Timeline 17th Century: 1626-1660

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1626        Feb 2, Charles I was crowned King of England. His wife was Queen Henrietta Maria.
    (HN, 2/2/99)(WSJ, 10/31/02, p.D6)

1626        Feb 6, Huguenot rebels and the French signed the Peace of La Rochelle.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1626        Feb 20, John Dowland, composer, died.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1626        Feb 28, Cyril Tourneur (c51), English poet, dramatist, died.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1626        Apr 5, Jan van Kessel (d.1679), Flemish painter, was born. He was the grandson of Jan Breughel. He is known for his small paintings on copper and wood. His "Study of Butterflies, Spiders, Lizards, a Beetle, an Ant, a Grasshopper and Other Insects" sold at a Sotheby’s auction in 2000 for $1,655,750.
    (WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W10)(MC, 4/5/02)

1626        May 4,    Dutch explorer Peter Minuit landed on what is now Manhattan island. Peter Minuit became director-general of New Netherlands. Indians sold Manhattan Island for $24 (1839 dollars) in cloth and buttons. The 1999 value would be $345. The site of the deal was later marked by Peter Minuit Plaza at South Street and Whitehall Street.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)(MC, 5/4/02)

1626        Jul 30, An earthquake hit Naples and some 10,000 died.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1626        Aug 27, The Danes were crushed by the Catholic League in Germany, marking the end of Danish intervention in European wars.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1626        Oct 4, Richard Cromwell (d.1659), lord protector of England (1658-59), was born.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1626        Nov 7, Peter Schager of Amsterdam informed the States General that the ship "The Arms of Amsterdam" had arrived with a cargo of furs and timber from New Netherlands and that the settlers there had bought the Island of Manhattes for 60 guilders.
    (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)

1626        Nov 15, The Pilgrim Fathers, who settled in New Plymouth, bought out their London investors.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1626        Nov 18, Pope Urban VIII consecrated St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. Construction had begun in 1506.
    (HN, 11/18/98)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)

1626        Dec 1, Pasha Muhammad ibn Farukh, tyrannical governor of Jerusalem, was driven out.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1626        Dec 8, Christina (d.1689), queen of Sweden, was born. She negotiated the Peace of Westphalia, ending the Thirty Years' War. "Fools are more to be feared than the wicked. "Dignity is like a perfume; those who use it are scarcely conscious of it."
    (AP, 7/8/97)(AP, 1/14/99)(HN, 12/8/99)

1626        Andrea Guarneri (d.1698), violin maker, was born.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1626        Rembrandt van Rijn depicted part of himself in his painting "History Piece."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)
c1626        Peter Paul Rubens painted “The Succession of the Popes (Allegory of Eternity).”
    (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)

1626        Domenico Zampieri (Domenichino) painted the 7-foot-long "The Rebuke of Adam and Eve."
    (WSJ, 1/21/00, p.W12)

1626        In London Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I, was presented Jeffrey Hudson (7), whom she made her royal dwarf. In 2002 Nick Page authored "Lord Minimus," a biography of Hudson.
    (HN, 2/2/99)(WSJ, 10/31/02, p.D6)
1626        China’s city of Peking (later Beijing) experienced a major flood.
    (Econ, 7/28/12, p.37)
1626        In Prague Adriaen de Vries began his last sculpture, "Hercules." It was completed in 1627.
    (WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)
1626        The F.E. Trimbach winery was established in Ribeauville, Alsace.
    (SFC, 3/31/05, p.F2)

c1626-1627    Dutch artist Hendrick ter Brugghen painted "The Concert."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.12)

1626-1636    Francois Mansart, French royal architect, built the Chateau de Balleroy in Normandy.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, D6)

1626-1679    Jan Steen, Dutch painter. His work includes Girl Offering Oysters. "He specialized in painting scenes, such as tavern brawls, seductions and family turmoil, that satirized human weaknesses."
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

1627        Mar 3, Piet Heyn conquered 22 ships in Bay of Salvador, Brazil.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1627        May 29, Anne of Orléans, duchess of Montpensier (Grand Mademoiselle), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1627        Jul 10, English fleet under George Villiers reached La Rochelle, France, a Huguenot stronghold.
    (MC, 7/10/02)(WUD, 1994, p.808)

1627        Jul 20, English fleet under George Villiers reached La Rochelle. [see Jul 10]
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1627        Jul 23, Sir George Calvert arrived in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1627        Aug 10, Cardinal Richelieu began a siege of La Rochelle.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1627        Sep 25, Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, theologian, was born.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1627        Oct 28, Djehangir (Jahangir), great mogul of India, died.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1627        James Morton changed the name of the New England Mount Wollaston settlement to Merrymount and organized a trading company to compete with Plymouth for the Indian trade in beaver pelts.
    (ON, 3/00, p.11)

1627        Barbados was uninhabited as the first English settlers arrived. Sugarcane fields later began to cover the island, a 14 x 21 mile stack of coral terraces.
    (NH, 12/96, p.35)(Econ, 6/16/12, p.91)(http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/Barbados/history/)

1627        In Bhutan Ngawang Namgyal built Simtokha Dzong at the entrance to Thimphu valley. From this dzong he could exert control over traffic between the powerful Paro valley to the west and Trongsa valley to the east.
    (http://visitbhutan2008.blogspot.com/2007/04/zhabdrung-kuchoe.html)
1627        Two Portuguese Jesuits, Estevao Cacella and Joao Cabral, arrived in Bhutan, the first westerners to do so.
    (http://visitbhutan2008.blogspot.com/2007/04/zhabdrung-kuchoe.html)

1627        In Norway the stave church at Vaga was rebuilt by architect Werner Olsen. His design included a few fragments of the original building.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)

1627        Japan banned contact with foreigners and closed its ports except for limited trade with Holland. [see 1639]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1627        The last wild cow in Poland died.
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p. S-4)

1627        Luis de Gongora y Argote (b.1561), Spanish poet, died.
    (SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(www.spanish-books.net/literature/i_gongora.htm)

c1627-1628    Dutch artist Hendrick ter Brugghen painted "Melancholia."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C1)

1627-1637    In northern Pakistan Jahangir’s mausoleum on the right bank of the Navi River in Lahore was built by his son Shah Jahan.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)

1628        Jan 13, Charles Perrault, lawyer, writer (Mother Goose), was born in France.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1628        Mar 10, Constantine Huygens Jr., Dutch poet, painter, cartoonist, was born.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1628        Mar 19, Massachusetts colony was founded by Englishmen.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1628        May 1, A May festival in Quincy, Mass., degenerated into an orgy with Indian women.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1628        Jun 9, Thomas Morton of Mass. became the 1st person deported from what is now US.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1628        Aug 1, Emperor Ferdinand II demanded that Austria Protestants convert to Catholicism.
    (MC, 8/1/02)
1628        Aug 1, Francesco Gonzaga (37), composer, died.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1628        Aug 10, The Swedish 228-foot warship Vasa capsized and sank in Stockholm harbor on her maiden voyage because the ballast was insufficient to counterweight the 64 guns and ballast. The wreckage was found in 1956. It opened as part of a the Vasa museum in 1990. Twenty-five men and women drowned when the ship sank. Vasa was the most expensive and richly ornamented warship of its time in Sweden. She was recovered in 1961 and the skeletal remains were exhumed in 1989.
    (NG, 5/95, Geographica)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W12)(HN, 8/10/00)

1628        Aug 25, There was as assault on sultan of Mantarams of Batavia (the former name of Djakarta, Indonesia).
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)(WUD, 1994 p.420)

1628        Sep 6, Puritans landed at Salem, from the Mass. Bay Colony.
    (MC, 9/6/01)   

1628        Sep 8, John Endecott arrived with colonists at Salem, Massachusetts, where he would become the governor.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1628        Oct 14, Iacopo Nigreti (b.~1548-50), prolific and facile Venetian Mannerist painter, died. He is best known as Jacopo Palma il Giovane or simply Palma Giovane ("Young Palma"). His paintings included “Yael Killing Sisera,” a depiction of the Book of Judges Biblical story of the heroine, Yael of Jael, who killed Sisera to deliver Israel from the troops of king Jabin. She was the wife of Heber the Kenite.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yael)

1628        Oct 28, After a fifteen-month siege, the Huguenot town of La Rochelle surrendered to Cardinal Richelieu's Catholic forces. John Tradescant, an English gardener who accompanied Duke George Villiers to rescue the Huguenots, had designed siege trenches prior to the surrender. 
    (HN, 10/28/98)(MC, 10/28/01)(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)

1628        Nov 24, John Ford (1586-1640) had the premier of his play: "Lover's Melancholy"  in London.
    (MC, 11/24/01)(WUD, 1994 p.554)

1628        Nov 28, John Bunyan, English preacher and writer who wrote Pilgrim’s Progress, was born.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1628        Abraham Bloemaert, Dutch mannerist, painted his "Virgin and Child."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)

1628        Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted "Self Portrait Leaning Forward."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1628        Gerrit van Honthorst painted "Portrait of Charles I."
    (WSJ, 2/29/00, p.B16)

1628        The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church was established by settlers in New York. In 1867 it became the Reformed Church of America.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Par p.18)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1628        Margherita de Medici was wed to Duke Odoardo Farnese in the Teatro Farnese in Parma. Music was composed by Claudio Monteverdi.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T6)

1628        Charlestown was founded in the New World. Much of it was burned in the Revolutionary War.
    (HT, 3/97, p.34)

1628        The Petition of Right was established in England
    (MT, Dec. '95, p.16)

1628        Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, was called upon to broker a peace between Catholic Spain and Protestant England.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1628-1658    Shah Jahan (1592-1666), a descendent of the Moghuls, ruled India. He was India’s 3rd Mughal emperor. The manuscript "Padshahnama" (King of the World) by Abdul-Hamid Lahawri documents the reign of Shah Jahan. In 1997 Wheeler Thackston made a new translation.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1309)(HT, 4/97, p.22)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

1628-1695    Enku was an Japanese artist-priest who took a vow to sculpt 120,000 images of the Buddha.
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1629        Jan 21, Abbas I (b.1571), Shah of Persia (1588-1629), died.
    (http://4dw.net/royalark/Persia/safawi3.htm)

1629        Jan 27, Hieronymus Praetorius (68), composer, died.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1629        Mar 2, English King Charles I fleeced the house of commons.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1629        Mar 10, England's King Charles I dissolved Parliament and did not call it back for 11 years.
    (AP, 3/10/98)

1629        Mar 14, A Royal charter was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Company. About 1,000 puritans under the leadership of John Winthrop received a charter from King Charles I to trade and colonize between the Charles and Merrimack rivers. The official seal to the document was reported found in 1997. [see 1684, Oct 17, 1691]
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.A21)(HN, 3/14/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)

1629        Mar 19, Aleksei M. Romanov, Romanov tsar of Russia, was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1629        Apr 14, Christian Huygens (d.1695), Dutch astronomer, discoverer of Saturn's rings, was born. He invented the pendulum and along with Newton showed that any body revolving around a center is actually accelerating constantly toward that center, even though the rate of rotation remains constant.
    (TNG, Klein, p.30)(http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_huygens.htm)

1629        Apr 30, John Endecott became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    (http://38.1911encyclopedia.org/E/EN/ENDECOTT_JOHN.htm)

1629        May 29, Arnold Baert (~74) Flemish lawyer, member of Great Council, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1629        Jun 18, Piet Heyn (51), lt. admiral (Spanish silver fleet), died in battle.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1629        Jul 31, Johann Jakob Lowe von Eisenach, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1629        Oct 13, Dutch West Indies Co. granted religious freedom in West Indies.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1629        Oct 30, King Charles I gave the Bahamas to Sir Robert Heath.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1629        Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, created an allegorical design depicting "Honor and Virtue." The painting was commissioned in this year and in 1998 was part of the collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein. A separate small oil sketch for the painting was first made and made public in 1998. Rubens also made a copy of Titian’s "The Rape of Europa," and he painted the portrait of "Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel."
    (SFC, 2/19/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1629        In New Mexico construction began on the Mission church of San Esteban del Rey at the Acoma Pueblo mesa. It took 14 years to complete and required more than 20,000 tons of earth and rock to be hauled up the mesa on foot.
    (SSFC, 9/24/06, p.G6)

1629        The weekly Bills of Mortality in London, begun in 1603, began to include causes of death.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.97)

1629        In Japan women performers were banned in Kabuki theaters to prevent prostitution and were replaced by young boys. The ban spawned a new breed of male actors.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SFC, 6/14/05, p.B3)

1629        The Batavia, a Dutch East India ship, struck a reef off the western coast of Australia. Some 300 survivors made it to a tiny island in the Houtman Abrolhos archipelago, where Jeronimus Cornelisz, a junior officer, took power after a vicious struggle. He ran a regime of murder, rape and torture for 3 months when helped arrived from the Dutch colony on Java. 70 of the 300 initial survivors were still alive. Cornelisz was quickly tried and executed. In 2005 Simon Leys authored “The Wreck of the Batavia.”
    (WSJ, 1/10/06, p.D8)

1629-1684    Pieter de Hooch, Dutch painter of contemplative scenes of everyday life.
    (WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A20)

1630        Feb 22, Indians introduced pilgrims to popcorn at Thanksgiving.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1630        Mar 22, The first American legislation prohibiting gambling was enacted in Boston.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1630        Mar 23, French troops occupied Pinerolo, Piedmont.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1630        Apr 17, Christian I, ruler of Anhalt-Bernburg (battle of White Mt), died.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1630        May 17, Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi saw the belts on Jupiter's surface.
    (HN, 5/17/98)

1630        May 29, Charles Stuart (d.1685), later Charles II, king of England (1660 to 1685), was born. He was the son of Charles I. Charles II was restored to the English throne after the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal with George Monck, a general of the New Model Army, and with the old parliamentary foes of his father. The British experiment with republicanism came to an end with the restoration of Charles II.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
1630        May 29, Gov. John Winthrop began his "History of New England."
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1630        Jun 12, John Winthrop aboard the Isabella, landed at North River near Salem. Winthrop eventually decided to locate the colony in Charlestown because of its proximity to the harbor.
    (www.bostonhistory.org/faq.html)

1630        Jun 25, The fork was introduced to American dining by Gov. Winthrop.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1630        Jul 12, New Amsterdam's governor bought Gull Island from Indians for cargo and renamed it Oyster Island. It later became Ellis Island.
    (MC, 7/12/02)   

1630        Aug 13, Emperor Frederick II of Bohemia fired Albrecht von Wallenmanders, his best military commander.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1630        Sep 7, The Massachusetts town of Trimontaine (Shawmut), was renamed Boston, and became the state capital. It was named after a town of the same name in Lincolnshire, England.
    (HN, 9/7/98)(www.bostonhistory.org/faq.html)

1630        Sep 11, John de White, Calvinist banker to Prague, committed suicide.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1630        Sep 30, John Billington, one of the original pilgrims who sailed to the New World on the Mayflower, became the first criminal in the American colonies to be executed for murder. He was hanged for having shot John Newcomin following a quarrel.
    (HN, 9/30/01)(MC, 9/30/01)

1630        Oct 19, In Boston the 1st general court was held.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1630        Nov 1-1630 Nov 30, In Italy 12,000 inhabitants of Venice died of plague. 80,000 people died over a period of 17 months.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.D14)(www.turismovenezia.it/eng/dynalay.asp?PAGINA=913)

