Timeline 18th Century: 1700-1724

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1700        Jan 1, Russia replaced the Byzantine with the Julian calendar, which remained in effect until the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1918.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etos_Kosmou)

1700        Jan 26, A magnitude 9.0 earthquake shook Northern California, Oregon, Washington and British Colombia. It triggered tsunami that damages villages in Japan.
    (AP, 2/27/10)

1700        Jan 27, A tsunami hit Honshu Island, Japan. It was later estimated that wave was triggered by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in California.
    (CW, Spring ~ez_lsquo~99, p.32)

1700        Jan 29, Daniel Bernoulli, mathematician (10 time French award), was born in Basel, Switzerland.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1700          Feb 22, Augustus II (the Strong), elector of Saxony (1694-1733) and King of Poland (1697-1706, 1709-1733), with the help of the Saxon army attacked Swedish controlled Riga. This began the Northern War (1700-1721).
    (LHC, 2/22/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_II_the_Strong)

1700        Feb 27, The Pacific Island of New Britain was discovered. It is the largest of group of islands in the South Pacific, NE of New Guinea.
    (HN, 2/27/98)(WUD, 1994, p.962)

1700        May 1, John Dryden (b.1631), English poet, playwright (Rival Ladies), died. He had written that repentance was virtue of weak minds and the want of power to sin.
    (MC, 5/1/02)(Econ, 7/24/04, p.70)

1700        May 7, Gerard van Swieten, Dutch botanist, was born.
    (MC, 5/7/02)
1700        May 7, William Penn began monthly meetings for Blacks advocating emancipation.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1700        Jun 23, Russia gave up its Black Sea fleet as part of a truce with the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1700        Jul 15, Johann Christoph Richter, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1700        Sep 11, James Thomson, Scottish poet and songwriter, was born. He wrote the song "Rule Britannia."
    (HN, 9/11/00)(MC, 9/11/01)

1700        Sep, In Mexico Juan Bautista and Jacinto de los Angeles informed Spanish authorities of an Indian religious ceremony and were killed by fellow Indians. Christian officials decapitated and quartered 15 men and staked their body parts by the roadside as a warning. In 2002 Bautista and Angeles were beatified by Pope John Paul II.
    (AP, 7/30/02)

1700        Nov 20, Sweden's 17-year-old King Charles XII defeated the Russians at Narva.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1700        William Congreve, an Anglo-Irishman playwright, published his last play, "The Way of the World."
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

c1700        Richard Gough, an aged English lawyer, authored "History of Myddle."
    (SFC, 4/3/01, p.C3)

1700        Castle Howard, Yorkshire, England, designed by Sir John Vanbrugh as the baroque home of the earls of Carlisle was begun.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.665)

1700        Around 1700 during a 50-year period of brutal winters, the Thule abandoned Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic for Greenland.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.763)

1700        British settlers began arriving to the Cayman Islands.
    (AP, 5/10/03)

c1700        The English slave ship Henrietta Marie sank near Key West.
    (WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)

1700        Germany adopted the Gregorian calendar established in 1582.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)

1700        India, with a population of some 165 million, was the world~ez_rsquo~s biggest economy and leading cotton producer.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.4)

1700        The inventory of Medici instruments for 1700 establishes that at least one piano, created by Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1731), had been completed by this date. Cristofori began work on the ~ez_ldquo~harpsichord with soft and loud~ez_rdquo~ in 1698.
    (www.cantos.org/Piano/History/cristofori.html)

1700         The Spanish crown monopolized the Aquardiente industry in Colombia.
    (AP, 9/2/03)

1700s        In Senegal female slave traders, called signare, prospered by conducting business with European men.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1700s        In Spain bullfighting emerged in its modern form.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

c1700-1800    Anton Graff, 18th cent. German painter.
    (SFEC, 10/9/96, C2)

c1700-1800    Giuseppe Nogari, Italian artist, painted "Old Woman With a Cup." In 1997 it became the focus of a sting operation on Sotheby's auction house which arranged its illegal export from Italy to New York.
    (SFC, 2/7/97, p.A18)

1700-1800    The expression "putting on the dog" derived from the fact that in the 18th century, the finest dancing shoes were made of dog skin, which could be worn out in one night of vigorous footwork.
    (HNQ, 2/4/99)

1700-1800    The Kabala of Isaac Luria provided the inspiration for the revolutionary 18th century Jewish revivalist movement in Eastern Europe, Hasidism. It included the idea known as "tikkun olam" whereby the world is repaired by identifying the spark of God in every living thing.
    (WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

1700-1800    The Gaon of Vilna, Lithuania, excommunicated the Hasidic Jews after they cast aside the traditional Jewish prayer book, replacing it with one composed by Isaac Luria.
    (WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

c1700-1800    In Malaysia Monosopiad, an 18th cent. warrior, collected some 42 human skulls. His house near Sandakan is known as the House of Skulls.
    (SFEC, 10/17/98, p.T11)

1700-1800    Mauritius was settled by the French in the18th cent. The island was seeded with sugar and slaves were brought from Africa to work the plantations.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A8)

1700s        In England Thomas Sheraton invented twin beds in the late 1700s.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)

1701        Jan 18, Frederick III, the elector of Brandenburg, became the king of Prussia.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1701        Feb 19, Philip V of Spain made his ceremonial entry into Madrid.
    (HN, 2/19/99)

1701          Mar 9, In Birzai Augustus II and Russia's Czar Peter I signed a treaty.
    (LHC,3/9/03)

1701        May 23, New York sea captain William Kidd was hanged on the banks of the Thames after being found guilty of piracy and murder. Kidd had reluctantly became a privateer for England in 1696 and was expected to fight pirates on the open sea, seize their cargoes, and provide a hefty share of the spoils to the Crown. According to his British accusers, Kidd turned to piracy himself as the deadline for reporting to his employers in New York approached and he had not taken enough booty to fulfill his commission. Kidd himself did not know he was a wanted man until he dropped anchor in the West Indies in April 1699. He chose to surrender to the authorities and submit to a London trial, believing to the end that he could clear his name. Important evidence in his favor was suppressed and he was hanged. [see Jul 6]
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HNPD, 8/27/98)(HN, 5/23/99)

1701        May 31, Alexander Cruden, compiler of a concordance to King James Bible, was born.
    (HN, 5/31/98)

1701        Jul 6, William Kidd, English-US buccaneer, was hanged. [see May 23]
    (MC, 7/6/02)(PC, 1992, p.272)

1701        Jul 24, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac (d.1730), aged 43, established Fort Ponchartrain for France on the future site of the city of Detroit, Michigan, in an attempt to halt the advance of the English into the western Great Lakes region.
    (HN, 7/24/98)(DFP, 7/24/01)

1701        Sep 6, James II [Stuart], king of England (1685-88), died at 68.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1701        Sep 7, England, Austria, and the Netherlands formed an Alliance against France.
    (HN, 9/7/98)

1701        Oct 9, The Collegiate School of Connecticut -- later Yale University -- was chartered in New Haven, Conn. It was the first US school to award a doctorate degree. [see Oct 16]
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A9)(SF C, 3/8/96, p.E3)(AP, 10/9/97)

1701        Oct 13, Andreas Anton Schmelzer, composer, died at 47.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1701        Oct 16, Yale University was founded as The Collegiate School of Kilingworth, Connecticut by Congregationalists who considered Harvard too liberal. [see Oct 9]
    (HN, 10/16/00)

1701          Oct 28, William Penn presented a Charter of Privileges for the Province of Pennsylvania during his 2nd and last visit to the colony. Among its provisions was one establishing total religious freedom and tolerance to those who wanted to live in peace in the colony. It remained as Pennsylvania's constitution until the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775-1783).
    (www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/states/pa07.htm)

1701        Nov 27, Anders Celsius (d.1744), Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade temperature scale, was born in Uppsala.
    (WUD, 1994, p.238)(AP, 11/27/06)

1701        The Act of Settlement established the order of succession to the English throne.
    (www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon53.html)
1701        In England presiding Chief Justice Lord Hold (1642-1710) ruled that ~ez_ldquo~As soon as a Negro comes into England, he becomes Free.~ez_rdquo~
    (ON, 12/08, 8)(http://tinyurl.com/9jhg29)
1701          The English slave ship Henrietta Marie sank 35 miles off Key West, Florida, on its way back to Europe. It had delivered 188 captured Africans to a slave broker in Jamaica in exchange for sugar and other goods bound for England. The wreck was found in 1972.
    (SFC, 8/12/96, p.C5)(WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.C12)
1701        Jethro Tull (1674-1741), a farmer in Berkshire, England, created a horse-drawn mechanical drill to plant seeds in a row.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/jtull.html)

1701        German artisans created an amber room for King Frederick I of Prussia. He presented it as a gift to Peter the Great in 1712 [see 1712, 1716].
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E6)(WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A20)
1701        German alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger (1682-1719) escaped from Berlin, where he faced arrest for claiming he could turn lead into gold. He was arrested in Wittenberg and sent to Dresden where Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, ordered him to replicate his alleged feat. Bottger soon befriended Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, who was interested in creating true white porcelain. In 1705 Augustus allowed Bottger to work with Tschirnhaus on making porcelain.
    (ON, 8/10, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Friedrich_B%C3%B6ttger)

1701        Spain~ez_rsquo~s medieval kingdom of Aragon again rebelled against Madrid.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1701        The War of Spanish Succession began and continued to 1714.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_Spanish_Succession)

1702        Jan 17, Thomas Franklin, English smith and uncle of B. Franklin, died.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1702        Mar 8, William III of Orange (51), Dutch King of England (1689-1702), died after falling from his horse and catching a chill. Anne Stuart (37), his sister-in-law, succeeded to the throne of England, Scotland and Ireland and reigned until 1714.
    (PCh, 1992, p.272)(MC, 3/8/02)(AP, 3/8/98)

1702        Mar 11, The Daily Courant, the first regular English newspaper was published.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1702        Mar 21, Queen Anne Stuart addressed the English parliament.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1702        Apr 27, Jean Bart (51), French captain, sea hero (Escape out of Plymouth), died.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1702        Oct 12, [British] Admiral Sir George Rooke defeated the French fleet off Vigo.
    (HN, 10/12/98)

1702        Oct 27, English troops plundered St. Augustine, Florida.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1702        Nov 4, John Benbow, English vice-admiral (Santa Marta), died.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1702        Nov 26, Colley Cibber's "King Imposter" made its premier.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1702        Lord Cornbury, Queen Anne's cousin, was made governor of New York and gave Trinity Church some land.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A13)

1702        Omori Yoshikiyo, Japanese ehon artist, created his work ~ez_ldquo~Trailing Willows,~ez_rdquo~ which depicted the working women in the government sanctioned pleasure quarter of Kyoto.
    (WSJ, 1/4/07, p.B11)
1702        Meijin Dosaku, go-master to the shogun of Japan, died. He was the 4th head of the Honimbo go school and is held by many Japanese to have been the game~ez_rsquo~s greatest player.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.129)
1702        Basho Matsuo, Japanese poet, died.
    (SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)

1702        Georg Everhard Rumpf, German botanist, died. He was employed by the Dutch East India Company and compiled the ~ez_ldquo~Ambonese Herbal,~ez_rdquo~ even after going blind in 1670. The work was published in Amsterdam between 1741 and 1755.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, p.94)

1702-1711    Old Mobile, Alabama, was the first French settlement at Mobile.
    (AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)

1703        Apr 26, Georg Christoph Leuttner (58), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1703        May 18, Dutch and English troops occupied Cologne.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1703        May 26, Samuel Pepys (b.1633), English diarist, died. In the 1930s Sir Arthur Bryant authored a 3-volume biography. In the 1970s Richard Ollard authored a single volume biography. In 2001 Stephen Coote authored "Samuel Pepys: A Life" and another was expected by Claire Tomalin. In 2002 Claire Tomalin authored "Samuel Pepys: The Unequaled Self."
    (WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(HN, 2/23/01)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M3)(MC, 5/26/02)

