorched in a fire and doused with water.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A24)
   
1532        Henry (VIII) pressed Cardinal Wolsey to move the Pope to grant an annulment, but Wolsey was unsuccessful, was accused of treason and died on the way to face the King. A new minister, Thomas Cromwell formulated a plan by which the crown assumed spiritual as well as temporal authority in England. Henry could now divorce Catherine, marry Anne Boleyn and reform a separate Church of England. With Anne he sired Elizabeth I, and then had her killed so as to marry Jane Seymour, who died in childbirth. He later married and divorced Anne of Cleves and then Catherine Howard, who was very promiscuous and was beheaded.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.162)

1532        Sugarcane was first cultivated in Brazil.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)   

1532        A 2,100 lb. bell was cast in Japan. It was later shipped to San Francisco and placed in the Asian Art Museum. It was rung every New Year 108 times after a Buddhist tradition, once for each of the mortal desires that plague mankind.
    (SFC, 1/1/97, p.A15)

1532        Suleiman I, Sultan of the Ottoman empire, invaded Hungary.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)   

1532        Spanish conquistadores reached the high valley of the Andes. Pizzaro entered Cuzco, Inca capital of Peru.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.11)

1532        Pizzaro with 183 soldiers entered the lowlands of northern Peru near Cajamarca, the capital of the Inca empire.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)

1532-1540    Thomas Cromwell disbanded most of the monasteries in England and absorbed their vast wealth under the crown.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.162)

1533        Jan 25, England's King Henry VIII secretly married his second wife, Anne Boleyn (who later gave birth to Elizabeth I) in a service performed by Thomas Cranmer. 
    (AP, 1/25/98)(HN, 1/25/99)(PCh, 1992ed, p.177)

1533        Feb 28, Michel de Montaigne (d.1592), was born near Bordeaux, France.  He was the French moralist who created the personal essay. Montaigne was brought up by his father under peasant guidance and a German tutor for Latin. He spent a lifetime of political service under Henry IV, and then composed his "Essays." This was the first book to reveal with utter honesty and frankness the author's mind and heart. Montaigne sought to reach beyond his own illusions, to see himself as he really was, which was not just the way others saw him. "Nothing is so firmly believed as what we least know."
    (WUD, 1994, p.928)(V.D.-H.K.p.144) (HN, 2/28/99)

1533        Mar 30, Henry VIII made Thomas Cranmer archbishop of Canterbury. Cranmer had advised Henry that his 1509 marriage to Catherine of Aragon was null and void because she had previously married Henryu0092s late brother Arthur, even though that marriage was ever consummated.
    (PCh, 1992ed, p.177)

1533        May 14, Margaret of Valois, queen consort of Navarre, was born.
    (HN, 5/14/01)

1533        May 23, The marriage of England's King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon was declared null and void.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1533        May 28, England's Archbishop declared the marriage of King Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn valid.
    (AP, 5/28/97)

1533        Mar 30, Henry VIII divorced his 1st wife, Catherine of Aragon.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1533        Apr 8, Claudio Merulo, organist, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1533        Jun 1, Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII, was crowned as Queen Consort of England.
    (AP, 6/1/08)

1533        Jul 11, Pope Clement VII excommunicated England's King Henry VIII.
    (AP, 7/11/97)

1533        Jul 6, Ludovico Ariosto (57), Italian poet (Orlando Furioso), died.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1533        Aug 28, Atahualpa, last of the Inca rulers was strangled at the orders of Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro. The Inca empire died with him.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1533        Aug 29, Francisco Pizarro captured Cuzco and completed his conquest of Peru. He ordered the imprisonment and murder of Atahualpa, the last ruler of the Inca Empire. Atahualpa was executed by orders of Francisco Pizarro, although the chief had already paid his ransom. Ruminahui (Rumanahui), a general of Atahualpa, led 15,000 soldiers into the mountains north of Quito, after Pizarro killed the Inca emperor Atahualpa. His forces carried an estimated 70,000 man-loads of gold.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(AP, 8/29/97) (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.A15)(HN, 8/29/98)   

1533        Sep 7, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, was born in Greenwich. She led her country during the exploration of the New World and war with Spain which destroyed the Spanish Armada. Elizabeth Tudor (d.1603), the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, reigned as Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. She went bald at age 29 due to smallpox.
    (WUD, 1994, p.463)(SFC,10/18/97, p.E4)(AP, 9/7/97)(HN, 9/7/98)(MC, 9/7/01)

1533        Nov 15, Francisco Pizarro entered Cuzco, Peru. [see Aug 29]
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1533        Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) painted "The Ambassadors," a brilliant portrait of two French ambassadors to England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(WSJ, 12/30/06, p.P10)

1533        Titian painted "Charles V."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1533        The first madrigals, developed mostly in Italy and England, were published in Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1533        Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) was founded by Spain and served as a major port for the trade of slaves, gold and cargo.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)

1533        Catherine de'Medici (14) brought along her Neapolitan chefs for her wedding to the duc d'Orleans, who later became King Henry II. French court cuisine hardly changed.
    (Hem., Nov.'95, p.129)(WSJ, 11/12/99, p.W13)

1533        Spaniards arrived at Zaci, the capital of the Cupul Maya, in Mexicou0092s Yucatan peninsula and were pushed out.
    (SSFC, 6/29/08, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/4o62ox)

1533        Ivan IV (The Terrible), succeeded to the Russian throne at the age of three. He ruled until 1544 under the regency of his mother and later of powerful nobles. His hatchet man and head of the dreaded "Oprichniki" was Maliuta Skuratov. Ivan IV created the Streltsy, Russiau0092s first permanent army. Ivan IV later killed his 27-year-old son, Ivan, in a fit of rage over suspected alliance with his enemies, the boyars, or nobles.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(AM, Jul/Aug u009197 p.30,31)

1533        Ottoman ruler Suleiman I concluded a treaty with Austria and got time to deal with dissident elements in Anatolia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1533-1556    Thomas Cranmer was the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1996 Diarmaid MacCulloch wrote his story: "Thomas Cranmer."
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)

1533-1603    Elizabeth Tudor reigned as Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. She went bald at age 29 due to smallpox.
    (WUD, 1994, p.463)(SFC,10/18/97, p.E4)

1534        Feb 26, Pope Paul III was affirmed George van Egmond as bishop of Utrecht.
    (PTA, 1980, p.440)(SC, 2/26/02)

1534        Mar 26, Lübeck, Hanseatic League port in the Baltic, accepted free Dutch ships into East Sea.
    (SS, 3/26/02)(WUD, 1994 p.851)

1534        Mar, Englandu0092s King Henry VIII imposed the Oath of Royal Supremacy.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/11177a.htm)

1534        Apr 7, Josr de Anchieta, Spanish Jesuit, missionary (Brazilian Tupi Indians), was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1534        Apr 17, Sir Thomas Moore (d.1535) was jailed in the Tower of London.
    (SFEC, 12/19/99, p.T3)(MC, 4/17/02)

1534        Apr 20, Elizabeth Barton, [St Magd van Kent], British prophet, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1534        Apr 20, Jacques Cartier departed St. Malo on the 1st of his 3 expeditions to the New World.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ddztr)

1534        May 10, Jacques Cartier reached Newfoundland. He noted the presence of the Micmac Indians who fished in the summer around the Magdalen Islands north of Nova Scotia.
    (CFA, '96, p.46)(SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T15)

1534        May 12, Wurttenburg became Lutheran.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1534        Jun 9, Jacques Cartier became the first man to sail into the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ddztr)

1534        Jun 29, Jacques Cartier discovered Canadau0092s Prince Edward Islands.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1534        Jul 13, Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in northwestern Persia.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1534        Jul 18, Zacharias Ursinus, German theologian (Heidelberger Catechism), was born.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1534        Jul 24, Jacques Cartier landed in Canada and claimed it for France. Jacques Cartier while probing for a northern route to Asia visited Labrador and said: "Fit only for wild beasts... This must be the land God gave to Cain." [see May 10]
    (NG, V184, No. 4, 10/1993, p. 4)(MC, 7/24/02)

1534        Aug 15, St. Ignatius of Loyola, Spanish ecclesiastic, founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) in Paris with the aim of defending Catholicism against heresy and undertaking missionary work. Ignatius converted to Christianity while convalescing after a battle and wrote his Spiritual Exercises meant as a guide for conversion. In Paris, Ignatius and a small group of men took vows of poverty, chastity and papal obedience. Ignatius formally organized the order in 1539 that was approved by the pope in 1540. The societyu0091s rapid growth and emphasis on scholarship aided in the resurgence of Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation. The Jesuits were also active in missionary work in Asia, Africa and the Americas.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(HNQ, 1/13/01)(MC, 8/15/02)

1534        Aug 20, Turkish admiral Chaireddin (Khair ad-Din) "Barbarossa" occupied Tunis.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(PC, 1992, p.178)