1630        Nov 10, In France there was a failed palace revolution against Richelieu government.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1630        Nov 15, Johann Kepler (b.1571), German astronomer, died at 58.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1630        Nov 19, Johann Hermann Schein (44), German composer (Opella Nova), died.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1630        Frans Hals painted his "Portrait of a Man."
    (WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)

1630        Georges de La Tour began his masterwork painting "The Cheat With the Ace of Clubs." It was completed about 1634.
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A20)

c1630        Poussin completed his painting "Rinaldo and Armida" and the "Plague at Ashdod."
    (WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)(SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)
   
1630        Tirso de Molina, Spanish dramatist, wrote the tragic drama "The Seducer of Seville", wherein Don Juan was first given a literary personality, though it was already an old myth of libertinism from the medieval past.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.235)

1630        John Winthrop made his famous sermon “A Model of Christian Charity,” also known as his “City Upon a Hill” sermon. The speech was likely made in England prior to his departure for Massachusetts.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_on_a_Hill)
1630        The Boston Common was first used by the Pilgrims as a common grazing ground for their livestock. It remained open to livestock until 1830.
    (AH, 10/07, p.72)

1630        Staten Island was acquired by Dutch settlers. [see 1659]
    (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)

1630        The southern wall of the Wallenstein Garden in central Prague was built as part of Gen. Albrecht von Wallenstein’s palace complex.
    (WSJ, 8/7/07, p.D10)

1630        In Hungary Mate Szepsy Laczko described the method for producing Tokaj wine made from botrytized grapes.
    (WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)

c1630        The widow of a samurai set up a business that grew to become the Kikkoman Corp., the world’s leading maker of soy sauce.
    (WSJ, 12/27/99, p.A1)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)

1630s        Inigo Jones built the portico of London’s Old St. Paul’s Cathedral.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

1630-1631    There was a great famine in India. Records indicate that cannibalism became so rampant that human flesh was sold on the open market.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)

1631        Feb 5, A ship from Bristol, the Lyon, arrived with provisions for the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Massachusetts Bay Company). Puritan Roger Williams, proponent of religious freedom and later founder of Rhode Island, arrived with his wife in Boston from England and joined the Separatist colony at Plymouth.
    (http://tinyurl.com/m6czns)(AP, 2/5/97)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)(AH, 4/07, p.25)

1631        Mar 31, John Donne (b.1572), British metaphysical poet, died in London. In 2006 John Stubbs authored “Donne: The Reformed Soul.”
    (www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/donne/donnebio.htm)(Econ, 9/9/06, p.79)

1631        Apr 6, Vincenzo De Grandis, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1631        May 4, Mary I Henriette Stuart, daughter of Charles I (later queen of England), was born.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1631        May 17, Earl Johann Tilly attacked Magdeburg.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1631        May 18, English colony of Massachusetts Bay granted Puritans voting rights and John Winthrop was elected 1st governor of Massachusetts.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1631        May 20, A German army under earl Johann Tilly conquered Magdeburg.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1631        Jun 17, Mumtax Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan of India, her tomb (Taj Mahal), died. Arjumand Shah Begum (aka Mumtaz Mahal -Jewel of the Palace), was the 2nd wife of Shah Jahan. She had bore him 14 children and died in childbirth. He build the Taj Mahal (1654) in her memory. The project took 22 years and cost $18 million.
    (HT, 4/97, p.22)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)

1631        Jun 21, John Smith (b.1580), English sailor, soldier and author, died in England. He had helped found the English colony at Jamestown, Va.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)(www.virtualjamestown.org/jsmith.html)

1631        Jun 26, Justinus van Nassau, Italian admiral (Armada), died.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1631        Jul 19, Cesare Cremonini (b.1550), Italian philosopher and lecturer at Padua Univ., died. His skepticism influenced the culture of the late Renaissance. In 2007 Edward Muir authored “The Culture Wars of the Late Renaissance.”
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1631        Jul 23, Sweden's King Gustavus II Adolfus repulsed an imperialist force at Werben, Russia.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1631        Aug 9, John Dryden, the 1st official poet laureate of England (1668-1700), was born at Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire.
    (HN, 8/9/02)

1631        Sep 17, At the Battle of Breitenfeld (Leipzig) Sweden’s King Gustaaf Adolf led a Saxon-Swedish army and defeated Gen. Tilly.
    (MC, 9/17/01)(PCh, 1992, p.231)

1631        Oct 10, A Saxon army occupied Prague.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1631        Oct 14, The ship Our Lady of Juncal set sail from the Gulf coast port of Veracruz, as part of a 19-ship fleet bearing described only as "a valuable shipment of the goods obtained by the king's ministers to feed the Spanish empire." Most of the fleet never made it.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

1631        Nov 7, Pierre Gassendi observed a transit of Mercury as predicted by Kepler.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1631        Dec 6, The 1st predicted transit of Venus took place. It had been predicted by Kepler, but he died a year before the event.
    (MC, 12/6/01)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.78)

1631        Dec 16, In Italy Mount Vesuvius erupted and destroyed 6 villages. Some 3.5-4,000 people were killed.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T8)(MC, 12/16/01)

1631        The General Court of Massachusetts gave voting rights only to Puritan church members.
    (AH, 4/07, p.30)

1631        Marco d'Aviano, an itinerant preacher for the Capuchins, a branch of the Franciscan friars, was born in Aviano, northern Italy. He led Catholics and Protestants in prayer on the eve of the 1683 battle for Vienna, Austria, which was critical in stopping the advance of Turkish soldiers in Europe.
    (AP, 4/27/03)

1631        Barker and Lucas, the king’s printers at Blackfriars were fined 300 pounds for their bible misprint that omitted "not" from the 7th commandment. The fine helped to ruin the printer. The edition was called "The Wicked Bible." A list of variant bible editions due to misprints is in Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.D8)

1632        Feb 18, Giovanni Battista Vitali, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1632        Feb 20, Thomas Osborne, Duke of Leeds, English PM (1690-94)/founder (Tories), was born.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1632        Feb 28, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Nov 28]
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1632        Apr 15, Swedish and Saxon army beat Earl Tilly.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1632        Apr 16, Albrecht von Wallenstein was appointed supreme commander of Holy Roman Empire forces.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1632        Apr 20, Nicolas Antione, converted to Judaism, was burned at the stake. [see Dec 20]
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1632        May 25, Albrecht von Wallenstein recaptured Prague on Saksen.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1632        Jun 20, Britain granted 2nd Lord Baltimore rights to Chesapeake Bay area.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1632        Aug 29, English philosopher John Locke was born in Somerset, England. The philosopher of liberalism influenced the American founding fathers and was famous for his treatise "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding." It was he who stated that the child is born with a tabula rasa, a blank state. On it, he said, experience wrote words, and thus knowledge and understanding came about, through the interplay of the senses and all that they perceived. "New opinions are always suspected, and usually opposed, without any other reason but because they are not already common."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.64,219)(AP, 8/4/97)(AP, 8/29/97)(HN, 8/29/98)

1632        Sep 3, Battle at Nuremberg: Duke Wallenstein beat Sweden.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1632        Oct 20, Sir Christopher Wren (d.1723), astronomer and architect, was born. He designed the current St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)

1632        Oct 24, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch naturalist, was born.
    (HN, 10/24/00)

1632        Oct 30, Henri de Montmorency, French duke and plotter, was beheaded.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1632        Oct 31, [Johannes] Jan Vermeer (d.1675), tavern keeper and Dutch painter (Procuress, Astronomer), was born in Delft. Only 35 of his pictures are known to survive. These include: "Girl With a Pearl Earring" (1665-1666), "The Little Street" (1657), "Saint Praxedis" (1655), "Allegory of Faith" (1671) and "The Artist in His Studio." His wife was Catharina Bolnes.
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1587)(MC, 10/31/01)

1632        Nov 6, Gustavus II Adolphus (37), king of Sweden, died in battle.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1632        Nov 16, Battle at Lutzen: Sweden beat the imperial armies under Wallenstein.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1632        Nov 24, Baruch (Benedict) de Spinoza (d.1677), Dutch rationalist philosopher, was born in Amsterdam. "Fear cannot be without hope nor hope without fear."
    (AP, 9/24/99)(MC, 11/24/01)

1632        Nov 28, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Feb 28]
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1632        Dec 20, Nicolas Antoine, French Catholic pastor who converted to Judaism, was executed. [see Apr 20]
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1632        Rembrandt van Rijn painted his work "Europa" and "Portrait of a Lady Aged 62." The portrait sold for $28.7 million in 2000.
    (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)(SFC, 12/15/00, p.C15)

1632        Galileo’s book "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" was published with the full backing of the church censors. It was soon recognized to support Copernican theory and Galileo was put under house arrest for life.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.180)

1632        John Tuttle arrived from England to a settlement near the Maine-New Hampshire border, using a small land grant from King Charles I to start a farm. In 2010 the 134-acre Tuttle Farm went on the market for $3.35 million.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

1632        Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, a small city between the York and James rivers was founded.
    (www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Williamsburg)

1632        Cardinal Richelieu ordered the construction of the Palais Royale in Paris, France. It was expanded by the Duke of Orleans, who in the 1800s gave it its present form by enclosing the garden on three sides with buildings filled with commercial shops and income-producing apartments.
    (Hem., 10/'95, p.109)

1632        The British colonized Montserrat.
    (NH, Jul, p.20)

1632        Olivier Le Jeune (7), a black boy born in Madagascar, was sold to a clerk in the future province of Quebec. He was later considered the first known black enslaved in Canada.
    (SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1632        Tartu Univ. was founded in Tartu, on the banks of the Emajogi River.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.23)

1632        The French explorer Etienne Brule was killed by the Huron Indians for unknown reasons.
    (HNQ, 6/29/98)

1632        In India Arjumand Shah Begum (aka Mumtaz Mahal -Jewel of the Palace), 2nd wife of Shah Jahan, died. She had bore him 14 children and died in childbirth. He build the Taj Mahal in her memory. The project took 22 years and cost $18 million.
    (HT, 4/97, p.22,24)

1632        In Poland King Ladislas IV began his rule.
    (PCh, 1992, p.241)

1632        Pope Urban VIII's nephew stole two altar paintings from a provincial church and smuggled them to Rome. The clandestine move from the central Italian city of Urbino on the back of a mule, hid the link between the two paintings and their creator, Dominican friar Fra Carnevale.
    (AP, 10/30/04)

1632-1635    Velazquez painted "The Jester Pablo de Vallodolid."
    (WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)

1633        Feb 1, The tobacco laws of Virginia were codified, limiting tobacco production to reduce dependence on a single-crop economy.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1633        Feb 13, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before the Inquisition.
    (AP, 2/13/98)

1633        Feb 23, Samuel Pepys (d.1703), English diarist, was born. Pepys was an informal and spontaneous English diarist. In 1999 Ferdinand Mount wrote the novel "Jem (and Sam)," about Pepys and his drinking partner Jeremiah Mount. In 1999 Sara George authored "The Journal of Mrs. Pepys," a novel based on Pepys' young wife Elizabeth.
    (WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(HN, 2/23/01)

1633        Apr 10, Werner Fabricius, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1633        May 1, Sebastien le Prestre de Vauban, French fortress architect, was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1633        Jun 21, Galileo Galilei was tortured and threatened by Inquisition to "abjure, curse, & detest" his Copernican heliocentric views.
    (JST-TMC,1983, p.7)(MC, 6/21/02)

1633        Jun 22, Galileo Galilei was again forced by the Pope to recant that the Earth orbits the Sun. On Oct 31, 1992, the Vatican admitted it was wrong.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1633        Oct 14, James II Stuart, king of England and Scotland (James VII) (1685-88), was born.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1633        Nov 7, Cornelis Drebbel, physicist, chemist, inventor (submarine), died.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1633        Dec 18, Willem van de Velde the Younger, Dutch marine painter, was baptized.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_van_de_Velde_the_Younger)

1633        Rembrandt van Rijn painted the "Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat." It sold for $9.1 million in 1998.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)

1633        Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1644), Spanish artist, painted his “Still Life With Lemons Oranges and a Rose," later described as symbolic objects to the Virgin Mary. It was the work that Zurbaran ever signed and dated. In 1998 it was held by the Los Angeles Norton Simon Museum of Art.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W7)

1633        Captain John Davis wrote "Seamans Secrets."
    (WSJ, 7/2/03, p.D8)

1633        Rene Descartes wrote "Le Monde" in which he upheld the theories of Copernicus but halted publication to prevent conflict with the Church.
    (Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)

1633        In Oberammergau, Germany, plague victims swore an oath to portray the suffering and death of the Lord every 10 years. Their first Passion Play was performed in 1634.
    (www.passionplay-oberammergau.com/index.php?id=127)

1633        The Blessing, a ferry carrying gold and silver of King Charles I and 30 passengers, sank in Scotland’s Firth of Forth. A documentary of the story for TV was shown in 1996 on the Discovery Channel titled: "The Lost Treasure of King Charles I."
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

1634        Feb 17, William Prynne (1600-1669), English Puritan leader and pamphleteer, was tried in Star Chamber for publishing "Histrio-masti."
    (WUD, 1994 p.1159)(MC, 2/17/02)

1634        Feb 18, Emperor Ferdinand II ordered General Albrecht von Wallenstein's execution.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1634        Feb 19, At the Battle at Smolensk Polish king Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Mar 1]
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1634        Feb 22, Petrus "Pieter" van Schooten, fortress architect, was born.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1634        Mar 1, Battle at Smolensk; Polish King Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Feb 19]
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1634        Mar 4, Samuel Cole opened the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts. (HN, 3/4/99)

1634        Mar 13, Academie Francaise was established. Its task was to preserve the purity of the French language, which included maintaining a dictionary. Members came to be known as the "immortals" and by 1998 they were struggling to with masculine nouns of positions held by women who desired feminine endings.
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.A12)(MC, 3/13/02)

1634        Mar 25, English colonists sent by Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, arrived in present-day Maryland. Maryland was founded as a Catholic colony.
    (HN, 3/24/98)(AP, 3/25/08)(AH, 4/07, p.30)

1634        May 31, Massachusetts Bay colony annexed the Maine colony.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1634        Jul 14, Pasquier Quesnel, French theologian, Jansenist (Jesus-Christ Penitent), was born.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1634        Sep 5, Battle at Nordlingen: King Ferdinand III & Catholic Spain beat Sweden & German protestants.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1634        Sep 18, Anne Hutchinson, the first female religious leader in American colonies, arrived at the Massachusetts Bay Colony with her family. She preached that faith alone was sufficient for salvation. As her following grew, she was brought to trial and found guilty of heresy against Puritan orthodoxy and banished from Massachusetts. She left with 70 followers to Providence, Rhode Island, Roger Williams's colony based on religious freedom.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1634        Gov. John Winthrop of the Massachusetts Bay Colony estimated the local population rather counting it directly.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.97)

1634        Luca Giordano (d.1705), Neapolitan baroque painter, was born.
    (WSJ, 1/15/02, p.A14)

1634        Rembrandt van Rijn painted "Portrait of a Woman." It hangs in the Speed Museum of Louisville, Ky.
    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)

1634        Ngawang Namgyal, in the Battle of Five Lamas, prevailed over the Tibetan and Bhutanese forces allied against him and was the first to unite Bhutan into a single country.
    (http://visitbhutan2008.blogspot.com/2007/04/zhabdrung-kuchoe.html)

