Timeline Eighteenth Century: 1750-1770

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1750        Mar 5, The 1st American Shakespearean production, was an "altered" Richard III in NYC.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1750        Mar 16, Caroline Lucretia Herschel, 1st woman astronomer, was born in Hanover, Germany.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1750        May 20, Stephen Girard, rescued U.S. bonds during War of 1812, actor, was born.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1750        Mar 23, Johannes Matthias Sperger, composer, was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1750        May 23, Carlo Goldoni's "Il Bugiardo," premiered in Mantua.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1750        May 29, Giuseppe Porsile (70), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1750        Jun 15, Marguerite De Launay, Baronne Staal, French writer, died.
    (HT, 6/15/00)

1750        Jul 28, Philippe Fabre d'Eglantine, poet, satirist, politician, was born in France.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1750        Jul 28, Composer Johann Sebastian Bach (65) died in Leipzig, Germany. In 2000 Christoff Wolff authored the biography "Johann Sebastian Bach." In 2005 James Gaines authored “Evening in the Palace of Reasoning," a portrait of Bach in 1747. In 2013 John eliot Gardiner authored “Bach: Music in the Castle of Heaven."
    (AP, 7/28/00)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A12)(SC, 7/28/02)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)(Econ, 10/12/13, p.96)

1750        Aug 18, Antonio Salieri (d.1825), Italian composer (Tatare), was born.
    (WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)(MC, 8/18/02)

1750        Aug 24, Laetitia Bonaparte-Ramolino, mother of Napoleon, was born.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1750        Sep 5, A decree issued in Paderborn, Prussia, allowed for annual search of all Jewish homes for stolen or "doubtful" goods.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1750        Sep 14, Carl T. Pachelbel (b.1690), German-born US organist and composer, died. He was the younger brother of Johann Pachelbel.
    (www.iwchorale.org/Charles_Theodore_Pachelbel.htm)

1750        Oct 5, Carlo Goldoni's "Il Teatro Comica," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1750        Oct 23, Nicolas Appert, the inventor of canning, was born. [see Oct 23, 1752]
    (HN, 10/23/00)

1750        Nov 1, Giuseppe Sammartini (55), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1750        Nov 23, Giuseppe Sammartini (55), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1750        Nov 27, Anton Thadaus Johann Nepomuk Stamitz, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1750        Dec 17, Deborah Sampson, was born. She fought in the American Revolution as a man under the alias Robert Shurtleff. In 1797 she authored a memoir. In 2004 Alfred F. Young authored "Masquerade: The Life and Times of Deborah Sampson, Continental Soldier.
    (MC, 12/17/01)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.M4)

1750        By this year slavery was legal in all of the 13 colonies of America.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

c1750        In Early America, sack, caraco, and mantua referred to styles of colonial dresses. The sack had a square-cut neckline and long trains hanging from the shoulders. A caraco was a middle-length gown that flared over panniers, which were hoops used to add fullness at the sides of a woman's skirt. A mantua was a loose-fitting gown that was folded back around the hips and tied at the waist.
    (HNQ, 2/3/99)

1750        Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, joined the Christian mission of Gnadenhutten, founded by Swiss Moravian settlers in the Lehigh Valley town of Bethlehem.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1750        Benjamin Franklin drew up plans for a “sentry box," designed to prove his theory that lightning as an electrical phenomenon.
    (ON, 2/12, p.11)

1750        Thomas Wright, English astronomer, put forward the idea that the appearance of the Milky Way is evidence that the stars near the solar system are arranged in a flat, disk-like structure. (galacticos means milky in Greek).
    (JST-TMC,1983, p.7)

1750        The Jesuits at the Univ. of Graz in Austria assumed a leading role in the reception of the work of Isaac Newton.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.53)

1750        A Welshman opened the first modern shoe factory in Lynn, Mass.
    (WSJ, 4/25/00, p.A24)

1750        The US population was about 18 million people.
    (NOHY, 3/1990, p.222)

1750        The disparity in per capita income between the richest and poorest countries of the world was about 5 to 1. Between Western Europe and India it was about 1.5 to 1. By 1998 the ratio was about 400 to 1.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, BR p.8)

1750        The Ais Indians of Florida were wiped out. In 2004 a site on Hutchinson Island, inhabited by the Ais, revealed 2 thousand year old burials.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.13)

c1750        The Blackfeet Indians were among the last Native American tribes to acquire horses.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)

c1750        A caldera erupted in the middle of Mono Lake, California.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A6)

c1750        In China's northeastern Hebei province large wooden figures were built in Puning Temple following a military victory. A 50-foot Buddhist boy and dragon princess were built to guard the deity Avalokitesvara.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.C7)

1750        By this year Vienna, England, Italy and France all began producing porcelain.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.112)

1750        Germany returned the island of Aero, which measures 22 by 6 miles, to Denmark.
    (SSFC, 7/29/07, p.G3)

1750        The Mexican border town of Guerrero was founded. It became Guerrero Viejo in 1953 after a new dam and flood covered the old town and residents moved to the new Guerrero Nuevo.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C16)

1750        Acre, a former stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, was re-built by the Ottoman Turks around this time, effectively preserving the earlier town, which had been destroyed in 1291 and hidden for centuries under rubble.
    (AP, 6/22/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_%281291%29)

1750        The Spanish treasure ship La Galga sank. It was later believed that the wild ponies of Chincoteague Island off the coast of Virginia came from this ship.
    (USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)(WSJ, 7/17/98, p.A1)

1750         Khurasan [was renamed] Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1750        The first African slaves arrived in Montevideo, Uruguay. They brought along what was later recognized as Candombe music.
    (SFC, 8/17/00, p.A18)

1750-1753    The Wilton mansion on the James River in Virginia was built to house William Randolph III, his wife Anne Carter Harrison and their 8 children. It was later moved and reconstructed in West Richmond as the headquarters of the National Society of The Colonial Dames of America.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A8)

1750-1799    Ho-Shen rose to power in China as the confidante to Emperor Kao-tsung. He served as a customs superintendent and pocketed a fortune by prolonging military campaigns and pocketing sums allocated to the military. He was arrested when the emperor died and died in prison.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R10)

1750-1831    Stephen Girard, French born American banker and philanthropist. He arrived in Philadelphia as a shipper and opened a grocery. His secret trade with the British made him a small fortune which he used to open a bank in 1812. He helped finance the War of 1812 for a 10% commission. He left most of his $7.5 million estate to a school for orphaned boys.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R10)

c1750-1880s    In Scotland this was the period of the Clearances. The peasants were swept aside to allow clan chiefs to raise sheep on clan lands until protests on the isle of Skye led to legal reform for the Highlands.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T9)

1751        Feb 16, Thomas Gray's poem "Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard" was 1st published.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1751        Feb 25, The 1st performing monkey exhibited in America was in NYC.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1751        Mar 16, James Madison (d.1836), Jefferson’s successor as secretary of state and fourth president of the United States (1809-17), was born in Port Conway, Va. He invented the 1787 electoral college system "to break the tyranny of the majority." "If men were angels, no government would be necessary." Pierce Butler of South Carolina first proposed the electoral college system. [see 1787]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.222)(SFEC, 11/24/96, Z1 p.2)(AP, 3/16/97)(AP, 10/27/97)(HN, 3/16/98)(SFC, 11/9/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A26)

1751        Apr 3, Jean-Baptiste Lamoyne, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1751        May 11, The 1st US hospital was founded in Pennsylvania. [see Feb 11, 1752]
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1751        Jul 28, In France the 1st volume of the Encyclopedie, edited by Diderot and D’Alembert, was published with a print run of 1,625.
    (ON, 4/05, p.8)

1751        Jul 30, Maria A. [Nannerl] Mozart, Austrian pianist, Wolfgang's sister, was born.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1751        Aug 24, Thomas Colley was executed in England for drowning a supposed witch.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1751        Aug 30, Georg Friedrich Handel completed his last oratorio "Jephtha."
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(MC, 8/30/01)

1751        Aug 31, English troops under sir Robert Clive occupied Arcot India.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1751        Sep 1, Emmanuel Johann Joseph Schikaneder, actor, librettist (The Magic Flute), was born.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1751        Sep 13, Henry Kobell, Dutch painter and cartoonist, was born.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1751        Sep 28, George Washington (19), accompanied his sick older half-brother Lawrence to Barbados. Lawrence had been advised that the island’s climate might help restore his ill health. The brothers left Virginia on September 28 and arrived at Bridgetown, Barbados, November 3. George, who survived the smallpox while in Barbados, left Lawrence on December 21 and arrived back in Virginia on January 28, 1752.
    (HNQ, 12/16/99)

1751        Oct 30 Richard Brinsley Sheridan (d.1816), Irish-born statesman and dramatist, spent most of life in England. His plays included "The School for Scandal" with Georgiana Cavendish as Lady Teazle, "The Rivals" and "the Critic." He also wrote the comic opera "The Duenna." In 1998 Fintan O’Toole wrote the biography "A Traitor’s Kiss: The Life of Richard Brinsley."
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.4)(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)(HN, 10/30/00)

1751        Dec 23, France set plans to tax clergymen.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1751        William Hogarth made his print series "The Four Stages of Cruelty." It illustrated that indulgence in vice caused corruption and cruelty.
    (SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)

1751        Pietro Longhi painted “Exhibition of a Rhinocerous at Venice." It depicted Clara, a touring Indian rhinoceros owned by Dutch sea captain Douwemout Van der Meer.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E1)

1751        Benjamin Franklin published “Experiments and Observations on Electricity" in England.
    (AH, 2/06, p.42)

1751        Voltaire published "Micromegas" in which he mentioned "aliens from outer space." This is believed to be the first mention of such aliens in literature.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1751        Handel lost his sight.
    (LGC-HCS, p.37)

1751        The Liu clan built its ancestral hall called Liu Man Shek Tong in Hong Kong.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.160)

1751        In England Henry Pelham’s Whig government created the 3% consol. It paid 3% and consolidated the terms on a variety of previous issues with no maturity date.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.105)

1751        In Mexico on the Baha Peninsula the mission of St. Gertrude the Great was initiated and called "La Piedad" by Father Fernando Consag.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1752        Jan 1, Betsy Ross (d.1836), flag maker who contributed to the design of the American flag, was born in Philadelphia as Elizabeth Griscom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betsy_Ross)

1752        Jan 23, Muzio Clementi, Italian composer, was born.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1752        Feb 7, Publication, sale and distribution of the 1st 2 volumes of the Encyclopedie were summarily forbidden by order of King Louis XV. Chretien de Malesherbes, the French director of publications, managed to broker a compromise that included a layer of censorship and a 3rd volume was published by the end of 1753.
    (ON, 4/05, p.9)

1752        Feb 11, Pennsylvania Hospital, the 1st hospital in the US, opened.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1752        Mar 13, Josef Reicha, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1752        Mar 22, Johann Georg Joseph Spangler, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1752        Mar 23, Pope Stephen II was elected to succeed Zacharias. He died 2 days later.
    (MC, 3/23/02)

1752        March 25 marked the first issue of the Halifax Gazette.
    (CFA, '96, p.42)

1752        Apr 4, Niccolo Antonio Zingarelli, composer (Andromeda), was born.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1752        May 4, Pieter Snyers (71), Flemish painter, engraver, died.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1752        May 11, The 1st US fire insurance policy issued in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1752        May, Dutch botanist Thomas Francois Dalibard (1709-1799) successfully performed Benjamin Franklin’s “sentry box" experiment proving that lightning is an electrical phenomenon.
    (ON, 2/12, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas-Fran%C3%A7ois_Dalibard)

1752        Jun 13, Fanny Burney, English writer, was born.
    (HN, 6/13/01)

1752        Jun 15, Benjamin Franklin and his son tested the relationship between electricity and lightning by flying a kite in a thunder storm. Some sources date this to June 10.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin)

1752        Jul 7, Joseph Marie Jacquard, inventor of the first loom that could weave patterns, was born.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1752        Jul 20, John C. Pepusch (85), English composer (Beggar's Opera), died.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1752        Sep 1, The Liberty Bell arrived in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1752        Sep 3, The Gregorian Adjustment to the calendar was put into effect in Great Britain and the American colonies followed. At this point in time 11 days needed to be accounted for and Sept. 2 was selected to be followed by Sept. 14. People rioted thinking the government stole 11 days of their lives. [see Oct 5, 1582]
    (K.I.-365D, p.97)(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(MC, 9/3/01)

1752        Sep 18, Adrien-Marie Lagendre, mathematician, worked on elliptic integrals, was born.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1752        Oct 18, The opera "Le Devin du Village" by Jean-Jacques Rousseau premiered. 
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1752        Oct 23, Nicolas Appert, inventor (food canning, bouillon tablet), was born. [see Oct 23, 1750]
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1752            Nov 3, Georg Friedrich Handel underwent eye surgery to remove a cataract by William Bromfield, Surgeon to the Princess of Wales, to restore his sight. The operation was only a short-term success.
    (http://gfhandel.org/)

1752        Nov 19, George Rogers Clark, frontier military leader in Revolutionary War, was born.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1752        Nov 20, Thomas Chatterton (d.1770), English poet (Christabel), was born. His early death marked him as the "prototype of the fragile poet withered by the hostility of philistines."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)(MC, 11/20/01)

1752        Gouverneur Morris (d.1816), chief writer of the US Constitution (1787), was born in NY. Morrisania, the family manor, stretched for 1,900 acres from the Harlem River to Long Island Sound in what later became the Bronx.
    (WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)

1752        George Berkeley (1685-1753), Irish bishop and philosopher, wrote a poem that included the line "Westward the course of empire takes its way." The line later inspired the founders of Berkeley, Ca., to name their city and university after Berkeley.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)

1752        In the summer of this year Benjamin Franklin installed the world’s 1st lightning rods at the Pennsylvania State House.
    (WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1752        The first Mission at the town of Loreto on the Baha Peninsula was completed. Father George Retz moved north from Mission St. Ignatius, where he had studied the Cochimi language, and formally established "La Piedad" as the mission of St. Gertrude the Great.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1752        James Ayscough advertised his invention of spectacles with double-hinged side pieces.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)

1752        In Colombia the village of San Agustin was founded Alejo Astudillo. Attacks by indigenous people destroyed it. A new village was founded in 1790 by Lucas de Herazo and Mendigana.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Agust%C3%ADn,_Huila)

1752        In Russia Abram Petrovich Gannibal became a Major-General and was appointed in charge of all military engineering.
    (www.shaebia.org/wwwboard/contributedarticles/messages/58.html)

1752-1840    Fanny Burney, English writer. Her books included "Evelina." In 1911 she underwent a mastectomy without anesthesia. In 2001 Claire Harman authored the biography: "Fanny Burney."
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)

1753        May 8, Miguel Hidalgo y Castilla, the father of Mexican independence, was born.
    (HN, 5/8/98)(MC, 5/8/02)

1753        Mar 9, Jean-Baptiste Kleber, French general, architect, was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1753        Mar 17, The 1st official St Patrick's Day was celebrated.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1753        Mar 25, Voltaire left the court of Frederik II of Prussia.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1753        Mar 26, Benjamin Thompson (d.1814), Count Rumford, English physicist and diplomat, was born. He was a Tory spy in the American Revolution and discovered that heat equaled motion, which led to the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1477)(WSJ, 7/28/98, p.A16)(SS, 3/26/02)

1753        Apr 5, British Museum formed. It opened in 1759.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(MC, 4/5/02)

1753        Apr 28, Franz K. Achard, German physicist, was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1753        May 6, French King Louis XV observed a transit of Mercury at Mendon Castle.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1753        May 9, King Louis XV disbanded the French parliament.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1753        May 29, Joseph Haydn’s "Krumme Teufel" premiered.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1753        May 31, Pierre V. Vergniaud, French politician, Girondin orator (guillotined in 1793), was born.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1753        Jun 7, Britain's King George II gave his assent to an Act of Parliament establishing the British Museum [see Apr 5].
    (AP, 6/7/04)