1534        Sep, Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, reunited earlier with 3 survivors of the Narvaez expedition: Andres Dorantes, Alonso de Castillo and Estevanico, a black African and formerly Castillo's slave, fled their enslavement under the Mariames Indians.
    (ON, 10/03, p.4)
1534        Sep, During his voyage back to France Cartier learned from the 2 Native sons, Dom Agaya and Taignoagny of Iroquoian Chief Donnacona, that their father's village of Stadacona (present-day Quebec) was called a 'kanata'. Cartier wrote the name 'Kanata' on his charts and maps, perhaps to mark the land belonging to Chief Donnacona's tribe. This is the first recorded use of the name 'Canada', and the name by which the country would become known.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ddztr)(Canada, 1960, p.20)

1534        Oct 18, A new pursuit of French protestants began.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1534        Nov 3, English Parliament passed Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII head of the English church, a role formerly held by the Pope. Henry VIII was declared "the only supreme head in Earth of the Church of England." He suppressed the monasteries, ordered Bibles burned and renounced papal jurisdiction. He issued the Act of Supremacy which signified a break with the Catholic Church of Rome.
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(http://tinyurl.com/86a3z)

1534        Dec 4, Turkish sultan Suleiman occupied Baghdad.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1534        Dec 6, Quito, Ecuador, was founded by Spanish.
    (http://worldfacts.us/Ecuador-Quito.htm)

1534        Michelangelo left Florence following years of work on the Medici tombs.
    (OG)

1534        Mannerism, influenced by Michelangelo, developed in painting and architecture. Francesco Parmigianino (1503-1540), painter of the "Madonna with the Long Neck," was a leading exponent.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)

1534        Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the "Adoration of the Shepherds."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1534        Pope Paul III (1534-1549), Alessandro Farnese, confirmed "The Last Judgement" commission to Michelangelo, who settled in Rome and began to work on the immense painting on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(OG)(Econ, 12/13/03, p.82)

1534        Gratien du Pont, a French poet, published a chessboard with 64 rhyming insults to females, one for each square.
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.76)

1534        Jan Van Wynkyn (Wynkyn de Worde) published "Tullius Offyce," the 1st Latin-English dictionary. He was the 1st printer in England to use italic type.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)
1534        Britain passed a statute that made buggery a capital offense.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)

1534        Regensburg Cathedral, Germany, was completed after 259 years of work.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)
1534        Anabaptists took power in Münster, Germany. Their reading of the Old Testament permitted polygamy and led them to proclaim a world rebellion. Their name became synonymous with anarchy for over 200 years.
    (WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)

1534        The Ottoman Empire extended from Hungary to Baghdad.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1534        The King of Siam died of smallpox.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1534-1536    Titianu0092s u0093Portrait of Isabella du0092Este, Marchioness of Mantua,u0094 dated to about this time.
    (SFC, 10/29/11, p.E2)

1535        Jan 6, Lima, Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro. [see Jan 18]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(WSJ, 7/2/97, p.B8)(MC, 1/6/02)

1535        Jan 15, Henry VIII declared himself head of English Church. [see Oct 30, 1534]
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1535        Jan 18, Francisco Pizarro founded Lima Peru. [see Jan 6]
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1535        Jan, Thomas Cromwell sent out his agents to conduct a commission of enquiry into the character and value of all ecclesiastical property in the kingdom.
    (HNC, 6/14/02)

1535        Feb 10, 12 nude Anabaptists ran through the streets of Amsterdam. [see 1534]
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1535        Feb 11, Gregory XIV, Roman Catholic Pope was born.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1535        Mar 10, Bishop Tomas de Berlanga discovered the Galapagos Islands.
    (www.gct.org/history.html)

1535        Apr 17, Antonio Mendoza was appointed first viceroy of New Spain.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1535        Apr 29, John Houghton, English, was executed.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1535        May 19, French explorer Jacques Cartier set sail for North America.
    (HN, 5/19/98)

1535        May 21, Imperial authorities in Antwerp captured and imprisoned William Tyndale for heresy over his translation of the Bible into English.
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b2tyndalew.htm)

1535        Jun 22, John Fisher (65), English bishop (1504-35), cardinal, saint, was beheaded  by Henry VIII.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1535        Jun 24, Francis of Waldeck overcame the Anabaptists of Munster. Fanatic leader John of Leyden and others were tortured and executed in Jan 1536.
    (MC, 6/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.179)

1535        Jun, Castaways Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca with 3 companions resumed their journey from Texas to Mexico after spending 8 months with the congenial Avavares Indians.
    (ON, 10/03, p.5)

1535        Jul 1, Sir Thomas More went on trial in England for treason.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1535        Jul 6, Thomas More (b.1478) was beheaded in England for treason, for refusing to renounce the Catholic church in favor of King Henry VIII's Church of England. Moreu0092s sentence to death by hanging was commuted to beheading. He was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1935. In 1966 Robert Bolt authored the play "A Man for All Seasons" based on Moreu0092s struggle with Henry. In 1998 Peter Ackroyd published "The Life of Thomas More." Pope John Paul II named More as the patron saint of politicians in 2000.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.161)(AP, 7/6/97)(HN, 7/6/98)(WSJ, 10/22/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/7/00, p.A27)

1535        Jul 10, Jacob Van Campen, Reconstruction bishop, was beheaded.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1535        Aug 31, Pope Paul III deposed & excommunicated King Henry VIII.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1535        Sep, The site of the city of Quebec was first visited by Jacques Cartier during his 2nd voyage to the New World. It was an Indian village called Stadacona. Quebec is the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in what is now Canada.
    (HNQ, 10/3/99)(Canada, 1960, p.20)

1535        Oct 2, Jacques Cartier first saw the site of what is now Montreal and proclaimed "What a royal mountain," hence the name of the city. [see 1536] Having landed in Quebec a month ago, Jacques Cartier reached a town, which he named Montreal.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T7)(HN, 10/2/98)

1535        Oct 4, The 1st full English translation of the Bible was printed in Switzerland. Miles Coverdaleu0092s translation of the Bible into English (from Dutch and Latin) was the first complete version in English and was dedicated to Henry VIII.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(MC, 10/4/01)

1535        Nov 1, Francesco Sforza, Italian ruler ("Il Sforza del Destino") Milan, died.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1535        Rabelais published the second edition of "Gargantua." It was published after Pantagruel even though it was the first part of the two part work.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1535        The summer palace of Prague Castle, The Belvedere, was begun with a design derived from Brunelleschiu0092s foundling hospital in Florence.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1535        France became the first country to have a permanent embassy at the Sublime Porte in Istanbul.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)

1535        Holy Roman Emperor Charles V led a naval expedition to Tunis against Barbarossa. The foray proved successful, but Barbarossa escaped and continued to fight.
    (WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1535        Spanish conquistadors attempted to create a settlement in the Buenos Aires area but were driven away by the Karandias Indians.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.T5)

1535        The Spaniards founded a temporary settlement on the banks of the Rio de la Plata that 45 years later becomes the city of Buenos Aires.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1535        Diego de Almagro explored Chile.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1535        The Anabaptists under John of Leiden formed a communist state at Munster. When the city was recaptured, John was tortured to death.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1535        Emissaries of Cortez discovered La Paz, in Baha, Mexico.
    (SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C10)

c1535-1625    Sofonisba Anguissola, Italian artist. She was the first woman to achieve fame as a painter in this century. She served as art instructor to Queen Isabel and worked as a court painter. Her paintings here illustrated include "The Chess Game" (1555), a self-portrait (c1552), portrait of her sister Elena (c1551), and the "Holy Family with Saints Anne and John the Baptist" (1592).
    (Smith., 5/95, p.106-109)

1536        cJan, Spanish castaways Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca with 3 companions reached the Pacific Coast in northern Mexico under Indian escort and encountered Spanish troops engaged as slave hunters.
    (ON, 10/03, p.5)

1536        Feb 2, The Argentine city of Buenos Aires was founded by Pedro de Mendoza of Spain. The memorial Column standing at the center of Buenos Aires, gives the date as 1500.
    (AP, 2/2/97)(MC, 2/2/02)

1536        Feb 25, Jacob Hutter (d.1536), Anabaptist evangelist from South Tyrol, was burned as a heretic in Austria. He had founded of a "community of love" in 1528, whose members shared everything.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_Hutter)

1536        Apr 14, English king Henry VIII expropriated minor monasteries.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1536        May 2, King Henry VIII accused Anna Boleyn of adultery, incest, and treason. [see May 15, May 19]
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1536        May 6, King Henry VIII ordered a bible placed in every church.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1536        May 10, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, English Earl Marshall, was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1536        May 15, Anna Boleyn and Lord Rochford were accused of adultery, incest, treason. [see May 2, May 19]
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1536        May 17, Anne Boleyn's 4 "lovers" were executed.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1536        May 19, Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England's King Henry VIII, was beheaded on Tower Green after she was convicted of adultery and incest with her brother, Lord Rochford, who was executed two days before. It was the day before Henry VIII's marriage to Jane Seymour.
    (AP, 5/19/97)(DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/99)