1703        May 27, Peter the Great founded St. Petersburg (Leningrad) as the capital of Russia. It was built on a swampy settlement ceded by Sweden and occupied by about 150 people.
    (WSJ, 1/28/97, p.A16)(www.worldpress.org/Europe/1938.cfm)(MT, Winter/03, p.12)

1703        Jun 17, John Wesley (d.1791), English evangelist and theologian, was born. He founded the Methodist movement. He spent a brief period in Georgia (1738) as a missionary.
    (HN, 6/17/99)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1703        Jul 31, English novelist Daniel Defoe was made to stand in the pillory as punishment for offending the government and church with his satire "The Shortest Way With Dissenters."
    (HN, 7/31/01)

1703        Sep 23, Jean-Marie Leclair, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1703        Sep 30, The French, at Hochstadt in the War of the Spanish Succession, suffered only 1,000 casualties to the 11,000 of their opponents, the Austrians of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1703        Oct 5, Jonathan Edwards (d.1758), US, theologian and philosopher (Original Sin), was born. He helped promote the "Great Awakening" of religious fervor that broke out in Protestant churches in New Jersey in the 1720s and spread to New England in the 1730s.
    (WUD, 1994, p.454)(SSFC, 7/8/01, p.B5)(MC, 10/5/01)

1703        Oct 23, In Malmesbury, England Hannah, Twynnoy (33) teased a tiger at a circus. The tiger broke loose and killed her.
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, Z1 p.2)

1703        Nov 19, The "Man in the Iron Mask," a prisoner in Bastille prison in Paris, died.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1703        Nov 26-27, Heavy storms hit England and 1000s were killed. Bristol, England, was damaged by the hurricane. The Royal Navy lost 15 warships.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1703        Dec 30, Tokyo was hit by Earthquake and some 37,000 people died.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1703        Francois Boucher, French painter, was born. He painted "Diana."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.174)

1703        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (d.1792), Islamic theologian and founder of Wahhabism, was born in Arabia. He set out his ideas in ~ez_ldquo~The Book of Unity~ez_rdquo~ (1736). Wahhabism, a puritan branch of Sunni Islam, was founded by al-Wahhab in a poor part of Arabia called Najd. Saudi armies helped to spread Wahhabi Islamic reform. A Salafi, from the Arabic word Salaf (literally meaning predecessors or early generations), is an adherent of a contemporary movement in Sunni Islam that is sometimes called Salafism or Wahhabism. Salafis themselves insist that their beliefs are simply pure Islam as practiced by the first three generations of Muslims and that they should not be regarded as a sect. [see 1744]
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(www.concise.britannica.com)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salafi)

1703        Sir Isaac Newton, English scientist, became president of the Royal Society.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton)

1703        Johann Sebastian Bach obtained his first position as organist for the city of Arnstadt, Thuringia, Germany.
    (Hem., Nov.'95, p.114)

1703        L'Aquila in central Italy was again devastated by an earthquake.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)

1703        A pair of lovers committed suicide in Osaka. The story of the courtesan and young merchant was quickly depicted in the Kabuki play ~ez_ldquo~The Love suicides at Sonexaki~ez_rdquo~ by Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1725).
    (SFC, 6/20/05, p.C5)

1703-1730    Ahmed III succeeded Mustafa II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1704        Feb 19, In Japan Kabuki actor Ichikawa Danjuro I (b.1660, the first of the Danjuro line, was murdered by a rival on stage.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichikawa_Danj%C5%ABr%C5%8D_I)(Econ, 2/16/13, p.44)

1704        Feb 24, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, French composer (church music), died.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1704        Feb 28, Indians attacked Deerfield, Mass. killing 40 and kidnapping 100.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1704        Apr 24, The Boston News-Letter was established, first successful newspaper in U.S.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1704        May 1, Boston Newsletter published the 1st US newspaper ad.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1704        May 20, Elias Neau formed a school for slaves in NY.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1704        Jul 24, Admiral George Rooke took Gibraltar from the Spanish.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1704        Aug 4, In the War of Spanish Succession, an Anglo-Dutch fleet captured Gibraltar.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Gibraltar)(AP, 9/19/06)

1704        Aug 13, The Battle of Blenheim, Germany, was fought during the War of the Spanish Succession, resulting in a victory for English and Austrian forces. The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Austria defeated the French Army at the Battle of Blenheim. In 1705 Joseph Addison wrote the poem "The Campaign" for the Duke of Marlborough to commemorate the military victory over France and Spain at the Battle of Blenheim: "Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm."
    (AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A6)

1704        Sep 28, Maryland allowed divorce if a wife displeased the clergyman or preacher.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1704          Oct 28, John Locke (b.1632), English philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher, died. He authored 2 treatises on government.
    (www.utm.edu/research/iep/l/locke.htm#Life)

1704        Oct, Scottish buccaneer Alexander Selkirk (1676-1721) isolated himself on the desert island of Mas a Tierra off the coast of Chile to protest the irrational actions of the Captain Thomas Stradling of the English privateer Cinque Ports. He remained on the island until Feb 1, 1709, and his story inspired Daniel Defoe~ez_rsquo~s "Robinson Crusoe."
    (ON, 6/12, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Selkirk)

1704        In England Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) began publishing "The Review." Defoe in this year also authored ~ez_ldquo~The Storm~ez_rdquo~ in which he organized the winds into categories of scale.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1704        English forces attacked Apalachee Indians in Florida driving them into slavery and exile. Some 800 Apalachee fled west to French-held Mobile.
    (WSJ, 3/9/05, p.A1)

1704        John Churchill, first duke of Marlborough, was victorious at Blenheim in Bavaria, and was rewarded with the Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, England.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.671)

1705        Jan 8, Georg F. Handel's 1st opera "Almira," premiered in Hamburg.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1705        Jan 17, John Ray (b.1627), British naturalist and theologian, died. He had spent three years traveling in Europe collecting material for his book ~ez_ldquo~Historia Plantarum.~ez_rdquo~ The classification in his 1682 book ~ez_ldquo~Methodus Plantarum Nova~ez_rdquo~ is based on overall morphology. Ray's plant classification system was the first to divide flowering plants into monocots and dicots.
    (www.1911encyclopedia.org/John_Ray)(WSJ, 5/10/08, p.W8)

1705        Feb 15, Charles A. Vanloo, French painter, was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1705        Apr 16, Queen Anne of England knighted Isaac Newton at Trinity College.
    (HN, 4/16/98)(MC, 4/16/02)

1705        Apr 23, Richard Steele's "Tender Husband," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1705        May 5, Leopold I von Hapsburg (b.1640), Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor)

1705        Aug 4, Vaclav Matyas Gurecky, composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1705        Oct 14, The English Navy captured Barcelona in Spain.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1705        Nov 23, Nicholas Rowe's "Ulysses," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1705        Dec 29, Prosper Jolyot's "Idomenee," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1705        Joseph Addison wrote the poem "The Campaign" for the Duke of Marlborough to commemorate the military victory over France and Spain at the Battle of Blenheim.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A6)

1705        The first steam engine was built.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1705        Luca Giordano (b.1634), Neopolitan baroque painter, died. He had studied under Spanish-born teacher Jusepe de Ribera and late in life spent 10 years in Spain.
    (WSJ, 1/15/02, p.A14)

c1705        Yodoya Tatsugora, Japanese merchant, died. He was a member of the 5th generation of a family that became rich as silk traders and rice merchants. The Shogunate claimed that his wealth was unbecoming and confiscated it. Many government officials owed him money.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1705-1782    Carlo Broschi (a.k.a. Farinelli), Italian castrato, said to be able to produce 250 notes in a single breath. A film depicting his life was made in 1995, directed by Gerard Corbiau and features Stefano Dionisi as Farinelli.
    (SFC, 4/28/95, p.C-3)

1706        Jan 17, Benjamin Franklin (d.1790), American statesman, was born in Boston, the youngest boy in a family of 17 children. He helped draft the Declaration of Independence and wrote "Poor Richard's Almanac." Carl Van Doren portrays Franklin as a harmonious rationalist in his classic biography. David Morgan writes of Franklin's darker side in: "The Devious Dr. Franklin, Colonial Agent." And Robert Middlekauff describes Franklin as a trickster in his: "Benjamin Franklin and his Enemies." Franklin believed in white superiority and said: "why increase the Sons of Africa by planting them in America, when we have so fair an opportunity, by excluding all the Blacks and Tawneys, of increasing the lovely white.?" "If you would not be forgotten, as soon as you are dead and rotten, either write things worth reading, or do things worth the writing."
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)(SFC,12/897, p.A27)(AP, 1/17/98)(AP, 4/17/98)(HN, 1/17/99)(HNQ, 11/19/01)

1706        Jan 28, John Baskerville, English typographer and inventor of the "hot-pressing" method of printing. He also manufactured lacquered ware.
    (HN, 1/28/00)(WUD, 1994 p.124)

1706        Feb 27, John Evelyn, diarist, died.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1706        Mar 3, Johann Pachelbel (b.1653), German organist and composer best remembered for his ~ez_ldquo~Canon in D,~ez_rdquo~ died Nuremberg at age 52.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1034)(AP, 3/3/06)

1706        Mar 8, Vienna's Wiener Stadtbank was established.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1706        Apr 23, Spanish Gov. Francisco Cuervo y Valdes founded a new villa consisting of 35 families and named it in honor of the viceroy of New Spain, who was also the Duke of Albuquerque, a town in southwestern Spain. The 1st r was later dropped and in 2006 Albuquerque, NM, celebrated its 300th anniversary.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E12)

1706        Apr 24, Giovanni Battista Martini, composer (Padre Martini), was born.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1706        May 23, Battle of Ramillies: Marlborough defeated the French and 17,000 were killed.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1706        Jul 10, In Virginia Grace Sherwood (d.1740), aka the Witch of Pungo, was forced to undergo a trial by water under accusations of being a witch. She floated, a sign of guilt, and was imprisoned for nearly 8 years. In 2006 the governor of Virginia officially cleared her name.
    (http://tinyurl.com/k42jq)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)(http://carolshouse.com/witch/)

1706        Dec 28, Pierre Bayle (59), French theologist (History of Criticism), died.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1706        Bishop White Kennet printed his "Complete History of England with the Lives of All the Kings and Queens Thereof, Vol. 3" in London.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)

1706        The First Presbyterian church was organized in Philadelphia. It had begun in Scotland and the British Isles by John Knox around 1560.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1706        Pi, the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet, was 1st used as a mathematical symbol by William Jones of Wales. Pi represents the approximate ratio of a circle~ez_rsquo~s circumference to its diameter.
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, p.C5)(WSJ, 3/15/05, p.B1)

1706        Isaac Newton published the results of his 40 years of experiments with light in the "Opticks."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.206)

1706        San Felipe Church in Albuquerque, N.M., was founded.
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-1)

1706        The Treaty of Union between Scotland and England was set up. Daniel Defoe worked as a British agent in Scotland and sent back reports on agitation against the yielding of autonomy.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)

1706        Thomas Twinings opened his tea shop in London.
    (SFEC, 9/12/99, p.T2)

1707        Jan 16, Scotland ratified the Treaty of Union by a majority of 110 votes to 69. The Acts created a new state, the Kingdom of Great Britain, by merging the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland together.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acts_of_Union_1707)

1707        Feb 25, Italian playwright Carlo Goldoni (d.1793) was born in Venice. "He who talks much cannot always talk well."
    (AP, 6/1/98)(AP, 2/25/07)

1707        Mar 3, Aurangzeb (88), Emperor of India (1658-1707), died.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1707        Mar 7, Stephen Hopkins, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1707        Apr 6, Willem Van de Velde (b.1633) the Younger, Dutch marine painter, died. His work included ~ez_ldquo~fishing Boats by the Shore in a Calm~ez_rdquo~ (1660-1605).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_van_de_Velde_the_Younger)(SFC, 7/9/11, p.E1)