1634        French explorer Jean Nicolet, looking for Cathay, traveled the western shores of Lake Michigan and landed on Wisconsin soil.
    (www.wisconsinhistory.org/museum/exhibits/framed/landfall.asp)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.38)

1634        In Oberammergau, Germany, a re-enactment of the last days of Jesus began to be performed. The Passion Play was performed from then on every ten years with a few rare exceptions. In 1633 plague victims had sworn an oath to portray the suffering and death of the Lord every 10 years.
    (WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A1)(www.passionplay-oberammergau.com/index.php?id=127)

1634        Ligdan Khan (reigned 1604-34), the last great Mongol leader, died. After his death, the Mongols were subdued by the Manchu and became part of the Ch’ing (Manchu) dynasty of China.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1634-1637    The Dutch tulip craze was known as the "tulipomania." A futures market was created for tulip bulbs in Dutch taverns and prices crashed 95% in the end. In 2000 Peter M. Garber authored "Famous First Bubbles," and restored a sense of proportion to the inflated notions of the mania.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A20)

1634-1644    Hugo Grotius (d.1645) of Holland, father of international law, served the Swedish government as ambassador to France.
    (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)

1635        Feb 22, King Louis XIII at the urging of Cardinal Richelieu granted letters patent to formally establish the Academie Francaise in Paris. The Académie française was responsible for the regulation of French grammar, orthography, and literature.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4nq46)

1635        Feb 13, In Massachusetts the oldest public school in the United States, the Boston Public Latin School, was founded.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.A1)(AP, 2/13/98)

1635        Apr 16, Frans van Mieris, the Elder, Dutch painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1635        Apr 28, Virginia Governor John Harvey was accused of treason and removed from office.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1635        May 5, Philippe Quinault, French playwright (L'amant indiscret), was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1635        May 19, Cardinal Richelieu of France intervened in the great conflict in Europe by declaring war on the Hapsburgs in Spain.
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/99)

1635        Jun 3, A French dramatist whose popular librettos included Amadis, Roland and Armida, was born.
    (HN, 6/3/99)

1635        Jun 28, The French colony of Guadeloupe was established in the Caribbean.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1635        Aug 27, Lope Felix de Vega (72), playwright, poet (Angelica, Arcadia), died.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1635        Sep 6, Adrian A. Metius, mathematician and fort architect, died at 63.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1635        Sep 7, Pal Esterhazy, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1635        Oct 9, Religious dissident Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company). He became a founder of Rhode Island. Enforcement was delayed until the following January due to illness.
    (AP, 10/9/01)(AH, 4/07, p.26)

1635        Dec 1, Melchior Teschner (51), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1635        Dec 25, Samuel de Champlain (b.1575), French navigator and founder of Quebec City, died in Quebec. In 2008 David Hackett Fischer authored “Champlain’s Dream.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_de_Champlain)(WSJ, 10/11/08, p.W8)

1635        Britain established binding numerical limits on horse-drawn coaches.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.76)
1635        European ships carrying African slaves to the West Indies sank off the coast of St. Vincent. The surviving salves escaped and gradually intermarried with the island’s Carib Indian natives.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)
1635        A Cistercian nunnery and surrounding villages of Sorbs in Germany’s Upper Lusatia remained Catholic after Protestant Saxony priced the land away from Bohemia.
    (Econ, 6/28/08, p.59)

1635-1637    Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted "Two Studies of Saskia Asleep."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1635-1682    Johann Joachim Becher, German alchemist. ""It is always better to sell goods to others than to buy goods from others, for the former brings a certain advantage and the latter inevitable damage."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1635-1703    Robert Hooke, English scientist, and friend of Newton suggested that the properties of matter, especially gases, could be understood in terms of the motion and collision of atoms.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.324)

1636        Mar 26, University of Utrecht held its opening ceremony.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1636        Apr 29, Esaias Reusner, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1636        Jun, Roger Williams and his followers founded Providence, Rhode Island, on land purchased from the Narragansett Indians. The settlement was governed by policies of democracy and religious tolerance.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Providence,_Rhode_Island)

1636        Jul 20, John Oldham, trader in Mass., was murdered by Indians.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1636        Aug 8, The invading armies of Spain, Austria and Bavaria were stopped at the village of St.-Jean-de-Losne, only 50 miles from France.
    (HN, 8/8/98)

1636        Sep 8, Harvard College, the first college in America, was founded as Cambridge College. It changed its name two years later in honor of the Reverend John Harvard, who gave the institution three hundred books and a large sum of money for the day. [see Oct 28]
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1636        Sep 18, Pietro Sanmartini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1636        Oct 4, The Massachusetts Plymouth Company drafted its 1st law.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1636        Oct 28, The General Court of Massachusetts passed a legislative act establishing Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass. It was the first corporation in the US. Harvard Univ. was named after John Harvard who bequeathed books to the Univ. that included “The Christian Warfare Against the Devil World and Flesh” by John Downame. Englishman George Downing was the first graduate. London’s Downing St. was named after him. [see Sep 8]
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 10/28/98)(SFEC, 12/6/98, Z1p.10)(AP, 10/28/07)

1636        Nov 1, Nicholas Boileaus, French poet and historian, was born.
    (HN, 11/1/00)

1636        Nov 17, Henrique Dias, Brazilian general, won a decisive battle against the Dutch in Brazil.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1636        Rembrandt van Rijn made his etching "Self-portrait with Saskia."
    (HT, 5/97, p.60)

1636        Peter Paul Rubens painted “Aurora and Cephalus.”
    (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)

1636        Henry Adams reached Massachusetts and settled on 40 acres of land in Braintree and fathered eight sons. He was the great-grandfather of John Adams, 2nd president of the US.
    (A&IP, Miers, p.17)
1636        The first militia units in the Massachusetts Bay Colony were formed.
    (SFC, 5/17/06, p.A11)

1636        Tung Ch’ich’ang (b.1555), Chinese painter, died.
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.E12)

1636        Westerners in Japan were sequestered on the man-made island of Dejima in Nagasaki's harbor as the government cracked down on all things foreign. The island later disappeared in land reclamation projects.
    (SSFC, 8/10/03, p.C11)

1636        In Mexico a city wall was built around Veracruz.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1637        Feb 15, Ferdinand II (58), King of Bohemia, Hun, German Emperor (1619-37), died. Ferdinand III succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(MC, 2/15/02)

1637        Mar 5, John van der Heyden, Dutch painter, inventor (fire extinguisher), was born.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1637        May 13, Cardinal Richelieu of France created the table knife.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1637        May 26, The Connecticut English militia and their Mohegan allies killed over 600 Pequot Indians at their village at Mystic. The survivors were parceled out to other tribes. Those given to the Mohegans eventually became the Mashantucket Pequots.
    (AH, 6/07, p.18)(www.dowdgen.com/dowd/document/pequots.html)

1637        Jul 23, King Charles of England handed over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1637        Aug 6, Ben Johnson (65), English dramatist and poet, died. In 1960 Jonas Barish wrote "Ben Jonson and the Language of Prose Comedy."
    (AP, 1/4/98)(WUD, 1994, p.771)(SFC, 4/4/98, p.A24)(MC, 8/6/02)

1637        Oct 20, Nicolaas van der Veken, Flemish sculptor (confessional chairs), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1637        Nov 7, Anne Hutchinson was banished from the Mass Bay colony as a heretic.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1637        Nov 20, Peter Minuit & 1st Dutch and Swedish immigrants to Delaware sailed from Sweden. Peter later purchased Manhattan Island for 60 guilders.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1637        Dec 7, Barnardo Pasquini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

c1637        Poussin completed his painting "The Nurture of Jupiter."
    (WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)

1637        James Morton published "New English Canaan," a satiric book describing his encounters with the New England Pilgrims.
    (ON, 3/00, p.12)

1637        A King James version of the Bible was printed with only 14 known copies made.
    (Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)

1637        To solve any problem, it is helpful to divide the question into a set, or series, of smaller problems, and solve each one in turn. Descartes, "Discourse on Method."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.329)

1637        John Tradescant the younger, a widower with a son and daughter, undertook the first of three voyages from England to Virginia “to gather up all raritye of flowers, plants, shells.” The King’s request to search for useful trees and herbs, no doubt played a role in Tradescant’s decision to take this trip during what must have been a very difficult time.
    (www.bayjournal.com/article.cfm?article=2942)

1637        Rene Descartes, French mathematician, began using the final letters of the alphabet to represent unknowns. He published his 6 tome "Discours de la Methode" in Leyden.
    (Alg, 1990, p.115)

1637        The Dutch tulip bulb craze crashed as futures prices became too high for speculators to pay off and take delivery.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.C14)
1637        The Dutch attacked and captured Elmina (Ghana), which up to that point was the centre of Portuguese activity in West Africa.
    (www.moxon.net/ghana/cape_coast.html)

1637        Ferdinand II Holy Roman emperor, king of Bohemia and king of Hungary, died.
    (WUD, 1994, p.524)

1637        Gekkeikan began making sake in Kyoto, Japan. The company began supplying the imperial household in 1909.
    (SSFC, 9/26/04, p.D12)

c1637-1638    Peter Paul Rubens painted “The Elevation of the Cross.”
    (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
1637-1638    The Christians of Shimabara, Japan, rebelled.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1637-1707    Dietrich Buxtehude, German composer. He was a transitional figure between early and later baroque. Bach made a legendary journey on foot to hear the aging composer perform. Handel also journeyed to see him 3 years before Bach. His works include Jubilate Domino and the Trio Sonata for violin, gamba and continuo.
    (EMN, 1/96, p.1)

1638        Jan 5, Petition in Recife, Brazil, led to the closing of its two synagogues.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1638        Feb 28, Scottish Presbyterians signed the National Covenant at Greyfriars, Edinburgh.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1638        Feb 28, Henri duc de Rohan, French soldier, Huguenot leader, died.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1638        Mar 3, Duke Bernard van Saksen-Weimar occupied Rheinfelden.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1638        Mar 22, Religious dissident Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    (AP, 3/22/97)

1638        Mar 23, Frederik Ruysch, Dutch anatomist, was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1638        Mar 29, The first permanent white settlement was established in Delaware. Swedish Lutherans who came to Delaware were the first to build log cabins in America. The first English colonists did not know how to build houses from logs but those who lived in the forests of Scandinavia, Germany and Switzerland did. German pioneers who settled in Pennsylvania built the first log cabins there in the early 1700s. The Scotch-Irish immigrants who settled in the Appalachian highlands after 1720 made the widest use of log cabins and by the time of the American Revolution, log cabins were the mainstay among settlers all along the western frontier.
    (HNQ, 9/15/99)(AP, 3/29/08)

1638        Apr 13, Duke Henri II (58), French Huguenot leader, died.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1638        May 6, Cornelius Jansen, theologian (Jansenism), died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1638         Jun 1, The first earthquake was recorded in the U.S. at Plymouth, Mass.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

1638        Aug 9, Jonas Bronck of Holland became the 1st European settler in the Bronx.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1638        Sep 5, Louis XIV, "The Sun King" (1643-1715) of France, was born. He built the palace at Versailles. [see Sep 16]
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1638        Sep 16, France's King Louis XIV, the Sun King, was born. He ruled from 1643-1715 and died in 1715. [see Sep 5]
    (WUD, 1994, p.848)(AP, 9/16/97)

1638        Dec 18, Pere Joseph (Francois du Tremblay, b.1577), French Capuchin friar, confidant and agent of Cardinal Richelieu, died. He was the original éminence grise -- the French term ("grey eminence") for a powerful advisor or decision-maker who operates secretly or unofficially. Richelieu was known as Éminence Rouge (red eminence); from the colors of their respective habits.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_Leclerc_du_Tremblay)

1638        Dec 24, The Ottomans under Murad IV recaptured Baghdad from Safavid Persia.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1638        Rembrandt van Rijn painted the "Portrait of Willem Bartolsz Ruyter," a Dutch actor.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)

1638        Galileo smuggled out his book "Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences" to a publisher in Holland.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.180)(NH, 2/05, p.19)

1638        Monteverdi composed the madrigal "Il Combattimento de Tanncredi e Corinda."
    (WSJ, 7/22/99, p.A24)

1638        Thomas Emerson came from England and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Ralph Waldo Emerson came along 5 generations later.
    (WP, 1952, p.39)

1638        John Harvard, a Massachusetts Puritan minister, bequeathed his 260-volume library to Harvard College.
    (SFCM, 12/10/00, p.11)

1638        John Tradescant (b.1570), English gardener and father of John Tradescant (1608-1662), died. In 2008 Jennifer Potter authored “Strange Blooms: The Curious Lives and Adventures of the John Tradescants.
    (WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)

1638        Joachim Wytawael (Wtewael, b.1566), Dutch mannerist painter, died. His work included "The Adoration of the Shepherds."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)(SFEM, 9/17/00, p.96)

1638-1686    Nils Steenson, Danish doctor, better known as Nicolaus Steno, explained stratigraphy. He was convinced that fossils are the remains of ancient organic forms.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.7)

1638-1709    Meindert Hobbema, Dutch painter. He painted "The Avenue."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.675)

1638-1715    Louis XIV, the French Sun King. He ruled from 1643-1715.
    (WUD, 1994, p.848)

1638-1715    Dom Perignon, a French monk. He introduced blending, vineyard and cellaring practices that made champagne a better wine.
    (Hem., 10/97, p.104)

1639        Jan 6, Virginia became the 1st colony to order surplus crops (tobacco) destroyed.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1639        Jan 14, (Julian Calendar) "Fundamental Orders," the first constitution of Connecticut, was adopted [see Jan 24].
    (AP, 1/14/98)(www.constitution.org/bcp/fo_1639.htm)

1639        Jan 23, Francisco Maldonado da Silva Solis, Peruvian poet, was burned at stake.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1639        Jan 24, (Gregorian Calendar) The Fundamental Orders, the first constitution in the New World, was adopted in Connecticut [see Jan 14].
    (HN, 1/24/99)(www.constitution.org/bcp/fo_1639.htm)

1639        Feb 7, Academie Francaise began its Dictionary of French Language.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1639        Mar 13, Cambridge College was re-named Harvard University for clergyman John Harvard.
    (AP, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)

1639        May 8, William Coddington founded Newport, RI.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1639        May 20, Dorchester, Mass., formed the 1st school funded by local taxes.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1639        May 21, Tommaso Campanella (b.1568), Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet, died. He spent 27 years imprisoned in Naples (1599-1626) for leading a conspiracy against the Spanish rule. During his detention, he wrote his most important works: The Monarchy of Spain (1600), Political Aphorisms (1601), Atheismus triumphatus (Atheism Conquered, 1605–1607), Quod reminiscetur (1606?), Metaphysica (1609–1623), Theologia (1613–1624), and his most famous work, The City of the Sun (originally written in Italian in 1602; published in Latin in Frankfurt (1623) and later in Paris (1638)).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tommaso_Campanella)

1639        Jun 6, Massachusetts granted 500 acres of land to erect a gunpowder mill.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1639        Jun 10, The 1st American log cabin at Fort Christina (Wilmington, Delaware).
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1639        Aug 10, "Ten fair pippins" were planted on Governor’s Island in Boston Harbor.
    (WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)

1639        Sep 25, The 1st printing press in America began operating.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1639        Nov 3, Martinus de Porres (69), Peru saint (patron of social justice), died.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1639        Nov 5, 1st post office in the colonies opened in Massachusetts.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1639        Nov 24, A 2nd predicted transit of Venus occurred. Jeremiah Horrocks of England predicted and observed the event with his friend William Crabtree.
    (MC, 11/24/01)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.78)