1536        May 21, The Reformation was officially adopted in Geneva, Switzerland.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1536        May 23, Pope Paul III installed the Portuguese Inquisition.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1536        May 30, English king Henry VIII married Jane Seymour (wife #3).
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1536        May, English poet Thomas Wyatt was imprisoned in the Tower of London for allegedly committing adultery with Anne Boleyn.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Wyatt_(poet))
1536        May, Jacques Cartier sailed for France from Canada and carried with him the kidnapped local chief Donnacona, who later died in France. Donnacona, prior to his death, described a mythical kingdom with great riches called Saguenay.
    (Canada, 1960, p.21)

1536        Jun 6, Mexico began it's inquisition.
    (MC, 6/6/02)
1536        Jul 6, Jaques Cartier returned to France after discovering the St. Lawrence River in Canada.
    (HN, 7/6/98)

1536        Jul 9, French navigator Jacques Cartier returned to Saint-Malo from Canada.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1536        Jul 12, Desiderius Erasmus (b.1469 in Rotterdam) died, humanist, priest (Novum instrumentum omne), died. His most famous works included "In Praise of Folly" and a Greek text of the New Testament. In 1999 Prof. Charles Trinkaus published "Collected Works of Erasmus: Controversies," an examination of the religious conflict between humanism and the Reformation.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.159-160)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A26)(WSJ, 1/31/03, p.W13)(MC, 7/12/02)

1536        Jul 14, France and Portugal signed the naval treaty of Lyons aligning themselves against Spain.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1536        Jul 18, The authority of the pope was declared void in England.
    (AP, 7/18/97)

1536        Jul 24, Spanish castaways Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca with 3 companions arrived in Mexico City under escort from Culiacan.
    (ON, 10/03, p.5)

1536        Oct 6, William Tyndale (b.1494), the English translator of the New and Old Testament, was burned at the stake at Vilvoorde Castle (Belgium) as a heretic by the Holy Roman Empire.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tyndale)

1536        Oct 14, Garcilaso de la Vega, Spanish poet and diplomat, died in battle.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1536        Nov 13, Robert Packington (d.1536), a mercer in London and brother of Augustine Packington, was shot and killed. Packington had spoken against the covetousness and cruelty of the clergy in the House of Commons.
    (www.tyndale.org/TSJ/17/cooper.html)

1536        Toyotomi Hideyoshi (d.1598), Japanu0092s unifier and folk hero, was born in a village called Nakamura in Owari province.
    (www.samurai-archives.com/hideyoshi.html)

1536        Sansovino created his sculpture relief of "St. Mark Healing a Demoniac."
    (WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1536        Hans Holbein the Younger was made court painter to Henry VIII of England. He painted a famous portrait of Henry VIII.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)

1536        Titian painted the "Portrait of Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino."
    (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1536        The first song book with lute accompaniment was published in Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536        John Calvin published the "The Institutes of the Christian Religion," which spread Calvinist ideas across Europe.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536        The suppression of the smaller monasteries in England under Thomas Cromwell was completed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536        Although English conquest of Wales took place under the 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan, a formal Union did not occur until 1536, shortly after which Welsh law, which continued to be used in Wales after the conquest, was fully replaced by English law under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542. There was another Act of Union in 1542.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wales)(SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)

1536        In England Hyde Park was seized from the monks at Westminster Abbey by Henry VIII and preserved as forest for the royal hunt.
    (SFEM, 3/21/99, p.8)

1536        Robert Aske led an uprising of some 30,000 people against the dissolution of the monasteries in the northern counties of England. It ended a year later with the arrest and hanging of Aske.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536        Savoy and Piedmont were conquered by France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536        Provence was invaded by Charles V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536        Jacques Cartier discovered the St. Lawrence River and explored as far as the site of Montreal.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1536        The first Spanish settlement was established in Buenos Aires, Argentina, but the colony failed. The cows and horses however thrived on the tall pampa grass and when new colonists arrived two decades later they found the thriving livestock.
    (Hem. 10/'95, p.103)

1536        A Spanish conquistador noted oil seeping in the countryside of Colombia.
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-1)

1536        Spanish soldiers crushed an Indian revolt and Incas fled to Peruu0092s Vilcabamba region. In 2002 archeologists uncovered a settlement on Cerro Victorio.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)

1536        The city of Porlamar was founded on the southeastern coast of Margarita Island off the coast of Venezuela.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)

1537        Jan 6, Alessandro de' Medici (b.1510), Italian monarch of Florence, was assassinated by his cousin Lorenzino (d.1548). This event was commemorated in the bust Brutus by Michelangelo. Cosimo I (18) came to power following the murder of Alessandro.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_de%27_Medici,_Duke_of_Florence)(AM, 7/05, p.36)

1537        Mar 25, The 5th Lithuanian war with Russia (1534-1537) ended with a peace treaty. It lasted until the start of war with the Livonian Order (1562-1582).
    (LHC, 3/25/03)

1537        May 20, Hieronymus Fabricius Ab, physician (De Formato Foetu), was born in Aquapend, Italy.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1537        Jun 2, Pope Paul III banned the enslavement of Indians in the New World.
    (HN, 6/2/99)

1537        Aug 15, Juan de Salazar, Spanish pioneer, founded Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay.
     (SFEC, 1/12/97, Z3 p.4)(PC, 1992, p.181)

1537        Aug, Castaway Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca returned from Mexico to Spain where he wrote an account of his 3,000 mile journey through North American and his experiences with the Indians. In 2006 Paul Schneider authored u0093Brutal Journey: The True Story of the First Crossing of North America.u0094 Schneider used de Vacau0092s original memoir as well as an official report prepared by survivors of the Narvaez expedition.
    (ON, 10/03, p.5)(SSFC, 6/11/06, p.M3)

1537        Oct 12, Edward IV, King of England (1547-53), was born. He was the only son of Henry VIII by his third wife Jane Seymour.
    (HN, 10/12/98)(MC, 10/12/01)

1537        Oct 13, Jane Grey, Queen of England for 9 days, was born.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1537        Oct 24, Jane Seymour, the third wife of England's King Henry VIII, died 12 days after giving birth to Prince Edward, later King Edward VI.
    (AP, 10/24/97)

1537        Miles Coverdale completed William Tyndaleu0092s English translation of the Bible. A complete Bible, two-thirds of which had been translated by Tyndale, was published by royal permission.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.102)

1537        Hans Holbeinu0092s masterpiece was his life-size Tudor dynastic portrait in Whitehall Palace that included Henry VIII and his father Henry VII..
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(AM, Jul/Aug u009197 p.23)

1537        The complete works of Cicero, "Opera Omnia," was published in Venice in four volumes.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        Paracelsus, Philippus Aureolus, Swiss physician and alchemist, published his "Grosse Astronomie," a manual of astrology. [See Paracelsus in 1528]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        Sebastiano Serlio, architect at the palace of Fontainebleau, published the first of six volumes of his "Trattato di Architettura."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        The first Catholic hymnal was published.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        Costanzo Vesta published his first book of madrigals in Rome, a landmark in the development of the form.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        The first conservatories of music were founded for girls in Venice, and for boys in Naples.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        Jacopo Sansovino began building the famous Old Library of St. Marku0092s, Venice.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        Popayan, Colombia, was founded.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T10)

1537        The Spanish built La Fortaleza overlooking the bay on the southwestern edge of San Juan, Puerto Rico.
    (HT, 4/97, p.29)

1537        Andreas Vesalius, the Belgian "father of anatomy", accepted the chair of anatomy at Padua.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        Niccolo Fontana founded the science of ballistics.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        Gerhardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, surveyed and drew a map of Flanders that was so accurate that Charles V made him his geographer.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        Robert Aske was arrested and hung for the uprising in northern England against the closing of the monasteries by Thomas Cromwell.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        In India Bangalore was founded on the Deccan Plateau by a king who was lost and given a bowl of boiled beans (Bendakalooru means town of boiled beans) by women in the area.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.B10)

1537        The Reformation came to Norway.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)

1538        Feb 24, Ferdinand of Hapsburg and John Zapolyai, the two kings of Hungary, concluded the peace of Grosswardein.
    (HN, 2/24/99)

1538        Feb 26, Worp van Thabor, Frisian abbot of Thabor (Chronicon Frisiae), died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1538        Mar 10, Thomas Howard (d.1572), Duke of Norfolk, executed by Queen Elizabeth, was born.
    (HN, 3/10/98)(MC, 3/10/02)