1707        Apr 22, Henry Fielding (d.1754), English novelist and essayist, was born in Sharpham Park, Somerset, England. His work included "Tom Jones."
    (WUD, 1994 p.528)(AP, 4/22/07)

1707        Apr 25, At the Battle of Almansa, Franco-Spanish forces defeated Anglo-Portuguese.
    (HN, 4/25/98)

1707        Apr 29, English-Scottish parliament accepted Act of Union and formed Great Britain. [see May 1]
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1707        May 1, Effective on this day Scotland and England were united by an act of Parliament. England, Wales and Scotland were united to form Great Britain.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)(HN, 5/1/98)

1707        May 9, Dietrich Buxtehude (~69), German organist, composer, died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1707        May 23, Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linné], Swedish botanist, was born.
    (HN, 5/23/01)

1707        Aug 31, The Treaty or Convention of Altranstädt was signed between Charles XII of Sweden and Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. It settled the rights of Protestants in Silesia and forced Augustus the Strong to yield the Polish throne to Stanisław Leszczyński (1677-1766).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Altranst%C3%A4dt_%281707%29)

1707        Sep 7, George-Louis Leclerc (d.1788), Comte de Buffon, French naturalist and theoretical biologist. He commented on the origins of marine invertebrate fossils in the hills of France. He also wrote a 35 volume work titled "Histoire Naturelle, Generale, et Particuliere," that was an attempt to record all that was known of the world of nature.
    (DD-EVTT, p.114)(WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A12)(MC, 9/7/01)

1707        Oct 17, German composer Johann S. Bach married his niece Maria Bach.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1707        Oct 23, The first Parliament of Great Britain, created by the Acts of Union between England and Scotland, held its first meeting.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

1707        Dec 1, Jeremiah Clarke, composer, died.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1707        Dec 5, The Society of Antiquaries of London was founded at the Bear Tavern in the Strand by John Talman, the son of an architect, Humfrey Wanley, a student of ancient inscriptions and Anglo-Saxon, and John Bagford, an eccentric shoemaker and dealer in books. They met for the purposes of forming a Society for the study of British antiquities, whose agreed aim was to further the study of British history prior to the reign of James I.
    (www.sal.org.uk/newsandevents/makinghistoryantiquaries/)(http://tinyurl.com/32uzwc)

1707        Dec 18, Charles Wesley, co-founder of the Methodist movement, was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1707        Moses Chaim Luzzato (d.1746), Hebrew playwright, was born in Padua. His work included the Mesillat Yesharim (1740), essentially an ethical treatise but with certain mystical underpinnings.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moshe_Chaim_Luzzatto)

1707        Jonathan Swift, novelist, said: "Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies, but let wasps and hornets break through."
    (SFEC, 5/14/00, Z1 p.2)

1707        Handel composed his first opera, "Almira." He went to Rome and was nicknamed Il Sassone, the Saxon. Legend has it that he had a harpsichord and organ duel with Domenico Scarlatti at the house of Cardinal Ottoboni. They tied on the harpsichord but Handel won easily on the organ. Handel also composed "Dixit Dominus" in this year.
    (LGC-HCS, p.38)(WSJ, 5/11/99, p.A20)

1707        England granted Scotland 400,000 pounds to clear debts from the Darien disaster.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

1707        Kondraty Bulavin led a Cossack uprising.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1707        In Japan Mount Fuji erupted.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.A12)

1708        Jan 5, German alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger, under the tutelage of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, succeeded in creating samples resembling pure porcelain at the Jungfernbastei castle in Dresden. Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, had ordered Bottger to re-create the formula for oriental porcelain. Bottger was imprisoned and joined physicist Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus in a search for the formula. Tschirnhaus died in Oct, 1708. Within 2 years a factory was established in Meissen~ez_rsquo~s Albrechtsburg and Meissenware became Europe~ez_rsquo~s first hard-paste porcelain.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.111)(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)(Econ, 4/3/10, p.88)(ON, 8/10, p.9)

1708        Feb 28, A slave revolt in Newton, Long Island, NY, left 11 dead.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1708        Mar 6, Francis de Laval (b.1623), the first bishop of Quebec, died. He was beatified in 1980 and canonized in 2014.
    (http://www.carrefourkairos.net/belineng.htm)

1708        Mar 23, English pretender to the throne James III landed at Firth of Forth.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1708        Apr 23, Friedrich von Hagedorn, German poet (Versuch einiger Poem), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1708        Apr 30, Simon de Vries, book seller, writer (Unequal), died.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1708        Jun 8, The Spanish galleon San Jose was trying to outrun a fleet of British warships off Colombia's coast, when a mysterious explosion sent it to the bottom of the sea with gold, silver, emeralds and 600 men. 14 men survived. In 1979 Sea Search signed a deal with Colombia giving Sea Search exclusive rights to search for the San Jose and 50 percent of whatever they find. In 1982 Sea Search announced to the world it had found the San Jose's resting place 700 feet below the water's surface, a few miles from the historic Caribbean port of Cartagena. In 1984 Colombian President Belisario Betancur signed a decree reducing Sea Search's share from 50% to a 5% "finder's fee." By 2007 the treasure was valued at more than $2 billion. In July, 2007, Colombia~ez_rsquo~s highest court ruled that the ship must first be recovered before an international dispute over the fortune can be settled. In 2007 Carla Rahn Phillips authored ~ez_ldquo~The Treasure of San Jose: Death at Sea in the War of the Spanish Succession.~ez_rdquo~
    (AP, 6/3/07)(AP, 7/6/07)(WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)

1708        Jul 4, Swedish King Karel XII beat Russians.
    (Maggio)

1708        Jul 11, The French were defeated at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, in the Netherlands by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1708        Aug 29, French Canadian and Indian forces attacked the village of Haverhill, Mass., killing 16 settlers.
    (AP, 8/29/08)

1708        Sep 28, At the Battle at Lesnaya the Russian army captured a Swedish convoy.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1708        Oct 1, John Blow, composer (Venus & Adonis), died at 59.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1708        Oct 11, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (b.1651), German physicist, died. Three days after Von Tschirnhaus~ez_rsquo~s death, there was a burglary at his house and, according to a report by Böttger, a small piece of porcelain was stolen. This report suggests that Böttger himself recognized that Von Tschirnhaus already knew how to make porcelain, a key piece of evidence that Von Tschirnhaus and not Böttger was the inventor of white porcelain.
    {Germany, Physics, Ceramics}
    (ON, 8/10, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ehrenfried_Walther_von_Tschirnhaus)

1708        Oct 16, Albrecht von Haller, Swiss experimental physiologist, was born.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1708        Oct, London~ez_rsquo~s St. Paul~ez_rsquo~s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was completed. The "topping out" of the cathedral (when the final stone was placed on the lantern) took place. The cathedral was declared officially complete by Parliament on 25 December 1711 (Christmas Day). In 2008 Leo Hollis authored ~ez_ldquo~The Phoenix: St Paul~ez_rsquo~s Cathedral and the Men Who Made Modern London.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral)

1708        Nov 15, William Pitt the Elder, Secretary of State of England whose strategies helped win the Seven Years War, was born. He served as Whig PM from 1756-61 and 66-68.
    (HN, 11/15/98)(MC, 11/15/01)

1708        Dec 21, French forces seized control of the eastern shore of Newfoundland after winning a victory at St. John's.
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1708        Thomas Corneille mentioned Camembert cheese in his geographical dictionary.
    (Econ, 7/26/03, p.79)

1708        A map was made that depicted Towasa Indian Lamhatty's account of his enslavement in colonial America. It was one of 75 documents in the 1997 book "Another America" by Mark Warhus.
    (NH, 5/97, p.11)

1708         Mir Wais, a forerunner of Afghan independence, made Kandahar independent of Safavid Persia, that had ruled it since 1622.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1708        The German Baptist Brethren were founded as a band of Pietists in the village of Schwarzenau. Due to persecution they soon migrated to America. The Holy Spirit whispers to every believer but can only be heard by those who sacrifice self-will to god's will. They observe the rite of the "holy kiss" and have no leaders.
    (WSJ, 8/3/01, p.W13)

1708        The Great Buddha Hall at Nara~ez_rsquo~s Todaiji Temple, the world~ez_rsquo~s largest wooden structure, was rebuilt at two thirds of the original scale.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.46)

1708        Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh guru died in India. He named the ~ez_ldquo~Granth Sahib~ez_rdquo~ holy book as his eternal successor before his death.
    (AP, 9/1/04)

1709        Jan 5, Sudden extreme cold killed 1000s of Europeans.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1709        Jan 10, Abraham Darby (1678-1717) in Coalbrookdale, England, began using coke to provide carbon for making iron. This led to the end of the use of charcoal for making iron.
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Darby_I)

1709        Feb 1, British sailor Alexander Selkirk was rescued after being marooned on a desert island for 5 years. His story inspired "Robinson Crusoe."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Selkirk)

1709        Feb 8, Giuseppi Torelli (50), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1709        Mar 8, William Cowper/Cooper (~62), English anatomist, died.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1709        Apr 12, The Tatler magazine in England published its 1st edition.  It used the names of coffee houses as subject headings for articles.
    (MC, 4/12/02)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)

1709        Jun 28, Russians defeated the Swedes and Cossacks at the Battle of Poltava. [see July 8]
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1709        Jul 5, Etienne de Silhouette, French minister of finance, outline portrait artist, was born.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1709        Jul 8, Peter the Great defeated Charles XII at Poltava, in the Ukraine, effectively ending the Swedish empire. [see June 28]
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1709        Sep 3, The 1st major group of Swiss and German colonists reached the Carolinas.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1709        Sep 11, John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, won the bloodiest battle of the 18th century at great cost, against the French at Malplaquet.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1709        Sep 17, Samuel Johnson, lexicographer and writer (Boswell's Tour Guide), was born. [see Sep 18]
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1709        Sep 18, Samuel Johnson (d.1784), English lexicographer, essayist, poet and moralist best known for "The Dictionary of the English Language," was born. "Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel." -- (To which Ambrose Bierce replied, "I beg to submit that it is the first.") Boswell wrote the celebrated "Life of Johnson." In 1955 Walter Jackson Bate (d.1999 at 81) published "The Achievement of Samuel Johnson" and in 1977 the biography "Samuel Johnson." "The lawyer has no business with the justice or injustice of a cause. The justice or injustice is to be decided by the judge." [see Sep 17]
    (AP, 10/8/97)(BS, 5/3/98, p.13E)(HN, 9/18/98)(SFEC, 1/10/99, Par p.10)(SFC, 7/27/99, p.A17)

1709        Oct 20, Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy took Mons in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1709        Nov 22, Frantisek Benda, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1709        Dec 1, Franz Xaver Richter, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1709        Dec 8, Thomas Corneille (74), French dramatist, died.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1709        Dec 18, Elizabeth, empress of Russia (to Peter the Great & Catherine I), was born. [see Dec 29]
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1709        Dec 29, Elisabeth Petrovna, daughter of Peter the Great and Catherine, was born. She became tsarina of Russia (1741-1762).
    (www.arthistoryclub.com/art_history/Elizabeth_of_Russia)

1709        Boston minister Thomas Bannister donated the book "Complete History of England with the Lives of All the Kings and Queens Thereof, Vol. 3" to Harvard Univ. It was written by Bishop White Kennet and printed in 1706 in London.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)

1709        Handel composed his opera "Agrippina."
    (WSJ, 4/17/02, p.D7)

1709        Britain passed its first copyright act [see April 10, 1710].
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1709        Qing emperor Qianlong built the gardens of Yuanmingyuan (the garden of perfection and light) on the outskirts of Beijing as the imperial summer palace. In 1860 Lord Elgin~ez_rsquo~s cavalry set fire and let the gardens burn for 3 days and nights.
    (www.china.org.cn/english/features/beijng/31186.htm)(Econ, 11/26/05, p.18)