1639        Descartes published his "Discourse on Method." It is here that his famous statement "I doubt; therefore I am," was expounded. "He then proceeded to discover a method of achieving similar certainty in other realms, based on the reduction of all problems to a mathematical form and solution." He invented analytic geometry in order to reduce the description of phenomena to a set of numbers. His Discourse was placed by Catholic theologians on the Index of forbidden books.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.204)

1639        Francois Citois, the physician of Cardinal Richelieu, published a book that described the disease colica Pictonum, and noted the prevalence of the disease to the wine region of Poitou, where tart wines needed sweetening.
    (NH, 7/96, p.48)

1639        Roger Williams of Providence, Rhode Island, embraced the Baptist faith long enough to help found the first Baptist church in America. After 4 months he abandoned the Baptist congregation and left organized religion behind.
    (AH, 4/07, p.27)

1639        Hugel Corp. first bottled wine in France.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)

1639        In India the walled city of Old Delhi, the 6th Delhi city, was erected by Shah Jahan. It came to be called Shajahanabad after the construction of new Delhi by the British.
    (SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T1)

1639        Japan was closed to the outside world except for a Dutch trading post.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1639        Jesuit Father Petro Kassui Kibe, a convert to Christianity, was captured, tortured and martyred in Tokyo. He had initially managed to escape persecution and traveled to Rome, where he became a Jesuit and was ordained to the priesthood. He then returned to Japan to minister to other oppressed Christians. The 188 other martyrs included four Jesuit priests, other priests, brothers and nuns, lay men and women, all  killed in different cities between 1603 and 1639 after the Japanese government outlawed Christianity. In 2007 Pope Benedict XVI approved recognition of their martyrdom.
    (www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0603392.htm)(AP, 6/2/07)

1639-1699    Racine, French dramatist. His plays included "Phedre" and "Ariadne’s Thread" based on Greek myths.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1184)(WSJ, 10/8/02, p.D8)

1640        Jan 25, Robert Burton, author (Anatomy of Melancholy), died.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1640        Feb 9, Murad IV (27), sultan of Turkey (1623-40), died in Baghdad. Ibrahim (1640-1648) succeeded Murad IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(MC, 2/9/02)

1640        Mar 9, Pierre Corneille’s "Horace," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1640        Apr 10, Agostino Agazzari (61), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1640        May 5, English Short Parliament united.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1640        May 30, Peter Paul Rubens (b.1577), Flemish painter, died in Antwerp.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/13214c.htm)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1640        Jun 9, Leopold I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1658-1705), was born.
    (HN 6/9/98)(MC, 6/9/02)

1640        Aug 28, The Indian War in New England ended with the surrender of the Indians.
    (HTNet, 8/28/99)

1640        Aug 29, English King Charles I signed a peace treaty with Scotland.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1640        Nov 11, John Pym, earl of Strafford, was locked in Tower of London.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1640        Nov 25, Giles Farnaby, composer, died.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1640        Nov 26, Carl Rosier, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1640        Dec 1, Spain lost Portugal as the Duke of Braganza was proclaimed João IV (John IV), king of Portugal.
    (HoS, p.267)

1640        Dec 6, Matthijs Elsevier (75), Flemish-Dutch book publisher and merchant, died.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1640        Dec 9, Settler Hugh Bewitt was banished from the Massachusetts colony when he declared himself to be free of original sin.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1640        Rembrandt van Rijn painted his "Portrait of a Man Seated in an Armchair" about this time.
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

c1640        In Connecticut Roger Williams prepared the first primer of the Algonquian Indian language.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

c1640        "The Great Tulip Book," an album with 158 illustrations used by a merchant and grower to show available varieties, was created.
    (WSJ, 4/24/01, p.A22)

1640        Monteverdi composed his opera "The Return of Ulysses."
    (WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A24)

1640        The towns of Southampton and East Hampton, NY, were founded. (In 2004 Steven Petrow authored “The Lost Hamptons.”
    (SSFC, 7/18/04, p.M2)
1640        English colonists founded Greenwich, Connecticut. It evolved into an exclusive retreat from nearby NYC.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A6)

1640        The Massachusetts Bay Company sent 300,000 codfish to market.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)

1640        Chemical lighters came out in London that used phosphorus and sulfur.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.E3)

1640        John Ford (b.c1586) English playwright, died. In 1944 Prof. Sensabaugh (d.2002 at 95) authored "The Tragic Muse of John Ford."
    (WUD, 1994 p.554)(SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)

1640        The Cathedral of Morelia, Mexico, 185 miles northwest of Mexico City, was begun. It was completed 100 years later and is considered to be Mexico's best example of Platersque architecture, an ornate style that resembles silverwork.
    (Hem, Nov.'95, p.144)

1640        Spain’s medieval kingdom of Aragon rebelled against Madrid.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1640        Pope Urban VIII ordered Spanish priests to stop smoking cigars.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)

1640        Russia completed its conquest of Siberia and reached the Pacific Ocean.
    (ON, 2/04, p.5)

1640s        In England the parliamentary battles that led up to the English Civil War were recorded in 7 tomes known as Rushworth's Collections.
    (WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)

1640s        In England an agrarian commune was created by Gerard Winstanley, a merchant turned pamphleteer whose elegant prose derided the class system. The 1975 film "Winstanley" was co-directed by Andrew Mollow and Kevin Brownlow was based on Winstanley.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.42)

1640s        In Sweden the violin was introduced, possibly by French musicians at the court of Queen Christina.
    (NH, 4/97, p.32)

1640s        The Fifth Dalai Lama (1617-1682) invented a unique institution to rule his country, a collaboration of monastics and aristocrats. It gradually accomplished demilitarization and elevated monasticism with an emphasis on education and spiritual development.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)

1640-1688    Elector Friedrich Wilhelm acquired a collection of paintings by Titian, Rubens, Rembrandt and others at his home in Oranien. His nephew was Frederick the Great.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)
1640-1945    In 1955 Stanford Prof. Gordon A. Craig (1913-2005) authored “The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640-1945.”
    (SFC, 11/9/05, p.B11)

1641        Jan 3, Jeremiah Horrocks (22), English astronomical prodigy, died.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1641        Feb 16, English king Charles I accepted the Triennial Act.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1641        May 12, Thomas Wentworth (48), chief advisor to Charles I and English viceroy of Ireland, was beheaded in the Tower of London.
    (HN, 5/12/01)(MC, 5/12/02)`

1641        Sep 23, Adrian "Aart" van Wijck, theologian, was born. He fought Jansenism.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1641        Oct 21, A Catholic uprising took place in Ulster. Thousands of English and Scots were killed. [see Oct 23]
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1641        Oct 23, Catholics in Ireland, under Phelim O'Neil, rose against the Protestants and cruelly massacred men, women and children to the number of 40,000 (some say 100,000). [see Oct 21]
    (HN, 10/23/98)

1641        Dec 1, Massachusetts became the 1st colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. It was followed by Connecticut in 1650 and Virginia in 1661.
    (MC, 12/1/01)(HNQ, 5/20/02)

1641        Dec 9, Anthonie "Antoon" van Dyck (42), Flemish painter, died.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1641        The "Pharmacopoeia medicochymica" by Johann Schroder was first printed in Ulm.
    (NH, 6/00, p.28)

1641        Cristoval de Acuna, a Jesuit missionary, first wrote about the Amazon River to the king of Spain.
    (SFC, 12/16/00, p.A22)

1641        Puritans wrote a statute that enjoined husband from beating their wives: the Massachusetts Body of Liberties.
    (WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A13)

1641        The Spanish warship Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion sank off of the coast of Florida.
    (AM, Jul-Aug/99, p.8)

1641        The English Court of Star Chamber was abolished. It had been used by unpopular kings to enforce unpopular policies.
    (ON, 11/04, p.10)

1641        In Ireland a Catholic uprising in Ulster was suppressed. English Gen’l. Oliver Cromwell took away the land rights of 44,000 Catholics in Ulster and adjacent counties.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1641        Japan designated an artificial island in Nagasaki harbor as the only place that foreigners could live.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.47)

1641        Gerritt van Wuysthoff, a Dutchman, struggled up the Mekong River through Cambodia and reached Vientiane, Laos.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)

1642        Jan 4, King Charles I attacked the English parliament with 400 soldiers.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1642        Jan 8, Astronomer Galileo Galilei (77) died in Arcetri, Italy. Galileo had 2 daughters consigned to a nunnery and one son, whom he got married into a rich Florentine family. In 1614, Father Tommaso Caccini denounced the opinions of Galileo on the motion of the Earth from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella, judging them to be erroneous. Galileo went to Rome and defended himself against charges that had been made against him. In 1616, he was admonished by Cardinal Bellarmino and told that he could not defend Copernican astronomy because it went against the doctrine of the Church. Later, in 1632 he was summoned by the Holy Office to Rome. The tribunal passed a sentence condemning him and compelled Galileo to solemnly abjure his theory. He was sent to exile in Siena.  Galileo spent his last years almost totally blind and poor. In 1999 Dava Sobel published "Galileo's Daughter."
    (BHT, Hawking, p.180)(AP, 1/8/98)(WSJ, 10/19/99, p.A24)(MC, 1/8/02)

1642        Jan 10, King Charles I and his family fled London for Oxford.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1642        Feb 25, Dutch settlers slaughtered lower Hudson Valley Indians in New Netherland, North America, who sought refuge from Mohawk attackers.
    (HN, 2/25/99)

1642        Mar 1, Georgeana (York), Maine, became the first American city to incorporate.
    (HN, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)

1642        Mar 12, Abel Tasman became the 1st European to land in New Zealand. [see Nov 24, Dec 13]
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1642        May 6, Frans Francken, the Younger, Flemish painter, died on 61st birthday.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1642        May 17, Paul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve landed on the Island of Montreal and gave the name Ville-Marie to the town he constructed at the foot of Mont Royal.
    (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/16059b.htm)

1642        May 18, The Canadian city of Montreal was founded by French colonists.
    (AP, 5/18/08)

1642        Jul 3, Maria de' Medici (~69), French queen-mother, died.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1642        Aug 13, Christian Huygens discovered the Martian south polar cap.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1642        Aug 22, Civil war in England began as Charles I declared war on the Puritan Parliament at Nottingham. Charles I went to the House of Commons to arrest some of its members and was refused entry. From this point on no monarch was allowed entry.
    (HN, 8/22/98)(SFC, 10/16/98, p.D3)(ON, 12/00, p.1)

1642        Sep 12, Cinq Mars, French plotter, was executed.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1642        Sep 23, Giovanni Maria Bononcini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/23/01)
1642        Sep 23, Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass., held its first commencement.
    (AP, 9/23/97)

1642        Oct 23, The Battle of Edgehill was the first major clash between Royalist and Parliamentary forces in the English Civil Wars. King Charles I and 11-15,000 Cavaliers held the high ground against 13-15,000 Roundheads led by the Earl of Essex and Oliver Cromwell. The conflict began with a smattering of cannon exchanges. The Royalist artillery was hampered by its uphill position, rendering its cannons largely ineffective against the enemy below. As a result, Royalist cavalry, led by the King’s nephew, Prince Rupert, swept down the hill toward the Parliamentarians, decimating a large section of their ranks. The Royalists did not capitalize on this initial success, however, as the troops became more interested in plundering the town than in finishing the fight. This allowed Parliamentarian troops to regroup and break up enemy formations. After several hours of hard fighting, both sides withdrew to their original positions, leaving a field scattered with debris and casualties.
    (HNQ, 6/16/01)
1642        Oct 23, Sir Edmund Verneys rode into the battle of Edgehill as the standard bearer of Charles I and died there. In 2007 Adrian Tinniswood authored “The Verneys: A True Story of Love, War and Madness in Seventeenth-Century England.”
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.87)

1642        Nov 13, Battle at Turnham Green, London: King Charles I vs. English parliament.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1642        Nov 24, Abel Janszoon Tasman (d.1659) discovered Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania).
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1642        Dec 4, Cardinal Armand-Jean Duplessis Richelieu (57), French statesman and bishop of Luzon, died. "If you give me six lines written by the most honest man, I will find something in them to hang him." "He did too much harm to be praised, and too much good to be damned."
    (MC, 12/4/01)(WSJ, 9/24/02, p.D8)(Econ, 1/24/04, p.75)

1642        Dec 13, Dutch navigator and explorer Abel Janszoon sighted present-day New Zealand. He fled after Maori cannibals feasted on the “friendship party” he sent ashore.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.196)(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.T4)(AP, 12/13/07)

1642        Dec 25, (OS) Isaac Newton (d.1727), English physicist, mathematician and scientist, was born in Woolsthorpe (Grantham), Lincolnshire, England. He enunciated the laws of motion and the law of gravity  [see Jan 4, 1643].
    (V.D.-H.K.p.205)(HN, 12/25/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton)

1642        Descartes published: "Meditationes de prima philosophia, in quibus Dei Existentia et animae humanae a corpore distinctio demonstrantur." [2nd source says 1841]
    (Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)(WSJ, 3/18/97, p.A20)

1642        Rembrandt van Rijn painted "Night Watch."
     (WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)

1642        London's Globe theater closed as the Puritan-controlled British Parliament suppressed theaters and other forms of popular entertainment.
    (ON, 11/03, p.2)
1642        In England Speaker William Lenthall refused Charles I’s request that he identify 5 uppity MPs, whom the king had come to the House of Commons to arrest.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, p.75)

1642        Monteverdi composed "L’Incoronazione di Poppea."
    (WSJ, 6/1/98, p.A16)

1642        Le Vau, the French royal architect, built the Hotel Lambert on the Ile of Saint Louis.
    (SFCM, 10/14/01, p.32)

1642        A diamond, said to be stolen from a Hindu statue, was acquired in India by Jean Baptiste Tavernier, a noted French traveler. The 45.52 carat steel blue diamond was found in India back in remote times as a rough crystal weighing 112 carats. Tavernier later sold to King Louis XIV of France. The diamond, known as the French Blue or the Tavernier Blue, disappeared. For many years it was not heard from at all. In 1830, a large steel blue diamond of a different shape, and weighing only 44.50 carats appeared on the market in England and was purchased by Henry Thomas Hope, an English banker. It changed hands a number of times and in 1911 it was sold to Evelyn Walsh McLean of Washington, DC, who had it placed in a Cartier setting.
    (http://famousdiamonds.tripod.com/hopediamond.html)(SSFC, 12/20/09, p.N7)

c1642        Gretje Reyniers had sailed to New Amsterdam [now New York] from Holland and built a life as a prostitute, moneylender and pelt dealer. Her story was expanded in a 1996 novel by Michael Pye titled "The Drowning Room."
    (SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.14)

1642        Curacao became a colony of the Netherlands.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)

1642        In France Blaise Pascal invented a calculating machine to ease the drudgery of his tax-collector father. It was considered too complicated.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1642-1648    The English civil war severely damaged St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

1642-1651    Period of English civil wars.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.218)

1643        Jan 4, (NS) Sir Isaac Newton, scientist, was born. He developed the laws of gravity and planetary relations [See Dec 25, 1642].
    (HN, 1/4/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton)

