Return to home1750 Mar 5,
The 1st American Shakespearean production, was an "altered" Richard
III in NYC.
1750 Mar 16, Caroline Lucretia
Herschel, 1st woman astronomer, was born in Hanover, Germany.
1750 May 20, Stephen Girard,
rescued U.S. bonds during War of 1812, actor, was born.
1750 Mar 23, Johannes Matthias
Sperger, composer, was born.
1750 May 23, Carlo Goldoni's
"Il Bugiardo," premiered in Mantua.
1750 May 29, Giuseppe Porsile
(70), composer, died.
1750 Jun 15, Marguerite De
Launay, Baronne Staal, French writer, died.
1750 Jul 28, Philippe Fabre
d'Eglantine, poet, satirist, politician, was born in France.
1750 Jul 28, Composer Johann
Sebastian Bach (65) died in Leipzig, Germany. In 2000 Christoff
Wolff authored the biography "Johann Sebastian Bach." In 2005 James
Gaines authored “Evening in the Palace of Reasoning," a portrait of
Bach in 1747. In 2013 John eliot Gardiner authored “Bach: Music in
the Castle of Heaven."
(AP, 7/28/00)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A12)(SC,
7/28/02)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)(Econ, 10/12/13, p.96)
1750 Aug 18, Antonio Salieri
(d.1825), Italian composer (Tatare), was born.
(WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)(MC, 8/18/02)
1750 Aug 24, Laetitia
Bonaparte-Ramolino, mother of Napoleon, was born.
1750 Sep 5, A decree issued in
Paderborn, Prussia, allowed for annual search of all Jewish homes
for stolen or "doubtful" goods.
1750 Sep 14, Carl T. Pachelbel
(b.1690), German-born US organist and composer, died. He was the
younger brother of Johann Pachelbel.
1750 Oct 5, Carlo Goldoni's "Il
Teatro Comica," premiered in Venice.
1750 Oct 23, Nicolas Appert,
the inventor of canning, was born. [see Oct 23, 1752]
1750 Nov 1, Giuseppe Sammartini
(55), composer, died.
1750 Nov 23, Giuseppe
Sammartini (55), composer, died.
1750 Nov 27, Anton Thadaus
Johann Nepomuk Stamitz, composer, was born.
1750 Dec 17, Deborah Sampson,
was born. She fought in the American Revolution as a man under the
alias Robert Shurtleff. In 1797 she authored a memoir. In 2004
Alfred F. Young authored "Masquerade: The Life and Times of Deborah
Sampson, Continental Soldier.
(MC, 12/17/01)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.M4)
1750 By this year slavery was
legal in all of the 13 colonies of America.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)
c1750 In Early America, sack,
caraco, and mantua referred to styles of colonial dresses. The sack
had a square-cut neckline and long trains hanging from the
shoulders. A caraco was a middle-length gown that flared over
panniers, which were hoops used to add fullness at the sides of a
woman's skirt. A mantua was a loose-fitting gown that was folded
back around the hips and tied at the waist.
1750 Teedyuscung, a Lenape
Indian, joined the Christian mission of Gnadenhutten, founded by
Swiss Moravian settlers in the Lehigh Valley town of Bethlehem.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)
1750 Benjamin Franklin drew up
plans for a “sentry box," designed to prove his theory that
lightning as an electrical phenomenon.
(ON, 2/12, p.11)
1750 Thomas Wright, English
astronomer, put forward the idea that the appearance of the Milky
Way is evidence that the stars near the solar system are arranged in
a flat, disk-like structure. (galacticos means milky in Greek).
1750 The Jesuits at the Univ.
of Graz in Austria assumed a leading role in the reception of the
work of Isaac Newton.
(StuAus, April '95, p.53)
1750 A Welshman opened the
first modern shoe factory in Lynn, Mass.
(WSJ, 4/25/00, p.A24)
1750 The US population was
about 18 million people.
(NOHY, 3/1990, p.222)
1750 The disparity in per
capita income between the richest and poorest countries of the world
was about 5 to 1. Between Western Europe and India it was about 1.5
to 1. By 1998 the ratio was about 400 to 1.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, BR p.8)
1750 The Ais Indians of Florida
were wiped out. In 2004 a site on Hutchinson Island, inhabited by
the Ais, revealed 2 thousand year old burials.
(Arch, 1/05, p.13)
c1750 The Blackfeet Indians
were among the last Native American tribes to acquire horses.
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)
c1750 A caldera erupted in the
middle of Mono Lake, California.
(SFC, 8/20/01, p.A6)
c1750 In China's northeastern
Hebei province large wooden figures were built in Puning Temple
following a military victory. A 50-foot Buddhist boy and dragon
princess were built to guard the deity Avalokitesvara.
(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.C7)
1750 By this year Vienna,
England, Italy and France all began producing porcelain.
(Hem, 6/96, p.112)
1750 Germany returned the
island of Aero, which measures 22 by 6 miles, to Denmark.
(SSFC, 7/29/07, p.G3)
1750 The Mexican border town of
Guerrero was founded. It became Guerrero Viejo in 1953 after a new
dam and flood covered the old town and residents moved to the new
(SFC, 6/4/98, p.C16)
1750 Acre, a former stronghold
of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, was re-built by the Ottoman
Turks around this time, effectively preserving the earlier town,
which had been destroyed in 1291 and hidden for centuries under
1750 The Spanish treasure ship
La Galga sank. It was later believed that the wild ponies of
Chincoteague Island off the coast of Virginia came from this ship.
(USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)(WSJ, 7/17/98, p.A1)
1750 The first African slaves
arrived in Montevideo, Uruguay. They brought along what was later
recognized as Candombe music.
(SFC, 8/17/00, p.A18)
1750-1753 The Wilton mansion on the James River in
Virginia was built to house William Randolph III, his wife Anne
Carter Harrison and their 8 children. It was later moved and
reconstructed in West Richmond as the headquarters of the National
Society of The Colonial Dames of America.
(SFC, 10/17/98, p.A8)
1750-1799 Ho-Shen rose to power in China as the
confidante to Emperor Kao-tsung. He served as a customs
superintendent and pocketed a fortune by prolonging military
campaigns and pocketing sums allocated to the military. He was
arrested when the emperor died and died in prison.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R10)
1750-1831 Stephen Girard, French born American
banker and philanthropist. He arrived in Philadelphia as a shipper
and opened a grocery. His secret trade with the British made him a
small fortune which he used to open a bank in 1812. He helped
finance the War of 1812 for a 10% commission. He left most of his
$7.5 million estate to a school for orphaned boys.
(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R10)
c1750-1880s In Scotland this was the period of the
Clearances. The peasants were swept aside to allow clan chiefs to
raise sheep on clan lands until protests on the isle of Skye led to
legal reform for the Highlands.
(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T9)
1751 Feb 16, Thomas Gray's poem
"Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard" was 1st published.
1751 Feb 25, The 1st performing
monkey exhibited in America was in NYC.
1751 Mar 16, James Madison
(d.1836), Jefferson’s successor as secretary of state and fourth
president of the United States (1809-17), was born in Port Conway,
Va. He invented the 1787 electoral college system "to break the
tyranny of the majority." "If men were angels, no government would
be necessary." Pierce Butler of South Carolina first proposed the
electoral college system. [see 1787]
(V.D.-H.K.p.222)(SFEC, 11/24/96, Z1 p.2)(AP,
3/16/97)(AP, 10/27/97)(HN, 3/16/98)(SFC, 11/9/00, p.A14)(WSJ,
1751 Apr 3, Jean-Baptiste
Lamoyne, composer, was born.
1751 May 11, The 1st US
hospital was founded in Pennsylvania. [see Feb 11, 1752]
1751 Jun 10, The British
Currency Act restricted New England colonies from creating paper
money The colonies had issued paper fiat money known as “bills of
credit" to help pay for the French and Indian Wars. The Act limited
future issuance of bills of credit to certain circumstances (i.e. to
pay public debts, such as taxes, but not private debts, such as to
1751 Jul 28, In France the 1st
volume of the Encyclopedie, edited by Diderot and D’Alembert, was
published with a print run of 1,625.
(ON, 4/05, p.8)
1751 Jul 30, Maria A. [Nannerl]
Mozart, Austrian pianist, Wolfgang's sister, was born.
1751 Aug 24, Thomas Colley was
executed in England for drowning a supposed witch.
1751 Aug 30, Georg Friedrich
Handel completed his last oratorio "Jephtha."
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(MC, 8/30/01)
1751 Aug 31, English troops
under sir Robert Clive occupied Arcot India.
1751 Sep 1, Emmanuel Johann
Joseph Schikaneder, actor, librettist (The Magic Flute), was born.
1751 Sep 13, Henry Kobell,
Dutch painter and cartoonist, was born.
1751 Sep 28, George Washington
(19), accompanied his sick older half-brother Lawrence to Barbados.
Lawrence had been advised that the island’s climate might help
restore his ill health. The brothers left Virginia on September 28
and arrived at Bridgetown, Barbados, November 3. George, who
survived the smallpox while in Barbados, left Lawrence on December
21 and arrived back in Virginia on January 28, 1752.
1751 Oct 30 Richard Brinsley
Sheridan (d.1816), Irish-born statesman and dramatist, spent most of
life in England. His plays included "The School for Scandal" with
Georgiana Cavendish as Lady Teazle, "The Rivals" and "the Critic."
He also wrote the comic opera "The Duenna." In 1998 Fintan O’Toole
wrote the biography "A Traitor’s Kiss: The Life of Richard
(SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.4)(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)(HN,
1751 Dec 23, France set plans
to tax clergymen.
1751 William Hogarth made his
print series "The Four Stages of Cruelty." It illustrated that
indulgence in vice caused corruption and cruelty.
(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)
1751 Pietro Longhi painted
“Exhibition of a Rhinocerous at Venice." It depicted Clara, a
touring Indian rhinoceros owned by Dutch sea captain Douwemout Van
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E1)
1751 Benjamin Franklin
published “Experiments and Observations on Electricity" in England.
(AH, 2/06, p.42)
1751 Voltaire published
"Micromegas" in which he mentioned "aliens from outer space." This
is believed to be the first mention of such aliens in literature.
(SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)
1751 Handel lost his sight.
1751 The Liu clan built its
ancestral hall called Liu Man Shek Tong in Hong Kong.
(Hem., Dec. '95, p.160)
1751 In England Henry Pelham’s
Whig government created the 3% consol. It paid 3% and consolidated
the terms on a variety of previous issues with no maturity date.
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.105)
1751 A treaty between Finland
and Norway defined a strait-line border along the side of the Halti
mountain, depriving the Fins of the crest. In 2016 Norway PM Erna
Solberg suggested that her government might cede some 15,000 sq.
meters of Halti mountain as a birthday gift to Finland in 2017,
making it the highest point in Finland.
(Econ, 8/6/16, p.40)
1751 In Mexico on the Baha
Peninsula the mission of St. Gertrude the Great was initiated and
called "La Piedad" by Father Fernando Consag.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)
1752 Jan 1, Betsy Ross
(d.1836), flag maker who contributed to the design of the American
flag, was born in Philadelphia as Elizabeth Griscom.
1752 Jan 23, Muzio Clementi,
Italian composer, was born.
1752 Feb 7, Publication, sale
and distribution of the 1st 2 volumes of the Encyclopedie were
summarily forbidden by order of King Louis XV. Chretien de
Malesherbes, the French director of publications, managed to broker
a compromise that included a layer of censorship and a 3rd volume
was published by the end of 1753.
(ON, 4/05, p.9)
1752 Feb 11, Pennsylvania
Hospital, the 1st hospital in the US, opened.
1752 Mar 13, Josef Reicha,
composer, was born.
1752 Mar 22, Johann Georg
Joseph Spangler, composer, was born.
1752 Mar 23, Pope Stephen II
was elected to succeed Zacharias. He died 2 days later.
1752 March 25 marked the first
issue of the Halifax Gazette.
(CFA, '96, p.42)
1752 Apr 4, Niccolo Antonio
Zingarelli, composer (Andromeda), was born.
1752 May 11, The 1st US fire
insurance policy issued in Philadelphia.
1752 May, Dutch botanist Thomas
Francois Dalibard (1709-1799) successfully performed Benjamin
Franklin’s “sentry box" experiment proving that lightning is an
1752 Jun 13, Fanny Burney,
English writer, was born.
1752 Jun 15, Benjamin Franklin
and his son tested the relationship between electricity and
lightning by flying a kite in a thunder storm. Some sources date
this to June 10.
1752 Jul 7, Joseph Marie
Jacquard, inventor of the first loom that could weave patterns, was
1752 Jul 20, John C. Pepusch
(85), English composer (Beggar's Opera), died.
1752 Sep 1, The Liberty Bell
arrived in Philadelphia.
1752 Sep 3, The Gregorian
Adjustment to the calendar was put into effect in Great Britain and
the American colonies followed. At this point in time 11 days needed
to be accounted for and Sept. 2 was selected to be followed by Sept.
14. People rioted thinking the government stole 11 days of their
lives. [see Oct 5, 1582]
(K.I.-365D, p.97)(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(MC,
1752 Sep 18, Adrien-Marie
Lagendre, mathematician, worked on elliptic integrals, was born.
1752 Oct 18, The opera "Le
Devin du Village" by Jean-Jacques Rousseau premiered.
1752 Oct 23, Nicolas Appert,
inventor (food canning, bouillon tablet), was born. [see Oct 23,
Nov 3, Georg Friedrich Handel underwent eye surgery to remove a
cataract by William Bromfield, Surgeon to the Princess of Wales, to
restore his sight. The operation was only a short-term success.
1752 Nov 19, George Rogers
Clark, frontier military leader in Revolutionary War, was born.
1752 Nov 20, Thomas Chatterton
(d.1770), English poet (Christabel), was born. His early death
marked him as the "prototype of the fragile poet withered by the
hostility of philistines."
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)(MC, 11/20/01)
1752 Gouverneur Morris
(d.1816), chief writer of the US Constitution (1787), was born in
NY. Morrisania, the family manor, stretched for 1,900 acres from the
Harlem River to Long Island Sound in what later became the Bronx.
(WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)
1752 George Berkeley
(1685-1753), Irish bishop and philosopher, wrote a poem that
included the line "Westward the course of empire takes its way." The
line later inspired the founders of Berkeley, Ca., to name their
city and university after Berkeley.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)
1752 In the summer of this year
Benjamin Franklin installed the world’s 1st lightning rods at the
Pennsylvania State House.
(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)
1752 The first Mission at the
town of Loreto on the Baha Peninsula was completed. Father George
Retz moved north from Mission St. Ignatius, where he had studied the
Cochimi language, and formally established "La Piedad" as the
mission of St. Gertrude the Great.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)
1752 James Ayscough advertised
his invention of spectacles with double-hinged side pieces.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)
1752 In Colombia the village of
San Agustin was founded Alejo Astudillo. Attacks by indigenous
people destroyed it. A new village was founded in 1790 by Lucas de
Herazo and Mendigana.
1752 In Russia Abram Petrovich
Gannibal became a Major-General and was appointed in charge of all
1752-1840 Fanny Burney, English writer. Her books
included "Evelina." In 1911 she underwent a mastectomy without
anesthesia. In 2001 Claire Harman authored the biography: "Fanny
(SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)
1753 Jan 11, Hans Sloane
(b.1660), Anglo-Irish physician, naturalist and collector, died in
London. He bequeathed his collection to the British nation, thus
providing the foundation of the British Museum. In 2017 James
Delbourgo authored “Collecting the World: The Life and Curiosity of
1753 May 8, Miguel Hidalgo y
Castilla, the father of Mexican independence, was born.
(HN, 5/8/98)(MC, 5/8/02)
1753 Mar 9, Jean-Baptiste
Kleber, French general, architect, was born.
1753 Mar 17, The 1st official
St Patrick's Day was celebrated.
1753 Mar 25, Voltaire left the
court of Frederik II of Prussia.
1753 Mar 26, Benjamin Thompson
(d.1814), Count Rumford, English physicist and diplomat, was born.
He was a Tory spy in the American Revolution and discovered that
heat equaled motion, which led to the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
(WUD, 1994, p.1477)(WSJ, 7/28/98, p.A16)(SS,
1753 Apr 5, British Museum
formed. It opened in 1759.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(MC, 4/5/02)
1753 Apr 28, Franz K. Achard,
German physicist, was born.
1753 May 6, French King Louis
XV observed a transit of Mercury at Mendon Castle.
1753 May 9, King Louis XV
disbanded the French parliament.
1753 May 29, Joseph Haydn’s
"Krumme Teufel" premiered.
1753 May 31, Pierre V.
Vergniaud, French politician, Girondin orator (guillotined in 1793),
1753 Jun 7, Britain's King
George II gave his assent to an Act of Parliament establishing the
British Museum [see Apr 5].
1753 Jul 4,
Jean-Pierre-Francois Blanchard (d.1809), French balloonist, was
born. He made the 1st balloon flights in England and US.
1753 Jul 7, English parliament
granted Jews English citizenship.
1753 Jul 26, New style date is
Aug 6. Georg Richmann (b.1711), German physicist, died of
electrocution in St. Petersburg, Russia, during an attempt to
duplicate Benjamin Franklin’s “sentry box" experiment. Reportedly,
ball lightning traveled along the apparatus and was the cause of his
death, apparently the first person in history to die while
conducting electrical experiments.
1753 Aug 3, Charles Earl
Stanhope, radical politician, scientist, was born in England.
1753 Aug 4, George Washington
became a master mason.
1753 Aug 10, Edmund Jennings
Randolph, governor of Virginia and first U.S. attorney general, was
1753 Aug 12, Thomas Bewick
(d.1828), artist (British Birds, Aesop's Fables) was born in
1753 Aug 19, [Johann] Balthasar
Neumann (66), German architect, died.
1753 Sep 9, The 1st steam
engine arrived in US colonies.
1753 Oct 12, Sir Danvers Osborn
(b.1715), British colonial governor of New York, hanged himself 5
days after arriving in NYC. His wife had recently died and the New
York assembly refused to support him in the style he felt his rank
1753 Oct, Robert Dinwiddie,
governor of Virginia, called a meeting to discuss the eviction of
British settlers from homesteads west of the Appalachian Mountains
by French soldiers from Canada. Major George Washington volunteered
to deliver a letter of trespass to French authorities in the Ohio
(ON, 9/05, p.1)
1753 Nov 30, Johann Baptist
Schenk, composer, was born.
1753 Nov 30, Benjamin Franklin
received Godfrey Copley Penny ("A penny saved...!").
1753 Dec 3, Samuel Crompton,
English inventor (mule-jenny spinning machine), was born.
1753 Dec 12, George Washington,
the adjutant of Virginia, delivered an ultimatum to the French
forces at Fort Le Boeuf, south of Lake Erie, reiterating Britain’s
claim to the entire Ohio river valley. Washington (22) was sent by
Gov. Robert Dinwiddie to warn the French soldiers that they were
trespassing on English territory.
(HN, 12/12/98)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)
1753 Dec 14, French Captain
Jacques Le Gardeur rejected the pretensions of the English to
ownership of the Ohio Valley, but promised to forward Virginia Gov.
Dinwiddie’s letter of trespass to his superiors in Canada.
(ON, 9/05, p.2)
1753 The Georgian-style
colonial legislature (later Pennsylvania State House) was completed
at 520 Chestnut St. in Philadelphia for the Province of
Pennsylvania. It became the location where both the Declaration of
Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and
adopted and thus became known as Independence Hall.
(SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P5)
1753 Benjamin Franklin use the
pages of his Poor Richard’s Almanac to make a case for using
lightning rods atop tall structures making storms less dangerous.
(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)
1753 In the Virginia Piedmont
Boswell’s Tavern was built and for some 150 years served horseback
riders flagons of spirit through a barred window. The ride-up window
thus predates the drive-in window.
(SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)
1753 The observation by Dr.
James Lind, British naval surgeon, that fresh fruits and vegetables
could cure scurvy marked the beginning of nutritional epidemiology.
He conducted tests that showed the beneficial effects of lemons and
oranges in treating the disease.
(MT, Fall ‘96, p.4)(ON, 4/01, p.8)
1753 Smallpox hit North America
and a 38% infection rate was recorded in Boston. Benjamin Franklin
lobbied for variolation.
(NW, 10/14/02, p.47)
1753 The British Crown
appointed Benjamin Franklin postmaster of its American colonies.
(Econ, 11/21/15, p.29)
1753 In Sweden Linnaeus
(1707-1778), father of systematics, authored “Species Plantarum," a
compilation of some 6,000 plants from around the world.
(NH, 4/1/04, p.39)
1753 Peter Kalm, Swedish-born
naturalist, published the first of his 3 volumes of “Travels in
North America," which described his 1748-1751 trip there. It was
Linnaeus and the Swedish Royal Academy that had sent Kalm to
America. Kalm later spent much of his life as a professor at Turku,
Finland. In 2007 Paula Ivaska Robbins authored “The Travels of Peter
(WSJ, 11/17/07, p.W11)
1754 Jan 3, Joseph Black, a
medical student at the Univ. of Edinburgh, rediscovered carbon
dioxide after pouring acid into a tall glass containing some chalk
Black had read Helmont’s memoirs and so knew of gas sylvestris. A
candle near the glass was snuffed out due to the outpouring of
carbon dioxide. He also found that carbon dioxide will precipitate
out of limewater when exposed to a strong source of carbon dioxide
gas. Black later attained a professorship and had James Watt,
engine-builder, as one of his first assistants.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.5,42)
1754 Jan 4, Columbia University
was founded as Kings College in NYC. [see July 7]
1754 Jan 6, Major George
Washington, while returning to Virginia, encountered a party of
English settlers and militiamen at Will’s Creek sent by Gov.
Dinwiddie to establish a fort and trading post at the Forks of the
(ON, 9/05, p.2)
1754 Feb 2, Charles Maurice de
Tallyrand-Perigord (d.1838), minister of foreign affairs for
Napoleon I, was born. He represented France brilliantly at the
Congress of Vienna.
(WUD, 1994, p.1450)(HN, 2/2/99)
1754 Feb 13, Charles-Maurice
duke of Talleyrand-Perigord, French bishop, Napoleon's Foreign
Minister, statesman (1815), was born.
1754 Apr 2, A small
expeditionary force of 159 men under Lt. Col. George Washington
arrived at Will’s Creek and learned that the French had taken over
the new Fort Prince George at the Forks of the Ohio from British
soldiers and frontiersmen and renamed it Fort Duquesne.
(ON, 9/05, p.2)
1754 Apr, Teedyuscung, a Lenape
Indian, joined the Iraquois Indians in the Wyoming Valley along the
banks of the Susquehanna River.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)
1754 May 9, The first American
newspaper cartoon was published. The illustration in Benjamin
Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette showed a snake cut into sections,
each part representing an American colony; the caption read, "Join
(AP, 5/9/97)(HN, 5/9/98)
1754 May 12, Franz Anton
Hoffmeister, composer, was born.
1754 May 28, Col. George
Washington led a 40-man detachment that defeated French and Indian
forces in a skirmish near Great Meadows, Pa.
(ON, 9/05, p.3)
1754 Jun 19, The Albany
Congress opened. New York colonial Gov. George Clinton called for
the meeting to discuss better relations with Indian tribes and
common defensive measures against the French. The attendees included
Indians and representatives from Connecticut, Maryland,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania and Rhode
Island. Benjamin Franklin attended and presented his Plan of Union,
which was adopted by the conference. The meeting ended on July 11.
1754 Jul 3, George Washington
surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity (later Pittsburgh) in
southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of
the Ohio Valley. This marked the beginning of the French and Indian
War also called the 7 Years' War. In 2005 Fred Anderson authored
“The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian
(HN, 7/13/98)(Arch, 1/05, p.46)(WSJ, 12/14/05,
1754 Jul 7, King's College in
New York City opened. The school was renamed Columbia College 30
years later. [see Jan 4]
1754 Jul 11, Thomas Bowdler,
the famous prude who bowdlerized Shakespeare, was born.
1754 Aug 2, Pierre Charles
L'Enfant, French engineer who designed the layout of Washington,
D.C. (1791), was born.
1754 Aug 23, Louis XVI
(d.1793), King of France (1774-1793), was born at Versailles.
During the French Revolution he met his fate at the guillotine. He
was the grandson of Louis XV and married Marie Antoinette.
(AP, 8/23/97)(HN, 8/23/98)
1754 Sep 9, William Bligh,
legendary captain of HMS Bounty, was born. [see Sep 10]
1754 Sep 10, William Bligh, was
born. He was the British naval officer who was the victim of two
mutinies, the most famous on the HMS Bounty which was taken over by
Fletcher Christian in 1789. [see Sep 9]
1754 Oct 8, Henry Fielding
(b.1707), English lawyer and author, died at 47. He wrote "Tom
Jones" in 1749. A film based on the novel was made in 1963. A TV
production premiered in 1998.
(SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E1)(MC,
1754 Oct 13, American
Revolutionary War heroine Molly Pitcher was born. During the
American Revolution, at the Battle of Monmouth, NJ, Molly helped out
as a water carrier, gaining her nickname, Molly Pitcher.
Her husband, John, was wounded during the battle and Molly dropped
the water pitcher, taking up her husband's job of loading and firing
a cannon. General George Washington appointed her a
noncommissioned officer. [see Jun 28, 1778]
1754 Nov 29, The Gnadenhutten
mission, Pa., was attacked by renegade Lenape Indians and 11 white
people were killed.
(ON, 1/03, p.7)
1754 Dec, Lt. Col. George
Washington resigned his commission.
(ON, 9/05, p.5)
1754 Joseph Goupy caricatured
Handel as a fat pig playing the keyboard in his drawing: "The
Charming Brute." For this Handel struck Goupy from his will.
1754 Under instructions from
Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, Col. Jas. Innes established a fort
at Wills Creek (Maryland).
1754 Thomas Chippendale
published the first English book on furniture designs. He was also
an upholsterer and a cabinetmaker.
(SFC,12/17/97, Z1 p.16)
1754 The Royal Society of Arts
was established in Britain. Its mission statement was: “the
encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, in Great Britain,
by bestowing Rewards, from Time to Time, for such Productions,
Inventions, or Improvements, as shall tend to the Employing of the
Poor, to the Increase of Trade, and to the Riches and Honour of this
Kingdom, by the Promoting Industry and Emulation."
1754 Thomas Mudge (1715-1794),
English horologist, invented the lever escapement, which became used
in watches ever since.
1754 The Carouge area of Geneva
was ceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T8)
1754 In Scotland the Royal and
Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews was founded.
(Econ, 12/20/14, p.110)
1754-1757 Osman III succeeded Mahmud I in the
Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1754-1824 Joseph Joubert, French moralist.
"Kindness consists in loving people more than they deserve." "To be
capable of respect is today almost as rare as to be worthy of it."
(AP, 3/22/97)(AP, 1/22/99)
1755 Jan 12, Tsarina Elisabeth
established the 1st Russian University.
1755 Feb 20, General Edward
Braddock arrived from Great Britain to assume command of British
forces in America and to lead the Virginia troops against the French
and Indians in the Ohio Valley.
(PCh, 1992, p.303)
1755 Mar 12, The 1st steam
engine in America was installed to pump water from a mine.
1755 Mar 14, Pierre-Louis
Couperin, composer, was born.
1755 Mar 24, Rufus King, framer
of the U.S. Constitution, was born.
1755 Apr 1, Jean Anthelme
Brillat-Savarin, French lawyer (Fisiologia del Gusto), was born.
1755 Apr 10, Samuel Hahnemann,
German physician, was born.
1755 Apr 11, James Parkinson,
English physician, was born.
1755 Apr 15, Dr. Samuel
Johnson, English writer, published his “Dictionary of the English
Language," a selective English dictionary, after 9 years of work.
The 1st edition had 42,773 entries. In 2005 Henry Hitchings authored
“Defining the World," an account of Johnson’s work.
(WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A30)(HN, 4/15/01)(WSJ, 10/12/05,
1755 Jun 6, Nathan Hale(1776),
American patriot who said "My only regret is that I have but one
life to give for my country," was born. He was hanged by the British
as a spy during the American Revolution
(CFA, '96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.637)(HN, 6/6/98)
1755 Jun 14, In England the
first edition of Dr. Johnson's "Dictionary" was published.
(WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A30)(MC, 6/14/02)
1755 Jun 16, British captured
Fort Beausejour and expelled the Acadians. The Accadians of Nova
Scotia were uprooted by an English governor and forced to leave.
Some 10,000 people moved to destinations like Maine and Louisiana.
Some moved to Iles-de-la-Madeleine off Quebec. The Longfellow story
"Evangeline" is based on this displacement.
(SFEC, 8/22/99, p.T8,9)(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C7)(MC,
1755 Jun 30, Philippines closed
all non-Catholic Chinese restaurants.
1755 Jul 5, Sarah Siddons
(d.1831), actress, was born at the Leg of Mutton Inn in Wales. She
rose to fame as a protégée of Richard Brinsley Sheridan at the Drury
Lane Theater and gained fame playing Lady Macbeth in Macbeth.
(HN, 7/5/98)(WSJ, 7/27/99, p.A21)
1755 Jul 6, John Flaxman, the
English sculptor who designed much of Wedgwood's original pottery,
1755 Jul 8, Britain broke off
diplomatic relations with France as their disputes in the New World
1755 Jul 9, General Edward
Braddock was mortally wounded when French and Indian troops ambushed
his force of British regulars and colonial militia, which was on its
way to attack France's Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh). Gen. Braddock's
troops were decimated at Fort Duquesne, where he refused to accept
George Washington's advice on frontier style fighting. British
Gen'l. Braddock gave his bloody sash to George Washington at Fort
Necessity just before he died on Jul 13.
(A & IP, ESM, p.11)(HN, 7/9/98)(WSJ, 1/5/98,
1755 Jul 13, Edward Braddock
(60), British general, died following the July 9, 1755 battle at
Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). Out of the 1,400 British
soldiers who were in involved in the battle, 900 of them died.
Future President George Washington carried Braddock from the field
and officiated at his burial ceremony. The general was buried in a
road his men had built. The army then marched over the grave to
obliterate any traces of it and continued to eastern Pennsylvania.
After the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Braddock Road
remained a main road. In 1804, some workmen discovered human remains
in the road near where Braddock was supposed to have been buried.
The remains were re-interred on a small knoll adjacent to the road.
In 1913 the marker was placed there. Braddock was born in
Perthshire, Scotland, about 1695, the son of Major-General Edward
Braddock (died 1725).
1755 Aug 23, Jean Baptiste
Lislet-Geoffroy, French geographer, was born.
1755 Sep 8, British forces
under William Johnson and 250 Indians defeated the French and their
allied Indians at the Battle of Lake George, NY.
(HN, 9/8/98)(SSFC, 4/23/06, p.G6)
1755 Sep 13, Bertrand Barere,
French Revolutionist, was born in Tarbes.
1755 Sep 18, Ft. Ticonderoga
opened in NY.
1755 Sep 24, John Marshall,
fourth chief justice of the Supreme Court (1801-35), and U.S.
secretary of state, was born.
(HN, 9/24/98)(MC, 9/24/01)
1755 Sep 30, Francesco Durante,
composer, died at 71.
1755 Oct 24, A British
expedition against the French held Fort Niagara in Canada ended in
1755 Nov 1, An 8.7 earthquake
hit Lisbon, Portugal, and killed some 70,000 people. Heavy damage
resulted from ensuing fires and tsunami flooding in Morocco and
nearly a quarter of a million people were killed. In 2008 Nicholas
Shrady authored “The Last Day: Wrath, Ruin and Reason in the Great
1755 Nov 2, Marie Antoinette
(d.1793), Queen of France, was born. She was the daughter of Maria
Theresa and Francis I; and wife of Louis XVI in 1770 and thus Queen
of France. She was arrested by the Revolutionary Tribunal and
beheaded on Oct. 15, 1793.
(CFA, '96, p.58)(HN, 11/2/98)
1755 Nov 12, Gerhard JD von
Scharnhorst, Prussian military minister of War (1807-10), was born.
1755 Nov 17, Louis XVIII, 1st
post-revolutionary king of France (1814-24), was born.
(HN, 11/17/98)(MC, 11/17/01)
1755 Nov 18, The Cape Ann
(Boston) earthquake, estimated at 6.0-6.5, hit the east coast from
the Chesapeake Bay to Nova Scotia.
1755 Dec 3, Gilbert Stewart,
portrait painter, was born.
1755 Dec 31, Teedyuscung, a
Lenape Indian, led 30 Lenape Indians on a raid against English
plantations along the Delaware River. Over the next few days his
band killed 7 men and took 5 prisoners.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)
1755 William Russell Birch
(d.1834), artist, was born in Warwickshire. He settled in
Philadelphia with his son in 1794 and in 1800 published 28 drawn and
engraved hand-colored images of Philadelphia.
(SFC, 5/18/02, p.E6)
1755 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
wrote his "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality," in which he
denounced private property as the root of all evil.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1755 Benjamin Franklin, a
patriot of the American Revolution, served as a colonel of the
Pennsylvania militia in the French and Indian War. Benjamin
Franklin, at forty-nine, had already lived through two wars between
the French and the English and their colonists. His face was puffy
and smooth from gout, his once-powerful swimmer’s body overweight
and rounded into a barrel shape. In recent years Benjamin had
emerged as the pivot of power in Pennsylvania. His highly successful
publishing business, coupled with his profitable post as deputy
postmaster general for the six northern colonies, afforded him
leisure time for scientific experiments as well as political
1755 The “last specimen" of a
dodo bird, a stuffed but rotted relic, was burned at the Ashmoleum
Museum at Oxford, England. Fortunately, someone removed the head and
the foot of the specimen and saved them. In 1996 by David
Quammen authored The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age
of Extinctions. In 2003 Clara Pinto-Correia authored “Return of the
Crazy Bird." The London Museum of natural History later displayed a
mounted specimen of Raphus cucullatus.
1755 The sultanate of
Yogyakarta was founded in central Java Island, Indonesia.
1755 Watanabe Shiko (b.1683),
Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died.
(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E12)
1755 The annual 12-day
Bergkirchweih beer festival began in Erlangen, Germany.
(SSFC, 4/30/06, p.G7)
1755 Arthur Guinness began
brewing a dark-brown stout in the town of Leixlip, Ireland.
(WSJ, 9/12/08, p.B7)
1755 In Mexico the Holy
Inquisition began using the dungeon at the fortress of San Juan de
Ulua in Vera Cruz.
(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)
1755-1758 The French and Indian Wars began in the
(A & IP, ESM, p.11)
1755-1828 Gilbert Stuart, American painter. He
painted over 70 portraits of George Washington.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1410)(WSJ, 2/4/00,
1755-1831 Hannah Adams was the first American
woman to make a living as a writer. Her work included "A Summary
History of New England."
(SFEC, 8/27/00, Z1 p.2)
1755-1835 Louis Zara (d.2001 at 91) covered this
period of the Eastern Mississippi Valley in his 1940 historical
novel "This Land Is Ours."
(SFC, 10/24/01, p.C6)
1756 Jan 27, Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart (d.1791) was born on Gertreiderstrasse in Salzburg, Austria,
the son of violinist and composer Leopold Mozart. He later played
string quartets with Johan Baptist Vanhal, Haydn and Dittersdorf.
The young Mozart began composing minuets at age 5 and, with his
older sister Marianne, gave concerts in Munich and Vienna from age
6. At 13, Mozart became director of concerts for the archbishop of
Salzburg and in 1782 he married Constanze Weber against her father's
wishes. Although Mozart gave piano concerts throughout Europe and
composed more than 600 works, including 40 symphonies, he and his
wife were plagued by debt. When Mozart died in 1791, probably of
heart disease, he was buried in an unmarked pauper's grave. It was
not until his works were published, in many cases near the end of
the 19th century, that Mozart's genius became widely recognized. His
works included "The Marriage of Figaro" and "The Magic Flute." In
2005 Stanley Sadie authored “Mozart: The Early Years," which
chronicled Mozart’s life to age 25.
(SFEC, 9/8/96, Par p.11)(HNPD, 1/26/99)(HN,
1/27/99)(WSJ, 12/8/05, p.D8)
1756 Feb 6, America's third
vice president, Aaron Burr, was born in Newark, N.J.
(AP, 2/6/97)(HN, 2/6/99)
1756 Feb 7, In Brazil the
Indian Chief Sepe Tiaraju was killed at the hands of Portuguese and
1756 Mar 3, William Godwin
(d.1836), English philosopher, novelist, essayist, political writer
(Caleb Williams), was born. He was the husband of Mary
Wollstonecraft. Wordsworth as a young man was a follower of the
radical philosopher Godwin.
(WUD, 1994, p.606)(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SC,
1756 Mar 17, St. Patrick's Day
was 1st celebrated in NYC at Crown & Thistle Tavern.
1756 Apr 13, Johann T. Gottlieb
Goldberg (29), German klavecinist, composer, died.
1756 Apr 14, Gov. Glen of South
Carolina protested against 900 Acadia Indians.
1756 Apr 15, Jacques Cassini
(b.1677), French astronomer and cartographer, died.
1756 May 17, After a year and a
half of undeclared war Britain declared war on France, beginning the
French and Indian War. England hoped to conquer Canada. The final
defeat of the French came in 1763 with the British victory at the
Battle of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham.
1756 May 19, The island of
Minorca, one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean
Sea and a British possession since 1708, fell to the French as the
British garrison at Fort Philip capitulated.
1756 Jun 4, Quakers left the
assembly of Pennsylvania.
1756 Jun 6, John Trumball,
American painter, was born.
1756 Jun 20, In India rebels
defeated the British army at Calcutta. British soldiers were
imprisoned in a suffocating cell that gained notoriety as the "Black
Hole of Calcutta." Most of them died. The exact circumstances of
this incident, such as the number of prisoners, originally put at
146, are disputed.
(HN, 6/20/98)(AP, 6/20/07)
1756 Aug 14, French commander
Louis Montcalm took Fort Oswego, New England, from the British.
1756 Aug 31, The British at
Fort William Henry, New England, surrendered to Louis Montcalm of
1756 Sep 21, John Loudon
McAdam, engineer who invented and gave his name to macadamized
roads, was born.
1756 Nov 4, Anthony van
Hoboken, Rotterdam merchant-ship owner, was born.
1756 Nov 12, Teedyuscung, a
Lenape Indian, spoke with Gov. Denny at Easton, Pa., to discuss
(ON, 1/03, p.6)
1756 Dec 6, British troops
under Robert Clive occupied Fulta, India.
1756 German-speaking Moravians
founded the town of Lititz, 35 miles southeast of Harrisburg, Pa.
Non-Moravians were not allowed to live there until 1855.
(SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)
1756 At the outbreak of the war
that was to settle the issue of control of North America between
Britain and France, French colonists numbered only 55,000, the
British colonists numbered about 1 million, and the Native Americans
from coast to coast numbered about 600,000.
(WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)
1756 The British government
gave money to the London Foundling Hospital on condition that it
accept all children under two months old, with no questions asked.
Many unwanted babies soon began to arrive and some three-quarters of
the 15,000 babies that reached the hospital died before the
government ended its support in 1760.
(Econ, 10/17/09, p.99)
1756 Fussier French Sevres
porcelain, under the patronage of King Louis XV, gained the upper
hand in porcelain production over Meissen. Its trademark pictured
cobalt-blue crossed swords.
(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)
1756 In Queretaro, Mexico, a
palatial home was built and later converted into the hotel
Casa de la Marquesa.
(SSFC, 1/27/08, p.E5)
1756 Riedel Glass was founded
(WSJ, 11/18/99, p.A24)
1756-1763 The Seven Years War. France and Great
Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000
"Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia,
Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and
Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while
her manpower was occupied in America.
(V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ,
1756-1789 Johann Friedrich Doles, Bach’s pupil and
successor as cantor at St. Thomas in Leipzig, continued to perform
Bach’s music at the services.
1756-1815 The great war or series of wars that
broke out between England and France.
1756-1818 Henry Lee, American governor. On the
death of George Washington: "To the memory of the Man, first in war,
first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen."
1757 Jan 2, British troops
occupied Calcutta, India.
1757 Jan 4, Robert Francois
Damiens made an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate King Louis XV of
1757 Jan 11, Alexander
Hamilton, first U.S. Secretary of Treasury, was born on St.
Croix. After showing remarkable promise in finance, the young
Hamilton was sent by a benefactor to King’s College in New York. In
1776, Hamilton joined the Continental Army, where he soon joined
George Washington’s staff. After the war, Hamilton became active in
New York politics, gaining a reputation as a supporter of a strong
central government. In the struggle for the ratification of the
Constitution, Hamilton collaborated with James Madison and John Jay
in writing the Federalist Papers, which were instrumental in the
passage of the Constitution. In 1789, newly elected President George
Washington named Hamilton secretary of the treasury. During his
tenure, Hamilton established the National Bank, introduced an excise
tax, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion and spearheaded the effort for
the federal government to assume the debts of the states. In the
presidential election of 1800, Hamilton broke the deadlock between
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr by supporting Jefferson. The enmity
between Hamilton and his longtime political enemy Burr grew worse
during the 1804 campaign for governor of New York. Finally, on July
11, at Weehawken, N.J., the two men fought a duel. Hamilton was shot
and died the next day of his injuries.
(WUD, 1994 p.640)(AP, 1/11/98)(HN, 1/11/00)(HNPD,
1757 Jan 16, Samuel McIntire,
architect of Salem, Massachusetts, was born.
1757 Jan 28, Antonio Bartolomeo
Bruni, composer, was born.
1757 Jan 28, Ahmed Shah, the
first King of Afghanistan, occupied Delhi and annexed the Punjab.
1757 Feb 13, John C. Hespe,
Dutch journalist, politician, was born.
1757 Mar 14, John Byng (52),
British Admiral, was executed by a firing squad on board HMS Monarch
for neglect of duty. Early in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), Byng
was called on to relieve a British fort on the Mediterranean island
of Minorca which was being attacked by French forces. He was sent
with a small, undermanned fleet. Several ship were badly damaged in
subsequent skirmishes with the French, prompting Byng to turn back
to Gibraltar. The fort was eventually forced to capitulate. He was
brought home, court-martialled and executed for breach of Articles
of War. In 2007 his descendants sought a posthumous pardon.
1757 Mar 27, Johann Wenzel
Anton Stamitz (39), composer, died.
1757 Apr 6, English king George
II fired minister William Pitt, Sr.
1757 May 6, Battle at Prague:
Frederik II of Prussia beat emperor's army.
1757 Jun 1, Ignaz J. Pleyel,
Austrian composer, piano builder (Piano method), was born. (MC,
1757 Jun 18, Battle at Kolin,
Bohemia: Austrian army beat Prussia.
1757 Jun 19, The Second Coming
of Christ occurred, according to the followers of Emanuel Swedenborg
(the Church of the New Jerusalem).
1757 Jun 22, George Vancouver,
surveyed America's Pacific coast from San Francisco to Vancouver,
1757 Jun 23, Forces of the East
India Company led by Robert Clive (1725-1774) defeated Indians at
Plassey and won control of Bengal. Lord Clive defeated
Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal and exacted a payment of $140
million from Moghul ruler Mir Jafar and a Moghul title of nobility
and rights to land around Calcutta. This effectively marked the
beginning of British colonial rule in India. Clive served 2 terms as
the governor of Bengal.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.40)(AP,
1757 Jul 23, Giuseppe Domenico
Scarlatti (71), Italian composer (La Silvia), died.
1757 Jul 26, Benjamin Franklin
(51) arrived in London and soon established himself at a house on
Craven Street, which served as home, except for 2 intervals, for the
next 16 years.
(Sm, 3/06, p.98)
1757 Aug 9, English Ft. William
Henry, NY, surrendered to French and Indian troops.
1757 Sep 3, Charles X, Duke of
Prussia, was born in Versailles, France.
1757 Sep 6, Marie Joseph du
Motier, Marquis de LaFayette, French soldier and statesman who aided
George Washington during the American Revolution, was born in
1757 Oct 9, Charles X, last
Bourbon king of France (1824-30), was born.
1757 Nov 5, Frederick II of
Prussia defeated the French at Rosbach in the Seven Years War.
1757 Nov 1, Antonio Canova
(d.1822), Italian sculptor, was born.
1757 Nov 22, Austrians defeated
Prussians at Breslau in the Seven Years War.
1757 Nov 28, William Blake
(1757-1827), English artist-printer, was born in London. He wrote
"Songs of Innocence" and "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell." His last
book was "Jerusalem," of which he made only five copies. In 1996
Peter Ackroyd published: "Blake: A Biography." [see 1827]
1757 Benjamin Franklin
(1706-1790) helped set up America’s first street cleaning service in
(Econ, 2/28/09, SR p.5)
1757 Benjamin Franklin sailed
for England. He spent almost two decades there as colonial agent, a
combination lobbyist, ambassador, and banker, for Pennsylvania and,
eventually Georgia, New Jersey and Massachusetts. He lived in London
at 36 Craven St.
(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)(USAT, 9/22/03, p.16A)
1757 The Mission of San Javier
was completed in San Javier on the Baha Peninsula.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)
1757-1774 Mustafa III succeeded Osman III in the
Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1758 Jan 2, The French began
bombardment of Madras, India.
1758 Feb 15, The 1st mustard
manufactured in America was advertised in Philadelphia.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(HCB, 2003, p. 94)
1758 Mar 22, Jonathan Edwards
(b.1703), US colonial theologian, philosopher (Great Awakening,
Original Sin), died in New Jersey following an inoculation for
1758 Apr 17, Frances Williams,
the first African-American to graduate for a college in the western
hemisphere, published a collection of Latin poems.
1758 Apr 28, James Monroe
(d.1831), later secretary of state and the fifth president of the
United States (1817-1825), was born in Westmoreland County, Va. He
created the Monroe Doctrine, warning Europe not to interfere in the
(HFA, ‘96, p.28)(HNQ, 7/27/99)(HN, 4/28/02)
1758 May 6, Maximilien F.M.I.
de Robespierre (d.1794), a leader of the French Revolution, was
born. He was known as the "Sea-Green Incorruptible" from his sallow
complexion. He decreed death for all those he considered enemies of
(V.D.-H.K.p.231)(HN, 5/6/99)(SSFC, 10/28/01,
1758 Jun 23, British and
Hanoverian armies defeated the French at Krefeld in Germany.
1758 Jul 8, During the French
and Indian War a British attack on Fort Carillon at Ticonderoga, New
York, was foiled by the French. Some 3,500 Frenchmen defeated the
British army of 15,000, which lost 2,000 men.
(HN, 7/8/98)(AH, 10/02, p.27)
1758 Jul 24, George Washington
was admitted to Virginia House of Burgesses.
1758 Jul 26, British battle
fleet under Gen. James Wolfe captured France's Fortress of
Louisbourg on Ile Royale (Capre Breton Island, Nova Scotia) after a
7-week siege, thus gaining control of the entrance to the Saint
(HN, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)
1758 Aug 25, The Prussian army
defeated the invading Russians at the Battle of Zorndorf. Thousands
(HN, 8/25/98)(chblue.com, 8/25/01)
1758 Aug 29, New Jersey
Legislature formed the 1st Indian reservation.
1758 Sep 12, Charles Messier
observed the Crab Nebula and began a catalog.
1758 Sep 18, James Abercromby
was replaced as supreme commander of British forces after his defeat
by French commander, the Marquis of Montcalm, at Fort Ticonderoga
during the French and Indian War.
1758 Sep 29, Horatio Nelson
(d.1805), British naval commander who defeated the French and her
allies on numerous occasions during the age of Napoleon, was born in
Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk. He was made post-captain at the young age
of 21. Nelson died at the moment of his greatest victory at the
Battle of Trafalgar. Although a national hero, he displayed common
human frailty. His colorful private life, coupled with his genius
and daring as a naval commander, seem to make the Nelson story
irresistible to every generation.
(AP, 9/29/97)(HN, 9/29/98)(HNQ, 6/3/01)
1758 Oct 7, Paul Anton
Wineberger, composer, was born.
1758 Oct 10, Jean Pierre
Chouteau, French fur trader, early St. Louis settler and "father of
Oklahoma" was born in New Orleans.
1758 Oct 16, Noah Webster
(d.1843), US teacher lexicographer and publisher, was born in
Hartford, Conn. He wrote the “American Dictionary of the English
(AHD, 1971, p.1452)(AP, 10/16/08)
1758 Nov 25, In the French and
Indian War British forces under General John Forbes captured Fort
Duquesne (the site of present day Pittsburgh, est. 1754). George
Washington participated in the campaign. Forbes renamed the site
Fort Pitt after William Pitt the Elder, who directed British
military policy in the Seven Years' War of 1756-'63. Before his
arrival, the French had burned the fort and retreated.
(AP, 11/25/97)(ON, 9/05, p.5)(HNQ, 7/17/98)
1758 Dec 5, Johann Friedrich
Fasch (70), composer, died.
1758 Benjamin Franklin ordered
Newtown Pippin apples delivered to London while he worked there as
Commissioner for the Colonies in America.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)
1758 Pompeo Batoni made his
bravura Grand Tour portrait of an English milord.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)
1758 A.Y. Goguet’s "The Origin
of Laws, Arts, and Sciences, and their Progress among the Most
Ancient Nations" was published in Paris.
(RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.13)
1758 Linnaeus, father of
systematics, worked on his wasp specimens.
(PacDis, Winter/’96, p.43)
1758 Hawaii’s King Kamehameha
was born on the big island about this time.
c1758 In Taxco, Mexico, the
Santa Prisca Cathedral was built in thanks by Don Jose de la Borda,
who made his fortune there.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T6)
1758 In Peru Spanish naval
Captain Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795) began serving as governor of
Huancavelica and the general manager of the quicksilver mines. He
tried but failed to eradicate fraud there and held this position
until 1764. In 1766 he began serving as governor of Louisiana.
1758 Pope Benedict XIV removed
the blanket proscription against the works of Copernicus from the
Index of Forbidden Books. He left Galileo on the Index because a
Pope had participated in the condemnation of Galileo.
(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.W15)
1759 Jan 6, George Washington
and Martha Dandridge Custis were married. George had 28 slaves and
Martha had 109.
(AP, 1/6/98)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)
1759 Jan 15, The British Museum
opened in Montagu House, on the site of the current building, and
proclaimed itself as the world’s first independent national museum.
Its expansion over the following two and a half centuries was
largely a result of expanding British colonization and has resulted
in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the
British Museum of Natural History in South Kensington in 1881 (it is
nowadays simply called the Natural History Museum, and is separate
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Museum)(Econ, 12/21/13, SR
1759 Jan 25, Robert Burns
(d.1796), poet and song writer, who wrote "Auld Lang Syne" and
"Comin’ Thru the Rye," was born in Alloway, Scotland. He took
traditional Scottish songs and fiddle tunes, and improved upon
existing words, or added verses where they had been lost. "Should
auld acquaintance be forgot, and never brought to mind, should auld
acquaintance be forgot, and auld lang syne. For old lang syne, my
dear, for old lang syne, we'll take a cup of kindness yet, for old
(EMN, 1/96, p.4,6)(HN, 1/25/99)(SFC, 12/30/99,
1759 Jan 31, Francois Devienne,
composer, was born.
1759 Feb 28, Pope Clement XIII
allowed the Bible to be translated into various languages.
1759 Mar 8, French King Louis
XV revoked the license of the Encyclopedie as the 8th volume was
about to be printed.
(ON, 4/05, p.9)
1759 Apr 8, Francois de La
Croix (76), composer, died.
1759 Apr 13, The French
defeated European Allies in Battle of Bergen.
1759 Apr 14, Georg Friedrich
Handel (74), German-born composer, died in London. He had
composed some 30 oratorios.
(LGC-HCS, p.41)(AP, 4/14/97)(SFC, 9/16/97, p.E1)
1759 Apr 23, British seized
Basse-Terre and Guadeloupe in the Antilies from France.
1759 Apr 27, Mary
Wollstonecraft Godwin (d.1797), English writer, feminist (Female
Reader), was born. "The mind will ever be unstable that has only
prejudices to rest on, and the current will run with destructive
fury when there are no barriers to break its force."
(AP, 11/10/97)(MC, 4/27/02)
1759 May 1, British fleet
occupied Guadeloupe, in the West Indies. [see Apr 23]
1759 May 8, Hearing of his
appointment in the west, General Napoleon Bonaparte left for Paris
in order to obtain a different posting.
1759 May 15, Maria Theresia von
Paradis, composer, was born.
1759 May 20, William Thornton,
architect of the U.S. Capitol, actor, was born.
1759 May 28, William Pitt the
Younger, PM of England from 1783-1801 and 1804-1806, was born. He
has been considered England's greatest PM.
(HN, 5/28/99)(MC, 5/28/02)
1759 Jul 23, Russians under
Saltikov defeated Prussians at Kay in eastern Germany, and
one-fourth of Prussian army of 27,000 was lost.
1759 Jul 24, Victor Emmanuel I,
King of Sardinia (1802-21), was born.
1759 Jul 25, British forces
defeated a French army at Fort Niagara in Canada. During their 7
(HN, 7/25/98)(SC, 7/25/02)
1759 Jul 26, The French
relinquished Fort Carillon in Ticonderoga, New York, to the British
under General Jeffrey Amherst. The British changed the name to Fort
(HN, 7/26/98)(AH, 10/02, p.26)
1759 Aug 1, British and
Hanoverian armies defeated the French at the Battle of Minden,
Germany. The marquis de Lafayette was killed by a British cannonball
and his son, Gilbert du Motier (2), inherited the title. In 1777
Lafayette joined the American Continental Army.
(HN, 8/1/98)(ON, 2/09, p.1)
1759 Aug 18, The French fleet
was destroyed by the British under "Old Dreadnought" Boscawen at the
battle of Lagos Bay.
1759 Aug 24, William
Wilberforce (d.1833), was born in Hull, Yorkshire, England. He
became best known for his efforts relating to the abolition of
slavery in the British Empire.
1759 Aug 24, Ewald C. von
Kleist (44), German poet, died.
1759 Sep 3, Pope Clement XIII
officially placed the French Encyclopedie on the Vatican’s Index of
(ON, 4/05, p.9)
1759 Sep 13, During the final
French and Indian War, the Battle of Quebec [Canada] was fought.
British Gen. James Wolfe’s army defeated Commander Louis Joseph de
Montcalm’s French forces on the Plains of Abraham overlooking Quebec
City. An English fleet of 20 ships led by General James Wolfe landed
3,600 English troops near Quebec in the early hours of the day. The
fleet was sent up the St. Lawrence River to take the region from the
French. "Measured by the numbers engaged," wrote historian Francis
Parkman, the Battle of Quebec "was but a heavy skirmish; measured by
results, it was one of the great battles of the world." On this
rainy morning the armies of England and France clashed outside the
walls of Quebec City and altered the balance of power of an entire
continent. The battle on the Plains of Abraham lasted less than half
an hour. As French forces withered and an English victory became
apparent, Wolfe was shot in the chest, his third wound of the
battle. He said to a distraught soldier just before he died, "Do not
weep, my dear. In a few minutes I shall be happy." By the time the
rain had washed away the blood, Quebec had surrendered to the
British. Four years later, the Treaty of Paris gave England sole
dominion over most of the land that Quebec City had governed, from
Cape Breton Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Mississippi
(CFA, '96, p.54)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(AP,
9/13/97)(HNQ, 9/8/98)(HNPD, 9/19/98)
1759 Sep 14, Louis Joseph de
Montcalm-Grozon, Marquis de Montcalm (b.1712) and chief of
French forces, died at age 47 on the Plains of Abraham in Canada.
1759 Sep 18, Quebec surrendered
to the British and the Battle of Quebec ended. The French
surrendered to the British after their defeat on the Plains of
(AP, 9/18/97)(HN, 9/18/98)
1759 Sep 18, British commander
James Wolfe died at the Battle of Quebec.
1759 Oct 11, Mason Weems,
preacher (Episcopalian clergyman), was born. He was a noted seller
of books where he would fictionalize history in stories like the one
he wrote of George Washington in the book, "Life of Washington".
People loved his fictionalized stories and often believed that they
were true. One famous story which is not true is the story of
Washington chopping down the cherry tree and the famous quote on not
telling a lie.
1759 Oct 20, Marie Jean Herault
de Sechelles, French author, politician, French Revolutionary, was
1759 Oct 26, Georges Jacques
Danton, French Revolutionary leader, was born. He was an impassioned
orator and minister of Justice. He was also the last hope of the
moderates during the French Reign of Terror and his execution led
directly to the overthrow of Robespierre in 1794.
1759 Nov 10, Johann Christoph
Friedrich von Schiller (d.1805), playwright, dramatist, historian
and poet, was born. "A beautiful soul has no other merit than its
own existence." [He was a friend of Goethe.] "Die Weltgeschichte ist
das Weltgericht." (The history of the world is the verdict of the
(WUD, 1994, p.1277)(AP, 8/2/98)(AP, 3/13/99)(HN,
1759 Nov 24, There was a
destructive eruption of Vesuvius.
1759 Soga Shohaku (1730-1781),
Japanese artist, created his “Hanshan and Shide" about this time.
(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E1)
1759 Samuel Johnson
(1709-1784), English lexicographer, authored his novel “History of
Rasselas," on the elusive nature of happiness.
(WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)
1759 French philosopher
Voltaire wrote his novel "Candide."
(WUD, 1994, p.216)
1759 Economist Adam Smith
(1723-1790), Glasgow professor on moral philosophy and pioneering
economist, authored "The Theory of Moral Sentiments."
1759 Kedleston Hall was begun
by Sir Nathaniel Curzon, who moved the entire village of Kedleston,
except for the church, a half mile.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.686)
1759 John Smeaton built the
Eddystone Lighthouse near Plymouth, England. It was the 3rd one
erected at the site over 60 years.
(WSJ, 6/27/00, p.A28)(ON, 5/06, p.5)
1759 Oliver Goldsmith, English
poet, remarked: "As writers become more numerous, it is natural for
readers to become more indolent."