1709        In Paris representatives of the Comedie-Francaise tore down the loges at the Foire de Saint-Germain. The loges were quickly rebuilt and the Comedie-Francasie people came back enraged and burned them. The theaters were rebuilt in a week and plays resumed.
    (PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)

1710        Jan 4, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (d.1736), Italian composer (Il Prigioniero Superbo), was born.
    (MC, 1/4/02)(SFC, 6/24/02, p.B6)

1710        Feb 4, August II with the support of the Russian army was recognized by the parliament in Warsaw as King of Lithuania and Poland.
    (LHC, 2/4/03)

1710        Feb 7, William Boyce, English organist, composer of Cathedral music, was born.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1710        Feb 15, Louis XV (d.1774), King of France, was born. He ruled from 1715-1774.
    (HN, 2/15/98)(WUD, 1994, p.848)

1710        Mar 27, Joseph Marie Clement dall' Abaco, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1710        Apr 10, Britain~ez_rsquo~s Queen Anne gave her assent to an act ~ez_ldquo~for the encouragement of learning.~ez_rdquo~ It upheld Parliament~ez_rsquo~s 1709 copyright act, which set a limit of 21 years for books already in print and 14 years for new ones with an additional 14 years if the author was still alive when the first term ran out. 
    (Econ, 4/10/10, p.16)

1710        Oct 16, British troops occupied Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1710        Nov 14, Gottfried W. Leibniz (b.1646-1716), German philosopher and theologian, authored ~ez_ldquo~Theodicy~ez_rdquo~ in which he tried to resolve the theological problem of evil.
    (www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Leibniz.html)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1710        Nov 21, Barnardo Pasquini (72), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1710        Nov 22, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, composer, son of JS Bach (Sinfonias 64), was born.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1710        "The Narrow Road" by Basho Matsuo (d.1702), Japanese poet, was first published.
    (SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)

1710        Handel returned from Italy to Hanover and was appointed as court musician to the Elector of Hanover. Later that year he first went to London. He wrote opera in the Italian style and was very successful.
    (LGC-HCS, p.35)(WSJ, 8/7/01, p.A12)

1710        Louis-Nicolas Clerambault composed his cantata "Medee."
    (SFC, 6/6/96, E3)

1710        The original Chapel of San Miguel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, was erected. (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.69)

1710        St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church was built in Malacca, Malaysia.
    (SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T8)

1710        The Elector of Hanover commissioned the Hanover Cistern and Fountain, a silver buffet service intended to cool wine. In 1997 it had an estimated value of $2-3 million.
    (SFC, 10/8/97, Z1 p.4)

1710        In Germany Baron Johann Bottger invented the Meissen hard-paste porcelain at the Meissen factory on the river Elbe under the auspices of Augustus, King of Poland. [see 1709] Kandler was a virtuoso sculptor and brilliant artist at Meissen and was responsible for the figurine of Mazzetin and Columbine, 2 characters from the Italian comedia dell ~ez_lsquo~arte. In 2008 Maureen Cassidy-Geiger edited ~ez_ldquo~Fragile Diplomacy,~ez_rdquo~ an illustrated look at Meissen porcelain.
    (WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 2/16/08, p.W11)

1710        Umbrellas became popular in London.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1710-1784    Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, oldest son of J.S. Bach.
    (LGC-HCS, p.31)

1710-1895    Muslim rulers led the Kong Empire, also known as the Wattara or Outtara Empire, which spread across West Africa. It embraced a diversity of religious groups straddling what later became Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast.
    (Econ, 4/23/11, p.51)

1711        Feb 14, Handel's opera Rinaldo premiered. He composed his opera "Rinaldo," with the Italian librettist Giacomo Rossi. It was his 1st opera for London.
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 11/13/00, p.A32)(MC, 2/14/02)

1711        Mar 1, "The Spectator" began publishing in London.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1711        Mar 19, War was declared between Russia and Turkey.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1711        Apr 26, David Hume (d.1776), Scottish historian and philosopher, was born. His work included the ~ez_ldquo~Treatise of Human Nature~ez_rdquo~ and the 6-volume ~ez_ldquo~History of England.~ez_rdquo~ Use of the new calendar puts his birthday on May 7.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Hume)
1711        May 7, David Hume (d.1776), Scottish historian and philosopher, was born. His work included the ~ez_ldquo~Treatise of Human Nature~ez_rdquo~ and the 6-volume ~ez_ldquo~History of England.~ez_rdquo~  The old style calendar puts his birthday on April 26.
    (http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/hume/index.html)

1711        May 18, Ruggiero G. Boscovich [Rudzer J Boskovic], Italian astronomer, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1711        Jun 1, The Queen Anne Act, known as The British Post Office Act of 1710, took effect in North America on June 1, 1711. It created a formula that was used to improve the colonial postal system and remained in effect in North America until 1789. Colonists came to view the postal rates set forth in the act as an excessive and unwelcome form of taxation. The rates were revised by a later act, which took effect on October 10, 1765.
    (http://tinyurl.com/adqtq)

1711        Jul 21, Russia and Turkey signed the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1711        Aug 1, Czar Peter the Great fled Azov after being surrounded.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1711        Aug 23, A British attempt to invade Canada by sea failed.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1711        Sep 6, Heinrich Melchior Muhlenberg, founder of the US Lutheran church, was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1711        Sep 22, The Tuscarora Indian War began with a massacre of settlers in North Carolina, following white encroachment that included the enslaving of Indian children.
    (HN, 9/22/98)
1711        Sep 22, French troops occupied Rio de Janeiro.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1711        Nov 3, Ferdinand Tobias Richter (60), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1711        Dec 25, London~ez_rsquo~s St. Paul~ez_rsquo~s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was declared officially complete by Parliament. In fact construction was to continue for several years after that, with the statues on the roof only being added in the 1720s. In 2008 Leo Hollis authored ~ez_ldquo~The Phoenix: St Paul~ez_rsquo~s Cathedral and the Men Who Made Modern London.~ez_rdquo~
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral)

1711        Dec 31, Duke of Marlborough was fired as English army commander.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1711        The city of Beaufort, SC, was founded. It was later hailed as the state's 2nd oldest city.
    (SSFC, 1/19/03, p.C12)

1711        Horse racing began at the Royal Ascot track west of London. The 1st four day royal meeting was held there in 1768.
    (SFC, 6/21/06, p.A2)(www.icons.org.uk/nom/nominations/royal-ascot)
1711        Daniel Defoe, author and enthusiast of Latin America, persuaded the British government to set up the South Sea Company to trade with the region. Speculation fueled value in the company~ez_rsquo~s shares, but the bubble crashed in 1720. In 1960 Virginia Cowles authored ~ez_ldquo~The Great Swindle: The Story of the South Sea bubble.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.87)
1711        English ships captured the Spanish galleon San Joaquin, part of a fleet returning to Spain from Portobelo under Don Miguel Augustin de Villanueva, who was mortally wounded. New World wealth was on another ship, which managed to return to Spain.
    (WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)

1711        Marin Marais, a great French virtuoso on the viola da gamba, composed a pair of suites.
    (SFC, 6/10/98, p.D1)

1712        Jan 24, Frederick II (d.1786), Frederick the Great, the Hohenzollern King of Prussia (1740-1786), was born. He was noted for his social reforms and leading Prussia in military victories.
    (WUD, 1994, p.565)(HN, 1/24/99)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(MC, 1/24/02)

1712        Feb 8, L. Joseph de Montcalm de Saint-Veran, French general in America, was born. [see Feb 29]
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1712        Feb 29, Marquis Louis Joseph de Montcalm, Commander of French Forces in North America during French and Indian War, was born. [see Feb 8]
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1712        Apr 7, There was a slave revolt in New York City. A slave insurrection in New York City was suppressed by the militia and ended with the execution of 21 blacks. [see Jul 4]
    (HN, 4/7/97)(HNQ, 6/10/98)

1712        Jun 7, The Pennsylvania Assembly banned the importation of slaves.
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1712        Jun 28, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (d.1778), writer and philosopher, was born in Geneva, Switzerland. His books include "The Social Contract" (1762) and Emile (1762).
    (www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm)(HN, 6/28/99)

1712        Jul 4, Twelve slaves were executed for starting a slave uprising in New York that killed nine whites. [see Apr 7]
    (HN, 7/4/98)(PCh, 1992, p.278)

1712        Jul 12, Richard Cromwell (85), English Lord Protector (1658-59), died.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1712        Jul 30, Abraham Elsevier, publisher, died.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1712        Oct 4, Utrecht banished poor Jews.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1712        Oct 30, Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich, German painter, was born.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1712        Nov 4, The Bandbox Plot, an attempt to kill Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford and Lord Treasurer, was foiled by Jonathan Swift (the author of Gulliver~ez_rsquo~s Travels), who happened to be visiting Harley.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandbox_Plot)

1712        The poem ~ez_ldquo~The Rape of the Lock~ez_rdquo~ by English poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744) was anonymously published in Lintot~ez_rsquo~s Miscellany. It was revised, expanded and reissued under Pope~ez_rsquo~s name in 1714.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rape_of_the_Lock)

1712        The English tract "Onania; or the Heinous Sin of Self-Pollution, and All Its Frightful Consequences in Both Sexes, Considered, With Spiritual and Physical Advice to Those Who Have Already Injur'd Themselves by This Abominable Practice," was published. It was later attributed to a quack doctor named John Marten.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.E7)

1712        Handel composed his operas "Il Pastor Fido" and "Teseo."
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)

1712        South Carolina law required church attendance and prohibited work or travel on Sundays.
    (AH, 4/07, p.30)

1712        English Tories introduced a stamp tax, which taxed newspapers per sheet. Papers were then published as broadsheets, single sheets with huge pages
    (Econ, 6/12/04, p.18)
1712        Robert Walpole, later British prime minister, served a spell in the Tower of London on charges of financial impropriety.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)
1712         Englishman Thomas Newcomen created a piston system to separate the steam from the water.
    (HNQ, 1/18/01)

1712        In Mexico Maria de Ortiz Espejo was convicted by the Inquisition of telling women that hummingbirds and earthquakes could help them get pregnant. She got off with a warning.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1712        King Frederick I of Prussia presented his amber room, made as a gift by German artisans in 1701, to Peter the Great. Catherine the Great later added four marble panels from Florence, that were inlaid with precious stones. It was moved to Konigsberg in 1945 and then lost during WW II. One of the marble panels turned up in Bremen in 1997. [see 1716]
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E6)(WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A20)

1712        In Russia Peter the Great married Catherine.
    (WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A27)

1712-1793    Francesco Guardi, Italian painter. He painted "A Seaport and Classic Ruins in Italy."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.627)

1712-1862    England taxed soap with the declaration that it was a frivolous luxury of the aristocracy.
    (SFC, 4/17/99, p.B3)

1713        Jan 8, Arcangelo Corelli (59), composer, violinist (Concerti Grossi), died.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1713        Feb 25, Frederik I (55), King of Prussia (1701-13), died.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1713        Mar 15, Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, astronomer who mapped the Southern Hemisphere, was born.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1713        Apr 11, The Peace of Utrecht was signed, France ceded Maritime provinces to Britain. The French colony of Acadia, now Nova Scotia, was ceded to Great Britain. The Acadians had come from western France to fish and farm. Those who would not swear allegiance to the crown were deported. Many of these deportees went to the bayou country of Louisiana.
    (WUD, 1994, p.7)(WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A12)(HN, 4/11/98)(WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A29)
1713        Apr 11, Spain ceded the 2.5-sq. mile Gibraltar in perpetuity to Britain under the Treaty of Utrecht.
    (WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A29)(SFC, 2/19/02, p.A2)

1713        Apr 21, Louis Duke de Noailles, marshal of France, was born.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1713        May 25, John Stuart 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1713        Jul 7, The 1st performance of Georg F Handel's "To Deum" & "Jubilate."
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1713        Jun 13, Arcangelo Corelli (~49), Italian violinist, composer, died.
    (MC, 6/13/02)