1643        Mar 1, Girolamo Frescobaldi (59), Italian composer, organist, died.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1643        Apr 20, Christoph Demantius (75), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1643        May 13, Battle at Grantham: English parliamentary armies beat royalists.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1643        May 14, Louis XIV became King of France at age 4 upon the death of his father, Louis XIII.
    (AP, 5/14/97)

1643        May 18, Queen Anne, the widow of Louis XIII, was granted sole and absolute power as regent by the Paris parliament, overriding the late king's will.
    (HN, 5/18/99)

1643        May 19, Delegates from four New England colonies, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Harbor, met in Boston to form a confederation: the United Colonies of New England.
    (AP, 5/19/97)

1643        May 19, A French army destroyed Spanish army at the Battle at Rocroi - Allersheim in France
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/98)

1643        Jun 18, In England the bloody battle of Chalgrove Field occurred. Royalist strategy meetings were held at the Horsenden Manor at Buckinghamshsire.
    (WSJ, 7/19/96, p.B6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chalgrove_Field)

1643        Jun 30, Battle at Atherton Moor: Royalists beat parliamentary armies.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1643        Jul 5, 1st recorded tornado in US was at Essex County, Massachusetts.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1643        Jul 13, In England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, were defeated by royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1643        Jul 27, Cromwell defeated the Royalists at the Battle of Gainsborough.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1643        Nov 22, Rene R. Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, French explorer, was born. [see Dec 22]
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1643        Nov 29, Claudio Giovanni Monteverdi (76), Italian composer (L'Arianna), died.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1643        Dec 8, John Pym (59), English House of Commons member, died.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1643        Dec 22, Rene-Robert Cavelier La Salle, French explorer (Louisiana), was born. [see Nov 22]
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1643        Dec 25, Captain William Mynors of the Royal Mary, a British East India Company vessel, named Christmas Island when he sailed past it on Christmas Day. Sovereignty of the island was transferred to Australia in 1957.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_Island)

1643        Roger Williams of Providence, Rhode Island, published “A Key into the Language of America,” a dictionary of the Narragansett Indian language and a commentary on the culture and customs of the southern New England Indians. The work was printed in England by Gregory Dexter.
    (AH, 4/07, p.27)
1643        Ann Radcliffe established the first scholarship at Harvard Univ.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A2)

1643        The English parliament first introduced levies on beer and meat to finance its fight against the Crown.
    (Econ, 12/31/11, p.39)

1643        Fang Yizhi, a Chinese scholar, wrote that smoking tobacco for too long would blacken the lungs and lead to death.
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.44)
1643        Wu Bin (b.1580), Ming Dynasty painter, died. His work included "Pine Lodge Amid Tall Mountains."
    (SFC, 3/13/03, p.E1)

1643        A novel by Umberto Eco, Italian philosopher and novelist, written in 1995 was set in this period. It was titled "The Island of the Day Before," (Harcourt Brace, 513 pp., $25).
    (WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-1)
1643        The opera "Il Capricio" with libretto by Francesco Buti and music by Marco Marazzoli had its first performance at the home of the French ambassador in Rome. The sole manuscript then languished in the Vatican library until a revived performance in SF in 1997.
    (SFC, 3/10/97, p.D2)

1643        The great marble dome of the Taj Mahal was first completed.
    (WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P10)

1643        Piotr Golovin, the Cossack governor of Russia’s Yakutsk province, sent an expedition under Vasily Poyarkov into the far eastern Amur watershed. After 3 winters Poyarkov returned to Yakutsk with fewer than a quarter of his 160 men.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1643-1715    Louis XIV was King of France. "L'etat c'est moi" (I am the state). Francois Michelle Le Tellier, the Marquis de Louvois, was his secretary of state for war. A portrait of the Marquis was painted by Herault.
    (WUD, 1994, p.848)(SFC,10/23/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R12)

1644        Jan 18, 1st reported UFO sighting in America was made by perplexed pilgrims in Boston.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1644        Feb 5, The 1st US livestock branding law was passed by Connecticut.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1644        Mar 7, Massachusetts established 1st 2-chamber legislature in colonies.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1644        Mar 14, Roger Williams of Providence, Rhode Island, was issued a charter in the name of the king, which connected the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport under the title of "the Incorporation of Providence Plantations in the Narragansett Bay in New England." A March 24 date is also common for this and reflects later use of the new style calendar.
    (www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/Our_Country_Vol_1/rhodeisl_fe.html)

1644        Apr 25, The Ming Chongzhen emperor committed suicide by hanging himself as Beijing fell to the bandit and rebel leader Li Dzucheng (39). The Qing, or Chi’ing, dynasty of China began when the Manchus invaded from Northeast China and overthrew the 300-year-old Ming Dynasty.
    (WSJ, 9/13/96, p.B8)(HN, 4/25/98)(PCh, 1992, p.239)

1644        Jul 2, Lord Cromwell crushed the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor near York, England. Cromwell came from minor gentry in Huntingdon and had served in Parliament before the wars, during which he commanded the Ironsides, a cavalry regiment famous for its discipline and tenacity. Although he had had no previous military experience, he showed amazing courage and tactical brilliance, particularly at the Battle of Marston Moor.
    (HN, 7/2/98)(HNQ, 8/8/00)
1644        Jul 2, William Gascoigne (24), introduced telescopic sights, was killed.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1644        Jul 11, A Florentine scientist described the invention of barometer.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1644        Aug 12, Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber, composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/12/02)
1644        Aug 12, Georg Christoph Leuttner, composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1644        Sep 2, At the Battle at Lostwithiel: Robert Devereux's infantry surrendered.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1644        Sep 25, Olaus Rímer, 1st to accurately measured speed of light, was born in Denmark.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1644        Oct 1, Jean Rousseau, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1644        Oct 1, Alessandro Stradella, Italian violinist and composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1644        Oct 14, William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, or Penn's Woods, was born.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1644        Oct 27, The 2nd Battle at Newbury: King Charles I beat parliamentary armies.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1644        Nov 6, Sir Thomas Roe (b.~1581), English scholar and a patron of learning, died. He was an English diplomat of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods and He sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1644. “It is no good state of a body to have a fat head, thin guts and lean members.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Roe)(Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.15)

1644        Dec 23, Tomas de Torrejon y Velasco, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1644        Antonio Stradivari (d.1737), violin maker, was born.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1644        Velazquez painted the portrait: "King Philip IV of Spain."
    (WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1644        "Principia Philosophiae" by Rene Descartes was published in Amsterdam.
    (Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)
1644        Johan Baptista von Helmont, Flemish alchemist and physician, had a manuscript published post mortem where he described invisible spirits bubbling from flasks in his laboratory. He coined the word "Gas" from the Greek word for chaos to describe the invisible spirits. One of the gases he studied was carbon dioxide which he called gas sylvestris, or spirit of wood.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.16)
1644        Poet John Milton published "Areopagitica," an essay in defense of a free press.
    (SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)
1644        Roger Williams published “The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution,” a sweeping condemnation of Massachusetts’s intolerance and a manifesto defending the rights of each individual to decide, according to his own conscience, how best to worship god without interference from any civil authority.
    (AH, 4/07, p.27)

1644        A house was constructed for the Reverend John Lothrop, the founder of Barnstable, Mass. It later formed the original part of the Sturgis Library, the oldest Library building in the United States. The building is also one of the oldest houses remaining on Cape Cod."
    http://home.capecod.net/~sturgis/history.html

1644        Pope Innocent X was elected Pope. He was from the noble Roman Pamphili family.
    (SFC, 11/20/00, p.A20)

1644        A land grant for "The Beach" was given for a fifty acre tract that covers the present harbor area of St. Michaels on the Chesapeake Bay.
    (SMBA, 1996)

1644        Lambert Jochemse Van Valckenburg and his wife Annetje arrived in New Amsterdam and promptly purchased a house and 50 acres.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A17)

1644        Trongsa Dzong was built. Trongsa was the ancestral home of Bhutan’s royal family.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trongsa)

1644        The Globe Theater in London was dismembered.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.E4)

1644        The Manchu emperors of China ordered all subjects to shave the top of their heads and wear the rest of their hair in a braid. The men complied until 1911 but the women did not.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, Z1 p.6)
c1644        In China the later Zhengyici Theater in Beijing started as a temple in the late Ming period.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)
1644        Many Chinese mandarins fled to the port of Hoi An, Vietnam, when the Ming Dynasty was overthrown. Hoi An at this time was known as Faifo.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)

1644        In Sikkim the beginning of a 330 year dynasty.
    (WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A1)

1644-1694    Basho Matsuo, Japanese poet. His work include "The Narrow Road." One of his poems celebrated the entrancing cry of the cicada.
    (SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)(WUD, 1994, p.124)(SFC, 7/29/97, p.C3)

1644-1911    "The Qing Dynasty" by Nie Chongzheng is the 4th section of Wu Hung’s 1997 "The Origins of Chinese Painting." The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
    (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

1644-1912    The period of the Ching dynasty of China. Others end it at 1911.
    (WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)

1645        Jan 10, William Laud (71), the Archbishop of Canterbury, was beheaded on Tower Hill, accused of acting as an enemy of the Parliament.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1645        Feb 14, Robert Ingle, commissioned by the English Parliament and captain of the tobacco ship Reformation, sailed to St. Mary’s (Maryland) and seized a Dutch trading ship. This marked the beginning of what came to known as “The Plundering Time.”
    (Arch, 1/05, p.48)

1645        Apr 2, Robert Devereux resigned as parliament supreme commander.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1645        Apr 7, Michael Cardozo became the 1st Jewish lawyer in Brazil.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1645        Jun 14, Oliver Cromwell’s army routed the King’s army at Naseby.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1645        Jul 12, In Russia Michael Romanov (b.1596), the first RomanovTsar (1613-1645), died.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_I_of_Russia)

1645        Aug 9, Settlers in New Amsterdam gained peace with the Indians after conducting talks with the Mohawks.
    (HN, 8/9/98)

1645        Aug 16, Jean de la Bruyere, French writer and moralist famous for his work "Characters of Theophratus," was born.
    (HN, 8/16/98)

1645        Aug 28, Hugo Grotius, Dutch jurist and politician, died. In 1917 Hamilton Vreeland authored “Hugo Grotius: The Father of Modern Science and International Law.”
    (RTH, 8/28/99)(ON, 10/04, p.4)

1645        Aug 30, Dutch & Indians signed peace treaty in New Amsterdam (NY).
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1645        Sep 20, Louis Joliet, French-Canadian explorer in the New World, was born.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1645        Sep 24, The Battle of Rowton Heath took place during the English Civil War between the Parliamentarians, commanded by Sydnam Poyntz, and the Royalists under the personal command of King Charles I. The result was a significant defeat for the Royalists, with heavy losses and Charles prevented from relieving the Siege of Chester. William Lawes (b.1602), Cavalier composer, died at the Battle of Rowton Heath.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Rowton_Heath)(Econ, 4/16/11, p.90)

1645        The construction of Saint Sulpice in Paris, France, began over a Romanesque church and graveyard.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)

1645        The San Marcoul Hospital was established in Rheims, France, by a devout woman for the care of scrofulous [tubercular] patients.
    (WP, 1951, p.7)

1645        Mikhail Guryev, a Russian trader, founded the Ural River port city known as Guryev. The Kazakhstan oil town was later named Atyrau.
    (WSJ, 7/25/01, p.A1)

1646        George Fox (b.1624) abandoned the church in England and began following the "inner light." He told listeners that the truth could be found by listening to an inner voice of God speaking directly to the soul. His teachings formed the basis to the Religious Society of Friends, aka Quakers. Believers reportedly sat and quivered waiting for the Holy Spirit to move them to speak.
    (SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)

1645        In Sweden the Post Och Inrikes Tidningar began daily publication for bankruptcies, corporate and government announcements. On Jan 1, 2007, the world’s oldest newspaper stopped publishing on paper and moved to the Internet.
    (WSJ, 1/2/07, p.B4)

1645        Turkish invaders of the Ottoman Empire captured Hania on the island of Crete and built a mosque.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T10)

1645-1651    During the English civil war of this period almost every silver and gold object in the country was melted down or smashed.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.86)

1645-1715    The Maunder Minimum. A 70-year period, named after astronomer E.W. Maunder, who documented a lack of solar activity during this time. It also marked the coldest period of the "Little Ice Age" that gripped Europe from c1450-c1890.
    (SFC, 11/29/02, p.J6)(SFC, 12/8/03, p.A2)

1646        Feb 28, Roger Scott was tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1646        Mar 6, Joseph Jenkes received the 1st colonial machine patent.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1646        Apr 27, King Charles I fled Oxford.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1646        May 5, King Charles I surrendered at Scotland.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1646        Jul 1, Gottfried Von Leibniz (Leibnitz, d.1716), German philosopher and mathematician, was born.
    (HN, 7/1/98)(WUD, 1994, p.819)

1646        Jul 30, English parliament set the Newcastle Propositions of King Charles I.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1646        Aug 28, Fulvio Testi (53), Italian poet (Poesie liriche), died.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1646        Sep 14, Robert Devereux (b.1591), 3rd earl of Essex, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Devereux,_3rd_Earl_of_Essex)

1646        Oct 28, The 1st Protestant church assembly for Indians took place in Massachusetts.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1646        Gluckel of Hameln was born in Hamburg. She married at 14 and had 12 children and was widowed at age 44. She continued for 3 more decades as a single businesswoman and devoted diarist. Her story was made into a theater production in 1999 by the New York based Great Small Works.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.D1,4)

1646        A treaty with Virginia Indians required the state to protect the Mattaponi from "enemies," but only on the reservation in King William County. The peace treaty unraveled the powerful confederation of local Indian tribes and large amounts of land were ceded to English settlers.
    (SFC, 6/4/97, p.A7)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1646        James Morton, author of the "New English Canaan," died in Maine.
    (ON, 3/00, p.12)

1646        The Cheng Hoon Teng Buddhist temple was built in Malacca, Malaysia.
    (SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T8)

1646        In Satevo, Mexico, at the bottom of the Copper Canyon near Batopilas is a 350 year old church.
    (SFC, 5/19/96, T-1)

1646        Charles I licensed the Silver Cross to serve as both a brothel and drinking establishment.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.T7)

1646-1707    Jules Hardouin Mansart, French architect. He became the chief architectural director for Louis XIV.
    (WUD, 1994, p.873)

1647        Jan 2, Nathaniel Bacon, leader of Bacon's Rebellion, Va., (1676), was born.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1647        Jan 23, Scottish Presbyterians sold captured Charles I to English Parliament.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1647        Jan 30, King Charles I was handed over to the English parliament.
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1647        Mar 14, The 1647 Treaty of Ulm was reached between the French and the Bavarians during the Thirty Years' War. In negotiations with the French, Maximilian I of Bavaria abandoned his alliance with the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand III through the Treaty of Ulm. In 1648 Bavaria returned to the side of the emperor.
    (HNQ, 11/7/98)

1647        Apr 1, John Wilmot (d.1680) Second Earl of Rochester, poet (A Satyr Upon Mankinde), scandalous pornographer and bawdy playwright, was born. He married Elizabeth Malet, and carried on an affair with the actress Elizabeth Barry. His friend, playwright George Etherege modeled the character Dorimont after him in "Man of Mode." A 1994 play by Stephen Jeffrey titled "The Libertine," is based on Wilmot’s life.
    (WSJ, 3/28/96,p.A-12)(WSJ, 1/14/98, p.A17)