1753        Jul 4, Jean-Pierre-Francois Blanchard (d.1809), French balloonist, was born. He made the 1st balloon flights in England and US.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/AVblanchard.htm)

1753        Jul 7, English parliament granted Jews English citizenship.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1753        Jul 26, New style date is Aug 6. Georg Richmann (b.1711), German physicist, died of electrocution in St. Petersburg, Russia, during an attempt to duplicate Benjamin Franklin’s “sentry box" experiment. Reportedly, ball lightning traveled along the apparatus and was the cause of his death, apparently the first person in history to die while conducting electrical experiments.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Wilhelm_Richmann)(ON, 2/12, p.12)

1753        Aug 3, Charles Earl Stanhope, radical politician, scientist, was born in England.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1753        Aug 4, George Washington became a master mason.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1753        Aug 10, Edmund Jennings Randolph, governor of Virginia and first U.S. attorney general, was born.
    (HN, 8/10/00)

1753        Aug 12, Thomas Bewick (d.1828), artist (British Birds, Aesop's Fables) was born in England.
    (http://www.nndb.com/people/067/000094782/)

1753        Aug 19, [Johann] Balthasar Neumann (66), German architect, died.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1753        Sep 9, The 1st steam engine arrived in US colonies.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1753        Oct 12, Sir Danvers Osborn (b.1715), British colonial governor of New York, hanged himself 5 days after arriving in NYC. His wife had recently died and the New York assembly refused to support him in the style he felt his rank deserved.
    (Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danvers_Osborn)

1753        Oct, Robert Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia, called a meeting to discuss the eviction of British settlers from homesteads west of the Appalachian Mountains by French soldiers from Canada. Major George Washington volunteered to deliver a letter of trespass to French authorities in the Ohio Valley.
    (ON, 9/05, p.1)

1753        Nov 30, Johann Baptist Schenk, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/30/01)
1753        Nov 30, Benjamin Franklin received Godfrey Copley Penny ("A penny saved...!").
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1753        Dec 3, Samuel Crompton, English inventor (mule-jenny spinning machine), was born.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1753        Dec 12, George Washington, the adjutant of Virginia, delivered an ultimatum to the French forces at Fort Le Boeuf, south of Lake Erie, reiterating Britain’s claim to the entire Ohio river valley. Washington (22) was sent by Gov. Robert Dinwiddie to warn the French soldiers that they were trespassing on English territory.
    (HN, 12/12/98)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)

1753        Dec 14, French Captain Jacques Le Gardeur rejected the pretensions of the English to ownership of the Ohio Valley, but promised to forward Virginia Gov. Dinwiddie’s letter of trespass to his superiors in Canada.
    (ON, 9/05, p.2)

1753         The Georgian-style colonial legislature (later Pennsylvania State House) was completed at 520 Chestnut St. in Philadelphia for the Province of Pennsylvania. It became the location where both the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted and thus became known as Independence Hall.
    (SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P5)
1753        Benjamin Franklin use the pages of his Poor Richard’s Almanac to make a case for using lightning rods atop tall structures making storms less dangerous.
    (WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1753        In the Virginia Piedmont Boswell’s Tavern was built and for some 150 years served horseback riders flagons of spirit through a barred window. The ride-up window thus predates the drive-in window.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1753        The observation by Dr. James Lind, British naval surgeon, that fresh fruits and vegetables could cure scurvy marked the beginning of nutritional epidemiology. He conducted tests that showed the beneficial effects of lemons and oranges in treating the disease.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.4)(ON, 4/01, p.8)

1753        Smallpox hit North America and a 38% infection rate was recorded in Boston. Benjamin Franklin lobbied for variolation.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.47)

1753        In Sweden Linnaeus (1707-1778), father of systematics, authored “Species Plantarum," a compilation of some 6,000 plants from around the world.
    (NH, 4/1/04, p.39)
1753        Peter Kalm, Swedish-born naturalist, published the first of his 3 volumes of “Travels in North America," which described his 1748-1751 trip there. It was Linnaeus and the Swedish Royal Academy that had sent Kalm to America. Kalm later spent much of his life as a professor at Turku, Finland. In 2007 Paula Ivaska Robbins authored “The Travels of Peter Kalm.
    (WSJ, 11/17/07, p.W11)

1754        Jan 3, Joseph Black, a medical student at the Univ. of Edinburgh, rediscovered carbon dioxide after pouring acid into a tall glass containing some chalk Black had read Helmont’s memoirs and so knew of gas sylvestris. A candle near the glass was snuffed out due to the outpouring of carbon dioxide. He also found that carbon dioxide will precipitate out of limewater when exposed to a strong source of carbon dioxide gas. Black later attained a professorship and had James Watt, engine-builder, as one of his first assistants.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.5,42)

1754        Jan 4, Columbia University was founded as Kings College in NYC. [see July 7]
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1754        Jan 6, Major George Washington, while returning to Virginia, encountered a party of English settlers and militiamen at Will’s Creek sent by Gov. Dinwiddie to establish a fort and trading post at the Forks of the Ohio.
    (ON, 9/05, p.2)

1754        Feb 2, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand-Perigord (d.1838), minister of foreign affairs for Napoleon I, was born. He represented France brilliantly at the Congress of Vienna.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1450)(HN, 2/2/99)

1754        Feb 13, Charles-Maurice duke of Talleyrand-Perigord, French bishop, Napoleon's Foreign Minister, statesman (1815), was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1754        Apr 2, A small expeditionary force of 159 men under Lt. Col. George Washington arrived at Will’s Creek and learned that the French had taken over the new Fort Prince George at the Forks of the Ohio from British soldiers and frontiersmen and renamed it Fort Duquesne.
    (ON, 9/05, p.2)

1754        Apr, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, joined the Iraquois Indians in the Wyoming Valley along the banks of the Susquehanna River.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1754        May 9, The first American newspaper cartoon was published. The illustration in Benjamin Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette showed a snake cut into sections, each part representing an American colony; the caption read, "Join or die."
    (AP, 5/9/97)(HN, 5/9/98)

1754        May 12, Franz Anton Hoffmeister, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1754        May 28, Col. George Washington led a 40-man detachment that defeated French and Indian forces in a skirmish near Great Meadows, Pa.
    (ON, 9/05, p.3)

1754        Jun 19, The Albany Congress opened. New York colonial Gov. George Clinton called for the meeting to discuss better relations with Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French. The attendees included Indians and representatives from Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. Benjamin Franklin attended and presented his Plan of Union, which was adopted by the conference. The meeting ended on July 11.
    (AH, 2/06, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albany_Congress)

1754        Jul 3, George Washington surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity (later Pittsburgh) in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley. This marked the beginning of the French and Indian War also called the 7 Years' War. In 2005 Fred Anderson authored “The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War."
    (HN, 7/13/98)(Arch, 1/05, p.46)(WSJ, 12/14/05, p.D15)

1754        Jul 7, King's College in New York City opened. The school was renamed Columbia College 30 years later. [see Jan 4]
    (AP, 7/7/97)

1754        Jul 11, Thomas Bowdler, the famous prude who bowdlerized Shakespeare, was born.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1754        Aug 2, Pierre Charles L'Enfant, French engineer who designed the layout of Washington, D.C. (1791), was born.
    (HN, 8/2/98)

1754        Aug 23, Louis XVI (d.1793), King of France (1774-1793), was born  at Versailles. During the French Revolution he met his fate at the guillotine. He was the grandson of Louis XV and married Marie Antoinette.
    (AP, 8/23/97)(HN, 8/23/98)

1754        Sep 9, William Bligh, legendary captain of HMS Bounty, was born. [see Sep 10]
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1754        Sep 10, William Bligh, was born. He was the British naval officer who was the victim of two mutinies, the most famous on the HMS Bounty which was taken over by Fletcher Christian in 1789. [see Sep 9]
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1754        Oct 8, Henry Fielding (b.1707), English lawyer and author, died at 47. He wrote "Tom Jones" in 1749. A film based on the novel was made in 1963. A TV production premiered in 1998.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E1)(MC, 10/8/01)

1754        Oct 13, American Revolutionary War heroine Molly Pitcher was born. During the American Revolution, at the Battle of Monmouth, NJ, Molly helped out as a water carrier,  gaining her  nickname, Molly Pitcher. Her husband, John, was wounded during the battle and Molly dropped the water pitcher, taking up her husband's job of loading and firing a cannon. General George Washington appointed her a noncommissioned  officer. [see Jun 28, 1778]
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1754        Nov 29, The Gnadenhutten mission, Pa., was attacked by renegade Lenape Indians and 11 white people were killed.
    (ON, 1/03, p.7)

1754        Dec, Lt. Col. George Washington resigned his commission.
    (ON, 9/05, p.5)

1754        Joseph Goupy caricatured Handel as a fat pig playing the keyboard in his drawing: "The Charming Brute." For this Handel struck Goupy from his will.
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)

1754        Under instructions from Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, Col. Jas. Innes established a fort at Wills Creek (Maryland).
    (www.rootsweb.com/~mdallegh/cumberla.htm)

1754        Thomas Chippendale published the first English book on furniture designs. He was also an upholsterer and a cabinetmaker.
    (SFC,12/17/97, Z1 p.16)
1754        The Royal Society of Arts was established in Britain. Its mission statement was: “the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, in Great Britain, by bestowing Rewards, from Time to Time, for such Productions, Inventions, or Improvements, as shall tend to the Employing of the Poor, to the Increase of Trade, and to the Riches and Honour of this Kingdom, by the Promoting Industry and Emulation."
    (www.adelphicharter.org/RSA_and_Intellectual_Property.asp)
1754        Thomas Mudge (1715-1794), English horologist, invented the lever escapement, which became used in watches ever since.
    (Econ, 11/19/11, p.p.106)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Mudge_%28horologist%29)

1754        The Carouge area of Geneva was ceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T8)

1754-1757    Osman III succeeded Mahmud I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1754-1824     Joseph Joubert, French moralist. "Kindness consists in loving people more than they deserve." "To be capable of respect is today almost as rare as to be worthy of it."
    (AP, 3/22/97)(AP, 1/22/99)

1755        Jan 12, Tsarina Elisabeth established the 1st Russian University.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1755        Feb 20, General Edward Braddock arrived from Great Britain to assume command of British forces in America and to lead the Virginia troops against the French and Indians in the Ohio Valley.
    (PCh, 1992, p.303)

1755        Mar 12, The 1st steam engine in America was installed to pump water from a mine.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1755        Mar 14, Pierre-Louis Couperin, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1755        Mar 24, Rufus King, framer of the U.S. Constitution, was born.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1755        Apr 1, Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French lawyer (Fisiologia del Gusto), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1755        Apr 10, Samuel Hahnemann, German physician, was born.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1755        Apr 11, James Parkinson, English physician, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)

1755        Apr 15, Dr. Samuel Johnson, English writer, published his “Dictionary of the English Language," a selective English dictionary, after 9 years of work. The 1st edition had 42,773 entries. In 2005 Henry Hitchings authored “Defining the World," an account of Johnson’s work.
    (WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A30)(HN, 4/15/01)(WSJ, 10/12/05, p.D13)

1755        Jun 6, Nathan Hale(1776), American patriot who said "My only regret is that I have but one life to give for my country," was born. He was hanged by the British as a spy during the American Revolution
    (CFA, '96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.637)(HN, 6/6/98)

1755        Jun 14, In England the first edition of Dr. Johnson's "Dictionary" was published.
    (WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A30)(MC, 6/14/02)

1755        Jun 16, British captured Fort Beausejour and expelled the Acadians. The Accadians of Nova Scotia were uprooted by an English governor and forced to leave. Some 10,000 people moved to destinations like Maine and Louisiana. Some moved to Iles-de-la-Madeleine off Quebec. The Longfellow story "Evangeline" is based on this displacement.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, p.T8,9)(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C7)(MC, 6/16/02)

1755        Jun 30, Philippines closed all non-Catholic Chinese restaurants.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1755        Jul 5, Sarah Siddons (d.1831), actress, was born at the Leg of Mutton Inn in Wales. She rose to fame as a protégée of Richard Brinsley Sheridan at the Drury Lane Theater and gained fame playing Lady Macbeth in Macbeth.
    (HN, 7/5/98)(WSJ, 7/27/99, p.A21)

1755        Jul 6, John Flaxman, the English sculptor who designed much of Wedgwood's original pottery, was born.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1755        Jul 8, Britain broke off diplomatic relations with France as their disputes in the New World intensified.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1755        Jul 9, General Edward Braddock was mortally wounded when French and Indian troops ambushed his force of British regulars and colonial militia, which was on its way to attack France's Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh). Gen. Braddock's troops were decimated at Fort Duquesne, where he refused to accept George Washington's advice on frontier style fighting. British Gen'l. Braddock gave his bloody sash to George Washington at Fort Necessity just before he died on Jul 13.
    (A & IP, ESM, p.11)(HN, 7/9/98)(WSJ, 1/5/98, p.A20)

1755        Jul 13, Edward Braddock (60), British general, died following the July 9, 1755 battle at Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). Out of the 1,400 British soldiers who were in involved in the battle, 900 of them died. Future President George Washington carried Braddock from the field and officiated at his burial ceremony. The general was buried in a road his men had built. The army then marched over the grave to obliterate any traces of it and continued to eastern Pennsylvania. After the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Braddock Road remained a main road. In 1804, some workmen discovered human remains in the road near where Braddock was supposed to have been buried. The remains were re-interred on a small knoll adjacent to the road. In 1913 the marker was placed there. Braddock was born in Perthshire, Scotland, about 1695, the son of Major-General Edward Braddock (died 1725).
    (www.nps.gov/fone/braddock.htm)

1755        Aug 23, Jean Baptiste Lislet-Geoffroy, French geographer, was born.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1755        Sep 8, British forces under William Johnson and 250 Indians defeated the French and their allied Indians at the Battle of Lake George, NY.
    (HN, 9/8/98)(SSFC, 4/23/06, p.G6)

1755        Sep 13, Bertrand Barere, French Revolutionist, was born in Tarbes.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1755        Sep 18, Ft. Ticonderoga opened in NY.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1755        Sep 24, John Marshall, fourth chief justice of the Supreme Court (1801-35), and U.S. secretary of state, was born.
    (HN, 9/24/98)(MC, 9/24/01)

1755        Sep 30, Francesco Durante, composer, died at 71.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1755        Oct 24, A British expedition against the French held Fort Niagara in Canada ended in failure.
    (HN, 10/24/98)

1755        Nov 1, An 8.7 earthquake hit Lisbon, Portugal, and killed some 70,000 people. Heavy damage resulted from ensuing fires and tsunami flooding in Morocco and nearly a quarter of a million people were killed. In 2008 Nicholas Shrady authored “The Last Day: Wrath, Ruin and Reason in the Great Lisbon Earthquake."
    (http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/eqsmosde.html)(Econ, 4/5/08, p.86)

1755        Nov 2, Marie Antoinette (d.1793), Queen of France, was born. She was the daughter of Maria Theresa and Francis I; and wife of Louis XVI in 1770 and thus Queen of France. She was arrested by the Revolutionary Tribunal and beheaded on Oct. 15, 1793.
    (CFA, '96, p.58)(HN, 11/2/98)

1755        Nov 12, Gerhard JD von Scharnhorst, Prussian military minister of War (1807-10), was born.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1755        Nov 17, Louis XVIII, 1st post-revolutionary king of France (1814-24), was born.
    (HN, 11/17/98)(MC, 11/17/01)

