Timeline of the Eighteenth Century: 1775-1799

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1775        Jan 8, John Baskerville (68), English printer, type designer, died.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1775        Jan 11, In South Carolina Francis Salvador became the 1st Jew elected to office in America. [see Aug 1]
    (AH, 2/05, p.16)

1775        Jan 17, 9 old women were burned as witches for causing bad harvests in Kalisk, Poland.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1775        Jan 22, Marshal Oscar von Lubomirski expelled Jews from Warsaw, Poland.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1775        Jan 25, Americans dragged cannon up hill to fight the British at Gun Hill Road, Bronx.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1775        Jan 28, Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, was born.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1775        Feb 9, English Parliament declared the Mass. colony was in rebellion.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1775        Feb 10, Charles Lamb (d.1834), critic, poet, essayist, was born in London, England. "No one ever regarded the first of January with indifference. It is the nativity of our common Adam."
    (AP, 12/31/97)(MC, 2/10/02)

1775        Feb 12, Louisa Adams, wife of John Quincy Adams was born.
    (HN, 2/12/98)

1775        Feb 21, As troubles with Great Britain increased, colonists in Massachusetts voted to buy military equipment for 15,000 men.
    (HN, 2/21/99)

1775        Feb 22, Jews were expelled from the outskirts of Warsaw, Poland.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1775        Feb, Englishman Thomas Paine became editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine, owned by printer Robert Aitken.
    (ON, 6/2011, p.1)

1775        Mar 17, Richard Henderson, a North Carolina judge, representing the Transylvania Company, met with three Cherokee Chiefs (Oconistoto, chief warrior and first representative of the Cherokee Nation or tribe of Indians, and Attacuttuillah and Sewanooko) to purchase (for the equivalent of $50,000) all the land lying between the Ohio, Kentucky and Cumberland rivers; some 17 to 20 million acres. It was known as the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals or The Henderson Purchase. The purchase was later declared invalid but land cession was not reversed.
    (www.tngenweb.org/cessions/17750317.html)

1775        Mar 19, In Italy 4 people were buried by avalanche for 37 days and 3 survived. [not clear if this was the date of the avalanche or the recovery date.]
    (MC, 3/19/02)
1775         Mar 19, Portuguese fleet was repulsed in attack on Montevideo, Uruguay.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1775        Mar 22, British statesman Edmund Burke made a speech in the House of Commons, urging the government to adopt a policy of reconciliation with America.
    (AP, 3/22/99)

1775        Mar 23, In a speech to the Virginia Provincial Convention, assembled at Henrico Church in Richmond, American revolutionary Patrick Henry made his famous plea for independence from Britain, saying, "Give me liberty, or give me death!"
    (AP, 3/23/97)(AH, 2/06, p.50)

1775        Apr 7, Francis C. Lowell was born. He founded the 1st raw cotton-to-cloth textile mill.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1775        Apr 8, Adam A. earl von Neipperg, Austrian general, Napoleon's wife Marie lover, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1775        Apr 13, Lord North extended the New England Restraining Act to South Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The act forbade trade with any country other than Britain and Ireland.
    (HN, 4/13/99)

1775        Apr 14, The first American society for the abolition of slavery was organized by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 4/14/97)(HN, 4/14/97)
1775        Apr 14, Gen. Thomas Gage, commander of British forces in North America, received orders from Parliament authorizing him to use aggressive military force against the American rebels.
    (ON, 3/01, p.2)

1775        Apr 18, Several post riders set out to warn colonists of the British attack that started the American Revolution. One patriotic myth that grew out of that movement began with a poem Henry Wadsworth Longfellow called "Paul Revere's Ride." Paul Revere began his famous ride from Charlestown to Lexington, Mass., warning American colonists that the British were coming. American revolutionaries Paul Revere, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott warned that "the British are coming". Only Prescott galloped all the way to Concord. Revere was corralled by a British cavalry patrol near Lexington, MA; Dawes and Prescott escaped. A company of over 700 British troops marched toward Concord. 23-year-old church sexton Robert Newman hung two lanterns in the Old North Church to warn riders that the British were leaving Boston by boat to march on Concord. Every April, a descendant of the 18th-century patriot still climbs to the steeple of Old North Church and hangs two small tin and glass lanterns.
    (HN, 4/18/98)(ON, 3/01, p.2)(HNQ, 7/5/01)(AP, 4/18/07)

1775        Apr 19, Alerted by Paul Revere the American Revolutionary War began at Lexington Common with the Battle of Lexington-Concord. Capt. John Parker mustered 78 militiamen on the town green of Lexington to send a warning to the 700 British soldiers marching to Concord to seize weapons and gunpowder. Maj. Gen. Thomas Gage sent a force of 700 British troops to Concord, west of Boston, to capture colonial weapons and arrest Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Arriving at Lexington on their way to Concord, the British were met on the town common by about 70 Minutemen. The "shot heard ‘round the world" ignited the American Revolutionary War. No one knows who fired the first shot, but when the smoke cleared, eight Americans lay dead. The British suffered more than 250 casualties as they opposed more than 1,500 Massachusetts men. The events are documented in the 1997 book "Liberty by Thomas Fleming." Isaac Davis was among the first to die at Lexington and Concord.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(AP, 4/19/97)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14) (HN, 4/19/97)(HNPD, 4/19/99)(HNQ, 10/17/00)

1775        Apr 20, British troops began the siege of Boston.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1775        Apr 23, Joseph Mallord William Turner (d.1851), landscape painter, was born in England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)(SFC, 6/20/15, p.E3)
1775        Apr 23, Mozart's Opera "Il Re Pastore" was produced (Salzburg).
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1775        May 5, Benjamin Franklin arrived in Philadelphia from London where he had lived since 1757. He soon began working with Thomas Paine on a pamphlet urging independence from Britain, an idea proposed by physician Benjamin Rush.
    (AH, 2/06, p.52)(ON, 6/2011, p.2)

1775        May 10, The Second Continental Congress convened in Pennsylvania. It named George Washington as supreme commander. Benjamin Franklin represented Pennsylvania soon presented his reworked Plan of Union under the title The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Continental_Congress)(AH, 2/06, p.47)
1775        May 10, Ethan Allen and his 83 Green Mountain Boys captured the British-held fortress at Ticonderoga, N.Y., on the western shore of Lake Champlain. They took the entire garrison captive without firing a shot. This was the 1st aggressive American action in the War of Independence.
    (AP, 5/10/97)(HN, 5/10/98)(ON, 3/00, p.4)

1775        May 20, North Carolina became the first colony to declare its independence. Citizens of Mecklenburg County, NC, declared independence from Britain.
    (HN, 5/20/98)(MC, 5/20/02)

1775        May, George Washington went to the Philadelphia State House where the Second Continental Congress was meeting and John Adams moved to name him Commander-in-chief of the Continental army.
    (A & IP, ESM, p.13)

1775        Jun 7, The United Colonies changed name to United States.
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1775        Jun 12, In the 1st naval battle of Revolution the US ship Unity captured the British ship Margaretta.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1775        Jun 14, The Continental Army, forerunner of the United States Army, was founded when the Continental Congress first authorized the muster of troops under its sponsorship.
    (HN, 6/14/98)(AP, 6/14/07)

1775        Jun 15, Word reached the Americans that the British intended to occupy the Charlestown peninsula.
    (HT, 3/97, p.30)
1775        Jun 15, The Second Continental Congress voted unanimously to appoint George Washington head of the Continental Army.
    (AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)

1775        Jun 16, American Col. William Prescott led 1200 men from Cambridge to dig in at Bunker’s Hill but arrived at night and dug in at Breed’s Hill. A siege on Boston by Colonial militia generals John Stark and Israel Putnam prompted the British to attack.
    (HT, 3/97, p.30)(SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)

1775        Jun 17, The Battle of Bunker Hill was actually fought on Breed’s Hill near Boston. It lasted less than 2 hours and was the deadliest of the Revolutionary War. The British captured the hill on their third attempt but suffered over 1,000 casualties vs. about 400-600 for the Americans. Patriotic hero Dr. Joseph Warren died in the battle. Patriot General William Prescott allegedly told his men, "Don't one of you fire until you see the whites of their eyes!" British casualties were estimated at 226 dead and 828 wounded, while American casualties were estimated at 140 dead and 301 wounded.
    (SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)(AP, 6/17/98)(HNQ, 4/1/99)(AH, 10/07, p.72)            

1775        Jul 2, George Washington arrived in Boston and took over as commander-in-chief of the new Continental Army.
    (HT, 3/97, p.33)

1775        Jul 3, Gen. George Washington took command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Mass.
    (AP, 7/3/97)

1775        Jul 5, William Crotch, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/5/02)
1775        Jul 5, The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Continental Congress and professed the attachment of the American people to George III. It expressed hope for the restoration of harmony and begged the king to prevent further hostile actions against the colonies. The following day, Congress passed a resolution written by Thomas Jefferson and John Dickinson, a "Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms," which rejected independence but asserted that Americans were ready to die rather than be enslaved. King George refused to receive the Olive Branch Petition on August 23 and proclaimed the American colonies to be in open rebellion.
    (HNQ, 7/2/99)

1775        Jul 10, Gen Horatio Gates, issued an order excluding blacks from Continental Army. [see Oct 8]
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1775        Jul 16, John Adams graduated from Harvard.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1775        Jul 25, Anna Symmes Harrison, 1st lady, was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1775        Jul 25, Maryland issued currency depicting George III trampling the Magna Carta.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1775        Jul 26, The Continental Congress established a postal system for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/26/97)(HN, 7/26/98)

1775        Jul 30, Captain Cook returned to England.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1775        Aug 1, Francis Salvador and his men were ambushed by a group of Cherokees and Loyalists near present-day Seneca, South Carolina, while leading a militia group under the general command of Major Wilkinson. Salvador was wounded and then scalped by the Cherokees.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1775        Aug 5, Spanish Lieutenant Juan Manuel de Ayala and his crew of 30 became the first European explorers to sail into the San Francisco Bay. He anchored at Angel Island and waited for the overland expedition of Captain Juan Bautista de Anza. Angel Island was one of the first landforms named by the Spanish when they entered SF Bay. The 58-foot Spanish fregata, Punta de San Carlos, was the first sailing vessel to enter the SF Bay while on a voyage of exploration. Ayala named Alcatraz Island after a large flock of pelicans, called alcatraces in Spanish.
    (CAS, 1996, p.19)(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W38)(SFC, 12/26/01, p.A28)(SFC, 8/16/14, p.C1)

1775        Aug 23, Britain's King George III refused the American colonies' offer of peace and proclaimed the American colonies in a state of "open and avowed rebellion."
    (HN, 8/23/98)(AP, 8/23/07)

1775        Sep 13, Gotthold Lessing's "Die Juden," premiered in Frankfurt-am-Main.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1775        Sep 25, British troops captured Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, when he and a handful of Americans led an attack on Montreal, Canada.
    (AP, 9/25/97)(HN, 9/25/98)

1775        Sep 29, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza (39) and his party of Spanish soldiers and setters departed Tubac, Arizona, on a journey to the SF Bay Area following reports of a great river flowing into the bay. Anza led 240 soldiers, priests and settlers to Monterey. Jose Manuel Valencia was one of the soldiers. His son, Candelario Valencia, later served in the military at the Presidio and owned a ranch in Lafayette and property next to Mission Dolores. One of the soldiers was Don Salvio Pacheco.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(SFC, 12/31/99, p.A22)(SFC, 9/14/13, p.C4)

1775        Oct 8, Officers decided to bar slaves and free blacks from Continental Army. [see Jul 10, Oct 23, Nov 12, Dec 31]
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1775        Oct 13, The U.S. Navy had its origins as the Continental Congress ordered the construction of a naval fleet. The Continental Congress authorized construction of two warships. The 1st ship in the US Navy was the schooner Hannah. It was commissioned by George Washington and outfitted at Beverly, Mass. In 2006 Ian W. Toll authored “Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the US Navy.
    (AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)(SFC, 2/12/00, p.B3)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.94)

1775        Oct 16, Portland, Maine, was burned by British.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1775        Oct 23, Continental Congress approved a resolution barring blacks from army.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1775        Oct 30, Fr. Lasuen founded Mission San Juan Capistrano, but the site was abandoned after eight days when they received word of an attack at the San Diego Mission. They quickly buried the bells for safe keeping and fled to the Presidio (fort) in San Diego for shelter.
    (http://missions.bgmm.com/sanjuanc.htm)

1775        Nov 5, In southern California Indians infuriated by Spanish soldier rapes of native women attacked the mission at San Diego bludgeoning a priest to death and killing two other church workers.
    (SFC, 12/6/14, p.C2)

1775        Nov 7, Lord Dunmore promised freedom to male slaves who would join the British army.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1775        Nov 10, The US Marines were organized under authority of the Continental Congress. Congress commissioned Samuel Nicholas to raise two Battalions of Marines. That very day, Nicholas set up shop in Philadelphia’s Tun Tavern. He appointed Robert Mullan, then the proprietor of the tavern, to the job of chief Marine Recruiter serving, of course, from his place of business at Tun Tavern.
    (AP, 11/10/97)(www.usmcpress.com/heritage/usmc_heritage.htm)

1775        Nov 12, General Washington forbade the enlistment of blacks.
    (MC, 11/12/01)
1775        Nov 12, US Gen. Montgomery began his siege of St. John’s and brought about the surrender of 600 British troops.
    (ON, 3/00, p.6)

1775        Nov 13, American forces under Gen. Richard Montgomery captured Montreal. This was part of a two-pronged attack on Canada, with the goal of capturing Quebec entrusted to Benedict Arnold, who was leading a 1,100 man force through a hurricane ravaged Maine wilderness. In 2006 Thomas A. Desjardin authored “Through A Howling Wilderness," an account of Arnold’s march to Quebec.
    (AP, 11/13/97)(WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W5)

1775        Nov 17, George Washington was in Boston with his ragtag army facing 12,000 Redcoat regulars.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)

1775        Nov 28, The Second Continental Congress formally established the American Navy.
    (DTnet 11/28/97)

1775        Nov 29, The American Congress formed the Committee of Secret Correspondence with the mission of corresponding with friends in Great Britain, Ireland and other parts of the world. It April, 1777, its title was changed to Committee for Foreign Affairs. Members included Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Harrison, John Jay, Thomas Johnson and John Dickinson.
    (AH, 2/06, p.54)
1775        Nov 29, Sir James Jay invented invisible ink.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1775        Dec 6, Nicolas Isouard, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1775        Dec 9, Lord Dunmore (1730-1809), governor of Virginia, lost decisively at the American Revolution Battle of Great Bridge. Following that defeat, Dunmore loaded his troops, and many Virginia Loyalists, onto British ships. Smallpox spread in the confined quarters, and some 500 of the 800 members of his Ethiopian Regiment died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Murray,_4th_Earl_of_Dunmore)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.26)

1775        Dec 16, Jane Austen (d.1817), novelist, was born in [Steventon] Hampshire, England, as the 6th of 7 children [7th of 8]. Her well-educated parents encouraged reading and writing. Her work included "Sense and Sensibility" (1811), "Pride and Prejudice" (1812), "Mansfield Park" (1814) "Lady Susan" and "Emma" (1815). Her books "Persuasion" (1817) and "Northanger Abbey" were published posthumously. Austen's witty, well-constructed stories about realistic middle-class characters challenged the limits of women writers. Although she called herself a "merely domestic" novelist, she greatly influenced the development of the modern novel. Austen's most famous works were published between 1811 and 1816, shortly before she died in July 1817. Later in the 19th century critics appreciated Austen's writing more, and her novels remain popular today--for both literary critics and moviegoers, as they are widely read and adapted for the silver screen. "One does not love a place the less for having suffered in it unless it has all been suffering, nothing but suffering." Two biographies were published in 1997 with the same title: "Jane Austen: A Life," one by Calire Tomalin and the other by David Nokes.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.10)(Hem., 5/97, p.102)(AP, 5/31/97)(SFEC, 11/9/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 11/17/97, p.A24)(HN, 12/16/98)(HNPD, 12/18/98)

1775        Dec 18-1775 Dec 27, In Philadelphia Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Francis Daymon, members of the Committee of Secret Correspondence, met 3 times at Carpenter’s Hall with French agent Chevalier Julien-Alexandre Achard de Bonvouloir regarding French support for American Independence.
    (www.historynet.com/benjamin-franklin-revolutionary-spymaster.htm/3)

1775        Dec 22, Esek Hopkins was named the first commander of the US Navy. He took command of the Continental Navy, a total of seven ships.
    (HFA,'96,.44)(AP, 12/22/97)(HN, 12/22/98)

1775        Dec 31, George Washington ordered recruiting officers to accept free blacks into the army.
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1775        Dec 31, The British repulsed an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold at Quebec during a raging snowstorm; Montgomery was killed.
    (AP, 12/31/97)(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T5)

1775        James Adair (~65) authored “The History of the American Indians," based on his experiences living in their midst. In 2005 Kathryn E. Holland Braund edited a new edition.
    (WSJ, 2/11/05, p.W6)

1775        Beaumarchais wrote his farce "The Barber of Seville." Beaumarchais reconceived his Barber opera as a play and turned it into a triumph at the Comedie Francaise.
    (WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)(SFC, 8/13/96, p.A20)

1775        Joseph Priestley published his book “Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air." He refuted some opinions of Lavoisier, who had recently named oxygen based on experiments modeled after Priestley’s work. In 1777 German chemist Karl Wilhelm Schele verified that he had independently isolated oxygen in 1772.
    (www.woodrow.org/teachers/chemistry/institutes/1992/Priestley.html)(ON, 10/05, p.2)

1775        Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s wrote "The Duenna." In 1940 Prokofiev composed the opera "Betrothal in a Monastery," based on Sheridan’s work. The Prokofiev work had its premiere in Prague.
    (WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(SFC, 11/25/98, p.D1)

1775        Mozart at 19 composed Il Re Pastore, K. 208. It is considered the last major stage work from Mozart’s Salzburg period.
    (EMN, 1/96, p.3)

1775        Presbyterians made up the third largest denomination in America with more than 400,000 members. The largest denomination was made up of Congregationalists, with the second largest being Anglicans.
    (HNQ, 7/6/99)

1775        Tucson, Arizona was founded as a Spanish presidio.
    (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.31)

1775        Bodega Bay, Ca., was founded by the Spanish.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T3)
1775        Spanish Lieutenant Juan Manuel de Ayala named SF Bay’s northernmost island Isla Plana (Flat Island). In 1835 Gen. Vallejo later renamed it Mare Island.
    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.C1)(SFC, 1/3/15, p.D1)

1775        The 7th Virginia Volunteers first fought as militia in the War of Independence.
    (RC handout, 5/27/96)
1775        Lord Dunmore, Royal Governor of Virginia, called on local slaves to join the British side to suppress the American Revolution: “When we win we will free you from your shackles." The British issued similar proclamations throughout their North American colonies and enticed thousands of indentured servants and slaves, known as Black Loyalists, to the British side.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1775        The Hornet and the Wasp were frigates of the Continental Navy that fought British ships in Chesapeake Bay.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A22)

1775        The Swedish chemist Scheele found a way to detect arsenic in the body.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, zone1 p.2)

1775        Captain Cook on his 2nd voyage around the southern continent landed on an island (South Georgia) that he named after his sponsor, George III of England. He described the land as "savage and horrible."
    (NH, 2/97, p.54)

1775        Daniel Boone blazed a trail through the Cumberland Gap in Kentucky.
    (WSJ, 1/28/00, p.W8)

1775        Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan.
    (NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p.66)

1775        Johann Wolfgang von Goethe moved to Weimar after Carl August asked him to be his secretary of state.
    (SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

1775        Altar was founded in Mexico’s Sonora state as a military base. It’s location 60 miles south of Arizona later proved valuable as a jumping off point for immigrant smuggling to the US.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.31)
1775        In Mexico the Monte de Piedad (Mount of Pity), or National Pawn Shop, stands on the site of Montezuma's brother's palace in Mexico City. It was founded by the Count of Regla. As a lender of last resort the shop provided loans worth one-fifth to one-third an item’s value at interest rates of 4% a month.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.50)(SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)
1775        In Mexico Manuel Arroyo of Real del Monte confessed to 30 counts of oral sex on men. He claimed that his doctor told him it was good for his health and a way to avoid evil thoughts about women. He was sentenced to 3 years in prison by the Inquisition.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1775        Szymon Antoni Sobiekrajski, cartographer to King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, calculated that the center of Europe was in Suchowola, Eastern Poland.
    (WSJ, 7/14/04, p.A7)

1775        Catherine the Great of Russia received an ornament containing over 1000 diamonds, the "Sultan Feather" from the Turkish Sultan Abdulhamid.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1775        In Russia the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev was captured and beheaded.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1775-1776    Juan Bautista de Anza led 198 colonists and 1,000 cattle from Sonora, Mexico, to California.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1775-1781    George Washington got his brother-in-law, Fielding Lewis, to take charge of provisioning his regiments for the 6 years of the Revolutionary War. In 2002 Gordon S. Wood authored "The American Revolution: A History."
    (HT, 5/97, p.47)(WSJ, 3/8/02, p.AW9)
1775-1781    Some 5,000 Black Americans fought in the Revolutionary War. A silver coin commemorating their contribution was issued in 1998 to help finance a new memorial on the National Mall.
    (SFC, 2/26/98, p.A22)
1775-1781    The Royal Welch Fusiliers, a British regiment, was among the British troops that fought in the American Revolution during this period. In 2007 mark Urban authored “Fusiliers: the Saga of a British Redcoat Regiment in the American Revolution.
    (WSJ, 11/15/07, p.D6)

1775-1782    More Revolutionary War engagements were fought in New Jersey--238--than in any other state. New York was second with 228. New Hampshire. The only one of the original 13 colonies not invaded by the British during the Revolutionary War was New Hampshire.
    (HNQ, 4/17/99)(HNQ, 7/31/99)

1775-1844    John Rubens Smith, British born painter. He came to the US in 1806 and produced numerous paintings of the emerging American landscape. He authored such books as: A Compendium of Picturesque Anatomy (1827), The Key to the Art of Drawing the Human Figure (1831), and the Juvenile Drawing-Book (1839). A collection of almost 700 drawings, paintings and engravings was acquired by the Library of Congress in 1993.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.66)

1775-1847     Daniel O'Connell, Irish political leader: "Bigotry has no head, and cannot think; no heart, and cannot feel."
    (AP, 8/12/98)

1775-1851    Joseph Mallord William Turner, English painter. In 1999 Anthony Bailey published "Standing in the Sun: A Life of J.M.W. Turner."
    (SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(SFEC, 2/7/99, BR p.6)

1775-1880    The Shaker community produced handmade furniture until 1880 when manufactured furniture became acceptable and their workshops were forced to close. The watercolors "Tree of Light" by Hannah Cohoon and "Gift Drawing" by Polly Collins were found in 1996 and put up for auction.
    (WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-12)

1776        Jan 1-1776 Dec 31,  In 2005 David McCullough authored “1776," and an account of Washington’s Continental Army throughout this year.
    (SSFC, 6/19/05, p.C1)

1776        Jan 2, 1st US revolutionary flag was displayed.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1776        Jan 5, Assembly of New Hampshire adopted its 1st state constitution.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1776        Jan 10, Thomas Paine (1737-1809), British émigré and propagandist, anonymously published "Common Sense," a scathing attack on King George III's reign over the colonies and a call for complete independence. The first 1,000 sold within days at 2 shillings. By the end of the year some 150,000 copies were sold, greatly affecting public sentiment and the deliberations of the Continental Congress leading up to the Declaration of Independence. An instant bestseller in both the colonies and in Britain, Paine baldly stated that King George III was a tyrant and that Americans should shed any sentimental attachment to the monarchy. America, he argued, had a moral obligation to reject monarchy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(AP, 1/10/98)(ON, 6/2011, p.3)

1776        Jan 14, George Washington commanded an army that consisted of some 9,000 men, up to half of whom were not fit for duty.
    (WSJ, 5/19/05, p.W10)

1776        Jan 16, Continental Congress approved the enlistment of free blacks. This led to the all-black First Rhode Island Regiment, composed of 33 freedmen and 92 slaves, who were promised freedom if they served to the end of the war. The regiment distinguished itself at the Battle of Newport.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)(MC, 1/16/02)

1776        Feb 8, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's "Stella" premiered in Hamburg.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1776        Feb 17, Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), English historian, published his 1st volume of "The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." He completed the 6-volume classic in 1788.
    (WUD, 1994 p.596)(WSJ, 5/26/07, p.P6)

1776        Mar 1, French minister Charles Gravier advised his Spanish counterpart to support the American rebels against the English.
    (HN, 3/1/99)

1776        Mar 2, Americans began shelling British troops in Boston. Henry Knox had managed to drag 58 canon and mortars from Fort Ticonderoga to the Dorchester Heights above Boston.
    (HN, 3/2/99)(WSJ, 5/20/05, p.W10)
1776        Mar 2, The American Secret Committee of Correspondence appointed Connecticut lawyer Silas Deane as a special envoy to negotiate with the French government for aid.
    (AH, 2/06, p.59)

1776        Mar 3, US commodore Esek Hopkins occupied Nassau, Bahamas.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1776        Mar 5, A terrific storm wrecked British hope of a counterattack on Dorchester Heights in Boston, Mass.
    (WSJ, 5/20/05, p.W10)

1776        Mar 10, The expedition of Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza arrived in Monterey, Ca. Colonists were left in Monterey as a smaller party departed for the SF Bay.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pltuw96)(SFC, 9/14/13, p.C4)

1776        Mar 17, British forces evacuated Boston to Nova Scotia during the Revolutionary War. Suffolk Ct. Massachusetts declared this day Evacuation Day
    (AP, 3/17/97)(HN, 3/17/98)(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)

1776        Mar 25, The Continental Congress authorized a medal for General George Washington.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1776        Mar 27, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and his party of Spanish explorers spent their first night in the future city of San Francisco at what came to be called Mountain Lake in the Presidio.
    (SFC, 9/14/13, p.C4)(SFC, 11/2/19, p.C4)

1776        Mar 28, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza, Lt. Jose Moraga, and Franciscan priest Pedro Font arrived at the tip of San Francisco. De Anza planted a cross at what is now Fort Point. They camped at Mountain Lake and searched inland for a more hospitable area and found a site they called Laguna de los Dolores or the Friday of Sorrows since the day was Friday before Palm Sunday. Anza became known as the “father of SF." Mission Dolores was founded by Father Francisco Palou and Father Pedro Cambon. Rancho San Pedro, near what is now Pacifica, served as the agricultural center. Laguna de los Dolores was later believed to be a spring near the modern-day corner of Duboce and Sanchez.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Bautista_de_Anza)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC, 2/19/11, p.A10)

1776        Mar 31, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband John that women were "determined to foment a rebellion" if the new Declaration of Independence failed to guarantee their rights.
    (HN, 3/31/98)
1776        Mar 31, Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and a crew that included such names as Castro, Peralta, Bernal, Moraga, Alviso and Berryessa, among others, arrived at the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay on a 5-day expedition to explore the area.
    (SFC, 12/5/11, p.A1)

1776        Mar, "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" was published by Adam Smith. He was the first to describe and explain the workings of the labor market and argued for a laissez faire economy. [see 1723-1790, Smith]
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)(V.D.-H.K.p.214,253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1776        Apr 1, Friedrich von Klinger's "Sturm und Drang," premiered in Leipzig.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1776        Apr 3, George Washington received an honorary doctor of law degree from Harvard College.
    (AP, 4/3/97)

1776        Apr 12, North Carolina's Fourth Provincial Congress adopted the Halifax Resolves, which authorized the colony's delegates to the Continental Congress to support independence from Britain.
    (AP, 4/12/07)

1776        Apr 22, Johann Adolph Scheibe (67), German music theorist, composer, died.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1776        Apr 26, Joan M. Kemper, Dutch lawyer (designed civil code law book), was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1776        Apr, Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, the French foreign minister, enlisted Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, playwright and French spy, to establish a commercial firm to supply America with arms, munitions and equipment.
    (AH, 2/06, p.59)

1776        May 1, Adam Weishaupt founded the secret society of Illuminati.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1776        May 2, France and Spain agreed to donate arms to American rebels.
    (HN, 5/2/98)

1776        May 4,    Rhode Island declared its freedom from England, two months before the Declaration of Independence was adopted.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)

1776        May 10, George Thomas Smart, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1776        May 12, Turgot, French minister of Finance, resigned.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1776        May 13, Rodrigo Ferreira da Costa, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1776        May 15, Virginia took the lead in instructing its delegates to go for complete independence from Britain at the Continental Congress.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.60)

1776        May-1776 Jun, Betsy Ross finished sewing the 1st American flag.
    (www.ushistory.org/betsy/flagtale.html)

1776        Jun 7, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed to the Continental Congress the resolution calling for a Declaration of Independence: that "these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States..." Congress delayed the vote on the resolution until July 1. In the meantime, a committee consisting of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Benjamin Franklin and Robert R. Livingston was created to prepare a declaration of independence.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.60)(AP, 6/7/97)(HNQ, 7/3/98)

1776        Jun 10, The Continental Congress appointed a committee to write a Declaration of Independence.
    (HN, 6/10/98)

1776        Jun 11, John Constable (d.1837), English landscape painter (Hay Wain), was born.
    (SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(SC, 6/11/02)
1776        Jun 11, A committee to draft the document of Independence met. John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman and Thomas Jefferson were the members. They immediately delegated the writing to Adams and Jefferson, and Adams gave it over to Jefferson. The events were later documented by Pauline Maier in her 1997 book: "American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.60)(AP, 6/11/97)(SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.5)

1776        Jun 11-1776 Jul 4, The Continental Congress met and Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, based on the principals of John Locke. But where Locke had used the word "property," Jefferson used the term "the pursuit of happiness."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.224-226)

1776        Jun 12 Virginia's colonial legislature became the first to adopt a Bill of Rights. The Virginia Declaration of Rights granted every individual the right to the enjoyment of life and liberty and to acquire and possess property. The Virginia document was written by George Mason and was a precursor to the Declaration of Independence. In 1787 Mason refused to endorse the Declaration of Independence because it did not include a Bill of Rights.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, Par p.8)(AP, 6/12/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)

1776        Jun 15, Delaware declared independence from both England and Pennsylvania with whom it had shared a royal governor.
    (WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)

1776        Jun 23, The final draft of Declaration of Independence was submitted to US Congress.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1776        Jun 26, In San Francisco the St. Francis of Assisi Church, later Mission Dolores, was founded by Father Francisco Palleu.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.26)

1776        Jun 27, Thomas Hickey, who plotted to hand George Washington over to British, was hanged.
    (MC, 6/27/02)

1776        Jun 28, Jefferson's document was placed before the Congress after some minor changes by Adams and Franklin. This event was immortalized in the painting by John Trumball.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.61)
1776        Jun 28, Colonists repulsed a British sea attack on Charleston, South Carolina.
    (HN, 6/28/98)
1776        Jun 28, Thomas Hickey, American sergeant convicted of treason, was hanged.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1776        Jun 29, Settlers who had been waiting in Monterey headed north and gathered for Mass under a crude shelter at the new mission in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)

1776        Jun, Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais established Hortalez et Cie, a fictitious company, to facilitate the transfer of arms to revolutionaries in America. It facilitated the transfer of weapons and munitions from France and Spain to the Americans. Under the scheme, France and Spain each loaned funds to the company for the purchase of munitions and the Americans would in turn pay for the material with rice, tobacco and other products. The scandal-plagued operation continued after the signing of the Franco-American alliance permitting open shipments of military aid between the two countries.
    (HNQ, 4/20/00)

1776        Jul 1, The Continental Congress, sitting as a committee, met on July 1, 1776, to debate a resolution submitted by Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee on June 7. The resolution stated that the United Colonies "are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States." The committee voted for the motion and, on July 2 in formal session took the final vote for independence.
    (HNQ, 7/1/99)
1776        Jul 1, The British fleet anchored off Sandy Hook in New York Bay.
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)

1776        July 2, The Continental Congress passed Lee's resolution that "these united Colonies are, and of right, ought to be, Free and Independent States," and then spent two days over the wording of Jefferson's document.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.61)(AP, 7/2/97)(HN, 7/2/98)

1776        cJul 3, Caesar Rodney rode 80 miles from Dover to Philadelphia to vote for the Declaration of Independence. In 1998 the ride was commemorated by the US mint on the back of a new quarter.
    (SFC, 1/5/99, p.A2)

1776         Jul 4, The Continental Congress approved adoption of the amended Declaration of Independence, prepared by Thomas Jefferson and signed by John Hancock--President of the Continental Congress--and Charles Thomson, Congress secretary, without dissent. However, the New York delegation abstained as directed by the New York Provisional Congress. On July 9, the New York Congress voted to endorse the declaration. On July 19, Congress then resolved to have the "Unanimous Declaration" inscribed on parchment for the signature of the delegates. Among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, two went on to become presidents of the United States, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration of Independence was signed by president of Congress John Hancock and secretary Charles Thomson. John Hancock said, "There, I guess King George will be able to read that." referring to his signature on the Declaration of Independence. Most delegates signed the parchment copy on August 2. Other signers later included Benjamin Rush and Robert Morris. Of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, eight were born outside North America. In 2007 David Armitage authored “The Declaration of Independence: A Global History."
     (SFC,12/19/97,p.B6)(SFC,2/9/98, p.A19)(WSJ, 1/4/07, p.B11)(SFC, 7/4/13, p.A14)

1776        Jul 5, The Declaration of Independence was first printed by John Dunlop in Philadelphia. 200 copies were prepared July 5-6 and distributed to the states.
    (HN, 7/5/98)(HNQ, 7/4/99)(SFC, 7/4/01, p.A3)

1776        Jul 6, The US Declaration of Independence was announced on the front page of "PA Evening Gazette."
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1776        Jul 8, Col. John Nixon gave the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence to a crowd gathered at Independence Square in Philadelphia. The reading was announced by the "Liberty Bell." The bell had the inscription: "proclaim liberty throughout all the land onto all the inhabitants thereof."
    (AP, 7/8/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T5)

1776        Jul 9, The Declaration of Independence was read aloud to Gen. George Washington's troops in New York.
    (AP, 7/9/97)
1776        Jul 9, New York was the 13th colony to ratify the Declaration of Independence.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, T1)

1776        Jul 10, The statue of King George III was pulled down in New York City.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1776        Jul 12, Capt. Cook departed with Resolution for 3rd trip to Pacific Ocean.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1776        Jul 14, Jemima Boone (13), the daughter of Daniel Boone, and 2 friends were kidnapped by a group of 5 Shawnee and Cherokee Indians near Boonesborough, Kentucky. They were rescued on July 16 by Daniel Boone and 7 other Boonesborough men.
    (ON, 8/08, p.6)  

1776        Jul 15, Declaration of Independence was read to every brigade in NYC.
    http://condor.stcloudstate.edu/~brixr01/theTIMEMACHINE.html

1776        Jul 19, After New York’s Provincial Congress voted to endorse the declaration, Congress resolved on July 19 to have the "Unanimous Declaration" engrossed on parchment for the signature of the delegates.
    (HNQ, 7/4/99)

1776        Jul 27, Silas Deane (1737-1789), secretly sent to France as America’s first official envoy, wrote a letter to the US Congress informing them that he has been successful beyond his expectations. Deane had served as the Connecticut delegate to the Continental Congress.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lwd7xq)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silas_Deane)

1776         Aug 2, In Philadelphia most members of the Continental Congress began attaching their signatures to the parchment copy of the Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Harrison was one of the signers. His son and grandson later became the 9th and 23rd presidents of the US. Most of the 55 signatures were affixed on August 2, but Matthew Thornton of New Hampshire, who was not a member of Congress when the declaration was adopted, added his name in November.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.61)(SFC, 5/7/96, p.A-6)(AP, 8/2/97)(HNQ, 7/4/99)

1776        Aug 8, John Paul Jones was commissioned as a captain and appointed to command the Alfred. His orders were to harass enemy merchant ships and defend the American coast.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)(Internet)

1776        Aug 27, The Americans were defeated by the British at the Battle of Long Island, New York.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1776        Aug 29, General George Washington retreated during the night from Long Island to New York City.
    (HN, 8/29/98)
1776        Aug 29, Americans withdrew from Manhattan to Westchester.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1776        Sep 2-9, The Hurricane of Independence killed 4,170 people from North Carolina to Nova Scotia.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)