1713        Oct 5, Denis Diderot (d.1784), French encyclopedist (Dictionnaire Encyclopedique), was born in Langres, Champagne, France. Age of Enlightenment philosopher, writer who with his friend Voltaire, scoffed at organized religion, ultimately bringing on the French Revolution.
    (www.nndb.com/people/914/000082668/)

1713        Oct 10, Johann Ludwig Krebs, composer, was born. [see Oct 12]
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1713        Oct 12, Johann Ludwig Krebs, composer, was born. [see Oct 10]
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1713        Nov 20, Thomas Tompion, English clock maker (cylinder tunnel), died.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1713        Nov 24, Junipero Serra (d.1784), Spanish Roman Catholic missionary to the Indians in California and Mexico was born on the Spanish isle of Palma de Mallorca. He came to the New World in 1749 accompanied by 14 other Mallorcans including the geographer Crespi and Father Francisco Palou, biographer of Serra and historian of the missions. Serra was beatified in 1988.
    (SFC, Z1, 4/28/96, p.6)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)(www.beachcalifornia.com/carmel2.html)
1713        Nov 24, Laurence Sterne (d.1768), novelist and satirist (Tristram Shandy), was born in Ireland. "Free thinkers are generally those who never think at all."
    (MC, 11/24/01)(AP, 6/19/97)

1713        Joseph Addison, English writer, authored the play "Cato."
    (SFC, 12/1/00, p.A3)

1713        Bach composed his Brandenburg Concerto No. 3.
    (WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)
1713        European white porcelain was put up for general sale for the first time at the Leipzig trade fair.
    (ON, 8/10, p.10)

1713        Andrew Robinson built the first schooner. In New England "to scoon" meant "to skim."
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.E3)

1713        Most European powers vowed to respect the 1713 royal pronouncement of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, called the Pragmatic Sanction, in which he declared that if he had no direct male heir upon his death, his Austrian domains would go to his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa.
    (HNQ, 7/29/99)

1713        The plague in Vienna ended. The Karlskirche Church, designed by Johann Bernard Fischer von Erlach was built to commemorate this event. It is considered to be Vienna's greatest Baroque church.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)

1713-1791    Kang Se-hwang, Korean painter.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.E1)

1714        Jan 7, A typewriter was patented by Englishman Henry Mill. It was built years later.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1714        Mar 6, the Treaty of Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy, Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7, 1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
    (PCh, ed. 1992, p.279)(http://tinyurl.com/b8uxbje)

1714        Mar 8, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (d.1788), German composer, son of J.S. Bach, was born. He played keyboard at the court of Frederick the Great for 28 years, and succeeded Telemann at Hamburg. Because he was left-handed he did not play the violin. He represented the elegant, noncontrapuntal style gallant that was developed by the Mannheim composers and led into Haydn and Mozart.
    (LGC-HCS, p.31)(MC, 3/8/02)

1714        Jul 2, Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck, composer, was born in Erasbach, Germany.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1714        Aug 1, Queen Anne (1702-1714) of Britain died at age 48. By the 1701 Act of Settlement Prince George Louis (54) of Hanover succeeded her as King George I (d.1727).
    (PCh, 1992, p.279)(www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon53.html)

1714        Sep 7, In Baden, Switzerland, Charles VI signed the Treaty of Baden, also called the Peace of Baden, on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire. It was one of the agreements that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession.
    (www.emersonkent.com/historic_documents/treaty_of_baden_1714.htm)

1714        Sep 11, The Bourbon monarchy suppressed Catalonia~ez_rsquo~s medieval institutions following the end of the War of Spanish Succession. The Kingdom of Aragon troops that fought in support of the Habsburg dynasty's claim to the Spanish throne were finally defeated at the Siege of Barcelona by the army of the Borbon king Philip V of Spain after 14 months of siege. This became the National Day of Catalonia (Diada) first celebrated in 1886.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Day_of_Catalonia)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.25)

1714        Sep 25, Jean-Benoit Leclair, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1714        Oct 20, Georg Ludwig of Hanover was crowned as George I of England. Queen Anne of England died and was succeeded by the Elector of Hanover.  The Hanoverian dynasty ruled to 1901.
    (LGC-HCS, p.36)(HN, 10/20/98)(WUD, 1994, p.644)

1714        Nov 11, A highway in Bronx was laid out. It was later renamed East 233rd Street.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1714        Bernard de Mandeville, Dutch philosopher, achieved widespread fame with his lengthy poem "The Fable of the Bees: Private Vice, Publick Benefits."
    (NH, 7/02, p.74)

1714        Tobias Swinden (1659-1719), English vicar, authored ~ez_ldquo~an Enquiry into the Nature and Place of Hell.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.26)
1714        A British comedy called ~ez_ldquo~The Winder~ez_rdquo~ was staged.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.132)
1714        Henry Mill received the first recorded patent for a typewriter in England.
    (SJSVB, 3/25/96, p.27)
1714        Henrietta Howard (b.1689-1767) traveled with her husband to Hanover to the court of George Louis, heir to the English throne. In 1720 she was appointed as Woman of the Bedchamber to Princess Caroline and in 1723 became a royal mistress. In 2007 Tracy Borman authored ~ez_ldquo~Henrietta Howard: King~ez_rsquo~s Mistress, Queen~ez_rsquo~s Servant.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henrietta_Howard,_Countess_of_Suffolk)

1714        In France Dom Perignon invented champagne. [see 1688]
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, Z1p.8)

1714        In Japan Ando Kaigetsudo (1671-1743) was banished to the island of Oshima. He was the founder of the Kaigetsudo school of ukiyo-e (scenes of the transient world of daily life)  painters and print designers.
    (SSFC, 11/20/05, p.M1)(www.ready-to-hang.com/LCP_ArtNotes/Kaigetsudo_Ando_Bio.htm)

1714        In Northern Russia the Church of the Transfiguration was built by the Kizhi community on an island on Lake Onega. The wooden church with 22 onion domes was built without nails.
    (WSJ, 9/16/06, p.P18)
1714        Peter the Great instituted the Order of St. Catherine in honor of his wife, Catherine. It was the highest Russian honor awarded exclusively to women. Only 12 women outside the royal family could be members of the Order at a time.
    (WSJ, 6/11/99, p.W14)(WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A27)
1714        Peter the Great of Russia founded Oktyabar, a pharmaceutical firm. In 1995 US ICN Pharmaceuticals increased its investment in the firm to 75% from 41%.
    (ICN, 1995 An. Rep., p.11)

1715        Jan 26, Claude Helvétius, French philosopher, was born. He advanced the theory that sensation is the source of all intellectual activity.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1715        Mar 7, Ewald Christian von Kleist, German lyric poet (Der Freuhling), was born.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1715        Mar, William Dampier (b.1651), English explorer and privateer, died. In 2004 Diana and Michael Preston authored "A Pirate of Exquisite Mind: Explorer, Naturalist and Bucaneer," a biography of Dampier.
    (WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)

1715        Apr 15, Uprising of Yamasse Indians in South Carolina.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1715        Apr 20, Nicholas Rowe's "Tragedy of Lady Jane Gray," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1715        May 3, Edmund Halley observed a total eclipse phenomenon: "Baily's Beads."
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1715        May 4, A French manufacturer debuted the first folding umbrella.
    (HN, 5/4/98)

1715        Jul 20, The Riot Act went into effect in England.
    (HFA, '96, p.34)(HN, 7/20/01)

1715        Jul 29, A hurricane sank 10 Spanish treasure galleons sank off Florida coast.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1715        Jul 30, A Spanish gold and silver fleet disappeared off St. Lucie, Florida.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1715        Sep 1, Louis XIV (b.1638), "the Sun King," king of France (1643-1715), died of gangrene. His wife was Madame de Maintenon, founder of the convent academy Maison St. Cyr. In 2006 Antonia Fraser authored ~ez_ldquo~Love and Louis XIV.~ez_rdquo~
    (THC, 12/3/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XIV_of_France)(WSJ, 11/4/06, p.P10)

1715        Sep 6, A pro-James III uprising took place in Scotland.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1715        Sep 30, Etienne B. de Condillac, French philosopher (sensualism, Cours d'etudes), was born.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1715        Oct 2, Peter II, czar of Russia (1727-30), was born.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1715        Nov 12, Forces of King George I fought a rebel army at Preston, Lancashire. The rebels were defeated as government reinforcements arrived the next day. 1468 rebels, including over 1000 Scots, were taken prisoner. William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, was soon condemned to death and taken to the Tower of London.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.9)(www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=323)

1715        Nov 13, English and Scottish rebels supporting James Francis Edward Stuart surrendered following the battle at Preston, Lancashire.
    (www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=323)
1715        Nov 13, The English fought the Scots at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in Scotland. The battle was inconclusive with both sides claiming victory. However in strategic terms Argyll had halted the Jacobite advance.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sheriffmuir)

1715        Nov 24, The Thames River froze.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1715        Nov 25, England granted the 1st patent to an American. It was for processing corn.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1715        Handel composed the opera "Amadigi di Gaula." It was about the sorceress Melissa and her attempts to seduce the hero Amadigi.
    (WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A16)
1715        Daniel Parker (~1700-1775), English violin maker, visited Stradivari~ez_rsquo~s workshop about this time in Cremona, Italy, and acquired an abundance of the master~ez_rsquo~s secrets in making violins.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.11)(www.amacviolins.com/amac/gallery/doc/makers.htm)

1715        The Ottomans recaptured the Peloponnesus from the Venetians.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1715        Mir Wais of Afghanistan died peacefully, and lies in a mausoleum outside of Kandahar.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1715        In Russia Peter the Great held a funeral for his favorite court dwarf. Lines of ecclesiastics were followed by 24 pair of male and female dwarves.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1715-1721    Colen Campbell and William Kent built the Burlington House in London, England. In 1854 the Cavendish family sold it to the government. Lady Cavendish had complained that its rooms were too narrow for hooped-skirted ladies to waltz in.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.19)

1715-1774    In France Louis XV, great-grandson of Louis XIV, ruled as king.
    (WUD, 1994, p.848)(PCh, 1992, p.279)

1716        Jan 15, Philip Livingston, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1716        Feb 23, Lady Nithsdale (25) planned and executed the escape of her husband, William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, as he awaited execution in the Tower of London. They both escaped to France and settled in Rome as members of James Francis Stuart~ez_rsquo~s court-in-exile.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.10)(http://tinyurl.com/7hdz7oe)

1716        Mar 13, Georg Gabriel Schutz (46), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1716        Apr 4, John Evangelist Schreiber, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1716        Apr 12, Felice de' Giardini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1716        May 29, Louis J.M. Daubenton, French zoologist, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1716        Jun 6, The 1st slaves arrived in Louisiana.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1716        Jul 18, A decree ordered all Jews expelled from Brussels.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1716        Sep 2, Johann Trier, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1716        Sep 14, The 1st lighthouse in the US was lit in Boston Harbor. It was blown up by the British in 1776 and was replaced in 1783.
    (www.lighthouse.cc/boston/history.html)(Econ, 3/31/12, p.41)

1716        Sep 24, Medici Grand Duke Cosimo III passed a law limiting and regulating the area of wine production in Tuscany, thus creating the 1st "Appelation Controlee" wine.
    (Carmignano, 1997)

1716            Nov 3, In the Pacification Treaty of Warsaw Czar Peter the Great (1672-1725) guaranteed Saxon monarch August I's (1682-1718) Polish kingdom.
    (DoW, 1999, p.373)