1755        Nov 18, The Cape Ann (Boston) earthquake, estimated at 6.0-6.5, hit the east coast from the Chesapeake Bay to Nova Scotia.
    (http://geology.about.com/library/bl/blboston1755eq.htm)

1755        Dec 3, Gilbert Stewart, portrait painter, was born.
    (HN, 12/3/00)

1755        Dec 31, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, led 30 Lenape Indians on a raid against English plantations along the Delaware River. Over the next few days his band killed 7 men and took 5 prisoners.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1755        William Russell Birch (d.1834), artist, was born in Warwickshire. He settled in Philadelphia with his son in 1794 and in 1800 published 28 drawn and engraved hand-colored images of Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.E6)

1755        Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote his "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality," in which he denounced private property as the root of all evil.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1755        Benjamin Franklin, a patriot of the American Revolution, served as a colonel of the Pennsylvania militia in the French and Indian War. Benjamin Franklin, at forty-nine, had already lived through two wars between the French and the English and their colonists. His face was puffy and smooth from gout, his once-powerful swimmer’s body overweight and rounded into a barrel shape. In recent years Benjamin had emerged as the pivot of power in Pennsylvania. His highly successful publishing business, coupled with his profitable post as deputy postmaster general for the six northern colonies, afforded him leisure time for scientific experiments as well as political activities.
    (HNQ, 8/6/01)

1755        The “last specimen" of a dodo bird, a stuffed but rotted relic, was burned at the Ashmoleum Museum at Oxford, England. Fortunately, someone removed the head and the foot of the specimen and saved them.  In 1996 by David Quammen authored The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions. In 2003 Clara Pinto-Correia authored “Return of the Crazy Bird." The London Museum of natural History later displayed a mounted specimen of Raphus cucullatus.
    (www.complete-review.com/reviews/divsci/pintocc.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/c9zpyw)

1755        Watanabe Shiko (b.1683), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died.
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.E12)

1755        The annual 12-day Bergkirchweih beer festival began in Erlangen, Germany.
    (SSFC, 4/30/06, p.G7)

1755        Arthur Guinness began brewing a dark-brown stout in the town of Leixlip, Ireland.
    (WSJ, 9/12/08, p.B7)

1755        In Mexico the Holy Inquisition began using the dungeon at the fortress of San Juan de Ulua in Vera Cruz.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1755-1758    The French and Indian Wars began in the US.
    (A & IP, ESM, p.11)

1755-1828    Gilbert Stuart, American painter. He painted over 70 portraits of George Washington.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1410)(WSJ, 2/4/00, p.W12)

1755-1831    Hannah Adams was the first American woman to make a living as a writer. Her work included "A Summary History of New England."
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, Z1 p.2)

1755-1835    Louis Zara (d.2001 at 91) covered this period of the Eastern Mississippi Valley in his 1940 historical novel "This Land Is Ours."
    (SFC, 10/24/01, p.C6)

1756        Jan 27, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (d.1791) was born on Gertreiderstrasse in Salzburg, Austria, the son of violinist and composer Leopold Mozart. He later played string quartets with Johan Baptist Vanhal, Haydn and Dittersdorf. The young Mozart began composing minuets at age 5 and, with his older sister Marianne, gave concerts in Munich and Vienna from age 6. At 13, Mozart became director of concerts for the archbishop of Salzburg and in 1782 he married Constanze Weber against her father's wishes. Although Mozart gave piano concerts throughout Europe and composed more than 600 works, including 40 symphonies, he and his wife were plagued by debt. When Mozart died in 1791, probably of heart disease, he was buried in an unmarked pauper's grave. It was not until his works were published, in many cases near the end of the 19th century, that Mozart's genius became widely recognized. His works included "The Marriage of Figaro" and "The Magic Flute." In 2005 Stanley Sadie authored “Mozart: The Early Years," which chronicled Mozart’s life to age 25.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, Par p.11)(HNPD, 1/26/99)(HN, 1/27/99)(WSJ, 12/8/05, p.D8)

1756        Feb 6, America's third vice president, Aaron Burr, was born in Newark, N.J.
    (AP, 2/6/97)(HN, 2/6/99)

1756        Feb 7, In Brazil the Indian Chief Sepe Tiaraju was killed at the hands of Portuguese and Spanish soldiers.
    (AP, 2/7/06)

1756        Mar 3, William Godwin (d.1836), English philosopher, novelist, essayist, political writer (Caleb Williams), was born. He was the husband of Mary Wollstonecraft. Wordsworth as a young man was a follower of the radical philosopher Godwin.
    (WUD, 1994, p.606)(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SC, 3/3/02)

1756        Mar 17, St. Patrick's Day was 1st celebrated in NYC at Crown & Thistle Tavern.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1756        Apr 13, Johann T. Gottlieb Goldberg (29), German klavecinist, composer, died.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1756        Apr 14, Gov. Glen of South Carolina protested against 900 Acadia Indians.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1756        Apr 15, Jacques Cassini (b.1677), French astronomer and cartographer, died.
    (http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/cassini_jac.html)

1756        May 17, After a year and a half of undeclared war Britain declared war on France, beginning the French and Indian War. England hoped to conquer Canada. The final defeat of the French came in 1763 with the British victory at the Battle of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham.
    (HN, 5/17/98)(HNPD, 9/13/98)(http://tinyurl.com/afbze)

1756        Jun 4, Quakers left the assembly of Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1756        Jun 6, John Trumball, American painter, was born.
    (HN, 6/6/01)

1756        Jun 20, In India rebels defeated the British army at Calcutta. British soldiers were imprisoned in a suffocating cell that gained notoriety as the "Black Hole of Calcutta." Most of them died. The exact circumstances of this incident, such as the number of prisoners, originally put at 146, are disputed.
    (HN, 6/20/98)(AP, 6/20/07)

1756        Aug 14, French commander Louis Montcalm took Fort Oswego, New England, from the British.
    (HN, 8/14/98)

1756        Aug 31, The British at Fort William Henry, New England, surrendered to Louis Montcalm of France.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1756        Sep 21, John Loudon McAdam, engineer who invented and gave his name to macadamized roads, was born.
    (HN, 9/21/98)

1756        Nov 4, Anthony van Hoboken, Rotterdam merchant-ship owner, was born.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1756        Nov 12, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, spoke with Gov. Denny at Easton, Pa., to discuss grievances.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1756        Dec 6, British troops under Robert Clive occupied Fulta, India.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1756        German-speaking Moravians founded the town of Lititz, 35 miles southeast of Harrisburg, Pa. Non-Moravians were not allowed to live there until 1855.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)

1756        At the outbreak of the war that was to settle the issue of control of North America between Britain and France, French colonists numbered only 55,000, the British colonists numbered about 1 million, and the Native Americans from coast to coast numbered about 600,000.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)

1756        The British government gave money to the London Foundling Hospital on condition that it accept all children under two months old, with no questions asked. Many unwanted babies soon began to arrive and some three-quarters of the 15,000 babies that reached the hospital died before the government ended its support in 1760.
    (Econ, 10/17/09, p.99)

1756        Fussier French Sevres porcelain, under the patronage of King Louis XV, gained the upper hand in porcelain production over Meissen. Its trademark pictured cobalt-blue crossed swords.
    (WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)

1756        In Queretaro, Mexico, a palatial home was built  and later converted into the hotel Casa de la Marquesa.
    (SSFC, 1/27/08, p.E5)

1756        Riedel Glass was founded in Bohemia.
    (WSJ, 11/18/99, p.A24)

1756-1763    The Seven Years War. France and Great Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000 "Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while her manpower was occupied in America.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)

1756-1789    Johann Friedrich Doles, Bach’s pupil and successor as cantor at St. Thomas in Leipzig, continued to perform Bach’s music at the services.
    (LGC-HCS, p.32)

1756-1815    The great war or series of wars that broke out between England and France.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.228)

1756-1818    Henry Lee, American governor. On the death of George Washington: "To the memory of the Man, first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen."
    (AP, 12/14/99)

1757        Jan 2, British troops occupied Calcutta, India.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Clive,_1st_Baron_Clive)

1757        Jan 4, Robert Francois Damiens made an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate King Louis XV of France.
    (HN, 1/4/01)

1757        Jan 11, Alexander Hamilton, first U.S. Secretary of Treasury, was born on St.  Croix. After showing remarkable promise in finance, the young Hamilton was sent by a benefactor to King’s College in New York. In 1776, Hamilton joined the Continental Army, where he soon joined George Washington’s staff. After the war, Hamilton became active in New York politics, gaining a reputation as a supporter of a strong central government. In the struggle for the ratification of the Constitution, Hamilton collaborated with James Madison and John Jay in writing the Federalist Papers, which were instrumental in the passage of the Constitution. In 1789, newly elected President George Washington named Hamilton secretary of the treasury. During his tenure, Hamilton established the National Bank, introduced an excise tax, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion and spearheaded the effort for the federal government to assume the debts of the states. In the presidential election of 1800, Hamilton broke the deadlock between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr by supporting Jefferson. The enmity between Hamilton and his longtime political enemy Burr grew worse during the 1804 campaign for governor of New York. Finally, on July 11, at Weehawken, N.J., the two men fought a duel. Hamilton was shot and died the next day of his injuries.
    (WUD, 1994 p.640)(AP, 1/11/98)(HN, 1/11/00)(HNPD, 1/11/00)

1757        Jan 16, Samuel McIntire, architect of Salem, Massachusetts, was born.
    (HN, 1/16/99)

1757        Jan 28, Antonio Bartolomeo Bruni, composer, was born.
    (MC, 1/28/02)
1757        Jan 28, Ahmed Shah, the first King of Afghanistan, occupied Delhi and annexed the Punjab.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1757        Feb 13, John C. Hespe, Dutch journalist, politician, was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1757        Mar 14, John Byng (52), British Admiral, was executed by a firing squad on board HMS Monarch for neglect of duty. Early in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), Byng was called on to relieve a British fort on the Mediterranean island of Minorca which was being attacked by French forces. He was sent with a small, undermanned fleet. Several ship were badly damaged in subsequent skirmishes with the French, prompting Byng to turn back to Gibraltar. The fort was eventually forced to capitulate. He was brought home, court-martialled and executed for breach of Articles of War. In 2007 his descendants sought a posthumous pardon.
    (HN, 3/14/99)(Reuters, 3/15/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Byng)

1757        Mar 27, Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz (39), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1757        Apr 6, English king George II fired minister William Pitt, Sr.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1757        May 6, Battle at Prague: Frederik II of Prussia beat emperor's army.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1757        Jun 1, Ignaz J. Pleyel, Austrian composer, piano builder (Piano method), was born. (MC, 6/1/02)

1757        Jun 18, Battle at Kolin, Bohemia: Austrian army beat Prussia.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1757        Jun 19, The Second Coming of Christ occurred, according to the followers of Emanuel Swedenborg (the Church of the New Jerusalem).
    (DTnet 6/19/97)

1757        Jun 22, George Vancouver, surveyed America's Pacific coast from San Francisco to Vancouver, was born.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1757        Jun 23, Forces of the East India Company led by Robert Clive (1725-1774) defeated Indians at Plassey and won control of Bengal. Lord Clive defeated Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal and exacted a payment of $140 million from Moghul ruler Mir Jafar and a Moghul title of nobility and rights to land around Calcutta. This effectively marked the beginning of British colonial rule in India. Clive served 2 terms as the governor of Bengal.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.40)(AP, 6/23/07)

1757        Jul 23, Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (71), Italian composer (La Silvia), died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1757        Jul 26, Benjamin Franklin (51) arrived in London and soon established himself at a house on Craven Street, which served as home, except for 2 intervals, for the next 16 years.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.98)

1757        Aug 9, English Ft. William Henry, NY, surrendered to French and Indian troops.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1757        Sep 3, Charles X, Duke of Prussia, was born in Versailles, France.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1757        Sep 6, Marie Joseph du Motier, Marquis de LaFayette, French soldier and statesman who aided George Washington during the American Revolution, was born in Auvergne, France.
    (AP, 9/6/07)

1757        Oct 9, Charles X, last Bourbon king of France (1824-30), was born.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1757        Nov 5, Frederick II of Prussia defeated the French at Rosbach in the Seven Years War.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1757        Nov 1, Antonio Canova (d.1822), Italian sculptor, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Canova)

1757        Nov 22, Austrians defeated Prussians at Breslau in the Seven Years War.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1757        Nov 28, William Blake (1757-1827), English artist-printer, was born in London. He wrote "Songs of Innocence" and "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell." His last book was "Jerusalem," of which he made only five copies. In 1996 Peter Ackroyd published: "Blake: A Biography." [see 1827]
    (LSA,Spg,1995,p.17)(WUD,1994,p.155)(WSJ,4/9/96,p.A16)(WSJ,4/2397,p.A16)(HN, 11/28/98)

1757        Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) helped set up America’s first street cleaning service in Philadelphia.
    (Econ, 2/28/09, SR p.5)
1757        Benjamin Franklin sailed for England. He spent almost two decades there as colonial agent, a combination lobbyist, ambassador, and banker, for Pennsylvania and, eventually Georgia, New Jersey and Massachusetts. He lived in London at 36 Craven St.
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)(USAT, 9/22/03, p.16A)
   
1757        The Mission of San Javier was completed in San Javier on the Baha Peninsula.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1757-1774    Mustafa III succeeded Osman III in the Ottoman House of Osman. 
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1758        Jan 2, The French began bombardment of Madras, India.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1758        Feb 15, The 1st mustard manufactured in America was advertised in Philadelphia.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(HCB, 2003, p. 94)

1758        Mar 22, Jonathan Edwards (b.1703), US colonial theologian, philosopher (Great Awakening, Original Sin), died in New Jersey following an inoculation for smallpox.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Edwards)

1758        Apr 2, Johann Balthasar Konig (67), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1758        Apr 17, Frances Williams, the first African-American to graduate for a college in the western hemisphere, published a collection of Latin poems.
    (HN, 4/17/99)

1758        Apr 28, James Monroe (d.1831), later secretary of state and the fifth president of the United States (1817-1825), was born in Westmoreland County, Va. He created the Monroe Doctrine, warning Europe not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.28)(HNQ, 7/27/99)(HN, 4/28/02)

1758        May 6, Maximilien F.M.I. de Robespierre (d.1794), a leader of the French Revolution, was born. He was known as the "Sea-Green Incorruptible" from his sallow complexion. He decreed death for all those he considered enemies of the revolution.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.231)(HN, 5/6/99)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C5)

1758        Jun 23, British and Hanoverian armies defeated the French at Krefeld in Germany.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1758        Jul 8, During the French and Indian War a British attack on Fort Carillon at Ticonderoga, New York, was foiled by the French. Some 3,500 Frenchmen defeated the British army of 15,000, which lost 2,000 men.
    (HN, 7/8/98)(AH, 10/02, p.27)

1758        Jul 24, George Washington was admitted to Virginia House of Burgesses.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1758        Jul 26, British battle fleet under Gen. James Wolfe captured France's Fortress of Louisbourg on Ile Royale (Capre Breton Island, Nova Scotia) after a 7-week siege, thus gaining control of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River.
    (HN, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)

1758        Aug 25, The Prussian army defeated the invading Russians at the Battle of Zorndorf. Thousands were killed.
    (HN, 8/25/98)(chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1758        Aug 29, New Jersey Legislature formed the 1st Indian reservation.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1758        Sep 12, Charles Messier observed the Crab Nebula and began a catalog.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1758        Sep 18, James Abercromby was replaced as supreme commander of British forces after his defeat by French commander, the Marquis of Montcalm, at Fort Ticonderoga during the French and Indian War.
    (HN, 9/18/98)