1776        Sep 6, The Turtle, the 1st submarine invented by David Bushnell, attempted to secure a cask of gunpowder to the HMS Eagle, flagship of the British fleet, in the Bay of NY but got entangled with the Eagle’s rudder bar, lost ballast and surfaced before the charge was planted. Sergeant Ezra Lee released the bomb the next morning as a British barge approached. The british turned back and the bomb soon exploded. A month later the turtle was lost under British attack as it was being transported on a sailboat.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(Arch, 5/05, p.36)
1776        Sep 6, A hurricane hit Martinique; 100 French & Dutch ships sank and 600 died.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1776        Sep 9, The term "United States" was adopted by the second Continental Congress to be used instead of the "United Colonies."
    (AP, 9/9/97)(HN, 9/9/98)

1776        Sep 10, George Washington asked for a spy volunteer and Nathan Hale volunteered.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1776        Sep 11, An American delegation consisting of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge met with British Admiral Richard Lord Howe to discuss terms upon which reconciliation between Britain and the colonies might be based. The talks were unsuccessful. In 2003 Barnet Schecter authored “The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution."
    (AH, 6/03, p.61)(www.patriotresource.com/people/howe/page2.html)

1776        Sep 12, Nathan Hale left Harlem Heights Camp (127th St) for a spy mission.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1776        Sep 15, British forces occupied New York City during the American Revolution. British forces captured Kip's Bay, Manhattan, during the American Revolution.
    (AP, 9/15/97)(HN, 9/15/99)(MC, 9/15/01)

1776        Sep 17, The Presidio of SF was formally possessed as a Spanish fort. The Spanish built the Presidio on the hill where the Golden Gate Bridge now meets San Francisco.
    (WSJ, 9/17/96, p.A12)(www.sfmuseum.org/hist6/founding.html)

1776        Sep 20, American soldiers, some of them members of Nathan Hale’s regiment, filtered into British-held New York City and stashed resin soaked logs into numerous buildings and a roaring inferno was started. A fourth of the city was destroyed including Trinity Church. The events are documented in the 1997 book "Liberty by Thomas Fleming."
    (SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(WSJ, 9/14/01, p.W13)

1776        Sep 21, Nathan Hale was arrested in NYC by the British for spying for American rebels.
    (SFC, 9/20/03, p.A2)
1776        Sep 21, NYC burned down in the Great Fire 5 days after British took over.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1776        Sep 22, American Captain Nathan Hale was hanged as a spy with no trial by the British in New York City during the Revolutionary War. He was considered as one of the incendiaries of the burning of NYC. Hale was commissioned  by General George Washington to cross behind British lines on Long Island and report on their activity. His last words are reputed to have been, "I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country."
    (AP, 9/22/97)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(HN, 9/22/98)

1776        Oct 3, Congress borrowed five million dollars to halt the rapid depreciation of paper money in the colonies.
    (HN, 10/3/98)

1776        Oct 9, A group of Spanish missionaries settled in present-day San Francisco. The formal dedication of Mission San Francisco de Asis was made.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(AP, 10/9/97)

1776        Oct 11, C. Randle painted: "A View of the New England Arm’d Vessels on Valcure Bay on Lake Champlain." It depicted the fleet of Benedict Arnold just before the Battle of Valcour Island on this day. The fleet was defeated but it slowed the British advance from Canada.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A3)
1776        Oct 11, The naval Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain was fought during the American Revolution. American forces led by Gen. Benedict Arnold suffered heavy losses, but managed to stall the British.
    (AP, 10/11/07)

1776        Oct 12, British Brigade began guarding Throgs Necks Road in Bronx.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1776        Oct 13, Benedict Arnold was defeated at Lake Champlain by the British, who then retreated to Canada for the winter. Arnold’s efforts bought the colonists 9 months to consolidate their hold in northern New York. In 2006 James L. Nelson authored “Benedict Arnold’s Navy."
    (HN, 10/13/98)(WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W5)

1776        Oct 18, In a NY bar decorated with bird tail, a customer ordered a "cocktail."
    (MC, 10/18/01)
1776        Oct 18, At the Battle of Pelham Col. John Glover and the Marblehead regiment collided with British Forces in the Bronx.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1776        Oct 28, The Battle of White Plains was fought during the Revolutionary War, resulting in a limited British victory. Washington retreated to NJ.
    (AP, 10/28/06)

1776        Oct 29, Benjamin Franklin departed for France one month to the day after being named an agent of a diplomatic commission by the Continental Congress. He served from 1776-1778 on a three-man commission to France charged with the critical task of gaining French support for American independence.
    (http://tinyurl.com/kuarvn)(http://history.state.gov/milestones/1776-1783/BFranklin)

1776        Nov 1, Father Junipero Serra arrived at the site of Mission of San Juan Capistrano and re-founded it. His mission was to convert the members of the Acagchemem tribe called Juanenos by the Spaniards. The tribe at the time was experiencing the end of a 7-year draught.
    (HT, 3/97, p.58)(http://gocalifornia.about.com/cs/missioncalifornia/a/capistranohist.htm)

1776        Nov 16, British troops captured Fort Washington on the north end of Manhattan during the American Revolution.
    (AP, 11/1697)(MC, 11/16/01)

1776        Nov 18, Hessians captured Ft Lee, NJ.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1776        Nov 20, The British invaded New Jersey.
    (NH, 5/97, p.76)

1776        Nov 28, Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River.
    (DTnet 11/28/97)

1776        Nov 30, Captain Cook began his 3rd and last trip to the Pacific South Seas.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1776        Dec 2, George Washington's army began retreating across the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania. In 2004 David Hackett Fischer authored "Washington's Crossing."
    (WSJ, 2/6/04, p.W8)

1776        Dec 5, Phi Beta Kappa was organized as the first American college scholastic Greek letter fraternity, at William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. In 2005 the honor society had some 600,000 members with about 15,000 new members joining annually.
    (AP, 12/5/97)(HN, 12/5/98)(WSJ, 11/4/05, p.W12)

1776        Dec 8, George Washington's retreating army in the American Revolution crossed the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 12/8/97)

1776        Dec 19, Thomas Paine published his first "American Crisis" essay, writing: "These are the times that try men's souls." In the first of his Crises papers, Thomas Paine wrote, "These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country." Written as Paine took part in the Revolutionary Army‘s retreat across New Jersey in 1776, the pamphlet was ordered read to the troops in the Revolutionary encampments.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(AP, 12/19/97)(HNQ, 9/21/99)

1776        Dec 23, Continental Congress negotiated a war loan of $181,500 from France.
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1776        Dec 23, Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, “The American Crisis," which included the line "These are the times that try men's souls…" was read out loud by George Washington to the Continental Army.
    (ON, 6/2011, p.4)

1776        Dec 25, Gen. George Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River for a surprise attack against 1,400 Hessian forces at Trenton, N.J.
    (AP, 12/25/97)(MC, 12/25/01)

1776        Dec 26, The British suffered a major defeat in the Battle of Trenton during the Revolutionary War. After crossing the Delaware River into New Jersey, George Washington led an attack on Hessian mercenaries and took 900 men prisoner. Two Americans froze to death on the march but none died in battle. There were 30 German casualties, 1,000 prisoners and 6 cannon captured. Four Americans were wounded in the overwhelming American victory, while 22 Hessians were killed and 78 wounded. The surprise attack caught most of the 1,200 Hessian soldiers at Trenton sleeping after a day of Christmas celebration. The Americans captured 918 Hessians, who were taken as prisoners to Philadelphia. The victory was a huge morale booster for the American army and the country. The victory at Trenton was a huge success and morale booster for the American army and people. However, the enlistments of more than 4,500 of Washington’s soldiers were set to end four days later and it was critical that the force remain intact. General George Washington offered a bounty of $10 to any of his soldiers who extended their enlistments six weeks beyond their December 31, 1776, expiration dates. The American Revolution Battle of Trenton saw the routing of 1,400 Hessian mercenaries, with 101 killed or wounded and about 900 taken prisoner, with no Americans killed in the combat. Four Americans were wounded and two had died of exhaustion en route to Trenton.
    (AP, 12/26/97)(HN, 12/26/98)(SFC, 12/26/98, p.A3)(HNQ, 3/20/99)(HNQ, 4/11/99)(HNQ, 12/26/99)
1776        Dec 26, Johann Gottlieb Rall, Hessian colonel and mercenary, died in battle of Trenton.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1776        Dec 29, Charles Macintosh, patented waterproof fabric, was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1776        Augustin Pajou, French sculptor, completed his "Monument to Buffon."
    (WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1776        Fort Sullivan, outside the town of Charleston, S.C., was built primarily of palmetto logs and sand. Commanded by Colonel William Moultrie--for whom it was later renamed--the partially uncompleted Fort Sullivan on Sullivan’s Island bore the brunt of gunfire from a British naval force when the British tried to invade Charleston on June 28, 1776. The palmetto logs and sand from which the fort was primarily constructed absorbed most of the British shot, while the fort’s defenders managed to inflict disproportionate punishment to the British warships, one of which, the frigate Actaeon, ran hard aground and had to be abandoned and blown up by her crew. The successful defense of Charleston effectively left the Carolinas in the hands of the rebelling Patriots until a new invasion force returned to Charleston in February 1780.
    (HNQ, 10/25/01)

1776        Nano Nagle, a wealthy Irish woman, founded the Sisters of Presentation. At this time it was a crime in Ireland for a Catholic to teach or be taught.
    (SFC, 11/12/04, p.F11)

1776        A New York tavern keeper mixed a rum and "cocktail." The name was derived from rooster feathers used as ornaments for glasses.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1776        George Washington ordered his chief of artillery, Henry Knox, to establish an American arsenal to manufacture guns and ammunition for his army. Knox chose Springfield, Mass., on the Connecticut River. The Springfield Armory stayed open 173 years and was closed in 1967, but continues as a museum.
    (WSJ, 3/9/95, p.A-16)

1776        Col. George Rogers Clark was charged by the Virginia Assembly to seize the Northwest Territory.  By 1778, Clark was in control of the land between Virginia and the Mississippi River—except Fort Sackville.
    (HNQ, 7/24/00)

1776        Margaret Corbin, the wife of an artilleryman, was badly wounded while serving in her husband’s gun crew at the Battle of Harlem Heights.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)

1776        The first issue of the US $2 bill was 49,000 notes by the Continental Congress as "bills of credit for the defense of America."
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.A4)

1776        The Quakers of Pennsylvania abolished slavery within the Society of Friends and then took their crusade to society at large by petitioning the state legislature to outlaw the practice.
    (AH, 10/02, p.50)

1776        Don Marcos Briones came to San Francisco. His daughter, Juana Briones, was the first settler on Powell St. in North Beach. She was a battered wife and was the first California woman to get a divorce.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A11)

1776        Spanish explorers encountered the native Havasupai Indians in Arizona.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F4)

1776        The southernmost of the Bantu peoples, the Xhosa, arrived at the Fish River in South Africa.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

1776        The Russian Bolshoi Theater was founded.
    (SFC, 3/29/01, p.A11)

1776        Ike Taiga (b.1723), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died.
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)

1776        David Hume, Scottish philosopher, died. He was the first prominent European atheist. Hume said "the overriding force in all our actions is… the desire for self-gratification. In order to survive, society has to devise strategies to channel our passions in constructive directions." "The most unhappy of all men is he who believes himself to be so."
    (WSJ, 5/10/96, p.A-8)(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W14)

1776        The Dutch built a slave house on Goree Island off the coast of Senegal.
    (SFC, 7/9/03, p.A10)

1776-1781    During this period Britain sent 60,000 troops to America.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)
1776-1781    It is estimated that 30,000 Hessian soldiers fought for the British during the American Revolution. After Russia refused to provide troops for the war, the German states of Brunswick, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Hanau, Waldeck, Anspach-Bayreuth and Anhalt-Zerbst supplied mercenary soldiers, collectively referred to as Hessians. Seven thousand Hessians died in the war and another 5,000 deserted and settled in America. The British paid the German rulers for each soldier sent to North America and an additional sum for each killed.
    (HNQ, 3/31/99)
1776-1781    During the Revolutionary War some 100 ships were scuttled in the Elizabeth River in Portsmouth, Virginia, to prevent their capture by the British.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.15)

c1776-1781    Molly Corbin manned a cannon during the American Revolution and was wounded. She was cited for bravery and sent to the Invalid Regiment at West Point where she received half the male pay. She was also denied the daily rum ration until her complaints were heard.
    (SFEC, 6/4/00, Z1 p.3)

1776-1789    Charles Burney wrote "A General History of Music" that covers this period.
    (LGC-HCS, p.36)

1776-1822    E.T.A. Hoffman, German poet and novelist, author of "The Tales of Hoffman." The ballet "Coppelia" was based on one of his tales.
    (Harvard BDM, p.294)(SFC, 11/19/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 6/10/97, p.A16)

1776-1836    The correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison is documented in "The Republic of Letters" by James Morton Smith in 3 volumes published by Norton 1995. The two men are believed to have met in 1776 in the Virginia House of Delegates.
    (WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)

1776-1841    Jane Austin, English author. She wrote "Sense and Sensibility."
    (WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-1)

1776-1856    Amadeo Avogadro, Italian chemist.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.324)

1776-1876    The population of California Native Americans diminished from about 300,000 to 20,000.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)

1777         Jan 3, Gen. George Washington's army routed the British led by Cornwallis in the Battle of Princeton, N.J.
    (AP, 1/3/98)(HN, 1/3/99)

1777        Jan 12, Franciscans founded Mission Santa Clara de Asis, the 8th of California’s original 21 missions.
    (SFC, 8/19/00, p.A13)(MC, 1/12/02)

1777        Jan 15, The people of New Connecticut, a chunk of upstate New York, declared their independence. The tiny republic became the state of Vermont in 1791.
    (AP, 1/15/99)(ST, 3/2/04, p.A1)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.26)

1777        Feb 13, The Marquis de Sade was arrested without charge and imprisoned in Vincennes fortress.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1777        Mar 13, Congress ordered its European envoys to appeal to high-ranking foreign officers to send troops to reinforce the American army.
    (HN, 3/13/99)

1777        Mar 31, A young Abigail Adams encouraged her husband John to give women voting privileges in the new American government. She wrote to her husband on this day while he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention: "I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous to them than were your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of husbands. Remember all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention are not paid to the ladies we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound to obey any laws in which we have no voice or representation." Twenty years later her husband was a candidate in America’s first real election.
    (HNPD, 3/30/99)

1777        Mar, The Rev. Patrick Bronte was born on St. Patrick’s Day in County Down, Ireland. He married Maria Branwell of Cornwall in 1812 and they had six children that included the writers Charlotte and Emily. Mrs. Branwell died in 1821 at 38.
    (WP, 1952, p.34)

1777        Apr 12, Henry Clay, the "Great Compromiser", American politician and statesman, was born. He ran unsuccessfully for president three times. [see Apr 22]
    (HN, 4/12/99)

1777        Apr 14, NY adopted a new constitution as an independent state. Governeur Morris was the chief writer of the state constitution. [see Apr 20]
    (MC, 4/14/02)(WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)

1777        Apr 16, New England's minute men, Green Mountain Boys, routed British regulars at the Battle of Bennington.
    (HN, 4/16/98)(MC, 4/16/02)

1777        Apr 20, New York adopted a new constitution as an independent state. [see Apr 14]
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1777        Apr 22, Henry Clay, American statesman, the "Great Compromiser," was born. Henry Clay of Kentucky was a master politician in the era preceding the Civil War. Clay was a lawyer by trade. He began his lengthy political career in the Kentucky legislature and made three unsuccessful bids as the Whig Party's presidential candidate. [see Apr 12]
    (HN, 4/22/98)(HNPD, 6/29/98)

1777        Apr 26, Sybil Ludington (16) rode from NY to Ct rallying her father’s militia.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1777        Apr 30, Karl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, was born. He researched infinitesimal calculus, algebra and astronomy. He was also a pioneer in topology and is considered one of the world's great mathematicians. His methods in World War II helped disarm magnetic mines
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1777        May 1, Richard Brinsley Sheridan's "School for Scandal," premiered in London with Georgiana Cavendish as Lady Teazle. "Its assumptions are that lust and greed - when allied with beauty and cunning - deserve to triumph over dullness and age." He also wrote "A Trip to Scarborough," a rewrite of a Restoration original.
    (WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)(MC, 5/1/02)

1777        May 12, The 1st ice cream advertisement appeared in the Philip Lenzi NY Gazette.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1777        May 13, University library at Vienna opened.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1777        May 16, Button Gwinnet, US revolutionary leader, died from wounds.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1777        Jun 13, Marquis de Lafayette landed in the United States to assist the colonies in their war against England.
    (HN, 6/13/99)

1777        Jun 14, The Continental Congress in Philadelphia adopted the Stars and Stripes, created by Betsy Ross, as the national flag. America's Flag Day, commemorates the date when John Adams spoke the following words before the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. "Resolved, that the Flag of the thirteen United States shall be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union be thirteen stars, white on a blue field, representing a new constellation." Over the years, there have been 27 versions of the American flag. The present version was adopted on July 4, 1960, when Hawaii became the 50th state. In 2005 Marc Leepson authored “Flag: An American Biography."
    (AP, 6/14/97)(HNQ, 6/14/98)(WSJ, 7/1/05, p.W4)

1777        Jul 1, British troops departed from their base at the Bouquet river to head toward Ticonderoga, New York.
    (HN, 7/1/00)

1777        Jul 8, Vermont became the 1st American colony to abolish slavery.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Vermont)

1777        Jul 4, No member of Congress thought about commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence until July 3 - one day too late. So the first organized elaborate celebration of independence occurred the following day: July 4, 1777, in Philadelphia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mpsa8y)

1777        Jul 6, British forces under Gen. Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga from the Americans.
    (AP, 7/6/97)(MC, 7/6/02)

1777        Jul 7, American troops gave up Fort Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain, to the British.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1777        Jul 8, The Continental frigate Hancock was captured by the British ships Rainbow and Flora. The prisoners, including cabin-boy John Blatchford, were taken to Halifax.
    (ON, 1/00, p.4)

1777        Jul 27, Thomas Campbell, Scottish writer (The Pleasures of Hope), was born.
    (HN, 7/27/01)
1777        Jul 27, The Marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious colonists fight the British.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1777        Jul 31, The Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army.
    (AP, 7/31/97)

1777        Jul, John Paul Jones was given command of the 20-gun ship Ranger at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was then ordered to report to a Secret Committee in Paris, that included Benjamin Franklin.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)

1777        Aug 14, Hans Christian Oersted, Danish scientist, was born. He discovered electromagnetism.
    (HN, 8/14/00)

1777        Aug 16, American forces won the Revolutionary War Battle of Bennington, Vt.
    (AP, 8/16/97)

1777        Aug 16, France declared a state of bankruptcy.
    (HN, 8/16/98)

1777        Aug 22, With the approach of General Benedict Arnold's army, British Colonel Barry St. Ledger abandoned Fort Stanwix and returns to Canada.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1777        Sep 3, The American flag (stars & stripes), approved by Congress on June 14th, was carried into battle for the first time by a force under General William Maxwell.
    (HN, 9/3/00)

1777        Sep 11, General George Washington and his troops were defeated by the British under General Sir William Howe at the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania. Posing as a gunsmith, British Sergeant John Howe served as General Gage's eyes in a restive Massachusetts colony.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1777        Sep 16, Nathan Rothschild (d.1836), banker, was born in Frankfurt. He was the son of Mayer Rothschild (1744-1812), who rose from the Frankfurt ghetto to become the banker to Prince William of Prussia. Nathan worked in London as a banker and invested Prussian money in the Napoleonic Wars and smuggled it to Wellington in Spain. He was the first to hear news from Waterloo and sold stock to convince other investors that the British had lost. His agents bought the stock at low prices. His 4 brothers established banks in Vienna, Naples and Paris.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(www.rothschildarchive.org/ib/?doc=/ib/articles/BW3bNathan)y

1777        Sep 19, During the Revolutionary War, American soldiers won the first Battle of Saratoga, aka Battle of Freeman's Farm (Bemis Heights). American forces under Gen. Horatio Gates met British troops led by Gen. John Burgoyne at Saratoga Springs, NY.
    (AP, 9/19/97)(www.americanrevolution.com/BattleofSaratoga.htm)

1777        Sep 20, British Dragoons massacred sleeping Continental troops at  Paoli, Pa. Prior to launching a surprise night attack on Anthony Wayne’s Continental division at Paoli, General Charles Grey ordered his troops to rely entirely on their bayonets. To ensure that his troops obeyed, he had his men remove the flints from their weapons so they could not be fired.
    (MC, 9/20/01)(HNQ, 8/19/02)

1777        Sep 26, The British army launched a major offensive during the American Revolution, capturing Philadelphia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_campaign)(AP, 9/26/97)

1777        Sep 30, The Congress of the United States, forced to flee in the face of advancing British forces, moved to York, Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 9/30/00)

1777        Oct 4, George Washington's troops launched an assault on the British at Germantown, Penn., resulting in heavy American casualties. British General Sir William Howe repelled Washington's last attempt to retake Philadelphia, compelling Washington to spend the winter at Valley Forge.
    (AP, 10/4/97)(HN, 10/4/98)

1777        Oct 7, The second Battle of Saratoga began during the American Revolution. During the battle General Benedict Arnold was shot in the leg. Another bullet killed his horse, which fell on Arnold, crushing his leg. The "Boot Monument" sits close to the spot where Arnold was wounded, and is a tribute to the general’s heroic deeds during that battle. Although Arnold’s accomplishments are described on the monument, it pointedly avoids naming the man best known for betraying his country. The British forces, under Gen. John Burgoyne, surrendered 10 days later.
    (AP, 10/7/97)(HNQ, 7/20/01)
1777        Oct 7, Simon Fraser, English general, died in the battle of Saratoga, NY.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Simon_Fraser_of_Balnian)

1777        Oct 15, Tory Maj. James Graves Simcoe was appointed commandant of Queen's Rangers to combat American rebels.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1777        Oct 17, General John Burgoyne with British forces of 5,000 men surrendered to General Horatio Gates, commander of the American forces at Schuylerville, NY. In the fall of 1777, the British commander Gen'l. Burgoyne and his men were advancing along the Hudson River. After Burgoyne had retreated to  the heights of Saratoga, the Americans stopped and surrounded them. The  surrender was a turning point in the American Revolution, demonstrating American determination  to gain independence. After the surrender, France sided with the Americans, and other countries began to get involved and align themselves against Britain.
    (AP, 10/17/97)(HN, 10/17/98)(HNPD, 10/17/99)(SSFC, 6/30/02, p.C10)

1777        Nov 15, The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation in York, Pa. These instituted the perpetual union of the United States of America and served as a precursor to the U.S. Constitution. The structure of the Constitution was inspired by the Iroquois Confederacy of six major northeastern tribes. The matrilineal society of the Iroquois later inspired the suffragist movement.
    (PCh, 1992, p.325)(AP, 11/15/97)(SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.2)(HN, 11/15/98)

1777        Nov 30, San Jose, California, was founded by the Spanish as El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadeloupe, California's first town.
    (SFEC, 7/11/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 9/2/99, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/07, p.B4)
1777        Nov 30, Jean-Marie Leclair (74), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1777        Dec 2, British officers under Gen. Howe met in the Philadelphia home of Lydia Darragh to discuss plans to the attack American forces on December 5, just prior to Gen. Washington’s planned move to Valley Forge. Mrs. Darragh listened in on the plans and sent word to Whitemarsh of the impending attack.
    (ON, 8/07, p.8)

1777        Dec 8, Britain’s Gen. Howe withdrew to Philadelphia following a failed attempt on American forces encamped at Whitemarsh.
    (ON, 8/07, p.8)
1777        Dec 8, Captain Cook left the Society Islands (French Polynesia).
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1777        Dec 12, Rev. Benjamin Russen was hanged at Tyburn, England, for rape.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1777        Dec 17, France recognized American independence.
    (AP, 12/17/97)

1777        Dec 18, The 1st America Thanksgiving Day commemorated Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga. A national Thanksgiving was declared by Congress after the American victory over the British at the Battle of Saratoga in December 1777. For many years Thanksgiving celebrations were haphazard with Presidents Washington, Adams and Madison declaring occasional national festivities.
    (HNPD, 11/26/98)(MC, 12/18/01)

1777        Dec 19, Gen. George Washington led his army of about 11,000 men to Valley Forge, Pa., to camp for the winter. [see Dec 17]
    (AP, 12/19/97)

1777        Dec 23, Alexander I, Czar of Russia, was born.
    (HN, 12/23/98)

1777        Dec, Moroccan sultan Muhammad III included the United States of America in a list of countries to which Morocco’s ports were open. Morocco thus became the first country whose head of state publicly recognized the new United States.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moroccan%E2%80%93American_Treaty_of_Friendship)

1777        Jean-Baptiste Greuze painted a portrait of Benjamin Franklin.
    (WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1777        The Acagchemem Indians built a small adobe church at Mission San Juan Capistrano. It’s been renamed the Serra Chapel and is the oldest building still in use in California. In 1791 a bell tower was completed.
    (HT, 3/97, p.60)(http://gocalifornia.about.com/cs/missioncalifornia/a/capistranohist.htm)

1777        George Washington wrote a letter offering Nathaniel Sackett $50 a month to set up an intelligence network.
    (SFC, 7/17/02, p.A3)
1777        George Washington led a campaign against the British and their Iroquois allies in Pennsylvania, New York, and the Ohio country. These included the Six Nations Indians: Mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, Seneca, Oneida, and Tuscarora. In 2005 Glenn F. Williams published “The Year of the Hangman: George Washington’s Campaign Against the Iroquois.
    (WSJ, 7/26/05, p.D8)
1777        Thomas Jefferson (34), US President (1801-1809), drafted Virginia’s Statute for Religious Freedom. It was passed by Virginia’s General Assembly in 1786.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/timeline-jeffersons-life)

1777        In San Francisco an Ohlone man name Chamis (20) became the first adult Indian to be baptized at Mission Dolores.
    (SFC, 11/2/19, p.C4)

1777        The circular saw was invented.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1777        Captain James Cook, while exploring the Pacific, reported on long-board surfers in Tahiti and Oahu and observed that the sport appeared recreational rather than competitive.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1777        Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, the Marquis de Lafayette, arrived in the US in his own boat and offered his services to Gen’l. George Washington.
    (WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)

1777        An Italian scientist became the 1st to identify a certain eel as female. In 1882 another scientist figured out how to identify a male eel.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.E4)

1777        In England Charles Hall founded a brewery in Dorset. In 1847 the Woodhouses married into the family and it became the Hall & Woodhouse brewery.
    (Econ, 5/10/14, SR p.3)

1777        Stavropol was founded in south-western Russia during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 as a military encampment. In 1785 it was designated as a city.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stavropol)

1777-1778    Some 2,000 American soldiers died at Washington’s Valley Forge encampment in Penn. over a harsh weather period of 7 months.
    (WSJ, 1/3/02, p.A7)

1777-1787    Juan Bautista de Anza served as the governor of New Mexico.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1777        Vermont including the town of Killington declared independence from New York and New Hampshire. It became a country unto itself, coined its own money, set up its own postal service and elected its own president. The Republic of Vermont stayed independent until 1791.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A6)(ST, 3/2/04, p.A5)

1777-1810    Phillip Otto Runge, German artist.
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1777-1811    Heinrich von Kleist, writer. His work included "St. Cecilia or The Power of Music."
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.E1)

1777-1851    Hans Christian Ursted (Oersted), Danish physicist.
    (AHD, 1971, p.911)

1778        Jan 10, Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linné, b.1707], Swedish botanist, died. His system for classifying living organisms in a hierarchy placed kingdoms at the top and species at the bottom.
    (HN, 5/23/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus)

1778        Jan 18, English navigator Captain James Cook discovered the Hawaiian Islands, which he dubbed the "Sandwich Islands" after the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Sandwich. About 350,000 Hawaiians inhabited them. Cook first landed on Kauai and then Niihau where his men introduced venereal disease.
    (Wired, 8/95, p.90)(AP, 1/18/98)(HN, 1/18/99)

1778        Jan 27, Nicolo Piccinni's (1728-1800) opera "Roland" premiered in Paris.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1088)(MC, 1/27/02)

1778        Feb 6, The United States won official recognition from France as the nations signed a treaty of aid in Paris. The Franco-American Treaty of Alliance bound the 2 powers together "forever against all other powers." It was the first alliance treaty for the fledgling US government and the last until the 1949 NATO pact. Benjamin Franklin signed for the US.
    (WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A15)(AP, 2/6/97)(AH, 2/06, p.59)
1778        Feb 6, England declared war on France.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1778        Feb 13, Fernando Sor, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1778        Feb 14, The American ship Ranger carried the recently adopted Star and Stripes to a foreign port for the first time as it arrived in France.
    (AP, 2/14/98)

1778        Feb 22, Rembrandt Peale, American painter who painted excellent portraits of the founding fathers of the United States, was born.
    (HN, 2/22/99)

1778        Feb 23, Baron von Steuben joined the Continental Army at Valley Forge.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1778        Feb 25, Jose Francisco de San Martin (d.1850) was born in Argentina. He liberated Argentina, Chile and Peru. Protector of Peru (1821-1822).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_de_San_Mart%C3%ADn)(ON, 10/09, p.8)

1778        Feb 28, Rhode Island General Assembly authorized the enlistment of slaves.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1778        Mar 5, Thomas A. Arne (67), English composer (Alfred, Rule Britannia), died.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1778        Mar 7, Capt. James Cook 1st sighted the Oregon coast and named Perpetua Cape in honor of St. Perpetua’s Day.
    (SSFC, 9/21/08, p.E7)

1778        Mar 15, In command of two frigates, the Frenchman la Perouse sailed east from Botany Bay for the last lap of his voyage around the world.
    (HN, 3/15/99)

1778        Mar 15, Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, was discovered by Captain Cook.
    (HN, 3/15/98)(MC, 3/15/02)

1778        Mar 22, Captain Cook sighted Cape Flattery in Washington state.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1778        Apr 1,  Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, created the "$" symbol.
    (HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)

1778        Apr 10, William Hazlitt (d.1830), essayist, critic, was born in Maidstone, Kent, England. 
    (AP, 11/10/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hazlitt)

1778        Apr 18, John Paul Jones attacked the British revenue cutter Husar near the Isle of Man, but it escaped. Soon thereafter he raided Whitehaven and burned one coal ship.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778        Apr 22, James Hargreaves, inventor (spinning jenny), died.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1778        Apr 23, US Captain John Paul Jones attempted to kidnap the Earl of Selkirk, but he only got Lady Selkirk's silverware.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778        Apr 24, US Ranger Captain John Paul Jones captured the British ship Drake.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)(Internet)

1778        May 11, William Pitt Sr. (69), English premier (1756-61, 66-68), died.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1778        May 30, Voltaire (b.1694), French writer born as Francois-Marie Arouet, died. His books included Candide (1759).
    (www.online-literature.com/voltaire/)

1778        Jun 7, George Byran "Beau" Brummell (d.1840), English wit, was born. He influenced men's fashion and introduced trouser to replace breeches.
    (HN, 6/7/99)

1778        Jun 18, American forces entered Philadelphia as the British withdrew during the Revolutionary War.
    (AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/18/98)

1778        Jun 19, General George Washington’s troops finally left Valley Forge after a winter of training. Washington left to intercept the British force on its way to New York City.
    (HN, 6/19/98)(MC, 6/20/02)

1778        Jun 27, The Liberty Bell came home to Philadelphia after the British left.
    (MC, 6/27/02)

1778        Jun 28, "Molly Pitcher," Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley, wife of an American artilleryman, carried water to the soldiers during the Revolutionary War Battle of Monmouth, N.J. and, supposedly, took her husband's place at his cannon after he was overcome with heat. Temperatures reportedly reached 96 degrees in the shade. According to myth she was presented to General George Washington after the battle. Her actual existence is a matter of historical debate and the outcome of the battle was inconclusive.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)(HNQ, 7/25/99)(AP, 6/28/08)(SSFC, 6/28/09, p.B12)

1778        Jun, George Washington appointed Benedict Arnold as military governor of Philadelphia.
    (ON, 11/01, p.1)

1778        Jul 2, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (b.1712), Swiss-born writer and philosopher, died in France.  He was considered part of the French Enlightenment along with Voltaire and Diderot. In 2005 Leo Damrosch authored “Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Restless Genius."
    (www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm)(WSJ, 6/7/00, p.A24)

1778        Jul 3, The Wyoming Massacre occurred during the American Revolution in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. As part of a British campaign against settlers in the frontier during the war, 360 American settlers, including women and children, were killed at an outpost called Wintermoot's Fort after they were drawn out of the protection of the fort and ambushed.
    (HNQ, 11/5/98)(MC, 7/3/02)

1778        Jul 8, George Washington headquartered his Continental Army at West Point.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1778        Jul 10, In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declared war on England.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1778        Jul 27, British and French fleets fought to a standoff in the first Battle of Ushant.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1778        Jul, In Indiana American Captain Leonard Helm occupied Fort Sackville, formerly named Fort Vincennes, the British having withdrawn to Detroit.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forts_of_Vincennes,_Indiana)

1778        Aug 3, In Milan the  Teatro alla Scala, originally known as the Nuovo Regio Ducale Teatro alla Scala (New Royal-Ducal Theatre alla Scala), was inaugurated. It was built by Giuseppe Piermarini in neo-Classical style.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Scala)

1778        Aug 9, Captain Cook reached Cape Prince of Wales in the Bering straits.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1778        Aug 14, Augustus Montague Toplady (b.1740), English Calvinist hymn writer (Rock of Ages), died. His best prose work is the "Historic Proof of the Doctrinal Calvinism of the Church of England" (London, 1774).
    (MC, 8/14/02)(Wikipedia)

1778        Aug 20, Bernardo O'Higgins was born in Chile. He later won independence for Chile.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1778        Aug 31, British killed 17 Stockbridge Indians in Bronx during Revolution.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1778        Sep 3, Jean Nicolas Auguste Kreutzer, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1778        Sep 5, Gideon Olmstead and 3 fellow Americans took over the British sloop Active and sailed it toward the New Jersey coast, where it was intercepted by the American brig Convention, owned by the state of Pennsylvania. A state court ruled the sloop a prize of the state. An appeals committee overturned the Philadelphia court. Olmstead spent the next 30 years fighting for his claim and won in 1808. [see Mar 6, 1779]
    (ON, 12/01, p.9)

1778        Sep 7, Shawnee Indians attacked and laid siege to Boonesborough, Kentucky.
    (HN, 9/7/98)

1778        Sep 17, The 1st treaty between the US and Indian tribes was signed at Fort Pitt.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1778        Oct 3, Capt. Cook anchored off Alaska.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1778        Nov 9, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (58), Italian etcher, died.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1778            Nov 11, British redcoats, Tory rangers and Seneca Indians in central New York state killed more than 40 people in the Cherry Valley Massacre. A regiment of 800 Tory rangers under Butler (1752-1781) and 500 Native forces under the Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant (1742-1807), fell upon the settlement, killing 47, including 32 noncombatants, mostly by tomahawk.
    (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Cherry-Valley-Massacre)(AP, 11/11/07)

1778        Nov 14, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1778        Nov 26, Captain Cook discovered Maui in the Sandwich Islands, later named Hawaii.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1778        Nov 27, John Murray, publisher, was born.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1778        Dec 17, Humphrey Davy (d.1829), English chemist who discovered the anesthetic effect of laughing gas (1799), was born.
    (HN, 12/17/98)(Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)(ON, 12/01, p.7)
1778        Dec 17, The British—under Lt. Col. Henry Hamilton—returned and recaptured Fort Sackville (near Vincennes, Indiana).
    (HNQ, 7/24/00)

1778        Dec 26, Juan Lovera, artist, was born: ‘artist of independence’: originator of Venezuelan historical painting: paintings commemorate Venezuela’s independence dates.
    (440.com)

1778        Dec 29, British troops, attempting a new strategy to defeat the colonials in America, captured Savannah, the capital of Georgia.
    (HN, 12/29/98)

1778        John Singleton Copley, American artist, painted "Watson and the Shark." The work was based on a real life incident from 1749 in Cuba’s Havana Harbor, where Brook Watson (14) lost half a leg to a shark. Watson went on to become the Lord Mayor of London.
    (WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1778        Thomas West, a Jesuit priest (c.1720-1779), wrote the “Guide to the Lakes," the first guidebook to the Lake District of England.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.88)(http://tinyurl.com/y4prxbr)