1716        Nov 14, Gottfried W. Leibniz (Leibnitz b.1646), German philosopher and theologian, died. In 2005 Matthew Stewart authored ~ez_ldquo~The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza, and the Fate of God in the Modern World.
    (www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Leibniz.html)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1716        Nov 26, The 1st lion exhibited in America was in Boston.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1716        Dec 23, Johann Heinrich Rolle, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1716        Dec 26, Thomas Gray, English poet, was born: Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard: "The paths of glory lead but to the grave."; also: "...where ignorance is bliss/'Tis folly to be wise."
    (440.com)

1716        Agostino Cornacchini created the porcelain version of his sculpture "Sleeping Endymion."
    (WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1716        In the summer of 1716, a Cornish cabin boy named Thomas Pellow (11) and fifty-one of his comrades were captured at sea by Barbary corsairs. Ali Hakem and his network of Islamic slave traders had declared war on the whole of Christendom. Thousands of Europeans had been snatched from their homes and taken in chains to the great slave markets of Algiers, Tunis, and Salé in Morocco, where they were sold at auction to the highest bidder. Pellow and his shipmates were bought by the sultan of Morocco, Moulay Ismail, who was constructing an imperial palace of such scale and grandeur that it would surpass every other building in the world.  In 2005 Giles Milton authored ~ez_ldquo~White Gold,~ez_rdquo~ an account of the trade in white slaves.
    (SSFC, 6/19/05, p.C3)(http://tinyurl.com/7wv2s)
1716        Thomas Fairchild brushed with a feather pollen from a sweet William over the stigma of a carnation, creating the first human-made hybrid plant.
    (www.orangepippin.com/articles/yorkshireapples.aspx)(SSFC, 4/19/09, Books p.J7)

1716        In France John Law established a private bank called Law & Co. with the promise that his notes were redeemable on demand for coin.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B1)

1716        St. John Island in the West Indies was settled by the Danes.
    (NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 71)

1716        The Virginia Colonial Assembly passed a law that required every householder to plant at least ten grapevines.
    (WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)

1716         Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I gave the Czar of Russia an elaborately carved amber chamber. In exchange, he received his wish: 55 very tall Russian soldiers. German troops dismantled it in 1941 and took it to Koenigsburg where it disappeared. In 1979 the Soviet government initiated a reconstruction, which was unveiled in 2003. [see 1701, 1712]
    (AP, 5/13/03)

1716-1788    Charles III, (Carlos III) king of Spain from 1759-1788, was born in Madrid. He was a member of the Bourbon-Parma dynasty. He was King of Naples from 1734-1759 and authorized expeditions from Mexico to California.
    (WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1716-1800    Ito Jakuchu, Japanese artist. He created the "Vegetable Parinirvana," a hanging scroll that recasts the Buddha as a languishing radish surrounded by other vegetable onlookers.
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1717        Jan 30, Surrounded by the Russian army the Lithuanian-Polish parliament reduced its army by half and acknowledged Russian protection.
    (LHC, 1/30/03)

1717        Apr 26, Pirate Black Sam Bellamy died along with 143 others when their ship, the Whydah, sank off of Wellfleet, Cape Cod. 2 men on the Whydah survived as did 7 others aboard the Mary Anne, a smaller ship loaded with Madeira wine. The slave ship Whydah had just been captured by Bellamy in February as it left Ouidau, Benin, with a load of sugar and indigo as well as chests of silver and gold. 6 or the 9 survivors were later hanged for piracy in Boston. In 1984 the wreck of the ship was discovered by Barry Clifford.
    (SFC, 3/4/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 9/12/07, p.D9)   

1717        May 13, Maria Theresa was born in Vienna. She later became Archduchess of Austria, a Queen of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, and a Holy Roman Empress.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Theresa_of_Austria)

1717        Jun 4, The Freemasons established their Grand Lodge in London. They had begun in the 13th century as a guild of masons, who worked in soft stone called freestone.
    (HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)

1717        Jun 19, Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz, composer, was born.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1717        Jul 17, Handel's "Water Music" was played for George I on the occasion of a royal barge trip on the Thames.
    (LGC-HCS, p.40)(Internet)

1717        Aug 4, A friendship treaty was signed between France and Russia.
    (HN, 8/4/98)

1717        Aug 22, The Austrian army forced the Turkish army out of Belgrade, ending the Turkish revival in the Balkans.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1717        Sep 24, Horace Walpole (1797), son of Robert Walpole, author and Fourth Earl of Orford, was born. He was a life time collector of bibelots and authored one of the first Gothic novels: "The Castle of Otranto" (1764). "The whole secret of life is to be interested in one thing profoundly and in a thousand things well." Wilmarth Lewis (d.1979) later edited Yale's 48-volume edition of Walpole's correspondence. He created the Gothic novel genre.
    (AP, 1/13/98)(WSJ, 10/19/99, p.A24)(HN, 9/24/00)

1717        Nov 17, Jean Le Rond d'Alembert (d.1783), French mathematician, philosopher and physicist, was born. He and Denis Diderot (1713-1784) designed and edited the "Encyclopedie," a massive reference work and polemical attempt to reform French society. In 1998 Andrew Crumey authored the novel "D'Alembert's Principle: A Novel in Three Panels."
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, BR p.5)(www.nndb.com/people/405/000087144/)

1717        Dec 9, Johann J. Winckelmann, German archaeologist (History of Ancient Art), was born.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1717        The 1st New Orleans levee, 3 feet tall, was built on the Mississippi River.
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1717        Isaac Newton, England's master of the mint, recommended a temporary freeze on the value of the gold guinea to establish an appropriate ratio between the prices of gold and silver and their supply.
    (WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)
1717        Thomas Coke, the first Earl of Leicester, purchased a manuscript made by Leonardo da Vinci that came to be know as the Codex Leicester. It was sold in 1980 to Armand Hammer.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.F3)(NH, 5/97, p.11)

1717        Wang Hui (b.1632), Chinese master painter, died.
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1717        Louis Liger (b.1658), French writer, died. His 1700 book ~ez_ldquo~Oeconomie Generale de la Campagne, ou Nouvelle Maison Rustique~ez_rdquo~ included a chapter on French viticulture.
    (SFC, 10/21/04, p.F3)(www.rappaport.it/catalogo.htm)
1717        The French notes of John Law's bank were made receivable for taxes and other royal revenue.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)
1717        In France John Law proposed a company with exclusive rights to trade with and exploit the resources of the Mississippi territory and to pay down the government's debt from company profits. The regent and Parliament approved and the Companie d~ez_rsquo~Occident (Company of the West) was established.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.63)

1717        Johann Martin Schubart, former student of JS Bach, succeeded Bach as organist at the court of Weimar.
    (SFC, 9/1/06, p.E10)

1717        Ono Pharmaceutical was founded by Ichibei Fushimiya as an apothecary in Osaka, Japan. In 1947 Ono Pharmaceutical was established. Its shares listed on the Osaka Securities Exchange in 1962 and the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 1963.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.72)

1717        Dzungar tribes of Mongolia invaded Tibet, and a period of internal strife and civil war followed. The Kangxi emperor sent armies into the area for 20 years, and local leaders were forced to pledge their allegiance to the Qing Empire. In 1724, the regions of Amdo and Kham were made into the province of Kokonor, with parts of Eastern Kham incorporated into neighboring Chinese provinces.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kham)

1717-1718    Voltaire (1694-1778), French writer, was imprisoned in the Bastille for his lampoons of the Regency.
    (www.online-literature.com/voltaire/)

1717-1723    J.S. Bach worked under Prince Leopold at Anhalt-Cothen. During this period he composed the 1st book of the Well-Tempered Clavier, the Brandenburg Concertos and the sonatas for solo violin. Bach likely composed his ~ez_ldquo~Six Suites for Unaccompanied Cello~ez_rdquo~ during this period, when he served as a Kapellmeister in Cothen. They were later acclaimed as some of the greatest works ever written for solo cello. In 2010 Eric Siblin authored ~ez_ldquo~The Cello Suites: J.S. Bach, Pablo Casals and the Search for a Baroque Masterpiece.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 8/3/00, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cello_Suites_%28Bach%29)(Econ, 1/9/10, p.82)

1718        Jan 7, Israel Putnam, American Revolutionary War hero, was born. He planned the fortifications at the Battle of Bunker Hill and told his men, "don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes."
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1718        Apr 26, Esek Hopkins, first U.S. commander-in-chief, was born.
    (HN, 4/26/98)

1718        May 7, La Nouvelle-Orleans (New Orleans) was founded by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha. It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orleans, the Regent of France.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Orleans)

1718        May 15, James Puckle, a London lawyer, patented the world's 1st machine gun.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1718        May 23, William Hunter (d.1783), obstetrician, surgeon, anatomy teacher, was born near Glasgow, Scotland. In 1768 he opened a medical school. The Glasgow Hunterian Museum opened in 1807.
    (MC, 5/23/02)(http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/index.html)

1718        May, Edward Teach, aka Blackbeard, used his 40-gun, captured French flagship (La Concorde), renamed as Queen Anne's Revenge, to blockade the harbor at Charleston, S.C.
    (www.qaronline.org/history/search.htm)(AM, May/Jun 97 p.21)

1718        Jun 5, Thomas Chippendale, English furniture maker was baptized.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1718        Jun 10, Blackbeard's ship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, ran aground about this time and soon sank off the coast of Beaufort, NC. In 1997 underwater archeologist raised a canon believed to be from this ship.
    (SFC, 3/4/96, p.A4)(SFC,10/24/97, p.A3)(www.qaronline.org/history/search.htm)

1718        Jun 26, Alexius Petrovich (28), the son of Peter the Great, died in St. Petersburg from wounds inflicted for an imagined rebellion.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.281)

1718        Jul 21, The Turkish threat to Europe was eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1718        Jul 30, William Penn, English Quaker, colonizer (No cross, no crown), died.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1718        Aug 25, Hundreds of French colonists arrived in Louisiana, with some of them settling in present-day New Orleans.
    (AP, 8/25/97)

1718        Nov 13, John Montagu (d.1792), fourth Earl of Sandwich and purported inventor of the sandwich, was born. In 2012 the town of Sandwich staged a dramatic re-enactment of the moment when the earl was said to have invented the sandwich, to mark the 250th anniversary of the bread-based snack.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Montagu,_4th_Earl_of_Sandwich)(AFP, 5/13/12)

1718        Nov 18, Voltaire's "Oedipe" premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1718        Nov 22, A force of British troops under Lt. Robert Maynard captured English pirate Edward Teach (b.~1682), better known as "Blackbeard" (aka Captain Drummond), during a battle near Ocracoke Island, off the North Carolina coast. They beheaded him. The governor of Virginia had put a price of 100 pounds on his head.
    (AP, 11/22/97)(www.outerbankschamber.com/relocation/history/ocracoke.cfm)

1718        Dec 11, Charles XII, King of Sweden (1697-1718), was shot dead.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1718        James Puckle patented a machine gun that utilized a revolving block for firing square bullets.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.267)

1718        Handel composed his opera "Silla."
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)

1718        Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, French-Canadian explorer, founded New Orleans.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.63)

1718        The "Casket Girls" of New Orleans began to arrive from France with casket full of dowry articles to marry settlers.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.E5)

1718        Edward Teach, aka Blackbeard, began to pillage settlements along the Atlantic coast and around the Caribbean.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.21)

1718        In France John Law's Bank was made the state-royal-bank. The Law bank bought the French tobacco monopoly.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)
1718        The Paris Meridian was first plotted. It was recalculated in the early 1800s by Arago.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)

1718        Dutch planters introduced coffee to their Suriname colony.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.12)

1718        Czar Peter the Great imposed a tax on the entire male peasant population while exempting the wealthiest, the nobles and the merchants. Lords, villages and town officials were responsible for collecting the tax.
    (SFC, 5/3/00, p.A12)

1718-1719    The French artist Watteau, known for his draftsmanship, created "Woman in Black" and "Head of a Man."
    (WSJ, 12/9/99, p.A24)

1718-1736    Russian Czar Peter the Great, having conquered Estonia in the Great Northern War, constructed the baroque, peach and white Kadriorg Palace on the outskirts of Tallinn.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.23)(CNT, 3/04, p.145)