1758        Sep 29, Horatio Nelson (d.1805), British naval commander who defeated the French and her allies on numerous occasions during the age of Napoleon, was born in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk. He was made post-captain at the young age of 21. Nelson died at the moment of his greatest victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. Although a national hero, he displayed common human frailty. His colorful private life, coupled with his genius and daring as a naval commander, seem to make the Nelson story irresistible to every generation.
    (AP, 9/29/97)(HN, 9/29/98)(HNQ, 6/3/01)

1758        Oct 7, Paul Anton Wineberger, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1758        Oct 10, Jean Pierre Chouteau, French fur trader, early St. Louis settler and "father of Oklahoma" was born in New Orleans.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

1758        Oct 16, Noah Webster (d.1843), US teacher lexicographer and publisher, was born in Hartford, Conn. He wrote the “American Dictionary of the English Language."
    (AHD, 1971, p.1452)(AP, 10/16/08)

1758        Nov 25, In the French and Indian War British forces under General John Forbes captured Fort Duquesne (the site of present day Pittsburgh, est. 1754). George Washington participated in the campaign. Forbes renamed the site Fort Pitt after William Pitt the Elder, who directed British military policy in the Seven Years' War of 1756-'63. Before his arrival, the French had burned the fort and retreated.
    (AP, 11/25/97)(ON, 9/05, p.5)(HNQ, 7/17/98)

1758        Dec 5, Johann Friedrich Fasch (70), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1758        Pope Benedict XIV removed the blanket proscription against the works of Copernicus from the Index of Forbidden Books. He left Galileo on the Index because a Pope had participated in the condemnation of Galileo.
    (WSJ, 10/22/99, p.W15)

1758        Pompeo Batoni made his bravura Grand Tour portrait of an English milord.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1758        A.Y. Goguet’s "The Origin of Laws, Arts, and Sciences, and their Progress among the Most Ancient Nations" was published in Paris.
     (RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.13)

1758        Benjamin Franklin ordered Newtown Pippin apples delivered to London while he worked there as Commissioner for the Colonies in America.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.42)

1758        Linnaeus, father of systematics, worked on his wasp specimens.
    (PacDis, Winter/’96, p.43)

c1758        In Taxco, Mexico, the Santa Prisca Cathedral was built in thanks by Don Jose de la Borda, who made his fortune there.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T6)

1759        Jan 6, George Washington and Martha Dandridge Custis were married. George had 28 slaves and Martha had 109.
    (AP, 1/6/98)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)

1759        Jan 25, Robert Burns (d.1796), poet and song writer, who wrote "Auld Lang Syne" and "Comin’ Thru the Rye," was born in Alloway, Scotland. He took traditional Scottish songs and fiddle tunes, and improved upon existing words, or added verses where they had been lost. "Should auld acquaintance be forgot, and never brought to mind, should auld acquaintance be forgot, and auld lang syne. For old lang syne, my dear, for old lang syne, we'll take a cup of kindness yet, for old lang syne."
    (EMN, 1/96, p.4,6)(HN, 1/25/99)(SFC, 12/30/99, p.A13)(MC, 1/25/02)

1759        Jan 31, Francois Devienne, composer, was born.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1759        Feb 28, Pope Clement XIII allowed the Bible to be translated into various languages.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1759        Mar 8, French King Louis XV revoked the license of the Encyclopedie as the 8th volume was about to be printed.
    (ON, 4/05, p.9)

1759        Apr 8, Francois de La Croix (76), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1759        Apr 13, The French defeated European Allies in Battle of Bergen.
    (HN, 4/13/98)

1759        Apr 14, Georg Friedrich Handel (74), German-born composer, died in London.  He had composed  some 30 oratorios.
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(AP, 4/14/97)(SFC, 9/16/97, p.E1)

1759        Apr 23, British seized Basse-Terre and Guadeloupe in the Antilies from France.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1759        Apr 27, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (d.1797), English writer, feminist (Female Reader), was born. "The mind will ever be unstable that has only prejudices to rest on, and the current will run with destructive fury when there are no barriers to break its force."
    (AP, 11/10/97)(MC, 4/27/02)

1759        May 1, British fleet occupied Guadeloupe, in the West Indies. [see Apr 23]
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1759        May 8, Hearing of his appointment in the west, General Napoleon Bonaparte left for Paris in order to obtain a different posting.
    (HN, 5/8/99)

1759        May 15, Maria Theresia von Paradis, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1759        May 20, William Thornton, architect of the U.S. Capitol, actor, was born.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1759        May 28, William Pitt the Younger, PM of England from 1783-1801 and 1804-1806, was born. He has been considered England's greatest PM.
    (HN, 5/28/99)(MC, 5/28/02)

1759        Jul 23, Russians under Saltikov defeated Prussians at Kay in eastern Germany, and one-fourth of Prussian army of 27,000 was lost.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1759        Jul 24, Victor Emmanuel I, King of Sardinia (1802-21), was born.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1759        Jul 25, British forces defeated a French army at Fort Niagara in Canada. During their 7 Years' War.
    (HN, 7/25/98)(SC, 7/25/02)

1759        Jul 26, The French relinquished Fort Carillon in Ticonderoga, New York, to the British under General Jeffrey Amherst. The British changed the name to Fort Ticonderoga.
    (HN, 7/26/98)(AH, 10/02, p.26)

1759        Aug 1, British and Hanoverian armies defeated the French at the Battle of Minden, Germany. The marquis de Lafayette was killed by a British cannonball and his son, Gilbert du Motier (2), inherited the title. In 1777 Lafayette joined the American Continental Army.
    (HN, 8/1/98)(ON, 2/09, p.1)

1759        Aug 18, The French fleet was destroyed by the British under "Old Dreadnought" Boscawen at the battle of Lagos Bay.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1759        Aug 24, William Wilberforce (d.1833), was born in Hull, Yorkshire, England. He became best known for his efforts relating to the abolition of slavery in the British Empire.
    (www.nndb.com/people/824/000049677/)(HNQ, 12/6/02)
1759        Aug 24, Ewald C. von Kleist (44), German poet, died.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1759        Sep 3, Pope Clement XIII officially placed the French Encyclopedie on the Vatican’s Index of Prohibited Books.
    (ON, 4/05, p.9)

1759        Sep 13, During the final French and Indian War, the Battle of Quebec [Canada] was fought. British Gen. James Wolfe’s army defeated Commander Louis Joseph de Montcalm’s French forces on the Plains of Abraham overlooking Quebec City. An English fleet of 20 ships led by General James Wolfe landed 3,600 English troops near Quebec in the early hours of the day. The fleet was sent up the St. Lawrence River to take the region from the French. "Measured by the numbers engaged," wrote historian Francis Parkman, the Battle of Quebec "was but a heavy skirmish; measured by results, it was one of the great battles of the world." On this rainy morning the armies of England and France clashed outside the walls of Quebec City and altered the balance of power of an entire continent. The battle on the Plains of Abraham lasted less than half an hour. As French forces withered and an English victory became apparent, Wolfe was shot in the chest, his third wound of the battle. He said to a distraught soldier just before he died, "Do not weep, my dear. In a few minutes I shall be happy." By the time the rain had washed away the blood, Quebec had surrendered to the British. Four years later, the Treaty of Paris gave England sole dominion over most of the land that Quebec City had governed, from Cape Breton Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Mississippi River.
    (CFA, '96, p.54)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(AP, 9/13/97)(HNQ, 9/8/98)(HNPD, 9/19/98)

1759        Sep 14, Louis Joseph de Montcalm-Grozon, Marquis de Montcalm (b.1712) and  chief of French forces, died at age 47 on the Plains of Abraham in Canada.
    (www.britannica.com)

1759        Sep 18, Quebec surrendered to the British and the Battle of Quebec ended. The French surrendered to the British after their defeat on the Plains of Abraham.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(HN, 9/18/98)
1759        Sep 18, British commander James Wolfe died at the Battle of Quebec.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1759        Oct 11, Mason Weems, preacher (Episcopalian clergyman), was born. He was a noted seller of books where he would fictionalize history in stories like the one he wrote of George Washington in the book, "Life of Washington". People loved his fictionalized stories and often believed that they were true. One famous story which is not true is the story of Washington chopping down the cherry tree and the famous quote on not telling a lie.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1759        Oct 20, Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, French author, politician, French Revolutionary, was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1759        Oct 26, Georges Jacques Danton, French Revolutionary leader, was born. He was an impassioned orator and minister of Justice. He was also the last hope of the moderates during the French Reign of Terror and his execution led directly to the overthrow of Robespierre in 1794.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1759        Nov 10, Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (d.1805), playwright, dramatist, historian and poet, was born. "A beautiful soul has no other merit than its own existence." [He was a friend of Goethe.] "Die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltgericht." (The history of the world is the verdict of the world).
    (WUD, 1994, p.1277)(AP, 8/2/98)(AP, 3/13/99)(HN, 11/10/00)

1759        Nov 24, There was a destructive eruption of Vesuvius.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1759        Soga Shohaku (1730-1781), Japanese artist, created his “Hanshan and Shide" about this time.
    (SFC, 1/14/06, p.E1)

1759        Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), English lexicographer, authored his novel “History of Rasselas," on the elusive nature of happiness.
    (WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)   

1759        French philosopher Voltaire wrote his novel "Candide."
    (WUD, 1994, p.216)

1759        Economist Adam Smith (1723-1790), Glasgow professor on moral philosophy and pioneering economist, authored "The Theory of Moral Sentiments."
    (WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Theory_of_Moral_Sentiments)

1759        Kedleston Hall was begun by Sir Nathaniel Curzon, who moved the entire village of Kedleston, except for the church, a half mile.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.686)

1759        John Smeaton built the Eddystone Lighthouse near Plymouth, England. It was the 3rd one erected at the site over 60 years.
    (WSJ, 6/27/00, p.A28)(ON, 5/06, p.5)

1759        Oliver Goldsmith, English poet, remarked: "As writers become more numerous, it is natural for readers to become more indolent."
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.44)

1759        Dr. Samuel Johnson denounced advertisements as over-exaggerated and false.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1759        Elizabeth Petrovna, the daughter of Peter the Great, and Empress of All the Russias, was noted for her beauty. She obtained a good bit of Finland from Sweden, and her forces crushed the Prussians at Kunersdorf in 1759. The opposing (and losing) general was Frederich the Great, who did not lose many.
    (EHC, 5/12/98)

1759        Britain triumphed over France in the naval victory at Quiberon Bay.
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)
1759        Josiah Wedgwood opened his first factory in Stoke-on-Trent, central England. It began making bone china in the 19th century.
    (SFC, 2/22/06, p.G6)(AP, 1/4/09)
1759        A group of 9 English merchants launched a new ironworks in Dowlais, Wales, using the regions abundant coal. It was managed from its earliest years by the Guest family. In 1900 it was purchased by a nuts and bolts company run by Arthur Keen. Shortly afterwards Keen bought Nettlefolds, a maker of screws and fasteners. By 1902 the firm, known as Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds Ltd., was the world's largest producer of nails. In 1986 “Guest Keen and Nettlefolds" became GKN. In 1987 Edgar Jones authored "A History of GKN." Volume 2 was published in 1990. By 2004 GKN PLC had become a major auto parts supplier and had a new aerospace division.
    (WSJ, 3/16/04, p.A1,8)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.61)

1759        France eliminated the public practice of sitting on the stage during theater and opera performances.
    (SFC, 3/9/07, p.E8)

1759        Arthur Guinness purchased Mark Rainsford’s Ale Brewery in Dublin, Ireland, and began producing his own recipe. In 2009 Guinness, owned by Diageo, launched its Arthur’s Day celebration in honor of its founder.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T8)(AP, 9/26/13)

1759-1761      Jean-Honore Fragonard painted "The Lost Forfeit or Captured Kiss."
    (WSJ, 11/19/03, p.D12)

1759-1771    Emiland Gauthey, Burgundy canal engineer, remade Givry, France, over this period.
    (SSFC, 12/5/04, p.F5)

1759-1788    Charles III ruled as King of Spain. After a plague killed thousands in Alamos, Mexico, Charles III ordered homes to be rebuilt with mutual walls to prevent ramshackle structures by squatters.
    (WUD, 1994, p.249)

1759-1840    Pierre-Joseph Redoute, Flemish-born painter. He was one of the most celebrated flower painters and worked under the patronage of Empress Josephine Bonaparte. His 169 stipple engravings "Les Rose" were made in Paris between 1817-1824.
    (2000 Taschen Calendar)

1760        Jan 20, Charles III, King of Spain, was born.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1760        Feb 14, Richard Allen (d.1831), 1st black ordained by a Methodist-Episcopal church, was born in Philadelphia.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1760        Feb 16, Cherokee Indians held hostage at Fort St. George, SC, were killed in revenge for Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
    (HN, 2/16/99)(MC, 2/16/02)

1760        Mar 20, The great fire of Boston destroyed 349 buildings.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1760        Apr 6, Charlotte Charke (b.1713), actress and writer, died. In 2005 Kathryn Shevelow authored “Charlotte: Being a True Account of an Actress’s Flamboyant Adventures in Eighteenth-Century London’s Wild and Wicked Theatrical World."
    (SSFC, 4/3/05, p.F3)(http://tinyurl.com/5jnfh)

1760        Apr 16, In England Laurence, 4th Earl Ferrers, was executed for the murder of his steward. [see May 5]
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1760        Apr 28, French forces besieging Quebec defeated the British in the second battle on the Plains of Abraham.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1760        May 5, The fourth Earl Ferrers was driven from the Tower of London to be hanged as a felon, the last English nobleman to be executed this way. [see Apr 16]
    (HN, 5/5/99)

1760        May 10, Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle, soldier, author, composer ("La Marseillaise"), was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1760        Jun 23, Austrians defeated the Prussians at Landshut, Germany.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1760        Jul 31, Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, foiled last French threat at Warburg and drove the French army back to Rhine River.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1760        Aug 7, Ft. Loudon, Tennessee, surrendered to Cherokee Indians.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1760        Aug 15, Frederick II (1712-1786), king of Prussia from 1740-1786, defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Liegnitz.
    (HN, 8/15/98)

1760        Sep 8, The French surrendered the city of Montreal to British Gen. Jeffrey Amherst. [see Sep 18, 1759]
    (HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)

1760        Sep 14, Luigi  Cherubini (d.1842), Italian-born prodigy and French composer, was born.
    (www.britannica.com)

1760        Oct 9, Austrian and Russian troops entered Berlin and began burning structures and looting.
    (HN, 10/9/98)

1760        Oct 21, Katsushika Hokusai (d.1849), Japanese printmaker, was born. Hokusai was a master designer of color woodblock prints. His paintings included 36 views of Mt. Fuji done when he was 70.
    (SFC, 9/24/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.54)

1760        Oct 23, The 1st Jewish prayer books were printed in US.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1760        Oct 25, George II (August), king of Great-Britain (1727-60), died at 76.
    (MC, 10/25/01)
1760        Oct 25, King George III of Britain was crowned. He succeeded his late grandfather, George II and ruled until 1820. With the rule of George III the civil list (government officers, judges, ambassadors and royal staff) was paid by the Parliament in return for the king's surrender of the hereditary revenues of the crown.    
    (AHD, 1971, p.552)(AP, 10/25/97)(HN, 10/25/01)

1760        Nov 3, Following the Russian capture of Berlin, Frederick II of Prussia defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Torgau (Germany).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Torgau)

1760        Nov 9, Henri-Philippe Gerard, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1760        Nov 23, Gracchus Babeuf, French agrarian agitator, politician and writer, was born.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1760        Nov 29, Major Roger Rogers took possession of Detroit on behalf of Britain. French commandant Belotre surrendered Detroit.
    (HN, 11/29/98)(MC, 12/29/01)

1760        Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788), English artist, painted a portrait of Ann Ford playing a musical instrument with her legs crossed.
    (WSJ, 12/19/02, p.D10)