1778        Federalists won over anti-Federalists in a crucial New York state ratifying convention for the Constitution.
    (WSJ, 6/10/98, p.A18)

1778        In the winter of 1778, American troops stationed at West Point on the Hudson River nicknamed the place "Point Purgatory." Now the site of the famous military academy, during the Revolutionary War West Point was a strategic highland on the Hudson. Both the British and the Americans considered it very important for controlling the vital Hudson.
    (HNQ, 5/29/00)

1778        British troops ordered ships in Newport Harbor, R.I., to be sunk as French naval forces approached.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A9)

1778        Benjamin Franklin, on a diplomatic mission in France, approved a plan by John Paul Jones to disrupt British merchant shipping along Britain's undefended west coast.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778        Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, was released from prison in England as part of a prisoner exchange.
    (ON, 3/00, p.6)

1778        In New York City Robert Edwards, a Welsh buccaneer, or his son supposedly leased 77 acres of prime land to Trinity Church on a 99-year lease. The land later included what became Wall street. The land was supposed to revert to his descendants but that didn't happen. The case was to go to court in 1999.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A13)
1778        Benjamin Tallmadge, under orders from George Washington, organized a spy network in NYC, the heart of the British forces. The code name for the group was Samuel Culper and it became known as the Culper Gang.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.6)

1778        A census in Argentina showed that about 30% of the 24,363 residents of Buenos Aires were African.
    (SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

1778        Juan Bautista de Anza led a punitive expedition across new Mexico and Colorado against the Comanches. His forces cornered and killed Comanche Chief Cuerno Verde and other leaders at what later became Rye, Colo.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1778        The king of the Big Island of Hawaii sent his warrior-general Kamehameha to Lana’i, under the rule of Maui, after being thwarted in a bid to conquer Maui. Kamehameha’s troops destroyed everyone on the island, which event gave the island its name. Lana’i means "day of conquest."
    (SFEM, 10/13/96, p.24)

1778        Joshua Spoontree was murdered by three ruffians hired by his wife.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.21)

1778        In England the Catholic Relief Act was enacted. It inspired London riots in Jun 1780.
    (HNQ, 2/24/99)
1778        Botanist Joseph Banks (1743-1820) became president of the British Royal Society. He had accompanied Capt. Cook to catalog plants and animals of Australia and New Zealand on the 3-year journey (1768-1771).
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.87)(www.nndb.com/people/077/000100774/)

1878        A repressive general of the Russian Czar was shot and wounded by revolutionary Vera Zasulich. She was able to talk a jury into acquitting her. Oscar Wilde’s first play, “Vera" (1883), was inspired by her actions.
    (SFC, 9/24/08, p.E1)

1778        King Carlos III of Spain sent Spanish settlers from the Canary Islands to Louisiana. They settled in St. Bernard Parish and became known as Islenos or Spanish Cajuns.
    (SFC, 9/4/00, p.B2)

1778-1781     Under the Treaty of Commerce and Friendship, France aided the American revolutionaries. Some 44,000 French troops served during the American War of Independence.
    (AP, 5/3/03)

1778-1788    John Adams began a series of numerous missions to Europe. He was the first American ambassador to the court of St. James. Adams was able to negotiate a treaty with the Dutch government and secured a loan of $2 million. He also arranged a secret treaty with Brittain that recognized American territorial rights in the Mississippi Valley.
    (A&IP, Miers, p.20)(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1778-1829    Sir Humphrey Davy, British chemist. He discovered 12 chemical elements.
    (AHD, 1971 p.337)

1779        Jan 5, Stephen Decatur (d.1820), U.S. naval hero during actions against the Barbary pirates and the War of 1812, was born. [see 1820 Decatur-Barron duel]
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(HN, 1/5/99)
1779        Jan 5, Zebulon Montgomery Pike, explorer, (Pike's Peak), was born.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1779        Feb 14, American Loyalists were defeated by Patriots at Kettle Creek, Ga.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1779        Jan 18, Peter Roget, thesaurus fame, inventor (slide rule, pocket chessboard), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1779        Feb 7, William Boyce (67), composer, died. [see Feb 16]
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1779        Feb 10, A shootout at Carr's Fort in Georgia turned back men sent to Wilkes County to recruit colonists loyal to the British army. In 2012 archeologists located the site.
    (AP, 5/6/13)

1779        Feb 14, Captain James Cook (b.1728), English explorer, was killed on the Big Island in Hawaii. In 2002 Tony Horwitz authored "Blue Latitudes," and Vanessa Collingridge authored "Captain Cook: A Legacy Under Fire."
    (WSJ, 10/2/02, p.D12)(www.royal-navy.mod.uk/static/pages/3521.html)

1779        Feb 16, William Boyce, English organist, composer (Cathedral Music), died. [see Feb 7]
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1779        Feb 25, Fort Sackville, originally named Fort Vincennes, was captured by Colonel George Rogers Clark in 1779. Col. Clark led a force of some 170 men from Kaskaskia to lay siege to Fort Sackville in January, and received Hamilton‘s surrender on February 25. With the surrender of Fort Sackville, American forces gained effective control of the Old Northwest, thereby affecting the outcome of the Revolutionary War. The fort, which Clark described as “a wretched stockade, surrounded by a dozen wretched cabins called houses," was located near present-day Vincennes, Indiana.
    (HNQ, 7/24/00)(AP, 2/25/08)

1779        Mar 6, The US Congress declared that only the federal government, and not individual states, had the power to determine the legality of captures on the high seas. This was the basis for the 1st test case of the US Constitution in 1808.
    (ON, 12/01, p.9)

1779        Mar 31, Russia and Turkey signed a treaty by which they promised to take no military action in the Crimea.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1779        Apr 24, Mr. H. Sykes, an English optician living in Paris, wrote to Ben Franklin and explained a delay in sending an order for special spectacles, complaining that he was having difficulty making them. Franklin is believed to have ordered his first pair of bifocals from Sykes.
    (www.antiquespectacles.com/topics/franklin/franklin.htm)

1779        May 13, War of Bavarian Succession ended.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)

1779        May 23, Benedict Arnold, military governor of Philadelphia, wrote a query to the British asking what they would pay for his services. He had already begun trading with the British for personal profit and faced charges.
    (ON, 11/01, p.1)

1779        May 25, Henry M. Baron de Kock, Dutch officer, politician, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1779        May 28, Thomas Moore, Irish poet, was born.
    (HN, 5/28/01)

1779        Jun 16, Spain, in support of the US, declared war on England.
    (MC, 6/16/02)
1779        Jun 16, Vice-Admiral Hardy sailed out of Isle of Wight against the Spanish fleet.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1779        Jun 18, French fleet occupied St Vincent.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1779        Jul 4, A French fleet occupied Grenada.
    (Maggio)

1779        Jul 10, Alois Basil Nikolaus Tomasini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1779        Jul 15, Clement Moore, founder of the General Theological Seminary in New York City, was born.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1779        Jul 16, American troops under General Anthony Wayne, aka Mad Anthony Wayne, captured Stony Point, NY, with a loss to the British of more than 600 killed or captured.
    (HN, 7/16/98)(http://hhr.highlands.com/stpt.htm)

1779        Jul 24, The Siege of Gibraltar by the Spanish and French was begun. British Gen. George Eliott led the 5,000 man Gibraltar garrison. The siege was finally lifted on Feb 7, 1783. In 1965 T.H. McGuffie authored "The Siege of Gibraltar, 1779-1783).
    (HN, 2/7/99)(ON, 7/01, p.8)

1779        Aug 1, Francis Scott Key, author of the "Star Spangled Banner," was born.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1779        Aug 7, Carl Ritter, cofounder of modern science of geography, was born in Quedlinberg, Prussia.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1779        Aug 19, Americans under Major Henry Lee took the British garrison at Paulus Hook, New Jersey.
    (HN, 8/19/98)

1779        Sep 2, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (d.1844), French king of the Netherlands (1806-10), was born in Corsica. He was one of 3 younger brothers of Napoleon I.
    (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Louis-Napoleon-Bonaparte)

1779        Sep 10, Louis Alexandre Piccinni, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1779        Sep 13, Frederick II of Prussia issued a manifesto in which he bemoaned the increased use of coffee and called for more consumption of beer.
    (SFC, 1/30/99, p.D3)

1779        Sep 23, During the Revolutionary War, the American navy under John Paul Jones, commanding from Bonhomie Richard, defeated and captured the British man-of-war Serapis. An American attack on a British convoy pitted the British frigate HMS Serapis against the American Bon Homme Richard. The American ship was commanded by Scotsman John Paul Jones, who chose to name the ship after Benjamin Franklin's “Poor Richard’s Almanack." Fierce fighting ensued, and when Richard began to sink, Serapis commander Richard Pearson called over to ask if Richard would surrender and Jones responded, "I have not yet begun to fight!"--a response that would become a slogan of the U.S. Navy. Pearson surrendered and Jones took control of Serapis. The Bonhomie Richard sank 2 days after the battle. In 1959 the film Jean Paul Jones starred Robert Stack.
    (TVM, 1975, p.294)(AP, 9/23/97)(HN, 9/23/98)(HNPD, 9/23/98)(Arch, 9/02, p.17)

1779        Sep 27, John Adams was named to negotiate the Revolutionary War's peace terms with Britain.
    (AP, 9/27/97)

1779        Oct 9, The Luddite riots being in Manchester, England in reaction to machinery for spinning cotton.
    (HN, 10/9/00)

1779        Oct 11, Polish nobleman General Casimir Pulaski died two days after being mortally wounded while fighting for American independence during the Revolutionary War Battle of Savannah, Ga. Brig. Gen. Casimir Pulaski had come to America in 1777. In 2005 an attempt to confirm his remains using DNA was inconclusive.
    (AH, 10/04, p.15)(AP, 6/24/05)(AP, 10/11/07)

1779        Dec 25, A court-martial was convened against Benedict Arnold. He defended himself successfully on 6 of 8 charges but was convicted of illegally issuing a government pass and using government wagons to transport personal goods.
    (ON, 11/01, p.2)

1779        Nov 4, John W. Pieneman, historical painter (Battle at Waterloo), was born.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1779        Nov 12, A group of 20 slaves who had fought in the war submitted a petition to the New Hampshire General Assembly, while the war was still being fought. Lawmakers decided the time was not right. 6 of the slaves were later freed. In 2013 a state Senate committee recommended that the state posthumously emancipate 14 of the slaves who died in bondage. On June 7, 2013, they were granted posthumous emancipation when Gov. Maggie Hassan signed a largely symbolic bill that supporters hope will encourage future generations to pursue social justice.
    (SFC, 3/7/13, p.A5)(AP, 6/7/13)

1779        Nov 13, Thomas Chippendale (61), English furniture maker, died.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1779        Dec 6, Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (b.1699), French painter, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste-Sim%C3%A9on_Chardin)

1779        Dec 19, Auguste-Gaspard-Louis Desnoyers, engraver, was born in Paris, France.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1779        Dec 23, Benedict Arnold was court-martialed for improper conduct. He followed the time-honored military tradition of using government carts to transport his personal items. He was routinely sentenced to be censured by Gen. Washington- a formality which the thin-skinned Arnold took personally, ultimately leading him to switch allegiance to the British cause.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1779        Frances Trollope was born the daughter of a clergyman and raised near Bristol. She produced 35 novels and 5 travel books. In 1998 Pamela Neville-Sington wrote the biography "Fanny Trollope: The Life and Adventures of a Clever Woman."
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)

1779        Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) painted the portrait “George Washington at Princeton." In 2006 it was auctioned for a $21.3 million, a record price for an American portrait.
    (SFC, 1/11/06, p.G2)(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.A3)

1779        Richard Samuel (d.1787), British painter, sent the Royal Academy exhibition his “Nine Living Muses of Great Britain." The 1778 painting featured a group of female writers and artists that included the Swiss-Austrian painter Angelica Kauffman (1741-1807).
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelica_Kauffmann)

1779        The captured journal of British officer Henry De Berniere was published by John Gill, member of the Sons of Liberty. Gill had printed many anti-British pamphlets including the rebel newspaper Boston Gazette.
    (AH, 10/01, p.56)

1779        The play "Nathan der Weise" (Nathan the Wise) by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, German playwright, was 1st produced. It is set in Jerusalem in 1193 and shows a humane Jewish merchant, Nathan, spreading benevolence and reconciliation among local Muslims and Christians. Nathan tells Saladin a story: "My council is: Accept the matter wholly as it stands …Let each one believe his ring to be the true one."
    (WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-6)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)(WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A11)

1779        Richard Brinsley Sheridan wrote his play "The Critic." It was a rewrite of a Restoration original.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1779        Ethan Allen authored "A Narrative of Ethan Allen’s Captivity."
    (ON, 3/00, p.6)

1779        The Gluck opera "Iphigenie en Tauride" was composed.
    (WSJ, 8/12/97, p.A12)

1779        There were 21 regiments of loyalists in the British army estimated at 6500-8000 men. Washington reported a field army of 3468 men.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)

1779        Thomas Jefferson (36), US President (1801-1809), was elected as the 2nd Governor of Virginia succeeding Patrick Henry. Jefferson served for 2 years with James Madison (28) in his cabinet.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/timeline-jeffersons-life)(WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)

1779        John Adams drafted most of the Massachusetts state constitution.
    (WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1779        Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule, so called because it is a hybrid of Arkwright's water frame and James Hargreaves' spinning jenny in the same way that mule is the product of crossbreeding a female horse with a male donkey.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinning_mule)

1779         The British adopted a strategy to seize parts of Maine, especially around Penobscot Bay, and make it a new colony to be called "New Ireland." In July a British naval and military force under the command of General Francis McLean sailed into the harbor of Castine, Maine, landed troops, and took control of the village. After peace was signed in 1783, the New Ireland proposal was abandoned.
    {Maine, USA, Britain, Canada}
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Ireland_%28Maine%29)

1779        The Italian grappa distillery, Ditta Bortolo Nardini, was founded.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)

1779        Catherine the Great of Russia bought 204 works of art from the collection of Sir Robert Walpole (d.1745) from Walpole’s grandson. The sale was brokered by pioneering auctioneer James Christie. In 1789 the Picture Gallery at Walpole’s Houghton estate was destroyed by fire.
    (WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A16)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.89)(Econ, 9/28/13, p.63)

1779-1780     In Russia the Molokans split from the Doukhobors because they thought that the Doukhobors neglected the Bible in their belief that God had placed the Word directly into their hearts. The first recorded use of the term "Molokan" appears in the 1670s, in reference to the people who had the practice of drinking milk on the 200 fasting days stipulated by the Orthodox Church.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molokan)(SSFC, 3/17/19, p.A2)

1780-1789 xxxx

1780        Jan 2, A blizzard hit Washington's army at the Morristown, NJ, winter encampment.
    (AH, 2/05, p.16)
1780        Jan 2, Johann Ludwig Krebs (b.1713), German composer, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Ludwig_Krebs)

1780        Feb 9, Walenty Karol Kratzer, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1780        Feb 14, William Blackstone (56), English lawyer, died.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1780         Mar 1, Pennsylvania became the first U.S. state to abolish slavery (for new-borns only). It was followed by Connecticut and Rhode Island in 1784, New York in 1785, and New Jersey in 1786. Massachusetts abolished slavery through a judicial decision in 1783 (see July 8 1777).
    (http://quod.lib.umich.edu/c/clementsmss/umich-wcl-M-230dau?view=text)

1780        Mar 17, Thomas Chalmers, 1st moderator (Free Church of Scotland 1843-47), was born.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1780        Mar 21, The Marquis de Lafayette set sail for the US aboard the Hermione after persuading French King Louis XVI to provide military and financial aid to support George Washington’s troops.
    (SSFC, 4/19/15, p.A2)

1780        Mar 26, The 1st British Sunday newspaper appeared as the British Gazette and Sunday Monitor.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1780        Mar 27, August L. Crelle, German inventor, mathematician (1st Prussian Railway), was born.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1780        Apr 4, Edward Hicks (d.1849), Quaker preacher and painter, was born. His work included over 60 paintings that were all titled "The Peaceable Kingdom.’
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)(SFC, 9/25/00, p.F1)(HN, 4/4/01)

1780        Apr, George Washington censured Benedict Arnold for his misdeeds as governor of Philadelphia.
    (ON, 11/01, p.2)

1780        May 4, American Academy of Arts & Science was founded.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1780        May 12, Charleston, SC, fell to the British in the US Revolutionary War.
    (SC, internet, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/98)

1780        May 19, A mysterious darkness enveloped much of New England and part of Canada in the early afternoon; the cause has never been determined.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(DTnet 5/19/97)

1780        May, The Virginia continentals surrendered to Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, commander of the British Legion, following his victory at Waxhaws, SC. Tarleton then led the British troops to a massacre of the surrendering Virginia regulars and militiamen,  eliminating the last organized force in South Carolina. During the course of the Revolutionary War, Tarleton became one of the most hated men in America.
    (HNQ, 9/26/00)(AH, 10/07, p.29)

1780        Jun, The East India ship Princess Royal landed at Bengkulu on Sumatra with American rebels. The prisoners were sent to Fort Marlboro to be trained as British soldiers.
    (ON, 1/00, p.5)

1780        Jun, The London riots led by George Gordon in opposition to the Catholic Relief Act of 1778 took place. Anti-Catholic protesters wrought anarchy for a week in the Gordon riots.
    (HNQ, 2/24/99)(Econ, 10/19/13, p.88)

1780        Aug 5, Benedict Arnold took over the command of West Point from American Major Gen. Robert Howe.
    (ON, 11/01, p.2)

1780        Aug 16, American troops under Gen. Horatio Gates were badly defeated by the British at the Battle of Camden, South Carolina.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(HN, 8/16/98)(ON, 12/01, p.9)

1780        Aug 22, HMS Resolution returned to England without Capt Cook.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1780        Aug 24, King Louis XVI abolished torture as a means to get suspects to confess.
    (HN, 8/24/98)

1780        Aug 29, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (d.1867), French painter, was born. His work included the "Portrait of Monsieur de Norvins" and "Valpincon Bather."
    (WUD, 1994, p.731)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)(MC, 8/29/01)

1780        Aug 30, General Benedict Arnold betrayed the US when he promised secretly to surrender the fort at West Point to the British army. Arnold whose name has become synonymous with traitor fled to England after the botched conspiracy. His co-conspirator, British spy Major John Andre, was hanged in an act of spite by Washington ("it's good for the armies").
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1780        Sep 21-22, General Benedict Arnold, American commander of West Point, met with British spy Major John André to hand over plans of the important Hudson River fort to the enemy. Unhappy with how General George Washington treated him and in need of money, Arnold planned to "sell" West Point for 20,000 pounds--a move that would enable the British to cut New England off from the rest of the rebellious colonies. Arnold's treason was exposed when André was captured by American militiamen who found the incriminating plans in his stocking. Arnold received a timely warning and was able to escape to a British ship, but André was hanged as a spy on October 2, 1780. Condemned for his Revolutionary War actions by both Americans and British, Arnold lived until 1801.
    (HNPD, 9/21/98)

1780        Sep 23, British spy John Andre was captured along with papers revealing Benedict Arnold's plot to surrender West Point to the British. Arnold had switched sides partly because he disapproved of the US French alliance.
    (AP, 9/23/97)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)

1780        Sep 25, American General Benedict Arnold joined the British.
    (MC, 9/25/01)(ON, 11/01, p.5)

1780        Oct 2, British spy John Andre was hanged in Tappan, N.Y., for conspiring with Benedict Arnold.
    (AP, 10/2/97)

1780        Oct 6, Over 1500 Patriot fighters assembled on the outskirts of Cowpens, South Carolina, to confront Loyalist forces of British Major Patrick Ferguson.
    (ON, 12/07, p.6)

1780        Oct 7, Colonial patriots slaughtered a loyalist group at the Battle of King's Mountain in South Carolina. Patrick Ferguson (36), English Major in South Carolina, died in the battle along with some 200 Loyalists. Patriot losses numbered 30 with 62 wounded.
    (HN, 10/7/99)(ON, 12/07, p.7)

1780        Oct 10, A Great Hurricane killed 20,000 to 30,000 in Caribbean.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1780        Oct 20, M. Pauline Bonaparte, Corsican duchess of Parma and Guastalla, was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1780        Oct 31, The HMS Ontario was lost with barely a trace and as many as 130 people aboard during a gale on Lake Ontario. In 2008 explorers found the 22-gun British warship. Canadian author Arthur Britton Smith chronicled the history of the HMS Ontario in a 1997 book, "The Legend of the Lake."
    (AP, 6/14/08)

1780        Oct, Gen. Washington ordered Major General Nathanael Greene to replace Gen. Horatio Gates and take command of the southern Department of the Continental Army.
    (ON, 12/01, p.9)

1780        Nov 29, Maria Theresa Hapsburg (63), Queen of Austria, died.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1780        Dec 4, At the Battle of Rugeley's Mill, South Carolina, Colonel William Washington attacked a fortified log barn with 107 Loyalists inside. When the Patriot‘s small arms proved ineffective, Washington cut a log to resemble a cannon and demanded the surrender of the Loyalists. The "Quaker guns" used in the American War of Independence were fashioned out of logs to resemble cannon.  Fooled by the fake cannon, the promptly gave up. Quaker guns were also decisive at the May 1780 Battle of Hunt‘s Bluff, also in South Carolina.
    (HNQ, 4/24/00)

1780        George Stubbs, British painter, created his portrait of a poodle.
    (SFC, 6/25/99, p.A3)

1780         Goethe published a fragment of Faust.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.239)

1780        In San Francisco stone foundations were laid for a building at the military garrison in the Presidio. The Presidio’s Officer’s Club was later built on the same site.
    (SFC, 9/29/14, p.A9)

1780        The Warren Tavern was built in Charlestown (Boston) and named after Gen’l. Joseph Warren, who was killed at the battle of Bunker Hill.
    (HT, 3/97, p.34)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Tavern)

c1780    It was Alexander Hamilton’s idea to establish a central bank and consolidate the state debts left over from the Revolutionary War.
    (WSJ,2/13/97, p.A18)

1780        John Paul Jones’ "Continental Ship of War," Ranger, was captured by the British at the fall of Charleston, South Carolina, and was added to the Royal Navy under the name of Halifax.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.362)

1780        US Gen’l. Benedict Arnold, newly married and strapped for cash to maintain an extravagant lifestyle, began providing information to the British. He eventually joined the British as a brigadier general.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A3)

1780        The first inflation-linked bonds were issued in Massachusetts.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1780        Guillaume Raynal, a French historian, proclaimed Puerto Rico to be "in proportion to its size the very best island in the New World."
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.A3)

1780        The mission of San Lorenzo in the Native American pueblo of Picuris was built. It has no bell towers, is flanked by curved buttresses, and is one of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe, New Mexico.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)

1780        A Japanese whaling ship ran aground near the western end of the Aleutian Islands. Rats from the ship reached the nearest island giving it the name Rat Island. The incident introduced the non-native Norway rat, also known as the brown rat, to Alaska. The rats terrorized all but the largest birds on the island. In the Fall of 2008 poison was dropped onto the island from helicopter-hoisted buckets for a week and a half. By mid 2009 there were no signs of living rats and some birds had returned.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.43)(Reuters, 6/12/09)

1780        The giant Mosasaurus dinosaur head was found in the Netherlands near Maastricht. [see 1794]
    (NYT, 6/7/96, p.A4)

1780        A deadly hurricane hit the Windward and Leeward Islands and 20-22,000 people were killed.
    (SFC, 11/30/98, p.A2)

1780        In England Richard Brinsley Sheridan, playwright, entered Parliament as a supporter of the Whig politician Charles James Fox, who supported the American colonies against George III.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)

1780        In France a communal grave at the Cemetery of the Innocents in Paris cracked and spilled into the cellars of adjoining houses and prompted its closure.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.129)

1780        Salomon Gessner, printer, poet and friend of Goethe, founded the Neue Zurcher Zeitung (NZZ). In 2005 the newspaper celebrated its 225th birthday.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.45)

1780        The Ottomans build the al-Ajyad Castle in Mecca to protect the city and its Muslim shrines from invaders. The castle was torn down by the Saudis in 2001 to make way for a trade center and hotel complex. Turkey called this a "cultural massacre."
    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)

1780        Sheep were introduced to Ireland from Scotland.
    (SFCM, 10/14/01, p.25)

1780        In Peru Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui led a failed Indian revolt against the Spanish.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)

1780s        Steel pens were developed as more durable than quills.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1780s        Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, chemists, demonstrated that the byproducts of fire weighed as much as the original wood and demolished the idea that heat was caused by the release of phlogiston.
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)

1780s        English plumber, William Watts, built a tower to let fall drops of molten lead to a water well in his cellar to create shot for guns. Just as raindrops turn spherical on falling, so did his lead drops. His tower stood till 1968.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.E4)

1780-1783    A 4-year war between England and the Dutch was fought.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.F4)

1780-1792    The intellectual development over this period of American President James Madison is covered in a 1995 book by Lance Banning titled: The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic.
    (WSJ, 12/20/95, p.A-12)

1780-1820    Some 5,000 cases came before the Spanish Inquisition from which only 6 Spaniards were prosecuted for Judaism.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1780-1830    Louis-Leopold Boilly devoted himself in this period to painting aspects of the common man in France. His paintings include A Game of Billiards (1807) and Moving Day (1822).
    (WSJ, 11/7/95, p.A-1)

1780-1831    Karl von Clausewitz, German military officer and author of books on military science. In his 1st book "On War" he wrote: "War is an act of force to compel our enemy to do our will."
    (WUD, 1994, p.273)(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A10)

1780-1839    The Maharajah Ranjit Singh lived in India. He consolidated Sikh rule after splintering conflicts with Punjab's Mughal court and Afghan and Persian invaders.
    (SFC, 9/22/99, p.E1)

1780-1842    William Ellery Channing, American clergyman: "How the 'I' pervades all things!"
    (AP, 12/14/98)

1781        Jan 5, A British naval expedition led by Benedict Arnold burned Richmond, Va. Arnold led some 1,600 British and Loyalist troops in the destructive raid on Richmond.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(AH, 2/06, p.14)

1781        Jan 17, Daniel Morgan’s Continental regiments routed British forces at Cowpens, South Carolina. 300 British soldiers were killed or wounded and 500 taken prisoner. The cavalry skirmish at Cowpens was bloody but inconclusive.
    (ON, 12/01, p.10)(AH, 2/06, p.15)

1781        Feb 25, American General Nathanael Greene crossed the Dan River on his way to his March 15th confrontation with Lord Charles Cornwallis at Guilford Court House, N.C.
    (HN, 2/25/98)

1781        Feb, Gen. Washington, sensitive to the pleas of the Virginia Governor, ordered Lafayette south with a picked force of some 1,200 New England and New Jersey troops.
    (http://xenophongroup.com/mcjoynt/laf_va.htm)
 
1781        Mar 1, The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, following ratification by Maryland.
    (AP, 3/1/08)

1781        Mar 13, Astronomer William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus, which he named 'Georgium Sidus,' in honor of George III. He initially though it was a comet. It is the 7th planet from the sun and revolves around the sun every 84.02 years. It is 14.6 time the size of Earth and has five satellites.
    (AHD, p.1408)(HFA, '96, p.26)(AP, 3/13/98)(HN, 3/13/99)(MC, 3/13/02)

1781        Mar 15, Gen. Nathanael Greene engaged British forces under Cornwallis at Guilford Court-House, North Carolina. Greene retreated after inflicting severe casualties on Cornwallis’ army.
    (ON, 12/01, p.10)

1781        Mar, The Continental cavalry under Col. Henry Lee, the father of Robert E. Lee, surprised and cut to pieces the Loyalist cavalry near Hillsborough, NC. Ninety Loyalists were killed with no losses to Lee.
    (AH, 10/07, p.29)

1781        Apr 8, Premiere of Mozart's violin sonata K379.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1781        Apr 25, Gen. Nathanael Greene engaged British forces at Hobkirk’s Hill, South Carolina, and was forced to retreat.
    (ON, 12/01, p.10)

1781        Apr 29, French fleet stopped Britain from seizing the Cape of Good Hope.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1781        May 1, Emperor Josef II decreed protection of population.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1781        May 2, In Charles Town, S.C., William Collings sold his wife to Thomas Schooler, with her bed and clothing for $2 and a half dozen bowls of gross.
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, Z1 p.8)

1781        May 13, British Gen. William Phillips died of a fever Petersburg, Va., as his forces confronted the American army under Lafayette. Phillips had commanded the artillery battery whose fire had killed Lafayette’s father at the Battle of Minden (1759).
    (ON, 2/09, p.5)

1781        May 14, Abram Petrovich Gannibal (b.1696), an African slave adopted by Peter the Great, died. He served Peter in various important capacities including spy and privy councilor. He is the great-grandfather of Alexander Pushkin. In 2005 Hugh Barnes authored “Gannibal: The Moor of Petersburg."
    (www.shaebia.org/wwwboard/contributedarticles/messages/58.html)(Econ, 8/20/05, p.66)

1781        May 25, Ferdinand, archduke of Austria-Este, Governor-General (Sicily), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1781        Jun 9, George Stephenson, English engineer, inventor of the steam locomotive, was born in Newcastle, England.
    (HN, 6/9/01)(MC, 6/9/02)

1781        Jun 11, A Peace Commission created by Congress was composed of John Adams, John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens and Thomas Jefferson. Congress decided to appoint a commission to negotiate terms for peace rather than entrust John Adams alone with the negotiations. On June 15 Congress modified the 1779 peace instructions to include only as essential U.S. independence and sovereignty.
    (HNQ, 6/23/98)

1781        Jun, Emily Geiger was said to have crossed British lines in North Carolina to deliver an urgent message to American Gen. Nathaniel Greene as Greene’s army retreated from British forces under Gen. Francis Rawdon.
    (ON, 11/01, p.9)

1781        Jul 5, Stamford Raffles, founder of Singapore, was born.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1781        Jul 6, In Virginia the Battle of Green Spring took place on the Jamestown Peninsula. It was the last major engagement of the Revolutionary War prior to the Colonial’s final victory at Yorktown in October.
    (LP, Spring 2006, p.60)

1781        Jul 17, Yuma Indians in southern California attacked two missions killing all the men but two and enslaving the women and children. They were upset after a Spanish officer let a large horse herd loose to graze in Yuma fields.
    (SFC, 12/13/14, p.C2)

1781        Jul 18, Yuma Indians in southern California ambushed Spanish Capt. Fernando Rivera y Moncada and his soldiers. Rivera had been ordered to recruit settlers in Sinaloa and Sonora and lead them through the desert over the Anza trail to a new settlement called Los Angeles. Rivera and all his soldiers were killed.
    (SFC, 12/13/14, p.C2)

1781        Jul 27, Mauro Giuseppe Sergio Pantaleo Giuliani, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1781        Aug 1, English army under Lord Cornwallis occupied Yorktown, Virginia.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1781        Aug 12, Robert Mills, architect and engineer, was born. His designs include the Washington Monument, the National Portrait Gallery and the U.S. Treasury Building.
    (HN, 8/12/00)

1781        Aug 20, George Washington began to move his troops south to fight Cornwallis.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1781        Aug 22, Col. William Campbell (36), West Virginia Patriot militia leader, died of an apparent heart attack during the siege of Yorktown. Campbell had led his militia in the Patriot victory on October 7, 1780, at the Battle of King's Mountain in South Carolina
    (ON, 12/07, p.7)

1781        Aug 30, The French fleet of 24 ships under Comte de Grasse arrived in the Chesapeake Bay to aid the American Revolution. The fleet defeated British under Admiral Graves at battle of Chesapeake Capes.
    (HN, 8/30/00)(MC, 8/30/01)

1781        Aug, Lt. Gen. Cornwallis began the defensive earthworks around Yorktown with 8,300 regulars and 2,000 escaped slaves, who believed British victory would mean freedom. The British army numbered 8,700.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.808)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)

1781        Sep 4, Mexican Provincial Governor, Felipe de Neve, founded Los Angeles. He founded El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles (Valley of Smokes), originally named Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciuncula, by Gaspar de Portola, a Spanish army captain and Juan Crespi, a Franciscan priest, who had noticed the beautiful area as they traveled north from San Diego in 1769. 44 Spanish settlers named a tiny village near San Gabriel, Los Angeles. Los Angeles, first an Indian village Yangma, was founded by Spanish decree. 26 of the settlers were of African ancestry.
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(AP, 9/4/97)(SFEC, 4/12/98, Par p.20)(HN, 9/4/98)(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)(HN, 9/4/00)(MC, 9/4/01)

1781        Sep 5, The British fleet arrived off the Virginia Capes and found 26 French warships in three straggling lines. Rear Adm. Thomas Graves waited for the French to form their battle lines and then fought for 5 days. Outgunned and unnerved he withdrew to New York. The French had some 37 ships and 29,000 soldiers and sailors at Yorktown while Washington had some 11,000 men engaged. French warships defeated British fleet, trapping Cornwallis in Yorktown.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.763)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)(MC, 9/5/01)

1781        Sep 6, Anton Diabelli, Austria publisher and composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)
1781        Sep 6, Martha Jefferson (b.1748), wife of Thomas Jefferson, died.
    (www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/mj3.html)

1781        Sep 8, Gen. Nathanael Greene engaged British forces at Eutaw Springs, South Carolina, and was forced to retreat.
    (ON, 12/01, p.10)

1781        Sep 16, Lt. Gen. Lord Charles Cornwallis directed the sinking of a fleet of ships at Yorktown to block a French landing and to keep them out of enemy hands.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.806)

1781        Sep 28, American forces in the Revolutionary War, backed by a French fleet, began their siege of Yorktown Heights, Va. 9,000 American forces and 7,000 French troops began the siege of Yorktown.
    (AP, 9/28/97)(MC, 9/28/01)

1781        Oct 1, James Lawrence, naval hero (War of 1812-"Don't give up the ship!"), was born.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1781        Oct 6, Americans and French began the siege of Cornwallis at Yorktown, the last battle of Revolutionary War.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1781        Oct 9, General George Washington commenced a bombardment of the Lord Cornwallis's encircled British forces at Yorktown, Virginia (Battle of Yorktown Revolutionary War). For eight days Lord Cornwallis endured the Americans heavy bombardment and had no choice but to surrender his 9,000 troops. It was considered that Washington had achieved the inconceivable with victory at Yorktown and that the British were defeated.
    (HN, 10/9/99)(MC, 10/9/01)

1781        Oct 19, Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis, surrounded at Yorktown, Va., by American and French regiments numbering 17,600 men, surrendered to George Washington and Count de Rochambeau at Yorktown, Va. Cornwallis surrendered 7,157 troops, including sick and wounded, and 840 sailors, along with 244 artillery pieces. Losses in this battle had been light on both sides. Cornwallis sent Brig. Gen. Charles O'Hara to surrender his sword. At Washington's behest, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln accepted it. Washington himself is seen in the right background of “The Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown" by artist John Trumbull. After conducting an indecisive foray into Virginia, Lt. Gen. Charles Lord Cornwallis retired to Yorktown on August 2, 1781. On August 16, General Washington and Maj. Gen. Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, began marching their Continental and French armies from New York to Virginia. The arrival of a French fleet, and its victory over a British fleet in Chesapeake Bay, sealed the trap.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.808)(AP, 10/19/97)(HNPD, 10/19/98)(HN, 10/19/98)

1781        Oct, French siege engineers under American command destroyed the British fortifications at Yorktown.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)

1781        Nov 5, John Hanson (1721-1783), a merchant and public official from Maryland during the era of the American Revolution, was elected as first President of the Confederation Congress (sometimes styled President of the United States in Congress assembled), following ratification of the articles. Hanson continued to serve as president until November 4, 1782.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hanson)

1781        Nov, British Capt. Luke Collingwood, commander of the slave ship Zong, in the face of endemic dysentery that had already killed 7 crewmen and 60 of 470 slaves, ordered his crew to throw sick slaves overboard in order to claim insurance money at the end of the voyage. Over 100 slaves were cast overboard. In 2007 Marcus Rediker authored “The Slave Ship," an account of this and the slave trade from 1700-1808.
    (www.umich.edu/~ece/student_projects/slavery/the_zong.html)(WSJ, 10/11/07, p.D8)

1781        Dec 11, David Brewster, physicist and inventor (kaleidoscope), was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1781        Mozart broke with his patron, the archbishop of Salzburg, and struck off on his own. Mozart’s opera "Idomeneo" was composed.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.236)(WSJ, 1/6/00, p.A20)