1538        Apr 24, Guglielmo Gonzaga, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1538        Apr 26, Giovanni P. Lomazzo, Italian writer, poet (Trattato), was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1538        May 26, Geneva threw out John Calvin and his zealots. Calvin was exiled from Geneva for three years and lived in Strasbourg.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(MC, 5/26/02)

1538        Jun 18, Treaty of Nice ended the war between Emperor Charles V and King Francois I. It only lasted 10 months.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(PCh, 1992, p.180)(MC, 6/18/02)

1538        Jul 8, Diego de Almagro (63), Spanish conquistador (Chile and Peru), died.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1538        Dec 17, Pope Paul III excommunicated England's King Henry VIII. [see Aug 31, 1535]
    (MC, 12/17/01)

c1538        A colossal gilded statue of Buddha was erected at Ayutthaya (Siam). It survived the sacking of the city in 1767 and in 1854 was renamed Si Mongkhon Bophit by King Monghut.
    (WSJ, 4/21/05, p.D7)

1538        Titian painted his "Urbino V."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)
1538        Benvenuto Cellini, Florentine artist, was imprisoned for about a year in the dungeon beneath the papal fortress of Castel Santu0092Angelo for killing his brotheru0092s murderer.
    (SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G2)

1538        Religious plays were first performed in Mexico on the feast of Corpus Christi.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1538        Mercator (1512-1594), Flemish cartographer, used the name "America" for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerardus_Mercator)

1538        Construction of Henry VIIIu0092s Nonsuch Castle in Cuddington, Surrey, southeast England, began. It took eight years to complete and was still incomplete when Henry died in 1547. It stood for less than 150 years having fallen into disrepair in the 1680s. By 1690 the palace had vanished. A watercolor picture of the castle was painted by Joris Hoefnagel in 1568 as part of a record of the most important buildings in Europe. The picture was put up for auction in 2010.
    (Reuters, 11/3/10)
1538        The Thirteen Articles of the Church of England were written. In 1964 A.G. Dickens (d.2001 at 91) authored "The English Reformation."
    (HNQ, 10/20/98)(SFC, 8/4/01, p.E2)
1538        Thomas Cromwell ordered an English Bible to be available to the public in every Church.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1538        Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada, Spanish conquistador, founded Bogota, Colombia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1538        Franceu0092s King Francois I closed the French bath houses by this time.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.139)

1538        King Sigismund I (1467-1548), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, imposed the death penalty for bison poaching.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigismund_I_the_Old)(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.10)

1538        Portugal captured Diu, India, and established it as part of a fortified trade network.
    (SSFC, 3/19/06, p.F7)

1538        The earliest reference to a diving bell was made at Toledo, Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1539        Feb 19, Jews of Tyrnau, Hungary, (then Trnava, Czech), were expelled.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1539        Apr 17, Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter, cartoonist (Comedia), was born.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1539        Apr 19, Emperor Charles V reached a truce with German Protestants at Frankfurt, Germany.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1539        May 28, Hernando de Soto sailed from Cuba to Florida with 13 pigs to help sustain his 700 men on his gold-hunting expedition. [see May 30]
    (ON, 4/01, p.4)(MC, 5/28/02)

1539        May 30, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto landed at Tampa Bay, Florida, with 600 soldiers in search of gold. Hernando de Soto returned to the New World at the head of a 1,000-man expedition into North America. He landed near present-day Tampa Bay and proceeded through what is now Alabama and Tennessee, making treaties with some Indian, viciously fighting with others.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(AP, 5/30/97)(HN, 5/30/98)(HNQ, 10/11/00)

1539        Jun 3, Hernando De Soto claimed Florida for Spain. In 1922 Lippincott published "Narratives of de Soto in Florida." The translated texts included "A Narrative of de Sotou0092s Expedition Based on the Diary of Rodrigo Rangel" by Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes."
    (HN, 6/3/98)(ON, 4/01, p.5)

1539        Jul 5, Antonio M. Zaccaria, Italian physician, saint, died.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1539        Aug 10, King Francis of France declared that all official documents were to be written in French, not Latin.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1539        Nov 15, Richard Whiting (b.1461), the Bishop of Glastonbury, was hung, drawn and quartered on Glastonbury Tor after being convicted of treason for remaining loyal to Rome. Little Jack Horner was reputed to have been the steward to Whiting, whose jury included Horner. 12 deeds, sent by Whiting as a bribe to the king, were reportedly carried by Horner, who was said to have stolen the one to the manor of Mells, it being the real 'plum' of the twelve manors. The first publication date for the lyrics to the Little Jack Horner nursery rhyme is 1725.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Jack_Horner)

1539        Claeszon Marinus van Reymerswaele created his painting "The Banker and His Wife" (The Money Changer and His Wife).
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)(WSJ, 1/21/02, p.A13)

1539        Jacques Arcadett, a Dutchman, was appointed master of music at the Julian Chapel. His first book of four-part madrigals was published about this time and was reprinted for more than a century.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1539        Cosimo I deu0092 Medici (1519-1574), Duke of Florence, married Eleonora (1522-1562), daughter of the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Their wedding included a musical intermedi, one of the first such interludes for which music survives.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosimo_I_de%27_Medici)(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)
    (AP, 8/19/09)
1539        Michelangelo began to redesign the Capitol in Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1539        The Six Articles, a religious stature, was passed at the "instance" of Henry VIII. It set forth the position of the English Church on six fundamental points in an effort to stem the growth and influence of the English Protestants.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1539        In England Richard Whiting, the last abbot of Glastonbury, was hanged at Glastonbury Tor.
    (Local Inscription, 2000)

1539        In Lyon, France, printers went on strike against long hours, poor conditions and excessive profits by masters.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1539        Japanese trading monopolies ended in favor of a free market.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1539        German scholar George Joachim Rheticus received permission to write a condensed version of the ideas of astronomer Nicholas Copernicus. The short book was titled u0093First Account.u0094
    (ON, 2/11, p.6)

1539        Olaus Magnus, Swedish ecclesiastic and historian, produced a map of the world.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1539        The first form of a flintlock was recorded in Sweden.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1540        Jan 6, England's King Henry VIII married his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. The marriage lasted about six months.
    (HN, 1/6/99)(AP, 1/6/98)

1540        Jan 25, Edmund Campion, saint, Jesuit martyr (Decem Rationes), was born in London.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1540        Feb 9, The 1st recorded race met in England at Roodee Fields, Chester.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1540        Feb 14, Emperor Charles V entered Ghent without resistance and executed the rebels. He brutally beat down an uprising against taxes for an expansionist war. Nine leaders were beheaded and another hanged. City burgers were forced to walk the streets barefoot with rope hanging round their necks. The "Gentse Feesten" annual festival re-enacts this event every mid-July.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)(MC, 2/14/02)

1540        Feb 23, Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado began his unsuccessful search for the fabled Seven Cities of Gold in the American Southwest. Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of Mexico, sent Francisco Coronado overland to search for the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola in present day New Mexico. Coronado, Spanish explorer, introduced horses, mules, pigs, cattle, and sheep into the American southwest. An Indian guide spoke of a rich kingdom called Quivira. When no cities were found he confessed under torture that the story was false.
    (NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(HN, 2/23/99)(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D1)

1540        Mar 4, Protestant count Philip of Hessen married his 2nd wife.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1540        Mar 9, Hernando de Soto reached southern Georgia. He found the Indians there raising tame turkeys, caged opossums, corn, beans, pumpkins, cucumbers and plums.
    (ON, 4/01, p.5)(www.floridahistory.com/inset7.html)

1540        May 17, Afghan chief Sher Khan defeated Mongol Emperor Humayun at Kanauj.
    (HN, 5/17/98)

1540        Jun 10, Thomas Cromwell was arrested in Westminster.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1540        Jun 24, Henry VIII divorced his 4th wife, Anne of Cleves.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1540        Jun 29, Thomas Cromwell, English ex-chancellor, was sentenced to death.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1540        Jul 9, England's King Henry VIII had his 6-month-old marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, annulled.
    (AP, 7/9/97)

1540        Jul 28, King Henry VIII's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was executed. The same day, Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard.
    (AP, 7/28/97)(HN, 7/28/98)(PCh, 1992, p.181)

1540        Aug 25, Explorer Hernando de Alarcon traveled up the Colorado River.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1540        Sep 27, The Society of Jesus, a religious order under Ignatius Loyola, was approved by the Pope. The Jesuits were recognized by Pope Paul III. They were to become the chief agents of the Church of Rome in spreading the Counter-Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(HN, 9/27/98)

1540        Oct 11, Charles V of Milan put his son Philip in control.
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1540        Oct 19, Hernando de Soto fought native Indians at the bloody battle of Mabila in present day Alabama.
    (WSJ, 8/5/05, p.W2)(www.floridahistory.com/inset91.html)