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.44)
1759 Dr. Samuel Johnson
denounced advertisements as over-exaggerated and false.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1759 Elizabeth Petrovna, the
daughter of Peter the Great, and Empress of All the Russias, was
noted for her beauty. She obtained a good bit of Finland from
Sweden, and her forces crushed the Prussians at Kunersdorf in 1759.
The opposing (and losing) general was Frederich the Great, who did
not lose many.
1759 Britain triumphed over
France in the naval victory at Quiberon Bay.
(WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)
1759 Josiah Wedgwood opened his
first factory in Stoke-on-Trent, central England. It began making
bone china in the 19th century.
(SFC, 2/22/06, p.G6)(AP, 1/4/09)
1759 A group of 9 English
merchants launched a new ironworks in Dowlais, Wales, using the
regions abundant coal. It was managed from its earliest years by the
Guest family. In 1900 it was purchased by a nuts and bolts company
run by Arthur Keen. Shortly afterwards Keen bought Nettlefolds, a
maker of screws and fasteners. By 1902 the firm, known as Guest,
Keen & Nettlefolds Ltd., was the world's largest producer of
nails. In 1986 “Guest Keen and Nettlefolds" became GKN. In 1987
Edgar Jones authored "A History of GKN." Volume 2 was published in
1990. By 2004 GKN PLC had become a major auto parts supplier and had
a new aerospace division.
(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.A1,8)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.61)
1759 France eliminated the
public practice of sitting on the stage during theater and opera
(SFC, 3/9/07, p.E8)
1759 Arthur Guinness purchased
Mark Rainsford’s Ale Brewery in Dublin, Ireland, and began producing
his own recipe. In 2009 Guinness, owned by Diageo, launched its
Arthur’s Day celebration in honor of its founder.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T8)(AP, 9/26/13)
1759-1761 Jean-Honore Fragonard painted
"The Lost Forfeit or Captured Kiss."
(WSJ, 11/19/03, p.D12)
1759-1771 Emiland Gauthey, Burgundy canal
engineer, remade Givry, France, over this period.
(SSFC, 12/5/04, p.F5)
1759-1788 Charles III ruled as King of Spain.
After a plague killed thousands in Alamos, Mexico, Charles III
ordered homes to be rebuilt with mutual walls to prevent ramshackle
structures by squatters.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)
1759-1840 Pierre-Joseph Redoute, Flemish-born
painter. He was one of the most celebrated flower painters and
worked under the patronage of Empress Josephine Bonaparte. His 169
stipple engravings "Les Rose" were made in Paris between 1817-1824.
(2000 Taschen Calendar)
1760 Jan 20, Charles III, King
of Spain, was born.
1760 Feb 14, Richard Allen
(d.1831), 1st black ordained by a Methodist-Episcopal church, was
born in Philadelphia.
1760 Feb 16, Cherokee Indians
held hostage at Fort St. George, SC, were killed in revenge for
Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
(HN, 2/16/99)(MC, 2/16/02)
1760 Mar 20, The great fire of
Boston destroyed 349 buildings.
1760 Apr 6, Charlotte Charke
(b.1713), actress and writer, died. In 2005 Kathryn Shevelow
authored “Charlotte: Being a True Account of an Actress’s Flamboyant
Adventures in Eighteenth-Century London’s Wild and Wicked Theatrical
(SSFC, 4/3/05, p.F3)(http://tinyurl.com/5jnfh)
1760 Apr 16, In England
Laurence, 4th Earl Ferrers, was executed for the murder of his
steward. [see May 5]
1760 Apr 28, French forces
besieging Quebec defeated the British in the second battle on the
Plains of Abraham.
1760 May 5, The fourth Earl
Ferrers was driven from the Tower of London to be hanged as a felon,
the last English nobleman to be executed this way. [see Apr 16]
1760 May 10, Claude-Joseph
Rouget de Lisle, soldier, author, composer ("La Marseillaise"), was
1760 Jun 23, Austrians defeated
the Prussians at Landshut, Germany.
1760 Jul 31, Ferdinand, Duke of
Brunswick, foiled last French threat at Warburg and drove the French
army back to Rhine River.
1760 Aug 7, Ft. Loudon,
Tennessee, surrendered to Cherokee Indians.
1760 Aug 15, Frederick II
(1712-1786), king of Prussia from 1740-1786, defeated the Austrians
at the Battle of Liegnitz.
1760 Sep 8, The French
surrendered the city of Montreal to British Gen. Jeffrey Amherst.
[see Sep 18, 1759]
(HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)
1760 Sep 14, Luigi
Cherubini (d.1842), Italian-born prodigy and French composer, was
1760 Oct 9, Austrian and
Russian troops entered Berlin and began burning structures and
1760 Oct 21, Katsushika Hokusai
(d.1849), Japanese printmaker, was born. Hokusai was a master
designer of color woodblock prints. His paintings included 36 views
of Mt. Fuji done when he was 70.
(SFC, 9/24/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)(Econ,
1760 Oct 23, The 1st Jewish
prayer books were printed in US.
1760 Oct 25, George II
(August), king of Great-Britain (1727-60), died at 76.
1760 Oct 25, King George III of
Britain was crowned. He succeeded his late grandfather, George II
and ruled until 1820. With the rule of George III the civil list
(government officers, judges, ambassadors and royal staff) was paid
by the Parliament in return for the king's surrender of the
hereditary revenues of the crown.
(AHD, 1971, p.552)(AP, 10/25/97)(HN, 10/25/01)
1760 Nov 3, Following the
Russian capture of Berlin, Frederick II of Prussia defeated the
Austrians at the Battle of Torgau (Germany).
1760 Nov 9, Henri-Philippe
Gerard, composer, was born.
1760 Nov 23, Gracchus Babeuf,
French agrarian agitator, politician and writer, was born.
1760 Nov 29, Major Roger Rogers
took possession of Detroit on behalf of Britain. French commandant
Belotre surrendered Detroit.
(HN, 11/29/98)(MC, 12/29/01)
1760 Thomas Gainsborough
(1727-1788), English artist, painted a portrait of Ann Ford playing
a musical instrument with her legs crossed.
(WSJ, 12/19/02, p.D10)
1760 Juan Ruiz of Mexico
painted "Christ Consoled by Angels."
(WSJ, 3/3/98, p.A16)
1760 The book "The Life and
Adventures of a Cat" was published and featured a cat named Tom,
from whence all male cats began to be called Tom. Prior to this a
male cat was called a ram.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, Z1 p.8)
1760 The Church of San Tomas in
the village of Las Trampas was built. It has thick square towers and
heavy walls and is one of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the
western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and
Santa Fe, New Mexico.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)
1760 The English settled in
Maine following their victory in the French and Indian War.
(SFC, 7/21/96, p.T6)
1760 A Belgian created roller
skates by replacing the blades of ice skates with wheels.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1760 Lancelot "Capability"
Brown, English garden designer, landscaped the grounds of Longleat
estate, Wiltshire, England.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.685)
1760 The British government
ended its support for the London Foundling Hospital.
(Econ, 10/17/09, p.99)
1760 In Canada a treaty was
made with the Mi'kmaq Indians. It was later interpreted to support
fishing for profit rights in their traditional 4 Atlantic provinces.
(WSJ, 12/6/99, p.A27)
1760 Giovanni Battista Torre
started a Paris shop selling books and prints. The shop was best
know for its fireworks displays. In 1775 Torre’s son Anthony along
with Paul Peter Colnaghi moved to London and established themselves
as sellers and publishers of prints. In 2010 “Colnaghi: the History"
was published as part of a 250 year anniversary celebration.
(Econ, 6/19/10, p.87)
1760s George Stubbs created a
painting of a thoroughbred horse. In 2003 it was sold at auction for
1760s Louis XV and Madame de
Pompadour built the La Petit Trianon at Versailles as a retreat. She
died before it was finished. Louis XVI later gave it to Marie
(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.26)
1760s-1770s John Cadwalader, Revolutionary War
General, commissioned dozens of furniture pieces from the finest
craftsmen in Pennsylvania. He had married Elizabeth Lloyd, the
wealthiest woman in colonial America.
(WSJ, 9/24/99, p.W9)
1760-1820 George III ruled over Great Britain and
Ireland. [see 1738-1820, George III]
(AHD, 1971, p.552)
1760-1830 The Industrial Revolution largely
occurred in Britain. Realizing the economic advantages, Britain did
not allow the export of any machinery, methods or skilled men that
might blunt its technological edge. Eventually, the lure of new
opportunities convinced continental entrepreneurs and British
businessmen to evade England’s official edict. Englishmen William
and John Cockerill brought the Industrial Revolution to continental
Europe around 1807 by developing machine shops in Liege, Belgium,
transforming the country’s coal, iron and textile industries much as
it had done in Britain.
1761 Feb 3, Richard Nash
(b.1674), the “Master of Ceremonies" for Bath, England, died.
Celebrated author, Oliver Goldsmith wrote “The Life of Richard Nash"
in 1762. In 2005 John Eglin authored “The Imaginary Autocrat: Beau
Nash and the Invention of Bath."
1761 Mar 23, John W. de Winter,
Dutch Vice-Admiral (Battle at Kamperduin), was born.
1761 Mar 27, Johann Ludwig
Steiner (72), composer, died.
1761 Apr 17, Thomas Bayes
(b.1702), English theologian and mathematician, died. He established
a mathematical basis for probability inference based on sparse data.
Sampling from a large population (the frequentist school) came to
dominate the field in the modern era. In 2006 researchers suggested
that the human brain might work in a Bayesian manner drawing strong
inferences from sparse data.
(www.britannica.com)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.70)
1761 Apr 20, Johann Gottlieb
Karl Spazier, composer, was born.
1761 May 13, Adrian Loosjes Pzn
(1818, Dutch publisher, writer (Mauritius Lijnslager), was born.
1761 May 22, The first life
insurance policy in the United States was issued, in Philadelphia.
1761 Jun 10, Puritan version of
"Othello" opened in Newport, Rhode Island.
1761 Jul 4, Samuel Richardson,
English novelist, died at 72 in London.
(WUD, 1994, p.1231)
1761 Jul 31, The French ship
L’Utile, hit a coral reef near the Ile de Sable in the Indian
Ocean. Nearly half of 160 slaves were killed. The French crew of 163
survived. On Sep 27 a white crew of 123 set sail on the Providence,
built from the remains of L’Utile, and managed to reach Madagascar
with just one death in four days. Fifteen years later a rescue ship
found seven female survivors.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.94)
1761 Sep 21, King George III of
England was crowned. George was German and had been Elector of
Hanover. Coincidentally, the composer Handel, who was working in
London when King George was crowned, had gone to London after
skipping out on his last job...working for George in Hanover.
Fortunately for Handel, King George forgave him.
1761 Dec 1, Madame Tussaud
(d.1850), Swiss-born modeler in wax, was born. She founded the
world-famous exhibition in London's Baker Street. [see Dec 7]
(HN, 12/1/99)(MC, 4/16/02)
1761 Dec 7, Madame Tussaud
[Marie Grosholtz], creator of the wax museum, was born. [see Dec 1]
1761 Dec 25, Elisabeth Petrovna
(~51), tsarina of Russia (1741-62), died.
1761 George-Louis Leclerc
(1707-1788), Comte de Buffon, French naturalist and theoretical
biologist published the 9th volume of his 35 volume work titled
"Histoire Naturelle, Generale, et Particuliere," an attempt to
record all that was known of the world of nature. This volume
expanded on his “theory of American degeneracy," his view that all
animals in America were smaller than their European counterparts.
(http://tinyurl.com/7yspryd)(ON, 4/12, p.9)
1761 St. Peter’s Episcopal
Church was built in Philadelphia, Pa. The Protestant Episcopal
Church of America was born with the Revolution and the break with
the Anglican Church of Britain.
(Hem, 6/96, p.108)(WSJ, 2/19/99, p.W13)
1761 French and Indians forces
in the Ohio Valley were defeated.
(ON, 1/03, p.7)
1761 In western North Carolina
British soldiers razed Kituwha, the heart of the Cherokee Nation.
Punitive raids here were repeated in 1776.
(Arch, 9/02, p.70)
1761 The town of Killington was
chartered in New Hampshire.
(ST, 3/2/04, p.A1)
1761 Benjamin Franklin invented
his glass armonica.
(WSJ, 1/15/04, p.D8)
1761 The Earl of Huntington and
the Earl of Ashburnham had a violent quarrel over the bedside of
George III over who would have the honor of putting on the king’s
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.678)
1761 Monsignor Mario Guarnacci
bequeathed his collection of Etruscan artifacts to the town of
Volterra, in the hills of Tuscany, Italy. Most of the artifacts were
dug from local tombs and are now displayed in chronological order in
(SFEC, 11/24/96, T6)
1761 In Germany A.W. Faber
created its first pencil. In 1898 the company got the current name
Faber-Castell. The ‘Castell 9000’ pencil was born in 1905, when
count Alexander von Faber Castell decided to give it a hexagonal
shape to avoid falling when rolling on a desk.
1761 James Macpherson
(1736-1796), Scottish poet, announced the discovery of an epic on
the subject of Fingal (related to the Irish mythological character
Fionn mac Cumhaill/Finn McCool) written by Ossian (based on Fionn's
son Oisín). He then published poems by Ossian, the blind 3rd century
poet, which became very popular and later exposed as a fraud.
1761 A transit of Venus
occurred. Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon observed it from Cape
Town, South Africa.
(Econ, 5/29/04, p.79)
1761-1845 Louis-Leopold Boilly, French painter.
His work entailed a wide variety of subjects from genre paintings,
gallants, historical canvasses, still lifes, formal and informal
portraits. His work includes: Triumph of Marat (1794), Girl at a
Window (1799), Game of Billiards (1807), Gallery du Palais Royal
(1809), The Geography Lesson (1812). He produced some 500 genre
paintings and some 5,000 small portraits along with a series of
(WSJ, 1/8/96, p.A-16) (WSJ,
1762 Jan, In France Diderot
published the 1st volume of illustrations for his Encyclopedie.
(ON, 4/05, p.10)
1762 Feb 2, Thomas Arne's opera
"Ataxerxes," premiered in London.
1762 Feb 5, Martinique, a major
French base in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, surrendered
to the British.
1762 Mar 10, Jean Calas, a
French protestant (Huguenot), was tortured and executed in Toulouse
on the charge that he had killed his son in 1761 to prevent him from
converting to Catholicism. Voltaire took up the case believing that
Catholic judges were biased. He wrote pamphlets and letters to
support his case and urged high-placed friends to place the case
before the Great Council of Louis XV. On March 9, 1765, Jean Calas
and his family were acquitted and the death of the son was ruled a
(ON, 4/06, p.10)(SFC, 3/9/07, p.E8)
1762 Mar 17, 1st St Patrick's
Day parade was held in NYC.
1762 May 19, Johann Gottlieb
Fichte, German philosopher, was born. He developed ethical idealism
out of Immanuel Kant's work.
1762 Mar 25, Francesco Giuseppi
Pollini, composer, was born.
1762 Apr 13, Karl Friedrich
Horn, composer, was born.
1762 Apr 14, Giuseppe Valadier,
Italian architect, archaeologist, was born.
1762 Jun 5, English
parliamentarian John Wilkes began publishing his North Briton
1762 Jun 28, Catharine II,
Russian Tsarina, grabbed power. [see Jul 17]
1762 Jul 17, Peter III of
Russia was murdered and his wife, Catherine II, took the throne.
1762 Aug 5, Russia, Prussia and
Austria signed a treaty agreeing on the partition of Poland.
1762 Aug 12, George IV, King of
England (1820-1830), was born. He was named Prince Regent in 1810
when his father was declared insane.
(HN, 8/12/98)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)
1762 Aug 12, The British
captured Cuba from Spain after a two month siege.
1762 Aug 22, Ann Franklin
became the first female editor of an American newspaper, the
Newport, Rhode Island "Mercury."
1762 Sep 17, Francesco Xaverio
Geminiani, composer, died at 74.
1762 Oct 5, Gluck's opera
"Orfeo ed Euridice" had its premiere at Vienna’s Burgtheater on the
namesday of Emp. Francis I. Gluck revised "Orpheus and Euridice" in
1774 for the Paris Royal Opera.
(WSJ, 4/11/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)(MC,
1762 Oct 5, The British fleet
bombarded and captured Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines.
1762 Oct 6, Francesco Onofrio
Manfredini, composer, died at 78.
1762 Oct 15, Samuel Adams
Holyoke, composer, was born.
1762 Oct 29, Andre-Marie
Chenier, French poet (Elegies), was born.
1762 Nov 1, Spencer Perceval,
British Prime Minister, was born.
1762 Nov 3, Spain acquired
Louisiana. [see Dec 3]
1762 Dec 3, France ceded to
Spain all lands west of the Mississippi- the territory known as
Upper Louisiana. [see Nov 3]
(CO, Grolier's, 11/10/95)(HN, 12/3/98)
1762 Dec 31, The Mozart family
moved from Vienna to Salzburg.
c1762 Charles Joseph Natoire,
artist, did a rendering of "The Cascade at the Villa Aldobrandini,
Frascati." It later became part of the collection of the Pierpont
(SFEM, 4/6/97, p.16)
1762 The commedia dell’arte
play "The King Stag" was written. It was about a good king who
couldn’t find a wife after interviewing 2,000 candidates.
(SFEC, 6/1/97, DB p.31)
1762 Nathony Benezet published
"A Short Account of That Part of Africa Inhabited by the Negroes,"
and argued against slave trade. In 1994 the book was valued at $1800
as a collectors item.
(WSJ, 12/9/94, p.R-8)
1762 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
published his didactic novel "Emile," which spelled out his idea of
his "natural system," and his work of political philosophy "The
Social Contract." The books were banned in France and he was forced
(WSJ, 2/18/97, p.A18)(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M2)
1762 Benjamin Franklin returned
to Philadelphia from London and remained until 1764.
1762 The Nicholas Brothers
Chair Manufactory operated in Westminster, Mass. In 1900 the firm
moved to Gardner and around 1907 was renamed to Nicholas &
(SFC, 3/29/06, p.G6)
1762 The Harrison chronometer
was invented. It allowed voyagers to calculate longitudinal
(SFC, 1/31/04, p.A1)
1762 Barings PLC, a British
banking firm was founded [1763 also given]. It later financed the
Louisiana Purchase  and provided economic counseling to Queen
Elizabeth II. The operation went bust in 1995.
(WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1762 Gosakuramachi ascended
Japan’s throne. She ruled until 1770 and as of 2006 was Japan's last
1762 Abram Petrovich Gannibal
(1696-1781), an African slave adopted by Peter the Great, was
dismissed by Catherine the Great. He is the great-grandfather of
(Econ, 8/20/05, p.66)
1762-1763 James Boswell experienced his 1st
extended trip to London. His "London Journal" later recounted his
meeting with Samuel Johnson numerous amorous affairs.
(WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)
1762-1796 Catherine the Great ruled over Russia.
(WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A16)
1763 Feb 10, Britain, Spain and
France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the Seven Years’ War, aka
the French-Indian War. France ceded Canada to England and gave up
all her territories in the New World except New Orleans and a few
scattered islands including St. Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of
(HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/08)(AH, 2/06,
1763 Feb 12, Pierre de
Mariveaux (b.1688), French novelist and playwright, died.
1763 Mar 6, Jean Xavier
Lefevre, composer, was born.
1763 Apr 7, Domenico
Dragonetti, composer, was born.