1781        The French Marquis de Condorcet authored his pamphlet “Reflections on Negro Slavery."
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.94)

1781        Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), English lexicographer, essayist and poet, authored “Lives of the English Poets."
    (ON, 11/06, p.9)(WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)

1781        Immanuel Kant published his "Critique of Pure Reason." The questions of whether the universe has a beginning and whether it is limited in space are described as antinomies (that is, contradictions). This is because he saw compelling arguments for and against. [see 1790]
    (BHT, Hawking, p.8)

1781        The earliest reference to the New Orleans Mardi Gras "Carnival" appeared in a report to the Spanish colonial governing body. The Perseverance Benevolent & Mutual Aid Association became the first of hundreds of clubs and carnival organizations formed in New Orleans.
    (www.mardigrasneworleans.com/history.html)

1781        John Quincy Adams (14) served as secretary to the American ambassador to Russia.
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, Z1 p.12)
1781        Robert Morris (1734-1806), a Liverpool-born American merchant, began serving as America’s Superintendent of Finance, in essence the country’s first treasury secretary, and continued to 1784.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Morris_%28financier%29)(Econ, 8/30/14, p.22)
1781        Benedict Arnold led raids on the privateering towns of New London and Groton, Connecticut. At Fort Griswold 83 patriots including Col. William Ledyard were killed upon surrendering to the British forces.
    (AH, 10/01, p.A10)

1781        Count Arco, a secretary of Austria’s Archbishop of Salzburg, fired Mozart from the service of the Archbishop. Mozart then began working on his comic opera “The Abduction from the Seraglio," which premiered the next year.
    (WSJ, 4/25/08, p.W14)

1781        Tupak Katari, Aymara Indian leader, laid siege to La Paz, Bolivia, for 109 days. A Spanish army finally broke through and Katari was executed by being drawn and quartered.
    (SFC, 4/5/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 1/8/04, p.A1)

1781        Asprey of London was founded. They established themselves based on accouterments and paraphernalia for tea parties.
    (SFEM,10/26/97, p.4)

1781        In Colombia the Comunero Revolt was the most serious revolt against Spanish authority before the war for independence. The most important uprising began among artisans and peasants in Socorro (in present day Santander Department). The imposition of new taxes by the viceroy stimulated the revolt further.
    (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+co0019))

1781        Chobei Takeda I (32) started a business selling traditional Japanese and Chinese medicines in Doshomachi, Osaka. In 1925 it was incorporated as Chobei Takeda & Co., Ltd., with capital of 5.3 million yen and Chobei Takeda V as president. The Company changed its name to Takeda Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. in 1943. Its English name was changed to Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd. in 1961.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, SR p.9)
1781        Soga Shohaku (b.1730), Japanese artist, died.
    (SFC, 1/14/06, p.E1)

1781-1782    Smallpox, reduced the Mandans, a Missouri River tribe of 40,000 people, down to 2,000 survivors. They partially recovered, increasing their numbers to some 12,000 by 1837.
    (www.madoc1170.com/madoc.htm)

1781-1841    Karl Friedrich Schinkel, German architect and artist.
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1781-1865    Andres Bello, diplomat, politician (a Senator in Chile - his adopted country), educator, poet and author of a Spanish grammar, was born in Venezuela. His selected writings were published by the Oxford Library of Latin America in 1998.
    (WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)

1782        Jan 7, The 1st US commercial bank, Bank of North America, opened in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1782        Jan 18, Daniel Webster (d.1852, aka Black Dan) American political leader, Senator and orator, lawyer, statesman, administrator and diplomat, was born in Salisbury, N.H. In 1830 he proclaimed "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!" He was Secretary of State before the Civil War.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AHD, p.1452)(WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A20)(AP, 1/18/98)(HN, 1/18/99)

1782        Mar 4, Johann Wyss, Swiss folklorist, writer (Swiss Family Robinson), was born.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1782        Mar 8, The Gnadenhutten massacre took place as some 90 Christian Delaware Indians were slain by militiamen in Ohio in retaliation for raids carried out by other Indians.
    (AP, 3/8/98)(AH, 4/07, p.14)

1782        Mar 18, John C. Calhoun (d.1850), U.S. statesman, was born.  He served as US vice-president from 1825-1832 under Adams and Jackson.
    (HN, 3/18/99)(WUD, 1994, p.210)

1782        Mar 24, Loyalist militiamen captured a fort on the New Jersey coast. Revolutionary commander Captain Joshua Huddy was captured and taken to New York. A few days later loyalist soldier Philip White was killed in Monmouth County, New Jersey.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Huddy)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.49)

1782        Mar 25, Carolina [Maria A] Bonaparte, (countess Lipona), sister of Napoleon), was born.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1782        Apr 12, The British navy won its only naval engagement against the colonists in the American Revolution at the Battle of Les Saintes in the West Indies off Dominica. A British fleet beat the French.
    (HN, 4/12/99)(MC, 4/12/02)

1782        Apr 19, Netherlands recognized the United States.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1782        Apr 21, Friedrich Froebel, German educator and founder of kindergarten, was born.
    (HN, 4/21/98)(MC, 4/21/02)

1782        May 26, British officer Capt. Charles Asgill (20), a captive from Yorktown, drew a short straw and was thereby selected to be executed should Capt. Lippincott not be turned over to the Patriots for trial. Asgill was spared following an appeal by French foreign minister Comte de Vergennes.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Huddy)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.49)

1782        Jun 20, Congress approved the Great Seal of the United States and the eagle as its symbol.
    (AP, 6/20/97)(SFC, 6/2/04, G9)

1782        Jul 15, Farinelli (77), Italian castrato, died.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1782        Jul 16, Mozart's opera "Das Entfuehrung aus dem Serail" (The Abduction from the Seraglio) premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1782        Jul 26, John Field, pianist, composer (Nocturnes), was born in Dublin, Ireland.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1782        Jul, "Die Entfuehrung aus dem Serail" (Abduction from the Seraglio) by Mozart was first performed.
    (SFC, 6/28/96, p.D6)(WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A16)

1782        Aug 2, George Washington created the Honorary Badge of Distinction. [see Aug 7]
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1782        Aug 7, General George Washington created the Order of the Purple Heart, a decoration to recognize merit in enlisted men and noncommissioned officers. Washington authorized the award of the Purple Heart for soldiers wounded in combat.
    (AP, 8/7/97)(HN, 8/7/98)
1782        Aug 7, A statue of Peter the Great was unveiled in St. Petersburg on the 100th anniversary of his accession to the throne. It was made by French sculptor Etienne-Maurice Falconet (1716-1791), who spent 12 years on the work. Empress Catherine commissioned it in 1765.
    (WSJ, 8/5/06, p.P12)

1782         Aug 18, Poet and artist William Blake married Catherine Sophia Boucher.
    (HN, 8/18/00)

1782        Sep 13, The British fortress at Gibraltar, under siege by French and Spanish forces since 1789, held off a heavy attack of battering ships.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(ON, 7/01, p.9)

1782        Oct 27, Niccolo Paganini (d.1840), composer and violin virtuoso, was born in Genoa, Italy. He was both syphilitic and consumptive since early manhood and died of TB in Nice.
    (WP, 1951, p.21)(MC, 10/27/01)

1782        Nov 30, The United States and Britain signed preliminary peace articles in Paris, recognizing American independence and ending the Revolutionary War.
    (AP, 11/30/97)(HN, 11/30/98)

1782        Dec 5, Martin Van Buren, 8th US President (1837-1841) was born in Kinderhook, N.Y. He was the first chief executive to be born after American independence.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

1782        Dec 14, Charleston, SC, was evacuated by British.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1782        Dec 29, 1st nautical almanac in US was published by Samuel Stearns in Boston.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1782        Zayn al-Din, the John James Audubon of Indian art, painted "A Painted Stork."
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.E1)

1782        J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur authored his "Letters From an American Farmer."
    (SFEC, 9/17/00, BR p.8)

1782        The first English Bible in America was published.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1782        The Unitarians were established as a religious group. They encouraged their members to seek spiritual truth based on human experience, not allegiance to creeds and doctrines. In 1961 they merged with the Universalists.
    (SFC, 4/20/04, p.B2)

1782        The Presidio at Santa Barbara, Ca., was built by the Spanish military.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T6)

1782        Father Serra held Easter Day services on the beach in Ventura, Ca., and founded the Mission San Buenaventura.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.T8)(SFCM, 7/18/04, p.16)

1782        Elias Boudinot served as president of the Continental Congress.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1782        The US declared the eagle was as its national bird.
    (SFC, 6/18/99, p.A3)

1782        Lexington, Kentucky, was established and became the first commercial and cultural center west of the Allegheny Mountains.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.47)

1782        Debora Sampson (1760-1827) of Massachusetts, a former female indentured servant, enlisted to fight in the American Revolution as a male. In 2014 Alex Myers, a descendant of Sampson, authored his novel Revolutionary, based on her life.
    (http://prezi.com/c5yxg9qqii1n/debora-sampson/)(SSFC, 2/23/14, p.F6)

1782        John Goodricke, a deaf mute astronomer, explained the varying brightness of the star Algol as being the result of 2 stars orbiting a common center of gravity. He thus explained the first "eclipsing binary."
    (NH, 10/96, p.62)

1782        British Capt. George Vancouver sailed by Lana’i, Hawaii, and noted its "naked appearance."
    (SFEM, 10/13/96, p.24)

1782        Pierre Choderlos de Laclos authored his novel “Les Liaisons dangereuses" (The Dangerous Liaisons). In 1988 a historical drama film of the same name was based upon Christopher Hampton's play Les liaisons dangereuses, an adaptation of the novel. In 1994 composer Conrad Susa (1935-2013) and Philip Littell created an opera of the same name based on the novel.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dangerous_Liaisons)(SSFC, 11/24/13, p.C10)(WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A20)
1782        The Comedie Francaise installed benches in the pit to prevent a mob-like atmosphere.
    (SFC, 3/9/07, p.E8)

1782        In Switzerland Anna Goeldi was beheaded as a witch for an alleged case of poisoning. A museum on Goeldi was opened in Mollis in 2007 on the 225th anniversary of her death. In 2008 the canton of Glarus said she should be exonerated because the execution was a miscarriage of justice. Goeldi was exonerated on August 27, 2008.
    (AP, 6/11/08)(AP, 8/27/08)

1782        The Wat Phra Kaew Temple was built in Bangkok, Thailand. It houses the most sacred image of Thai Buddhism, the Emerald Buddha.
    (Hem, 3/95, p.58)(SFCM, 9/23/07, p.22)
1782        The Grand Palace was built by King Rama I on the Chao Phraya River. The city of Bangkok grew up around it.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T14)

1782-1785    Mozart during this period wrote six string quartets dedicated to Haydn.
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 103)

1782-1849    William Miller, US religious leader. His followers founded the Adventist Church in 1845. The Seventh-Day Adventists broke from the Adventist Church in 1846, stressing legalism and Sabbatarianism, with strong views on diet, health and medicine.
    (HNQ, 9/29/99)

1782-1854     Susan Edmonstone Ferrier, Scottish novelist: "There are plenty of fools in the world; but if they had not been sent for some wise purpose, they wouldn't have been here; and since they are here they have as good a right to have elbow-room in the world as the wisest."
    (AP, 10/3/97)

1782-1857     Anne Sophie Swetchine, Russian-French author: "The chains which cramp us most are those which weigh on us least."
    (AP, 8/25/97)

1783        Jan 20, The fighting of the Revolutionary War ended. Britain signed a peace agreement with France and Spain, who allied against it in the American War of Independence.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(HN, 1/20/99)

1783        Jan 23, Stendahl (d.1842), [Marie Henri Beyle], French critic and writer (Le Rouge et de Noir), was born.  In 1997 Jonathon Keates published his book "Stendhal," which covers the writer’s life story. "Beauty is the promise of happiness." "One can acquire everything in solitude, except character."
    (WSJ, 3/25/97, p.A16)(AP, 12/4/97)(AP, 6/6/98)(MC, 1/23/02)

1783        Feb 3, Spain recognized United States' independence.
    (AP, 2/3/97)(HN, 2/3/99)

1783        Feb 4, Britain declared a formal cessation of hostilities with its former colonies, the United States of America.
    (AP, 2/4/97)

1783        Feb 5, Sweden recognized the independence of the United States.
    (AP, 2/5/97)(HN, 2/5/99)

1783        Feb 7, The Siege of Gibraltar, pursued by the Spanish and the French since July 24, 1779, was finally lifted. [see Sep 13, 1782]
    (HN, 2/7/99)(ON, 7/01, p.10)

1783        Mar 5, King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski granted rights to Jews of Kovno.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1783        Mar 8, Hannah Hoes Van Buren, wife of Martin Van Buren, was born.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1783        Apr 3, Washington Irving (d. Nov 28, 1859), essayist, author, historian, biographer, attorney/lawyer, American writer (Legend of Sleepy Hollow & Rip Van Winkle), was born in New York City. "No man is so methodical as a complete idler, and none so scrupulous in measuring out his time as he whose time is worth nothing."
    (DTnet 11/28/97)(HN, 4/3/98)(AP, 9/10/98)

1783        Apr 10, Hortense E. de Beauharnais, French queen of Netherlands (1806-10), was born.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1783        Apr 11, After receiving a copy of the provisional treaty on 13 March, Congress proclaimed a formal end to hostilities with Great Britain.
    (HN, 4/11/99)

1783        Apr 29, David Cox (d.1857), English watercolorist, was born. He books included “Treatise on Landscape Painting" (1813).
    (SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(www.chrisbeetles.com/pictures/artists/Cox_David/Cox_David.htm)

1783        May 4, In India Tipu Sultan was enthroned as the ruler of Mysore after the death of Haider Ali in a simple ceremony at Bednur.
    (www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080048779)

1783        May 9, Alexander Ross, pioneer, fur trader, was born in Canada.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1783        May 10, Niccola Benvenuti, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1783        May 30, The first American daily newspaper, The Pennsylvania Evening Post, began publishing in Philadelphia.
    (HN, 5/30/01)

1783        Jun 1, Last British troops sailed from New York. (MC, 6/1/02)
1783        Jun 1, Charles Byrne (22), known as the Irish giant, died. Standing at seven feet seven inches tall (2.3 meters) he was a celebrity in his own lifetime. When he died the renowned surgeon and anatomist John Hunter was keen to acquire his skeleton. Byrne wanted to be buried at sea. The surgeon managed to bribe one of the Irishman's friends and took his body before it could be laid to rest in the English Channel. Hunter boiled Byrne's body down to a skeleton and it became a key feature of his anatomy collection. In 2011 Experts called for the skeleton to be buried at sea, as Byrne wanted.
    (AP, 12/21/11)(http://www.thetallestman.com/pdf/charlesbyrne.pdf)

1783        Jun 4, The Montgolfier brothers launched their 1st hot-air balloon (unmanned) in a 10-minute flight over Annonay, France.
    (http://inventors.about.com/od/astartinventions/ss/airship_2.htm)

1783        Jun 8, In Iceland the Lakagicar volcano began erupting. Over the next 6 months it built a lava dam 40 miles long and 540 feet high in a month. The Laki volcano wiped out 75% of the crops, which led to a severe famine that killed some 10,000 people, 20% of the population, reducing the population to some 40,000 people. This was described by Haraldur Sigurdson in an article titled Volcanic Pollution and Climate: Eos 63, Aug. 10, 1982. The Laki eruption sent poisonous gases across Europe. In 2014 Alexandra Witze and Jeff Kanipe authored “Island on Fire: The Extraordinary Story of Laki: the Volcano that Turned Eighteenth-Century Europe Dark."
    (NH, 9/97, p.38)(SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A18)(AM, 7/00, p.40)(ON, 2/04, p.9)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.132)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.62)(Econ, 5/29/10, p.85)(Econ, 7/19/14,p.71)
1783        Jun 8-1784 Feb, A series of 10 eruptions from the Laki Craters on Iceland changed atmospheric conditions in most of the Northern Hemisphere. This also generated a cascade of events that led to record low levels of water in the Nile River and brought famine to the region. By 1785 a sixth of Egypt’s population had either perished or fled.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9xemq)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.134)

1783        Jul 24, Simon Bolivar (d.1830), was born in Caracas, Venezuela. He  was a soldier and statesmen who led armies of liberation throughout much of South America, including Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Peru and Bolivia, which took its name from Bolivar. Bolivar, called "the Liberator," was a leader in Venezuela for struggles of national independence in South America. He formed a Gran Colombia that lasted 8 years but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. Bolivar died of tuberculosis.
    (AHD, p.148)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.E3)(AP, 7/24/97)(HNQ, 3/30/00)
1783        Jul 24, Georgia became a protectorate of tsarist Russia.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1783        Aug 7, John Heathcoat (d.1861), English inventor of lace-making machinery (1809), was born. In 1816 Luddites burned down his Nottingham factory.
    (MC, 8/7/02)(Internet)   

1783        Aug 27, The 1st hydrogen balloon flight (unmanned), made by Professor Jacques Charles, successfully completed its inaugural flight in Paris.
    (www.twinring.jp/english/balloon/what_balloon/)

1783        Sep 3, The Treaty of Paris between the United States and Great Britain officially ended the Revolutionary War. The Treaty of 1783, which formally ended the American Revolution, is also known as the Definitive Treaty of Peace, the Peace of Paris and the Treaty of Versailles. Under the treaty, Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. The treaty bears the signatures of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay.
    (AP, 9/3/97)(HNQ, 7/19/98)(HN, 9/3/98)(MC, 9/3/01)
1783        Sep 3, Mackinac Island, Michigan, passed into US hands following the Paris Peace Treaty,
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.C5)

1783        Sep 11, Benjamin Franklin drafted the Treaty of Paris. [see Sep 3]
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1783        Sep 18, Leonhard Euler (b.1707), Swiss-born mathematician, died in St. Petersburg, Russia. His work estalished calculus as the basic tool of the mathematical sciences. Euler had introduced latin squares as a new kind of magic squares. It later formed the basis for the “sudoku" number game. In 2016 Ronald Calinger authored “Leonhard Euler: Mathematical Genius in the Enlightenment."
    (www.cut-the-knot.org/arithmetic/latin.shtml)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.67)(Econ, 1/9/16, p.72)

1783        Sep 19, Jacques Etienne Montgolfier launched a duck, a sheep and a rooster aboard a hot-air balloon at Versailles, France.
    (AP, 9/19/06)

1783        Sep 26, Jane Taylor, children's writer, was born. She was best known as the author of "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star."
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1783        Oct 6, Benjamin Hanks patented a self-winding clock.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1783        Oct 15, Francois Pilatre de Rozier (Jean Piletre de Rozier) made the first manned flight in a hot air balloon. The first flight was let out to 82 feet, but over the next few days the altitude increased up to 6,500 feet. [see Jun 5]
    (HN, 10/15/98)(MC, 10/15/01)

1783        Oct 23, Virginia emancipated slaves who fought for independence during the Revolutionary War.
    (HN, 10/23/98)

1783        Oct 29, Jean-Baptiste Le Rond d'Alembert (66), philosopher, mathematician, died. He co-compiled the Encyclopedia with Denis Diderot.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1783        Nov 1, Continental Army dissolved and George Washington made his "Farewell Address." [See Nov 2]
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1783        Nov 2, Gen. George Washington issued his "Farewell Address to the Army" near Princeton, N.J.
    (AP, 11/2/97)

1783        Nov 3, Washington ordered the Continental Army disbanded from its cantonment at New Windsor, NY, where it had remained since defeating Cornwallis in 1781.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1783        Nov 21, Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier (1754-1785) and the Marquis d’Arlandes made the first free-flight ascent in a balloon, to over 500 feet, in Paris.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Romain)(NPub, 2002, p.2)

1783        Nov 23, Annapolis, Md., became the US capital until June 1784. [see Nov 26, 1783]
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1783        Nov 25, The British evacuated New York, their last military position in the United States during the Revolutionary War.
    (AP, 11/25/97)

1783        Nov 26, The city of Annapolis, Maryland, was the first peacetime U.S. capital. The U.S. Congress met at Annapolis November 26, 1783-June 3, 1784, following the signing of the Treaty of Paris on September 3, 1783, formally ending hostilities between Great Britain and her former colony. New York was the capital from 1785 until 1790, followed by Philadelphia until 1800 and then Washington, D.C.
    (HNQ, 6/15/00)

1783         Dec 4, Gen. George Washington said farewell to his officers at Fraunces Tavern in NYC. In 2003 Stanley Weintraub authored "General Washington's Christmas Farewell."
    (AP, 12/4/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.T4)(WSJ, 12/10/03, p.D8)

1783        Dec 9, The 1st execution at English Newgate-jail took place.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1783        Dec 20, Antonio Francisco Jawer Jose Soler (54), Spanish composer (Fandango), died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1783        Dec 22, Washington resigned his military commission. [see Dec 23]
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1783        Dec 23, George Washington resigned as commander-in-chief of the Army and retired to his home at Mount Vernon, Va.
    (AP, 12/23/97)

1783        Dec 31, Import of African slaves was banned by all of the Northern American states.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1783        Augustin Pajou, French sculptor, completed his "Psyche Abandoned."
    (WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1783        John Mitchell wrote a paper in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal society of London in which he pointed out that a star that was sufficiently massive and compact would have such a strong gravitational field that light could not escape.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.82)

1783        Antonio Salieri (1750-1825), Italian composer, wrote his opera "Les Danaides."
    (WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)

1783        Noah Webster (1758-1843), a Connecticut schoolmaster, published the first edition of his American spelling book. As a Grammatical Institute of the English Language, the Spelling Book was influential in standardizing and differentiating, from the British forms, English spelling and pronunciation in America.
    (ON, 12/09, p.9)(Econ, 6/18/11, p.34)

1783        In Massachusetts a lighthouse was built in Boston Harbor on Little Brewster Island. Its light was automated in 1998. The original light was built here in 1716.
    (Econ, 3/31/12, p.41)(www.lighthouse.cc/boston/)

1783        Thomas Jefferson (40) of Virginia, US President (1801-1809) began serving in US Congress and continued for two years.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)

1783        Oliver Evans (1755-1819), American inventor, designed an automated gristmill.
    (WSJ, 6/4/08, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Evans)

1783        Loyalist Tory homes in Maine were taken apart and moved to New Brunswick, Canada, and reassembled. Boatloads of newcomers from New York and New England moved. Some of the new arrivals froze to death in makeshift shelters that winter.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T6,7)

1783        The so-called 1838 Aroostook War stemmed from a boundary dispute that had loomed since 1783 between Maine and New Brunswick and was not settled by the Peace of Ghent. After Maine became a state in 1820, it disregarded British claims in making land grants to settlers along the Aroostook River.
    (HNQ, 9/30/99)

1783        Nebula NGC 2261 was discovered by William Herschel.
    (http://observing.skyhound.com/archives/jan/NGC_2261.html)

1783        William Alexander (b.1726), American Revolutionary War general, died. Before the revolution, William Alexander petitioned Parliament for the right to the earldom of Stirling, Scotland. The title was never formally conferred upon him, but Alexander was generally known throughout the colonies as "Lord Stirling."
    (WUD, 1994 p.36)(HNQ, 8/14/02)

1783        The Sunni Al Khalifas arrived in Bahrain from the Arabian hinterland. The Bani Utbah clan captured Bahrain from Nasr Al-Madhkur and it has since been ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahrain)(Econ, 1/21/17, p.40)

1783        English Architect Thomas Leverton (1795-1885) designed the fanlight window above an entry in London’s Bedford Square.
    (WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Leverton_Donaldson)
1783        In Britain William Pitt (24) became prime minister and the youngest leader of the Tories. He was one of Great Britain‘s greatest peacetime leaders and served a prime minister from 1783-1801 and from 1804 until his death in 1806. Pitt was the son of William Pitt the Elder, who served as prime minister from 1766 to 1768.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A22)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)(HNQ, 1/29/00)
1783        In England executions were moved from Tyburn Gallows in Hyde Park to Newgate Prison.
    (SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)
1783        James Man founded a sugar cooperage and brokerage at 23 Harp Lane in the City of London. The company later became known as the Man Group.
    (www.mangroupplc.com/assets/pdf/media/press-pack.pdf)(Econ, 5/22/10, p.78)
1783        Captain Samuel Turner, a British army officer, traveled through Bhutan and Tibet.
    (Econ, 1/31/09, p.91)

1783        Some 3,000 Blacks, who had obtained British certificates of freedom for their loyalty in the American Revolution, arrived in Nova Scotia and spent some miserable years there. In 1785 a delegation sailed to Britain where they were offered passage to Africa in return for establishing a British colony in Sierra Leone.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)
1783        John H. Molson (19) acquired a share in a log cabin brewery on the banks of the St. Lawrence River and began the Molson beer empire.
    (WSJ, 6/29/04, p.A11)

1783        After this year German officially replaced Latin as the language of instruction in Austria.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.17)

1783        Mount Asama, one of Japan's largest and most active volcanoes, had a major eruption.
    (AP, 9/15/04)
1783        Yosa Buson (b.1716), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died. His work included “Landscapes on silver Ground" (1782).
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E10)

1783        The Kirov Ballet was founded in St. Petersburg.
    (WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)
1783        Catherine the Great annexed the Crimea to the Russian empire. 83% or the residents were Tatars.
    (SFC, 1/4/99, p.A8)(Econ, 2/25/06, p.55)

1783-1786    Japan suffered one of its worst famines in history when exceptional cold destroyed the rice harvest. As many as 1 million people died. Most of the impact for this was due to the eruptions of the Laki volcano in Iceland beginning in June, 1783.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.134)

1783-1840    Constantine Samuel Rafinisque, naturalist and author of the Walam Olum.
    (NH, 10/96, p.14)

1783-1881    In the Highland Clearances about 150,000 people were forced off their land to make way for large-scale sheep farming, an act many blame on Britain's ruling establishment.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

1784        Jan 14, The United States ratified a peace treaty with England, the Treaty of Paris, ending the Revolutionary War.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AP, 1/14/98)

1784        Jan 26, In a letter to his daughter, Benjamin Franklin expressed unhappiness over the eagle as the symbol of America. He wanted the turkey.
    (AP, 1/26/98)

1784        Feb 7, In Iceland the Lakagicar (Laki) volcano ceased its eruptions. Smoke from the 8 months of eruptions caused one of the longest and coldest winters in Europe. [see Jun 8, 1783]
    (ON, 2/04, p.10)

1784        Feb 22, A US merchant ship, the "Empress of China," left New York City on the first American trade mission to China. Real profit came on the return when the ship brought back Chinese teas and porcelain.
    (AP,  2/22/99)(Econ, 4/1/17, p.59)

1784        Feb 28, John Wesley (1703-1791) chartered the Methodist Church. His teaching emphasized field preaching along with piety, probity and respectability. In 2003 Roy Hattersley authored "A Brand from the Burning: The Life of John Wesley."
    (MC, 2/28/02)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1784        Feb 29, Marquis de Sade was transferred from Vincennes fortress to the Bastille.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1784        Mar 1, E. Kidner opened the 1st cooking school in Great Britain.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1784        Apr 2, Pierre Leclair (74), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1784        Apr 5, Louis [Ludwig] Spohr, German violin virtuoso, composer (Faust), was born.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1784        Apr 15, The first balloon flight occurred in Ireland. [see Jun 5, 1783 in France]
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1784        Apr 29, Premiere of Mozart's Sonata in B flat, K454 (Vienna).
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1784        Apr, The idea of resetting clocks forward an hour in the spring and back an hour in the fall was first suggested by Benjamin Franklin in his essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light," published in the Journal de Paris, as a way to save electricity.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/livescience/whostarteddaylightsavingtime)

1784        May 20, Peace of Versailles ended the war between France, England, and Holland.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1784        May 25, Jews were expelled from Warsaw by Marshall Mniszek.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1784        Jun 4, Elizabeth Thible became the first woman to fly aboard a Montgolfier hot-air balloon, over Lyon, France.
    (AP, 6/4/07)

1784        Jun 9, John Carroll was appointed supervisor of US Catholic Missions.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1784        Jun 16, Holland forbade orange clothes.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1784        Jun 24, In a tethered flight from Baltimore, Maryland, Edward Warren (13) became the 1st to fly in a balloon on US soil.
    (NPub, 2002, p.3)

1784            Jun 29, Caesar Rodney (b.1728), US judge, Delaware representative as a signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was later depicted on the Delaware state quarter
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesar_Rodney)

1784        Jul 1, Wilhelm Friedmann Bach (73), composer (Sinfonias 64), died.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1784        Jul 30, Denis Diderot (b.1713), French philosopher, critic, and encyclopedist, died. "Men will never be free until the last king is strangled with the entrails of the last priest."
    (WSJ, 6/15/99, p.A16)( www.giga-usa.com/quotes/authors/denis_diderot_a001.htm)

1784        Aug 14, The 1st Russian settlement in Alaska was established on Kodiak Island. Grigori Shelekhov, a Russian fur trader, founded Three Saints Bay.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1784        Aug 23, Eastern Tennessee settlers declared their area an independent state and named it Franklin; a year later the Continental Congress rejected it.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1784        Sep 20, Packet and Daily, the first daily publication in America, appeared on the streets.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1784        Aug 28, Father Junipero Serra (b.1713) died of tuberculosis at the adobe church of San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, later Carmel.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jun%C3%ADpero_Serra)(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)

1784        Oct 13, Ferdinand VII, king of Spain, was born.
    (HN, 10/13/98)

1784        Oct 19, Leigh Hunt (d.1859), English journalist, essayist, poet and political radical, was born. He was a friend and advisor to Shelley and Lord Byron and wrote the poems "Abou Ben Adhem" and "Jenny Kissed Me."
    (HN, 10/19/99)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRleigh.htm)
1784        Oct 19, John McLoughlin (d.1857), Hudson's Bay Co. pioneer at Fort Vancouver and in Oregon Country, was born in Quebec.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_McLoughlin)

1784        Oct, Pierre Eugene Du Simitiere (b.1736), artist and philosopher, died. He helped design the 1st Great Seal of the US.
    (WSJ, 5/19/05, p.D8)(http://tinyurl.com/d23rr)

1784        Nov 1, Maryland granted citizenship to Lafayette and his descendents.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1784        Nov 24, Zachary Taylor, the 12th president of the United States, was born in Orange County, Va.
    (AP, 11/24/97)

1784        Nov 28, Ferdinand Reis, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1784        Nov 29, American Dr. John Jeffries paid Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard £100 pounds for a balloon flight in England during which he made some atmospheric measurements.
    (ON, 10/03, p.6)

1784        Dec 13, Samuel Johnson (b.1709), English lexicographer, essayist, poet and moralist best known for "The Dictionary of the English Language," died. "Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel." -- (To which Ambrose Bierce replied, "I beg to submit that it is the first.") Johnson, an antagonist of slavery, left behind an annuity and much of his personal property to his black valet, Francis Barber (b.1735-1801). In 1791 Boswell wrote the celebrated "The Life of Samuel Johnson." In 1955 Walter Jackson Bate (1918-1999) published "The Achievement of Samuel Johnson" and in 1977 the biography "Samuel Johnson." In 2000 Adam Potkay authored "The Passion for Happiness," in which he argued that Samuel Johnson should be included in the Anglo-Scottish Enlightenment along with David Hume, Adam Smith and Edward Gibbon. In 2000 Peter Martin authored "A Life of James Boswell." In 2008 Peter Martin authored “Samuel Johnson: A biography."
    (AP, 10/8/97)(WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)(ON, 11/06, p.10)(SSFC, 10/28/07, p.M3)(WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)

1784        John Filson, schoolmaster, published the stories of Daniel Boone as narrated to him by Boone.
    (SFEC, 7/23/00, Z1 p.2)

1784        Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais wrote "The Marriage of Figaro," the sequel to "The Barber of Seville." A 1997 film, "Beaumarchais," was a look at the artist, who was also a womanizer, a spy and an arms runner.
    (WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A16)(SFEC,11/23/97, DB p.14)

1784        William Blake coined the term "transmography," to describe artistic processes of continual invention and cumulative transformation.
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)

1784        German philosopher Emmanuel Kant wrote his essay “What is enlightenment?" Here he crystallized the essence of the metaphysics movement in the motto Sapere aude (Dare to know).
    (WSJ, 9/1/04, p.AD10)(Econ, 9/3/16, p.72)

1784        Mozart composed four piano concertos. The G Major is K. 453 (K is for Kochel who catalogues all of Mozart’s work in chronological order).
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 103)

1784        Trenton, North Carolina, was founded.
    (SFC, 3/10/99, p.A3)

1784        George Washington met a 16-year-old slave named Venus, who later bore a mulatto son named West Ford who lived in special favor at Mt. Vernon. In 1998 descendants of Ford set out to prove that Washington was his father.
    (SFC, 11/23/98, p.A6)

1784        Thomas Jefferson excavated an Indian burial mound on his property in Virginia.
    (TV Doc.)
1784        Virginia Congressman Thomas Jefferson (41) became the US Commissioner and Minister to France. He continued there to 1798 and negotiated commercial treaties with European nations along with Ben Franklin and John Adams.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)
1784        Ben Franklin, while serving as US Minister to France, came up with the idea of manipulating the hours of the business day so that shops would both open and close earlier, when it was still light outside.
    (WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-22)

1784        NY state awarded Thomas Paine 227 acres in New Rochelle.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, p.A7)

1784        Phillis Wheatley, black poet, died. Only a child of about eight when she was kidnapped and brought to America as a slave, Phillis Wheatley was given the name of her Boston master, tailor John Wheatley. With his wife Susanna, John Wheatley treated the young girl kindly, providing an education that included the classical languages and literature. Her work, lost and forgotten until the publication of a new edition in 1834, was used by abolitionists to prove that blacks were not intellectually inferior to white.
    (HNPD, 2/21/00)

1784        The British gave their Indian allies from New York a large parcel of land southwest of Toronto after they fled to Canada following the American war of independence. In 2006 the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy claimed that part of this land had been sold without their proper consent for a new housing development in Caledonia.
    (Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)
1784        England’s Quarry Bank Mill on the river Bollin at Styal was built by merchant Samuel Greg to supply cotton to the weavers of Lancashire. Raw cotton from America was processed on the latest machinery, Richard Arkwright’s water frame.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.3)

1784        The Hotel de Salm, a palace, was built in Paris. It became the headquarters of Napoleon's Legion of Honor.
    (WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)

1784        King Louis XVI appointed a French commission to examine the theory of “animal magnetism," developed by German Dr. Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815). The commission, which included American ambassador Benjamin Franklin, branded Mesmer a fraud.
    (WSJ, 12/8/04, p.A1)

1784        The 1st Spanish military officer who explored the Mayan ruins of Palenque thought it was Atlantis risen.
    (SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)

1784-1785    The Mrauk U kingdom was conquered by the Konbaung dynasty of Burma, after which Rakhine became part of the Konbaung kingdom of Burma.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mrauk_U)

1784-1789    Thomas Jefferson’s years in Paris are depicted in a film titled "Jefferson in Paris." He served as an American minister and Sally Hemmings accompanied him as his daughter’s servant.
    (WSJ, 4/6/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W15)

1784-1849    Peter De Wint, watercolorist.
    (SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)

1785        Jan 1, The Daily Universal Register (Times of London) published its 1st issue. It became The Times on Jan 1, 1788.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Times)

1785        Jan 4, Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm, German philosopher who wrote Grimm’s Fairy Tales, was born.
    (HN, 1/4/99)(MC, 1/4/02)

1785        Jan 6, Haym Salomon (44) died in Philadelphia. He helped finance the US revolution.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1785        Jan 7, The first balloon flight across the English Channel was made. Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and the American Dr. John Jeffries crossed the English Channel for the first time in a hydrogen balloon.
    (HN, 5/15/98)(HN, 1/7/99)

1785        Jan 11, Continental Congress convened in NYC.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1785        Jan 21, Chippewa, Delaware, Ottawa and Wyandot Indians signed a treaty of Fort McIntosh, ceding present-day Ohio to the United States.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1785        Feb 24, Carlo Bonaparte (39), Corsican attorney, died.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1785        Mar 1, Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture was organized.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1785        Mar 7, Alessandro Manzoni, poet, novelist (Betrothed), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1785        Mar 10, Thomas Jefferson was appointed minister to France, succeeding Benjamin Franklin.
    (AP, 3/10/98)(HN, 3/10/98)