1647        May 11, Peter Stuyvesant (37) arrived in New Amsterdam to become governor of New Netherland. The one-legged professional soldier was sent from the Netherlands to head the Dutch trading colony at the southern end of Manhattan Island. Stuyvesant lost a leg in a minor skirmish in the Caribbean in 1644.
    (ON, 4/00, p.1)(AH, 10/04, p.74)(AP, 5/11/08)

1647        May 26, A new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The penalty was banishment or death for a second offense.
    (HN, 5/26/99)

1647        May 27, In Salem, Massachusetts, Achsah Young became the first recorded American woman to be executed for being a "witch."
    (AP, 5/27/97)(HN, 5/27/98)

1647        Jun 4, The English army seized King Charles I as a hostage.
    (AP, 6/4/97)(HN, 6/4/98)

1647        Jun 24, Margaret Brent (d.1671), a niece of Lord Baltimore, was ejected from the Maryland Assembly after demanding a place and vote in the body. Brent, acted as attorney for Lord Baltimore, and saved the colony from mutinous soldiers and from a Protestant revolt against the Catholic government.
    (AP, 6/24/97)(www.historyswomen.com/MargaretBrent.htm)

1647        Jul 7, In Naples an outbreak began with a riot at the city gates between the fruit-vendors of the environs and the customs officers. Misgovernment and fiscal oppression during the Thirty Years' War had aroused much discontent throughout the Kingdom of Naples.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masaniello)

1647        Jul 16, Masaniello (b.1622), an Italian fisherman, was murdered in Naples after leading a doomed revolt against Habsburg rule.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masaniello)

1647        Aug 22, Denis Papin, inventor of the pressure cooker, was born.
    (HN, 8/22/00)

1647        Nov 8, Pierre Bayle (d.1706), French-Dutch theologian, philosopher, and writer, was born. He authored the "Historical and Critical Dictionary." "If an historian were to relate truthfully all the crimes, weaknesses and disorders of mankind, his readers would take his work for satire rather than for history."
    (WUD, 1994, p.128)(AP, 11/19/97)(WSJ, 12/2/97, p.A20)(MC, 11/8/01)

1647        Nov 10, The all Dutch-held area of New York was returned to English control by the treaty of Westminster.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1647        Nov 11, Massachusetts passed the 1st US compulsory school attendance law.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1647        Velazquez (1599-1660) began his painting "Toilet of Venus." It was completed in 1651.
    (WSJ, 2/24/00, p.A16)

1647        William Bradford authored "History of Plymouth Plantation."
    (ON, 3/00, p.12)
1647        Samuel Danforth, a Puritan minister, authored “An Almanack for the Year of Lord 1647.” It included a 20-year chronology of notable events in the Massachusetts colony.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1647        Gian Francesca Abela, vice-chancellor of the Knights of St. John and the father of Maltese historiography, authored "Descrittione di Malta." His antiquities, willed to the College of Jesuit Fathers in Valetta, later formed the nucleus of Malta’s National Museum of Archeology.
    (AM, 7/97, p.48)

1647        Pietro della Valle first published an illustration of a cuneiform inscription.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.193)

1647        "L’Orfeo" was produced in France. It was composed by Luigi Rossi who was imported by Cardinal Mazarin who sought to bring the Italian operatic tradition to France and mate it with the court orchestra, Les Vingt-Quatre Vuiolons du Roi.
    (WSJ, 6/19/97, p.A16)

1647        Elizabeth Throckmorton (b.1565), wife of Sir Walter Raleigh, died. In 2003 Anna Beer authored her biography "My Just Desire."
    (WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1648        Jan 21, In Maryland, the first woman lawyer in the colonies, Margaret Brent, was denied a vote in the Maryland Assembly.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1648        Apr 5, Spanish troops and feudal barons struck down people's uprising in Naples.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1648        Apr 11, Matthaus Apelles von Lowenstern (53), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1648        Apr 16, John Luyken, poet, etcher (Duytse Lyre), was born.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1648        Apr 22, English army claimed king Charles I was responsible for bloodshed.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1648        May 6, Battle at Zolty Wody-Bohdan: Chmielricki's Cossacks beat John II Casimir.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1648        May 13, Margaret Jones of Plymouth was found guilty of witchcraft and was sentenced to be hanged by the neck.
    (HN, 5/13/99)

1648        May 15, The independence of the Netherlands was finally recognized with the Dutch and Spanish ratification of the Treaty of Munster, initially signed on January 30.
    (www.oldandsold.com/articles36/netherlands-18.shtml)

1648        May 20, In Poland King Ladislas IV died at age 55. His Jesuit brother (39) took rule as John Casimir II.
    (PCh, 1992, p.241)

1648        Jun 18, The Eighty Years’ War between the Dutch and Spain ended following the signing of the Treaty of Munster.
    (www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/t/terborch/1/munster.html)

1648        Jun 24, Cossacks slaughtered 2,000 Jews and 600 Polish Catholics in Ukraine.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1648        Jul 22, Some 10,000 Jews of Polannoe were murdered in a massacre led by Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki (55).
    (PC, 1992, p.241)(MC, 7/22/02)

1648        Aug 8, Ibrahim, the sultan of Istanbul, was thrown into prison, then assassinated.
    (HN, 8/8/98)

1648        Aug 26, There was a people's uprising, the Fronde, against Anna of Austria, regent for Louis XIV of France, and Cardinal Mazarin (d.1661), the effective ruler.
    (PC, 1992, p.241)(MC, 8/26/02)

1648        Sep 1, Marin Mersenne (59), French mathematician, died.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1648        Sep 21, In Poland at the Battle at Pilawce Bohdan Chmielricki beat John II Casimir.
    (PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 9/21/01)

1648        Oct 4, Peter Stuyvesant established America's 1st volunteer firemen.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1648        Oct 18, Boston shoemakers were authorized to form a guild to protect their interests; it's the first American labor organization on record. The guild was authorized by the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company).
    (HN, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/18/07)

1648        Oct 24, The Peace of Westphalia ended the German Thirty Years War and effectively destroyed the Holy Roman Empire. The Treaties of Osnabruck and Munster, that ended the Thirty Years" War, divided Pomerania, a historic region that once stretched from Stralsund to the Vistula along the Baltic Sea in north-central Europe, into two parts known as Hither Pomerania and Farther Pomerania. Hither Pomerania, the area west of the Oder River, was granted to Sweden. Farther Pomerania was east of the Oder and went to the state of Brandenburg. Hither Pomerania is now part of the German state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania; Farther Pomerania is now part of Poland. The 30 years war had spread from one end of Germany to the other, and left the country a scene of desolation and disorder, wasted by fire, sword and plague. The war was followed by great scarcity, due to the lack of laborers. San Marino did not attend the conference or sign the treaty because it had not been involved in the fighting, however it was linked to states that were fighting and was therefore still at war with Sweden until 1996 when an official end was declared. The treaty abolished private armies and the nation-state acquired a monopoly on maintaining armies and fighting wars.
    (AP, 10/24/97)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A22)(HNQ, 10/6/99)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.80)
1648        Oct 24, Switzerland's independence was recognized with the Peace of Westphalia.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1648        Nov 2, 12,000 Jews were massacred by Chmielnicki hordes in Narol Podlia (Ukraine). Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki led the pogrom in quest of Ukrainian independence from the Polish nobility, who employed Jews to collect taxes.
    (PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 11/2/01)

1648        Nov 26, Pope Innocent X condemned the Peace of Westphalia, which ended 30 Years War one month earlier.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1648        Nov 30, English army captured King Charles I.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1648        Dec 6, Pride's Purge: Thomas Pride prevented 96 Presbyterians from sitting in English Parliament.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1648        Aldrovandus illustrated an Aztec sacrificial knife with a flaked blade (probably of obsidian) and a Brazilian anchor axe of ground stone set in a wooden haft as examples of stone implements of ancient type but of recent manufacture and used by primitive peoples.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.71-72)

1648        William Blaeu, Dutch master, illustrated 26-inch heaven and Earth orbs and depicted lions in the sky and sea monsters in the Pacific. Their value in 1996 was $825,000.
    (WSJ, 11/1/96, p.B10)

1648        The painting "Holy Family on the Steps," later acquired by the US National Gallery of Art, was initially attributed to Nicolas Poussin. The original turned out to be at the Cleveland Museum of Art and the National Gallery changed the authorship to a "follower of Poussin."
    (WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1648        Van Ruisdael painted "Dunes at Haarlem." His work this year also included his print "Christ Preaching (The Hundred Guilder Print).
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)

1648        Van Ruisdael painted "Dunes at Haarlem."
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1648        The French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture was founded.
    (AM, 7/05, p.54)

1648        At the end of the Thirty years’ War the Swedes got to Prague and picked up the remains of works collected by Rudolf II.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1648        The island of St. Martin in the Lesser Antilles was divided between the French and Dutch. The southern half went to the Dutch as Sint Maarten, while the northern half, Saint Martin, became part of the French department of Guadeloupe. Legend has it that a Dutchman and a Frenchman stood back to back at the center of the island and paced of their shares. The Dutchman stopped often to drink beer and was left with the smaller share.
    (NH, 10/96, p.60)(SFEC,2/16/97, p.T6)

1648-1687    Mehmed IV succeeded Ibrahim in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1648-1815    This period of European history was covered by Tim Blanning in his 2007 book “The Pursuit of Glory: Europe 1648-1815.”
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.94)

1649        Jan 30, King Charles I of England, who ruled from 1625-1649, was beheaded for treason at Banqueting House, Whitehall, by the hangman Richard Brandon. He lost his capital trial by one vote, 68-67. "For the people, and I truly desire their liberty and freedom as much as anybody whomsoever, but I must tell you that their liberty and their freedom consists in having of government those laws by which their life and their goods may be most their own. It is not for having a share in government, sirs; that is nothing pertaining to them. A subject and a sovereign are clean different things." Charles I was canonized by the church of England 13 years later. Parliament became the supreme power under the rule of Oliver Cromwell, who ruled over Parliament as Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth from 1649-1658. He argued against his soldiers having a voice in government because they owned no property. He stated in so many words that government "has always been, and should always continue to be, of property, by property, and for property."
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.T7)(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 1/30/99)(SFEC, 7/2/00, Z1 p.2)(WSJ, 2/7/03, p.W13)
1649        Jan 30, Jester Muckle John lost his job when King Charles 1 was beheaded.
    (Reuters, 8/7/04)

1649        Jan, The prosecution of England’s King Charles I was led by John Cooke (1608-1660), who suffered a horrible death with the Restoration in 1660.
    (SSFC, 9/24/06, p.M3)

1649        Feb 5, The Prince of Wales became king Charles II. Charles II (18), while living in exile at the Hague, was recently informed that his father was beheaded at Whitehall on Jan 30.
    (WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(MC, 2/5/02)

1649        Feb 23, John Blow, composer of 1st English opera (Venus and Adonis), was baptized.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1649        Feb 27, Johann Philipp Krieger, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1649        Mar 11, The peace of Rueil was signed between the Frondeurs (rebels) and the French government.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1649        Mar 26, John Winthrop, Puritan and 1st Gov. of Massachusetts, died. [see Apr 5]
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1649        Apr 3, Joseph-Francois Salomon, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1649        Apr 5, Elihu Yale (1721), the English philanthropist for whom Yale University is named, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1652)(AP, 4/5/99)
1649        Apr 5, John Winthrop (61), 1st governor of the colony at Mass. Bay, died. [see Mar 26]
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1649        Apr 9, James Scott Duke of Monmouth (d.1685), was born. He was the illegitimate son of Charles II of England and pretender to the throne of James II
    (HN, 4/9/98)(WUD, 1994, p.925)

1649        Apr 21, The Maryland Toleration Act, which provided for freedom of worship for all Christians, was passed by the Maryland assembly.
    (AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)

1649        May 12, Isaac Doreslaer, English lawyer, diplomat, was murdered.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1649        Sep 1, Descartes departed Amsterdam to go to Sweden at the invitation of Queen Kristina.
    (Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)

1649        Sep 6, Robert Dudley, English navigator and writer (Arcano del Mare), died.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1649        Sep 11, Oliver Cromwell seized Drogheda, Ireland. 3,000 inhabitants were massacred and all Catholic Churches were blown up by cannon.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1649        Poussin created his painting "Moses Striking the Rock."
    (WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A16)

1649        Salomon van Ruysdael (1602-1670), Dutch landscape artist, created his painting “Ferry on a River.”
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruisdael)
1649        The Prins Willem was built in Middelburg, Netherlands, as the flagship of the Dutch East India Company. The 3-masted ship, launched on Jan 1, 1650, sank in 1662 off Madagascar.
    (AP, 7/30/09)(http://tinyurl.com/mteqbf)

1649        Descartes published "Traite des passions de l’ame" in Paris.
    (Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)

1649        Gov. Peter Stuyvesant granted Lambert Jochemse Van Valckenburg and his wife Annetje 50 acres, now nine blocks in the heart of Manhattan.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A17)

1649        Marblehead, Mass., was founded by Cornwall fishermen.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T7)

1649        Iroquois attacks and starvation decimated the Huron nation from some 12,000 to a few hundred.
    (AH, 4/01, p.33)

1649        Alessandro Turchi (b.1578), Italian painter, died in Rome. His work included “The Lamentation Over the Dead Christ” (1617).
    (http://gallery.euroweb.hu/html/t/turchi/)

1649        In Russia serfs were made part of the land that they inhabited. A later edict allowed them to be sold with the land.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1649        In Seville, Spain, one in three died of the Black Plague.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.T6)

1649-1743    Hyacinthe Rigaud, painter. Painted the "Portrait of Louis XIV."
    (AAP, 1964)

1649-1815    In 2004 N.A.M. Rodger authored “The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815.”
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.88)

1650        Feb 1, Rene Descartes, philosopher: "I think therefore I am", died. [see Feb 11]
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1650        Feb 2, Nell [Eleanor] Gwyn, English actress, mistress to King Charles II, was born.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1650        Feb 11, Rene Descartes (b.1596), French mathematician and philosopher: "I think therefore I am", died in Stockholm. [see Feb 1]
    (Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)(MC, 2/11/02)

1650        Apr 27, Scottish general Montrose was defeated.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1650        May 21, James, Marquis of Montrose, Scottish general, was hanged.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1650        May 24, John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, English general strategist, was born.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1650        May 28, Gilles Hayne (59), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1650        Jun 28, Lord Cromwell set off for Scotland at the head of an army of 16,354 men.
    (HNQ, 8/8/00)

1650        Jun, Jean Rotrou (b.1609), French playwright, died of the plague. In his day he was considered second only to Corneille.
    (SFC, 12/31/08, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Rotrou)

1650        Sep 3, The English under Cromwell defeated a superior Scottish army under David Leslie at the Battle of Dunbar.
    (HN, 9/3/98)

1650        Sep, Peter Stuyvesant traveled from New Amsterdam to Hartford, Conn., to negotiate boundaries for their colonies.
    (ON, 4/00, p.1)

1650        Oct 3, The English parliament declared its rule over the fledgling American colonies.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1650        Oct 21, Jean Bart, French captain and sea hero, was born. He escaped from Plymouth.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1650        Nov 4, William III, Prince of Orange and King of England, was born. [see Nov 14]
    (HN, 11/4/98)