1760        Juan Ruiz of Mexico painted "Christ Consoled by Angels."
    (WSJ, 3/3/98, p.A16)

1760        The book "The Life and Adventures of a Cat" was published and featured a cat named Tom, from whence all male cats began to be called Tom. Prior to this a male cat was called a ram.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, Z1 p.8)

1760        The Church of San Tomas in the village of Las Trampas was built. It has thick square towers and heavy walls and is one of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe, New Mexico.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)

1760        The English settled in Maine following their victory in the French and Indian War.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.T6)

1760        A Belgian created roller skates by replacing the blades of ice skates with wheels.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1760        Lancelot "Capability" Brown, English garden designer, landscaped the grounds of Longleat estate, Wiltshire, England.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.685)
1760        The British government ended its support for the London Foundling Hospital.
    (Econ, 10/17/09, p.99)

1760        In Canada a treaty was made with the Mi'kmaq Indians. It was later interpreted to support fishing for profit rights in their traditional 4 Atlantic provinces.
    (WSJ, 12/6/99, p.A27)

1760        Giovanni Battista Torre started a Paris shop selling books and prints. The shop was best know for its fireworks displays. In 1775 Torre’s son Anthony along with Paul Peter Colnaghi moved to London and established themselves as sellers and publishers of prints. In 2010 “Colnaghi: the History" was published as part of a 250 year anniversary celebration.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.87)

1760s        George Stubbs created a painting of a thoroughbred horse. In 2003 it was sold at auction for $3.15 million.
    (AP, 7/10/03)

1760s        Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour built the La Petit Trianon at Versailles as a retreat. She died before it was finished. Louis XVI later gave it to Marie Antoinette.
    (SFEC, 8/9/98, p.26)

1760s-1770s    John Cadwalader, Revolutionary War General, commissioned dozens of furniture pieces from the finest craftsmen in Pennsylvania. He had married Elizabeth Lloyd, the wealthiest woman in colonial America.
    (WSJ, 9/24/99, p.W9)

1760-1820    George III ruled over Great Britain and Ireland. [see 1738-1820, George III]
    (AHD, 1971, p.552)

1760-1830    The Industrial Revolution largely occurred in Britain. Realizing the economic advantages, Britain did not allow the export of any machinery, methods or skilled men that might blunt its technological edge. Eventually, the lure of new opportunities convinced continental entrepreneurs and British businessmen to evade England’s official edict. Englishmen William and John Cockerill brought the Industrial Revolution to continental Europe around 1807 by developing machine shops in Liege, Belgium, transforming the country’s coal, iron and textile industries much as it had done in Britain. 
    (HNQ, 5/16/01)

1761        Feb 3, Richard Nash (b.1674), the “Master of Ceremonies" for Bath, England, died. Celebrated author, Oliver Goldsmith wrote “The Life of Richard Nash" in 1762. In 2005 John Eglin authored “The Imaginary Autocrat: Beau Nash and the Invention of Bath."
    (Econ, 6/18/05, p.81)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beau_Nash)

1761        Mar 23, John W. de Winter, Dutch Vice-Admiral (Battle at Kamperduin), was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1761        Mar 27, Johann Ludwig Steiner (72), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1761        Apr 17, Thomas Bayes (b.1702), English theologian and mathematician, died. He established a mathematical basis for probability inference based on sparse data. Sampling from a large population (the frequentist school) came to dominate the field in the modern era. In 2006 researchers suggested that the human brain might work in a Bayesian manner drawing strong inferences from sparse data.
    (www.britannica.com)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.70)

1761        Apr 20, Johann Gottlieb Karl Spazier, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1761        May 13, Adrian Loosjes Pzn (1818, Dutch publisher, writer (Mauritius Lijnslager), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1761        May 22, The first life insurance policy in the United States was issued, in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 5/22/97)

1761        Jun 10, Puritan version of "Othello" opened in Newport, Rhode Island.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1761        Jul 4, Samuel Richardson, English novelist, died at 72 in London.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1231)

1761        Sep 21, King George III of England was crowned. George was German and had been Elector of Hanover. Coincidentally, the composer Handel, who was working in London when King George was crowned, had gone to London after skipping out on his last job...working for George in Hanover. Fortunately for Handel, King George forgave him.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1761        Dec 1, Madame Tussaud (d.1850), Swiss-born modeler in wax, was born. She founded the world-famous exhibition in London's Baker Street. [see Dec 7]
    (HN, 12/1/99)(MC, 4/16/02)

1761        Dec 7, Madame Tussaud [Marie Grosholtz], creator of the wax museum, was born. [see Dec 1]
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1761        Dec 25, Elisabeth Petrovna (~51), tsarina of Russia (1741-62), died.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1761        George-Louis Leclerc (1707-1788), Comte de Buffon, French naturalist and theoretical biologist published the 9th volume of his 35 volume work titled "Histoire Naturelle, Generale, et Particuliere," an attempt to record all that was known of the world of nature. This volume expanded on his “theory of American degeneracy," his view that all animals in America were smaller than their European counterparts.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7yspryd)(ON, 4/12, p.9)

1761        St. Peter’s Episcopal Church was built in Philadelphia, Pa. The Protestant Episcopal Church of America was born with the Revolution and the break with the Anglican Church of Britain.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.108)(WSJ, 2/19/99, p.W13)

1761        French and Indians forces in the Ohio Valley were defeated.
    (ON, 1/03, p.7)
1761        In western North Carolina British soldiers razed Kituwha, the heart of the Cherokee Nation. Punitive raids here were repeated in 1776.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.70)

1761        The town of Killington was chartered in New Hampshire.
    (ST, 3/2/04, p.A1)

1761        Benjamin Franklin invented his glass armonica.
    (WSJ, 1/15/04, p.D8)

1761        The Earl of Huntington and the Earl of Ashburnham had a violent quarrel over the bedside of George III over who would have the honor of putting on the king’s shirt.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.678)

1761        Monsignor Mario Guarnacci bequeathed his collection of Etruscan artifacts to the town of Volterra, in the hills of Tuscany, Italy. Most of the artifacts were dug from local tombs and are now displayed in chronological order in a museum.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, T6)

1761        In Germany A.W. Faber created its first pencil. In 1898 the company got the current name Faber-Castell. The ‘Castell 9000’ pencil was born in 1905, when count Alexander von Faber Castell decided to give it a hexagonal shape to avoid falling when rolling on a desk.
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.73)(www.designboom.com/contemporary/fabercastell.html)

1761        James Macpherson (1736-1796), Scottish poet, announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal (related to the Irish mythological character Fionn mac Cumhaill/Finn McCool) written by Ossian (based on Fionn's son Oisín). He then published poems by Ossian, the blind 3rd century poet, which became very popular and later exposed as a fraud.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Macpherson)

1761        A transit of Venus occurred. Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon observed it from Cape Town, South Africa.
    (Econ, 5/29/04, p.79)

1761-1845    Louis-Leopold Boilly, French painter. His work entailed a wide variety of subjects from genre paintings, gallants, historical canvasses, still lifes, formal and informal portraits. His work includes: Triumph of Marat (1794), Girl at a Window (1799), Game of Billiards (1807), Gallery du Palais Royal (1809), The Geography Lesson (1812). He produced some 500 genre paintings and some 5,000 small portraits along with a series of humorous lithographs.
    (WSJ, 1/8/96, p.A-16)    (WSJ, 3/31/00, p.W16)

1762        Jan, In France Diderot published the 1st volume of illustrations for his Encyclopedie.
    (ON, 4/05, p.10)

1762        Feb 2, Thomas Arne's opera "Ataxerxes," premiered in London.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1762        Feb 5, Martinique, a major French base in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, surrendered to the British.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1762        Mar 10, Jean Calas, a French protestant (Huguenot), was tortured and executed in Toulouse on the charge that he had killed his son in 1761 to prevent him from converting to Catholicism. Voltaire took up the case believing that Catholic judges were biased. He wrote pamphlets and letters to support his case and urged high-placed friends to place the case before the Great Council of Louis XV. On March 9, 1765, Jean Calas and his family were acquitted and the death of the son was ruled a suicide.
    (ON, 4/06, p.10)(SFC, 3/9/07, p.E8)

1762        Mar 17, 1st St Patrick's Day parade was held in NYC.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1762        May 19, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher, was born. He developed ethical idealism out of Immanuel Kant's work.
    (HN, 5/19/99)

1762        Mar 25, Francesco Giuseppi Pollini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1762        Apr 13, Karl Friedrich Horn, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1762        Apr 14, Giuseppe Valadier, Italian architect, archaeologist, was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1762        Jun 5, English parliamentarian John Wilkes began publishing his North Briton journal.
    (www.lib.monash.edu.au/exhibitions/recent/xrecent.html)

1762        Jun 28, Catharine II, Russian Tsarina, grabbed power. [see Jul 17]
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1762        Jul 17, Peter III of Russia was murdered and his wife, Catherine II, took the throne.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1762        Aug 5, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a treaty agreeing on the partition of Poland.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1762        Aug 12, George IV, King of England (1820-1830), was born. He was named Prince Regent in 1810 when his father was declared insane.
    (HN, 8/12/98)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)
1762        Aug 12, The British captured Cuba from Spain after a two month siege.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1762        Aug 22, Ann Franklin became the first female editor of an American newspaper, the Newport, Rhode Island "Mercury."
    (AP, 8/22/00)

1762        Sep 17, Francesco Xaverio Geminiani, composer, died at 74.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1762        Oct 5, Gluck's opera "Orfeo ed Euridice" had its premiere at Vienna’s Burgtheater on the namesday of Emp. Francis I. Gluck revised "Orpheus and Euridice" in 1774 for the Paris Royal Opera.
    (WSJ, 4/11/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)(MC, 10/5/01)
1762        Oct 5, The British fleet bombarded and captured Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1762        Oct 6, Francesco Onofrio Manfredini, composer, died at 78.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1762        Oct 15, Samuel Adams Holyoke, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1762        Oct 29, Andre-Marie Chenier, French poet (Elegies), was born.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1762        Nov 1, Spencer Perceval, British Prime Minister, was born.
    (HN, 11/1/98)

1762        Nov 3, Spain acquired Louisiana. [see Dec 3]
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1762        Dec 3, France ceded to Spain all lands west of the Mississippi- the territory known as Upper Louisiana. [see Nov 3]
    (CO, Grolier's, 11/10/95)(HN, 12/3/98)

1762        Dec 31, The Mozart family moved from Vienna to Salzburg.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

c1762        Charles Joseph Natoire, artist, did a rendering of "The Cascade at the Villa Aldobrandini, Frascati." It later became part of the collection of the Pierpont Morgan Library.
    (SFEM, 4/6/97, p.16)

1762        The commedia dell’arte play "The King Stag" was written. It was about a good king who couldn’t find a wife after interviewing 2,000 candidates.
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, DB p.31)

1762        Nathony Benezet published "A Short Account of That Part of Africa Inhabited by the Negroes," and argued against slave trade. In 1994 the book was valued at $1800 as a collectors item.
    (WSJ, 12/9/94, p.R-8)

1762        Jean-Jacques Rousseau published his didactic novel "Emile," which spelled out his idea of his "natural system," and his work of political philosophy "The Social Contract." The books were banned in France and he was forced to leave.
    (WSJ, 2/18/97, p.A18)(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M2)

1762        Benjamin Franklin returned to Philadelphia from London and remained until 1764.
    (www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/franklin.htm)

1762        The Nicholas Brothers Chair Manufactory operated in Westminster, Mass. In 1900 the firm moved to Gardner and around 1907 was renamed to Nicholas & Stone.
    (SFC, 3/29/06, p.G6)

1762        The Harrison chronometer was invented. It allowed voyagers to calculate longitudinal distance.
    (SFC, 1/31/04, p.A1)

1762        Barings PLC, a British banking firm was founded [1763 also given]. It later financed the Louisiana Purchase [1803] and provided economic counseling to Queen Elizabeth II. The operation went bust in 1995.
    (WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1762        Gosakuramachi ascended Japan’s throne. She ruled until 1770 and as of 2006 was Japan's last woman ruler.
    (AP, 9/6/06)(http://tinyurl.com/rcnhc)

1762        Abram Petrovich Gannibal (1696-1781), an African slave adopted by Peter the Great, was dismissed by Catherine the Great. He is the great-grandfather of Alexander Pushkin.
    (Econ, 8/20/05, p.66)

1762-1763    James Boswell experienced his 1st extended trip to London. His "London Journal" later recounted his meeting with Samuel Johnson numerous amorous affairs.
    (WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)

1762-1796    Catherine the Great ruled over Russia.
    (WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A16)

1763        Feb 10, Britain, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the Seven Years’ War, aka the French-Indian War. France ceded Canada to England and gave up all her territories in the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands including St. Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland.
    (HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/08)(AH, 2/06, p.55)

1763        Feb 12, Pierre de Mariveaux (b.1688), French novelist and playwright, died. 
    (SFC, 5/30/09, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_de_Marivaux)

1763        Mar 6, Jean Xavier Lefevre, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1763        Apr 2, Giacomo Gotifredo Ferrari, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1763        Apr 7, Domenico Dragonetti, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1763        Apr 19, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian leader, burned to death while sleeping in his cabin in the Wyoming Valley, Pa. The fire destroyed the whole Indian village. A few days later settlers from Connecticut arrived to resume their construction of a town.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1763        Apr 30, Britain’s King George II felt personally insulted and ordered general warrants to be issued for the arrest of John Wilkes, member of Parliament, and the publishers of The North Briton. Forty-nine people, including Wilkes, were arrested under the warrants. At his court hearing the Lord Chief Justice ruled that as an MP, Wilkes was protected by privilege from arrest on a charge of libel.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes)(ON, 12/11, p.7)

1763        May 7, Indian chief Pontiac began his attack on a British fort in present-day Detroit, Michigan. Ottawa Chief Pontiac led an uprising in the wild, distant lands that later became Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
    (HN, 7/24/98)(HN, 5/7/99)

1763        May 16, The English lexicographer, author and wit Samuel Johnson first met his future biographer, James Boswell.
    (AP, 5/16/97)

1763        Jun 20, Theobald Wolfe Tone, Irish nationalist, was born.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1763        Jun 23, Josephine Martinique, empress of France (1804-14), was born.
    (HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)

1763        Jul 17, John Jacob Astor (d.1848), American fur trader who died the richest man in the country, was born as a butcher's son in Germany. Astor arrived in New York in 1784 at age 20 and worked for a fur merchant. He built up his own fur business and invested in real estate. "Buy the acre, sell the lot." He married into the Brevoort family and left $20 million when he died.
    (HN, 7/17/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(WSJ, 3/2/00, p.W10)

1763        Aug 5, Colonel Henry Bouquet decisively defeated the Indians at the Battle of Bushy Run in Pennsylvania during Pontiac's rebellion.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1763        Aug 8, Charles Bulfinch, 1st US professional architect (Mass State House), was born in Boston, Mass.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1763        Sep 26, English poet John Byrom (b.1692) died. The words "Tweedle-dum and Tweedle-dee" made their first appearance in print in "one of the most celebrated and most frequently quoted epigrams," satirizing the disagreements between George Frideric Handel and Giovanni Battista Bononcini, written by John Byrom. A nursery rhyme published in 1805 included the characters Tweedledum and Tweedledee as did Lewis Carroll’s “Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There" (1871).  
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tweedledum_and_Tweedledee)

1763        Oct 5, August III (b.1796), son of August II, died. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland in 1734.
    (SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.D8)

1763        Oct 7, George III of Great Britain issued a royal proclamation reserving for the crown the right to acquire land from western tribes. This closed lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlement and ended the acquisition efforts of colonial land syndicates. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 guaranteed Indian rights to land and self-government.
    (www.bloorstreet.com/200block/rp1763.htm)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)