1785        Mar 19, Pierre-Joseph-Guillaume Zimmermann, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1785        Mar 27, Louis XVII, Pretender to the throne (1793-1795) during the French Revolution, was born. His father may have been Marie Antoinette’s Swedish lover, Count Axel von Fersen.
    (HN, 3/27/98)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A18)(MC, 3/27/02)

1785        Apr 21, Russian Tsarina Catharina II ended nobility privileges.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1785        Apr 26, John James Audubon (d.1851), American naturalist, bird watcher (ornithologist) and artist, was born in Haiti and educated in France. The engraving of America's indigenous turkey, which Benjamin Franklin nominated as the national bird, appeared in John James Audubon's classic work "Birds of America," a book of 435 hand-colored engravings prepared from his wildlife paintings begun in 1820. An artist and naturalist, Audubon was one of the first to study and paint American birds in their natural surroundings. Audubon came to America at 18 and failed in several business ventures.
    (440 Int’l. internet,4/26/97, p.5)(AP, 4/26/98)(HN, 4/26/98)(HNPD, 7/15/98)

1785        Apr, Elizabeth Marsh (b.1735), traveler and writer, died of breast cancer in Calcutta, India. In 1769 she had published “The Female Captive," an account of her captivity in a Muslim court. In 2007 Linda Colley authored “The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History."
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.89)(www.lrb.co.uk/v29/n12/mant01_.html)

1785        May 9, James Pollard Espy, meteorologist (Philosophy of Storms), was born in Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 5/9/02)
1785        May 9, British inventor Joseph Bramah patented a beer-pump handle.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1785        May 23, Benjamin Franklin in Paris spoke of his invention of bifocals in a letter to friend and philanthropist George Whatley.
    (www.antiquespectacles.com/topics/franklin/franklin.htm)

1785        Jun 15, Two Frenchmen attempting to cross the English Channel in a hot-air balloon were killed when their balloon caught fire and crashed, in possibly the first fatal aviation accident.
    (AP, 2/26/13)(www.space.com/16595-montgolfiers-first-balloon-flight.html)

1785        Jul 4, The first Fourth of July parade was held in Bristol, Rhode Island. It served as a prayerful walk to celebrate independence from England.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A3)

1785        Jul 17, France limited the importation of goods from Britain.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1785        Jul 20, Mahmud II, sultan of Turkey (1808-39), Westernizer, reformer, was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1785        Jul 23, Prussia's Frederick the Great formed Die Furstenbund (League of German Princes).
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1785        Aug 15, Thomas De Quincey, English writer (Confessions of English Opium Eater), was born.
    (MC, 8/15/02)
1785        Aug 15, French Cardinal De Rohan (51), Bishop of Strasbourg, was arrested in the affair of the diamond necklace. He was accused of forging the queen’s signature to gain possession of a necklace containing 647 diamonds. In 2014 Jonathan Beckman authored “How to Ruin a Queen: Marie Antoinette, the Stolen Diamonds, and the Scandal that Shook the French Throne."
    (PC, 1992, p.335)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.76)

1785        Aug 20, Oliver Hazard Perry, US Naval hero ("We have met the enemy"), was born in Rhode Island.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1785        Sep 1, Mozart published his 6th string quartet opus 10 in Vienna.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1785        Sep 28, Napoleon Bonaparte (16) graduated from the military academy in Paris. He was 42nd in a class of 51.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1785        Oct 18, Benjamin Franklin was elected president of Pennsylvania. Special balloting unanimously elected Franklin the sixth President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, replacing John Dickinson.
    (AH, 2/06, p.47)(http://help.com/post/275760-why-is-benjamin-franklin-important)

1785        Nov 17, Church of England was organized in New England.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1785        Nov 21, William Beaumont, surgeon, was born. He later studied digestion by peering through a natural opening of the stomach wall in a young Indian in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1785        Nov 23, John Hancock was elected President of the Continental Congress for the second time.
    (HN, 11/23/98)

1785        Dec 8, Antonio Maria Mazzoni (68), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1785        Dec 26, Laurent Clerc, teacher, was born: 1st deaf teacher in U.S., helped establish American School for the Deaf in Connecticut.
    (440.com)

1785        Dec 29, Johann Heinrich Rolle (69), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1785        Jean-Antoine Houdon sculpted a white marble bust of the Marquis de Condorcet.
    (WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1785        Romney painted Emma, Lady Hamilton, the passion of sea-hero Nelson.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1785        James Madison wrote the petition "Memorial and Remonstrance" for circulation in Virginia to oppose the use of public funds for Christian education.
    (WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A24)

1785        William Paley (1743-1805), an orthodox Anglican and conservative moral and political thinker, published “The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy."
    (www.wmcarey.edu/carey/paley/paley.htm)

1785        US Congress decided that the country‘s monetary system would be based on a silver coin called a dollar, similar to that of the Spanish dollar. The first American silver dollar was minted in 1794.
    (HNQ, 1/5/00)

1785        John Adams, the new US ambassador to Britain, presented himself to King George.
    (Econ, 1/28/06, p.80)
1785        Thomas Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as US ambassador to France.
    (http://history.state.gov/milestones/1776-1783/BFranklin)

1785        The American Continental Congress’ Land Grant Act of 1785 set aside land for schools. In anticipation of the country expanding with new states, the Continental Congress took possession of all land won during the Revolution, dividing it into 640-acre sections and selling it for $1 an acre.  Thirty-six sections comprised a township, and within each township, one section was set aside to support public schools.
    (HNQ, 4/3/99)

1785        The University of Georgia was the first state university chartered, in 1785, but was not established until 1801. The University of North Carolina was chartered in 1789 and was the first state university in the U.S. to begin instruction, in 1795.
    (HNQ, 12/3/01)                   

1785        Barbary pirates seized American ships and imprisoned their crew in Algiers for 11 years. Military and ransom operations raised issues of Congressional approval and appropriations that bedeviled Thomas Jefferson as both Sec. of State and as president. The issue is covered in the 1997 book: Separating Power: Essays on the Founding Period" by Gerhard Casper.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)

1785        James Hutton presented his Theory of the Earth. Here he formulated the principle of "uniformitarianism," which stated that geological features were understandable as having resulted from processes still occurring (i.e. volcanism, erosion, and deposition). Hutton had studied physiology at Leyden and wrote his thesis on the circulation of the blood. He wrote of Earth as a kind of super-organism, whose proper study is planetary physiology.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.70)(DD-EVTT, p.16)(NOHY, 3/90, p.192)

1785        Manual Gonzalez, the 3rd mayor of Pueblo San Jose de Guadelupe (California), conscripted local residents to build the town’s 1st City Hall.
    (SFC, 8/10/05, p.B4)

1785        Prince George of England after mentioning to his wife that he liked her right eye, was presented with a Christmas painting of the eye. It started a London fad and eye paintings flourished for a brief time.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.6)
1785        Major John Money (1752–1817) took off in a balloon from Norwich, in an attempt to raise money for the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. He passed over Lowestoft at 6pm and came down about 18 miles (29 km) into the North Sea and was saved by a revenue cutter about five hours later.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_ballooning)
1785        Lt. Col. John Money set up a British balloon observation corps, but it did not gain much support.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oe953qf)

1785        In Canada Loyalist graduates of Harvard and King’s College founded the Univ. of New Brunswick.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T7)

1785        Chechen people launched an armed struggle for freedom and independence under the leadership of Sheikh Mansur.
    (www.chechnyafree.ru)

1785        Marie-Joseph de Condorcet (1743-1794), French philosopher and mathematician, wrote the “Essay on the Application of Analysis to the Probability of Majority Decisions," one of his most important works. This work described several now famous results, including Condorcet's jury theorem, which states that if each member of a voting group is more likely than not to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote of the group is the correct decision increases as the number of members of the group increases.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marquis_de_Condorcet)
1785        The Marquis de Sade (1740-1814) authored “The 120 Days of Sodom." It tells the story of four wealthy male libertines who resolve to experience the ultimate sexual gratification in orgies.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_120_Days_of_Sodom)

1785        In Sweden the first Illis Quorum Meruere Labores (For Those Whose Labors Have Deserved It), a gold medal, was awarded.
    (NH, 4/97, p.31)

1785-1812    This period in the life of Martha Ballard, Maine herbalist and mid-wife, was covered by Ballard in her diaries and later uncovered by historian Laurel Thatcher Ulrich and portrayed in a 1998 TV documentary for "The American Experience."
    (WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)

1786        Jan 4, Mozes Mendelssohn (56), Jewish-German philosopher (Haksalah), died.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1786        Jan 8, Nicholas Biddle, head of the first United States bank, was born.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1786        Jan 16, The Council of Virginia passed the Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom. Thomas Jefferson had drafted The Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom in 1779 three  years after he wrote the Declaration of Independence. 
    (HN, 1/16/99)(WSJ, 12/14/02, p.W17)(http://religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu/sacred/vaact.html)

1786        Jan 26, Benjamin Robert Haydon, painter (Waiting for The Times, Wordsworth Ascending), was born in Plymouth.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1786        Feb 24, Wilhelm Carl Grimm (d.1859), compiler of "Grimm's Fairytales," was born in Germany.
    (HN, 2/24/98)(WUD, 1994, p.623)
1786        Feb 24, Charles Cornwallis, whose armies had surrendered to US at Yorktown, was appointed governor-general of India. [see Sep 12]
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1786        Mar 22, Joachim Lelevelis was born in Warsaw. He became a renowned historian and Prof. at Vilnius Univ. He died May 29, 1861 in Paris.
    (LHC, 3/22/03)

c1786        Apr 6,    Sacagawea (also Sacajawea), American explorer, was born.
    (HN, 4/6/01)

1786        Apr 16, Sir John Franklin, arctic explorer, was born. He discovered the North-West Passage.
    (HN, 4/16/99)

1786        Apr 20, John Goodricke (21), English deaf and dumb astronomer, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1786        Apr, The process of moving the bones from the Cemetery of the Innocents to the new site in the limestone quarries began. The process took 2 years. The Revolutionary Government of Paris had decided to relieve congestion and improve sanitary conditions by emptying the city cemeteries into an official ossuary. The Cemetery of the Innocents and other church cemeteries were moved to the limestone quarries south of the city.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.129)(SSFC, 11/12/06, p.G3)

1786        May 1, The opera "The Marriage of Figaro," by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, premiered in Vienna.
    (AP, 5/1/97)

1786        May 19, John Stanley (74), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1786        May 21, Carl W. Scheele (43), Swedish pharmacist, chemist, died.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1786        Jun 13, Winfield Scott, U.S. Army general famous for his victories in the War of 1812 and the War with Mexico, was born.
    (HN, 6/13/98)

1786        Jun 19, Gen. Nathanael Greene died of sunstroke at his Georgia plantation. In 1960 Theodore Thayer authored "Nathanael Greene, Strategist of the American Revolution." In 1973 William Johnson authored "Life and Correspondence of Nathanael Greene."
    (ON, 12/01, p.12)

1786        Jul 11, Morocco agreed to stop attacking American ships in the Mediterranean for a payment of $10,000.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1786        Jul 24, Jean-Louis Nicollet, French explorer, was born.
    (HN, 7/24/02)

1786        Aug 8, The US Congress adopted the silver dollar and decimal system of money.
    (MC, 8/8/02)
1786        Aug 8, Jacques Balmat and Dr. Michel-Gabriel Paccard became the first men to climb Mont Blanc in France.
    (HN, 8/8/98)(ON, 4/04, p.1)

1786        Aug 17, Davy Crockett, American frontiersman and politician who died in the defense of the Alamo, was born.
    (HN, 8/17/98)
1786        Aug 17, Frederick the Great (b.1712) died. In 2000 Giles MacDonogh authored “Frederick the Great." In 2001 David Fraser authored “Frederick the Great: King of Prussia." In 2015 Tim Blanning authored “Frederick the Great: King of Prussia."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_the_Great)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.77)(http://tinyurl.com/qeeh657)

1786        Aug 25, Ludwig I (d.1868), King of Bavaria, was born. He later had an affair with international courtesan, Lola Montez.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1786        Aug 29, Shays’ Rebellion began in Springfield, Mass. Daniel Shays led a rebellion in Massachusetts to protest the seizure of property for the non-payment of debt. Shays was a Revolutionary War veteran who led a short-lived insurrection in western Massachusetts to protest a tax increase that had to be paid in cash, a hardship for veteran farmers who relied on barter and didn‘t own enough land to vote. The taxes were to pay off the debts from the Revolutionary War, and those who couldn‘t pay were evicted or sent to prison.  [see Jan 25, 1787]
    (HNQ, 7/6/00)(www.shaysnet.com/dshays.html)(SFC, 8/3/16, p.A5)

1786        Sep 9, George Washington called for the abolition of slavery.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1786        Sep 11, The US Convention of Annapolis opened with the aim of revising the articles of confederation.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1786        Sep 12, Despite his failed efforts to suppress the American Revolution, Lord Cornwallis was appointed governor general of India. [see Feb 24]
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1786        Sep 14, Two French ships appeared off the coast of Monterey, the first foreign vessels to visit Spain's California colonies. Aboard was a party of eminent scientists, navigators, cartographers, illustrators, and physicians. For the next ten days Jean Francois de La Pérouse, the commander of this expedition, took detailed notes on the life and character of the area. Perouse’s notes were later published under the title “Life in a California Mission: Monterey in 1786: The Journals of Jean Francois De LA Perouse."
    (http://tinyurl.com/fbuud)

1786        Sep 26, France and Britain signed a trade agreement in London.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1786        Oct 20, Harvard University organized the 1st astronomical expedition in US.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1786        Nov 18, Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber, German composer (Der Freischutz), was born.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1786        Dec 18, Carl Maria von Weber, German romantic composer (Der Freischutz), was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1786        Dec 20, Pietro Raimondi, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1786        Dec 26, Daniel Shays led a rebellion in Massachusetts to protest the seizure of property for the non-payment of debt. Shays was a Revolutionary War veteran who led a short-lived insurrection in western Massachusetts to protest a tax increase that had to be paid in cash, a hardship for veteran farmers who relied on barter and didn‘t own enough land to vote. The taxes were to pay off the debts from the Revolutionary War, and those who couldn‘t pay were evicted or sent to prison. [see Jan 25, 1787]
    (HN, 12/26/98)(HNQ, 7/6/00)

1786        Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (d.1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of Poyais, was born in Scotland. [see 1811]
    (SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)

1786        Andres Lopez of Mexico painted "Sacred Heart of Jesus."
    (WSJ, 3/3/98, p.A16)

1786        George Morland painted "The Wreck of the Haswell."
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)

1786        Tiepolo painted "The Third Temptation of Jesus."
    (SSFC, 12/17/06, p.M6)

1786        Robert Burns published his first book of poetry in Kilmarnock, Scotland.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)

1786        Nicolas-Edme Restif de la Bretonne began writing in a new genre, the nighttime prowl. His "Les Nuits de Paris ou Le Spectateur nocturne" was a rambling account of 1,001 nights wandering the streets of Paris.
    (SFCM, 10/14/01, p.35)

1786        Relations were formalized with the Moroccan–American Treaty of Friendship negotiated by Thomas Barclay, and signed by Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Muhammad III.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moroccan%E2%80%93American_Treaty_of_Friendship)

1786        Rev. Henry Channing gave a sermon on the occasion of the hanging of a 12-year old mulatto girl, Hannah Ocuish, in New London, Connecticut.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.20)

1786        Mission Santa Barbara in California was founded as a place for the Franciscan friars to assemble and convert the native Chumash Indians.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T6)

1786        Encke, the most frequent visiting comet was first observed. Its period is only 3.3 years. NASA planned a rendezvous for 1984.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.223)

1786        Meg Nicholson (d.1828) attempted to stab King George III. She was sent to Bedlam and died there at age 77.
    (WSJ, 1/29/03, p.D10)
1786        William Playfair, Scottish draughtsman for James Watt, produced an “atlas" of Britain using 44 charts and no maps. It was titled “The Commercial and Political Atlas: Representing, by Means of Stained Copper-Plate Charts, the Progress of the Commerce, Revenues, Expenditure and Debts of England during the Whole of the Eighteenth Century."
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Playfair)

1786        French explorer Jean-Francois de Galaup de la Perouse set foot near Makena Beach on the Hawaiian island of Maui.
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T5)

1786        Capt. Francis Light landed in Penang (Malaysia) and built Fort Cornwallis. Light, acting on behalf of the East India Company, swindled the island from the ruling sultan with a promise of protection. The British usurped the land to break the Dutch monopoly on the spice trade.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T8)(SFEM, 12/19/99, p.8)(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E7)

1786        Muscat became the capital of Oman with the ascendance of the Al Busaid dynasty.
    (www.marktoursoman.com/tours/showDestination.php)(SSFC, 6/9/13, Par p.16)

1786        Graaff-Reinet, the major town of the Easter Karoo in South Africa, was founded.
    (Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.60)

1786        The secretive Swedish Academy was established by King Gustav III. It is not a government agency and its statutes say once a member is elected he or she cannot step down. The academy was set up to safeguard the Swedish language. It was later assigned to pick the winner of the Nobel Prize only in the field of literature.
    (Reuters, 4/18/18)(Reuters, 3/5/19)

1786-1859    Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, French actress and poet: "Who will give me back those days when life had wings and flew just like a skylark in the sky."
    (AP, 2/28/99)

1787        Jan 11, Titania and Oberon, moons of Uranus, were discovered by William Herschel.
    (www.skyhound.com/george.html)

1787        Jan 25, Shays' Rebellion suffered a setback when debt-ridden farmers led by Capt. Daniel Shays failed to capture an arsenal at Springfield, Mass. Small farmers in Springfield, Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays continued their revolt against tax laws. Federal troops broke up the protesters of what later became known as Shays’ Rebellion. [see Aug 29, 1786]
    (AP, 1/25/98)(HN, 1/25/99)(www.sjchs-history.org/Shays.html)

1787        Feb 4, Shays’ Rebellion, an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers, failed.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1787        Feb 18, Austrian emperor Josef II banned children under 8 from labor.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1787        Feb 23, Emma Hart Willard, pioneer in higher education for women, was born.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1787        Mar 8, Karl Ferdinand von Grafe was born. He helped create modern plastic surgery.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1787        Mar 16, George S. Ohm, German scientist, was born. He gave his name to the ohm unit of electrical resistance. [HN later said Mar 16, 1789]
    (HN, 3/16/99)(WUD, 1994 p.1001)

1787        Apr 12, Philadelphia's Free African Society formed.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1787        May 10, The British Parliament impeached Warren Hastings. There was an effort to impeach the governor-general of India. Edmund Burke indicted Warren Hastings, governor-general of India (1773-1785), on 21 charges for high crimes and misdemeanors. The trial lasted 7 years and Hastings was acquitted on all charges.
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.11)(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 5/10/02)

1787        May 13, Arthur Phillip set sail from Portsmouth, Great Britain, with 11 ships of criminals to Australia. By year’s end some 50,000 British convict servants were transported to the American colonies in commutation of death sentences. After the American Revolution, Britain continued dumping convicts in the US illegally into 1787. Australia eventually replaced America for this purpose. Penal transports continued until 1853, which left a remarkable legacy: an almost totally unexplored continent settled largely by convicted felons.
    (HNQ, 1/24/99)(www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item.asp?dID=35)

1787        May 14, Delegates began gathering in Philadelphia for a convention to draw up the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 5/14/97)

1787        May 25, The Constitutional Convention convened in Philadelphia after enough delegates showed up for a quorum. The Founding Fathers turned to the Rushworth's Collections of England for revolutionary precedents. George Washington presided. [see May 25, 1777] Rhode Island refused to send delegates.
    (AP, 5/25/97)(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)(HN, 5/25/99)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.44)

1787        May 28, Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (67), Austrian composer, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1787        May 29, The "Virginia Plan" was proposed.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1787        May, Eight ships left Great Britain carrying the first of what would be the largest transportation of convicts in history to Botany Bay in New South Wales, Australia. Penal transports continued until 1853, which left a remarkable legacy: an almost totally unexplored continent settled largely by convicted felons.
    (http://www.csmi.med.ed.ac.uk/session1/group65/index.htm)

1787        Jun 28, Sir Henry G. W. Smith, leader of British-Indian forces, was born.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1787        Jul 2, The Marquis de Sade shouted from Bastille that prisoners were being slaughtered.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1787        Jul 13, Congress, under the Articles of Confederation, enacted the Northwest Ordinance, establishing rules for governing the Northwest Territory, for admitting new states to the Union and limiting the expansion of slavery.
    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)

1787        Jul 30, The French parliament refused to approve a more equitable land tax.
    (HN, 7/30/98)

1787        Jul, The US Congress ratified the 1786 American-Moroccan Treaty of Peace and Friendship.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moroccan%E2%80%93American_Treaty_of_Friendship)

1787        Aug 2, Horace de Saussure, Swiss scientist, reached the top of Mont Blanc.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1787        Aug 6, The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia began to debate the articles contained in a draft of the United States Constitution.
    (AP, 8/6/97)

1787        Aug 10, Mozart completed his "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik."
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1787        Aug 13, The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1787        Aug 17, Jews were granted permission in Budapest, Hungary, to pray in groups.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1787        Aug 22, Inventor John Fitch demonstrated his steamboat, the Perseverance, on the Delaware River to delegates of the Continental Congress. In 2004 Andrea Sutcliffe authored “Steam: The Untold Story of America’s First Great Invention."
    (AP, 8/22/99)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)

1787        Aug 24, Wolfgang A. Mozart completed his viola sonata in A, K526.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1787        Sep 4, Louis XVI of France recalled parliament.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1787        Sep 17, The Constitution of the United States was completed and signed by a majority of delegates (12) attending the constitutional convention in Philadelphia. The US Constitution went into effect on Mar 4, 1789. Clause 3 of Article I, Section 8 empowered Congress to "regulate Commerce with foreign nations, among the several states, and with the Indian Tribes." Two of the signers went on to become presidents of the United States. George Washington, the president of the Constitutional Convention, and James Madison both signed the Constitution. The US Constitution is the world's oldest working Constitution. George Mason of Virginia refused to sign the document because he thought it made the federal government too powerful believed that it should contain a Bill of Rights.
     (AP, 9/17/97)(WUD, 1994, p.314)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W17)(HNQ, 5/19/99)(WSJ, 3/31/06, p.A1)
1787        Sep 17, The US Constitution included the Connecticut, or "Great," Compromise in which every state was conceded an equal vote in the Senate irrespective of its size, but representation in the House was to be on the basis of the "federal ratio," an enumeration of the free population plus three fifths of the slaves.
    (SSFC, 11/2/03, p.M6)
1787        Sep 17, The "College of Electors" (electoral college) was established at the Constitutional Convention with representatives to be chosen by the states. Pierce Butler of South Carolina first proposed the electoral college system. [see Sep 13, 1788]
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A26)
1787        Sep 17, The Electoral College, proposed by James Wilson, was the compromise that the Constitutional Convention reached. In 2004 George C. Edwards III authored “Why the Electoral College Is Bad for America."
    (www.usconstitution.net/consttop_elec.html)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M3)

1787        Sep 27, The US Constitution was submitted to states for ratification. [see Sep 28]
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1787        Sep 28, Congress voted to send the just-completed Constitution of the United States to state legislatures for their approval. [see Sep 27]
    (AP, 9/28/97)

1787        Oct 27, The first of the Federalist Papers, a series of 77 essays calling for ratification of the U.S. Constitution, was published in a New York newspaper. The essays by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay were written under the pseudonym “Publius" and later published as "The Federalist Papers."
    (AP, 10/27/97)(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)

1787        Oct 29, Mozart's opera Don Giovanni opened in Prague. Don Giovanni was first performed at the Prague’s Estates Theater with Mozart at the piano and conducting the orchestra. It was a sensational success.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.236)(SFC, 4/14/96, T-12)(HN, 10/29/00)   

1787        Nov 15, Christoph W. Ritter von Gluck (73), composer (Iphigenie Tauride), died.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1787        Nov 18, Louis-Jacques Daguerre, French painter (daguerreotype), was born.
    (MC, 11/18/01)
1787        Nov 18, Sojourner Truth, abolitionist and feminist, was born. [see Nov 19]
    (MC, 11/18/01)
1787        Nov 18, The 1st Unitarian minister in US was ordained in Boston.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1797        Nov 19, Sojourner Truth (d.1883), abolitionist and women's rights advocate, was born. "Religion without humanity is a poor human stuff." [see Nov 18]
    (HN, 11/19/98)(AP, 10/29/00)

1787        Nov 21, Samuel Cunard (d.1865), founder of the 1st regular Atlantic steamship line, was born in Canada.
    (MC, 11/21/01)(WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)

1787        Nov 23, Anton Schweitzer (52), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1787        Nov 25, Franz Xavier Gruber, Austria, organist and composer (Silent Night), was born.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1787        Nov 29, In France Louis XVI promulgated an edict of tolerance, granting civil status to Protestants.
    (HN, 11/29/98)(WSJ, 11/1/01, p.A19)

1787        Dec 7, Delaware became the first state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 12/7/97)

1787        Dec 10, Thomas H. Gallaudet, a pioneer of educating the deaf, was born in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 12/10/07)

1787        Dec 12, Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 12/12/97)

1787        Dec 18, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 12/18/97)

1787        Dec, William Wilberforce, on the suggestion of PM William Pitt, introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)

1787        Robert Barker, an Irish painter, is credited with inventing the panorama and patented the idea in this year.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)
1787        Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) authored “Panopticon," a plan for prison construction and management.
    (SSFC, 9/12/04, p.M1)(http://cartome.org/panopticon2.htm)
1787        Peter Markoe (1752?-1792) authored “An Algerine Spy in Pennsylvania." His satirical provocation helped to push the US Congress authorized a Navy and to dispatch Marines to subdue the pirates of Tripoli.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)
1787        The Mission La Purisima Concepcion in Lompoc, Ca., was founded. It is now a 900 acre state park. (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.67)
1787        Rev. Richard Allen and Absalom Jones decided to form the Free African Society, a non-denominational religious mutual aid society for the black community. Eventually this society grew into the African Church of Philadelphia.
    (www.pbs.org)
1787        Quatremiere de Quincy coined the term "Baroque" and defined it as absurdity carried to excess.
    (WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A17)

1787        George Washington at this time owned some 30,000 acres in the West.
    (Econ, 5/9/15, p.79)

1787        Alexander Hamilton sponsored a New York law that recognized adultery as the only ground for divorce. It remained in force until 1967.
    (WSJ, 8/6/07, p.B1)

1787        Thomas Jefferson toured Bordeaux while serving as US ambassador to France. He purchased cases Haut-Brion, d’Yquiem, and Margaux for himself and George Washington.
    (WSJ, 9/1/06, p.A9)

1787        In the US the Northwest Ordinance abolished slavery and marked the establishment of segregation and separate churches for blacks. It included the sentence: "Religion, morality and knowledge are necessary to good government..."
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)

1787        A private mint struck the first penny. It was 100% copper and known as the Fugio cent.
    (USAT, 7/19/01, p.3A)
1787        Ephraim Brasher, a goldsmith living in the Cherry Hill district of NYC, began minting gold doubloons, valued at $15, as currency for the new United States. In 1947 the film The Brasher Doubloon" was made based on a detective by novel Raymond Chandler. In 2011 a Brasher doubloon was sold for $7.4 million.
    (SFC, 12/15/11, p.A1)

1787        The first left and right shoes were made.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)

1787        The younger brother of William Blake, Robert, died. His death deeply affected William and marked the genesis of Blake’s Illuminated Works.
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)

1887        In Argentina the last census to include blacks as a separate category indicated that about 2% of the population in Buenos Aires was African.
    (SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

1787        Granville Sharp, English abolitionist, formed the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade.
    (ON, 12/08, p.9)
1787        Thomas Clarkson, deacon in the Church of England, led the formation of the original abolitionist committee, the interdenominational “Committee to Effect the Abolition of the Slave Trade." His anti-slavery committee distributed 1,000 copies of “A Letter to our Friends in the Country, to inform them of the state of the Business." This was later considered as possibly the 1st direct-mail fund-raising letter. In 2004 Adam Hochschild authored “Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves."
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.F1)(ON, 4/05, p.1)
1787        Henry Hobhouse, a Bristol slave trader, bought the Hadspen country house in Somerset, England, and rebuilt it.
    (Econ, 5/3/08, p.23)
1787        English ships transported some 38,000 slaves this year.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.93)
1787        British settlers bought land from African tribal leaders in Sierra Leone and used it as a haven for freed African slaves. The indigenous community, dominated by the Mende, wiped out the first settlers. A 2nd group followed in 1792. The settlers intermarried but held themselves aloof, monopolized power and discriminated against the original population. In 2005 Simon Schama authored “Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution."
    (SFC, 3/11/98, p.A10)(SFC, 2/14/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)(Econ, 8/27/05, p.66)(MT, summer 2003, p.8)
1787        Gen. Thomas Gage, former commander of British forces in North America, died at age 66. In 1948 John Richard Alden authored "General Gage in America."
    (ON, 3/01, p.4)

1787        Carl Axel Arrhenius discovered the mineral ytterbite in Ytterby, Sweden. Two years later yttrium oxide was found in the sample and named. It took another 329 years for yttrium, a rare earth element, to be isolated from its oxide.
    (SSFC, 11/25/12, p.E7)

1787-1826    Joseph von Fraunhofer, German physicist, using advanced optical techniques, found that the spectrum of Newton’s rainbow ribbon is marred by a large number of thin dark crosslines. The lines are called Fraunhofer lines but were not explained until the work of Kirchoff 50 years later.
    (SCTS, p.6)

1787-1863    Richard Whately, British theologian: "Honesty is the best policy, but he who acts on that principle is not an honest man."
    (AP, 1/24/01)

1787-1948    William Herschel and other astronomers spotted 5 moons circling Uranus during this period.
    (SFC, 12/23/05, p.A4)

1788        Jan 1, London’s Daily Universal Register began publishing as The Times.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Times)
1788        Jan 1, Quakers in Pennsylvania emancipated their slaves.
    (MC, 1/1/02)

1788        Jan 2, Georgia became the fourth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AP, 1/2/98)

1788        Jan 9, Connecticut became the fifth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 1/9/99)

1788        Jan 18, The first English settlers arrived in Australia's Botany Bay to establish a penal colony. They found the location unsuitable and Capt. Arthur Philip moved on to Sydney Cove. England sent the first sheep along with convicts to Australia.
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 575)(SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)(AP, 1/18/98)(Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.14)

1788        Jan 20, The pioneer African Baptist church was organized in Savannah, Ga.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1788        Jan 22, George Gordon (d.1824), (6th Baron Byron) aka Lord Byron, English poet, was born with a deformed foot. His work included "Lara," "Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage" and "Don Juan." He died in Greece at Missolonghi on the gulf of Patras preparing to fight for Greek independence. In 1997 the biography: "Byron: The flawed Angel" by Phyllis Grosskurth was published.
    (WUD, 1994, p.204,917)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)(SFEC, 11/15/98, Z1 p.10)(HN, 1/22/99)

1788        Jan 26, The 1st fleet of ships carrying 736 convicts from England landed at Sydney Cove, New South Wales, Australia. The first European settlers in Australia, led by Capt. Arthur Phillip, landed in present-day Sydney. The day is since known as Australia’s national day. In 2006 Thomas Keneally authored “The Commonwealth of Thieves: The Story of the Founding of Australia."
    (AP, 1/26/98)(HN, 1/26/99)(WSJ, 9/19/00, p.A1)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)

1788          Jan 31, Charles Edward Stuart (67), The Young Pretender, died.
     (HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)

1788        Feb 1, Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet patented the steamboat on this day.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)

1788        Feb 5, Sir Robert Peel (d.1850), British prime minister through the early 1800s, was born. He founded the Conservative Party and the London Police Force whose officers were called "bobbies."
    (HN, 2/5/99)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1788        Feb 6, Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 2/6/97)(HN, 2/6/99)

1788        Feb 22, Arthur Schopenhauer (d.1860), German philosopher (Great Pessimist), was born: "Hatred comes from the heart; contempt from the head; and neither feeling is quite within our control."
    (AP, 12/9/99)(MC, 2/22/02)

1788        Mar 7, Alexander Hamilton published his Federalist Paper 65 in the New York Packet. It discussed the subject of impeachment.
    (USAT, 9/14/98, p.4A)

1788        Mar 21, Almost the entire city of New Orleans, Louisiana, was destroyed by fire. 856 buildings were burned.
    (HN, 3/21/99)(MC, 3/21/02)

1788        Mar 29, Charles Wesley, hymn writer and brother of John Wesley, died.
    (MC, 3/29/02)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1788        Apr 4, Last of the Federalist essays was published. The series of 85 letters were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay urging ratification of the US Constitution. Defects in the Articles of Confederation became apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce and the inability of Congress to levy taxes, leading Congress to endorse a plan to draft a new constitution.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1788        Apr 5, Franz Pforr, German painter, cartoonist (Lukasbund), was born.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1788        Apr 12, Carlo Antonio Campioni (67), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1788        Apr 15, Mary Delany (b.1700), English artist and writer, died. She became known for her “Flora Delanica," a collection of 985 botanically accurate portraits of flowers in bloom. In 2011 Molly Peacock authored “"The Paper Garden: An Artist Begins Her Life’s work at 72."
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Delany)

1788        Apr 28, Maryland became the seventh state to ratify the US constitution, but on condition that a Bill of Rights be added.
    (AP, 4/28/07)(WSJ, 9/20/08, p.A21)

1788        May 10, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, optics pioneer, physicist, was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1788        May 18, Hugh Clapperton, African explorer, was born in Annan, Scotland.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1788        May 23, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1788        May 29, Jacques Aliamet (61), French etcher, engraver, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1788        Jun 11, The 1st British ship to be built on Pacific coast was begun at Nootka Sound, BC.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1788        Jun 21, The U.S. Constitution went into effect as New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.
    (AP, 6/21/97)

1788        Jun 25, Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 6/25/97)

1788        Jul 6, Ten thousand troops were called out in Paris as unrest mounted in the poorer districts over poverty and lack of food.
    (HN, 7/6/98)

1788        Jul 15, Louis XVI jailed 12 deputies who protest new judicial reforms.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1788        Jul 19, Prices plunged on the Paris stock market.
    (HN, 7/19/98)

1788        Jul 20, The governor of the French colony of Pondicherry, Vietnam, abandoned plans to place King Nhuyen Anh back on the throne.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1788        Jul 26, New York became the 11th state to ratify the Constitution.
    (AP, 7/26/97)

1788        Aug 2, Thomas Gainsborough (61), English painter, died. His work included the 1771 portraits of the Viscount and Viscountess Ligonier and "Blue Boy."
    (HN, 5/14/01)(AAP, 1964)(MC, 5/14/02)(WSJ, 12/19/02, p.D10)(MC, 8/2/02)

1788        Aug 8, King Louis XVI called the French States and Generals together.
    (MC, 8/8/02)
1788        Aug 8, Louis FAD Duke de Richelieu (92), French marshal, died.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1788        Aug 27, Jacques Neeker was named French minister of Finance.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1788         Sep 13, The Congress of the Confederation authorized the first national election, and declared New York City the temporary national capital. The Constitutional Convention authorized the first federal election resolving that electors (electoral college) in all the states will be appointed on January 7, 1789. The Convention decreed that the first federal election would be held on the first Wednesday in February of the following year.
    (AP, 9/13/97)(HN, 9/13/00)

1788        Sep 15, An alliance between Britain, Prussia and the Netherlands was ratified at the Hague.
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1788        Sep 19, Charles de Barentin became lord chancellor of France.
    (HN, 9/19/98)

1788        Sep 22, Theodore Hook, English novelist best known for "Impromptu at Fulham," was born.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1788        Sep 23, Louis XVI of France declared the Parliament restored.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1788        Sep 24, After having been dissolved, the French Parliament of Paris reassembled in triumph.
    (HN, 9/24/98)

1788        Oct 6, The Polish Diet decided to hold a four year session.
    (HN, 10/6/98)

1788        Oct 24, Sarah Josepha Hale, magazine editor and poet whose book Poems for Our Children included "Mary Had a Little Lamb" (the first words to be recorded in sound), was born.
    (HN, 10/24/98)

1788        Dec 18, Camille Pleyel, Austrian piano builder and composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1788        Dec 23, Maryland voted to cede a 100-square-mile area for the seat of the national government; about two-thirds of the area became the District of Columbia.
    (AP, 12/23/97)