1650        Nov 14, William III, King of England (1689-1702), was born. [see Nov 4]
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1650        Nov 24, Manuel Cardoso (83), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

c1650        Dutch artist Jan Baptist Weenix painted "Mother and Child in an Italian Landscape."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.12)

c1650        Velazquez painted the portrait: "Juan de Pareja."
    (WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1650        The Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi, fountain of Four Rivers, in Rome’s Piazza Navona was designed by Bernini.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)

1650        The Khaju bridge in Esfahan, Persia (Iran), was built over the Zayandeh Rood river.
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.G5)

c1650        The Kagyupa sect of Buddhism, known as the "Black Hats," under the leadership of the Karmapa was supplanted by the Gelupga school of the Dalai Lamas as Tibet's most politically powerful group.
    (SFC, 1/800, p.A8)

c1650        Mother St. John Fontbonne founded the Sisters of St. Joseph.
    (SFC, 11/13/00, p.A3)

1650        Ludlow's Code, Colonial American laws, came about when Connecticut's general court asked Roger Ludlow, a member of the court, to draft a body of laws. Without the impartiality of an established set of laws, Connecticut colonists had complained of the capriciousness of magistrates.
    (HNQ, 8/4/98)

c1650        The Cinder Cone at Mt. Lassen volcano (California) was formed.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T1)

1650        In Barbados St. Nicholas Abbey was built as a plantation house in the Jacobean style.
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T10)

c1650        Andres Manso de Contreras of Cuba built a vast fortune by intercepting Caribbean pirates in the mid-17th century. In 1704 and 1776 his heirs sailed to London and allegedly deposited the equivalent of some $60 million in gold at a London bank at 5% interest.
    (WSJ, 4/20/01, p.A1)

1650        Portuguese rule ended in Oman.
    (SSFC, 3/30/08, p.E4)

1650s        In Massachusetts the Puritans ordered Obadiah Holmes to be "well whipped" for holding a Baptist service.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)

1650-1695    St. Croix island in the West Indies was taken over by the French and then abandoned.
    (NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p.84)

1650-1700    This period marks the approximate end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Age of Revolution. In 2006 Theodore K. Rabb authored “The Last Days of the Renaissance.”
    (WSJ, 5/27/06, p.P8)
1650-1700    Germany during the last half of the 1600s was composed of 234 independent countries, 51 free cities and some 1,500 knightly manors governed by their lords.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.8)

1651        Jan 1, Charles II (20), Charles Stuart, was crowned king of Scotland at Scone.
    (PC, 1992, p.243)(ON, 8/12, p.1)

1651        Apr 15, Domenico Gabrielli, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1651        Apr 30, Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, French priest, theorist, saint, was born.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1651        Aug 6, Francois Fenelon (d.1715), French theologian and writer (Playing for Time), was born. "Nothing is more despicable than a professional talker who uses his words as a quack uses his remedies."
    (AP, 11/27/98)(MC, 8/6/02)

1651        Aug 13, Litchfield, Connecticut, was founded.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1651        Sep 3, In the Battle at Worcester Oliver Cromwell destroyed English royalists. Charles II led the Scots Covenanters to a disastrous defeat at the battle of Worcester. Some 3,000 of his soldiers were killed and 10,000 taken prisoner.
    (WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(ON, 12/00, p.1)

1651        Oct 14, Laws were passed in Massachusetts forbidding the poor to adopt excessive styles of dress.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1651        Oct 15, Charles II boarded the ship Surprise to cross the Channel to France.
    (ON, 12/00, p.5)

1651        Oct 17, Future King Charles II fled from England. [see Oct 15]
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1651        Oct 22, Jacob Praetorius (65), composer, died.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1651        Oct 26, Courlander Gambia was established as a Latvian colony.
    (http://www.vdiest.nl/gambia.htm)

1651        Nov 7, King Louis XIV of France (13) was declared of full age.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1651        Nov 26, Henry Ireton (40), English gen. and parliament leader (Marston Moor), died.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1651        Dec 25, The General Court of Boston levied a five shilling fine on anyone caught "observing any such day as Christmas."
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1651        Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), English philosopher, authored “Leviathan.” In it he tried to deduce from 1st principles the shape that society should take.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.M3)

1651        The opera "La Calisto" by Francesco Cavalli was produced. It was based on Ovid’s "Metamorphoses" and the text was by Giovanni Faustini.
    (WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-13)

1652        Feb 17, Gregorio Allegri (67), Italian singer, composer (Miserere), died.
    (MC, 2/17/02)       

1652        Mar 28, Samuel Sewall, British colonial merchant and one of the Salem witch trial judges, was born.
    (HN, 3/28/01)

1652        Apr 7, The Dutch established settlement at Cape Town, South Africa.
    (HN, 4/7/97)

1652        May 10, John Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Northampton, Va.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1652        May 18, A law was passed in Rhode Island banning slavery in the colonies but it caused little stir and was not enforced. More than 1,000 slave voyages were mounted from Rhode Island, mostly in the 18th century, carrying more than 100,000 Africans into slavery.
    (HN, 5/18/99)(Reuters, 3/29/07)

1652        May 29, English Admiral Robert Blake drove out the Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1652        Jun 27, New Amsterdam (later NYC) passed the 1st speed limit law in US.
    (MC, 6/27/02)

1652        Jun 29, Massachusetts declared itself an independent commonwealth.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1652        Jul 4, Prince of Cond‚ started a blood bath in Paris.
    (Maggio)

1652        Jul 22, Prince Conde's rebels narrowly defeated Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1652        Aug 14, Abraham Elsevier (60), Dutch book publisher, publisher, died.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1652        Sep 17, Bonaventura Elsevier, book publisher and merchant, died at about 69.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1652        Oct 13, Abraham Verhoeven, Flemish printer and newspaper publisher, died.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1652        Oct 21, King Louis XIV returned to Paris.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1652        Michael Sweerts, Flemish artist, painted "Plague in an Ancient City" in Rome. In 1998 it held by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1652        Under the "Liberty Tree," a tulip poplar at St. John's College campus in Annapolis, Md., Virginia Puritans were welcomed as colonists by Lord Baltimore, and smoked peace pipes with the Susquehanna Indians.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.391)

1652        A silver sixpence minted in colonial New England was set for auction in 2003 with an estimated value of $33-31k.
    (SFC, 10/10/03, p.B2)
1652        Massachusetts produced a silver colonial coin that was found with a metal detector in 1989 in a potato field. In 2012 it was auctioned off for $430,000.
    (SFC, 11/24/12, p.A5)


1652        Inigo Jones (b.1573), father of English classical architecture, died. His work included a book titled "Stonehenge Restored," which considered Stonehenge to have been Roman temple.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(ON, 4/02, p.11)
1652        War broke out between the Netherlands and England.
    (ON, 4/00, p.2)

1652        Officials [farmers] of the Dutch East India Company were sent from Europe to run the small victualing station at the cape of South Africa. They were distinguished from the native born Dutch people who are called Afrikaner. It marked the beginning of Cape Town. Jan Van Riebeck, a Dutch ship’s surgeon, founded Dap Town.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)(SFEC, 6/22/97, Z1 p.5)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)

1653        Feb 2, New Amsterdam -- now New York City -- was incorporated.
    (AP, 2/2/97)

1653        Apr 20, Oliver Cromwell dissolved the English parliament. “You have sat too long for any good you have been doing lately…”
    (www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/rump-parliament.htm)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.60)

1653        May 18, Carel Reyniersz (48), Governor-General of Netherlands and East Indies, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1653        Jul 4, British Barebones Parliament went into session.
    (Maggio)

1653        Sep 1, Johann Pachelbel (d.1706), German organist and composer, was born. He is best known for his "Canon in D."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1034)(SI-WPC, 1997)(MC, 9/1/02)

1653        Oct 1, Russian parliament accepted annexation of Ukraine.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1653        Nov 5, The Iroquois League signed a peace treaty with the French, vowing not to wage war with other tribes under French protection.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1653        Nov 26, Andreas Anton Schmelzer, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1653        Dec 1, An athlete from Croydon was reported to have run 20 miles from St. Albans to London in less than 90 minutes.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1653        Dec 16, Oliver Cromwell took on dictatorial powers with the title of lord protector" of England, Scotland and Ireland. He served as dictator of England to 1658.
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(AHD, p.315)(AP, 12/16/97)(HN, 12/16/98)

1653        Rembrandt van Rijn painted his "Aristotle With a Bust of Homer."
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1653        Izaak Walton (b.1593-1683) wrote "The Compleat Angler."
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, Par p.19)

1653        Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherland, ordered a wall built to protect the Dutch settlers from the Indians. The wall gave New York’s Wall Street its name.
    (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

1653        King Emanuele Filiberto moved Savoy’s capital across the Alps from Chambery to Turin to escape French clutches.
    (SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)

1653        Shah Jahan completed the Taj Mahal. Master builders, masons, calligraphers, etc. along with more than 20,000 laborers, worked for 22 years under orders of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to complete the great mausoleum for the shah's beloved wife. In 2007 Diana and Michael Preston authored “Taj Mahal” and Ebba Koch authored “the Complete Taj Mahal.”
    (WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P10)(www.tribuneindia.com/2003/20030713/spectrum/heritage.htm)

1653        Paris physician Louis Morin the thrice-daily temperature and pressure measurements as part of a short-lived international meteorological network created by the Grand Duke of Tuscany.
    (AP, 9/15/07)

1653        The English palace of Oatlands was pulled down by the Commonwealth. John Tradescant and his son John had worked there under Charles 1 as gardeners. In 1790 Duke of York purchased Oatlands House, built in the grounds of Henry VIII's 1537 Oatlands Palace.
    (WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)(www.weybridgesociety.org.uk/History.aspx)

1654        Jan 10, Russia’s Czar Alexander announced a war against Lithuania and Poland. It lasted to 1667.
    (LHC, 1/9/03)

1654        Apr 12, England, Ireland and Scotland united.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1654        Apr 26, Jews were expelled from Brazil.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1654        May 3, A bridge in Rowley, Mass., was permitted to charge a toll for animals, while people crossed for free.
    (AP, 5/3/97)

1654        Jun 6, Queen Christina of Sweden resigned and converted to Catholicism.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1654        Jun 7, Louis XIV was crowned King of France in Rheims.
    (AP, 6/7/97)(HN, 6/7/98)

1654        Aug 22, Jacob Barsimson, the 1st Jewish immigrant to US, arrived in New Amsterdam.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1654        Sep 8, Peter Claver, Spanish saint (baptized 300,000 slaves), died.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1654        Oct 12, Carel Fabritius (b.1622), Dutch painter, died in a gunpowder explosion in Delft. He was one of Rembrandt’s most gifted pupils.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carel_Fabritius)(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.93)

1654        Nov 21, Richard Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Virginia.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1654        Nov 23, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), scientist and philosopher, underwent a mystical experience. He entered a hermitage at Port-Royal des Champs and never again published in his own name. He came up with the idea that believing in God is safer than not believing because it might gain one eternal life. He was a Jansenist, and thereby rejected free will in favor of predestination. Pascal and Fermat devised the laws of probability by trying to determine who 2 players should share the stakes when they leave a game of chance uncompleted.
    (SFC, 9/22/96, Par. p.21)(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.A20)

1654        Jacob van Loo painted "An Allegory of Venus and Cupid as Lady World and Homo Bulla." It hangs in the Speed Museum of Louisville, Ky.
    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)
1654        Rembrandt van Rijn painted a portrait of poet-businessman Jan Six, one of the richest Amsterdammers of his time. His work this year also included "A Woman Bathing in a Stream" and "Flora." His work this year also included the etching and drypoint “The Descent From the Cross by Torchlight.”
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)(SFC, 1/28/06, p.E4)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)

1654        Roger Williams (1603-1683) was elected as the 9th president of President of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
    (ON, 2/12, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Williams_%28theologian%29)

c1654        Samuel Stockhausen, a physician in Goslar in the Harz Mountains of Germany, identified the ailment of Huttenkatze as stemming from lead poisoning in the local mining towns. This find later made possible Gockel’s discovery of the cause of colica Pictonum.
    (NH, 7/96, p.51)

1654        The earliest circular coin bearing the inscription "rouble" on it in Russia was struck by Czar Alexiei Mikhailovitch.
    (VilNews, 12/17/10)

1654-1656    Rembrandt van Rijn painted a medallion portrait of Muhammed Adil Shah of Bijapur.
    (SFEM, 2/1/98, p.16)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)

1654-1705    Jacob Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician and physicist. The Bernouilli effect is named after him.
    (WUD, 1994, p.141)

1655        Mar 25, Puritans jailed Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland.
    (HN, 3/25/99)
1655        Mar 25, Christiaan Huygens, Dutch inventor and astronomer, discovered Titan, Saturn's largest satellite.
    (www.xs4all.nl/~carlkop/huyglens.html)

1655        Apr 4, Battle at Postage Farina, Tunis: English fleet licked Barbarian pirates.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1655        Apr 26, Dutch West Indies Co. denied Peter Stuyvesant's desire to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1655        Apr 28, English admiral Blake beat a Tunisian pirate fleet.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1655        May 10, Jamaica was captured by English.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1655        Jul 28, French dramatist and novelist Cyrano de Bergerac, the inspiration for a play by Edmond Rostand, died in Paris.
    (AP, 7/28/05)

1655        Aug 13, Johann Christoph Denner, inventor of the clarinet, was born.
    (HN, 8/13/00)

1655        Aug 28, New Amsterdam & Peter Stuyvesant barred Jews from military service.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1655        Aug 29, Swedish king Karel X Gustaaf occupied Warsaw.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1655        Sep 26, Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Dutch Ft. Casimir from Swedish in Delaware.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1655        Oct 15, Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1655        Nov 24, English Lord Protector Cromwell banned Anglicans.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

c1655        Esteban Murillo (1617-1682), Spanish artist, painted a self-portrait. Some of his mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the population in 4 months. [see 1649]
    (WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)

1655        Rembrandt van Rijn painted "Polish Rider."
    (WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)

1655        Vermeer painted his Saint Praxedis. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1655        In Bologna Domenico Cassini persuaded the builders of the Basilica of San Petronio that they should include a major upgrade of Danti's old meridian with a new entry hole for daylight to track the projected sun on the cathedral floor. Sassini was able to use the observatory to confirm Kepler's version of the Copernican theory.
    (SFC, 10/25/99, p.A4)

1655        In Paris the church of St. Medard was built. Medard was a 6th century counselor to the Merovingian kings who bestowed wreaths of roses upon virtuous maidens.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.C1)

c1655        Archbishop James Usher of Dublin, Ireland, developed a timetable that set the creation of the world to 4004BC, and Noah's landing on Mt. Ararat in 2348BC.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, edit. p.559)

1655        The first slave auction was held in New Amsterdam (later NYC).
    (SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)

1655        Peter Stuyvesant launched an offensive against Swedish soldiers who had seized control of the fur trade along the Delaware. In his absence Indians attacked New Amsterdam and took dozens of hostages.
    (ON, 4/00, p.2)

1655         The three Cayman Islands came under British control when Oliver Cromwell's army captured nearby Jamaica from the Spanish.
    (AP, 5/10/03)

1655        By this time a house had been built on Ghana’s cape, and over the coming years it was enlarged using slave labor into Carolusburg Fort, named after the then Swedish king. This fort was captured and enlarged by the Danish in 1657, and after a few more shuffles of power the English got their hands on it 1664. In 2006 William St. Clair authored “The Grand Slave Emporium: Cape Coast Castle and the British Slave Trade.
    (www.moxon.net/ghana/cape_coast.html)