1763        Nov 15, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon began surveying Mason-Dixon Line between Pennsylvania and Maryland. They surveyed 233 miles by 1767 when Indians of the Six nations told them they could not proceed any further west.
    (MC, 11/15/01)(ON, 2/04, p.10)

1763        Nov 16, John Wilkes (b.1725), English journalist, MP, and friend of American Colonies, was injured in duel. His protest of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 had appeared in the April 23 issue of North Briton No. 45.
    (ON, 12/11, p.8)

1763        Dec 2, Touro Shul, the oldest existing US synagogue, was dedicated in Newport, RI.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1763        Dec 6, The British government case against journalist John Wilkes was decided in favor of Wilkes and a general warrant for his arrest was declared illegal.
    (ON, 12/11, p.8)

1763        Dec 28, John Molson, founder of the Montreal Molson brewery, was born.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1763        The "Jnaneshvari" manuscript, a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, was completed in India. In this period Hindu books began to vie with Muslim texts in the perfection of their paper, calligraphy, illustration and binding.
    (WSJ, 12/11/01, p.A17)

1763        A Crown grant was made to Henry Laurens of Georgia, who later succeeded John Hancock as president of the Continental Congress in 1777. Laurens obtained control of the South Altamaha river lands and named it New Hope Plantation.
    (AP, 8/30/09)

1763        Pierre Laclede and stepson Auguste Chouteau notched a couple of trees that marked the site for Laclede’s Landing that became St. Louis.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, p.T5)

1763        British forces, under orders from Sir Jeffrey Amherst, distributed smallpox-infected blankets among American Indians in the 1st known case of its use as a biological weapon.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(NW, 10/14/02, p.50)

1763        The British proclaimed a law forbidding Americans to move farther west into the Mississippi Valley in order to avoid problems with the Indians.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.223)

1763        Sir George Baker, physician at the court of king George in England, published the treatisse: "Concerning the Cause of the Endemial Colic of Devonshire." Cider presses with lead fittings proved to be the culprit.
    (NH, 7/96, p.52)

1763        The capital of Brazil was changed from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
    (USAT, OW, 4/22/96, p.3)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)

1763        A Chinese map drawn by Mo Yi Tong imitated a world chart made in 1418. It showed barbarians paying tribute to the Ming emperor Zhu Di. The map was unveiled to the public in Beijing in 2006.
    (Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)

1763        Frederick the Great took over Die Konigliche Porzelan-Manufaktur. The royal porcelain factory was privatized by the state of Berlin in 2006.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.65)

1763        Russia annexed the Crimea peninsula from Crimean Tartars and Ottoman Turks.
    (SFC, 2/4/09, p.A5)

1763-1825     Jean Paul Richter, German author: "A timid person is frightened before a danger; a coward during the time; and a courageous person afterward." "Spring makes everything young again except man."
    (AP, 7/3/97)(AP, 3/20/98)

1763-1864    The Circassians, residents of the northwest Caucasus, fought against the Russians in the Russian-Circassian War only succumbing to a scorched earth campaign initiated in 1862 under General Yevdokimov. Afterwards, large numbers of Circassians fled and were deported to the Ottoman Empire, others were resettled in Russia far from their home territories.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circassians)

1763-1865    In 2003 Richard Clement authored "Books on the Frontier: Print culture in the American West 1763-1875."
    (SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M1)   

1764        Jan 1, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (8) played for the Royal Family at Versailles, France.
    (http://musicandhistory.com/music-and-history-by-the-year/23-1764.html)

1764        Jan 19, Bolle Willum Luxdorph, a Danish diarist, described what is believed to be the first successful parcel bomb.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1764        Jan 20,  John Wilkes was expelled from the English House of Commons. In February he was found guilty, in absentia, of seditious libel (for the North Briton) and of obscene and impious libel (for Essay on Woman, a parody on Pope which he had co-written with Thomas Potter years before, intended for a select group of friends).
    (www.jamesboswell.info/biography/john-wilkes-essay-women-wilkes-and-liberty)

1764        Jan 25, Harvard Hall in Cambridge, Mass., burned to the ground and destroyed most of the 5,000 volumes in its library.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A9)

1764        Feb 11, Marie-Joseph de Chenier, French poet (Cajus Graechus), was born.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1764        Feb 15, The city of St. Louis was established as a French trading post. Pierre Laclede Ligue and stepson Auguste Chouteau notched a couple of trees that marked the site for Laclede’s Landing that became St. Louis.
    (SFC, 5/12/97, p.T5)(AP, 2/15/98)(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1764        Mar 13, Charles Earl Grey (Whig), British Prime Minister (1830-1834), was born.
    (HN, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)

1764        Apr 3, John Abernethy, surgeon, was born in London.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1764        Apr 3, Austrian arch duke Jozef crowned himself Roman Catholic king.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1764        Apr 15, Jeanne-Antoinette-Poison LeNormant d'Etoiles, Marquis de Pomador, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1764        Apr 19, The English Parliament banned the American colonies from printing paper money.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1764        May 1, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, architect of the U.S. Capitol, was born.
    (HN, 5/1/98)
1764        May 1, Gottfried Rieger, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1764        May 15, Johann Nepomuk Kalcher, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1764        May 24, Bostonian lawyer James Otis denounced "taxation without representation" and called for the colonies to unite in demonstrating their opposition to Britain's new tax measures.
    (HN, 5/24/99)

1764        Jun 21, William Sydney Smith, British seaman, was born. He bested Napoleon Bonaparte at the port of St. Jean d'Acre in the Mediterranean Sea.
    (HN, 6/21/00)

1764        Jul 9, Ann Radcliffe, novelist who wrote Gothic romances set in Italy, was born.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1764        Jul 16, Ivan VI (23), Emperor of Russia (1740-41), was murdered.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1764        Sep 12, Jean Philippe Rameau, French composer (Castor en Pollux), died at 80.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1764        Oct 22, Jean Marie I'aine Leclair (67), composer, died.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1764        Oct 25, John Adams, future US president, wed Abigail Smith. He called her “a constant feast." Their marriage lasted 54 years.
    (AH, 10/04, p.15)

1764        Nov 16, Indians surrendered to British in Indian War of Chief Pontiac.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1764        Nov 26, France banned Jesuits.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

c1764        Tiepolo painted his "Apotheosis of the Spanish Monarchy." It was a study for a ceiling in Madrid.
    (WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1764        Catherine the Great hired Etienne-Maurice Falconet (1716-1791) of France to create a statue of Peter the Great (d.1725). In 2003 Alexander M. Schenker authored "The Bronze Horseman: Falconet's Monument to Peter the Great."
    (WSJ, 12/18/03, p.D6)

1764        Horace Walpole (1717-1797), son of Sir Robert Walpole and 4th earl of Orford, authored "The Castle of Otranto," the 1st gothic novel.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1607)(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.M1)

1764        Voltaire [Francois Marie Arouet] (1694-1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and essayist, authored the "Philosophical Dictionary."
    (HNQ, 10/11/01)

1764        Half the slaves aboard the ship Sally, owned by the Brown family, died enroute to Rhode Island.
    (SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F3)

1764        Brown University was founded in Rhode Island by the Brown family.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.A22)(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F3)

1764        The French established the 1st settlement on the Falkland Islands.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)

1764        In Mexico Ignacio de Jerusalem composed "Matins for Our Lady of Guadalupe." It was first performed the Mexico City Cathedral.
    (SFC, 6/24/97, p.B3)

1764        In Scotland the St. Andrew’s golf course remodeled and cut its hole number from 22 to 18. The 40 yard fairways were also enlarged.
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, Z1 p.4)

1764-1822     William Pinkney, American diplomat: "A definition is no proof."
    (AP, 2/15/99)

1765        Feb 9, Elisabetta de Gambarini (33), composer, died.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1765        Mar 7, Joseph N. Niepce (d.1883), French lithographer, inventor (photography), was born. Photo etching was invented by Joseph Nicephore Niepce early in the 19th century. He also invented photography. His partner, L.J.M. Daguerre, perfected Niepce's process and popularized daguerreotypes as the first commercial photographs.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.273)(I&I, Penzias, p.114)(MC, 3/7/02)

1765        Mar 18, David H. Chass, Dutch baron, general (fought Napoleon at Waterloo), was born.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1765        Mar 22, Britain enacted the Stamp Act to raise money from the American Colonies. This was the first direct British tax on the colonists. The Act was repealed the following year. The tax covered just about everything produced by the American colonists and began the decade of crisis that led to the American Revolution. The Stamp Act taxed the legal documents of the American colonists and infuriated John Adams.
    (AP, 3/22/97)(HN, 3/22/97)(A&IP, p.13,18)

1765        Mar 24, Austrian Empress Maria Theresa issued a decree to establish a School for Healing Animal Diseases.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.23)
1765        Mar 24, Britain enacted the Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to provide temporary housing to 10,000 British soldiers in public and private buildings.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(HN, 3/24/98)

1765        Apr 5, Edward Young (81), English poet (Love of Fame), died.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1765        May 7, Adm. Nelson's flagship HMS Victory ran aground.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1765        May 25, The Gambia was made a part of the British colony of SeneGambia with its headquarters at St. Louis.
    (http://www.vdiest.nl/gambia.htm)
1765        May 25, Pierre-Joseph Le Blan (53), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1765        May 28, Jean Baptiste Cartier, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1765        May 29, Patrick Henry denounced the Stamp Act before Virginia's House of Burgesses. It was during this speech that Henry supposedly responded to cries of "Treason!" by declaring, "If this be treason, make the most of it," according to an 1817 biography of Henry by William Wirt, who wrote that he had confirmed the quote with former President Thomas Jefferson.
    (AP, 5/29/08)

1765        Jul 16, Prime Minister of England Lord Greenville resigned and was replaced by Lord Rockingham.
    (HN, 7/16/98)

1765        Aug 14, Massachusetts colonists challenged British rule by an Elm (Liberty Tree).
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1765        Aug 21, William IV (d.1837), king of England (1830-37) the "sailor king," was born.
    (WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(SC, 8/21/02)

1765        Aug 25, In protest over the stamp tax, American colonists sacked and burned the home of Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson. In 1774 he was exiled to Britain. In 1974 Bernard Bailyn authored “The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson."
    (HN, 8/25/98)(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)

1765        Sep, Printing of Diderot’s complete Encyclopedie was finished despite unauthorized edits by Le Breton, his chief publisher. The French government prohibited distribution in Paris or near Versailles.
    (ON, 4/05, p.10)

1765        Oct 7, Delegates from nine of the American colonies met in New York to discuss the Stamp Act Crisis and colonial response to it. This "Stamp Act Congress" went on to draft resolutions condemning the Stamp and Sugar Acts, trial without jury and taxation without representation as contrary to their rights as Englishmen.
    (AP, 10/7/97)(HN, 10/7/98)

1765        Oct 19, The Stamp Act Congress, meeting in New York, drew up a declaration of rights and liberties.
    (AP, 10/19/97)

1765        Oct 20, William August (44) duke of Cumberland, English supreme commander, died. [see Oct 31]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1765        Oct 21, Giovanni Paolo Pannini (Panini), Italian painter and architect, died at 73.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1765        Oct 31, Duke of Cumberland, English politician and general, died. He butchered Scots at Culloden. [see Oct 20]
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1765        Nov 1, The Stamp Act went into effect, prompting stiff resistance from American colonists.
    (AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)

1765        Nov 14, Robert Fulton, inventor, was born. His steamboat, the Clermont, made its 1st voyage on Aug 17, 1807.
    (HN, 11/14/98)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)

1765        Nov 20, Friedrich Heinrich Himmel, composer (Von Himmel Hoch), was born.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1765        Nov 23, Frederick County, Md., became the first colonial entity to repudiate the British Stamp Act.
    (AP, 11/23/07)
   
1765        Dec 8, Eli Whitney (d.1825), American inventor and manufacturer, was born. He invented the cotton gin.
    (CFA, '96, p.60)(HN, 12/8/00)

1765        In his Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law, John Adams wrote that power had been pursued throughout history for two very different ends: for tyranny on the one hand and for the freedom of the individual or the community on the other.
    (WSJ, 2/12/96, p.A-12)

1765        Carlo Cozzi (Gozzi), Italian fantasist, composed "The Green Bird."
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(WSJ, 3/8/96, p. A-8)(SFC, 9/15/00, p.C1)

1765        In America the "Daughters of Liberty" was the first society of working women in the US and formed to boycott British products and woven goods.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1765        Shaw Furniture of Cambridge, Mass., was in business as early as this time and continued operating into the 1920s. During the 18th century Shaw made furniture using convict labor from Charleston State Prison.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)

1765        More than 100 Africans perished on the slave ship Sally in the voyage from Africa. Some hanged themselves or starved to death. Some rebelled and were shot dead or drowned. In 2007 the ship's log book, detailing the deaths of slaves that occurred almost daily aboard the ship, was encased in glass in an exhibit at Brown University.
    (Reuters, 3/29/07)

1765        James Smithson (d.1829), English scientist, was born. He later bequeathed his entire estate to the United States to found an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, to be named the Smithsonian Institution. Smithson had the mineral smithsonite (carbonate of zinc) named for him. Alexander Graham Bell, scientist and inventor, escorted the remains of James Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian Institution, to the United States in 1904 for interment in the original Smithsonian building. 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Smithson)
1765        Britain also stationed a standing army of 6,000 in the colonies and required the colonists to provide for units in settled areas. Later evidence indicated that poor weather conditions led to poor crop seasons for 15 of 37 years prior to the Revolution.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A14)
1765        Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), English chemist and natural philosopher, created the innovation of the first timeline charts, in which individual bars were used to visualize the life span of a person, and the whole can be used to compare the life spans of multiple persons. "Priestley's timelines proved a commercial success and a popular sensation, and went through dozens of editions".
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Playfair)
c1765    A group of men began meeting at one another’s houses in Birmingham, England, and helped develop over time new technologies that helped transform England to an industrial power; they included Josiah Wedgwood, Erasmus Darwin, Matthew Boulton, James Watt, and Joseph Priestley. In 2002 Jenny Uglow authored "The Lunar Men," and account of their work.
    (WSJ, 11/14/02, p.D6)
1765        John Taylor and Sampson Lloyd established a bank in Birmingham that grew to become Britain’s Lloyds TSB.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)

1765        Richard Hennessey, an exile Ireland, founded a spirits export business in the Cognac region of France.
    (SSFC, 10/16/11, p.N4)
1765        La Compagnie des Cristalleries de Baccarat, a glass factory, opened in France.
    (SFC, 2/22/06, p.G6)

1765        K. Niebuhr, Danish visitor to Mesopotamia, made copies of cuneiform inscriptions at Persepolis, which were later used and deciphered by George Grotefund. He observed that there was three kinds of writing--those which we now recognize as Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.193)

1765        The Spanish King sent 92 rams and 128 ewes to Saxony. This led to the development of the German wool industry which set wool standards by the end of the century.
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 575)
1765        The Spanish Crown hired Irishmen Col. Thomas O’Daly and Field Marshall Alexander O’Reilly to upgrade the defenses of all of Spain’s Caribbean ports. They expanded and improved El Morro and San Cristobal.
    (HT, 4/97, p.33)

1765        Eberhard put erasers on pencils. [see 1794]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1765        Scotsman James Watt further refined Thomas Newcomen’s piston system steam engine innovation by adding a separate condenser. Watt took out a patent on his improved engine in 1769.
    (HNQ, 1/18/01)

c1765-1770    Tiepolo painted his "Annunciation."
    (WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1765-1775    Ships from Salem, Mass., typically carried 12,000 quintals (220 lbs. per quintal) of salt cod to Europe and the same amount to the West Indies.
    (NH, 5/96, p.59)