1763 Apr 19, Teedyuscung, a
Lenape Indian leader, burned to death while sleeping in his cabin in
the Wyoming Valley, Pa. The fire destroyed the whole Indian village.
A few days later settlers from Connecticut arrived to resume their
construction of a town.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)
1763 Apr 30, Britain’s King
George II felt personally insulted and ordered general warrants to
be issued for the arrest of John Wilkes, member of Parliament, and
the publishers of The North Briton. Forty-nine people, including
Wilkes, were arrested under the warrants. At his court hearing the
Lord Chief Justice ruled that as an MP, Wilkes was protected by
privilege from arrest on a charge of libel.
1763 May 7, Indian chief
Pontiac began his attack on a British fort in present-day Detroit,
Michigan. Ottawa Chief Pontiac led an uprising in the wild, distant
lands that later became Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
(HN, 7/24/98)(HN, 5/7/99)
1763 May 16, The English
lexicographer, author and wit Samuel Johnson first met his future
biographer, James Boswell.
1763 Jun 20, Theobald Wolfe
Tone, Irish nationalist, was born.
1763 Jun 23, Josephine
Martinique, empress of France (1804-14), was born.
(HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)
1763 Jul 17, John Jacob Astor
(d.1848), American fur trader who died the richest man in the
country, was born as a butcher's son in Germany. Astor arrived in
New York in 1784 at age 20 and worked for a fur merchant. He built
up his own fur business and invested in real estate. "Buy the acre,
sell the lot." He married into the Brevoort family and left $20
million when he died.
(HN, 7/17/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(WSJ, 3/2/00,
1763 Aug 5, Colonel Henry
Bouquet decisively defeated the Indians at the Battle of Bushy Run
in Pennsylvania during Pontiac's rebellion.
1763 Aug 8, Charles Bulfinch,
1st US professional architect (Mass State House), was born in
1763 Sep 26, English poet John
Byrom (b.1692) died. The words "Tweedle-dum and Tweedle-dee" made
their first appearance in print in "one of the most celebrated and
most frequently quoted epigrams," satirizing the disagreements
between George Frideric Handel and Giovanni Battista Bononcini,
written by John Byrom. A nursery rhyme published in 1805 included
the characters Tweedledum and Tweedledee as did Lewis Carroll’s
“Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There"
1763 Oct 5, August III
(b.1796), son of August II, died. He was crowned King of Lithuania
and Poland in 1734.
(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.D8)
1763 Oct 7, George III of Great
Britain issued a royal proclamation reserving for the crown the
right to acquire land from western tribes. This closed lands in
North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlement and
ended the acquisition efforts of colonial land syndicates. The Royal
Proclamation of 1763 guaranteed Indian rights to land and
8/29/04, p.M5)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)
1763 Nov 15, Charles Mason and
Jeremiah Dixon began surveying Mason-Dixon Line between Pennsylvania
and Maryland. They surveyed 233 miles by 1767 when Indians of the
Six nations told them they could not proceed any further west.
(MC, 11/15/01)(ON, 2/04, p.10)
1763 Nov 16, John Wilkes
(b.1725), English journalist, MP, and friend of American Colonies,
was injured in duel. His protest of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 had
appeared in the April 23 issue of North Briton No. 45.
(ON, 12/11, p.8)
1763 Dec 2, Touro Shul, the
oldest existing US synagogue, was dedicated in Newport, RI.
1763 Dec 6, The British
government case against journalist John Wilkes was decided in favor
of Wilkes and a general warrant for his arrest was declared illegal.
(ON, 12/11, p.8)
1763 Dec 28, John Molson,
founder of the Montreal Molson brewery, was born.
1763 The "Jnaneshvari"
manuscript, a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, was completed in
India. In this period Hindu books began to vie with Muslim texts in
the perfection of their paper, calligraphy, illustration and
(WSJ, 12/11/01, p.A17)
1763 A Crown grant was made to
Henry Laurens of Georgia, who later succeeded John Hancock as
president of the Continental Congress in 1777. Laurens obtained
control of the South Altamaha river lands and named it New Hope
1763 Pierre Laclede and stepson
Auguste Chouteau notched a couple of trees that marked the site for
Laclede’s Landing that became St. Louis.
(SFC, 10/12/97, p.T5)
1763 British forces, under
orders from Sir Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1797), Colonial Gov. of
Virginia (1759-1768), distributed smallpox-infected blankets among
American Indians in the 1st known case of its use as a biological
1763 The British proclaimed a
law forbidding Americans to move farther west into the Mississippi
Valley in order to avoid problems with the Indians.
1763 Sir George Baker,
physician at the court of king George in England, published the
treatisse: "Concerning the Cause of the Endemial Colic of
Devonshire." Cider presses with lead fittings proved to be the
(NH, 7/96, p.52)
1763 The capital of Brazil was
changed from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
(USAT, OW, 4/22/96, p.3)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)
1763 A Chinese map drawn by Mo
Yi Tong imitated a world chart made in 1418. It showed barbarians
paying tribute to the Ming emperor Zhu Di. The map was unveiled to
the public in Beijing in 2006.
(Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)
1763 France formally ceded
possession of Dominica to Great Britain.
1763 Frederick the Great took
over Die Konigliche Porzelan-Manufaktur. The royal porcelain factory
was privatized by the state of Berlin in 2006.
(Econ, 5/23/09, p.65)
1763 Russia annexed the Crimea
peninsula from Crimean Tartars and Ottoman Turks.
(SFC, 2/4/09, p.A5)
1763-1825 Jean Paul Richter, German author: "A
timid person is frightened before a danger; a coward during the
time; and a courageous person afterward." "Spring makes everything
young again except man."
(AP, 7/3/97)(AP, 3/20/98)
1763-1864 The Circassians, residents of the
northwest Caucasus, fought against the Russians in the
Russian-Circassian War only succumbing to a scorched earth campaign
initiated in 1862 under General Yevdokimov. Afterwards, large
numbers of Circassians fled and were deported to the Ottoman Empire,
others were resettled in Russia far from their home territories.
1763-1865 In 2003 Richard Clement authored "Books
on the Frontier: Print culture in the American West 1763-1875."
(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M1)
1764 Jan 1, Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart (8) played for the Royal Family at Versailles, France.
1764 Jan 19, Bolle Willum
Luxdorph, a Danish diarist, described what is believed to be the
first successful parcel bomb.
(Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)
1764 Jan 20, John Wilkes
was expelled from the English House of Commons. In February he was
found guilty, in absentia, of seditious libel (for the North Briton)
and of obscene and impious libel (for Essay on Woman, a parody on
Pope which he had co-written with Thomas Potter years before,
intended for a select group of friends).
1764 Jan 25, Harvard Hall in
Cambridge, Mass., burned to the ground and destroyed most of the
5,000 volumes in its library.
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A9)
1764 Feb 11, Marie-Joseph de
Chenier, French poet (Cajus Graechus), was born.
1764 Feb 15, The city of St.
Louis was established as a French trading post. Pierre Laclede Ligue
and stepson Auguste Chouteau notched a couple of trees that marked
the site for Laclede’s Landing that became St. Louis.
(SFC, 5/12/97, p.T5)(AP, 2/15/98)(440 Int’l.,
1764 Mar 13, Charles Earl Grey
(Whig), British Prime Minister (1830-1834), was born.
(HN, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)
1764 Apr 3, John Abernethy,
surgeon, was born in London.
1764 Apr 3, Austrian arch duke
Jozef crowned himself Roman Catholic king.
1764 Apr 19, The English
Parliament banned the American colonies from printing paper money.
1764 May 1, Benjamin Henry
Latrobe, architect of the U.S. Capitol, was born.
1764 May 1, Gottfried Rieger,
composer, was born.
1764 May 15, Johann Nepomuk
Kalcher, composer, was born.
1764 May 24, Bostonian lawyer
James Otis denounced "taxation without representation" and called
for the colonies to unite in demonstrating their opposition to
Britain's new tax measures.
1764 Jun 21, William Sydney
Smith, British seaman, was born. He bested Napoleon Bonaparte at the
port of St. Jean d'Acre in the Mediterranean Sea.
1764 Jul 9, Ann Radcliffe,
novelist who wrote Gothic romances set in Italy, was born.
1764 Jul 16, Ivan VI (23),
Emperor of Russia (1740-41), was murdered.
1764 Sep 12, Jean Philippe
Rameau, French composer (Castor en Pollux), died at 80.
1764 Oct 22, Jean Marie I'aine
Leclair (67), composer, died.
1764 Oct 25, John Adams, future
US president, wed Abigail Smith. He called her “a constant feast."
Their marriage lasted 54 years.
(AH, 10/04, p.15)
1764 Nov 16, Indians
surrendered to British in Indian War of Chief Pontiac.
1764 Nov 26, France banned
c1764 Tiepolo painted his
"Apotheosis of the Spanish Monarchy." It was a study for a ceiling
(WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)
1764 Catherine the Great hired
Etienne-Maurice Falconet (1716-1791) of France to create a statue of
Peter the Great (d.1725). In 2003 Alexander M. Schenker authored
"The Bronze Horseman: Falconet's Monument to Peter the Great."
(WSJ, 12/18/03, p.D6)
1764 Horace Walpole
(1717-1797), son of Sir Robert Walpole and 4th earl of Orford,
authored "The Castle of Otranto," the 1st gothic novel.
(WUD, 1994 p.1607)(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.M1)
1764 Voltaire [Francois Marie
Arouet] (1694-1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and
essayist, authored the "Philosophical Dictionary."
1764 Half the slaves aboard the
ship Sally, owned by the Brown family, died enroute to Rhode Island.
(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F3)
1764 Brown University was
founded in Rhode Island by the Brown family.
(SFC, 11/9/00, p.A22)(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F3)
1764 The French established the
1st settlement on the Falkland Islands.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)
1764 In Mexico Ignacio de
Jerusalem composed "Matins for Our Lady of Guadalupe." It was first
performed the Mexico City Cathedral.
(SFC, 6/24/97, p.B3)
1764 In Scotland the St.
Andrew’s golf course remodeled and cut its hole number from 22 to
18. The 40 yard fairways were also enlarged.
(SFEC, 8/10/97, Z1 p.4)
1764-1822 William Pinkney, American diplomat: "A
definition is no proof."
1765 Feb 9, Elisabetta de
Gambarini (33), composer, died.
1765 Mar 7, Joseph N. Niepce
(d.1883), French lithographer, inventor (photography), was born.
Photo etching was invented by Joseph Nicephore Niepce early in the
19th century. He also invented photography. His partner, L.J.M.
Daguerre, perfected Niepce's process and popularized daguerreotypes
as the first commercial photographs.
(V.D.-H.K.p.273)(I&I, Penzias, p.114)(MC,
1765 Mar 18, David H. Chass,
Dutch baron, general (fought Napoleon at Waterloo), was born.
1765 Mar 22, Britain enacted
the Stamp Act to raise money from the American Colonies. This was
the first direct British tax on the colonists. The Act was repealed
the following year. The tax covered just about everything produced
by the American colonists and began the decade of crisis that led to
the American Revolution. The Stamp Act taxed the legal documents of
the American colonists and infuriated John Adams.
(AP, 3/22/97)(HN, 3/22/97)(A&IP, p.13,18)
1765 Mar 24, Austrian Empress
Maria Theresa issued a decree to establish a School for Healing
(StuAus, April '95, p.23)
1765 Mar 24, Britain enacted
the Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to provide
temporary housing to 10,000 British soldiers in public and private
(AP, 3/23/97)(HN, 3/24/98)
1765 Apr 5, Edward Young (81),
English poet (Love of Fame), died.
1765 May 7, Adm. Nelson's
flagship HMS Victory ran aground.
1765 May 25, The Gambia was
made a part of the British colony of SeneGambia with its
headquarters at St. Louis.
1765 May 25, Pierre-Joseph Le
Blan (53), composer, died.
1765 May 28, Jean Baptiste
Cartier, composer, was born.
1765 May 29, Patrick Henry
denounced the Stamp Act before Virginia's House of Burgesses. It was
during this speech that Henry supposedly responded to cries of
"Treason!" by declaring, "If this be treason, make the most of it,"
according to an 1817 biography of Henry by William Wirt, who wrote
that he had confirmed the quote with former President Thomas
1765 Jul 16, Prime Minister of
England Lord Greenville resigned and was replaced by Lord
1765 Aug 14, Massachusetts
colonists challenged British rule by an Elm (Liberty Tree).
1765 Aug 21, William IV
(d.1837), king of England (1830-37) the "sailor king," was born.
(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(SC, 8/21/02)
1765 Aug 25, In protest over
the stamp tax, American colonists sacked and burned the home of
Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson. In 1774 he was exiled to
Britain. In 1974 Bernard Bailyn authored “The Ordeal of Thomas
(HN, 8/25/98)(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)
1765 Sep, Printing of Diderot’s
complete Encyclopedie was finished despite unauthorized edits by Le
Breton, his chief publisher. The French government prohibited
distribution in Paris or near Versailles.
(ON, 4/05, p.10)
1765 Oct 7, Delegates from nine
of the American colonies met in New York to discuss the Stamp Act
Crisis and colonial response to it. This "Stamp Act Congress" went
on to draft resolutions condemning the Stamp and Sugar Acts, trial
without jury and taxation without representation as contrary to
their rights as Englishmen.
(AP, 10/7/97)(HN, 10/7/98)
1765 Oct 19, The Stamp Act
Congress, meeting in New York, drew up a declaration of rights and
1765 Oct 20, William August
(44) duke of Cumberland, English supreme commander, died. [see Oct
1765 Oct 21, Giovanni Paolo
Pannini (Panini), Italian painter and architect, died at 73.
1765 Oct 31, Duke of
Cumberland, English politician and general, died. He butchered Scots
at Culloden. [see Oct 20]
1765 Nov 1, The Stamp Act went
into effect, prompting stiff resistance from American colonists.
(AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)
1765 Nov 14, Robert Fulton,
inventor, was born. His steamboat, the Clermont, made its 1st voyage
on Aug 17, 1807.
(HN, 11/14/98)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)
1765 Nov 20, Friedrich Heinrich
Himmel, composer (Von Himmel Hoch), was born.
1765 Nov 23, Frederick County,
Md., became the first colonial entity to repudiate the British Stamp
1765 Dec 8, Eli Whitney
(d.1825), American inventor and manufacturer, was born. He invented
the cotton gin.
(CFA, '96, p.60)(HN, 12/8/00)
1765 In his Dissertation on the
Canon and Feudal Law, John Adams wrote that power had been pursued
throughout history for two very different ends: for tyranny on the
one hand and for the freedom of the individual or the community on
(WSJ, 2/12/96, p.A-12)
1765 Carlo Cozzi (Gozzi),
Italian fantasist, composed "The Green Bird."
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(WSJ, 3/8/96, p. A-8)(SFC,
1765 In America the "Daughters
of Liberty" was the first society of working women in the US and
formed to boycott British products and woven goods.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1765 Shaw Furniture of
Cambridge, Mass., was in business as early as this time and
continued operating into the 1920s. During the 18th century Shaw
made furniture using convict labor from Charleston State Prison.
(SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)
1765 More than 100 Africans
perished on the slave ship Sally in the voyage from Africa. Some
hanged themselves or starved to death. Some rebelled and were shot
dead or drowned. In 2007 the ship's log book, detailing the deaths
of slaves that occurred almost daily aboard the ship, was encased in
glass in an exhibit at Brown University.
1765 James Smithson (d.1829),
English scientist, was born. He later bequeathed his entire estate
to the United States to found an establishment for the increase and
diffusion of knowledge, to be named the Smithsonian Institution.
Smithson had the mineral smithsonite (carbonate of zinc) named for
him. Alexander Graham Bell, scientist and inventor, escorted the
remains of James Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian Institution,
to the United States in 1904 for interment in the original
1765 Bishop Thomas Percy, the
first true collector of English ballads, published “Reliques of
Ancient English Poetry."
(Econ, 8/19/17, p.71)
1765 Britain also stationed a
standing army of 6,000 in the colonies and required the colonists to
provide for units in settled areas. Later evidence indicated that
poor weather conditions led to poor crop seasons for 15 of 37 years
prior to the Revolution.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A14)
1765 Joseph Priestley
(1733-1804), English chemist and natural philosopher, created the
innovation of the first timeline charts, in which individual bars
were used to visualize the life span of a person, and the whole can
be used to compare the life spans of multiple persons. "Priestley's
timelines proved a commercial success and a popular sensation, and
went through dozens of editions".
c1765 A group of men began meeting at one
another’s houses in Birmingham, England, and helped develop over
time new technologies that helped transform England to an industrial
power; they included Josiah Wedgwood, Erasmus Darwin, Matthew
Boulton, James Watt, and Joseph Priestley. In 2002 Jenny Uglow
authored "The Lunar Men," and account of their work.
(WSJ, 11/14/02, p.D6)
1765 John Taylor and Sampson
Lloyd established a bank in Birmingham that grew to become Britain’s
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)
1765 Richard Hennessey, an
exile Ireland, founded a spirits export business in the Cognac
region of France.
(SSFC, 10/16/11, p.N4)
1765 La Compagnie des
Cristalleries de Baccarat, a glass factory, opened in France.
(SFC, 2/22/06, p.G6)
1765 K. Niebuhr, Danish visitor
to Mesopotamia, made copies of cuneiform inscriptions at Persepolis,
which were later used and deciphered by George Grotefund. He
observed that there was three kinds of writing--those which we now
recognize as Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian.
1765 The Spanish King sent 92
rams and 128 ewes to Saxony. This led to the development of the
German wool industry which set wool standards by the end of the
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 575)
1765 The Spanish Crown hired
Irishmen Col. Thomas O’Daly and Field Marshall Alexander O’Reilly to
upgrade the defenses of all of Spain’s Caribbean ports. They
expanded and improved El Morro and San Cristobal.
(HT, 4/97, p.33)
1765 Eberhard put erasers on
pencils. [see 1794]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1765 Scotsman James Watt
further refined Thomas Newcomen’s piston system steam engine
innovation by adding a separate condenser. Watt took out a patent on
his improved engine in 1769.
c1765-1770 Tiepolo painted his "Annunciation."
(WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)
1765-1775 Ships from Salem, Mass., typically
carried 12,000 quintals (220 lbs. per quintal) of salt cod to Europe
and the same amount to the West Indies.
(NH, 5/96, p.59)
1766 Jan 1, James Francis
Edward Stuart (b.1688), son of James III, died. The English prince
was known as the Old Pretender.
(HN, 1/1/99)(WUD, 1994 ed., p.1410)
1766 Jan, Jean-Jacques
Rousseau, philosopher and writer, arrived in London with Theresa
Levasseur, his governess and mistress. He was able to receive a
modest pension from George III.
(WSJ, 2/18/97, p.A18)
1766 Feb 11, The Stamp Act was
declared unconstitutional in Virginia.
1766 Feb 13, Thomas Robert
Malthus (d.1834), English economist, population expert (Law of
Malthus), was born.
1766 Feb 24, Samuel Wesley
(d.1837), composer, organist (Exultate Deo), was born in Bristol,
England. He studied, played, and preached Bach.
(LGC-HCS, p.32)(MC, 2/24/02)
1766 Mar 5, Spanish official
Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795) arrived in Louisiana to take possession
of the Louisiana Territory from the French. The French colonists
refused to recognize Spanish rule and de Ulloa was expelled by a
Creole uprising during the Louisiana Rebellion of 1768.
1766 Mar 18, Britain repealed
the Stamp Act of 1765.