1788        Dec 30, Francesco Zuccarelli (86), Italian rococo painter and etcher, died.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1788        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted "Love Seduces Innocence, Pleasure Entraps, and Remorse Follows."
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1788        Virginia’s state Capitol was completed.
    (SFC, 5/10/13, p.E3)

1788        John Adams published "A Defense of the Constitutions."
    (WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1788        "The Narrative of John Blanchford" was published. Blanchford (15), a Massachusetts cabin-boy, had been captured by the British and sent to prison in Halifax and later to Sumatra from where he escaped after a 6 year ordeal.
    (ON, 1/00, p.5)

1788        “The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy" by Hannah Glasse was published in London.
    (SFC, 5/4/05, p.G10)

1788        Mozart’s Don Giovanni was performed in conservative Vienna but was not a success.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.236)

1788        Mozart composed his 41st symphony titled by his publisher as the Jupiter.
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 103)

1788        Rules were set for the game of cricket.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.81)

1788        "Buffalo clover... nearly knee-high... afforded a rich pasture." An image of the fertile frontier penned by historian S.P. Hildreth. After 1907 the clover was unseen until 1989 when it emerged in some topsoil delivered to a botanist’s backyard.       
    (NG, Jan. 94, p.144)

1788        As British settlers arrived in Australia the native Aborigines are believed to have numbered about 750,000, and to have inhabited Australia for up to 70,000 years.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

1788        A botanical garden opened in Puerto de la Cruz on Tenerife Island (Canary Islands).
    (SSFC, 4/16/06, p.F7)

1788        A great fire destroyed much of the wooden city of Kyoto, Japan.
    (WSJ, 1/25/06, p.D10)(www.city.kyoto.jp/koho/eng/historical/chronology.html)

1788        A salon from Paris of this time was later transferred [c1993] to the Legion of Honor Museum in San Francisco, Ca.
    (WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)

1788-1789    King George III suffered a mental breakdown.
    (WSJ, 1/29/03, p.A1)

1780-1800    In 2007 Jay Winik authored “The Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788-1800."
    (WSJ, 9/14/07, p.W5)

1788-1865    C.J. Thomson, Danish museum curator, contributed to the Three Age System classification of early man from stone to bronze to iron.
    (RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.25)

1789        Jan 7, The first U.S. presidential election was held. Americans voted for electors who, a month later, chose George Washington to be the nation's first president.
    (AP, 1/7/98)

1789        Jan 21, Baron Paul Thierry d’Holbach (b.1723), a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and a prominent figure in the French Enlightenment, died. In 2010 Philipp Blom authored “A Wicked Company: The Forgotten Radicalism of the European Enlightenment," the story of the Paris salon run by Baron Paul Thierry d’Holbach.
    (Econ, 10/30/10, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_d%27Holbach)

1789        Jan 23, Georgetown University was established by Jesuits in present-day Washington, D.C., as the 1st US Catholic college.
    (AP, 1/23/98)(MC, 1/23/02)

1789        Feb 2, Armand-Louis Couperin (63), French composer, organist at Notre Dame, died.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1789         Feb 4, Electors unanimously chose George Washington to be the first  president of the United States and John Adams as vice-president. The results of the balloting were not counted in the US Senate until two months later. Washington accepted office at the Federal Building of New York. His first cabinet included Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton as first secretary of the Treasury, Henry Knox, and Edmund Randolph.
    (A & IP, ESM, p.10)(WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)(AP, 2/4/07)

1789        Feb 8, Ludwig Wilhelm Maurer, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1789        Mar 2, Pennsylvania ended the prohibition of theatrical performances.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1789        Mar 4, The Constitution of the United States, framed in 1787, went into effect as the first  Federal Congress met in New York City. Lawmakers then adjourned for the lack of a quorum (9 senators, 13 representatives). In 2006 Robert V. Remini, historian of the US House of Representatives, authored “The House."
    (WUD, 1994, p.314)(AP, 3/4/98)(HN, 3/4/98)(SC, 3/4/02)
1789        Mar 4, Pavel P. Gagarin, Russian monarch, was born.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1789        Mar 16, George S. Ohm (d.1854), German scientist,  was born. He gave his name to the ohm unit of electrical resistance. [WUD says Mar 16, 1787]
    (HN, 3/16/02)(WUD, 1994 p.1001)

1789        Apr 1, The U.S. House of Representatives held its first full meeting, in New York City. Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania was elected the first House Speaker.
    (AP, 4/1/98)

1789        Apr 6, The first US Congress began regular sessions at Federal Hall on Wall Street, NYC.
    (HN, 4/6/98)(MC, 4/6/02)

1789        Apr 8, The U.S. House of Representatives held its first meeting.
    (HN, 4/8/98)

1789        Apr 16, George Washington left Mount Vernon, Va., for the first presidential inauguration in New York.
    (AP, 4/16/97)(HN, 4/16/98)

1789        Apr 21, John Adams was sworn in as the first vice president of the United States.
    (AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)

1789        Apr 23, President-elect Washington and his wife moved into the first executive mansion, the Franklin House, in New York. George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall and lived at 3 Cherry Street in New York City. In 1790, with construction on the new federal capital underway, the government was moved temporarily to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)

1789        Apr 28, Fletcher Christian lead a mutiny on the Bounty as the crew of the British ship set Captain William Bligh and 18 sailors adrift in a launch in the South Pacific. Richard Hough later authored: "Captain Bligh and Mr. Christian."
    http://www.visi.com/~pjlareau//bounty1.html
    (AP, 4/28/97)(HN, 4/28/98)(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A20)(MC, 4/28/02)

1789        Apr 30, George Washington was inaugurated and took office in New York as the first president of the United States. He took his oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street and spoke the words “So help me God," which all future US presidents have repeated. The oath as prescribed by the Constitution makes no mention of God of the Bible.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.W4)(AH, 4/07, p.31)

1789        May 5, In France the Estates General, summoned by King Louis XVI, convened to repair the national finances. It sat for several weeks in May and June, but came to an impasse as the three Estates clashed over their respective powers. It was brought to an end when many members of the Third Estate formed themselves into a National Assembly, signaling the outbreak of the French Revolution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estates-General_of_1789)

1789        May 7, The first inaugural ball was held in New York in honor of President and Mrs. George Washington.
    (AP, 5/7/97)

1789        May 10, Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier, Tiradentes, rebel for Independence, was arrested. He was betrayed by Joaquim Silverio dos Reis, a participant of the movement, in exchange of waiving of his due taxes; Silverio’s name is carved in Brazilian History as The Betrayer.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.E2)(www.v-brazil.com/culture/historic-characters/tiradentes.html)

1789        May 12, The Society of St. Tammany was formed by Revolutionary War soldiers. It later became an infamous group of NYC political bosses.
    (SC, internet, 5/12/97)
1789        May 12, In England William Wilberforce laid out his case for the abolition of slavery to the House of Commons. This speech directly led to Britain’s abolition of slavery in 1807.
    (WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P14)

1789         Jun 1, Congress passed its first act which mandated the procedure for administering oaths of public office.
    (DTnet 6/1/97)(HN, 6/1/98)

1789        Jun 4, The US constitution, enacted as sovereign law, went into effect.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.300)(MC, 6/4/02)

1789        Jun 10, Bernard-Jordan de Launay, military governor of the Bastille, suspended the prisoners’ daily supervised walks outside the Bastille walls.
    (ON, 4/01, p.1)

1789        Jun 14, Captain William Bligh of the HMS Bounty arrived in Timor in a small boat.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1789        Jun 17, The Third Estate in France declared itself a national assembly, and undertook to frame a constitution.
    (AP, 6/17/97)

1789        Jun 20, Oath on the Tennis Court in Versailles, France, bonded members of the Third Estate to resist eviction until they have a new constitution.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1789        Jul 4, The US passed its first tariff which included a 15% duty on imported nails among other things.
    (Maggio)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1789        Jul 9, In Versailles, the French National Assembly declared itself the Constituent Assembly and began to prepare a French constitution.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1789        cJul 11, In France just days before the Bastille was taken the tavern keepers and wine merchants of Belleville, angered by levies on food and drink, sacked the local tax collector’s office.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T8)

1789        Jul 13, Parisians rioted over an increase in price of grain. The mob plundered the armories and opened the prison gates of St. Lazare. The King at Versailles refused to withdraw his troops from Paris.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1789        July 14, Bastille Day. Tens of thousands of the citizens of Paris stormed the Bastille, the Paris fortress used as a prison to hold political prisoners, and released the seven prisoners inside at the onset of the French Revolution. Over 100 rioters were killed or wounded. The average Frenchman was 5 foot 2 and weighed 105 pounds. France’s Louis XIV made a diary entry that read “Rien" (nothing). Historian Francois Furet (1927-1997), a leading writer on the French Revolution, was best known for his work: "Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution." He refuted Marxist interpretations of the events that preceded and followed the fall of the monarchy. In 1939 W. Higgins edited "The French Revolution Told by Contemporaries."
    (AP, 7/14/97)(HN, 7/14/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R12)(ON, 4/01, p.1)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.52)(SFC, 7/15/97, p.A18)
1789        Jul 14, The French Revolution. "It was not the literate and cultured minority of Frenchmen who brought down the government, as had been the case in England and America. Instead it was the common people, who marched upon the king and queen in their palace at Versailles. The Jacobins promulgated a Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen that went beyond the American Bill of Rights in affirming, "Nothing that is not forbidden by Law may be hindered, and no one may be compelled to do what the Law does not ordain," for "Liberty consists in being able to do anything that does not harm others."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.230-231)(SFC, 6/23/96, Z1 p.2)

1789        Jul 15, The electors of Paris set up a "Commune" to live without the authority of the government.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1789        Jul 18, Robespierre, a deputy from Arras, France, decided to back the French Revolution.
    (HN, 7/18/98)

1789        Jul 22, Thomas Jefferson became the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1789        Jul 23, The Great Fear swept through France as the Revolution continued.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1789        Jul 27, President Washington signed a measure establishing the Department of Foreign Affairs, forerunner of the Department of State.
    (AP, 7/27/08)

1789        Aug 4, The Constituent Assembly in France dissolved feudal system by abolishing the privileges of nobility.
    (HN, 8/4/98)(MC, 8/4/02)

1789        Aug 7, The U.S. War Department was established by Congress.
    (AP, 8/7/97)

1789        Aug 21, Augustin-Louis Baron Cauchy, French mathematician, was born.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1789        Aug 25, Mary Ball Washington, mother of George, died.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1789        Aug 26, The Constituent Assembly in Versailles, France, approved the final version of the Declaration of Human Rights.
    (HN, 8/26/99)

1789        Aug 27, French National Assembly issued "Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen."
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1789        Sep 1, Lady Marguerite Blessington, beautiful English socialite and author, was born. She wrote a biography of Lord Byron.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1789        Sep 2, The US Congress created a permanent institution for the management of government finances. The Treasury Department, headed by Alexander Hamilton, was created in New York City and housed in Fraunces Tavern at 54 Pearl St.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yd4v7gtb)(AP, 9/2/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)

1789        Sep 11, Alexander Hamilton was appointed the first U.S. secretary of the treasury. During his tenure, Hamilton established the National Bank, introduced an excise tax, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion and spearheaded the effort for the federal government to assume the debts of the states. In the presidential election of 1800, Hamilton broke the deadlock between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr by supporting Jefferson. The enmity between Hamilton and his longtime political enemy Burr grew worse during the 1804 campaign for governor of New York.
    (AP, 9/11/97)(HNPD, 1/11/99)

1789        Sep 12, Franz Xaver Richter, composer, died at 79.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1789        Sep 13, Start of the US National Debt as the government took out its first loan, borrowed from the Bank of North America (NYC) at 6 percent interest. The US debt had reached $77 million when Washington became president.
    (MC, 9/13/01)(WSJ, 10/1/03, p.B1)
1789        Sep 13, Guardsmen in Orleans, France, opened fire on rioters trying to loot bakeries, killing 90.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1789        Sep 15, James Fenimore Cooper (d.1851), American novelist, was born in Burlington, NJ. He is best known for "The Pioneers" and "Last of the Mohicans." "The press, like fire, is an excellent servant, but a terrible master."
    (AP, 6/25/97)(HN, 9/15/99)   
1789        Sep 15, The U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs was renamed the Department of State.
    (AP, 9/15/97)

1789        Sep 16, Jean-Paul Marat set up a new newspaper in France, L'Ami du Peuple (The Friend of the People).
    (HN, 9/16/98)(ON, SC, p.7)

1789        Sep 18, The 1st loan was made to pay salaries of the US president & Congress. [see Sep 13]
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1789        Sep 22, The US Act 1 Stat. 70 temporarily established a post office and created the Office of the Postmaster General.
    (AP, 9/22/97)(www.usps.com/history/his1_5.htm)
1789        Sep 22, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov drove the Turkish army under Yusuf Pasha from the Rymnik River, upsetting the Turkish invasion of Russia.
    (HN, 9/22/99)

1789        Sep 24, President George Washington appointed John Jay as the 1st Chief Justice.
    (MC, 9/24/01)
1789        Sep 24, The US Federal Judiciary Act was passed. It created a six-person Supreme Court and provided for an Attorney General.
    (AP, 9/24/97)(AH, 10/04, p.14)

1789        Sep 25, The First Federal Congress of the United States, meeting in NYC, proposed to the state legislatures twelve amendments to the Constitution. The first two, concerning the number of constituents for each Representative and the compensation of Congressmen, were not ratified.* Articles three through twelve, known as the Bill of Rights, became the first ten amendments to the US Constitution and contained guarantees of essential rights and liberties omitted in the crafting of the original document. 14 copies were hand written and 13 were sent to the individual states.
    (http://www.loc.gov/rr//program/bib/ourdocs/billofrights.html)(SFC, 1/20/02, p.A11)

1789        Sep 26, Thomas Jefferson was appointed America's first Secretary of State; John Jay the first chief justice of the United States; Samuel Osgood the first Postmaster-General; and Edmund Jennings Randolph the first Attorney General. The US Congress had created the position of attorney general as a part-time gig. The salary lagged well behind other executive positions, and lacked congressional appropriations for office space and supplies.
    (AP, 9/26/97)(SFC, 8/16/99, p.A21)(Bloomberg, 9/29/19)

1789        Sep 28, Richard Bright, physician (Bright's Disease, nephritis), was born in England.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1789        Sep 29, The U.S. War Department established a regular U.S. army with a strength of several hundred men.
    (AP, 9/29/97)(HN, 9/29/98)

1789        Sep, Fletcher Henderson left Tahiti with the Bounty with a light crew. 16 men were left abandoned.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1789        Oct 3, George Washington proclaimed the 1st national Thanksgiving Day to be Nov 26.
    (MC, 10/3/01)
    Whereas it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection and favor; and Whereas both Houses of Congress have, by their joint committee, requested me to "recommend to the people of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many and signal favors of Almighty God, especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness:"
    Now, therefore, I do recommend and assign Thursday, the 26th day of November next, to be devoted by the people of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being who is the beneficent author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be; that we may then all unite in rendering unto Him our sincere and humble thanks for His kind care and protection of the people of this country previous to their becoming a nation; for the signal and manifold mercies and the favorable interpositions of His providence in the course and conclusion of the late war; for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty which we have since enjoyed; for the peaceable and rational manner in which we have been enable to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national one now lately instituted for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed, and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and, in general, for all the great and various favors which He has been pleased to confer upon us. And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech Him to pardon our national and other transgressions; to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually; to render our National Government a blessing to all the people by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed; to protect and guide all sovereigns and nations (especially such as have shown kindness to us), and to bless them with good governments, peace, and concord; to promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the increase of science among them and us; and, generally to grant unto all mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as He alone knows to be best.
    (Ihub, 11/27/03)

1789        Oct 10, In Versailles France, Joseph Guillotin said the most humane way of carrying out a death sentence is decapitation by a single blow of a blade.
    (HN, 10/10/98)
1789        Oct 10, Pierre-Louis Couperin, composer, died at 34.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1789        Oct 15, George Washington went to New England on the 1st presidential tour.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1789        Nov 2, The property of the Church in France was taken away by the state.
    (HN, 11/2/98)

1789        Nov 5, French National Assembly declared all citizens equal under law.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1789        Nov 8, Bourbon Whiskey, 1st distilled from corn, was made by Elijah Craig in  Bourbon, Ky.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1789        Nov 13, Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter to a friend in which he said, "In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes."
    (AP, 11/13/97)

1789        Nov 18, Louis Jacques Daguerre (d.1851), French painter, physicist and photography pioneer, was born. He invented the process of setting the impression on a light-sensitive, silver-coated metallic plate and developed by mercury vapor. See contrasting info 1765-1833, Nicephore Niepce, French lithographer.
    (AHD, 1971, p.332)(HN, 11/18/00)   

1789        Nov 20, New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(AP, 11/20/97)

1789        Nov 21, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 11/21/97)

1789        Nov 26, George Washington proclaimed on Oct 3 that Nov 26 be a National Thanksgiving Day in honor of the new Constitution. He made it clear that the day should be one of prayer and giving thanks to God, to be celebrated by all the religious denominations. In 1863 Pres. Lincoln designated the last Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day.
    (HFA, '96, p.42)(AP, 11/26/97)(HN, 11/26/98)

1789        Nov, The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, the oldest federal court in the United States, convened in New York, a few weeks ahead of the Supreme Court.
    (http://jimzirin.com/book-the-mother-court/foreword/)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.75)

1789        Dec 3, Claude-Joseph Vernet, French seascape painter, died.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1789        Dec 13, The National Guard was created in France.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1789        Dec 28, Lydia Darrragh (b.1729), American spy, died in Philadelphia. Her exploits in 1777 did not become public until the publication of an anonymous article in 1827.
    (ON, 8/07, p.8)(www.lexidigital.com/bcdarwomen4.htm)

1789        Dec, In India’s city of Coringa 3 tidal waves caused by a cyclone destroyed the harbor city at the mouth of the Ganges river. Most ships were sunk and some 20,000 people drowned.
    (www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)

1789        Johann Friedrich Overbeck (d.1869), German Nazarene artist, was born.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1789        The ballet "La fille mal gardee" had its premiere. It included dialogue and singing as well as dancing.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, DB p.37)

1789        William Blake published his "Songs of Innocence."
    (WSJ, 4/23/97, p.A16)

1789        Rev. Gilbert White (1720-1793) authored “The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, in the County of Southampton." One chapter was about a local tortoise named Timothy. In 2006 Verlyn Klinkenborg authored “Timothy; Or, Notes Of an Abject Reptile," a look at the parson from the point of view of the tortoise.
    (WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P11)

1789        In 1999 Rachel Wright authored "Paris: 1789," an informative children's book of Parisian life on the eve of the Revolution.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, Par p.8)

1789        Tammany Hall was a powerful Democratic political organization in NYC, founded as a fraternal benevolent society. The name was based after a Delaware Indian Chief, Tamanen or Temmenund, later facetiously canonized as patron saint of the US. The Tammany Hall officials lost on Nov. 6, 1894.
    (HFA, '96, p.42)

1789        In the US the Church of England Episcopal Church fomally separated from the Church of England became the Protestant Episcopal Church of the USA.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episcopal_Church_%28United_States%29))

1789        Congress introduced paid chaplains. In 1983 the Supreme Court ruled in Marsh vs. Chambers that it is not a violation of the Establishment Clause to have paid legislative chaplains. In 2002 Michael Newdow filed suit contending that taxpayer-funded chaplains was unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 8/31/02, p.A2)

1789        The US Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) was meant to combat piracy. The Alien Tort Statute (ATS) was intended to be used to prosecute pirates for crimes committed outside the US. It went unused for a long time until rights lawyers dusted it off in the late 1970s.
    (SFC, 8/11/00, p.A13)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A8)(WSJ, 10/6/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/12/04, p.A16)(SFC, 10/12/17, p.A6)

1789        The first tobacco advertisement came out in the US. It depicted an Indian smoking a long clay pipe.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, Z1 p.10)

1789        Dentist John Greenwood (1760-1819) carved his first dentures for George Washington out of hippopotamus ivory.
    (ON, 4/12, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Greenwood_%28dentist%29)

1789        Georgetown College was founded in Washington DC.
    (WSJ, 3/28/96,p.A-15)

1789        Massachusetts commenced work on the Middlesex Canal. It was completed in 1808.
    (Panic, p.12)

1789        The University of North Carolina was chartered. It was the first state university in the U.S. to begin instruction, in 1795. The University of Georgia was the first state university chartered, in 1785, but was not established until 1801.
    (HNQ, 12/3/01)

1789        Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), French nobleman and chemist, presented a paper on the geology of the Earth that proposed that sea level had oscillated over time, as opposed to a stationary sea with linear sedimentation.
    (NH, 12/98, p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoine_Lavoisier)

1789        Martin Klaproth, German chemist, discovered Uranium. It named after the planet Uranus discovered 8 years earlier.
    (NH, 7/02, p.36)(WSJ, 3/18/05, p.C1)

1789        The HMS Bounty made a brief stop at the Cook Island of Rarotonga before moving on to Pitcairn Island.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T6)

1789        The flower China Rose was introduced to Europe.
    (TGR, 1995, p.4)

1789        Ethan Allen (b.1738), leader of Vermont’s Green Mountain Boys, died. In 1949 Stewart H. Holbrook authored "Ethan Allen." In 1969 Charles A. Jellison authored "Ethan Allen: Frontier Rebel."
    (WUD, 1994 p.39)(ON, 3/00, p.6)

1789        The prison ship Lady Julian delivered over 200 women to the penal colony at Sydney harbor. In 2002 Sian Rees authored "The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary True Story of an Eighteenth-Century Ship and Its Cargo of Female Convicts."
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.M3)

1789        Smallpox was introduced to Australia and caused devastation among the aborigines.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1789        In Brazil poet and dentist Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier helped launch the first Brazilian rebellion against the country's Portuguese rulers.
    (AP, 4/19/03)

1789        English Thomas Clarkson and his fellow abolitionists published 700 posters with the image of the slave ship Brookes loaded with 482 slaves. The ship, owned by the Brookes family of Liverpool, operated between the Gold Coast of Africa and Jamaica.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.72)
1789        Thomas Stokes built clocks in London.
    (SFC, 11/13/96, z-1 p.6)

c1789        The Marquis de Lafayette wrote the original version of the Declaration of the Rights of Man. He was appalled by the excesses of the revolution and fled to Austria where he was imprisoned for 5 years.
    (WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)
1789        A French decree allowed wine and coffee to be served on the same premises.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.105)
1789        Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, a delegate to the Estates General, said the third estate is everything, has nothing  but wants to be something.
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.65)
1789        The French dwarf Richeborg stood 23 inches and was costumed as a baby in diapers during the French Revolution. In the arms of innocent girls he could eavesdrop on sensitive conversations and carried secret dispatches in and out of Paris.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, Z1 p.2)
1789        The bankruptcy of the French government brought banks across Europe to their knees.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R48)
1789        Pierre Ordinaire, French chemist, invented absinthe as a digestive or all-purpose tonic. It quickly caught on as an apéritif. It was popularized by Henri-Louis Pernod, who opened his first distillery in Switzerland before moving to Pontarlier, France, in 1805.
    (http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryhowtoguide/a/absinthe.htm)(WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W8)(SFC, 3/24/00, p.A3)

1789        Tobias Schmidt, a German piano maker, built the first guillotine.
    (SFC, 5/2/98, p.E4)
1789        In Germany the Brandenburg Gate of Berlin was built.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T5)

1789        Russian soldiers under the leadership of Jose Pascual Domingo de Ribas y Boyons (aka Osip Deribas) chased Ottoman forces from the barracks hamlet of Khadjibey. He recognized the site’s potential for a military base to control the mouths of the Danube, Dniester, Dnieper and Bug rivers. Odessa became the name of the city built there.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.91)

1789-1793    Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, became the 1st European to cross the North American continent.
    (SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1789-1795    John Jay served as the first chief justice of the US Supreme Court.
    (WUD, 1994, p.764)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1789-1807    Selim III succeeded Abdul Hamid I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1789-1837    Ben Wilson covered this period in his 2007 book “The Making of Victorian Values: Decency and Dissent in Britain, 1789-1837."   
    (WSJ, 3/24/07, p.P12)(Econ, 4/7/07, p.81)

1789-1848    In 2015 Adam Zamoyski covered this period in Europe in “Phantom Terror: The Threat of Revolution and the Repression of Liberty 1789-1848."
    (Econ, 11/15/14, p.84)

1789-1854    John Martin, British artist. He was known as "Mad Martin" for his paintings of monumental disasters. His work included "Assuaging of the Waters" (1840), "The Eve of the Deluge," and "The Deluge."
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, DB p.9)(SFEM, 5/11/97, p.6)

1789-1914    In 2006 Michael Burleigh authored “Earthly Powers: The Clash of Religion and Politics in Europe from the French Revolution to the Great War."
    (Econ, 2/25/06, p.87)

1790        Jan 6, Johann Trier (73), composer, died.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1790        Jan 8, President Washington delivered the 1st "State of the Union" address in NYC.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_State_of_the_Union_Address)

1790        Jan 21, Joseph Guillotine proposed a new, more humane method of execution: a machine designed to cut off the condemned person's head as painlessly as possible.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1790        Jan 26, Mozart's opera "Cosi Fan Tutte" premiered in Vienna.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cos%C3%AC_fan_tutte)

1790        Feb 1, The US Supreme Court convened for 1st time in Royal Exchange Building, New York City, the nations temporary capital.
    (www.supremecourthistory.org)

1790        Feb 6, The last stone of the Bastille, torn down by order of the French revolutionary leaders, was presented to the National Assembly.
    (ON, 4/01, p.3)

1790        Feb 11, The first petition to Congress for emancipation of the slaves was made by the Society of Friends.
    (HNQ, 1/11/99)

1790        Feb 20, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (48) died.
    (AP, 2/20/98)(MC, 2/20/02)

1790        Feb 26, As a result of the Revolution, France was divided into 83 departments.
    (HN, 2/26/99)

1790        Mar 1, President Washington signed a measure authorizing the first US Census. The Connecticut Compromise was a proposal for two houses in the legislature-one based on equal representation for each state, the other for population-based representation-that resolved the dispute between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman's proposal led to the first nationwide census in 1790. The population was determined to be 3,929,625, which included 697,624 slaves and 59,557 free blacks. The most populous state was Virginia, with 747,610 people and the most populous city was Philadelphia with 42,444 inhabitants. The average cost of this year’s census was 1.13 cents per person.
    (HNQ, 7/13/01)(AP, 3/1/08)(http://www.genealogybranches.com/censuscosts.html)
   
1790        Mar 14, Captain Bligh returned to England with news of the mutiny on the Bounty.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790        Mar 21, Thomas Jefferson (46) reported to President Washington in New York as the new US Secretary of state.
    (AP, 3/21/97)(www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)

1790        Mar 22, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) became the first US Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, he served on the first Board of Arts, the body that reviewed patent applications and granted patents. Jefferson was one of a triumvirate that served as both America’s first patent commissioner and first patent examiner.
    (HN, 3/22/97)(www.archipelago.org/vol10-34/matsuura.htm)

1790        Mar 24, King George ordered the Admiralty to capture Fletcher Henderson for the mutiny on the Bounty.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790        Mar 26, US Congress passed a Naturalization Act. It required a 2-year residency.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1790        Mar 27, The shoelace was invented.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1790        Mar 29, John Tyler, the 10th president of the United States (1841-1845), was born in Charles City County, Va. He was also the first vice-president to succeed to office on the death of a president.    
    (AP, 3/29/97)(HN, 3/29/99)(MC, 3/29/02)

1790        Mar 31, In Paris, France, Maximilien Robespierre was elected president of the Jacobin Club.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1790        Apr 3, Revenue Marine Service (US Coast Guard) was created.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1790        Apr 10, President George Washington signed into law the first United States Patent Act. The Patent Board was made up of the Secretary of State, Secretary of War and the Attorney General and was responsible for granting patents on "useful and important" inventions. In the first three years, 47 patents were granted. Until 1888 miniature models of the device to be patented were required. [see July 31] The US Patent and Trademark Office’s subject grouping scheme includes a major component called a class and a minor one called a subclass. A class distinguishes one technology from another. Subclasses of the USPTO delineate processes, structural features and functional features of the technology in that particular class. By 2015 there were 474 classes and over 160,000 codes.
    (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 8/6/99)(AP, 4/10/07)(Econ., 4/25/15, p.73)

1790        Apr 17, Benjamin Franklin (born 1706), American statesman, died in Philadelphia at age 84. He mechanized the process of making sounds from tuned glass with his glass armonica. In 2000 H.W. Brands authored his Franklin biography: "The First American." In 2003 Walter Isaacson authored "Benjamin Franklin: An American Life." In 2005 Philip Dray authored “Stealing God’s Thunder," an account of Franklin’s work with lightning rods.
    (AP, 4/17/97)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 7/3/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1790        May 21, Paris was divided into 48 zones.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1790        May 26, Territory South of River Ohio was created by Congress.
    (HN, 5/26/98)

1790        May 29, Rhode Island became the last of the 13 original colonies to ratify the United States Constitution. They held out for an amendment securing religious freedom. The state was largely founded by Baptists fleeing persecution in Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 5/29/97)(HN, 5/29/98)

1790        May 31, The US copyright law was enacted.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1790        May, John Tanner (9) was kidnapped from his home in northern Kentucky by Saginaw Indians. He was taken to an area near what later became Saginaw, Michigan, where he learned the Ojibway language. After about 2 years he was sold to a woman named Net-no-kwa, who took him up to northern Michigan and later to Manitoba, Canada.
    (ON, 4/10, p.4)(http://baptisthistoryhomepage.com/ky.boone.tanner.j.kidnapd.html)

1790        Jun 9, The "Philadelphia Spelling Book" was the first US work to be copyrighted.
    (WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1)(MC, 6/9/02)
1790        Jun 9, Civil war broke out in Martinique.
    (HN 6/9/98)

1790        Jul 3, In Paris, the Marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.
    (HN, 7/3/98)

1790        Jul 9, The Swedish navy captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1790        Jul 12, The French Assembly approved a Civil Constitution providing for the election of priests and bishops.
    (HN, 7/12/98)

1790        Jul 16, The District of Columbia was established as the seat of the United States government.
    (AP, 7/16/97)

1790        Jul 17, Economist Adam Smith (b.1723), Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy, died. In 2001 Emma Rothschild authored "Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment." In 2002 Peter J. Dougherty authored "Who’s Afraid of Adam Smith." In 2010 Nicholas Phillipson authored “Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith)(WSJ, 6/21/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10) (Econ, 8/7/10, p.84)

1790        Jul 26, US Congress passed Alexander Hamilton’s Assumption plan making it responsible for state debts. Virginia eventually withdrew its opposition in return for having the nation’s new capital located on its borders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Report_on_the_Public_Credit)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.132)
1790        Jul 26, An attempt at a counter-revolution in France was put down by the National Guard at Lyons.
    (HN, 7/26/98)

1790        Jul 31, The first US patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont for an improvement "in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process". This patent was signed by then President George Washington. The first 10,280 patents, issued between 1790 and 1836, were destroyed by a fire. The legal basis for the United States patent system (USPTO) is Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution wherein the powers of Congress are defined.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Patent_and_Trademark_Office)

1790        Aug 2, The enumeration for the first US census began. It showed that 3,929,326 people were living in the US of which 697,681 were slaves, and that the largest cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia, with 28,000; Boston, with 18,000; Charleston, South Carolina, with 16,000; and Baltimore, with 13,000. Census records for Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830.
    (AP, 8/2/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_United_States_Census)

1790        Aug 4, US Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton urged that ten boats for the collection of revenue be built. This was to stop smuggling, especially of coffee, which was hampering trade. The Coast Guard was born as the Revenue Cutter Service. The Coast Guard was empowered to board and inspect any vessel in US waters and any US boat anywhere in the world.
    (Smith., 8/95, p.25)(HFA, '96, p.36)(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-16)(AP, 8/4/00)   

1790        Aug 9, The Columbia returned to Boston Harbor after a three-year voyage, becoming the first ship to carry the American flag around the world.
    (AP, 8/9/97)

1790        Sep 4, Jacques Necker was forced to resign as finance minister in France.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1790        Oct 3, John Ross, Chief of the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866, was born near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. Although his father was Scottish and his mother only part Cherokee, Ross was named Tsan-Usdi (Little John) and raised in the Cherokee tradition. A settled people with successful farms, strong schools, and a representative government, the Cherokee resided on 43,000 square miles of land they had held for centuries.
    (LCTH, 10/3/99)

1790        Oct 21, Alphonse-Marie Louis de Lamartine, writer (Rene), was born in Macon, France.
    (MC, 10/21/01)
1790        Oct 21, The Tricolor was chosen as the official flag of France.
    (HN, 10/21/98)

1790        Oct 23, Slaves revolted in Haiti.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1790        Oct 28, NY gave up claims to Vermont for $30,000.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1790        Nov 11, Chrysanthemums were introduced into England from China.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1790        Nov 17, August Ferdinand Mobius, mathematician, inventor (Mobius strip), was born.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1790        Dec 6, Congress moved from New York City to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
    (AP, 12/6/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)

1790        Dec 17, An Aztec calendar stone was discovered in Mexico City.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(MC, 12/17/01)

1790        Dec 19, Sir William Parry, England, Arctic explorer, was born.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1790        Dec 20, In Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 23-year-old British subject Samuel Slater began production of the first American spinning mill. The British jealously guarded their technological superiority in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, making it illegal for machinery, plans and even the men who built and repaired them to leave the country. After serving a 7-year mill apprenticeship in England, Slater recognized the potential offered in America. He memorized the plans for intricate machine specifications, disguised himself as a farm worker and in 1789 sailed to a new life across the Atlantic. Slater entered into a partnership with Rhode Island merchant Moses Brown and built a small spinning mill--the equivalent of 72 spinning wheels. At first, Slater's Mill employed only a handful of children between the ages of 7 and 12, but by 1800, he had more than 100 employees. By the time of Slater's death in 1835, he owned or had an interest in 13 textile mills and left an estate of almost $700,000. From this small beginning, America's own Industrial Revolution grew. [see Dec 21]
    (AP, 12/20/97)(HNPD, 12/20/98)(WSJ, 9/23/04, p.D10)

1790        Dec 21, Samuel Slater opened the first cotton mill in the United States in Rhode Island. [see Dec 20]
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1790        Dec 23, Jean François Champollion, French founder of Egyptology, was born. He deciphered the Rosetta Stone.
    (HN, 12/23/99)

c1790        Henry Fuseli painted his famous work "The Nightmare" wherein a sleeping woman has a glowing demon on her chest and a lantern-eyed stallion parting the curtains behind. He also painted "Woman Standing at a Dressing Table or Spinet" about this time.
    (SFC, 10/31/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790        Ito Jakuchu (1716-1800), Japanese painter, created his "Compendium of Vegetable and Insects."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E1)

1790        Thomas Rowlandson, English artist, painted "The Lock-Up."
    (WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790        Goethe’s "Faust: Ein Fragment," first appeared.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.239)

1790        Alexander Hamilton published his "Report on the Public Credit."
    (WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)

1790        Emmanuel Kant published his "Critique of Judgement." His analysis of the nature of art and aesthetic experience proved to be a major influence on modern ideas. These ideas were later revisited by Murdoch in her 1998 work "Existentialists and Mystics." [see 1781]
    (WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)

1790        Beethoven composed his "Cantata on the Death of Emperor Joseph II."
    (WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1790        The opera "The Philosopher’s Stone" was composed and first performed. A 1997 score showed that a number of composers wrote various sections. Mozart’s name was associated with the 2nd act finale and a duet. It was a singspiel based on fairytales with a libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. Other composers included Johann Baptist Henneberg, Benedikt Schack, Franz Haver Gerl and Emanuel Schikaneder.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)

1790        In South Carolina a 900-square-foot octagonal house was built about this time by Scottish immigrant William McKimmy. Ruins of the structure were found in 2009 on the banks of the May River in Blufton.  The design took off in 1848 following the publication of “A Home for All" by Orson Fowler, a self-taught architect and phrenologist.
    (SFC, 2/22/10, p.A6)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A2)

1790        The Episcopal Church was founded.
    (SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-11)

1790        The US government issued $80 million in bonds to cover Revolutionary War debts and their trade established the financial activity on Wall Street.
    (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

1790        The US Trade and Intercourse Act prohibited states from acquiring land from Indians without federal approval.
    (SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