1766        Jan 1, James Francis Edward Stuart (b.1688), son of James III, died. The English prince was known as the Old Pretender.
    (HN, 1/1/99)(WUD, 1994 ed., p.1410)

1766        Jan, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, philosopher and writer, arrived in London with Theresa Levasseur, his governess and mistress. He was able to receive a modest pension from George III.
    (WSJ, 2/18/97, p.A18)

1766        Feb 11, The Stamp Act was declared unconstitutional in Virginia.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1766        Feb 13, Thomas Robert Malthus (d.1834), English economist, population expert (Law of Malthus), was born.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)(Internet)

1766        Feb 24, Samuel Wesley (d.1837), composer, organist (Exultate Deo), was born in Bristol, England. He studied, played, and preached Bach.
    (LGC-HCS, p.32)(MC, 2/24/02)

1766        Mar 5, Spanish official Don Antonio de Ulloa arrived in New Orleans to take possession of the Louisiana Territory from the French.
    (AP, 3/5/98)

1766        Mar 18, Britain repealed the Stamp Act of 1765.
    (AP, 3/18/97)(PCh, 1992, p.311)

1766        Mar 28, Joseph Weigl, Austrian composer, conductor (Emmeline), was born.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1766        Apr 8, The 1st fire escape was patented: a wicker basket on a pulley and chain.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1766        Apr 24, Robert Bailey Thomas, founder of the Farmer's Almanac, was born.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1766        Jul 9, J. Schopenhauer, writer, was born.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1766        Jul 11, Elisabeth Farnese (73), princess of Parma, queen of Spain, died.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1766        Jul 24, At Fort Ontario, Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson signed a peace agreement.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1766        Sep 6, John Dalton, English scientist, was born. He developed the atomic theory of matter.
    (HN, 9/6/00)

1766        Sep 17, Samuel Wilson, the future Uncle Sam, was born in Menotomy Mass. Menotomy later became Arlington. Samuel moved to Troy, New York, where he and his brother set up meat packing plants which later provided food for the US Army during the War of 1812.
    (WC, Summer ‘97, p.3)

1766        Nov 16, Rudolphe Kreutzer (d.1831), a leading French composer and violinist. Beethoven’s "Kreutzer" Sonata was dedicated to him. His Stradivarius violin sold for $1.58 mil. in 1998.
    (WUD, 1994, p.795)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E4)(MC, 11/16/01)

1766        Nov 25, Pope Clement XIII warned of dangers of anti-Christian writings
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1766        Dec 5, London auctioneers Christie's held their 1st sale. The British auction house Christie’s was sold in 1998 to Francois Pinault, a French businessman and art collector.
    (HT, 3/97, p.74)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W12)(WSJ, 5/19/98, p.B10)(MC, 12/5/01)

1766        The Beekman Arms of Rhinebeck, NY, began serving beer. In 2000 it was the oldest continuously operating tavern in the US.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, Z1 p.2)

1766        Jonathan Carver, an American-born British army officer, set out to cross the American continent, but was stopped in Minnesota by a war between the Sioux and Chippewa.
    (SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1766        The dentist Woofendale from England was the first dentist in the US.
    (SFC, 8/14/99, p.B3)
1766        In London the first paved sidewalk was laid at Westminster.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)
1766        Henry Cavendish isolated hydrogen during experiments with H2O in England.
    (NH, 7/02, p.32)

1766        France handed its settlement on the Falkland Islands over to Spain.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)

1766        Sweden guaranteed freedom of the press.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.16)

1766-1769    The French expedition of Louis Antoine de Bougainville sailed on a voyage to circumnavigate the globe. Botanist Jeanne Baret, disguised as a man, likely collected a flower (bougainvillea) near Rio de Janeiro that was named after the captain.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeanne_Bar%C3%A9)

1766-1817    Germaine de Stael, French author: "There are only two distinct classes of people on this earth: those who espouse enthusiasm and those who despise it."
    (AP, 7/10/00)

1766-1841    Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin. He arranged for the 5th century BC frieze sculpture of the Greek Parthenon, supposedly made under Phidias, to be sold to the British Museum for 35,000 pounds. This was arranged when Greece was under Ottoman rule. The marbles, originally painted, were unwittingly cleaned in the 1930s and their original patina removed.
    (SFC, 6/19/98, p.A12)(WUD, 1994, p.463)

1766-1848    Isaac D'Israeli, English author: "The wise make proverbs and fools repeat them."
    (AP, 2/26/00)

1767        Mar 15, Andrew Jackson (d.1845), seventh President of the United States known as "Old Hickory," was born in Waxhaw, South Carolina. The first American president to be born in a log cabin, Jackson was a hero of the War of 1812, an Indian fighter and a Tennessee lawyer. Neither a particularly intelligent man nor a wise one, Jackson became the symbol of his age by being the right man believing in the right things at the right time. Success was a race, Jackson believed, and the government’s primary responsibility was to guarantee that every man got a fair chance at winning. Jackson’s administration (1829-37) saw the development of modern-style political parties and changes in the voting laws that nearly tripled the electorate. Known for his strong will, Jackson was fond of saying: "When I mature my course I am immovable." Jackson was the first congressman from Tennessee and later became a senator and state supreme court judge. Jackson was involved in a number of duels and killed a man in one. Personal feuds with Thomas Jefferson led him out of public life for some time. Jackson was elected president in 1828 and served until 1837.  He initiated the spoils system and had the first "Kitchen Cabinet" of intimate advisers. Jackson died June 8, 1845. In 1997 Max Byrd wrote "Jackson," a biographical novel.
    (AP, 3/15/97)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A20)(HNQ, 4/30/99)(HNPD, 4/30/99)

1767        Mar 25, Joachim Murat (d.1815), Napoleon's brother in law, was born in Labastide-Murat. He was a French marshal and became king of Naples (1808-1815).
    (WUD, 1994, p.941)(HN, 3/25/99)(HN, 3/25/99)

1767        Mar 30, Jonas Kristupas Glaubicas, one of the founders of the Vilnius school of baroque architecture, died.
    (LHC, 3/30/03)

1767        May 13, Mozart's opera "Apollo et Hyacinthus," premiered in Salzburg.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1767        May 14, British government disbanded the import duty on tea in America.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1767        May 18, Thaddaus Ferdinand Lipowsky (28), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1767        May 25, Ferdinand Franzl, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1767        May 25, Friedrich Johann Eck, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1767        Jun 7, Daniel Boone sighted present-day Kentucky. [see Jun 7, 1769]
    (HN, 6/7/01)

1767        Jun 15, Rachel Robards Jackson, U.S. first lady to Andrew Jackson, was born. She caused a scandal by marrying Jackson before divorcing her husband.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1767        Jun 25, Mexican Indians rioted as Jesuit priests were ordered home. Spain expelled the Jesuits from Mexico and their work was taken over by the Dominican Fathers.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)(HN, 6/25/98)(Econ, 6/1/13, p.80)
1767        Jun 25, Georg Philipp Telemann (86), German composer, died.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1767        Jun 29, The British Parliament approved the Townshend Revenue Acts, sponsored by statesman Charles Townshend (1725-1767), which imposed import duties on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea shipped to America. Colonists bitterly protested, prompting Parliament in 1770 to repeal the duties on all goods, except tea.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1499)(HN, 6/29/98)(AP, 6/29/07)

1767        Jul 11, John Quincy Adams (d.1848), son of John Adams and the sixth president of the United States, was born in Braintree, Mass.
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)

1767        Oct 9, The survey party of Mason and Dixon came to a halt after 233 miles when Indians of the Six Nations said they had reached the end of their commission. [see Oct 18]
    (ON, 2/04, p.10)

1767        Oct 18, The boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania, the Mason-Dixon line, was agreed upon. It was first surveyed in 1763 to 1767 by two British astronomers, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, in order to settle a dispute between the Calvert and Penn families, the owners at that time of the two states in question. The survey, begun in 1763 and completed four years later, done by English surveyors Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to resolve a land-grant boundary dispute between the families of Lord Baltimore and William Penn, resulted in the Mason-Dixon Line. The line, extended in 1784, came to be known as the dividing line between free-soil states and slave states.
    http://freespace.virgin.net/john.cletheroe/usa_can/usa/mas_dix.htm
    (AP, 10/18/97)(HNQ, 9/8/99)

1767        Oct 23, H. Benjamin Constant, [de Rebeque], French politician and writer, was born.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1767        Dec 9, Benedetto Alfieri, Italian architect (San Giovanni Battista), died.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1767        Fragonard (1732-1806) painted "The Swing."
    (SFC, 2/7/03, p.D2)

1767        Phillis Wheatley's (d.1784) poetry was published for the first time. She traveled to England in 1773, where her book "Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral" was hailed as the first published by an African American. In 1776 the African slave-born poet met with George Washington in Cambridge, just before the British evacuated Boston.
    (HNPD, 2/20/99)(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.F3)

1767        Laurence Sterne authored his novel "Tristram Shandy."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1767        British explorer Jonathan Carver described petroglyph images of snakes and buffalo near a cave at bluffs in Minnesota called Wakan Tipi by the Dakota people.
    (LP, Spring 2006, p.23)

1767        Christophe Willibald Gluck, Vienna court Kappellmeister, composed his opera "Alcestis." It was revised in 1776 for the Royal Paris Opera.
    (WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)

1767        Burmese invaded the port city of Ayutthaya (Siam-Thailand), sacked the city and left it in ruins. The capital was then moved to Bangkok.
    (WSJ, 4/21/05, p.D7)

1767        Robert Clive returned from India to England with a huge fortune and was accused of embezzlement.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1767        George Hodgeson, British entrepreneur, cut a deal with the East India Company to start providing beer to the British Civil-service and merchant classes in the India colonies. He doubled the hop content to help preserve the beer on its long voyage.
    (WSJ, 8/13/04, p.W6)
1767        The English found their way to Tahiti.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T12)
1767        English slave traders captured 2 native nobles, Little Ephraim Robin John and Ancona Robin John on the west coast of Africa and took them in chains to Dominica. They soon escaped but were resold into slavery in Virginia. Some 4 years later they were taken to England and again resold and returned to Virginia. They later made it back to their home on the Calabar River (SE Nigeria) and became slave merchants themselves. In 2004 Randy J. Sparks authored “The Princes of Calabar."
    (WSJ, 5/21/04, p.W4)
1767        Kitty Fisher, a prominent British courtesan, died.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitty_Fisher)

1767        Louis Antoine de Bougainville of France sailed to the islands of New Guinea. He encountered the ritual of gift giving to one's enemy, which obligated the enemy to give back even more.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1767        In Scandinavia military ski competitions began to offer prize money.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1767        Horace de Saussure, Swiss scientist, developed a solar cooker using the greenhouse effect, in the form of several glass boxes set inside one another and placed on a dark surface.
    (SFC, 7/11/07, p.F5)

1767-1780    Bernardo Belotto (Il Canaletto), Italian topographical view painter, worked as court painter in Warsaw for Stanislaus II Augustus Poniatowski, the last King of Poland.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1767-1849    Maria Edgeworth, English novelist: "A straight line is the shortest in morals as in mathematics."
    (AP, 6/25/99)

1768        Jan 9, English cavalry sergeant Philip Astley staged the first modern circus, performing elaborate feats on the backs of horses racing around a ring.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1768        Feb 11, A Samuel Adams letter, opposing Townshend Act taxes, was circulated among the American colonies.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1768        Feb 12, Francis II, the Last Holy Roman Emperor (1792-1806), was born.
    (HN, 2/12/98)(MC, 2/12/02)

1768          Feb 24, Lithuania-Poland signed an eternal friendship treaty with Russia along with a guarantee of protection. Lithuania and Poland agreed not to change their state system.
    (LHC, 2/23/03)

1768        Mar 14, Vigilio Blasio Faitello (58), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1768        Mar 21, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier (d.1830), French mathematician, physicist and Egyptologist, was born.
    (HN, 3/21/98)(WUD, 1994, p.561)

1768        Apr 5, 1st US Chamber of Commerce formed in NYC.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1768        Apr 7, Michel Mathieu (78), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1768        Apr 19, Canaletto (b.1697), Venetian printmaker and landscape painter, died.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaletto)

1768        Apr 27, John Wilkes (b.1725), English journalist, was arrested for seditious libel following his February return from exile in Europe.
    (ON, 12/11, p.8)

1768        May 10, The imprisonment of the journalist John Wilkes as an outlaw provoked violence in London. Wilkes had returned to parliament as a member for Middlesex. The “Massacre of St. George’s Fields" left 6 people dead as soldiers fired on a mob cheering Wilkes.
    (HN, 5/10/99)(ON, 12/11, p.9)

1768        May 15, By the Treaty of Versailles, France purchased Corsica from Genoa.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.A1)(HN, 5/15/99)

1768        May 20, Dolley Madison, first lady of President James Madison, was born. She was famous as a Washington hostess while her husband was secretary of state and president.
    (HN, 5/20/99)

1768         Jun 30, Elizabeth Kortright, later Elizabeth Monroe, first lady to U.S. President James Monroe, was born.
    (HN, 6/30/01)

1768        Jul 27, Charlotte Corday, French patriot who assassinated Jean Paul Marat, was born.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1768        Aug 26, Capt James Cook departed from Plymouth with Endeavour to the Pacific Ocean. Daniel Solander and Joseph Banks accompanied Cook to catalog plants and animals of Australia and New Zealand on the 3-year journey.
    (www.artstor.org/what-is-artstor/w-html/col-endeavour-london.shtml)(SSFC, 4/19/09, Books p.J7)

1768        Sep 4, Vicomte François René de Chateaubriand, French writer, novelist (Atala) and chef who gave his name to a style of steak, was born.
    (HN, 9/4/98)(MC, 9/4/01)

1768        Oct 1, English troops under general Gage landed in Boston.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1768        Oct 28, Germans and Acadians joined French Creoles in their armed revolt against the Spanish governor of New Orleans.
    (HN, 10/28/98)
1768        Oct 28, Michel Blavet (68), French court flautist and composer, died.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1768        Oct 30, 1st Methodist church in US was initiated at Wesley Chapel, NYC.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1768        Nov 5, William Johnson, the northern Indian Commissioner, signed a treaty with the Iroquois Indians to acquire much of the land between the Tennessee and Ohio rivers for future settlement.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1768        James Boswell (28) authored "Account of Corsica."
    (WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)

1768        John Dickinson (1732-1808) wrote "The Liberty Song." The refrain included the words: "Then join hand in hand, brave Americans all! By uniting we stand, by dividing we fall."
    (SFC, 11/2/02, p.D2)

1768        Cornelius de Pauw wrote a book on America.
    (WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A12)

1768        In Massachusetts the Jeremiah Lee Mansion was built in Marblehead. Lee later became a fatality of the Lexington-Concord battle.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)
1768         The Massachusetts colonial assembly voted 92-17 to refuse British demands for repeal of the Massachusetts Circular Letter, which had been penned by Samuel Adams in protest of the Townshend Revenue Act. Silversmith and legendary Patriot Paul Revere later crafted his Liberty Bowl to commemorate the two "Patriotic numbers" 92 and 45. The bowl, which weighed 45 ounces and held 45 gills, was inscribed with "Ninety-Two." The numbers had special significance to American Patriots, representing resistance to British taxation and the No. 45 issue of Wilkes’ North Briton newspaper.
    (www.mfa.org/collections/object/39072)

1768        Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), US President (1801-1809), was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/timeline-jeffersons-life)

1768        The 1st four day royal meeting was held at the Royal Ascot track west of London. Horse racing there had begun in 1711.
    (SFC, 6/21/06, p.A2)(www.icons.org.uk/nom/nominations/royal-ascot)
1768        Seamen in London formed a union and imposed a port strike that virtually halted all shipping.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)