1540        Renaissance artist Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) created his painting "Suffer the Little Children to Come Unto Me" about this time In 2009 it was stolen from a Lutheran church in the southern Norway town of Larvik. Itu0092s value was estimated at 15-20 million kroner ($2.1-$2.8 million).
    (AP, 3/8/09)

1540        Faust died; a famous magician who employed his magical wiles to entrap men and young woman and to take from them whatever his evil mind desired.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.238)

1540        Garcia Lopez de Cardenas, a Spanish conquistador, became the first European to know the Colorado and the Grand Canyon.
    (NG, 5.1988, Mem Forum)(SFEC, 10/4/98, BR p.12)

1540        The united companies of barbers and surgeons were incorporated in London.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1540        German vintner records described this year as the u0093Great Sun Year,u0094 as relentless heat and drought withered the Rhine between Cologne and the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 3/31/05, p.F3)

1540        Sher Shah, Afghan rebel, became Emperor of Delhi.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)
1540        Ruffs as accordion-style collars was a fashion brought to Europe from India and popularized by the queen of Navarre.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

1540        Francesco Mazzola Parmigianino (b.1503), Italian painter and master draftsman, died. His paintings included "Antea."
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)

1540        Spaniards settled Campeche, Mexico. Montejo the Younger, the founder of Merida, gained a foothold at Campeche.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D12)(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)

1540        Arequipa, Peru, was founded by Spanish conquerors.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1540        The first potato from South America reached Pope Paul III. It was then taken to France and grown as an ornamental plant.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1540        In Portugal Coimbra Univ. was founded in a royal palace.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T7)

1540        Venice and Turkey signed a treaty at Constantinople.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1540        Diethyl ether was produced from alcohol and sulfuric acid. Valerius Cordus (1515-1544), German physician and botanist, discovered the compound.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerius_Cordus)(ON, 10/20/11, p.9)

1540        The pulmonary circulation of the blood was discovered by Michael Servetus, a Spanish theologian and physician. In 1553 he was burned at the stake in Geneva for heresy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)

1540        Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of Mexico, sent a sea expedition under Hernando de Alarcon up the Gulf of California where they entered the mouth of the Colorado River and became the first Europeans to stand on California soil.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)

1540        Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador, was appointed governor of the province of Rio de la Plata. His advocacy of Indian rights caused him to be arrested and banished to a Spanish outpost in North Africa.
    (ON, 10/03, p.5)

1540s        The 1982 French film "The Return of Martin Guerre" with Gerard Depardieu was based on a true story set in 16th century France against a backdrop of the Reformation and a marriage of convenience between 11-year-old Bertrande de Rols and 14-year-old Martin Guerre.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.D7)(WSJ, 7/17/96, p.A12)   

1540-1541    Francisco Coronado, one of the first Spanish conquistadores to enter the Southwest, vividly described a group of "dog nomads," that he encountered wintering just outside the walls of the Pecos Pueblo, a multi-storied village of more than 1000 inhabitants, east of Santa Fe, New Mexico.
    (MT, 12/94, p.2-3)

1540-1580    In Vincenza Palladio created a wide variety of palaces and public buildings.
    (AMNHDT, 5/98)(WSJ, 11/8/02, p.W12)

1540-1596    Jacopo Zucchi, a mannerist painter. His work included "The Bath of Bathsheba" (1570).
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1541        Feb 12, Santiago, Chile, was founded by Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, a lieutenant of Pizarro. When the Spaniards arrived in Chile, 11 languages were in widespread use: Quechua, Aymara, Rapanui, Chango, Kunza, Diaguita, Mapudungun, Chono, Kawesqar, Yagan and Selku0092nam. By 2007 only the 1st 3 remained. The last ethnic Selku0092nam died in the 1970s.
    (PCh, 1992, p.182)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_de_Valdivia)(SSFC, 8/12/07, p.A18)

1541        Mar 14, In the area of the state of Mississippi Hernando de Soto and his men were attacked by hundreds of Chickasaw Indians. 11 Spaniards were killed along with 15 horses and 400 pigs.
    (ON, 4/01, p.5)

1541        Apr 4, Ignatius Loyola, Spanish ecclesiastic, was elected 1st superior-general of the Jesuits.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(MC, 4/4/02)

1541        May 8, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto discovered and crossed the Mississippi River, which he called Rio de Espiritu Santo. He encountered the Cherokee Indians, who numbered about 25,000 and inhabited the area from the Ohio River to the north to the Chattahoochee in present day Georgia, and from the valley of the Tennessee east across the Great Smoky Mountains to the Piedmont of the Carolinas. [see May 21]
    (NG, 5/95, p.78)(AP, 5/8/97)(HN, 5/8/99)

1541        May 21, The Spaniards first saw the mighty Mississippi, the "Father of the Waters." Still dreaming of fabled rich cities, De Soto succumbed to fever on May 21, 1542 and was buried in the mud of the Mississippi, to prevent his body being disturbed by Indians. [see May 8]
    (HNQ, 10/11/00)

1541        May, The expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, having crossed the high plains of Texas, feasted on game and held a Mass of thanksgiving.
    (Sm, 2/06, p.12)

1541        Jun 18, Irish parliament "selected" Henry VIII as King of Ireland.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(MC, 6/18/02)

1541        Jun 26, Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish Conqueror of Peru, was murdered by his former followers in Lima.
    (HN, 6/26/98)(MC, 6/26/02)

1541         Jun 29, The Spanish [first] crossed the Arkansas River. Francisco Vazquez de Coronado continued to explore the American southwest. He left New Mexico and crossed Texas, Oklahoma and east Kansas.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(HFA, '96, p.32)

1541        Aug 23, Jacques Cartier landed near Quebec on his third voyage to North America and established a short-lived community there.
    (HN, 8/23/98)(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1541        Sep 24, Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus (b.1493), Swiss alchemist, physician and theologian, died. The 1835 poem "Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim" by Robert Browning was based on the life of Paracelsus. In 2006 Philip Ball authored u0094The Devilu0092s Doctor: Paracelsus and the Renaissance World of Magic and Science.u0094
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracelsus)(Econ, 1/21/06, p.81)

1541        Oct 31, "The Last Judgement" by Michelangelo on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel at Rome was officially unveiled. It is one of the largest paintings in the world.       
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(OG)

1541        Nov 9, Queen Catharine Howard was confined in the London Tower.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1541        El Greco (d.1614), artist, was born in Crete. He settled in Toledo, Spain, in 1577 and died there.
    (WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1541        Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the "Portrait of a Man With a Felt Hat."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1541        The "Codex Mendoza" was an Aztec pictorial manuscript of this time. It showed tribute received by the Aztecs from people like the Mixtec with turquoise shields and beads. It also showed 3 young people being stoned to death for drunkenness.
    (NH, 4/97, p.24)(Arch, 1/05, p.29)

1541        Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542), British poet, authored his u0093Defence,u0094 an attempt to get out of the Tower of London where he faced charges of treason.
    (Econ, 5/7/11, p.91)

1541        John Knox, a Scottish theologian and historian, led the Calvinist Reformation in Scotland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)
       
1541        John Calvin, French theologian, set up a theocratic government in Geneva. Some of the finest French watchmakers joined him.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)    (Hem., 2/96, p.96)

1541        Spanish conquistadors arrived in the area of New Mexico and encountered the Jemez Indians, who numbered around 30,000. The Jemez lived in fortified villages in the high mesas and had arrived over 200 years earlier. In 2001 the tribe numbered about 3,400.
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.C8)

1541        Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador, became the 1st European to see the Iguacu Falls in Brazil. He named the falls Saltos de Santa Maria but the Tupi-Guarani name persisted.
    (SFEC, 10/8/00, p.17)

1541        Francisco de Orellana, Spanish soldier and explorer, descended the River Amazon from the Andes to its mouth in the Atlantic Ocean. When Pizarro's half-brother prepared to explore the lands east of Quito, Francisco de Orellana led an advance expedition and wound up exploring the Amazon basin, following the current to emerge at the mouth of the river in August 1542. From there, he returned to Spain (by way of Trinidad), full of tales of riches and strange tribes led by women like the Amazons of Greek mythology. Orellana died in a return expedition to the Amazon River four years later.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(HNQ, 2/11/01)

1541        Ethiopia was invaded by the Portuguese.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1541        In Guatemala a volcano crater filled with water cracked and a mud slide engulfed the capital town of Ciudad Vieja. Over 1,000 people were buried. The volcano was named Agua from that point on.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)

1541        Jean Clouet (b.1480), French Renaissance artist, died. He was the chief painter of King Francis I. Clouetu0092s work included a 1519 portrait of Francis I as Saint John the Baptist.
    (Econ, 10/16/10, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Clouet)

1541        Morelia, the capital of the Mexican state of Michoacan, was founded by the royal edict of Antonio de Mendoza. It was originally named Valladolid after a city in Spain. The name was changed in 1928 to honor the local village priest and revolutionary hero Jose Maria Morelos.
    (Hem, Nov.'95, p.146)(SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1541        In Morocco, the Portuguese abandoned their sea defense settlement at Mogador, later Essaouira. Mogador had originally been named by the Phoenicians.
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, p.T4)