1790        US Minister to France, Gouverneur Morris, said that the French "have taken Genius instead of Reason for their Guide, adopted Experiment instead of Experience, and wander in the Dark because they prefer Lightning to Light." In 2000 Susan Dunn published "Sister Revolutions: French Lightning, American Light."
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, Par p.28)

1790        The celerifere bicycle appeared in Paris about this time and was a two-wheeled, un-steerable vehicle that the rider propelled by striking his feet on the ground. This was improved upon with a bar to steer the front wheel in 1816 by Baron von Drais of Germany, and was called a draisine. The ordinary, which had a high front wheel, wire-spoked wheels and solid rubber tires, was developed in the 1870s.
    (HNQ, 10/29/99)

1790        The US census categorized the population as "free white person, all other free persons except Indians, and slaves."
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A21)
1790        The US population was 20% African and numbered about 760,000.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

1790        Fletcher Christian landed at Pitcairn Island.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A14)

1790        In Australia Pemulway, an Aboriginal warrior, speared and killed the governor’s gamekeeper at Botany Bay and waged war against the British for 12 years. His head was later sent to England. Eric Willmot later authored "Pemulway, the Rainbow Warrior."
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T4)

1790        In the Sandwich Islands [Hawaii] King Kamehameha built the Puukohola Heiau temple on the Big Island near the village of Kawaihau. It was built to the war god Ku-Ka’ili-moku. The king’s armies soon swept over all the Hawaiian islands and united the people for the first time.
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)

1790        Pineapples were introduced to the Sandwich Islands later called Hawaii.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.2)

1790        The Haleakala Volcano on Maui erupted.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.T8)

1790        La Fenice opera house in Venice was designed. It burned down for the 1st time in 1836.
    (WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)

1790         A bronze Buddha was cast in Japan. In 1945 it was donated by the Gump family to the city of San Francisco. It resides in the Japanese Tea Garden and was in need of $81,000 worth of repairs.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.A11)

1790        In Porto, Portugal, the House of Sandeman winery was found by the Scot, George Sandeman.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)

1790s        Denmark became the 1st country to abolish slavery.
    (WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)

1790s        Floreana Island in the Galapagos began serving as a mail drop for whalers and seal hunters.
    (SFEC, 11/19/00, p.T8)

c1790s         King Kamehameha slaughtered virtually everyone on the island of Lanai (which means day of conquest) after being thwarted in his bid to conquer Maui.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)

1790-1792    Sans-culottes (French for without knee-breeches) was a term created during this period by the French to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length trousers) instead of the chic knee-length culotte. The term came to refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, but, above all, to the working class radicals of the Revolution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sans-culottes)

1790-1799    In 2009 Marcus Daniel authored “Scandal & Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy," a study of the American press during this period.
    (WSJ, 3/3/09, p.A11)
1790-1799    The revolutionary tide that swept Europe during this period was later covered by R.R. Palmer in his book “The Age of the Democratic Revolution."
    (WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)

1790-1830    The “Dalton Minimum," a period of low solar activity and especially cold climate, began this year and lasted to 1830.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalton_Minimum)

1790-1848    Nicola Vaccai, Italian composer. He composed a version of "I Capuletti ed I Montecchi," that was also done by Bellini.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1790-1869    Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, French poet, historian and statesman.
    (WUD, 1994, p.803)

1790s        Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland and united the country in the battle against Prussian and Russian domination.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)

1790s        The solitaire of Rodrigues, a flightless pigeon, was last seen.
    (NH, 11/96, p.24)

1791        Jan 14, Calvin Phillips, shortest known adult male (67 cm; 2' 2"), was born.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1791        Feb 12, Peter Cooper, industrialist, philanthropist (Cooper Union), was born.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1791        Feb 20, Carl Czerny, pianist, composer (Schule der Virtuosen), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1791        Feb 25, President George Washington signed a bill creating the Bank of the United States.
    (HN, 2/25/99)

1791        Mar 3, Congress established the U.S. Mint.
    (HN, 3/3/99)
1791        Mar 3, The 1st Internal Revenue Act taxed distilled spirits and carriages.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1791        Mar 4, President Washington called the US Senate into its 1st special session.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1791        Mar 4, Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)
1791        Mar 4, 1st Jewish member of US Congress, Israel Jacobs (Pennsylvania), took office.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1791        Mar 6, Anna Claypoole Peale, painted miniatures, was born.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1791        Mar 10, John Stone of Concord, Mass, patented a pile driver.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1791        Mar 10, Pope condemned France's Civil Constitution of the clergy.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1791        Mar 11, Samuel Mulliken of Philadelphia was the 1st to obtain more than 1 US patent.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1791        Mar 21, Captain Hopley Yeaton (1740-1812) of New Hampshire became the first commissioned officer of the US Revenue Cutter Service.
    (www.uscg.mil/history/WEBCUTTERS/Scammel_1791.html)(http://tinyurl.com/goke5)

1791        Mar 23, Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman's rights, set up a group of women's clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth.
    (HN, 3/23/99)

1791        Mar 4, Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)

1791        Mar 29, Pres. George Washington and French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant examined the site along the Potomac River that would become the US capital. Maryland and Virginia had ceded land to the federal government to form the District of Columbia. Chosen as the permanent site for the capital of the United States by Congress in 1790, President Washington was given the power by Congress to select the exact site—an area ten-miles square, made up of land given by Virginia and Maryland. Washington became the official federal capital in 1800. In 2008 Fergus Bordewich authored “Washington: The Making of the American Capital."
    (HNQ, 8/13/00)(HN, 8/2/98)(WSJ, 8/8/08, p.A13)

1791        Apr 23, The 15th president of the United States, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa.
    (AP, 4/23/97)

1791        Apr 12, Francis Preston Blair, Washington Globe newspaper editor, was born.
    (HN, 4/12/98)

1791        Apr 15, Surveyor General Andrew Ellicott consecrated the southern tip of the triangular District of Columbia at Jones Point.
    (WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)

1791        Apr 18, National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1791        Apr 23, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa. He was the fifteenth U.S. president (1857-1861) and the only president not to marry.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1791        Apr 27, Samuel F.B. Morse, inventor, was born in Boston. He created the telegraph and the code which bears his name. Morse was a well-known painter who gained a wide reputation as a portrait artist. He graduated from Yale in 1810 and then studied painting in England for several years. Morse painted two notable portraits of Lafayette, was a founder of the National Academy of Design in 1826 and became professor of painting and sculpture at New York University in 1832-a position he held until his death in 1872. Morse invented the first practical recording telegraph in America and developed the Morse code, revolutionizing communication.
    (HN, 4/27/99)(HNQ, 2/26/00)

1791        Apr, William Wilberforce again introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade, but lost by a vote of 163 to 88.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)

1791        May 3, Poland adopted a new Constitution. It was designed to redress long-standing political defects of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and its traditional system of "Golden Liberty." The constitution put Lithuania under Polish domination. It is generally regarded as Europe's first and the world's second modern codified national constitution, following the 1788 ratification of the US Constitution.
    (SFC, 4/25/09, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_May_3,_1791)(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1791        May 8, Capt. Edward Edwards set sail from Tahiti in the Pandora with the Bounty mutineers abandoned by Fletcher Henderson.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791        May 9, Francis Hopkinson (53), US writer, music, lawyer, died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1791        May 14, In Mexico a time capsule was placed atop a bell tower at Mexico City's Metropolitan Cathedral when the building's topmost stone was laid, 218 years after construction had begun. Workers restoring the church found it in October, 2007.
    (AP, 1/15/08)

1791        May 16, James Boswell’s celebrated 2-volume work, "The Life of Samuel Johnson," was published. In 2001 Adam Sisman authored "Boswell’s Presumptuous Task," an account of how Boswell came to write the Johnson biography.
    (WSJ, 8/24/01, p.W8)(ON, 11/06, p.10)

1791        May 28, Joseph Schmitt (57), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1791        May 29, Pietro Romani, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1791        Jun 9, John Howard Payne, American playwright and actor, was born.
    (HN, 6/9/01)

1791        Jun 20, King Louis XVI of France attempted to flee the country in the so-called Flight to Varennes, but was caught.
    (AP, 6/20/97)

1791        Jun 21, King Louis XVI and the French royal family were arrested in Varennes. In 2003 Timothy Tackett authored "When the King Took Flight," an examination of the political culture during this period of transformation.
    (HN, 6/21/98)(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.M6)

1791        Jul 7, Benjamin Rush, Richard Allen and Absalom Jones founded the Non-denominational African Church.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1791        Jul 13, The bones of the greatest French satirist, philosopher, and writer, Voltaire (Jean-Marie Arouet) were enshrined in the Pantheon in Paris.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1791        Jul 14-1791 Jul 17, Riots took place in Birmingham, England. The houses of Joseph Priestley and other political dissenters were burned to the ground. Priestley had rejected various supernatural elements of Christianity, criticized the Church of England, and supported the French Revolution.
    (SFC, 1/9/09, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priestley_Riots)

1791        Jul 16, Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the constitution.
    (HN, 7/16/98)

1791        Jul 17, National Guard troops opened fire in Paris on a crowd of demonstrators calling for the deposition of the king.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1791        Jul 24, Robespierre expelled all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1791        Jul 25, Free African Society (FAS) leaders drew up a plan to organize the African Church. Richard Allen purchased a site for a church for the African-American community in Philadelphia. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church.
    (www.pbs.org)

1791        Jul 26, Franz Xavier Wolfgang Mozart, 6th child of Austrian composer WAM, was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1791        Aug 1, Robert Carter III, a Virginia plantation owner, freed all 500 of his slaves in the largest private emancipation in U.S. history.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1791        Aug 2, Samuel Briggs and his son patented a nail-making machine.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1791        Aug 4, The chief item in the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and Turkey was the return of Belgrade to Turkey. The peace initiative resulted from the terms of the Convention of Reichenbach between Prussia and Austria. Belgrade had been taken in 1789 by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II.
    (HNQ, 6/25/99)

1791        Aug 14, Haitian slaves, led by voodoo priest Boukman Dutty, gathered to plan a revolution.
    (SFCM, 5/30/04, p.9)( http://tinyurl.com/yun3k3)

1791        Aug 26, John Fitch and James Rumsey, rival inventors, were both granted a US patent for a working steamboat.
    (MC, 8/26/02)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)

1791        Aug 29, The Pandora under Capt. Edward Edwards sank in Endeavour Strait (later Torres Strait) between Australia and New Guinea. 33 crewmen and 4 prisoners died. They managed to use small boats and arrived in Timor on Sep 16.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791        Sep 1, Lydia Sigourney, US religious author (How to Be Happy), was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1791        Sep 3, The French National Assembly passed a French Constitution passed.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1791        Sep 5, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Vogelsdorf Germany, opera composer (Les Huguenots, Le Prophete), was born.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1791        Sep 6, Mozart’s last opera "La Clemenza di Tito," premiered in Prague. It was composed for the coronation festivities of the King of Bohemia.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)(MC, 9/6/01)

1791        Sep 9, French Royalists took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1791        Sep 13, France's King Louis XVI accepted a constitution.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1791        Sep 14, Louis XVI solemnly swore his allegiance to the French constitution.
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1791        Sep 22, Michael Faraday (d.1867), English physicist, was born in London. He demonstrated that a magnetic field induces a current in a moving conductor. He invented the dynamo, the transformer and the electric motor.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.269)(HN, 9/22/00)

1791        Sep 26, J.L.A. Theodore Gericault, French painter, was born.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1791        Sep 27, Jews in France were granted French citizenship. Jews were granted religious and civic rights in 1791.
    (HN, 9/27/98)(WSJ, 8/7/00, p.A13)

1791        Sep 30, Mozart's opera "The Magic Flute" premiered in Vienna, Austria.
    (AP, 9/30/97)

1791        Oct 1, In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly held its first meeting.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1791            Nov 3, Gen. St. Clair moved his force of approximately 1,400 men to some high ground on the upper Wabash River. St. Clair was looking for the forces of Michikinikwa (Chief Little Turtle 1752-1812), who had recently defeated Gen. Josiah Harmar’s (1753-1813) army. St. Clair deployed only minimal sentry positions. [see Nov 4]
    (DoW, 1999, p.168)

1791        Nov 4, General Arthur St. Clair, governor of Northwest Territory, was badly defeated by a large Indian army near Fort Wayne. Miami Indian Chief Little Turtle (1752-1812) led the powerful force of Miami, Wyandot, Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, Ojibwa and Potawatomi that inflicted the greatest defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Army at the hands of North American Indians. Some 623 regulars led by General Arthur St. Clair were killed and 258 wounded on the banks of the Wabash River near present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. The staggering defeat moved Congress to authorize a larger army in 1792.
    (HNQ, 8/10/98)(HN, 11/4/98)

1791        Dec 4, Britain's Observer, oldest Sunday newspaper in world, was 1st published.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1791        Dec 5, Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna, Austria, at age 35. His first opera was "Idomeneo." In 1920 Hermann Abert authored “W.A. Mozart." In 1991 Georg Knepler authored "Wolfang Amade Mozart," a Marxist view of Mozart in his times. In 1995 Maynard Solomon published a psychoanalytic biography of Mozart. In 1999 Peter Gay authored a Penguin short life of Mozart and Robert W. Gutman authored the comprehensive biography "Mozart."
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.54)(AP, 12/5/97)(WSJ, 12/2/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)

1791        Dec 15, The US Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, took effect following ratification by Virginia. The First Amendment declared the separation of church and state and guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, the press and assembly. In 2007 Anthony Lewis authored “Freedom for the Thought That We Hate: A biography of the Frist Amendment."
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 12/15/97)(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)

1791        Dec 17, NYC traffic regulation created the 1st 1-way street.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1791        Dec 22, Alexander Hamilton paid a $600 installment of $1,000 in blackmail to James Reynolds, who threatened to expose Hamilton’s relationship with Reynolds’ wife. Hamilton had begun a relationship with Maria Reynolds during the summer. A 2nd payment was made Jan 3.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.1,12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)

1791        Dec, The 1st Bank of the US opened under Alexander Hamilton.  It did the work of a central bank even though private investors held most of its shares. James Madison opposed the plans of Alexander Hamilton for a National Bank. [see 1780-1792, Banning book on Madison] It was dissolved in 1811.
    (WSJ, 12/20/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A8)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.91)(Econ, 4/12/14, p.50)

1791        Jose Cardero, a Spanish artist in California, painted "Vista del Presidio de Monterey."
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.E6)

1791        Alexander Hamilton authored his “Report on the Subject of Manufactures." His plan to get the country’s economy going included tariffs to protect the young industries.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.74)(Econ, 1/21/12, SR p.5)

1791        Englishman Thomas Paine wrote the “Rights of Man" in Paris, promoting the French Revolution. It defended the French Revolution against Edmund Burke's attack in “Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790).
    (ON, 6/2011, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rights_of_Man)

1791        French Comte de Volney (1757-1820) authored “The Ruins, or a Survey of the Revolutions of Empires," a treatise on why civilizations fell and what men should do to find happiness.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.128)

1791        The opera "The Beneficent Dervish" was initially attributed to Emanuel Schikaneder but a 1997 find indicated that Mozart wrote the work. Schikaneder was a Vienna theater impresario who had commissioned "The Magic Flute."
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)

1791        Aaron Burr (1756-1836), later US vice president (1801-1805), was elected as US Senator from New York (1791-1797).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Burr)

1791        The US Providence Bank was later reported to have profited from traffic in slaves to the New World. The bank eventually became part of FleetBoston Financial Corp.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.D3)

1791        A document was released in 2004 from Pittsfield, Mass., that contained a 1791 bylaw to protect the windows of a new meeting house from baseball players.
    (SFC, 5/12/04, p.A2)

1791        A New Hampshire law called for convicted adulterers to be paraded on the gallows for an hour and then be publicly whipped no exceeding 39 stripes before being sent to prison and fined £100. By 2014 the penalty had been reduced to a fine of $1,200 as legislators proposed a repeal of the law.
    (Econ, 4/19/14, p.24)

1791        William Sprague opened the 1st US carpet mill in Philadelphia.
    (SFCM, 10/10/04, p.8)

1791        Legend says the Harel family began making Camembert cheese before this time. The family had given a priest refuge, who in gratitude gave them the recipe. In 2003 Pierre Boisard authored "Camembert: A National Myth."
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.M3)

1791        Frantisek Koczwara, a Bohemian musician, died in a London brothel from auto-asphyxiation.
    (SSFC, 3/18/01, DB p.49)
1791        Grigory A. Potemkin (b.1739), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II's lover, died. In 2002 Simon Sebag Montefiore authored "Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin."
    (MC, 9/13/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)
1791        John Wesley (b.1703), English evangelist and theologian, died. He founded the Methodist movement.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1622)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1791        In Australia officials granted parcels of land around Sydney to convicts who have served their time, beginning years of dispossession of Aborigines that continued as white settlers dispersed throughout Australia. Clashes between Aborigines and settlers led to tens of thousands of deaths among Aborigines and hundreds of settler deaths.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

1791        Sheikh Mansur, Chechen leader, was captured and died in the Schlusselburg Fortress.
    (www.chechnyafree.ru)

1791        The United Irishmen Society was formed. Inspired by the French Revolution many Catholics and Protestants took up the cause of Irish nationalism during the next decade.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1791        The Berlin Sing-Academie was established.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.C13)
1791        In Berlin, Germany, the Brandenburg Gate was completed. It stood 66 feet tall and 213 feet wide, and was topped by the copper Quadriga, a sculpture of a goddess riding into the city aboard a chariot. It was restored in 2002.
    (AP, 10/2/02)

1791        Wahid Bihbihani (b.~1704), Shiite scholar and founder of the most dominant form of Shiism, died about this time in Karbala (Iraq). He revived and refashioned the waning Usuli school of Shiism.
    (Econ, 7/25/15, p.69)(http://tinyurl.com/pyavpz3)

1791        The Marquesas Islands were officially discovered. Over a 30 year period western diseases ravaged the populace and only about 2,000 of 100,000 people survived.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)

1791        In St. Domingue Toussaint L’Ouverture joined the slave rebellion against plantation owners and later led a colonial revolt against France. In 1995 Madison Smart Bell authored "All Souls Rising," a novel set in this period.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97 BR, p.10)(SSFC, 4/8/01, BR p.4)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.10)

1791-1824    Theodore Gericault, French painter. He painted "Mounted Officer of the Imperial Guard."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.593)

1791-1888    In Korea 124 Catholics were executed during this period under the Joseon Dynasty, which tried to shut off the Korean Peninsula off from Western influence. They were canonized as saints in 1984 during a visit by Pope John Paul II.
    (Econ, 7/26/14, p.A7)

1792        Jan 17, One of the first US Treasury bonds was issued to Pres. George Washington and bears the earliest use of the dollar sign.
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W9)

1792        Jan 28, Rebellious slaves in Santo Domingo launched an attack on the city of Cap.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1792        Feb 7, Cimarosa's opera "Il Matrimonio Segreto," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1792        Feb 15, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre (42), astronomer and surveyor, was elected to the French Academy of Sciences to help establish the length of a proposed new unit of measurement, the meter.
    (ON, 2/09, p.8)

1792        Feb 20, President Washington signed an act creating the U.S. Post Office. [see Feb 20, 1789, May 8, 1794]
    (HN, 2/20/98)(AP, 2/20/98)

1792        Feb 21, US Congress passed the Presidential Succession Act. [see Mar 1]
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1792        Feb 23, Joseph Haydn’s 94th Symphony in G premiered.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1792        Feb 23, Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1792        Feb 23, Joshua Reynolds (68), English portrait painter (Simplicity), died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1792        Feb 29, The composer Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (d.1868) was born in Pesaro, Italy. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gioachino_Rossini)

1792        Mar 1, US Presidential Succession Act was passed. [see Feb 21]
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1792        Mar 4, Oranges were introduced to Hawaii.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1792        Mar 10, John Stuart (78), 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1792        Mar 16, Sweden's King Gustav III was shot and mortally wounded during a masquerade party by a former member of his regiment. He was murdered by Count Ankarstrom at an opera. It became the inspiration for Giuseppe Verdi's Un Ballo in Maschera. Gustav died 13 days later.
    (AP, 3/16/06)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)

1792        Mar 20, In Paris, the Legislative Assembly approved the use of the guillotine.
    (HN, 3/20/99)

1792        Mar 23, Franz Joseph Haydn’s "Symphony No. 94 in G Major," also known as the "Surprise Symphony," was performed publicly for the first time, in London.
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1792        Mar 29, Gustav III, King of Sweden (1771-92), died of wounds inflicted by an assassin on March 16.
    (AP, 3/16/06)

1792        Mar/Apr, Speculator William Duer defaulted on Hamilton’s freshly exchanged "Stock in the Public Funds," and caused the first American stock market crash. Hamilton injected liquidity, asked the banks not to call in loans and allowed merchants to pay customs duties with short-term notes.
    (WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)

1792        Apr 1, Gronings feminist Etta Palm demanded women's right to divorce.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1792        Apr 2, Congress passed the Coinage Act, which authorized establishment of the U.S. Mint. It established the US dollar defined in fixed weights of gold and silver. State chartered banks issued paper money convertible to gold or silver coins to ease business transactions. U.S. authorized $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle & 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins & silver dollar, dollar, quarter, dime & half-dime.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(AP, 4/2/97)(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)(HN, 4/2/98)

1792        Apr 4, American abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens, U.S. Radical Republican congressional leader, was born in Danville, Vt..
    (AP, 4/4/98)(HN, 4/4/98)

1792        Apr 5, George Washington cast the first presidential veto, rejecting a congressional measure for apportioning representatives among the states.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)

1792        Apr 14, Pres. George Washington appointed David Rittenhouse, the foremost scientist of America, the first director of the US Mint at a salary of $2000 per annum. Rittenhouse was then in feeble health and lived at the northwest corner of Seventh and Arch Streets, then one of the high places of Old Philadelphia, where he had an observatory and where he later died and was first buried.
    (http://tinyurl.com/per3q6f)

1792        Apr 20, France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the French Revolutionary wars.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)

1792        Apr 21, Jose da Silva Xavier, aka Tiradentes (teeth puller), considered by many to be Brazil's George Washington, was drawn and quartered by the Portuguese. He was hung in Rio de Janeiro. His body was broken to pieces. A document was written With his blood declaring his memory infamous. His head was exposed in Vila Rica. Pieces of his body were exposed in the cities between Vila Rica and Rio, in an attempt to scare the people who had listened to his independence ideas.
    (AP, 4/19/03)(www.v-brazil.com/culture/historic-characters/tiradentes.html)

1792        Apr 22, President Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
    (HN, 4/22/98)

1792        Apr 24, Capt. Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, an officer stationed in Strasbourg, composed "La Marseillaise," which later became the national anthem of France.
    (AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)

1792        Apr 25, Highwayman Nicolas Jacques Pelletier became the first person under French law to be executed by guillotine.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)

1792        Apr 30, John Montague (73), 4th Earl of Sandwich, English Naval minister, died.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1792        May 7, Capt. Robert Gray discovered Gray's  Harbor in Washington state.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1792        May 8, US established a military draft.
    (MC, 5/8/02)
1792        May 8, British Capt. George Vancouver sighted and named Mt. Rainier, Wash.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1792        May 11, The Columbia River was discovered and named by Captain Robert Gray.
    (HN, 5/11/98)(MC, 5/11/02)

1792        May 12, A toilet that flushed itself at regular intervals was patented.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1792        May 13, Giovanni-Maria Mastaia-Ferretti, later Pope Pius IX, "Pio Nono" (1846-78), was born at Sinigaglia.
    (PTA, 1980, p.510)(MC, 5/13/02)

1792        May 16, Denmark abolished slave trade.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1792        May 17, Stock traders signed the Buttonwood Agreement in New York City at the Tontine Coffee House Company near a Buttonwood tree, where business had been transacted in the past. 24 merchants formed their exchange at Wall and Water Streets where they fixed rates on commissions on stocks and bonds. This later developed into the New York Stock Exchange. A market crash and almost total halt in credit, trading and liquidity prompted the Buttonwood Agreement under the influence of Alexander Hamilton. The organization drafted its constitution on March 8th, 1817, and named itself the "New York Stock & Exchange Board."
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/crash/timeline/)(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A19)(HN, 5/17/98)

1792        May 18, Russian troops invaded Poland.
    (HN, 5/18/98)

1792        May 19, The Russian army entered Poland.
    (DTnet 5/19/97)

1792        May 21, Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis (d.1843), French engineer and mathematician, was born. He became first person to describe the Coriolis force.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaspard-Gustave_Coriolis)(SFC, 5/21/09, p.D10)

1792         Jun 1, Kentucky became the 15th state of the Union.
     (AP, 6/1/97)

1792        Jun 4, Captain George Vancouver claimed Puget Sound for Britain. Englishman George Vancouver sailed into the SF Bay on his ship Discovery in this year and explored the Santa Clara Valley. Vancouver sailed the Inside Passage, the 1000-mile waterway between Puget Sound and Alaska.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)
1792        Jun 4, John Burgoyne, soldier, playwright, died.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1792        Jul 18, American naval hero John Paul Jones died in Paris at age 45. His body was preserved in rum in case the American government wished him back. In 1905 his body was transported to the US and placed in a crypt in Annapolis. In 2003 Evan Thomas authored "John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father of the American Navy."
    (AP, 7/18/97)(SSFC, 6/22/03, p.M3)

1792        Jul 30, The French national anthem "La Marseillaise" by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, was first sung in Paris.
    (AP, 7/30/99)

1792        Jul 31, The foundation-stone was laid for the US Mint by David Rittenhouse, Esq. The property was paid for and deeded to the United States of America for a consideration of $4266.67 on July 18, 1792. The money for the Mint was the first money appropriated by Congress for a building to be used for a public purpose.
    (http://tinyurl.com/per3q6f)

1792        Aug 4, Percy Bysshe Shelley (d.1822), English poet and author who wrote "Prometheus Unbound," was born in Field Place, England. He married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, author of "Frankenstein." He wrote the poem "Adonais."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1314)(HN, 8/4/98)

1792        Aug 5, Frederick 7th baron Lord North (60), English premier, died. He presided over Britain's loss of its American colonies (1770-82).
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1792        Aug 10, Some 10,000 Parisians attacked the Tuileries Palace of Louis XVI at the instigation of Georges Jacques Danton (33), after Louis ordered his Swiss guard to stop firing on the people. The mob massacred some 600 guardsmen. The king was later arrested, put on trial for treason, and executed the following January.
    (PC, 1992, p.345)(AP, 8/10/07)(ON, 2/09, p.8)

1792        Aug 11, A revolutionary commune was formed in Paris, France.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1792        Aug 13, Revolutionaries imprisoned the French royal family, including King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. [see Aug 10]
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1792        Aug 18, Lord John Russel, Prime Minister of England from 1846 to 1852 and 1865 to 1866, was born.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1792        Aug 29, The English warship Royal George capsized in Spithead and 900 people were killed.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1792        Sep 2, Verdun, France, surrendered to the Prussian Army.
    (HN, 9/2/98)
1792        Sep 2, In the "September Massacres"- French mobs removed nobles and clergymen from jails, and some 1,600.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)

1792        Sep 3, In France Princess de Lamballe (b.1749), the best friend of Marie Antoinette, was killed and her body mutilated by an angry mob. Her head was displayed under the window of Marie Antoinette, interned in Temple Prison.
    (SSFC, 4/23/06, p.G5)(www.batguano.com/vigeeart100.html)

1792        Sep 5, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the National Convention in France.
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1892        Sep 18, At Spithaead, England, verdicts and sentences were announced for the 10 prisoners from the mutiny on the Bounty. 4 men were acquitted, and 6 were found guilty and condemned to death. 2 of the condemned were pardoned and another was freed on a technicality. 3 were later hanged.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1792        Sep 21, Collot D'Herbois proposed to abolish the monarchy in France. The French National Convention voted to abolish the monarchy. 1st French Republic formed
    (AP, 9/21/97)(MC, 9/21/01)

1792        Sep 22, The first French Republic was proclaimed.
    (AP, 9/22/06)

1792        Sep 27, George Cruikshank, London, caricaturist (Oliver Twist), was born.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1792        Oct 7, James Mason (b.1725), American Revolutionary statesman, died at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. In 2006 Jeff Broadwater authored “George Mason."
    (HNQ, 2/18/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mason)(WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)

1792        Oct 12, Columbus Day was 1st celebrated in the US.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1792        Oct 13, The "Old Farmer's Almanac" was 1st published. [see Nov 25]
    (MC, 10/13/01)
1792        Oct 13, The cornerstone of the executive mansion, later known as the White House, was laid during a ceremony in the District of Columbia.
    (AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)

1792        Nov 6, Battle at Jemappes: French army beat the Austrians.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1792        Nov 13, Edward John Trelawney, traveler and author (Adventure of a Younger Son), friend of Byron and Shelley, was born in England.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1792        Nov 25, The Farmer's Almanac was 1st published. [see Oct 13]
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1792        Dec 5, George Washington was re-elected president; John Adams was re-elected vice president.
    (AP, 12/5/97)

1792        Dec 8, The 1st cremation in US: Henry Laurens.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1792        Dec 11, France's King Louis XVI went before the Convention to face charges of treason. Louis was convicted and executed the following month.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1792        Dec 12, In Vienna Ludwig Van Beethoven (22) received 1st lesson in music composition from Franz Joseph Haydn.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1792        Dec 15, Alexander Hamilton, US Sec. of the Treasury, was accused of teaming with Mr. James Reynolds to speculate illegally in government securities. Hamilton then acknowledged to three lawmakers, including James Monroe, that he had paid hush money to Mr. Reynolds to cover an affair with Reynolds’ wife.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)

1792        Dec 26, Charles Babbage (d.1871), English inventor of the calculating machine, was born.
    (HN, 12/26/98)

1792        John Trumbell painted his portrait of Alexander Hamilton.
    (WSJ, 10/20/04, p.D12)

1792        Captain Bligh published "A Voyage to the South Sea" after his return from the Mutiny on the Bounty.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1792        James Madison published an essay in a newspaper on property and slaves. In this essay Madison extended the idea of property from material possessions to the property in his opinions, especially his religious beliefs.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.227)

1792        Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) wrote her essay "Vindication of the Rights of Woman." She married Godwin in 1797 after learning that she was pregnant and died in childbirth.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.28)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1792        Construction began on the Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca. It was dedicated in 1795.
    (SSFC, 1/4/09, p.B3)

1792        An edition of the Bible was first printed in New York.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1792        George Washington signed a law giving shipowners “allowances" (i.e. subsidies) to offset tariffs they had to pay on their inputs. This was part of an effort to rebuild new England’s cod industry.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.75)
1792         A US military campaign led by General Arthur St. Clair against Native Americans in Ohio ended in complete disaster. Of the 1,400 US regulars and militia who set out in pursuit of Native Americans, some 650 were killed and 250 wounded when adversaries caught them unprepared for battle. Lawmakers launched the first congressional investigation of US executive branch actions. President George Washington responded with wary cooperation, aware he was setting precedents for presidents to come.
    (CSM, 7/26/17)
1792        A US Militia Act was created.
    (SFC, 3/2/02, p.A21)
1792        US veterans hired William Hull to petition congress for more compensation.
    (Econ, 10/4/08, p.32)
1792        A US penny was struck to test a design. It came to be called the Birch cent after engraver Robert Birch. In 2015 it sold at auction for $2.6 million.
    (SFC, 1/13/15, p.A6)
1792        The dime coin "dismes" were first produced. Then came "half-dismes," or what we call nickels.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97, zone 3 p.4)
1792        Explorer Jose Longinos Martinez wrote in his diary about grizzly maulings that killed 2 Indians in California.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.A6)

1792        Archibald Menzies, Scottish doctor/surgeon, was the naturalist aboard the Discovery under Captain George Vancouver. He collected his first California poppy and classified it incorrectly as Celandine, an old world member of the same family (Papaveracae). [see 1794,1816,1825-1833]
    (NBJ, 2/96, p.12)
1792        Three English sailors wandered from Vancouver’s supply ship Daedalus, anchored in Waimea Bay. They were captured and killed by native Hawaiians.
    (SFCM, 3/11/01, p.87)

1792        Arthur Phillip, the 1st governor of New South Wales, Australia, returned to England accompanied by Bennelong, an Aboriginal who had earlier attacked and wounded him. Philip later gave Bennelong a house on a point in Sydney Cove. In 1973 it became the site of the Sydney Opera House.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)
1792        In England consumers began an organized boycott against West Indian sugar. The Anti-Saccharine Society displayed a cross-section of a slave ship with men shackled head-to-toe like sardines.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.94)
1792        William Wilberforce introduced a new motion in British Parliament for the gradual abolition of the slave trade. The “gradual" wording, proposed by home office minister Henry Dundas, led to passage of the bill in the House of Commons 230 to 85.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)
1792        James Penny, Liverpool slave trader, was presented with a magnificent silver epergne for speaking in favor of the slave trade to a parliamentary committee. Liverpool’s Penny Lane was named after him.
    (SSFC, 7/9/06, p.A2)(www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/maritime/slavery/liverpool.asp)
1792        The British St. George’s Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of rebellious slaves from other colonies.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1792        Niagara-on-the-Lake became the 1st capital of the Upper Canada (later Ontario). The Parliament met for 5 sessions before moving to York (Toronto).
    (WSJ, 7/25/02, p.D10)

1792        The Chinese poet Shih Tao-nan, shortly before succumbing to the plague noted: "Few days following the death of the rats, Men pass away like falling walls."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)

1792        The crown jewels of France were stolen including the 67 carat Blue Diamond.
    (THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1792        The La Felecia opera house in Venice opened.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.D3)

1792        In Mexico Campeche’s northern fort, the Reducto de San Jose, was built. It later housed the Museo de Barcas y Armas.
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E5)

1792        In Scotland gas lighting was developed.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1792        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity" (1736). In 2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad."
    (www.concise.britannica.com)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)

1792-1793    Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828), Spanish painter, went deaf from an unexplained illness.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)

1792-1796    In St. Petersburg, Russia, Catherine the Great commissioned the building of the neoclassical rococo Alexander Palace for her eldest grandson, the future Alexander I.
    (WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A16)

1792-1867    Giovanni Pacing, Italian composer. His work included "Maria, Regina d’Inghilterra," based on Victor Hugo’s drama "Marie Tudor."
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1792-1868    Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, Italian composer. His work included the opera "La Donna del Lago," based on the Walter Scott romance "The Lady of the Lake."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1246)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1793        Jan 1, Francesco Guardi (b.1712), Venetian painter, died.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Guardi)

1793        Jan 3,  Lucretia Coffin Mott women’s rights activist, was born. She was a teacher, minister, antislavery leader and founder of the 1st Women’s Rights Convention.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)(HN, 1/3/02)

1793        Jan 9, The first US manned balloon flight occurred as Frenchman Jean Pierre Blanchard, using a hot-air balloon, flew between Philadelphia and Woodbury, N.J. He stayed airborne for 46 minutes, traveled close to 15 miles and set down at the "old Clement farm" in Deptford, New Jersey. [see Jun 23, 1784, Mar 9, 1793]
    (WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)(AP, 1/9/99)(ON, 6/09, p.2)

1793        Jan 19, French King Louis XVI was sentenced to death. [see Jan 21]
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1793        Jan 21, Louis XVI (38), last of the French Bourbon dynasty, was executed on the guillotine. The vote in the National Convention for execution for treason won by a margin of one vote. The Great Terror followed his execution.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1677)(V.D.-H.K.p.231)(NH, 6/97, p.23)(AP, 1/21/98)

1793        Jan 23, Prussia and Russia signed an accord on the 2nd partition of Lithuania and Poland. The 2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of Poland independent.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1677)(LHC, 1/23/03)

1793        Feb 1, Ralph Hodgson of Lansingburg, NY, patented one of the world’s greatest inventions this day: Oiled silk.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1793        Feb 1, France declared war on Britain and the Netherlands.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1793        Feb 12, The US federal government passed its first fugitive slave law. This gave slave holders the right to reclaim their human property in free states.
    (HN, 2/12/97)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)

1793        Feb 25, The department heads of the U.S. government met with President  Washington at his Mt. Vernon home for the first Cabinet meeting on record.
    (AP, 2/25/98)(MC, 2/25/02)

1793        Mar 2, Sam Houston, the first president of the Republic of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44), was born near Lexington, Va. He fought for Texas' independence from Mexico; President of Republic of Texas; U.S. Senator; Texas governor
    (AP, 3/2/98)(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(SC, 3/2/02)