1655-1660    Rembrandt van Rijn painted his picture called "The Auctioneer."
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1656        Jan 8, Oldest surviving commercial newspaper began in Haarlem, Netherlands.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1656        Mar 10, In the colony of Virginia, suffrage was extended to all free men regardless of their religion.
    (HN, 3/10/99)

1656        Jan 24, Jacob Lumbrozo, 1st Jewish doctor in US, arrived in Maryland.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1656        Feb 20, James Ussher (76), Irish bible scholar, Anglican archbishop, died. [see Mar 21]
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1656        Feb 22, New Amsterdam was granted a Jewish burial site.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1656        Mar 13, Jews were denied the right to build a synagogue in New Amsterdam.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1656        Mar 21, Armagh James Ussher (76), Archbishop (said world began 4004 BC), died. [see Feb 20]
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1656        Jul 1, The 1st Quakers, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived in Boston and were promptly arrested.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1656        Jul 26, Rembrandt declared he is insolvent.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1656        Sep 22, In Patuxent, Md., the first colonial all-female jury heard the case of a woman accused of murdering her child. The jury voted for acquittal.
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(AP, 9/22/98)

1656        Oct 2, US colony Connecticut passed a law against Quakers.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1656        Oct 3, Myles Standish (b.1654), Plymouth Colony leader, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1386)(MC, 10/3/01)

1656        Oct 24, Treaty of Vilnius (Lithuania): Russia and Poland signed an anti-Swedish covenant.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1656        Oct 25, A party of Oneida Indians killed 3 Frenchmen near Montreal. In response Gov. Gen. Louis d’Ailleboust arrested a hunting party of 12 Mohawks and Onondagas and ordered the arrest of all Iroquois in the French colonies.
    (AH, 4/01, p.34)

1656        Oct 29, Edmund Halley (d.1742), astronomer, was born about this time in Hagerston, Middlesex, England. The birth date is somewhat uncertain because it is not known if at that time in his village the Gregorian or the Julian calendar was in use. There's also some dispute over the year. [see Nov 8]
    (www.seds.org/messier/xtra/Bios/halley.html)
1656        Nov 8, Edmond Halley, mathematician and astronomer who predicted the return of the comet which is named for him, was born. [see Oct 29]
    (HN, 11/6/98)

1656        Dec 14, Artificial pearls were 1st manufactured by M. Jacquin in Paris. They were made of gypsum pellets covered with fish scales.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1656        Diego de Velazquez painted "Las Meminas."
    (WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W12)

1656        Vermeer created his painting "The Procuress."
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1656        Christiaan Huygens interpreted Saturn’s “ears” as a simple flat ring.
    (NH, 10/1/04, p.29)
1656         Christian Huygens invented the first pendulum clock, as described in his 1658 article "Horologium". It was built by Solomon Coster and was later put on exhibit at the Time Museum in Rockford, Ill. The time-pieces previously in use had been balance-clocks, Chris Huygens' pendulum clock was regulated by a mechanism with a "natural" period of oscillation and had an error of less than 1 minute a day.
    (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_huygens.htm)(SF E&C, 1/15/1995, T-10)

1656        The first performance of an English opera was given in a room at the Smithfield home of Sir William Davenant.
    (Econ, 11/27/10, p.41)
1656        Oliver Cromwell allowed Jews to return to England. They soon established their first synagogue on Creechurch Lane.
    (WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P16)

1656        French King Louis XIV charged the architect Liberal Bruant to build a hospital on the location of a gun powder factory, founding the Hospice de la Salpetriere in Paris. The building was expanded in 1684.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salp%C3%AAtri%C3%A8re)

c1656        European settlers arrived at the cape of South Africa. Robben Island in Cape Town’s Table Bay from this time on was variously used as a mental institution, leper colony and prison.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)

1657        Feb 11, Bernard Fontenelle, French scientist, writer (Plurality of Worlds), was born.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1657        Mar 23, France and England formed an alliance against Spain.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1657        Mar 31, English Humble Petition offered Lord Protector Cromwell the crown.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1657        Apr 3, English Lord Protector Cromwell refused the crown.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1657        Apr 20, English Admiral Robert Blake fought his last battle when he destroyed the Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay.
    (HN, 4/20/99)

1657        May 5, Jacques Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1657        May 9, William Bradford, Governor (Plymouth Colony, Mass), died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1657        Jun 1, 1st Quakers arrived in New Amsterdam (NY). (MC, 6/1/02)

1657        Jul 13, Oliver Cromwell constrained English army leader John Lambert.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1657        Aug 7, Bogdan Chmielnicki (b.1593), Ukraine-born Cossack leader, murderer of 300,000 Jews, died.
    (Internet)

1657        Sep 24, The 1st autopsy and coroner's jury verdict was recorded in the state of Maryland.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1657        The last wolf in Boston, Mass., was killed.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.125)

1657        Vermeer painted his "The Little Street" about this time.
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1657        Settlers in Vlissingen (later Flushing, Queens, NY) signed a declaration of religious freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance.
    (SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)

1657        By this time the White Tower of London was no longer inhabited by royalty and was almost completely given over to the storage of gunpowder.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.28)

1657        Pope Alexander VII entrusted Italian Baroque master Gian Lorenzo Bernini with building the colonnade surrounding St. Peter’s Square. A restoration project was lauched in 2009. In 2012 the Vatican sought funds directly from pilgrims, stamp collectors and tourists to pay for the ambitious restoration.
    (AP, 11/27/12)

1657        Venice re-admitted the Jesuits ushering in a period of cultural conservatism that marked the end of the “Renaissance project.”
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1658        Mar 5, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, French colonial governor of America, was born.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1658        Apr 22, Giuseppe Torelli, composer (Concert Grossi op 8), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1658        Jun 15, The Mogul emperor Aurangzeb imprisoned his father the Shah, after winning a battle at Samgarh.
    (HT, 6/15/00)

1658        Jun 25, In India Aurangzeb proclaimed himself emperor of the Moghuls. Aurangzeb, son of Shah Jahan, overthrew his father and locked him up in the Jasmine tower.
    (HT, 4/97, p.24)(HN, 6/25/98)

1658        Aug 12, The 1st US police corps formed in New Amsterdam.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1658        Sep 3, Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth, i.e. ruler over England’s Puritan parliament (1653-58), died at age 59. Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as English Lord Protector.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.218)(AP, 9/3/97)(ON, 12/00, p.5)(MC, 9/3/01)(MC, 9/3/01)

1658        Vermeer (1632-1675), Dutch artist, completed his painting “The Milkmaid” about this time.
    (Econ, 9/19/09, p.98)

1658        In New Amsterdam (later NYC) a night watchman kept a lookout for Indian attacks.
    (WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)

1658        The sultan of Brunei gave Sabah, the northeastern part of Borneo, to the sultan of Sulu, who ruled a part of what later became the Philippines.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.39)

1658        Construction began on the Royal Palace in Turin, Italy.
    (SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)

1658        In France Moliere was anointed with the patronage of King Louis XIV.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.D2)

1658-1716    Ogata Korin, Japanese artist. The artist created the cartoonish "Gods of Wind and Thunder."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1658-1742    Nicholas Roosevelt, the common ancestor of later US presidents Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt.
    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)

1659        Jan 18, Benedikt Lechler (64), composer, died.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1659        Mar 7, Henry Purcell, English organist, composer (Dido & Aeneas), was born.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1659        Mar 22, The Warsaw parliament decided to issue metal currency, shillings, for Lithuania and Poland.
    (LHC, 3/22/03)

1659        Mar 26, William Wollaston, English philosopher, was born.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1659        Apr 22, Lord protector Cromwell disbanded the English parliament.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1659        May 25, Richard Cromwell resigned as English Lord Protector.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1659        Sep 30, Robinson Crusoe was shipwrecked (according to Defoe). [see Feb 12, 1709]
    (MC, 9/30/01)
1659        Sep 30, Peter Stuyvesant of New Netherlands forbade tennis playing during religious services (1st mention of tennis in US).
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1659        Oct 13, Gen. John Lambert drove out the English Rump government. The "Rump Parliament" was restored in Dec.
    (PCh, 1992, p.247)(MC, 10/13/01)

1659        Oct 10, Able Janszoon Tasman, navigator, died at about 56. He discovered Tasmania.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1455)(MC, 10/10/01)

1659        Oct 12, English Rump government fired John Lambert and other generals. [see Oct 13]
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1659        Oct 13, Gen. John Lambert drove out the English Rump government. The "Rump Parliament" was restored in Dec. [see Oct 12]
    (PCh, 1992, p.247)(MC, 10/13/01)

1659        Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, made "Jupiter and Antiope" (1659).
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1659        Cornelius Meylin, patroon of Staten Island, wrote in his recollections that Staten Island was acquired in 1630 in exchange for "kittles, axes, Hoos, wampum, drilling awles, Jews Harps and diverse small wares." Wampum was also referred to as peag or seawan by Native Americans and consisted of strung cylindrical beads made from polished shells. It was formerly used by some North American Indians as currency and jewelry. It was also used to record events, as a medium of communication and sometimes for ceremonial and spiritual purposes.
    (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)(HNQ, 3/23/02)

1659        Christiaan Huygens published “Systema Saturnium,” his observations on Saturn.
    (NH, 10/1/04, p.29)
1659        Christien Huygens of Holland used a 2-inch telescope lens and discovered that the Martian day is nearly the same as an Earth day.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1659        Quaker leader Mary Dyer was sentenced to death by a Puritan court in Massachusetts Bay Colony amid the Salem witch trials. She refused to leave the colony and was hanged in 1660.
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(SFEC, 1/16/00, Z1 p.1)

c1659        The British Parliament invoked law that made it a crime, punishable by burning at the stake, to forecast the weather.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)
1659        A London discussion group called the Amateur Parliament met at Miles' coffee house.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)
1659        In Britain a check was written and made out for 400 pounds (equivalent to around 42,000 pounds in 2009). It was signed by Nicholas Vanacker, made payable to a Mr Delboe and drawn on Messrs Morris and Clayton, scriveners and bankers of the City of London. As of 2009 it was the oldest surviving British check.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

1659        Christian Huygens of Holland used a 2-inch telescope lens and discovered that the Martian day is nearly the same as an Earth day.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1659-1661    Michael Sweerts, Flemish painter, created his rosy "Portrait of a Youth."
    (SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)

1660        Mar 13, A statute was passed limiting the sale of slaves in the colony of Virginia.
    (HN, 3/13/99)

1660        Mar 28, Georg Ludwig, German monarch of Hanover, King George I of Great Britain, was born.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1660        Apr 16, Hans Sloane, founder of British Museum, was born.
    (HN, 4/16/98)

1660        May 3, Prince Charles, Son of King Charles I, returned to England from France.
    (ON, 7/06, p.8)

1660        May 7, Isaack B. Fubine of Savoy, in The Hague, patented macaroni.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1660        May 8, The son of the late Charles I is proclaimed King ending 11 years of civil war.
    (PCh, 1992, p.248)

1660        May 26, Charles II (29), returning from exile, landed at Dover.
    (PCh, 1992, p.248)

1660        May 28, George I, king of England (1714-1727), was born.
    (HN, 5/28/98)(MC, 5/28/02)

1660        May 29, Charles II, who had fled to France,  was restored to the English throne after the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal with George Monck, a general of the New Model Army, and with the old parliamentary foes of his father. The British experiment with republicanism came to an end with the restoration of Charles II.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
1660        May 29, Gyorgy Rakosi II prince of Transylvania, died in battle.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1660        May 29, Peter Scriverius (44), lawyer, historian, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1660        Aug 6, Diego Rodriguez de Silva Velasquez (b.1599), Spanish court painter, died.
    (WSJ, 2/24/00, p.A16)(MC, 8/6/02)

1660        Aug 21, Hubert Gautier, engineer, wrote 1st book on bridge building, was born in Nimes, France.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1660        Sep 27, St. Vincent de Paul, Vincentian founder, died.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1660        Oct 15, Asser Levy was granted a butcher's license for kosher meat in New Amsterdam.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1660        Oct 16, John Cooke (b.1608), England’s solicitor-general during the 1649 trial of Charles 1, was hanged as Charles II looked on in approval. Cooke was hanged slowly until he passed out and then was revived to watch as his genitals were sliced off. A length of his bowel was yanked from his body, pulled before his face and set alight as he bled to death. In 2006 Geoffrey Robertson authored “The Tyrannicide Brief,” an account of Cooke during this period.
    (WSJ, 9/6/06, p.D10)(www.pepysdiary.com/archive/1660/10/13/)

1660        Oct, England’s King Charles II enacted his first Declaration of Indulgence.
    (www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1327117)

1660        Nov 28, The London Royal Society formed. Members included Christopher Wren, William Petty, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins and Lawrence Rooke.
    (www.royalsoc.ac.uk/page.asp?id=2176)(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.12)

1660        Dec 3, Jacques Sarazin (70), French sculptor and painter, died.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1660        Dec 8, The first Shakespearian actress to appear on an  English stage (she is believed to be a Ms. Norris) made her debut as 'Desdemona.'
    (HN, 12/8/99)

1660        Dec 24, Mary I Henriette Stuart (29), queen of England, died.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1660        Rembrandt van Rijn painted "The Old Woman Cutting Her Nails" about this time.
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

c1660        The Dutch crafted an early version of a boat they called a "yacht."
    (SFC, 7/18/98, p.E3)

1660s        The British began to dominate the trade in port wine from Portugal after a political spat with the French denied them the French Bordeaux wines. Brandy was added to the Portuguese wines to fortify them for the Atlantic voyage.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T7)(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)

1660        Bartholomew Sharpe, a British pirate, turned Belize into a base to harvest logwood. British buccaneers settled the coast.
    (SFC, 11/2/00, p.A12)

1660        The Palacio Clavijero was built as a Jesuit temple in Valladolid (later Morelia), Mexico.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E6)

1660        Pieter Claesz (b.ca.1597), Dutch still-life painter, died.
    (WSJ, 11/22/05, p.D8)

1660-1685    King Charles II was ruler of Great Britain. He was the son of Charles I. Under his reign the Italian artist Antonio Verrio painted 2 huge frescoes that covered the entire walls and ceiling of what is now St. George’s Hall. One painting depicted Christ healing the sick in the Temple of Jerusalem and the other was of King Charles II. The frescoes were destroyed in the 1820s under King George IV to reflect a new national style. One fresco was rediscovered in 1996 during reconstruction after a fire in 1992. Charles is known as "the Merry Monarch" because of his many mistresses, enthusiasm for parties and mockery of Puritan values.
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(ON, 12/00, p.4)

1660-1725    Alessandro Scarlatti, Italian musician and composer, father of Domenico.
    (LGC-HCS, p.40)

1660-1731    Daniel Defoe, English novelist and political journalist. He was born as Daniel Foe and became a successful merchant in woolen goods. For a time he was jailed due to his debts. He became a supporter of William of Orange and wrote over 500 publications on his behalf. Some regard him as the father of modern journalism. Among other works he wrote "Robinson Crusoe," "Moll Flanders," "General Histories of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates," "A Tour of the Whole Island of Great Britain," and "Journal of the Plague Year." In 1999 Richard West published "Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures."
    (WUD, 1994, p.379)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)

1660-1830    In the 1990s literary critic Claude Rawson wrote "Satire and Sentiment: 1660-1830."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

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