1541        Suleiman I annexed southern and central Hungary. The Turkish Ottomans occupied Budapest, Hungary, until 1546.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1541        An earthquake and tidal wave finished off the settlement of Nueva Cadiz on Isla de Cubagua off the coast of Venezuela.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)

1542        Feb 13, Catherine Howard (b.c1520), the fifth wife of England's King Henry VIII, was executed for adultery.
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)(AP, 2/13/98)

1542        May 21, Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto died while searching for gold along the Mississippi River. His men buried his body in the Mississippi River in what is now Louisiana in order that Indians would not learn of his death, and thus disprove de Soto's claims of divinity.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(AP, 5/21/97)(MC, 5/21/02)

1542        Jun 24, Juan de la Cruz, [de Yepes], Spanish Carmelite, poet, saint, was born.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1542        Jun 27, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo set out from the port of Navidad, Mexico, with 2 ships, the San Salvador and the Victoria, to "discover the coast of New Spain." Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo claimed California for Spain. [see Sep 28]
    (NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(MC, 6/27/02)

1542        Jul 15, In 2007 an expert on the "Mona Lisa" says he had ascertained with certainty that Lisa Gherardini (b.1479), the symbol of feminine mystique, died on this day, and was buried at the Sant'Orsola convent in central Florence where she spent her final days.
    (AFP, 1/19/07)

1542        Jul 21, Pope Paul III launched the Inquisition against Protestants (Sanctum  Officium). Alleged heretics were tried and tortured in an effort to stem the spread of the Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(MC, 7/21/02)

1542        Aug 24, In South America, Gonzalo Pizarro returned to the mouth of the Amazon River after having sailed the length of the great river as far as the Andes Mountains.
    (HN, 8/24/98)

1542        Aug, Francisco de Orellana emerged at the mouth of the Amazon river. He had led an advance expedition from Peru and wound up exploring the Amazon basin and following the current to the mouth.
    (HNQ, 2/11/01)

1542        Sep 24, Thomas Wyatt (b.1503), British poet, died. He is credited with introducing the sonnet into English. In 2011 Nicola Shulman authored u0093Graven With Diamonds: The Many Lives of Thomas Wyatt, Courtier, Poet, Assassin.u0094
    (Econ, 5/7/11, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Wyatt_%28poet%29)

1542        Sept 28, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, Spanish explorer, stepped ashore at the present day harbor of San Diego and named it San Miguel. He went on to explore the coast of California. The tip of Point Loma in San Diego is the home of the Cabrillo National Monument, the second most visited monument in the US after the Statue of Liberty. The island of Coronado was named in honor of the Four Crowned Martyrs, Los Quatro Martires Coronados, on whose feast day it was discovered.   
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(AAM, 3/96, p.52)(NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(SFC,12/26/97, p.C22)

1542        Oct 4, Roberto Bellarmino, Italian Jesuit theologian, diplomat, saint, was born.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1542        Oct 7, Explorer Cabrillo discovered Catalina Island off the Southern California coast.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1542        Oct 14, Abul-Fath Djalal-ud-Din, 3rd Mogul emperor of India (1556-1605), was born.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1542        Nov 22, New laws were passed in Spain giving protection against the enslavement of Indians in America.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1542        Nov 24, The English defeated the Scots under King James at the Battle of Solway Moss, in England.
    (HN, 11/24/98)(MC, 11/24/01)

1542        Nov, Cabrillo landed at the Channel Island, now known as San Miguel. His men got into a scuffle with local Indians and Cabrillo broke a leg. The party continued to sail north almost to present day Fort Ross.
    (NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)

1542        Dec 7, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland (1560-1587), was born. [see Dec 8]
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1542        Dec 8, Mary, Queen of Scotland (1542-67), was born. She became the Queen of England when she was a week old, but was forced to abdicate her throne to her son because she became a Catholic. She was executed for plotting against Elizabeth I. [see Dec 7]
    (HN, 12/8/00)

1542        Dec 14, James V (b.1512), king of Scotland (1513-42), died.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1542        Bernard Palissy started working in France. He produced dishes and plates with leaves, lizards, snakes, insects and shells in high relief.
    (SFC, 1/8/97, z-1 p.6)

1542        Magdalen College, Cambridge, was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542        The University of Zaragoza was founded [in Spain?].
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542        The Medici tapestry factory in Florence was founded about this time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)   

1542        War was renewed between the Holy Roman Empire and France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542        Explorer Juan Cabrillo spotted the 534 foot rock at Morro Bay, Ca.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T10)

1542        An 2nd Act of Union united Wales into England. It followed the 1542 Act of Union.
    (SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)
1542        Britainu0092s 1st bankruptcy laws were crafted under Henry VIII.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.53)

1542        A landslide on the Yangtze River cut off navigation for 82 years.
    (NH, 7/96, p.32)

1542        Antonio da Mota, Portuguese explorer, became the first European to enter Japan.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542        Merida, Mexico, was founded by Francisco de Montejo at the holy Maya city of Tu0092Ho. Montejo was the son of the captain under Cortez with the same name.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1542        In Russia Ivan the Terrible at age 12 entertained himself by dropping dogs from the higher battlements of the Kremlin.
    (SFC, 4/18/98, p.C3)

1542        150 Spanish colonists settled Asuncion, capital of Paraguay.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1542-1544    A 7-piece set of tapestries was created titled the "Seven Deadly Sins." They were later housed at the Palacio Real in Madrid.
    (WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)   

1542-1591    John of the Cross, Spanish mystic, writer and theologian. He co-founded with St. Theresa the Order of Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites.
    (CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)

1542-1605    Emperor Akbar, 3rd Grand Moghul of India and godfather of Shah Jahan. Akbar commissioned an illustrated manuscript of the Hamzanama (Story of Hamza, the paternal uncle of the prophet Mohammed). The 1,400 painted folios took over 100 artists 15 years to complete.
    (WSJ, 8/8/02, p.D10)

1542-1621    Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, became chief theologian of the Roman Catholic church. He denied Galileou0092s mathematical proofs and astronomical observations. He was named a saint and was canonized in 1930.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.201)

1543        Jan 3, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo died of gangrene and was buried at San Miguel.
    (NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)

1543        Feb 21, In the Battle at Wayna Daga Ethiopian and Portuguese troops beat Moslem army. Ahmed Gran, sultan of Adal, died in the battle.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelawdewos_of_Ethiopia)

1543        Apr 14, Bartoleme Ferrelo returned to Spain after discovering a large bay in the New World (San Francisco).
    (HN, 4/14/99)

1543        May 24, The city of Valladolid, Mexico, was founded in the Yucatan peninsula.
    (SSFC, 6/29/08, p.E5)(www.valladolidyucatan.com/history.html)
1543        May 24, Nicolaus Copernicus, astronomer, died in Poland. His book, "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs," (De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium), proof of a sun-centered universe, was printed just before he died. Although he did say that the earth rotated once a day and did revolve around the sun once a year, he kept 2 features of the old Aristotelian system: one involved uniform circular motion, and the other was quintessential matter, for which such motion was said to be natural. In 1916 the Catholic clergy placed the book on its u0093Index of Prohibited Books.u0094 In 2004 Owen Gingerich authored "The Book Nobody Read," an examination of how the ideas of Copernicus spread. In 2006 William T. Vollmann authored u0093Uncentering the Earth: Copernicus and The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.u0094 In 2008 his remains, buried in a Roman Catholic Cathedral in Frombork, Poland, were positively identified using DNA evidence. In 2011 Dava Sobel authored u0094A More Perfect Heaven: How Copernicus Revolutionized the cosmos.u0094
     (WSJ, 3/5/04, p.W8)(NH, 4/1/04, p.66)(SSFC, 2/5/06, p.M1)(AP, 11/20/08)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.106)

1543        Jul 1, England and Scotland signed the peace of Greenwich.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1543        Jul 12, England's King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr, who outlived him.
    (AP, 7/12/97)

1543        Sep 3, Cardinal Beaton replaced Earl Arran as regent for Mary of Scotland.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1543        Sep 9, Mary, Queen of Scots, was crowned Queen of England.
    (HN, 9/9/01)

1543        Sep, The Spanish survivors of the de Soto expedition reached Spanish settlements in Mexico.
    (ON, 4/01, p.5)