1768        William Smellie, a young Edinburgh botanist, was given the task of editing the first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica.
    (NH, 5/96, p.3)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A1)

1768        Johan Friedrich Struensee, a German doctor, was appointed as personal physician to the insane young King Christian VII of Denmark. The doctor became lover to the queen, Caroline Mathilde, the younger sister of George III of England. Struensee was arrested and executed after 2 years.
    (WSJ, 12/7/01, p.W16)

1768        In Guanajuato, Mexico, enslaved Indians struck a major silver vein in Guanajuato.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D7)

1768        Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of Nepal, defeated the Malla rulers.
    (AFP, 6/28/11)

1768        King Carlos III of Spain sent Father Junipero Serra from Mallorca to California.
    (SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)

1768-1771    Capt. James Cook charted the coasts of both the north and south islands of New Zealand and Australia. Cook made his historic voyages in colliers, slow but strong ships designed primarily for carrying coal. His ship was named the Endeavour. Cook's voyage to Australia kept a botanical record called the Banks Florilegium. The 738 original plates commissioned by Sir Joseph Banks was not printed until a 100 set limited edition in 1989.
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)

1768-1774    The Russian and Ottoman War.
    (HNQ, 5/6/02)

1768-1834    In India the brigand, Amir Khan Pindari, was finally bribed by the British to retire with a grant of sovereignty over 4 territories.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)

1769        Jan 10, Michel Ney, French marshal (Waterloo), was born.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1769        Feb 4, Journalist John Wilkes was expelled from the British Parliament.
    (ON, 12/11, p.9)

1769        Mar 16, Journalist John Wilkes was elected unopposed to his former seat in the British Parliament.
    (ON, 12/11, p.9)

1769        Mar 23, William Smith, geologist (Strata Identified by Organized Fossils), was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1769        Mar 27, Josef Antonin Gurecky (60), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1769        Mar, King Carlos III of Spain chose Don Jose Galvez to protect interests in Mexico. Galvez sent Gaspar de Portola and Father Junipero Serra with 62 Spanish soldiers out to establish a settlement at San Diego and on a northerly journey from Loreto to found missions along the Baha Peninsula and into California. Jose Antonio Yorba was one of the 62 soldiers. For his loyalty he received 62,000 acres of land that included much of what later became Santa Ana, Tustin, Orange and Mosta Mesa.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC, 6/17/98, p.C4)

1769        Mar, Captain Portola set out with a group of soldiers, priests, Christian Native Americans and muleteers. Their intention was to go as far as Monterey Bay but passed it. Gaspar de Portola led the first European land expedition to sight the San Francisco Bay from land. Captain Portola had been appointed governor of Baja and Alta California and sent on an expedition to explore and replace the Jesuits with Franciscans in the Baja missions and start new Franciscan missions in Alta.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(Park, Spring/95)(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)

1769        Apr 12, Giovanni Agostino Perotti, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1769        Apr 20, Ottawa Chief Pontiac (bc1720) was murdered by an Indian in Cahokia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1117)(HN, 4/20/98)

1769        Apr 22, Madame du Barry became King Louis XV's "official" mistress.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1769        Apr 24, Arthur Wellesley, general, Duke of Wellington, was born. [see May 1]
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1769        May 1,    Arthur Wellsley, Duke of Wellington "Iron Duke," was born. He defeated Napoleon at Waterloo and later became the British prime minister (1828-30). [see Apr 24]
    (HN, 5/1/99)(MC, 5/1/02)

1769        May 7, Giuseppe Farinelli, composer, singer, was born.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1769        Jun 3, British navigator, Captain James Cook, British astronomer Charles Green and Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander observed and recorded a transit of Venus across the sun on the island of Tahiti during Cook's first voyage around the world.
    (http://transitofvenus.nl/wp/past-transits/1769-june-3/)

1769        Jun 7, Daniel Boone first began to explore the present-day Bluegrass State as recognized by Kentucky's Historical Society.  [see June 7, 1767]
    (AP, 6/7/97)

1769        Jun 11, Anne Newport Royall, American newspaper reporter, was born.
    (HN, 6/11/01)

1769        Jul 16, Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Diego de Alcala, the 1st mission in Calif. The Franciscan friars soon planted cuttings of olive trees. California’s first olive press was established in Ventura County in 1871. Serra went on to build nine missions along the coast and to take over tribal lands.
    (http://missions.bgmm.com/sdiego.htm)(SSFC, 8/27/06, p.F2)(SFC, 1/23/15, p.A12)

1769        Aug 15, Napoleon Bonaparte (d.1821), Emperor of France (1804-1813, 1814-1815) and continental Europe, was born on the island of Corsica.
    (WUD, 1994, p.950)(AP, 8/15/97)(HN, 8/15/02)(MC, 8/15/02)

1769        Aug 18, Gunpowder in Brescia, Italy, church exploded and some 3,000 were killed.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1769        Aug 29,  Edmond Hoyle (b.1672), English games expert, died.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1769        Sep 14, Baron Freidrich von Humboldt (d.1859), German naturalist and explorer who made the first isothermic and isobaric maps, was born.
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1769        Sep 18, John Harris built the 1st spinet piano in the US.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1769        Oct, Captain Portola and his party camped at what is now Pacifica. Portola sent Sergeant Jose Ortega out to survey what was ahead.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)

1769        Nov 1-1769 Nov 3, Sgt. Jose Francisco Ortega with his scouting party first looked upon SF Bay from the vicinity of Point Lobos.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)

1769        Nov 4, Portola received reports of a large bay ahead and went to see for himself. He crossed Sweeney Ridge in San Mateo County and saw the SF bay. Francisco de Ulloa was a navigator and member of the party.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1769        Dec 13, Dartmouth College, in New Hampshire, received its charter.
    (AP, 12/13/97)

1769        Los Angeles was born as El Pueblo de Nuestra de Los Angeles.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T3)

1769        Gluck completed his opera "Paride ed Elena." It was the last of 3 collaborations with librettist Raniero de’ Calzabigi. It deals with the seduction of Helen by Paris.
    (WSJ, 7/14/04, p.D14)

1769        Construction of Britain’s Kew Observatory, built within the Old Deer Park of the former Richmond Palace in Richmond, Surrey, was completed. It was an astronomical and terrestrial magnetic observatory founded by King George III.
    (ON, 4/12, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kew_Observatory)
1769        The Swinford toll bridge in Oxfordshire was built across the River Thames. In 2009 it was up for auction offering buyers a tax-free investment with a bit of historic charm. It has been free of income tax since the 18th century, when Parliament granted ownership of the bridge and its tolls to the Earl of Abingdon and "to his heirs and assignees for ever."
    (AP, 11/18/09)

1769        Wolfgang von Kempelen of Hungary invented the Automoton Chess Player. It was 1st demonstrated to the Austrian court in 1770. In 2001 the deception was analyzed by James W. Cook in his book "The Arts of Deception." In 2002 Tom Standage authored "The Turk," an examination of the 18th century fascination with automatons.
    (WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 4/12/02, p.W12)

1769        The Writer, built by Geneva watchmakers, was a crafted mechanical puppet that sits at a mahogany desk and is able to write a 40-word sentence with a quill pen.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.112)

1769        Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, a French military engineer, invented an ungainly, steam-powered tricycle and practical steam locomotives and steamboats appeared early in the next century, eventually superceded by the internal combustion engine.
    (HNQ, 1/18/01)

1769        In Morocco the Sea Gate (Porte de la Marine) was built in Mogador, later renamed Essaouira, to link the harbor to the medina. About this time Sultan Sidi Mohammad Ibn Abdelah transformed Mogador into an open city and encouraged its growth as a commercial port.
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, p.T4)

1769        Bhaktapur, Nepal, fell and the triumphant Gurkhas took Kathmandu as their capital.
    (SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)

1769-1772    Samuel Hearne, explorer for the Hudson Bay Company, maintained an journal and his notes of the land are still a standard reference.
    (NH, 5/96, p.30)
1769-1772    A handful of Russian troops of General Totleben battled against Turkish invaders in Imereti and Kartl-Kakheti.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_within_the_Russian_Empire)

1769-1775    Prithvi Narayan Shah, with whom we move into the modern period of Nepal's history, was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah (1559-1570), the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha.
    (www.infonepal.com.np/shahs.htm)

1769-1821    Napoleon Bonaparte, self-crowned emperor of France.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.232)(WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)

1769-1830    Sir Thomas Lawrence, English painter. He painted "Pinkie."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.812)

1769-1843    Howqua, aka Wu Bingjian, Chinese merchant. His father was permitted to trade silk and porcelain with foreigners. He lent large sums in silver dollars to foreign traders in exchange for a share of their shipments. He donated 1.1 million silver dollars toward reparations after the First Opium War.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1769-1849    Mehemet Ali, viceroy of Egypt from 1805-1848.
    (WUD, 1994, p.892)

1769-1852    Apr 29, The First Duke of Wellington was born. This was the title of Arthur Wellesley, also known as the Iron Duke. He was a British soldier and statesman and defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He became Prime Minister and served from 1828-1830. [see 1815, Napoleon & 1828-1830, Wellington]
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(AHD, p.1454)

1770        Feb 22, Jan Matyas Nepomuk August Vitasek, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/22/02)   

1770        March 5, British troops taunted by a crowd of colonists fired on an unruly mob in Boston and killed five citizens in what came to be known as the Boston Massacre. The fracas between a few angry Boston men and one British sentry ended with five men dead or dying in the icy street corner of King Street and Shrimton’s Lane. Captain Thomas Preston did not order the eight British soldiers under his command to fire into the hostile crowd. The nervous soldiers claimed to be confused by shouts of "Why do you not fire?" coming from all sides. Versions of the event rapidly circulated through the colonies, bolstering public support for the Patriot cause. The British Captain Preston and seven soldiers were defended by John Adams. The captain and five of the soldiers were acquitted, the other two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter and were branded on the hand with a hot iron. The first colonist killed in the American Revolution was the former slave, Crispus Attucks, shot by the British at the Boston Massacre. The event was later illustrated by Boston engraver Paul Revere.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(AP, 3/5/98)(HN, 3/5/98)(HNPD, 3/5/99)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W14)

1770        Mar 27, Giovanni B. Tiepolo (73), Italian painter (Banquet of Cleopatra), died.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1770        Apr 7, William Wordsworth, English poet laureate, was born. He wrote "The Prelude" and "Lyrical Ballads." In 1998 Kenneth R. Johnston published "The Hidden Wordsworth: Poet, Lover, Rebel, Spy." The biography covered the first 30 years of the poet’s life. In 1896 Emile Legouis also published a biography of the poet’s youth. The poet was responsible for such phrases as: "love of nature," "love of man," and "emotion recollected in tranquility."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.230)(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.5)(HN, 4/7/99)

1770        Apr 9, Captain James Cook discovered Botany Bay on the Australian continent.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1770        Apr 11, George Canning, British prime minister (1827) , was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1770        Apr 12, British Parliament repealed the 1967 [Townshend] Townsend Acts that put duties on certain products imported to the US.   
    (WUD, 1994, p.1499)(HN, 4/12/98)

1770        Apr 19, Capt. James Cook first saw Australia. [see Apr 9]
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1770        Apr 20, Captain Cook arrived in New South Wales, Australia.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1770        Apr 28, Marie AC de Camargo (60), Spanish-Italian-Belgian dancer, died.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1770        Apr, Cockfighting in Puerto Rico, introduced by Spain in the 16th century, was officially recognized for the first time.
    (AP, 7/23/12)

1770        May 10, Charles Avison (61), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1770        May 16, Marie Antoinette (14), married the future King Louis XVI of France (15).
    (AP, 5/16/97)(HN, 5/16/98)

1770        Jun 3, Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo on the shores of  Monterey Bay as a chapel for the new Spanish Presidio of Monterey. A year later he moved the mission to Carmel.
    (SSFC, 11/25/01, p.C5)(www.sancarloscathedral.net/)

1770        Jun 7, Earl of Liverpool, (C) British PM (1812-27), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1770        Jul 6, The entire Ottoman fleet was defeated and destroyed by the Russians at the battle of Chesme [Cesme] on the Aegean Sea.
    (HN, 7/6/98)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)(HNQ, 8/25/99)

1770        Jun 11, Capt. James Cook, commander of the British ship Endeavour, discovered the Great Barrier Reef off Australia by running onto it.
    (AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)

1770        Jul 18, Isabel Godin, having traveled from Ecuador the length of the Amazon, reunited with her husband Jean Godin in French Guiana.
    (ON, 5/05, p.4)

1770        Aug 1, William Clark, American explorer, was born in Charlottsville, VA. He led the Corps of Discovery with Meriwether Lewis.
    (HN, 8/1/00)(MC, 8/1/02)

1770        Aug 24, Thomas Chatterton (b.1752), English poet (Revenge), committed suicide.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1770        Aug 27, The German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was born in Stuttgart. He wrote "The Science of Logic." Hegel greatly influenced Karl Marx. His method was to metaphysicize everything, that is, to discern in concrete reality the working of some Idea or Universal Mind. Hegel proposed that all change, all progress, is brought about by the conflict of vast forces. A world-historical figure or nation or event lays down a challenge. This thesis, as he called it, is opposed by an antithesis. The conflict between them is resolved, inevitably, by a synthesis of the two forces on a higher plane of being.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.258)(AP, 8/27/97)(HN, 8/27/98)

1770        Nov 13, George Grenville (58), British premier (1763-65), Stamp Act, died.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1770        Nov 19, Albert Bertel Thorvaldsen, sculptor (Dying Lion), was born in Copenhagen, Denmark.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1770        Dec 9, Gottlieb Theophil Muffat (80), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1770        Dec 12, The British soldiers responsible for the "Boston Massacre" were acquitted on murder charges.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1770        Dec 16, Ludwig Von Beethoven (d.1827), German composer best known for his 9th Symphony, was born in Bonn. His Sixth Symphony "Pastorale" was in F-Major. Locks of his hair were cut off after his death and preserved by a number of collectors.
    (CFA, '96, p.60)(WUD, 1994, p.134)(WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A1,5)(AP, 12/16/97)(SFC, 7/7/98, p.B3)(HN, 12/16/98)

1770        Dec 17, Johann Friedrich Schubert, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1770        Dec 26, Pierre earl de Cambronne, French general (Waterloo, Elba), was born.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1770        George Stubbs, Britain’s finest painter of animals, did a portrait of the Duke of Richmond’s imported yearling bull moose. It was commissioned by anatomist William Hunter (1718-1783) to see if the moose was related to the fossil Irish giant deer.
    (NH, 8/96, p.17)

1770        The "New England Psalm-Singer" by William Billings was released.
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)

1770        Capt. George Cartwright, a British adventurer and entrepreneur, established the fishing village of Cartwright on the east coast of Labrador, Canada.
    (NH, 6/96, p.56)

1770        In India a famine wiped out a third of the population of Bengal. This hardened opinion against the British East India Company.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)

c1770        A monastery was built in Cartagena, Colombia, that served as the seat of the Inquisition Tribunal for Spain. It later became the Hotel Santa Clara.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)

1770        Francois Boucher (b.1703), French painter, died. He painted "Diana."
    (Econ, 10/9/04, p.79)

1770-1772    John Copley painted the portrait of Samuel Adams in Boston.
    (WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)

1770-1779    Shakers originated in England in the 1770s as the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearance.
    (SFC, 6/21/01, p.C2)
1770-1779    William Addis invented the toothbrush in the 1770s while a prisoner in Newgate Prison.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, Z1 p.3)
1770-1779    Blacks were 1st brought to Argentina in the 1770s to toil on large haciendas and work as domestic servants.
    (SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

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