(AP, 3/18/97)(PCh, 1992, p.311)
1766 Mar 28, Joseph Weigl,
Austrian composer, conductor (Emmeline), was born.
1766 Apr 8, The 1st fire escape
was patented: a wicker basket on a pulley and chain.
1766 Apr 24, Robert Bailey
Thomas, founder of the Farmer's Almanac, was born.
1766 Jul 9, J. Schopenhauer,
writer, was born.
1766 Jul 11, Elisabeth Farnese
(73), princess of Parma, queen of Spain, died.
1766 Jul 24, At Fort Ontario,
Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson signed a peace
1766 Sep 6, John Dalton,
English scientist, was born. He developed the atomic theory of
1766 Sep 17, Samuel Wilson, the
future Uncle Sam, was born in Menotomy Mass. Menotomy later became
Arlington. Samuel moved to Troy, New York, where he and his brother
set up meat packing plants which later provided food for the US Army
during the War of 1812.
(WC, Summer ‘97, p.3)
1766 Nov 16, Rudolphe Kreutzer
(d.1831), a leading French composer and violinist. Beethoven’s
"Kreutzer" Sonata was dedicated to him. His Stradivarius violin sold
for $1.58 mil. in 1998.
(WUD, 1994, p.795)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E4)(MC,
1766 Nov 25, Pope Clement XIII
warned of dangers of anti-Christian writings
1766 Dec 5, London auctioneers
Christie's held their 1st sale. The British auction house Christie’s
was sold in 1998 to Francois Pinault, a French businessman and art
(HT, 3/97, p.74)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W12)(WSJ,
5/19/98, p.B10)(MC, 12/5/01)
1766 The Beekman Arms of
Rhinebeck, NY, began serving beer. In 2000 it was the oldest
continuously operating tavern in the US.
(SFEC, 6/25/00, Z1 p.2)
1766 Jonathan Carver, an
American-born British army officer, set out to cross the American
continent, but was stopped in Minnesota by a war between the Sioux
(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)
1766 The dentist Woofendale
from England was the first dentist in the US.
(SFC, 8/14/99, p.B3)
1766 In London the first paved
sidewalk was laid at Westminster.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)
1766 Henry Cavendish isolated
hydrogen during experiments with H2O in England.
(NH, 7/02, p.32)
1766 France handed its
settlement on the Falkland Islands over to Spain.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)
1766 Sweden guaranteed freedom
of the press.
(Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.16)
1766-1769 The French expedition of Louis Antoine
de Bougainville sailed on a voyage to circumnavigate the globe.
Botanist Jeanne Baret, disguised as a man, likely collected a flower
(bougainvillea) near Rio de Janeiro that was named after the
1766-1817 Germaine de Stael, French author: "There
are only two distinct classes of people on this earth: those who
espouse enthusiasm and those who despise it."
1766-1841 Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin. He
arranged for the 5th century BC frieze sculpture of the Greek
Parthenon, supposedly made under Phidias, to be sold to the British
Museum for 35,000 pounds. This was arranged when Greece was under
Ottoman rule. The marbles, originally painted, were unwittingly
cleaned in the 1930s and their original patina removed.
(SFC, 6/19/98, p.A12)(WUD, 1994, p.463)
1766-1848 Isaac D'Israeli, English author: "The
wise make proverbs and fools repeat them."
1767 Mar 15, Andrew Jackson
(d.1845), seventh President of the United States known as "Old
Hickory," was born in Waxhaw, South Carolina. The first American
president to be born in a log cabin, Jackson was a hero of the War
of 1812, an Indian fighter and a Tennessee lawyer. Neither a
particularly intelligent man nor a wise one, Jackson became the
symbol of his age by being the right man believing in the right
things at the right time. Success was a race, Jackson believed, and
the government’s primary responsibility was to guarantee that every
man got a fair chance at winning. Jackson’s administration (1829-37)
saw the development of modern-style political parties and changes in
the voting laws that nearly tripled the electorate. Known for his
strong will, Jackson was fond of saying: "When I mature my course I
am immovable." Jackson was the first congressman from Tennessee and
later became a senator and state supreme court judge. Jackson was
involved in a number of duels and killed a man in one. Personal
feuds with Thomas Jefferson led him out of public life for some
time. Jackson was elected president in 1828 and served until
1837. He initiated the spoils system and had the first
"Kitchen Cabinet" of intimate advisers. Jackson died June 8, 1845.
In 1997 Max Byrd wrote "Jackson," a biographical novel.
(AP, 3/15/97)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A20)(HNQ,
1767 Mar 25, Joachim Murat
(d.1815), Napoleon's brother in law, was born in Labastide-Murat. He
was a French marshal and became king of Naples (1808-1815).
(WUD, 1994, p.941)(HN, 3/25/99)(HN, 3/25/99)
1767 Mar 30, Jonas Kristupas
Glaubicas, one of the founders of the Vilnius school of baroque
1767 May 13, Mozart's opera
"Apollo et Hyacinthus," premiered in Salzburg.
1767 May 14, British government
disbanded the import duty on tea in America.
1767 May 18, Thaddaus Ferdinand
Lipowsky (28), composer, died.
1767 May 25, Ferdinand Franzl,
composer, was born.
1767 May 25, Friedrich Johann
Eck, composer, was born.
1767 Jun 7, Daniel Boone
sighted present-day Kentucky. [see Jun 7, 1769]
1767 Jun 15, Rachel Robards
Jackson, U.S. first lady to Andrew Jackson, was born. She caused a
scandal by marrying Jackson before divorcing her husband.
1767 Jun 25, Mexican Indians
rioted as Jesuit priests were ordered home. Spain expelled the
Jesuits from Mexico and their work was taken over by the Dominican
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)(HN, 6/25/98)(Econ, 6/1/13,
1767 Jun 25, Georg Philipp
Telemann (86), German composer, died.
1767 Jun 29, The British
Parliament approved the Townshend Revenue Acts, sponsored by
statesman Charles Townshend (1725-1767), which imposed import duties
on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea shipped to America. Colonists
bitterly protested, prompting Parliament in 1770 to repeal the
duties on all goods, except tea.
(WUD, 1994, p.1499)(HN, 6/29/98)(AP, 6/29/07)
1767 Jul 11, John Quincy Adams
(d.1848), son of John Adams and the sixth president of the United
States, was born in Braintree, Mass.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)
1767 Oct 9, The survey party of
Mason and Dixon came to a halt after 233 miles when Indians of the
Six Nations said they had reached the end of their commission. [see
(ON, 2/04, p.10)
1767 Oct 18, The boundary
between Maryland and Pennsylvania, the Mason-Dixon line, was agreed
upon. It was first surveyed in 1763 to 1767 by two British
astronomers, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, in order to settle a
dispute between the Calvert and Penn families, the owners at that
time of the two states in question. The survey, begun in 1763 and
completed four years later, done by English surveyors Charles Mason
and Jeremiah Dixon to resolve a land-grant boundary dispute between
the families of Lord Baltimore and William Penn, resulted in the
Mason-Dixon Line. The line, extended in 1784, came to be known as
the dividing line between free-soil states and slave states.
(AP, 10/18/97)(HNQ, 9/8/99)
1767 Oct 23, H. Benjamin
Constant, [de Rebeque], French politician and writer, was born.
1767 Dec 9, Benedetto Alfieri,
Italian architect (San Giovanni Battista), died.
1767 Fragonard (1732-1806)
painted "The Swing."
(SFC, 2/7/03, p.D2)
1767 Phillis Wheatley's
(d.1784) poetry was published for the first time. She traveled to
England in 1773, where her book "Poems on Various Subjects,
Religious and Moral" was hailed as the first published by an African
American. In 1776 the African slave-born poet met with George
Washington in Cambridge, just before the British evacuated Boston.
(HNPD, 2/20/99)(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.F3)
1767 British explorer Jonathan
Carver described petroglyph images of snakes and buffalo near a cave
at bluffs in Minnesota called Wakan Tipi by the Dakota people.
(LP, Spring 2006, p.23)
1767 Christophe Willibald
Gluck, Vienna court Kappellmeister, composed his opera "Alcestis."
It was revised in 1776 for the Royal Paris Opera.
(WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)
1767 Burmese invaded the port
city of Ayutthaya (Siam-Thailand), sacked the city and left it in
ruins. The capital was then moved to Bangkok.
(WSJ, 4/21/05, p.D7)
1767 Robert Clive returned from
India to England with a huge fortune and was accused of
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1767 George Hodgeson, British
entrepreneur, cut a deal with the East India Company to start
providing beer to the British Civil-service and merchant classes in
the India colonies. He doubled the hop content to help preserve the
beer on its long voyage.
(WSJ, 8/13/04, p.W6)
1767 The English found their
way to Tahiti.
(SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T12)
1767 English slave traders
captured 2 native nobles, Little Ephraim Robin John and Ancona Robin
John on the west coast of Africa and took them in chains to
Dominica. They soon escaped but were resold into slavery in
Virginia. Some 4 years later they were taken to England and again
resold and returned to Virginia. They later made it back to their
home on the Calabar River (SE Nigeria) and became slave merchants
themselves. In 2004 Randy J. Sparks authored “The Princes of
(WSJ, 5/21/04, p.W4)
1767 Kitty Fisher, a prominent
British courtesan, died.
1767 Louis Antoine de
Bougainville of France sailed to the islands of New Guinea. He
encountered the ritual of gift giving to one's enemy, which
obligated the enemy to give back even more.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)
1767 In Scandinavia military
ski competitions began to offer prize money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1767 Horace de Saussure, Swiss
scientist, developed a solar cooker using the greenhouse effect, in
the form of several glass boxes set inside one another and placed on
a dark surface.
(SFC, 7/11/07, p.F5)
1767-1780 Bernardo Belotto (Il Canaletto), Italian
topographical view painter, worked as court painter in Warsaw for
Stanislaus II Augustus Poniatowski, the last King of Poland.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)
1767-1849 Maria Edgeworth, English novelist: "A
straight line is the shortest in morals as in mathematics."
1768 Jan 9, English cavalry
sergeant Philip Astley staged the first modern circus, performing
elaborate feats on the backs of horses racing around a ring.
1768 Feb 11, A Samuel Adams
letter, opposing Townshend Act taxes, was circulated among the
1768 Feb 12, Francis II, the
Last Holy Roman Emperor (1792-1806), was born.
(HN, 2/12/98)(MC, 2/12/02)
1768 Feb 24,
Lithuania-Poland signed an eternal friendship treaty with Russia
along with a guarantee of protection. Lithuania and Poland agreed
not to change their state system.
1768 Apr 27, John Wilkes
(b.1725), English journalist, was arrested for seditious libel
following his February return from exile in Europe.
(ON, 12/11, p.8)
1768 May 10, The imprisonment
of the journalist John Wilkes as an outlaw provoked violence in
London. Wilkes had returned to parliament as a member for Middlesex.
The “Massacre of St. George’s Fields" left 6 people dead as soldiers
fired on a mob cheering Wilkes.
(HN, 5/10/99)(ON, 12/11, p.9)
1768 May 15, By the Treaty of
Versailles, France purchased Corsica from Genoa.
(SFC, 12/3/96, p.A1)(HN, 5/15/99)
1768 May 20, Dolley Madison,
first lady of President James Madison, was born. She was famous as a
Washington hostess while her husband was secretary of state and
1768 Jun 30, Elizabeth
Kortright, later Elizabeth Monroe, first lady to U.S. President
James Monroe, was born.
1768 Jul 27, Charlotte Corday,
French patriot who assassinated Jean Paul Marat, was born.
1768 Aug 26, Capt James Cook
departed from Plymouth with Endeavour to the Pacific Ocean. Daniel
Solander and Joseph Banks accompanied Cook to catalog plants and
animals of Australia and New Zealand on the 3-year journey.
4/19/09, Books p.J7)
1768 Sep 4, Vicomte François
René de Chateaubriand, French writer, novelist (Atala) and chef who
gave his name to a style of steak, was born.
(HN, 9/4/98)(MC, 9/4/01)
1768 Oct 1, English troops
under general Gage landed in Boston.
1768 Oct 28, Germans and
Acadians joined French Creoles in their armed revolt against the
Spanish governor of New Orleans.
1768 Oct 28, Michel Blavet
(68), French court flautist and composer, died.
1768 Oct 30, 1st Methodist
church in US was initiated at Wesley Chapel, NYC.
1768 Nov 5, William Johnson,
the northern Indian Commissioner, signed a treaty with the Iroquois
Indians to acquire much of the land between the Tennessee and Ohio
rivers for future settlement.
1768 James Boswell (28)
authored "Account of Corsica."
(WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)
1768 John Dickinson (1732-1808)
wrote "The Liberty Song." The refrain included the words: "Then join
hand in hand, brave Americans all! By uniting we stand, by dividing
(SFC, 11/2/02, p.D2)
1768 Cornelius de Pauw wrote a
book on America.
(WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A12)
1768 In Massachusetts the
Jeremiah Lee Mansion was built in Marblehead. Lee later became a
fatality of the Lexington-Concord battle.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)
1768 The Massachusetts
colonial assembly voted 92-17 to refuse British demands for repeal
of the Massachusetts Circular Letter, which had been penned by
Samuel Adams in protest of the Townshend Revenue Act. Silversmith
and legendary Patriot Paul Revere later crafted his Liberty Bowl to
commemorate the two "Patriotic numbers" 92 and 45. The bowl, which
weighed 45 ounces and held 45 gills, was inscribed with
"Ninety-Two." The numbers had special significance to American
Patriots, representing resistance to British taxation and the No. 45
issue of Wilkes’ North Briton newspaper.
1768 Thomas Jefferson
(1743-1826), US President (1801-1809), was elected to the Virginia
House of Burgesses.
1768 The 1st four day royal
meeting was held at the Royal Ascot track west of London. Horse
racing there had begun in 1711.
1768 Seamen in London formed a
union and imposed a port strike that virtually halted all shipping.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)
1768 William Smellie, a young
Edinburgh botanist, was given the task of editing the first edition
of the Encyclopedia Britannica.
(NH, 5/96, p.3)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A1)
1768 Johan Friedrich Struensee,
a German doctor, was appointed as personal physician to the insane
young King Christian VII of Denmark. The doctor became lover to the
queen, Caroline Mathilde, the younger sister of George III of
England. Struensee was arrested and executed after 2 years.
(WSJ, 12/7/01, p.W16)
1768 In Guanajuato, Mexico,
enslaved Indians struck a major silver vein in Guanajuato.
(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D7)
1768 Prithvi Narayan Shah, the
founder of Nepal, defeated the Malla rulers.
1768 King Carlos III of Spain
sent Father Junipero Serra from Mallorca to California.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)
1768-1771 Capt. James Cook charted the coasts of
both the north and south islands of New Zealand and Australia. Cook
made his historic voyages in colliers, slow but strong ships
designed primarily for carrying coal. His ship was named the
Endeavour. Cook's voyage to Australia kept a botanical record called
the Banks Florilegium. The 738 original plates commissioned by Sir
Joseph Banks was not printed until a 100 set limited edition in
(SFC, 6/18/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)
1768-1774 The Russian and Ottoman War.
1768-1834 In India the brigand, Amir Khan Pindari,
was finally bribed by the British to retire with a grant of
sovereignty over 4 territories.
(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)
1769 Jan 10, Michel Ney, French
marshal (Waterloo), was born.
1769 Feb 4, Journalist John
Wilkes was expelled from the British Parliament.
(ON, 12/11, p.9)
1769 Mar 16, Journalist John
Wilkes was elected unopposed to his former seat in the British
(ON, 12/11, p.9)
1769 Mar 23, William Smith,
geologist (Strata Identified by Organized Fossils), was born.
1769 Mar 27, Josef Antonin
Gurecky (60), composer, died.
1769 Mar, King Carlos III of
Spain chose Don Jose Galvez to protect interests in Mexico. Galvez
sent Gaspar de Portola and Father Junipero Serra with 62 Spanish
soldiers out to establish a settlement at San Diego and on a
northerly journey from Loreto to found missions along the Baha
Peninsula and into California. Jose Antonio Yorba was one of the 62
soldiers. For his loyalty he received 62,000 acres of land that
included much of what later became Santa Ana, Tustin, Orange and
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC,
1769 Mar, Captain Portola set
out with a group of soldiers, priests, Christian Native Americans
and muleteers. Their intention was to go as far as Monterey Bay but
passed it. Gaspar de Portola led the first European land expedition
to sight the San Francisco Bay from land. Captain Portola had been
appointed governor of Baja and Alta California and sent on an
expedition to explore and replace the Jesuits with Franciscans in
the Baja missions and start new Franciscan missions in Alta.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(Park,
Spring/95)(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)
1769 Apr 12, Giovanni Agostino
Perotti, composer, was born.
1769 Apr 20, Ottawa Chief
Pontiac (bc1720) was murdered by an Indian in Cahokia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1117)(HN, 4/20/98)
1769 Apr 22, Madame du Barry
became King Louis XV's "official" mistress.
1769 Apr 24, Arthur Wellesley,
general, Duke of Wellington, was born. [see May 1]
1769 May 1,
Arthur Wellsley, Duke of Wellington "Iron Duke," was born. He
defeated Napoleon at Waterloo and later became the British prime
minister (1828-30). [see Apr 24]
(HN, 5/1/99)(MC, 5/1/02)
1769 May 7, Giuseppe Farinelli,
composer, singer, was born.
1769 Jun 3, British navigator,
Captain James Cook, British astronomer Charles Green and Swedish
naturalist Daniel Solander observed and recorded a transit of Venus
across the sun on the island of Tahiti during Cook's first voyage
around the world.
1769 Jun 7, Daniel Boone first
began to explore the present-day Bluegrass State as recognized by
Kentucky's Historical Society. [see June 7, 1767]
1769 Jun 11, Anne Newport
Royall, American newspaper reporter, was born.
1769 Jul 14, Don Gaspar de
Portola led 63 men north from San Diego in search of Monterey and
arrived there in late September.
(SFC, 11/7/15, p.C2)
1769 Jul 16, Father Junipero
Serra founded Mission San Diego de Alcala, the 1st mission in Calif.
The Franciscan friars soon planted cuttings of olive trees.
California’s first olive press was established in Ventura County in
1871. Serra went on to build nine missions along the coast and to
take over tribal lands.
8/27/06, p.F2)(SFC, 1/23/15, p.A12)
1769 Aug 15, Napoleon Bonaparte
(d.1821), Emperor of France (1804-1813, 1814-1815) and continental
Europe, was born on the island of Corsica.
(WUD, 1994, p.950)(AP, 8/15/97)(HN, 8/15/02)(MC,
1769 Aug 18, Gunpowder in
Brescia, Italy, church exploded and some 3,000 were killed.
1769 Aug 29, Edmond Hoyle
(b.1672), English games expert, died.
1769 Sep 14, Baron Freidrich
von Humboldt (d.1859), German naturalist and explorer who made the
first isothermic and isobaric maps, was born.
1769 Sep 18, John Harris built
the 1st spinet piano in the US.
1769 Oct 30, Captain Portola
and his party camped at what is now Linda Mar Beach, Pacifica. They
climbed the ridge above Linda Mar and saw the Farallon Islands as
well as the cliffs of Point Reyes. Portola camped in San Pedro
Valley and sent Sergeant Jose Ortega out to survey what was ahead.