1543        Benvenuto Cellini, Italian goldsmith, produced a magnificent salt cellar for Francis I, which still survives.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543        Luther wrote a pamphlet titled: "On the Jews and Their Lies." Anti-Semitism flourished long before Hitler came along. The founder of the Protestant movement, Martin Luther, despised Jews. In 1543, he wrote this evil book which helped to set the stage for the Holocaust. Among his most well known admirers was Adolf Hitler "My advice, as I said earlier, is: First , that their synagogues be burned down...  Second, that all their books, their Talmudic writings, also the entire Bible be taken from them... Third, that they be forbidden on pain of death to praise God ...  Fourth, that they be forbidden to utter the name of God within our hearing and .... be expelled from their country and be told to return to Jerusalem where they may lie, curse, blaspheme, murder,..." (Translation by Martin H. Bertram, Fortress Press, 1955).
    (NH, 9/96, p.21) http://www.btinternet.com/~ablumsohn/links.htm

1543        Andreas Vesalius, Belgian physician, published his "De humani corporis fabrica" (Concerning the Fabric of the Human Body), which contained the first complete description of the human body.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(WSJ, 10/19/99, p.A24)

1543        Aug 22, French and Ottoman forces captured Nice following a siege of the city. Admiral Barbarossa led the Ottoman fleet in the campaign.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Nice)

1543        Protestants were burned at the stake for the first time in the Spanish Inquisition. Pope Paul III issued an index of prohibited books.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543        Phillip of Spain married Maria of Portugal.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543        Henry VIII of England and Emp. Charles V formed an alliance against France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543        King Francis I of France invaded Luxembourg. A combined French and Turkish fleet captured Nice.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543        Filipino natives expelled Spanish conquistador, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, a year after he had discovered and named them.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543        Portuguese ships landed on the Japanese Island of Tanega. The first European visitors to Japan introduced muskets and baked bread.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543        New Spain received European vegetables and grains such as broad beans, chickpeas, barley, and wheat, transported by a new viceroy from Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543        Sugar cane was introduced to Brazil about this time. Fermented sugar cane later became the base for cachaca, a light rum that is the national spirit. Cachaca is used to prepare the national drink, the caipirinha.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.10)

1543        Hans Holbein, one of the greatest artists of the German Renaissance, died in England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1543-1773    The Palacio de los Capitanes in Antigua, Guatemala, was the center for Spanish rule over Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua during this period.
    (SFEM, 6/13/99, p.32)

1544        Mar 11, Torquato Tasso, Italian Renaissance poet (Aminta, Apologia), was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1544        May 17, Scot earl Matthew van Lennox signed a secret treaty with Henry VIII.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1544        May 24, William Gilbert, English physicist, was born. He coined the terms "electric" and "magnetic" poles.
    (HN, 5/24/99)

1544        May 29, Jacobus Latomus [Jasques Masson] (~68), Belgian inquisitor, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1544        Sep 14, Henry VIII's forces took Boulogne, France.
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1544        Sep 18, English King Henry VIII's troops occupied Boulogne, France. [see Sep 14]
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1544        Sep 19, Francis, the king of France, and Charles V of Austria signed a peace treaty in Crespy, France, ending a 20-year war. The Peace of Crespy ended the fighting between Charles V and Francis I. Henry VIII was not consulted. France surrendered much territory and Charles gave up his claim to Burgundy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(HN, 9/19/98)

1544        Nov 27, Ascanio Trombeti, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1544        The first herbarium was published by Italian botanist Luca Ghini.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1544        The University of Konigsberg was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1544        Henry VIII crossed the Channel to Calais to campaign with Charles V against Francis I.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1544        The Turks invaded Hungary for the third time and seized the crown jewels. (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1544        Gustavus I of Sweden signed an alliance with France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1544        Rats first showed up in North America.
    (SFC, 6/15/96, p.E4)

1544-1545    Titian painted "Danaë."
    (WSJ, 5/8/03, p.D8)

1544-1557    A set of cartoons designed by Raphael (1483-1520) were woven into 10 tapestries titled "The Acts of the Apostles."
    (WSJ, 12/3/99, p.W16)(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.D7)           

1544-1603    William Gilbert, English physician, discovered that the earth was a magnet from his observations on the behavior of lodestone, the mineral now called magnetite. He grew to suspect that the earthu0092s gravity and magnetism were connected in some way , but he never understood how. Under the reign of Protestant Queen Elizabeth I, he was able to argue for Copernicusu0092s heliocentric picture of the solar system, and suggested that the planets must be held in their orbits by some kind of magnetism.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.198)

1545        Feb 13, William of Nassau became prince of Orange.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1545        Feb 19, Pierre Brully, [Peter Brulius], Calvinist minister, was burned to death.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1545        Apr 12, French king Francis I ordered the Protestants of Vaudois killed.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1545        Apr 13, Elisabeth van Valois, French queen of Spain, daughter of Henri II, was born.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1545        Jul 8, Don Carlos, son of Spanish king Philip II  (protagonist in Schiller's drama; hero in Verdi opera), was born.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1545        Jul 19, A French fleet entered The Solent, the channel between the Isle of Wight and Hampshire, England, and French troops landed on the Isle of Wight. King Henry VIII of England watched his flagship, Mary Rose, capsize in Portsmouth harbor as it left to battle the French. 73 people died including Roger Grenville, English captain of Mary Rose. The Mary Rose was raised in 1982.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 7/19/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Rose)

1545        Sep 24, Albrecht von Brandenburg, archbishop, monarch, founder of The Brandenburg Concerts of Mainz, died at 55.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1545        Oct 18, John Taverner, English composer (Western Wynde), died.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1545        Dec 13, The Church Council of Trent began with the meeting of 30 bishops. It lasted 3 years but took 18 years to complete its work. The Council sparked the beginning of the Counter-Reformation. [see 1562]
    (CU, 6/87)(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545        Agnolo Bronzino, Florentine painter, produced his work: "Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545        Benvenuto Cellini, Italian goldsmith, wrote his autobiography, which greatly influenced the Renaissance.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 11/3/99)

1545        Conrad von Gesner, Swiss naturalist, published the first volume of his "Bibliotheca Universalis," a catalogue of all the writers who ever lived.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545        In Mexico Bishop Fray Bartolome de las Casas championed the Indians in the area of Chiapas.
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)

1545        The first European botanical garden was established in Padua.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545        Lord Lisle, English fleet commander, set ablaze Treport in Normandy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545        Claude Garamond, French typographer, cut a Greek type that remained in use to the early 19th century. Some modern typefaces bear his name.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1545        The Spanish discovered the silver mines of Potosi, Bolivia. From the town of Cerro Rico, which means Hill of Riches, they took out the equivalent of $2 billion from one mountainside.
    (NH, 10/96, p.4)

1545        A typhus epidemic killed hundreds of thousands of natives and colonists in Cuba and New Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)   

1546        Feb 18, Martin Luther (b.1483), leader of the Protestant Reformation in Germany, died in Eisleben. In 1989 Harvard professor Heiko A. Oberman (1930-2001) authored u0093Luther.u0094
    (V.D.-H.K.p.165)(WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P10)(AP,  2/18/08)

1546        Mar 29, Cardinal Beaton, English archbishop of St. Andrews, was murdered.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1546        May 29, Cardinal Beaton, English archbishop of St. Andrews, was murdered.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1546        Jun 7, The Peace of Ardes ended the war between France and England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 6/7/98)

1546        Aug 3, French printer Etienne Dolet, accused of heresy, blasphemy and sedition, was hanged and burned at the stake for printing reformist literature.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1546        Dec 14, Tycho Brahe (d.1601), astronomer, was born in Knudstrup, Denmark. He constructed the most precise astronomical instruments of his time.
    (SCTS, p.136)(HN, 12/14/00)(MC, 12/14/01)

1546        Titian painted his great family portrait of Paul III and his Grandsons Ottavio and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546        The Farnese Hours manuscript was illuminated by Giulio Clovio.
    (SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)

1546        Girolamo Fracastoro, (Hyeronymous Fracastorius), Italian Florentine physician, gave the first description of typhus and the nature of contagion in his work "De Contagione et Contagiosis Morbis." He had earlier described and named syphilis.
    (WP, 1952, p.28)(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546        The first Welsh book, "Yny Lhyvyr Mwnn," was printed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546        Henry VIII founded Christ Church, Oxfordu0092s largest college.
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.C11)
1546        Henry VIII closed the bath houses of Southwark.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.139)

1546        Pierre Lescot, French architect, began the building of the Louvre in Paris. Francois I, needing more space for acquired works of art, started the construction of 2 new wings to the 12th century Louvre fortress.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)

1546        Pope Paul III put Michelangelo in charge of the restoration of St. Peteru0092s Basilica in Rome. He  designed the dome of St. Peteru0092s.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)

1546        Charles V got into the Schmalkaldic War against the Protestant princes upon support by the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546        Basra (Iraq) was captured by the Ottoman Empire.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.24)
1546        The Turks occupied Moldavia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
   