1718-1780    In Connecticut Colonel Samuel Browne operated his 30-square-mile New Salem plantation. Evidence of slave labor was later found.
    (AM, 9/01, p.10)

1719        Jan 23, Principality of Liechtenstein was created within the Holy Roman Empire.
    (www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/9403.htm)

1719        Mar 13, German alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger (b.1682) died. He was generally acknowledged as the inventor of European porcelain. Sources later ascribed this to Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. Böttger is still credited with the industrial manufacturing process of Meißen porcelain.
    (ON, 8/10, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Friedrich_B%C3%B6ttger)

1719        Mar 22, Frederick William abolished serfdom on crown property in Prussia.
    (AP, 3/22/99)

1719        Mar 30, Sir John Hawkins, author of the first history of music, was born.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1719        Apr 7, Jean-Baptiste de la Salle (67), French priest, explorer, saint, died.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1719        Apr 15, In France Madame de Maintenon (b.1635), the wife of former King Louis XIV, died. In 1930 Maud Cruttwell authored the biography ~ez_ldquo~Madame de Maintenon.~ez_rdquo~ In 2008 Veronica Buckley authored ~ez_ldquo~Madame de Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10(http://tinyurl.com/32xq5o)(Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)

1719        Apr 25, Daniel Defoe's novel "Robinson Crusoe" was published in London. Crusoe was based on the story of Alexander Selkirk (167601721), a man who was voluntarily put ashore on a desert island (1704-1709).
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe)

1719        Jun 11, Scottish rebels, aided by Spanish troops, who are defeated at Glenshiels surrendered.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1719        Jun 17, Joseph Addison (47), English poet, writer, secretary of state, died.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1719        Sep 23, Liechtenstein declared independence from the German empire.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1719        Sep, John Law announced that he would buy the entire debt of France.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1719        Nov 14, Johann Georg Leopold Mozart, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1719        Dec 2, Pasquier Quesnel (85), French theologian (La Foi), died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1719        Dec 11, The first recorded sighting of the Aurora Borealis took place in New England.
    (AP, 12/11/99)

1719        Dec 18, Thomas Fleet published "Mother Goose's Melodies For Children."
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1719        Tiepolo painted "Scipio Africanus Freeing Massiva," a 9 x 16 foot painting that now resides at Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore. The painting required much restoration after having fallen into New York Harbor and being dripped on from a leak in the Walters roof.
    (WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-16)

1719        The bawdy ballad "The Ball of Kirriemuir" was first published at least this far back. The poem was later used by T.S. Eliot.
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)

1719        Chikamatsu Monzaemon created his Kabuki Theater masterpiece 'Shankun: The Exile on Devil's Island."
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.7)

1719        In New Hampshire the first potato in America was planted in Londonderry Common Field.
    (SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)

1719        James Bradley, English astronomer, identified the star Castor (Alpha Geminorum) as a double star.
    (SCTS, p.162)

1719        The Zwinger Palace was erected in Dresden, Germany.
    (SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)

1719        The French government gave the Law company the right of coinage. By this time John Law controlled the mint, public finances, the bank, the sea trade, Louisiana, tobacco, and salt revenues.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)
1719        In Paris, France, the fair theaters were closed through the intrigues of their enemies.
    (PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)
1719        The French captured and burned the Spanish settlement Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Flordia), but handed Pensacola back to Spain three years later. Hurricanes forced the Spanish to repeatedly rebuild.
    (AP, 3/24/06)

1720        Jan 26, Guilio Alberoni was ordered out of Spain after his abortive attempt to restore his country's empire.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1720        Jan-1720 Aug, Speculators in London bid up the price of the South Sea Co., which had been granted a trading monopoly with South America and the Pacific. The South Sea Bubble burst and London markets crashed. Speculation in government chartered trading companies had led to artificially inflated equity prices with high leverage. The average stock dropped 98.5%. It reportedly took 100 years for markets to recover. In 1999 Edward Chancellor published "Devil Take the Hindmost: A History of Financial Speculation." In 2002 Malcolm Balen authored ~ez_ldquo~The Secret History of the South Sea Bubble.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.B2)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A20)(Econ, 1/3/04, p.42)

1720        Feb 10, Edmund Halley was appointed 2nd Astronomer Royal of England.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1720        Feb 17, Spain signed the Treaty of the Hague with the Quadruple Alliance ending a war that was begun in 1718.
    (HN, 2/17/99)

1720        Mar 24, In Paris, banking houses closed in the wake of financial crisis. The "Mississippi Bubble" burst as panicked investors withdrew their money from John Law's bank and Mississippi Company [see South Sea Bubble, Jan, 1720].
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(HN, 3/24/99)(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720        May 21, The French government issued an edict that devalued all the notes and shares of the Law company and fixed their prices. The edict was repealed after a week but the economy was severely damaged and John Law resigned as comptroller general.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720        May 25, "Le Grand St. Antoine" reached Marseille, plague killed 80,000.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1720        Jun 9, The British Parliament passed the Bubble Act following the  collapse of the South Sea Company. It is also known as the Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation Act 1719, because those companies were incorporated under it. It delayed the development of the joint-stock company by over a century.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.66)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bubble_Act)

1720        Jun 10, Mrs. Clements of England marketed the 1st paste-style mustard.
    (MC, 6/10/02)
1720        Jun 10, The French state bank reopened after a 10 day closure and some people were crushed to death in the rush to get in.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720        Jul 17, In France Barricades, placed at the state bank, incited a crowd and 12 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720        Oct, A government sloop, commissioned by the governor of Jamaica to  capture pirates, attacked and captured the pirate ship of Captain Calico Jack Rackham. [see Nov 20]
    (ON, 12/01, p.12)

1720        Sep 12, Frederick Philipse III, NYC, land owner (Bronx, Westchester & Putnam), was born.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1720        Nov 20, Pirates Mary Read, Anne Bonny (b.~1700) and Captain Calico Jack Rackham were tried by an admiralty court in Jamaica. Rackham was found guilty and hanged the next day. Read and Bonny were also found guilty and sentenced to hang but pleaded pregnancy. Their sentences were commuted until they gave birth. Bonny was later pardoned but Read died in prison on Apr 28, 1721. Bonny, an Irish American pirate, had plied her trade in the Caribbean and died around 1782.
    (ON, 12/01, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Bonny)

1720        Nov 27, In France John Law's bank closed for the last time.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720        Dec 20, Charles Edward Stuart, [Bonnie Prince Charlie, Young Pretender], was born. [see Dec 31]
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1720        Dec 31, Charles Edward Stuart, grandson of James II, known as the Young Pretender and Bonnie Prince Charlie, was born. [see Dec 20]
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1720        Dec, John Law left France and returned to England.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1720        J.S. Bach composed his Double Violin Concerto in D Minor.
    (SI-WPC, 12/6/96)

1720        Handel composed his opera "Radamisto." It dealt with the tyrant Tiridate, King of Armenia, and his insatiable pursuit of a woman who is not his wife.
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)

1720        Handel composed his oratorio "Esther" based on the 1689 drama by Racine.
    (WSJ, 5/12/98, p.A20)

1720         The time setting for "Moll Flanders."
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p. C3)

1720        England passed a law that prohibited the emigration of skilled craftsmen and the export of machinery, models and plans.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1720        Paris, France, had 380 coffee houses by this time. Due to strict curbs on the press handwritten newsletters were exchanged there and government spies were common.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)
1720        French Captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu (33) was posted to Martinique. In 1723 he obtained coffee while traveling back to Paris and planted them on his return to Martinique. In 1725 he reaped almost 2 pounds and sowed them on his estate and those of some friends.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.12)

1720        In Ireland the first yacht club appeared in Cork Harbor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1720        The world's 1st futures exchange began in Osaka, Japan, with trade in 3-months forward contracts in rice.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1720        The last major eruption of the Popocatepetl volcano outside Mexico City.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.C5)

1720        On Dominica beginning in this year the island's administration shifted between the French and the British until the early 19th century.
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T6)

1720        Sardinia, held by Catalan conquerors since 1354, was handed over to Piedmont's Savoy Kingdom.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T5)

1720        The Spanish quashed Chamorro resistance and forcibly evacuated to Guam all Chamorros on Saipan and the other Northern Marianas islands.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1720s        The Ephrata Cloister communal society in Amish country near Philadelphia was founded by a former elder of the German Dunkers (German Baptists who later became the Church of the Brethren).
    (Hem, 6/96, p.107)(http://www.cob-net.org/cloister.htm)

1720s        Timothy Hanson took a seeds of a European perennial grass known as hay from New York to the Carolinas. The hay is called Timothy.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, zone 1 p.2)

1720-1778    Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Italian artist. His fame rests on fantastic and often nightmarish etchings of ruins and prisons. He restored the church of Santa Maria in Aventino.
    (WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A20)

1720- 1790    The great period of Castrato singing. Singers such as Nicolo Grimaldi (Nicolini), Francesca Bernardi (Senesino), Gaetano Maiorano (Caffarelli), and the greatest Carlo Broschi (Farinelli).
    (LGC-HCS, p.44)

1720-1800    The American counterpart to the religious movement in Europe known as Pietism and Quietism was known as the Great Awakening. The Great Awakening was a religious revival in the American colonies in the early 18th century. It was one of the first great movements to give colonists a sense of unity and special purpose in God's providential plans. The Great Awakening was part of a religious ferment that swept across Western Europe that was know on the Continent among Protestants and Roman Catholics as Pietism and Quietism. In England it was referred to as Evangelicalism.
    (HNQ, 8/31/98)

1720-1806    Carlo Gozzi, Italian fantasist, playwright.
    (WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)

1721        Jan 25, Czar Peter the Great ended the Russian orthodox patriarchy.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1721        Mar 19, Tobias George Smollett, Scottish satirical author and physician (Roderick Random, Humphrey Clinker), was born (baptized).
    (HN, 3/19/01)(MC, 3/19/02)

1721        Mar 24, In Germany, the supremely talented Johann Sebastian Bach published the Six Brandenburg Concertos.
    (HN, 3/24/99)

1721        Apr 13, John Hanson, first U.S. President under the Articles of Confederation, was born in Maryland.
    (HN, 4/13/98)(MC, 4/13/02)

1721        Apr 14, William Augustus duke of Cumberland, English army leader ("Butcher of Culloden"), was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1721        Apr 19, Roger Sherman (d.1793) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Newton, Massachusetts. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress, served in the first U.S.  House of Representatives and was a U.S.  senator.
    (HN, 4/19/97)(HNQ, 7/10/99)

1721        Apr 26, The smallpox vaccination was 1st administrated. Lady Mary Wortley Montegu had returned to England following a stay in Turkey with her ambassador husband. She had learned of a procedure to inoculate against smallpox and began a campaign to have the procedure established.
    (ON, 9/01, p.1)(MC, 4/26/02)

1721        May 25, John Copson became America's 1st insurance agent.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1721        May 29, South Carolina was formally incorporated as a royal colony.
    (HN, 5/29/98)

1721        Jun 26, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston gave the 1st smallpox inoculation in Boston. The epidemic had arrived by ship from Barbados.
    (ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721        Jul 18, Jean Antoine Watteau (b.1684), French rococo painter, died. His work included "Le Mezzetin."
    (WUD, 1994 p.1614)(MC, 10/10/01)(MC, 7/18/02)

1721        Jul 21, Doctors in Boston raised objections to a new practice of using live smallpox to inoculate patients against the disease. A smallpox epidemic had recently broken out in Boston and Cotton Mather (58), following some study, encouraged the inoculation technique to prevent death from the disease.
    (ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721        Aug 3, Grinling Gibbons (b.1648), Dutch-British sculptor and wood carver, died. He was known for his work in England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grinling_Gibbons)