(SFC, 5/19/96, City Guide, p.16)(Ind,
6/13/00,16A)(SFC, 11/7/15, p.C2)
1769 Nov 1-1769 Nov 3, Sgt.
Jose Francisco Ortega with his scouting party first looked upon SF
Bay from the vicinity of Point Lobos.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)
1769 Nov 4, Portola received
reports of a large bay ahead and went to see for himself. He crossed
Sweeney Ridge in San Mateo County and saw the SF bay. Francisco de
Ulloa was a navigator and member of the party.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(SFEC, 9/21/97,
1769 Dec 13, Dartmouth College,
in New Hampshire, received its charter.
1769 Los Angeles was born as El
Pueblo de Nuestra de Los Angeles.
1769 Gluck completed his opera
"Paride ed Elena." It was the last of 3 collaborations with
librettist Raniero de’ Calzabigi. It deals with the seduction of
Helen by Paris.
(WSJ, 7/14/04, p.D14)
1769 Construction of Britain’s
Kew Observatory, built within the Old Deer Park of the former
Richmond Palace in Richmond, Surrey, was completed. It was an
astronomical and terrestrial magnetic observatory founded by King
1769 The Swinford toll bridge
in Oxfordshire was built across the River Thames. In 2009 it was up
for auction offering buyers a tax-free investment with a bit of
historic charm. It has been free of income tax since the 18th
century, when Parliament granted ownership of the bridge and its
tolls to the Earl of Abingdon and "to his heirs and assignees for
1769 Wolfgang von Kempelen of
Hungary invented the Automoton Chess Player. It was 1st demonstrated
to the Austrian court in 1770. In 2001 the deception was analyzed by
James W. Cook in his book "The Arts of Deception." In 2002 Tom
Standage authored "The Turk," an examination of the 18th century
fascination with automatons.
(WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 4/12/02, p.W12)
1769 The Writer, built by
Geneva watchmakers, was a crafted mechanical puppet that sits at a
mahogany desk and is able to write a 40-word sentence with a quill
(Hem., 2/96, p.112)
1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, a
French military engineer, invented an ungainly, steam-powered
tricycle and practical steam locomotives and steamboats appeared
early in the next century, eventually superceded by the internal
1769 In Morocco the Sea Gate
(Porte de la Marine) was built in Mogador, later renamed Essaouira,
to link the harbor to the medina. About this time Sultan Sidi
Mohammad Ibn Abdelah transformed Mogador into an open city and
encouraged its growth as a commercial port.
(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.T4)
1769 Bhaktapur, Nepal, fell and
the triumphant Gurkhas took Kathmandu as their capital.
(SSFC, 9/21/03, p.C8)
1769-1772 Samuel Hearne, explorer for the Hudson
Bay Company, maintained an journal and his notes of the land are
still a standard reference.
(NH, 5/96, p.30)
1769-1772 A handful of Russian troops of General
Totleben battled against Turkish invaders in Imereti and
1769-1775 Prithvi Narayan Shah, with whom we move
into the modern period of Nepal's history, was the ninth generation
descendant of Dravya Shah (1559-1570), the founder of the ruling
house of Gorkha.
1769-1821 Napoleon Bonaparte, self-crowned emperor
(V.D.-H.K.p.232)(WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)
1769-1830 Sir Thomas Lawrence, English painter. He
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.812)
1769-1843 Howqua, aka Wu Bingjian, Chinese
merchant. His father was permitted to trade silk and porcelain with
foreigners. He lent large sums in silver dollars to foreign traders
in exchange for a share of their shipments. He donated 1.1 million
silver dollars toward reparations after the First Opium War.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)
1769-1849 Mehemet Ali, viceroy of Egypt from
(WUD, 1994, p.892)
1769-1852 Apr 29, The First Duke of Wellington was
born. This was the title of Arthur Wellesley, also known as the Iron
Duke. He was a British soldier and statesman and defeated Napoleon
at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He became Prime Minister and
served from 1828-1830. [see 1815, Napoleon & 1828-1830,
(CFA, '96, p.44)(AHD, p.1454)
1770 Feb 22, Jan Matyas Nepomuk
August Vitasek, composer, was born.
1770 March 5, British troops
taunted by a crowd of colonists fired on an unruly mob in Boston and
killed five citizens in what came to be known as the Boston
Massacre. The fracas between a few angry Boston men and one British
sentry ended with five men dead or dying in the icy street corner of
King Street and Shrimton’s Lane. Captain Thomas Preston did not
order the eight British soldiers under his command to fire into the
hostile crowd. The nervous soldiers claimed to be confused by shouts
of "Why do you not fire?" coming from all sides. Versions of the
event rapidly circulated through the colonies, bolstering public
support for the Patriot cause. The British Captain Preston and seven
soldiers were defended by John Adams. The captain and five of the
soldiers were acquitted, the other two soldiers were found guilty of
manslaughter and were branded on the hand with a hot iron. The first
colonist killed in the American Revolution was the former slave,
Crispus Attucks, shot by the British at the Boston Massacre. The
event was later illustrated by Boston engraver Paul Revere.
(HFA, '96, p.26)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFC,
12/18/96, p.A25)(AP, 3/5/98)(HN, 3/5/98)(HNPD, 3/5/99)(WSJ, 4/12/08,
1770 Mar 27, Giovanni B.
Tiepolo (73), Italian painter (Banquet of Cleopatra), died.
1770 Apr 7, William Wordsworth,
English poet laureate, was born. He wrote "The Prelude" and "Lyrical
Ballads." In 1998 Kenneth R. Johnston published "The Hidden
Wordsworth: Poet, Lover, Rebel, Spy." The biography covered the
first 30 years of the poet’s life. In 1896 Emile Legouis also
published a biography of the poet’s youth. The poet was responsible
for such phrases as: "love of nature," "love of man," and "emotion
recollected in tranquility."
(V.D.-H.K.p.230)(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SFEC,
8/23/98, BR p.5)(HN, 4/7/99)
1770 Apr 9, Captain James Cook
discovered Botany Bay on the Australian continent.
1770 Apr 11, George Canning,
British prime minister (1827) , was born.
1770 Apr 12, British Parliament
repealed the 1967 [Townshend] Townsend Acts that put duties on
certain products imported to the US.
(WUD, 1994, p.1499)(HN, 4/12/98)
1770 Apr 19, Capt. James Cook
first saw Australia. [see Apr 9]
1770 Apr 20, Captain Cook
arrived in New South Wales, Australia.
1770 Apr 28, Marie AC de
Camargo (60), Spanish-Italian-Belgian dancer, died.
1770 Apr, Cockfighting in
Puerto Rico, introduced by Spain in the 16th century, was officially
recognized for the first time.
1770 May 10, Charles Avison
(61), composer, died.
1770 May 16, Marie Antoinette
(14), married the future King Louis XVI of France (15).
(AP, 5/16/97)(HN, 5/16/98)
1770 Jun 3, Father Junipero
Serra founded Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo on the shores
of Monterey Bay as a chapel for the new Spanish Presidio of
Monterey. A year later he moved the mission to Carmel.
1770 Jun 7, Earl of Liverpool,
(C) British PM (1812-27), was born.
1770 Jul 7, The entire Ottoman
fleet was defeated and destroyed by the Russians at the 3-day battle
of Chesme [Cesme] on the Aegean Sea. The Ottoman fleet was commanded
by Kapudan Pasha Mandalzade Hüsameddin, in the fourth ship from the
front (north end) of the line, with Hasan Pasha (1713-1790) in the
first ship, Real Mustafa, and Cafer Bey in the seventh.
1770 Jun 11, Capt. James Cook,
commander of the British ship Endeavour, discovered the Great
Barrier Reef off Australia by running onto it.
(AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)
1770 Jul 18, Isabel Godin,
having traveled from Ecuador the length of the Amazon, reunited with
her husband Jean Godin in French Guiana.
(ON, 5/05, p.4)
1770 Aug 1, William Clark,
American explorer, was born in Charlottsville, VA. He led the Corps
of Discovery with Meriwether Lewis.
(HN, 8/1/00)(MC, 8/1/02)
1770 Aug 24, Thomas Chatterton
(b.1752), English poet (Revenge), committed suicide.
1770 Aug 27, The German
philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was born in
Stuttgart. He wrote "The Science of Logic." Hegel greatly influenced
Karl Marx. His method was to metaphysicize everything, that is, to
discern in concrete reality the working of some Idea or Universal
Mind. Hegel proposed that all change, all progress, is brought about
by the conflict of vast forces. A world-historical figure or nation
or event lays down a challenge. This thesis, as he called it, is
opposed by an antithesis. The conflict between them is resolved,
inevitably, by a synthesis of the two forces on a higher plane of
(V.D.-H.K.p.258)(AP, 8/27/97)(HN, 8/27/98)
1770 Nov 13, George Grenville
(58), British premier (1763-65), Stamp Act, died.
1770 Nov 19, Albert Bertel
Thorvaldsen, sculptor (Dying Lion), was born in Copenhagen, Denmark.
1770 Dec 9, Gottlieb Theophil
Muffat (80), composer, died.
1770 Dec 12, The British
soldiers responsible for the "Boston Massacre" were acquitted on
1770 Dec 16, Ludwig Von
Beethoven (d.1827), German composer best known for his 9th Symphony,
was born in Bonn. His Sixth Symphony "Pastorale" was in F-Major.
Locks of his hair were cut off after his death and preserved by a
number of collectors.
(CFA, '96, p.60)(WUD, 1994, p.134)(WSJ, 5/29/96,
p.A1,5)(AP, 12/16/97)(SFC, 7/7/98, p.B3)(HN, 12/16/98)
1770 Dec 17, Johann Friedrich
Schubert, composer, was born.
1770 Dec 26, Pierre earl de
Cambronne, French general (Waterloo, Elba), was born.
1770 Thomas Gainsborough
(1727-1788), English painter, exhibited his "Portrait of a Young
Gentleman", soon dubbed "Blue Boy," at the Royal Academy Exhibition.
(SSFC, 9/23/18, p.A11)
1770 George Stubbs, Britain’s
finest painter of animals, did a portrait of the Duke of Richmond’s
imported yearling bull moose. It was commissioned by anatomist
William Hunter (1718-1783) to see if the moose was related to the
fossil Irish giant deer.
(NH, 8/96, p.17)
1770 The "New England
Psalm-Singer" by William Billings was released.
(WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)
1770 Capt. George Cartwright, a
British adventurer and entrepreneur, established the fishing village
of Cartwright on the east coast of Labrador, Canada.
(NH, 6/96, p.56)
1770 In India a famine wiped
out a third of the population of Bengal. This hardened opinion
against the British East India Company.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)
c1770 A monastery was built in
Cartagena, Colombia, that served as the seat of the Inquisition
Tribunal for Spain. It later became the Hotel Santa Clara.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)
1770 Francois Boucher (b.1703),
French painter, died. He painted "Diana."
(Econ, 10/9/04, p.79)
1770-1772 John Copley painted the portrait of
Samuel Adams in Boston.
(WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)
1770-1779 William Addis invented the toothbrush in
the 1770s while a prisoner in Newgate Prison.
(SFC, 7/14/99, Z1 p.3)
1770-1779 Blacks were 1st brought to Argentina in
the 1770s to toil on large haciendas and work as domestic servants.
(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)
1771 Apr 13, Richard
Trevithick, inventor of the steam locomotive, was born in Cornwall,
(ON, 4/04, p.4)
1771 Apr 29, Francesco
Bartolomeo Rastrelli (b.1700), Italian architect, died in St.
Petersburg. He was born in Paris and spent his entire career in
Russia. His work included the Winter Palace (1754-1762) in St.
Petersburg, which later became the Hermitage Museum.
1771 May 14, Robert Owen
(d.1858), English factory owner, socialist, was born in Newtown,
1771 May 14, Thomas Wedgwood,
English physicist, was born. He is acknowledged as the first
1771 Jun 3, Sydney Smith,
preacher, reformer, author, was born in Woodford, Essex.
1771 Jun 12, Patrick Gass, Sgt.
of Lewis & Clark Expedition, was born in Falling Springs, PA.
1771 Jun 24, E.I. Du Pont,
chemist, was born.
1771 Jul 12, James Cook sailed
Endeavour back to Downs, England.
1771 Jul 14, Father Junipero
Serra founded the Mission San Antonio de Padua in California.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)(MC, 7/14/02)
1771 Jul 30, Thomas Gray (54),
English poet, died. His work included "Elegy Written in a Country
Church Yard" (1751).
1771 Aug 15, Sir Walter Scott
(d.1832), Scottish novelist who wrote "Ivanhoe" and "Rob Roy," was
(WUD, 1994, p.1281)(HN, 8/15/98)
1771 Sep 8, Mission San Gabriel
Archangel was formed in California.
1771 Sep 10, The Scottish
explorer Mungo Park (d.1806) was born. He settled the question as to
the direction of flow of the Niger River as he traced the northern
reaches of the African river in the 1790s. Park was one of the first
explorers sponsored by England's African Association. He died in
1806 on another expedition to determine if the Niger linked with the
Congo River. He reportedly drowned while fleeing attackers near
Bussa, which is in present-day Nigeria.
1771 Sep 17, Tobias George
Smollett, novelist (Adventures of Roderick Random), died at 50.
1771 Nov 4, Carlo Goldoni's "Le
Bourru Bienfaisant," premiered in Paris.
1771 Nov 6, Alois Senefelder,
inventor (lithography), was born.
1771 Nov 11, Ephraim McDowell,
surgeon (pioneered abdominal surgery), was born.
1771 Dec 26, Claude A.
Helvétius (56), French encyclopedist (L'esprit), died.
1771 Fedot Ivanovich Choubine,
Russian sculptor and painter, carved a bust of Catherine the Great.
1771 A color engraving from
this year of the fish Acarauna is on display at the Mariner's Museum
Library in Newport News, Va., USA.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.97)
1771 Mark Catesby had his work:
"The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands"
printed in London.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1771 In California Father
Junipero Serra moved the Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Rio Carmelo
over from Monterey. The Carmel mission was his 7th.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T5)
1771 Benjamin Banneker, black
mathematician and surveyor, helped create the initial boundaries of
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)
1771 By this time some 50,000
British convicts were dumped on American shores. Most of them came
from Middlesex, the county that includes London.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)
1771 A group of 79 underwriters
established their Society of Lloyd's, Lloyd's of London, at the
Lloyd's coffee shop.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)
1771 Britain’s Parliament named
Benjamin Franklin to a committee to investigate how lightning rods
might help protect gunpowder.
(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)
1771 Joseph Priestley, English
minister, grasped the rudiments of the carbon cycle after his
experiments showed that mint in a sealed jar refreshed the air.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.28)
1771 Luigi Galvani (1737-1798),
Italian physician and physicist, discovered that the muscles of dead
frogs legs twitched when struck by a spark.
(Econ, 6/16/12, p.102)
1771 In Mexico Father Toribio
Basterrechea, vicar of Huachinango, was convicted by the Inquisition
of officiating at the marriage of two dogs. He was sentenced to 4
months of fasting and penance.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)
1771-1858 Johann Baptist Cramer, composer and
pianist, played Bach in public before 1800.
1772 Feb 10, Louis Tocque (75),
French painter, died.
1772 Apr 2, Father Juan Crespi
looked out over a bay, later called Suisun Bay, and believed he had
found the fabled Northwest Passage, a shortcut to the Colorado
River. After Father Serra established a mission in Monterey, Ca,
Pedro Fages and Father Juan Crespi had set out to explore the SF Bay
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC, 5/3/13, p.D1)
1772 Mar 10, Friedrich Von
Schlegel (d.1829) was born. He was a German romantic poet and critic
whose books included "Philosophy of History" and "History of
Literature." "A historian is a prophet in reverse."
(AP, 5/25/97)(HN, 3/10/99)
1772 Apr 11, Manuel Jose
Quintana, Spanish author, poet (El Duque de Viseo), was born.
1772 May 10, British Parliament
passed the Tea Act, taxing all tea in the colonies. [see Apr 27,
1772 May 11, Joseph Kerckhoff,
Limburg surgeon, robber captain, was hanged.
1772 May 20, William Congreve,
English officer (design fire rocket), was born.
1772 Jun 6, Haitian explorer
Jean Baptiste-Pointe DuSable settled Chicago. [see Mar 12, 1773]
1772 Jun 9, The 1st naval
attack of Revolutionary War took place when residents of Providence,
RI., stormed the HMS Gaspee, burned it to the waterline and shot the
captain. A Rhode Island ship captain lured the British schooner HMS
Gaspee, sent to Narragansett Bay to enforce trade laws, into shallow
waters a few miles south of Providence, where it ran aground.
Colonists in Providence heard the news and rowed out to it. Later,
no one would tell King George III who set fire to the ship.
(WSJ, 6/24/03, p.A1)(AP, 6/7/18)
1772 Jun 22, Slavery was in
effect outlawed in England by Chief Justice William Murray, First
Earl of Mansfield, following the trial of James Somersett. In 2005
Steven Wise authored “Though the Heavens May Fall: The Landmark
Trial that Led to the End of Human Slavery."
p.76)(ON, 12/08, p.9)
1772 Jul 13, Capt James Cook
began a 2nd trip on the ship Resolution to South Seas.
1772 Aug 11, An explosive
eruption blew 4,000 feet off Papandayan, Java, and 3,000 people were
1772 Aug 19, Gustavus III of
Sweden eliminated the rule of parties and establishes an absolute
monarchy. It had been subordinate to parliament since 1720.
(HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)
1772 Sep 1, Mission San Luis
Obispo de Tolosa formed in California. Father Junipero Serra held
the 1st Mass at San Luis Obispo. He left Father Jose Cavalier the
task of building the state’s 5th mission.
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T6)(MC, 9/1/02)(SSFC,
1772 Sep 26, New Jersey passed
a bill requiring a license to practice medicine.
1772 Oct 4, Francois-Louis
Pierne, composer, was born.
1772 Oct 21, Samuel Taylor
Coleridge (d.1834), English poet and author, was born. His work
included "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" and "Kubla Khan".
(AP, 9/12/97)(HN, 10/21/00)
1772 Oct 30, Capt. Cook arrived
with ship Resolution in Capetown.
1772 Nov 2, The first
Committees of Correspondence were formed in Massachusetts under
1772 Dec 22, A Moravian
missionary constructed the 1st schoolhouse west of Allegheny.
1772 Beaumarchais wrote his
"Barber" as an opera. Rossini later adopted it for his opera "Barber
(SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)
1772 In Maryland Ellicott City
was founded as a mill town.
(SFC, 8/1/16, p.A5)
1772 A group of merchants
raised money for the Boston Pier. They owned the land together and
shared the rent making this an early example of what later came to
be know as a Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)
(Econ, 9/17/16, p.69)
1772 Daniel Rutherford
(Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)
1772 Shoelaces were invented in
(SFC, 8/28/98, p.B4)
1772 The Paris Faculty of
Medicine declared potatoes to be an edible food.
(SSFC, 10/5/08, p.A15)
1772 The French Veuve Clicquot
champagne was first produced, but the first bottles were laid down
for ten years.
1772 In Germany the silver and
most of the silver-gilt in the Green Vault of Dresden was melted
down and made into coin.
(Econ, 9/16/06, p.95)
1772 Calcutta became the
capital of British India and continued until 1912 when the colonial
rulers shifted their base to New Delhi in northern India.
1772 Upon the partition
of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the Kingdom of Galicia and
Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, became the largest, most populous, and
northernmost province of Austria where it remained until the
dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. Jews
accounted for 10% of the 2.6 million population of Galicia.
1772-1801 Friedrich von Hardenberg, aka Novalis,
visionary Romantic poet, novelist and political theorist. In 1997 a
novel by English author Penelope Fitzgerald, "The Blue Flower," gave
an account of his life.