1546        A coalition of eastern Maya laid siege to Valladolid, in Mexicou0092s Yucatan peninsula. Spanish conquistadores brutally crushed a major Mayan rebellion in New Spain.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4o62ox)(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546        Gerardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, affirmed that the earth has magnetic pole.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546        Barbarossa, one of the great figures in the court at Istanbul, died. Khayr Ad-Din was a Barbary pirate and later, as admiral of the Ottoman fleet, he united Algeria and Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate in the 1530s.
    (HNQ, 2/10/99)

1546-1568    Alexandru Lapuseanu, ruler of Moldavia, outlawed divorce and imposed the death penalty on anyone who started such legal proceedings.
    (SFC, 6/2/96, Zone 1p.2)

1547        Jan 8, The first Lithuanian book was printed in Konigsberg (Karaliauciuje) at the printing shop of H. Weinreich. It was a catechism titled: "Katekizmusa prasti Zadei, makslas skaitima raschta yr giesmes" by the Lithuanian student Martynas Mazvydas (200-300 copies). He had been specifically invited by Albrecht von Brandenberg to prepare a book in Lithuanian that would assist the priests in teaching the native language and help spread the ideas of the Reformation, i.e. Lutheranism. It was a small format book of 79 pages part of which was taken up by 11 hymns presented with music. The text was a faithful translation of J. Seklucianu0092s (1545) and J. Maleckiu0092s (1546) Polish catechisms.
     (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.10)(DrEE, 9/14/96, p.4)(LHC, 1/7/03)

1547        Jan 16, Ivan IV, popularly known as "Ivan the Terrible," crowned himself the new Czar of Russia in Assumption Cathedral in Moscow. He was the first Russian ruler to assume that title.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 1/16/99)(AP, 1/16/08)

1547        Jan 19, Henry Howard (29), earl of Surrey, army commander, poet, was beheaded.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1547        Jan 28, England's King Henry VIII died; his sixth and last wife was Catherine Parr. He was succeeded by his 9-year-old son, Edward VI.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.162)(AP, 1/28/98)(HN, 1/28/99)

1547        Jan, An inventory of the possessions of King Henry VIII was begun under Edward VI, Henryu0092s son and successor. It took three years to complete. His total wealth amounted to some 600,000 pounds. A commoneru0092s daily wage at this time was about two and one-half pence.
    (AM, Jul/Aug u009197 p.20)

1547        Feb 3, Russian czar Ivan IV (17) married Anastasia Romanova.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1547        Feb 20, King Edward VI of England was enthroned following the death of Henry VIII  (Jan 28).
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1547        Mar 21, Matthew Stryjkovski (d.c1592), the 1st author of a printed history of Lithuania, was born in Strykov, Poland.
    (LHC, 3/21/03)

1547        Mar 31, Francis I, King of France (1515-1547), died and was succeeded by his son Henry II, who was dominated by his mistress, Diane de Poitiers, during his 12 year reign.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 3/31/99)

1547        Apr 24, Charles V's troops defeated the Protestant League of Schmalkalden at the battle of Muhlberg.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1547        May 20, Melchior Bischoff, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1547        Jun 21, There was a great fire in Moscow.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1547        Sep 2, Hernan Cortes, Spanish general who defeated Aztec Indians, died.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1547        Sep 10, The Duke of Somerset led the English to a resounding victory over the Scots at Pinkie Cleugh. This was the last battle to be fought between English and Scottish royal armies and the last in which the longbow was used tactically en masse.
    (HN, 9/10/98)(WSJ, 11/4/04, p.D10)
1547        Sep 10, The English demanded that Edward VI (10), wed Mary Queen of Scots (5).
    (MC, 9/10/01)
1547        Sep 10, Pierlugi Faranese, Italian son of Pope Paul III, was murdered.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1547        Sep 29, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (d.1616) was born, at Alcala de Henares, near Madrid. "He was first a soldier and was captured by Barbary pirates in 1575. His family was unable to raise the ransom money until 1580. He was not initially successful as a writer until he wrote "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha" (1604).
    (V.D.-H.K.p.150)(HN, 9/29/02)

1547        Oct 19, Pierino del Vaga, Italian painter, died at 46.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1547        The "Dodekachordon" on the 12 church modes by Henricus Glareanus, Swiss music theorist, was published.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547        Hans Staden of Germany was shipwrecked on the Atlantic coast of Brazil. He was later rescued and in 1557 published an illustrated account of his adventures.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.30)

1547        French became the official language of France, displacing Latin.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547        Nostradamus, French astrologer, made his first predictions.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547        Forces of Charles V captured the Elector of Saxony at the Battle of Muhlberg.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547        The Truce of Adrianople was concluded between Charles V, Ferdinand I of Hungary, and Suleiman I of Turkey.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547        The English parliament repealed the Statute of the Six Articles, which defined heresy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547        Moscow was destroyed by fire.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548        Apr 1, Sigismund I, the Elder (81), King of Poland, died.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(MC, 4/1/02)

1548        Jun 30, Formerly Holy Roman (Catholic) Emperor Charles V ordered Catholics to become Lutherans.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1548        Jul 16, La Paz, Bolivia, was founded.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1548        Aug 15, Mary Queen of the Scots (6), who was engaged to the Dauphin, landed in France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(MC, 8/15/02)

1548        Sep 5, Catharine Parr (36), queen of England and last wife of Henry VIII, died.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1548        Tintoretto, Italian Renaissance artist, painted his work "St. Mark Rescuing the Slave."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1548        Jacopo Tintoretto (1518-1594), Venetian school Italian artist, established his fame with the painting u0093Miracle of the Slave.u0094
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintoretto)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.90)
1548        Titian painted his portrait of Charles V at Muhlberg.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548        John Baleu0092s "Kynge Johan," the first English historical drama, appeared.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548        The Hotel de Bourgogne, first theater (under a roofed building) in Paris opened.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548        Charles V annexed the 17 provinces of the Netherlands to the Burgundian Circle of the Empire.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548        Gonzalo Pizarro, son of the conqueror of Peru, was defeated by and executed by Pedro de la Gasca in the Battle of Xaquixaguane.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548        The University of Messina, Sicily, was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548        Spaniards in Mexico exploited the silver mines.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548        In Thailand King Chakrapat was saved by his wife Suriyothai, who maneuvered her elephant in front of the invading Burmese King Tabinshweeti and took the sword thrust intended for her husband. The historical film "Suriyothai" was directed by Chatri Chalerm Yukol and premiered in Aug 2001. It was about the 16th Queen Suriyothai who saved her husband King Thianracha during a war with invaders from Myanmar.
    (SFC, 9/30/99, p.E6)(WSJ, 8/30/01, p.A11)(SFC, 7/3/03, p.E1)

1549        Feb 14, Maximilian II, brother of the Emperor Charles V, was recognized as the future king of Bohemia.
    (HN, 2/14/99)

1549        Mar 20, Thomas Seymour of Sudely, English Lord Admiral, was beheaded.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1549        May 27, Lijsbeth Dirksdr, Friesian Anabaptist, drowned.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1549        Jun 9, Book of Common Prayer was adopted by the Church of England. Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, issued the "Book of Common Prayer." Other prayer books were forbidden by the Act of Uniformity. The book was mandated by the government under Edward VI, son of Henry VIII, so that services could be spoken in the language of the people.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(MC, 6/9/02)

1549        Aug 9, France declared war on England. England declared war on France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 8/9/98)

1549        Aug 15, Francis Xavier, Portuguese Jesuit missionary, landed in Kagoshima, Japan, and began spreading the Catholic faith there.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(ON, 11/02, p.8)(MC, 8/15/02)(AP, 1/28/14)

1549        Sep 13, Pope Paul III closed the first session of the Council of Bologna.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1549        Oct 1, Anna of H Bartolomaeus was born. She was a Flemish prioress and founded a nunnery.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1549        Nov 5, Philippe du Plessis, France, author, was born.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1549        Wen Cheng-ming, Chinese artist, created his hanging scroll "Trees in a Valley."
    (WSJ, 5/15/02, p.D7)

1549        Giorgio Vasari wrote the first biography of Leonardo da Vinci.
    (NH, 5/97, p.58)

1549        The 17 provinces of the Netherlands became independent of the Holy Roman Empire.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1549        La Pleiade, a group of 7 French poets, established the Alexandrine metre of a 12-syllable line. Pierre de Ronsard was in the group.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1549        Piro Ligorio designed the Villa du0092Este at Tivoli for the Cardinal du0092Este Ippolito II.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1549        Court jesters, mainly dwarfs and cripples, appeared in Europe. [see 1202]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1549        Jesuit missionaries arrived in South America.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1549        Sao Salvador, later Bahia in Brazil, was founded by Thome de Souza, Portugalu0092s first governor of Brazil. Portuguese conquerors founded Salvador.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)
   
1549        The Ye Old Cock Tavern opened in London.
    (SFEC, 9/12/99, p.T14)

1549        Ivan IV called the first national assembly in Russia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1549        Pope Paul III died and was succeeded by Julius III.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

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