1721        Aug 30, The Peace of Nystad ended the Second Northern War between Sweden and Russia, giving Russia considerably more power in the Baltic region.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1721        Oct 6, Deaths from smallpox in Boston reached 203 with 2,757 people infected.
    (ON, 3/05, p.5)

1721        Oct 22, Czar Peter the Great became "All-Russian Imperator."
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1721        Dec 29, Madam Jeanne Poisson de Pompadour, influential mistress of Louis XV, was born. She was later blamed for France's defeat in the Seven Years' War.
    (HN, 12/29/00)

1721        Samuel Johnson published his "Dictionary of the English Language." [good job for one only 12 years old]
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.7)

1721        Handel composed his opera "Floridante. "
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)

1721        Abdul Qadir Bedil (b.1644), Afghanistan Sufi poet, died. In 2000 Afghan cab drivers in Washington DC began meeting to discuss his work in a program called ~ez_ldquo~An Evening of Sufism.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 7/10/06, p.A1)(http://devoted.to/bedil)

1721        Robert Walpole (1676-1745) began serving as England~ez_rsquo~s first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer. He shared power with John Carteret (later 1st Earl Granville) until 1724 and with Townshend, whom he left in charge of foreign affairs, until 1730. Thereafter his ascendancy was complete until 1742.
    (www.answers.com/topic/robert-walpole)

1721        In France the bandit Cartouche (The Cartridge) took refuge in a Belleville cabaret, Le Pistolet. He was captured while sleeping and was hung at the Place de Greve in the center of Paris.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T8)

1721-1785    Reigen Eto, Japanese Zen painter. His work included "White-Robbed Kannon."
    (SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.48)

1722        Jan 24, Czar Peter the Great capped his reforms in Russia with the "Table of Rank" which decreed a commoner could climb on merit to the highest positions.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1722        Feb 10, Black Bart (b.1682), Welsh pirate, died. He raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartholomew_Roberts)

1722        Mar 8, Afghan monarch Mir Mahmud occupied Persia.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1722        Mar 29, Emanuel Swedenborg (b.1688), Swedish scientist and clairvoyant, died in London. In 1744 he entered into a spiritual phase in which he experienced dreams and visions. The foundation of Swedenborg's theology was laid down in ~ez_ldquo~Arcana C~ez_oelig~lestia~ez_rdquo~ (Heavenly Secrets), published in eight volumes from 1749 to 1756.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Swedenborg)

1722        Apr 5, On Easter Sunday Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen discovered a Polynesian Island 1400 miles from the coast of South America and named it Easter Island. He noted that the island was treeless and wondered how its massive statues were erected. Much of the population was later wiped out and the island became a possession of Chile. An indigenous script called rongorongo survived but by 2002 was still not deciphered. In 2005 Steven Roger Fischer authored ~ez_ldquo~Island at the End of the World: The Turbulent History of Easter Island.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 1/7/05, p.W1)(http://islandheritage.org/eihistory.html)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.77)

1722        Apr 6, In Russia Peter the Great ended tax on men with beards.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1722        Apr 11, Christopher Smart, English journalist and poet, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)(MC, 4/11/02)

1722        Apr 12, Pietro Nardini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1722        Apr 22, In Batavia, Indonesia, 19 VOC "komplotteurs" were executed.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1722        Apr 30, Game of Billiards was mentioned in New England Courant.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1722        Jun 16, John Churchill (b.1650), first Duke of Marlborough, English military strategist, died. In 2008 Richard Holmes authored ~ez_ldquo~Marlborough: England~ez_rsquo~s Fragile Genius.~ez_rdquo~
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Churchill%2C_1st_Duke_of_Marlborough)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.99)

1722        Sep 12, The Treaty of St. Petersburg put an end to the Russo-Persian War.
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1722        Sep 27, Samuel Adams (d.1803), American propagandist, political figure, revolutionary patriot and statesman who helped to organize the Boston Tea Party, was born. He was Lt. Gov. of Mass. from 1789-94.
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(HN, 9/27/98)(MC, 9/27/01)

1722        Oct 12, Shah Sultan Husayn surrendered the Persian capital of Isfahan to Afghan rebels after a seven month siege. Mir Wais' son, Mir Mahmud of Afghanistan, had invaded Persia and occupied Isfahan. At the same time, the Durranis revolted, and terminated the Persian occupation of Herat.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)(HN, 10/12/98)

1722        Oct 19, French C. Hopffer patented the fire extinguisher.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1722        Nov 7, Richard Steele's "Conscious Lovers," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1722        Nov 24, Johann Adam Reincken (99), German organist and composer, died.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1722        Daniel Defoe wrote his novel "Moll Flanders."
    (SFC, 10/11/96, p.C1)
1722        Daniel Defoe published his novel ~ez_ldquo~A Journal of the Plague Year.~ez_rdquo~ The novel posed as a historical document and covered the London in 1665 as it was hit by bubonic plague.
    (WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)

1722        Cotton Mather authored ~ez_ldquo~An Account of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-Pox~ez_hellip~~ez_rdquo~ This followed work in support of inoculation trials in Boston.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1722        John Hamilton Moore published "The Practical Navigator."
    (AH, 12/02, p.22)

1722        Legend has it that the Arkansas ~ez_ldquo~Little Rock~ez_rdquo~ rock was first discovered at this time by the French explorer Jean Baptiste Benard de La Harpe. It was the first outcropping of any size on an 118-mile stretch of the Arkansas River.
    (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123309302911621329.html)

1722        The original Iroquois League, often known as the Five Nations (the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations) became the Six Nations after the Tuscarora nation joined the League.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iroquois)

1722        Jonathon Swift, author and pamphleteer, urged his fellow countrymen to boycott English goods and "burn everything that came from England, except their people and their Coals."
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1722        Yongzheng followed Kangxi and was the 2nd of three Qing emperors who reigned over China for 133 years (1662-1795). He was followed by Qianlong.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.90)

1722        In Paris three disgruntled playwrights, Lesage, Fuzelier, and Dorneval, bought a dozen marionettes and set themselves up at the Foire de Saint-Germain to give plays of their own composition.
    (PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)

1722        A French Jesuit got into the Jingdezhen, a gated porcelain producing city in China, and sent home detailed letters on porcelain production. Within decades France developed its own porcelain production plant at Sevres.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1722        Russia~ez_rsquo~s Peter the Great granted nobility status to the Stroganoff family.
    (WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A24)
1722        Russian troops fought against Chechen tribes for the 1st time.
    (SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A11)
1722        Peter the Great exploited the chaos in the Persian Empire to lead an expedition into Transcaucasia, he struck an alliance with Vakhtang VI, the Georgian ruler of Kartli.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_within_the_Russian_Empire)

1722-1735    Britain~ez_rsquo~s PM Walpole built his Palladian house in Norfolk.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)

1722-1780    Bernardo Belotto (Il Canaletto), Italian topographical view painter. He was the nephew of Antonio Canal. He later worked as court painter in Dresden and Warsaw.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1723        Feb 5, John Witherspoon, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1723        Apr 14, John Wainwright, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1723        Jun 5, Economist Adam Smith (d.1790) was baptized in Kirkcaldy, Scotland. He was the author of "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations." Smith studied at the Univ. of Glasgow, and then went to Balliol College, Oxford. He then returned to the Univ. of Glasgow as a Prof. of logic and then of moral philosophy. He promoted Laissez faire economics and wrote "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations." His most famous statement is: "It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity, but to their self-love." He also wrote the Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1759. In 1995 Ian Simpson Ross wrote a biography of Smith titled: The Life of Adam Smith. Smith also wrote "The Theory of Moral Sentiments." In 1999 Charles L. Griswold wrote "Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)(AP, 6/5/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(WSJ, 2/09/99, p.A20)(MC, 6/5/02)

1723        Jun 20, Adam Ferguson, Scottish man of letters, philosopher, historian, and patriot, was born. He wrote "Principals of Moral and Political Science."
    (HN, 6/20/99)

1723        Jul 10, William Blackstone (d.1780), English jurist (Blackstone's Commentaries), was born in England. He wrote that: "Husband and wife are one, and that one is the husband." His "Commentaries on the Laws of England" were a dominant source for the men who ratified the US Constitution.
    (WUD, 1994, p.155)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)(MC, 7/10/02)

1723        Jul 16, Sir Joshua Reynolds, British portrait painter and first president of the royal Academy of Arts, was born.
    (HN, 7/16/98)

1723        Aug 26, Anton van Leeuwenhoek (b.1632), Dutch biologist, inventor (microscope), died in Delft, Netherlands. [Aug 30 also given as a birthdate]
    (Internet)

1723        Oct 31, Cosimo III de' Medici (81), ruler of Florence (1670-1723), died.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1723        Handel composed his operas "Ottone " and "Flavio."
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 4/15/03, p.D8)

1723        Marivaux wrote his comedy play "La Double Inconstance" (The Inconstant Lovers).
    (WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)

1723        Dominicus Montagnana made a viola, later acquired by the Chicago Symphony, valued at $1 million. He was one of the greatest Venetian violin makers.
    (SFC, 6/23/98, p.A3)

1723        Britain~ez_rsquo~s Black Act, under the government of PM Robert Walpole, directed that anyone convicted of blackening or disguising his face to hunt dear could be hanged.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)
1723        Sir Christopher Wren (b.1632), British astronomer and architect, died. He designed the current St. Paul's Cathedral in London. In 2003 Lisa Jardine authored "On a Grander Scale: The Outstanding Life of Sir Christopher Wren."
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M1)

1723        Augustus the Strong, ruler of Saxony and King of Poland, ordered the expansion of the Royal Residence Palace treasure chamber in Dresden, long called the Green Vault because of the color of its walls.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gp7uy)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.95)

1723        Dimitrie Cantemir (b.1673), 2-time Prince of Moldavia (1693 & 1710-1711), died near Kharkov, Ukraine. He was born in what is now Romania and became a prolific man of letters with talents as a philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer. Between 1687 and 1710 he lived in forced exile in Istanbul, where he learned Turkish and studied the history of the Ottoman Empire at the Patriarchate's Greek Academy, where he also composed music.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimitrie_Cantemir)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)

1723        Zanabazar (b.1635), Mongolia~ez_rsquo~s greatest sculptor, died.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1724        Jan 10, King Philip V shocked all of Europe when he abdicated his throne in favor of his eldest son, Louis. Philip V (1683-1746) was King of Spain from 1700-1746.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1081)(HN, 1/10/99)

1724        Apr 1, Jonathan Swift published Drapier's letters.
    (OTD)

1724        Apr 7, Johann S. Bach's "St. John Passion" premiered in Leipzig.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1724        Apr 22, Immanuel Kant (d.1804), German philosopher (Critique of Pure Reason), was born in Konigsberg (Kaliningrad). He held that space is just a "form of sensibility" that our minds impose on experience to give it structure. His work included the essay "Perpetual Peace."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.40)(HN, 4/22/98)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)(WSJ, 1/7/98, p.A10)

1724        May 18, Johann K. Amman (54), Swiss-Dutch doctor for deaf-mutes, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1724        Jun 8, John Smeaton, English engineer, was born.
    (HN, 6/8/01)

1724        Nov 16, Jack Sheppard, English robber, was hanged.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1724        Dec 9, Colley Cibber's "Caesar in Aegypt," premiered in London.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1724        Dec 24, Benjamin Franklin arrived in London.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1724        Captain Samuel Johnson's "General History of the Pirates" was 1st published. "Johnson" may have been a pseudonym for journalist Daniel Defoe.
    (ON, 12/01, p.12)

1724        Handel composed his operas "Giulio Cesare" and "Tamerlano." The Julius Caesar opera premiered in London. [see Mar 2 and Nov 11, 1725]
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/00, p.A24)

1724        Brattleboro became the first permanent English settlement in Vermont.
    (Reuters, 8/25/06)

1724        Jesuit padre Jaime Bravo set up a visiting mission in the southern Baja peninsula for the nomadic Guaicura Indians.
    (SSFC, 11/4/01, p.T12)

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