(WSJ, 4/8/97, p.A20)
1772-1811 Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav, the grandson
of the founder of Hasidism, used storytelling to teach his
(WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A24)
1772-1823 David Ricardo, English Economist and
stockbroker. He postulated that landlords become rich at the expense
(V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)
1773 Jan 12, The first public
museum in America was established, in Charleston, S.C.
1773 Jan 17, Captain James Cook
became the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle (66d 33'
(HN, 1/17/99)(MC, 1/17/02)
1773 Feb 9, William Henry
Harrison, the 9th president of the United States (March 4- April 4,
1841), was born in Charles City County, Va.
(HN, 2/9/97)(AP, 2/9/99)(MC, 2/9/02)
1773 Feb 26, Construction was
authorized for Walnut St. jail in Philadelphia, (1st solitary).
1773 Mar 12, Jeanne Baptiste
Pointe de Sable settled what is now known as Chicago. [see Jun 6,
1773 Mar 26, Nathaniel Bowditch
(d.1838), mathematician, astronomer, polyglot, author (Marine
Sextant), was born in Salem, Mass. In 1802 he published "The New
American Practical Navigator."
(SS, 3/26/02)(AH, 12/02, p.22)
1773 Apr 6, James Mill
(d.1836), English philosopher, historian (Hist of British India) and
economist, was born in Scotland.
(V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WUD, 1994 p.909)(MC, 4/6/02)
1773 Apr 27, British Parliament
passed the Tea Act. [see May 10, 1772]
1773 May 10, To keep the
troubled East India Company afloat, Parliament passed the Tea Act,
taxing all tea in the American colonies.
1773 May 15, Prince Clemens Von
Metternich (d.1859), Chancellor of Austria, was born in Coblenz. His
policies dominated Europe after the Congress of Vienna.
(HN, 5/15/99)(WUD, 1994 ed., p.903)
1773 Jul 20, Scottish settlers
arrived at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada).
1773 Jul 21, Pope Clement XIV
abolished the Jesuit order. He disbanded, defrocked, and stripped
them of their sustenance. They were ignored by other orders and
denounced as schemers and plotters. The Jesuits finally regained
respectability in 1814after flourishing underground.
(HN, 7/21/98)(MC, 7/21/02)
1773 Sep 1, Phillis Wheatley
(d.1834), a slave from Boston, published a collection of poetry,
"Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral," in London.
Although she received her freedom soon after, Wheatley’s last years
saw only misery.
(HN, 9/1/99)(HNPD, 2/21/00)
1773 Sep 11, Benjamin Franklin
wrote "There never was a good war or bad peace."
1773 Sep 14, Russian forces
under Aleksandr Suvorov successfully stormed a Turkish fort at
1773 Oct 14, Britain's East
India Company tea ships' cargo was burned at Annapolis, Md.
1773 Dec 16, Some 50-60 "Sons
of Liberty" of revolutionary Samuel Adams disguised as Mohawks
defied the 3 cents per pound tax on tea boarded a British East
India Tea Company ship and dumped 342 chests of British tea into the
Boston Harbor in what became known as the Boston Tea Party.
Parliament had passed the 1773 Tea Act not to regulate trade or make
the colonies pay their own administrative costs, but to save the
nearly bankrupt British East India Tea Company. The Tea Act gave the
company a monopoly over the American tea trade and authorized the
sale of 17 million pounds of tea in America at prices cheaper than
smuggled Dutch tea. In spite of the savings, Americans would not
accept what they considered to be taxation without representation.
Overreacting to the Boston Tea Party, the British attempted to
punish Boston and the whole colony of Massachusetts with the
Intolerable Acts of 1774--another in the series of events that
ultimately led to American independence. A bill for the tea ($196)
was paid Sep 30, 1961.
(HFA, '96, p.44)(A&IP, Miers,
p.18)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(AP, 12/16/97)(HNPD, 12/16/98)(MC,
1773 Dec 26, Expulsion of tea
ships from Philadelphia.
1773 Dec 27, George Cayley,
founder of the science of aerodynamics, was born in England.
1773 Dmitri Levitsky
(1735-1822), Kiev born Russian-Ukrainian artist, painted a portrait
of Katerina Khrouchtchova and princess Katerina Khonanskaia.
1773 Augustin Pajou, French
sculptor, completed his bust of Madame du Barry.
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)
1773 Thomas Day, English
abolitionist, wrote a poem with his friend John Bicknell called “The
(Econ, 2/16/13, p.83)
1773 Phillis Wheatley, black
poet, published "Poems on Various Subjects."
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.C12)
1773 America’s first chamber of
commerce was founded in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1912 the
Chamber of Commerce of the USA was established.
(Econ, 4/21/12, p.77)
1773 Thomas Jefferson planted
Yellow Newtown Pippin apples at his home in Monticello.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)
1773 John Harrison (1693-1776)
received a monetary award in the amount of £8,750 from the British
Parliament for his achievements regarding the invention of the
marine chronometer solving the problem of establishing the East-West
position or longitude of a ship at sea. He never received the
official award, proclaimed in 1714, which was never awarded to
1773 In England Sir Robert
Clive was acquitted of embezzlement.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1773 A group of English traders
broke away from Jonathan's coffee house and moved to a new building.
This became the forerunner of the London Stock Exchange (f.1801).
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)
1773 The Samuel Deacon &
Co. ad agency opened in London.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1773 A large earthquake
destroyed so much of Antigua that the Spanish moved away and built a
new capital on a plateau 30 miles away that became Guatemala City.
(NG, 6/1988, p.798) (SFEM, 6/13/99, p.33)
1773 The Royal Captain, a
merchant ship of the British East India Co., was lost off a coral
reef in the Philippines.
(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W2)
1773 Iceland held its first
(Economist, 8/25/12, p.64)
1773 Captain James Cook found a
group of islands 1800 miles northeast of New Zealand. They became
known as the Cook Islands. "A couple of years ago, the Cook Islands
hired a lawyer from the United States to draft an asset protection
statute that instantly made the islands one of the best places in
the world to protect assets from creditors.
(Hem, 8/95, p.38)
1773 In Russia the Cossack
Yemelyan Pugachev, pretending to be the dead emperor Peter III,
incited a widespread rebellion.
1773 Samuel Johnson and James
Boswell toured the countryside of Scotland.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-1)
1773-1776 In Mexico a mid-sixteenth century church
was abandoned in the Quechula locality of southern Chiapas state due
to big plagues in the region.
(SSFC, 10/18/15, p.A5)
1773-1777 William Bartram, American Quaker
naturalist, was commissioned by Dr. John Fothergill to travel
through the American South to hunt plants. Bartram’s travels led to
the publication in 1791 of his "Travels Through North and South
Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida."
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.10-12)
1773-1785 Warren Hastings served as the British
governor-general of India. [see 1787]
(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A20)
1773-1793 Rule of Timur Shah. The capital of
Afghanistan was transferred from Kandahar to Kabul because of tribal
opposition. Constant internal revolts occurred.
1773-1827 Elizabeth de Meulan Guizot, French
author: "Much misconstruction and bitterness are spared to him who
thinks naturally upon what he owes to others, rather than on what he
ought to expect from them."
1773-1833 John Randolph, state representative from
Virginia. He said of Edward Livingston, a mayor of NY and later a
senator from Louisiana and US Sec. Of State, that he "shines and
stinks like rotten mackerel by moonlight."
(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)
1774 Feb 10, Andrew Becker
demonstrated a diving suit.
1774 Feb 17, Raphaelle Peale,
U.S. painter, was born.
1774 Feb 22, English House of
Lords ruled that authors do not have perpetual copyright.
1774 Mar 4, The 1st sighting of
the Orion nebula was made by William Herschel.
1774 Mar 7, A 2nd Boston tea
party was held.
(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)
1774 Mar 7, The British closed
the port of Boston to all commerce.
1774 Mar 25, English Parliament
passed the Boston Port Bill.
1774 Mar 28, Britain passed the
Coercive Act against Massachusetts. [see May 20]
1774 Apr 4, Oliver Goldsmith,
Irish poet (She Stoops to Conquer), died.
1774 Apr 19, Gluck's opera
"Iphigenia in Aulis," premiered in Paris.
1774 Apr, NYC patriots dumped
18 chests of tea off Murray’s Wharf.
(WSJ, 10/16/02, p.D8)
1774 May 10, Louis XV (64),
King of France (1715-74), died of smallpox and was succeeded by his
grandson Louis XVI (19). Louis XVI soon appointed Charles Gravier,
comte de Vergennes, as his new foreign minister.
(AP, 5/10/97)(HN, 5/10/99)(PCh, 1992, p.318)(AH,
1774 May 19, Ann Lee and eight
Shakers sailed from Liverpool to New York. The religious group
originated in Quakerism and fled England due to religious
persecution. They become the first conscientious objectors on
religious grounds and were jailed during the American Revolution in
1776. In 1998 Suzanne Skees published "god Among the Shakers." The
United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing is the
full, proper name for the 19th-century religious group better known
as the Shakers. Although they were the largest and best-known
communal society a century ago, the Shakers were rarely referred to
by their proper name. Outsiders dubbed them "Shakers" for the
movements in their ritualistic dance.
(DTnet 5/19/97)(WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)(HNQ, 7/2/98)
1774 May 20, The British
Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the colonists for
their increasingly anti-British behavior. The acts closed the port
of Boston. [see Mar 28]
1774 May, The conjunction of
the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Jupiter in the same constellation
spread panic among the unenlightened in Europe.
(NH, 6/00, p.10)
1774 Jun 1, The Boston
Port Bill, the first bill of the Intolerable Acts (called by the
Colonists) became effective. It closed Boston harbor until
restitution for the destroyed tea was made (passed Mar. 25, 1774).
(DTnet 6/1/97)(HN, 6/1/98)
1774 Jun 2, The Quartering Act,
requiring American colonists to allow British soldiers into their
houses, was reenacted.
1774 Jun 13, Rhode Island
became the 1st colony to prohibit importation of slaves.
1774 Jul 11, Jews of Algiers
escaped an attack of the Spanish Army. Jun 11 was also cited for
1774 Jul 12, Citizens of
Carlisle, Penn., passed a declaration of independence.
1774 Jul 16, Russia and the
Ottoman Empire signed the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their
six-year war. This brought Russia for the first time to the
Mediterranean as the acknowledged protector of Orthodox Christians.
(HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)
1774 Jul 17, Capt Cook arrived
at New Hebrides (Vanuatu).
1774 Aug 1, British scientist
Joseph Priestley succeeded in isolating oxygen from air in Calne,
England. He called his new gas "dephlogisticated air."
(ON, 10/05, p.2)(AP, 8/1/07)
1774 Aug 6, Mother Ann Lee,
founder of the Shaker Movement, arrived in NY.
1774 Aug 12, Robert Southey,
English poet laureate (1813-1843) and biographer of Nelson, was
(HN, 8/12/98)(SC, 8/12/02)
1774 Aug 18, Meriwether Lewis,
American explorer, was born in Charlottsville, VA. He led the Corps
of Discovery with William Clark.
(HN, 8/18/00)(MC, 8/18/02)
1774 Aug 28, Mother Elizabeth
Ann Seton, the first American-born saint and the founder of the
Sisters of St. Joseph, was born in New York City. She was canonized
(AP, 8/28/97)(HN, 8/28/98)(RTH, 8/28/99)
1774 Sep 5, The first
Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia in a secret session
in Carpenter's Hall with representatives from every colony except
Georgia. Tensions had been tearing at relations between the
colonists and the government of King George III. The British taking
singular exception to the 1773 shipboard tea party held in Boston
harbor. The dispute convinced Britain to pass the "Intolerable
Acts"- 4 of which were to punish Mass. for the Boston Tea Party.
Peyton Randolph of Williamsburg, Va., chaired the 1st Continental
Congress. Its first official act was a call to prayer.
(AP, 9/5/97)(HNQ, 6/25/00)(AH, 10/04, p.14)(AH,
1774 Sep 13, Tugot, the new
controller of finances, urged the king of France to restore the free
circulation of grain in the kingdom.
1774 Sep 26, John Chapman
(d.1845), later known as Johnny Appleseed, was born in
Massachusetts. A pioneer agriculturalist of early America,
Chapman began his trek in 1797, collecting apple seedlings from
western Pennsylvania and establishing apple nurseries around the
early American frontier. Chapman was a Swedenborgian missionary, a
land speculator and an eccentric dresser (he hated shoes and seldom
wore them. He planted orchards across western Pennsylvania, Ohio,
and Indiana from seed.
p.42)(ON, 4/09, p.10)
1774 Oct 14, Patrick Henry, in
declaring his love of country in a speech during the First
Continental Congress on October 14, 1774, proclaimed, "I am not a
Virginian, but an American."
1774 Oct 20, The Continental
Congress ordered the discouragement of entertainment.
1774 Oct 26, The first
Continental Congress, which protested British measures and called
for civil disobedience, concluded in Philadelphia.
(AP, 10/26/97)(HN, 10/26/98)
1774 Oct 26, Minute Men were
organized in the American colonies.
1774 Nov 14, Gaspare Luigi
Pacifico Spontini, composer, was born.
1774 Nov 22, British
officer and privateer Sir Robert Clive (b.1725), considered by some
as the richest man ever, committed suicide.
1774 Nov 26, A congress of
colonial leaders criticized British influence in the colonies and
affirmed their right to "Life, liberty and property."
1774 Nov, Thomas Paine, English
pamphleteer, arrived in Philadelphia. He had been urged to come to
America by Ben Franklin.
(ON, 6/2011, p.1)
1774 Dec 2, Johann Friedrich
Agricola (54), German court composer and organist, died.
1774 Dec 13, Some 400 colonists
attacked Ft. William & Mary, NH.
1774 Dec 16, Francois Quesnay
(b.1694), French economist, died. He was the first to think of the
economy as a system of interacting parts to be judged by the
necessities and conveniences it produces. Quesnay wrote his Tableau
Économique (1758), renowned for its famous "zig-zag" depiction of
income flows between economic sectors.
1774 Dec 18, Empress Maria
Theresa expelled Jews from Prague, Bohemia and Moravia.
1774 Dec, Capt. Fernando Rivera
y Moncada and 4 soldiers climbed Mount Davidson and proceeded north
to Lands End.
(GTP, 1973, p.126)(SFC, 12/6/14, p.C1)
1774 Dec, In Paris nearly 100
feet of the Rue d’Enfer ("street of Hell") collapsed to a depth of
(Hem., 3/97, p.129)
1774 Sir Francis Beaufort
(d.1857) hydrogapher, was born near Navan in Co. Meath, Ireland.
(NH, 11/1/04, p.51)
1774 Kaspar David Friedrich
(d.1840), German painter and master of numinous landscapes, was
born. He painted "Wreck of the Hope."
(AAP, 1964)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)
1774 John Singleton Copley,
painter, left for England. This allowed his student, Charles Willson
Peale, to step in as the most fashionable colonial portraitist.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)
1774 Thomas Jefferson (31), US
President (1801-1809), wrote the widely circulated "Summary View of
the Rights of British America " and retired from his law practice.
1774 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
(1749-1832) published his novel "The Sorrows of Young Werther." In
1887 French composer Jules Massenet (1842-1912) turned into an
opera. The opera premiered at the Imperial Theatre Hofoper in Vienna
on February 16, 1892.
1774 Ann Lee, leader of the
United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, arrived in
the New World. She was a young Englishwoman and led the Shakers in
their faith which is based on celibacy, confession of sin, and
belief in human perfectibility. She never learned to read or write.
They withdrew from the world into their own agricultural communities
which spread to Ohio & Kentucky and produced a wealth of songs,
as many as 10,000. One of the best known is Simple Gifts made famous
by Aaron Copland in Appalachian Spring.
(WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-12)(SFC, 9/21/96, p.E4)
1774 Nicholas Cresswell,
Englishman, arrived in the US and spent 3 years traveling and
meeting prominent Americans of the time including George Washington,
Thomas Jefferson and British Gen. William Howe. Cresswell kept a
journal and in 2009 it was published as “A Man Apart: The Journal of
Nicholas Cresswell 1774-1781."
(WSJ, 4/11/09, p.W9)
1774 Tadeusz Kosciusko came to
America from Poland after an unsuccessful love affair. He became a
hero fighting the British in the American war for Independence.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)
1774 Captain Cook dropped
anchor at the Marquesas Islands.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1774 Capt. Cook discovered the
13-square-mile Norfolk Island 1,000 miles east of Sidney. It was
later turned into a penal settlement from which the last prisoner
left in 1855.
1774 Captain Cook discovered
Norfolk Island, between new Caledonia and new Zealand, and dubbed it
"paradise" in his log. The British later turned it into a penal
colony and resettled the inhabitants of Pitcairn island there in
(SFEM, 3/12/00, p.66)
1774 English journalist John
Wilkes (1725-1797 was elected Lord Mayor of London.
1774 In England Georgiana
Spencer (1757-1806) married William Cavendish, the 5th Duke of
Devonshire. Spencer was the great-great-great-great-aunt of Princess
Diana. In 1999 Amanda Foreman authored "Georgiana," a biography of
(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)
1774 Ann Lee, a Manchester
Quaker, left for the New World and founded the Shaker movement. The
Shakers had originated in England as the United Society of Believers
in Christ’s Second Appearance.
(SFC, 6/21/01, p.C2)(Econ, 2/20/15, p.74)
1774 Britain banned tontines, a
form of life insurance , under the Life Assurance
Act 1774, also known as the Gambling Act 1774.
1774 Mexico exported 600 tons
of the cochineal shell, known as carmine, to Spain. The acid color
was extracted from the shell of the tiny red beetle that grew on
cactus leaves. It was used to manufacture a red dye that was used in
British "redcoats" and by Betsy Ross to color the first US flag.
(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.B1)
1774 A Dutch merchant cobbled
together the earliest mutual-style fund, Eendragt Maakt Magt (Unity
creates Strength). The first modern mutual fund was launched in
Boston in 1924.
(Econ, 4/21/07, p.83)
1774 In northwestern Russia the
Dormition church was built on the shores of Lake Onega in the
Kondopoga region of Karelia. It was broadly admired as one of the
most remarkable examples of Northern Russia's wooden architecture.
On August 10, 2018 it was destroyed by fire.
1774 A Scottish printer finally
overturned a copyright monopoly that had allowed English booksellers
to lock up the works of Shakespeare and other authors for nearly 2
(WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)
1774 Spain established a small
settlement on the Falkland Islands, which lasted to 1811. An
Argentine outpost was established in the 1820s.
(Econ, 4/7/07, p.36)
1774-1781 The British army occupied Manhattan,
Staten Island and western Long Island for 7 years. In 2002 Richard
M. Ketchum authored "Divided Loyalties," an account of the
Revolutionary spirit in NY; Barnet Schecter authored "The Battle for
New York," and Judith L. Van Buskirk authored "Generous Enemies," an
account of interactions between loyalists and rebels during the war.
(WSJ, 10/16/02, p.D8)
1774-1784 The 1997 film "Beaumarchais" by French
director Edouard Molinaro focused on these years.
(SFEC,11/23/97, DB p.14)(SFC,11/28/97, p.C15)
1774-1789 Abdul Hamid I succeeded Mustafa III in
the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1774-1792 In France King Louis XIV ruled.
(WUD, 1994, p.848)
1774-1852 George Chinnery, English watercolorist.
He lived and worked in Hong Kong, Macao and Canton.
(Hem., 3/97, p.92)