1793        Mar 3, Charles Sealsfield, writer (The Making of America), was born.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1793        Mar 4, George Washington was inaugurated as President for the second time. His 2nd inauguration was the shortest with just 133 words. Since George Washington’s second term, Inauguration Day had been March 4 of the year following the election. That custom meant that defeated presidents and congressmen served four months after the election. In 1933, the so-called Lame Duck Amendment to the U.S. Constitution moved the inauguration of newly elected presidents and congressmen closer to Election Day. The 20th Amendment required the terms of the president and vice-president to begin at noon on January 20, while congressional terms begin on January 3.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(HNPD, 3/4/99)(SC, 3/4/02)
1793        Mar 4, French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1793        Mar 5, Austrian troops crush the French and recapture Liege.
    (HN, 3/5/99)

1793        Mar 10, In France, on a proposal by Georges-Jacques Danton (1759-1794), the National Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium had given rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793. On Oct 20 the extraordinary criminal tribunal received by decree the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary_Tribunal)

1793        Mar 18, The 2nd Battle at Neerwinden: Austria army beat France.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1793        Mar 26, Pro-royalist uprising took place in Vendée region of France.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1793        Apr 1,  The volcano Unsen on Japan erupted killing about 53,000.
    (OTD)

1793        Apr 6, In France all executive power was conferred upon a Committee of Public Safety. Georges-Jacques Danton was one of the nine original members.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Danton)

1793        Apr 14, A royalist rebellion in Santo Domingo was crushed by French republican troops.
    (HN, 4/14/99)

1793        Apr 17, The Battle of Warsaw was fought.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1793        Apr 22, Pres. Washington attended the opening of Rickett's, the 1st circus in US.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1793        Apr 29, John Michell (b.1724) English clergyman and natural philosopher, died in Yorkshire. He provided pioneering insights in a wide range of scientific fields, including astronomy, geology, optics, and gravitation. Michell was the first person to propose that black holes existed.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Michell)

1793        May 7, Pietro Nardini (71), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1793        May 20, Charles Bonnet (b.1720) naturalist and philosophical writer, died in Geneva. He is responsible for coining the term phyllotaxis to describe the arrangement of leaves on a plant. Bonnet was from a French family driven into the Geneva region by the religious persecution in the 16th century.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Bonnet)

1793        May 25, Father Stephen Theodore Badin became the 1st US Roman Catholic priest ordained.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1793        Jun 2, Maximillian Robespierre, a member of France’s Committee on Public Safety, initiated the "Reign of Terror," a purge of those suspected of treason against the French Republic. Months of the Great Terror, followed the Revolution in France as thousands died beneath the guillotine.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.231)(HN, 6/2/98)

1793        Jun 20, Eli Whitney petitioned for a cotton gin patent in Philadelphia.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h1517t.html)

1793        Jun 24, The first republican constitution in France was adopted.
    (AP, 6/24/97)

1793        Jul 13, John Clare, English poet, was born.
    (HN, 7/13/01)
1793        Jul 13, Pierre Dupont de Nemours was ordered arrested in Paris on charges of plotting with rebels against the French Revolutionary National Assembly.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1793        Jul 13, French revolutionary writer Jean Paul Marat was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday, who was executed four days later. In 1970 Marie Cher authored "Charlotte Corday, and Certain Men of the Revolutionary Torment."
    (AP, 7/13/97)(ON, SC, p.8)

1793        Jul 23, Roger Sherman (b.1721) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was only man to sign the four most important documents that were most significant in the formation of the United States. Sherman signed the Association (the 1774 compact to boycott British goods), the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and Constitution. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress, served in the first U.S.  House of Representatives and was a U.S.  senator.
    (HN, 4/19/97)(HNQ, 7/10/99)
1793        Jul 23, The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, fell to the Prussians.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1793        Jul 24, France passed the 1st copyright law.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1793        Jul 27, In France, Robespierre became a member of the Committee of Public Safety.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1793        Jul, Napoleon Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet that made a good impression on the Jacobin faction that had seized power in Paris.
    (ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793        Aug 14, Republican troops in France laid siege to the city of Lyons.
    (HN, 8/14/98)

1793        Aug 22, Louis Duke de Noailles (80), marshal of France, was guillotined.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1793        Aug 27, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris, France.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1793        Aug 28, Adam-Philippe Custine, Duke de Lauzun (French duke, general, fought in American Revolution, hero in both countries), was guillotined in Paris.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1793        Aug 29, Slavery was abolished in the French colony of Santo Domingo (Haiti).
    (HN, 8/29/98)(MC, 8/29/01)

1793        Sep 5, The Reign of Terror began during the French Revolution as the National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress counter-revolutionary activities. One delegate, claiming that the middle class Girondist (moderates) leaders be sentenced to death cried, "It is time for equality to wield its scythe over all the heads. Very well, Legislator, place Terror on the agenda!" The delegates agreed to arrest all suspects and dissenters, try them swiftly in the kangaroo courts known as the Revolutionary Tribunals, and sentence them uniformly to death.
    (MC, 9/5/01)(AP, 9/4/07)

1793        Sep 6, French General Jean Houchard and his 40,000 men began a three-day battle against an Anglo-Hanoverian army at Hondschoote, southwest Belgium, in the wars of the French Revolution.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1793        Sep 17, Captain Napoleon Bonaparte reached Toulon and presented himself to his new commander, General Carteaux, a former house painter and policeman.
    (ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793        Sep 18, President George Washington laid the foundation stone for the U.S. Capitol on Jenkins Hill.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)(HN, 9/18/98)

1793        Oct 8, John Hancock, US merchant and signer (Declaration of Independence), died at 56.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1793        Oct 10, The rebellious French city of Lyons surrendered to Revolutionary troops.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1793        Oct 16, During the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette was beheaded. Prosecutors claimed she had sexually abused her son and financially abused the French Monarchy.  In mourning for her husband, Louis XVI, who had been guillotined the previous January, clad in rags, her once-dazzling locks shorn by the executioner's assistant, she even suffered the indignity of a crude sketch by the great French painter, Jacques Louis David. Antoinette bore herself with a regal indifference to her martyrdom. Madame Tussaud used her severed head as a model for her wax bust death mask. In 2001 Antonia Fraser authored "Marie Antoinette: The Journey."
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.T5)(AP, 10/16/97)(WSJ, 10/5/01, p.W13)

1793        Oct 19, Captain Napoleon Bonaparte was promoted to chef de bataillon (major) giving him greater voice in the councils of war and the siege of Toulon.
    (ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793        Oct 20, In France an extraordinary criminal tribunal received the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal by a decree. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium gave rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793, and on March 10, on the proposal of Danton, the Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary_Tribunal)

1793        Oct 28, Eliphalet Remington, US gun maker, was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)
1793        Oct 28, Eli Whitney applied for a patent on the cotton gin, a machine which cleaned the tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton easily and effectively--a job which was previously done by hand. The patent was granted the following March. [see Mar 13, Jun 20, 1793, Mar 14, 1794]
    (AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)

1793        Oct 31, Execution of 21 Girondins (moderates) in Paris, stepping up the Reign of Terror. Pierre V. Vergniaud (40), French politician and elegant, impassioned orator of Girondins, was guillotined.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1793        Nov 3, Stephen Fuller Austin was born. He colonized Texas.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1793        Nov 8, The Louvre opened in Paris as a museum. It was originally constructed as a fortress in the early thirteenth century.
    (HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)

1793        Nov 10, France outlawed the forced worship of God.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1793        Nov 12, Jean-Sylvain Bailley (53), French astronomer and mayor of Paris, was guillotined.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1793        Nov 19, The Jacobin Club was formed in Paris. Robespierre (1758-1794), Jacobin leader: "Terror is nothing but justice, prompt, severe and inflexible."
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C5)(MC, 11/19/01)

1793        Nov 26, Republican calendar replaced the Gregorian calendar in France.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1793        Nov, In France Philippe Aspairt, a hospital porter, ventured alone into the limestones quarries south of Paris, site of the new cemetery, and got lost. Workmen found his bones 11 years later.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.119)

1793        Dec 6, Marie Jeanne Becu, Comtesse du Barry, flamboyant mistress of Louis XV, was guillotined in Paris.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1793        Dec 9, Noah Webster established NY's 1st daily newspaper, American Minerva.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1793        Dec 19, French troops recaptured Toulon from the British. Napoleon Bonaparte led the intense shelling of British positions. This led to his promotion to brigadier general.
    (ON, 2/12, p.6)

1793        Dec 20, Joseph Legros (54), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1793        Dec 23, Thomas Jefferson warned of slave revolts in West Indies.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1793        Antonio Canova created his clay model for the sculpture "Penitent Magdalen." The final marble version was completed in 1809.
    (WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1793        Jacques-Louis David painted "Death of Marat."
    (SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.5)

1793        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted "Cupid Laughs at the Tears He Causes."
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1793        William Blake (1757-1827) produced his "Labors of the Artist, the Poet, and the Musician." He painted "Aged Ignorance." Blake’s work “The Complaint of Job" was also done about this time.
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)(NH, 4/97, p.6)(SFC, 7/16/15, p.C6)

1793        Augustin Ximenez (1726-1817), Marquis of Ximenez, a Frenchman of Spanish origin, wrote a poem with the line “Attaquons dans ses eaux la perfide Albion," which means "Let us attack perfidious Albion in her waters." The poet of perfidy later lectured French soldiers that “Il est beau de perir," which means “it is beautiful to perish."
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M4)(http://tinyurl.com/ye6bd7)

1793        The German Reformed Church was established in the US by Calvinist Puritans.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1793        Capt. George Vancouver introduced cattle to the islands of Hawaii and wrested from King Kamehameha the concession that women as well as men be allowed to eat the meat. The king agreed if separate animals were used.
    (SFEM, 2/8/98, p.10)

1793        The 1st US half-cent and one cent coins were minted in Philadelphia. For almost 6 decades the obverse side carried an image of Lady Liberty. The first coins were related to the silver dollar. The half-dollar contained half as much silver, the quarter had one-fourth as much. The dime had a 10th and the half dime has a 20th as much silver as the dollar. Only the penny was made of copper. In 1866 the Mint decided to produce a larger five-cent coin. In 2012 a one-cent copper coin minted this year fetched $1 million at a Florida auction.  By 2018 only about 500 pennies were left in existence and one put up for auction was valued at $300,000.
    (SFC, 9/11/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)(SSFC, 9/27/09, Par p.25)(AP, 1/8/12)(SFC, 1/6/18, p.A6)

1793        Cape Girardeau, Missouri, was first founded where the present day Cape Rock Park sits, when Don Louis Lorimier was given a land grant by the Spanish government. The City of Cape Girardeau celebrated its 200th year in 2006.
    (www.cityofcapegirardeau.org/)

1793        In Vermont Captain John Norton founded a stoneware pottery shop in Bennington. The wares were rarely marked until 1823. Various members of the family worked at the pottery until it closed shop in 1894.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, Z1 p.3)
1793        Early settlers discovered ore in what became known as Vermont's copper belt, two years after statehood. In 1809 people began to make copperas, an industrial chemical made from iron sulfide used to make inks and dyes and for other industrial applications, also common in the area.
    (AP, 9/7/19)

1793        The Spanish Governor of Alta California made the first official notice of the fire problem in California. He warned military officers, missions and civil authorities of the problem.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)

1793        There was a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia. About 5,000 people were killed. Stephen Girard risked his life and fortune in stopping the epidemic.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)(Econ, 5/14/16, p.52)

1793        Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, reached the Pacific coast completing his crossing of North America. He began the trip in 1789. He raised Britain's claims to the pacific Northwest.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1793        The British took over the island of St. Vincent and a series of wars ensued against the black Caribs.
    (SFC, 7/25/07, p.E2)

1793        China’s Emperor Qianlong accepted gifts from Lord George Macartney, but turned away the British fleet under his command with the declaration that China had all things in abundance and had no interest in “foreign manufactures."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.13)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.43)

1793        The courthouse at the St. Maarten Island Dutch capital of Philipsburg was built.
    (SFEC,2/16/97, p.T7)

1793        The Minton dishware company was established in Stoke, Staffordshire, England.
    (SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)(SFC, 3/19/08, p.G6)

1793-1795    The British engaged in the ill-fated Flanders Campaign.
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1793-1801     In Afghanistan Zaman Shah ruled. Constant internal revolts continued.
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)

1793-1835    Felicia Dorothea Browne Hemans, English poet: "Though the past haunt me as a spirit, I do not ask to forget."
    (AP, 12/31/98)

1793-1860    Thomas Addison, English physician, discovered Addison’s disease, a usually fatal disease caused by the failure of the adrenal cortex to function and marked by a bronze-like skin pigmentation, anemia, and prostration.
    (AHD, 1971, p.15)

1793-1863    Sam Houston, US soldier and political leader. He was president of the Republic of Texas from 1836-1838.
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)

1794        Jan 13, President Washington approved a measure adding two stars and two stripes to the American flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the union. The number of stripes was later reduced to the original 13.
    (AP, 1/13/01)

1794        Jan 14, Dr. Jessee Bennet of Edom, Va., performed the 1st successful Cesarean section operation on his wife.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1794        Feb 4, France’s First Republic (Convention) voted for the abolition of slavery in all French colonies. The abolition decree stated that "the Convention declares the slavery of the Blacks abolished in all the colonies; consequently, all men, irrespective of color, living in the colonies are French citizens and will enjoy all the rights provided by the Constitution." Slavery was restored by the Consulate in 1802, and was definitively abolished in 1848 by the Second Republic, on Victor Schoelcher’s initiative.
    (www.ambafrance-uk.org/Slavery-Slavery-was-abolished-in.html)
1794        Feb 4, Slaves in Haiti won emancipation.
    (AP, 4/7/03)(WSJ, 3/1/04, p.A16)

1794        Feb 10, Joseph Haydn’s 99th Symphony in E, premiered.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1794        Feb 11, A session of US Senate was 1st opened to the public.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1794        Feb 14, 1st US textile machinery patent was granted, to James Davenport in Phila.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1794        Feb 21, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Mexican Revolutionary, was born.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1794        Mar 3, 1st performance of Joseph Haydn’s 101st Symphony in D.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1794        Mar 3, Richard Allen founded AME Church.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1794        Mar 14, Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin, an invention that revolutionized America's cotton industry. He paid substantial royalties to Catherine T. Greene and this makes his claim to the invention suspect.
    (AP, 3/14/97)(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E3)

1794        Mar 22, Congress passed laws prohibiting slave trade with foreign countries, although slavery remained legal in the United States. Congress banned US vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.
    (HN, 3/22/01)(MC, 3/22/02)

1794        Mar 23, Josiah Pierson patented a "cold-header" (rivet) machine.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1794        Mar 23, Lieutenant-General Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1794        Mar 24, In Cracow a revolutionary manifesto was proclaimed. The Lithuanian and Polish nobility under the leadership of Tadas Kasciuska revolted against Russian control.
    (H of L, 1931, p. 81-82)(LHC, 3/23/03)

1794        Mar 27, The US Congress approved "An Act to provide a Naval Armament" of six armed ships. [see Oct 13, 1775]
    (AP, 3/27/07)

1794        Mar 28, Marie-Joseph de Condorcet (b.1743), mathematician (Theory of Comets) and philosopher, died as a fugitive from French Revolution Terrorists.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marquis_de_Condorcet)

1794        Apr 5, Georges-Jacques Danton (b.1759), French revolutionary leader, was guillotined along with Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, French author, politician, and Camille Desmoullins, popular journalist. In 2009 Jonathan Cape authored “Danton: The Gentle Giant of Terror."
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Danton)

1794        Apr 7, In Poland at the battle of Raclawice the revolutionary forces of Tadeusz Kosciusko defeated the imperial armies.
    (DrEE, 9/21/96, p.5)

1794        Apr 8, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicholas-Caritat, mathematician died.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1794        Apr 19, Tadeusz Kosciusko forced Russians out of Warsaw.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1794        Apr 10, Matthew Calbraith Perry, the American Navy Commodore who opened Japan, was born.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1794        Apr 11, Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, statesman and orator, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1794        May 6, In Haiti Toussaint Louverture (L’Ouverture), Haitian rebel leader, ended his alliance with the Iberian monarchy and embraced the French Republicans. An order followed that led to the massacre of Spaniards.
    (www.travelinghaiti.com/history_of_haiti/toussaint_louverture.asp)(WSJ, 1/19/07, p.W4)
1794        May 6, Jean-Jacques Beauvarget-Charpentier (59), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1794        May 8, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry (identified oxygen), was executed on the guillotine during France's Reign of Terror. In 2005 Madison Smartt Bell authored “Lavoisier in the Year One: The Birth of a New Science in the Age of Revolution."
    (AP, 5/8/97)(SSFC, 7/3/05, p.E1)

1794        May 10, In France Elizabeth (30), the sister of King Louis XVI, was beheaded.
    (HN, 5/10/99)(MC, 5/10/02)

1794        May 18, The 2nd battle of Bouvines was between France and Austria.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1794        May 27, Cornelius Vanderbilt (d.1877), owner of the B & O railroad, was born on Staten Island. He started running steamships in 1818 and shuttled passengers to the West coast across Nicaragua for the gold rush. At age 70 he entered the railroad business. He was never accepted into New York elite society and died with an estimated $105 million fortune.
    (HN, 5/27/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1794        May, Richard Allen purchased a blacksmith shop in Philadelphia and had it moved near St. Thomas. There he founded an African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church he called Bethel, "House of God." The Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia was founded by Richard Allen after he was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church. In 1997 it was the world’s oldest AME church. The church elected its first female bishop in 2000.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)(www.pbs.org)

1794        Jun 1, English fleet under Richard Earl Howe defeated the French. (MC, 6/1/02)

1794        Jun 4, Congress passed a Neutrality Act that banned Americans from serving in armed forces of foreign powers.
    (MC, 6/4/02)
1794        Jun 4, British troops captured Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
    (HN, 6/4/98)
1794        Jun 4, Robespierre was unanimously elected president of the Convention in the French Revolution.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1794        Jun 5, Congress passed the Neutrality Act, which prohibited Americans from enlisting in the service of a foreign power.
    (AP, 6/5/99)(HN, 6/5/98)

1794        Jun 8, Maximilian Robespierre, French Revolutionary leader, worried about the influence of French atheists and philosophers, staged the "Festival of the Supreme Being" in Paris.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1794        Jun 15, The Guillotine was moved to outskirts of Paris.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1794        Jun 18, George Grote, British historian, was born.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1794        Jun 23, Empress Catherine II granted Jews permission to settle in Kiev.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1794        Jun 26, French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1794        Jul 5, Sylvester Graham, developed graham cracker, was born.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1794        Jul 8, French troops captured Brussels, Belgium.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1794        Jul 12, British Admiral Lord Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of Calvi, in Corsica.
    (HN, 7/12/98)

1794        Jul 13, Robespierre boycotted the Committee of Public Safety and the National convention after being denounced as a dictator.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1794        Jul 13, James Lind (b.1716) Scottish doctor, died. He was a pioneer of naval hygiene in the Royal Navy. By conducting one of the first ever clinical trials, he developed the theory that citrus fruits cured scurvy. He argued for the health benefits of better ventilation aboard naval ships, the improved cleanliness of sailors' bodies, clothing and bedding, and below-deck fumigation with sulfur and arsenic. He also proposed that fresh water could be obtained by distilling sea water. His work advanced the practice of preventive medicine and improved nutrition.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Lind)

1794        Jul 17, In Philadelphia the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, one of the first black churches in the country, opened its doors.
    (www.pbs.org)

1794        Jul 23, Chaos and anarchy were averted temporarily when Robespierre joined conciliation talks in Paris.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1794        Jul 26, After remaining uncharacteristically silent for several weeks, Robespierre demanded that the National Convention punish "traitors" without naming them.
    (MC, 7/26/02)
1794        Jul 26, The French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus in France.
    (HN, 7/26/98)

1794        Jul 27, French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre was overthrown and placed under arrest; he was executed the following day.
    (AP, 7/27/00)

1794        Jul 28, Maximilien Robespierre, a leading figure of the French Revolution, was sent to the guillotine. Robespierre had dominated the Committee of Public Safety during the "Reign of Terror." He asserted the collective dictatorship of the revolutionary National Convention and attacked factions led by men such as Jacques-René Hébert which he felt threatened the government‘s power. Factions opposed to Robespierre gained momentum in the summer of 1794.  Declared an outlaw of the National Convention, Robespierre and many of his followers were captured and he—along with 22 of his supporters—were guillotined before cheering crowds.
    (AP, 7/28/97)(HN, 7/28/98)(HNQ, 11//00)

1794        Jul 29, Seventy of Robespierre's followers were guillotined.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1794        Aug 7, George Washington issued a proclamation telling a group of Western Pennsylvania farmers to stop their Whiskey Rebellion. In the US in western Pennsylvania, angry farmers protested a new federal tax on whiskey makers. The protest flared into the open warfare known as the Whiskey Rebellion between US marshals and whiskey farmers.
    (http://www.ttb.gov/public_info/whisky_rebellion.shtml)(A&IP, ESM, p.16)(HNQ, 10/14/99)

1794        Aug 20, American General "Mad Anthony" Wayne defeated the Ohio Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in the Northwest territory, ending Indian resistance in the area.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1794        Aug 21, France surrendered the island of Corsica to the British.
    (HN, 8/21/98)
 
1794        Sep 10, America's first non-denominational college, Blount College (later the University of Tennessee), was chartered.
    (AP, 9/10/97)

1794        Sep 28, The Anglo-Russian-Austrian Alliance of St. Petersburg, which was directed against France, was signed.
    (HN, 9/28/98)

1794        Oct 10, The Russian Army under Gen’l. Alexander Suvorov took Warsaw and captured Tadeus Kosciusko at Maciejowice. T. Vavzeckis was became the new commander of the revolutionary forces.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(HN, 10/10/98)

1794        Oct 15, US moneymakers minted some 2,000 silver dollars of which 1,750 were deemed good enough to go into circulation. The press initially used was designed for a smaller coin and large scale production on a bigger press began a year later.
    (SFC, 7/27/05, p.C8)

1794        Nov 3, William Cullen Bryant, poet and journalist, was born.
    (HN, 11/3/00)
1794        Nov 3, Thomas Paine was released from a Parisian jail with help from the American ambassador James Monroe. He had been arrested in 1893 for not endorsing the execution of Louis XVI and thus offending the Robespierre faction. While in prison Paine began writing his "The Age of Reason" (1794-1796).
    (HN, 11/3/99)(www.ushistory.org/Paine/index.htm)

1794        Nov 11, The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council of the Six Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy (including the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes), and by Timothy Pickering, official agent of President George Washington.  The Canandaigua Treaty, a Treaty Between the United States of America and the Tribes of Indians Called the Six Nations, was signed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Canandaigua)

1794        Nov 16, Warsaw capitulated to the Russian Army and the revolution ended.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1794        Nov 19, The United States and Britain signed the Jay Treaty, which resolved some issues left over from the Revolutionary War. This was the 1st US extradition treaty.
    (AP, 11/19/97)(MC, 11/19/01)

1794        Nov 21, Honolulu Harbor was discovered.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1794        Nov 22, Strasbourg, Alsace-Lorraine, prohibited circumcision and the wearing of beards.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1794        Nov 28, Friedrich WLGA von Steuben (64), Prussian-US inspector-general of Washington’s army, died in Oneida, NY. Baron von Steuben, a former Prussian captain, had arrived in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1777, and despite false credentials, was hired to drill and train Washington’s Continental Army. His manual of arms, known as the “Blue Book," shaped basic training for American recruits for generations to come. In 2008 Paul Lockhart authored “The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army."
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)

1794        Dec 27, The Portuguese slave ship Sao Jose--Paquete de Africa sank off the coast of South Africa’s Cape Town. Some 400-500 African slaves from Mozambique were on board the vessel bound for Brazil. About half of them perished. Wreckage of the ship was found in 2015.
    (http://tinyurl.com/q9xyg73)(AP, 6/2/15)

1794        William Blake painted "The Ancient of Days." "He formed golden com-passes / And began to explore the Abyss." From the epic "The First Book of Urizen." Urizen is a pun and stands for "Your Reason." On display at the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, England.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A16)
1794        "The Book of Thell" was printed by Blake in 14+ sets of 8 different designs.
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.18)

1794        Spanish painter Goya completed his painting “Yard With Lunatics," the last in a series of uncommissioned small paintings executed during his convalescence from an illness that left him deaf.
    (WSJ, 6/18/08, p.D7)

1794        French Azilum near Towanda, Pa., was planned as an asylum for Marie-Antoinette, her children and other loyalists of the monarchy seeking refuge from the French Revolution. Loyalists who kept their heads did come and settle.
    (HT, 5/97, p.18)

1794        In the US Richard Allen was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. He founded the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church in 1787.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)

1794        The St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans was rebuilt. Two previous structures had burned down.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.63)

1794        George Washington established the first national armory at Springfield, Mass. He also authorized the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Md., where the Shenandoah flows into the Potomac.
    (WSJ, 9/12/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T7)

1794        The first American silver dollar was minted. Congress decided in 1785 that the country‘s monetary system would be based on a silver coin called a dollar, similar to that of the Spanish dollar.
    (HNQ, 1/5/00)

1794        Twenty horse soldiers were dispatched from the Presidio of San Francisco to quell an Ohlone rebellion in the Santa Cruz mountains.
    (SFC, 9/29/14, p.A1)

1794        A French inventor mixed ground graphite with clay and water and fired it to make strong pencil leads. [see 1765]
    (WSJ, 11/24/00, p.A1)

1794        Gov. Diego Borica took command of Alta California and remarked on the general fecundity of the Bay Area.
    (Bay, 4/07, p.25)
1794        Archibald Menzies introduced the California poppy to England. The seed that he brought to Kew Gardens did not survive. [see 1792, 1816,1825-1833]
    (NBJ, 2/96, p.12)

1794        British Admiral Earl Howe defeated the French fleet.
    (SFEC,10/26/97, p.T4)

1794        Ernst Chladni, German scientist, proposed that meteorites were masses of iron-rich extraterrestrial rock, which occasionally penetrated the earth’s atmosphere to strike the surface.
    (ON, 7/02, p.5)
1794        The Royal Bayreuth porcelain factory was founded in Bavaria. The factory stamped this date on dishes made after 1900.
    (SFC,11/5/97, Z1 p.3)

1794        In Italy the Bourbon monarchy created the Banca Nazionale di Napoli bringing together eight public banks including the Banco dei Poveri, established in 1563. The Piedmontese monarchy settled on the name Banco di Napoli in 1861.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.165)

1794        Napoleon’s occupying army in Maastricht, Netherlands, took back to France a giant dinosaur head that was found in a dark recess of St. Peter’s mountain in 1780. It was named the Mosasaurus and roamed the seas some 70 million years ago. The head was lugged to the home of Theodorus Godding, a canon at the local church. The French say that he swapped it to Napoleon for 600 bottles of wine. Records however seem to indicate otherwise.
    (NYT, 6/7/96, p.A4)

1794        Scotland, parish of Kirkmichael, Banffshire, on the holy well of St. Michael. (Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xii, p.464): Many a patient have its water restored to health and many more have attested the efficacies of their virtues. But as the presiding power is sometimes capricious and apt to desert his charge, it now lies neglected, choked with weeds, unhonored, and unfrequented. In better days it was not so; for the winged guardian, under the semblance of a fly, was never absent from his duty... Every movement of the sympathetic fly was regarded in silent awe...
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.93)

1794        The Russian Orthodox mission was founded in Alaska. It led to the Orthodox Church in America with 600,000 members.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)

1794        Ukraine’s port city of Odessa was founded.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.86)

1794-1824    Matthias Schmutzer, artist, produced over 1000 large-format watercolors of specimens from the imperial gardens  of Francis I. In 2006 H. Walter Lack authored “Florilegium Imperiale: Botanical Illustrations for Francis I of Austria."
    (WSJ, 5/27/06, p.P9)

1794-1815    An anthology of first hand reports on the naval war between France and Britain was edited by Dean King and John B. Hattendorf and published in 1997.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10)

1794-1872    Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German artist.
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1794-1925    The Kajar Dynasty ruled over Iran. The Gulistan Palace (constructed in this era), contains the much disputed Peacock Throne.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.326)

1795        Jan 3, The 3rd division of the Lithuanian Polish Republic was made between Russia and Austria.
    (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.5)
1795        Jan 3, Josiah Wedgwood (b.1730), British ceramics manufacturer, died. His daughter, Susannah, was the mother of Charles Darwin. In 2004 Brian Dolan authored “Wedgwood: The First Tycoon."
    (SSFC, 12/5/04, p.E5)(www.wedgwoodmuseum.org.uk/wedgwood_chronology.htm)

1795        Jan 25, The Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca., was dedicated with a Mass of Thanksgiving. A major renovation was undertaken in 1856.
    (SSFC, 1/4/09, p.B3)

1795        Jan 26, Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1795        Feb 2, Joseph Haydn’s 102nd Symphony in B premiered.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1795        Feb 4, France abolished slavery in her territories and conferred slaves to citizens.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1795        Feb 7, The 11th Amendment to US Constitution was ratified.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1795        Feb 13, The University of North Carolina became the first US state university to admit students with the arrival of Hinton James, who was the only student on campus for two weeks.
    (AP, 2/13/04)

1795        Feb 18, George Peabody, U.S. merchant and philanthropist, was born in South Danvers, Mass. 
    (HN, 2/18/98)(MC, 2/18/02)

1795        Feb 21, Francisco Manuel da Silva, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/21/02)
1795        Feb 21, Freedom of worship was established in France under constitution.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1795        Mar 11, Battle at Kurdla,  India: Mahratten beat Moguls.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1795        Mar 22, A Lithuanian delegation under L. Tiskevicius went to Jekaterina II in Petersburg and declared that Lithuania’s union with Poland was ended.
    (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.5)

1795        Mar 29, Beethoven (24) debuted as pianist in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1795        Apr 7, The National Convention of Revolutionary France put into effect a new calendar system, similar to that of ancient Egypt. The year began with the autumn equinox, and had 360 days divided into twelve months of thirty days. Five extra days were placed at the end of the year. The months were divided into three 10 day groups. The day was divided into 10 new hours, each hour into 100 minutes, and each minute into 100 seconds.
    (K.I.-365D, p.42)

1795        Apr 8, The Prince of Wales, later England’s King George IV, married his German cousin, Caroline, to produce an heir and increase his income. On their wedding night the drunken bridegroom spent the night "under the grate, where he fell, and where I left him." The story is told by Flora Fraser in her book: "The Unruly Queen: The Life of Queen Caroline." Masterpiece Theater made a TV presentation in 1997.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_of_Brunswick)(SFC, 7/14/96, DB p.3)(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1795        Apr 21, Vincenzo Pallotti, Italian saint, was born.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1795        Apr 23, In Britain the trial to impeach Warren Hastings, governor-general of India (1773-1785), on 21 charges for high crimes and misdemeanors ended after 7 years. Hastings was acquitted on all charges.
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.11)(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 4/23/02)

1795        Apr 28, Charles Sturt (d.1869), explorer of Australia, was born in India. British explorer Charles Sturt is known as the "father of Australian exploration." He was the first to penetrate deep into Australia's interior from 1828 to 1845 during three hazardous expeditions. In 1828 he discovered the Darling River and in January 1830 the Murray River, which he followed until he reached present day Goolwa. His last expedition came to an end when his eyesight was impaired by exposure and illness. Scotsman John McDouall Stuart was part of Stuart's final expedition and went on to become a major explorer, crossing the continent from Adelaide to Port Darwin in 1862.
    (http://members.ozemail.com.au/~fliranre/home.htm)
    (HN, 4/28/98)(HNQ, 5/26/98)

1795        Spring, Some 300 Indians fled Mission Dolores in San Francisco following a year of food shortages and disease that killed over 200. They sought refuge in the East Bay hills and Napa.
    (SFC, 9/26/03, p.D15)

1795        May 4, Thousands of rioters entered jails in Lyons, France, and massacred 99 Jacobin prisoners.
    (HN, 5/4/99)

1795        May 6, Dr. Pierre-Joseph Dessault visited the incarcerated 10-year-old dauphin, the heir to the French throne. He found the dying child in abject misery. The boy died June 8.
    (WSJ, 10/18/02, p.W9)

1795        May 10, Jacques-Nicolas-Augustin Thierry, historian, was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1795        May 13, Joshua Ratoon Sands (d.1883), Commander (Union Navy), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1795        May 15, Napoleon entered the Lombardian capital of Milan in triumph. After taking Milan he released his troops on the townspeople who became victims of an orgy of destroying, raping and killing. The events are described in the 1998 biography "Napoleon Bonaparte" by Alan Schom.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)(HN, 5/15/98)

1795        May 19, Johns Hopkins, founder of Johns Hopkins University, was born.
    (HN, 5/19/98)
1795        May 19, James Boswell (54), friend and biographer of Samuel Johnson, died. His 1791 biography, the Life of Samuel Johnson," changed the way biographies were written by its emphasis on character and careful research.
    (ON, 11/06, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Boswell)

1795        May 20, Ignac Martinovics, Hungarian physicist, revolutionary, was beheaded.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1795        May, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, sailed from England on behalf of the British African Association to search for the Niger River.
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)

1795        Jun 8, In France the Dauphin (Louis XVII), son and sole survivor of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, died at age 10 after succumbing to tuberculosis in the Temple prison. His heart was cut from his body when he died in prison, pickled, stolen, returned, and DNA-tested two centuries later. In 2002 Deborah Cadbury authored "The Lost King of France."
    (SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/18/02, p.W9)(AP, 6/3/04)

1795        Jul 7, Thomas Paine defended the principal of universal suffrage at the Constitutional Convention in Paris.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1795        Jul 9, James Swan paid off the $2,024,899 US national debt.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1795        Jul 14, "La Marseillais," written in 1792, became the French national anthem.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7a4p9)

1795        Jul 22, Spain signed the Peace of Basel, a treaty with France ending the War of the Pyrenees. The treaty ceded Santo Domingo to France.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Basel)

1795        Aug 3, A defeated Indian coalition met with Gen. Anthony Wayne in a treaty council at Greenville, Ohio. The event is the subject of a painting by Howard Chandler Christy. From a review of 500 Nations by Alvin M. Josephy Jr., published by Knopf in 1995 to accompany an 8-hour television documentary.
    (SFE Mag., 2/12/95, p. 18)

1795        Aug 15, Franz Joseph Haydn left England for the last time.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1795        Aug 20, Joseph Haydn returned to Vienna from England.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1795        Aug 31, Franxois-Andre Danican Philidor, composer, died at 68.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1795        Sep 1, James Gordon Bennet was born. He later served as the editor of the New York Sun, the first tabloid-sized daily newspaper.
    (HN, 9/1/00)

1795        Sep 16, The Capitulation of Rustenburg: A Dutch garrison at the Cape of Good Hope surrendered to a British fleet under Adm. George Elphinstone.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1795        Sep 17, Giuseppi Saverio Rafaele Mercadante, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1795        Sep 23, A national plebiscite approved the new French constitution, but so many voters sustained that the results were suspect.
    (HN, 9/23/99)
1795        Sep 23, Conseil of the Cinq-Cents (Council of 500), formed in Paris.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1795        Oct 4, General Napoleon Bonaparte led the rout of counterrevolutionaries in the streets of Paris, beginning his rise to power. France was in the midst of economic disaster—a factor that aided royalist counterrevolutionaries in their attempts to incite rebellion against the young republican government. Bonaparte, looking for a new command while on half pay in Paris, joined the defense of the Convention against overwhelming odds.
    (HN, 10/4/99)(HNQ, 10/26/00)

1795        Oct 5, The day after he routed counterrevolutionaries in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte accepted their formal surrender. Napoleon takes charge.
    (HN, 10/5/99)

1795        Oct 11, In gratitude for putting down a rebellion in the streets of Paris, France's National Convention appointed Napoleon Bonaparte second in command of the Army of the Interior.
    (HN, 10/11/99)

1795        Oct 13, William Prescott, American Revolutionary soldier, died.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1795        Oct 24, Russia, Austria and Prussia held a convention in Petersburg to finalize the 3rd division of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic. Most of Lithuania with Vilnius went to Russia, Warsaw and the left bank of the Nemunas River went to Prussia and Cracow went to Austria. King Stanislovas Augustas of Poland was forced from his capital and moved to Grodno (Gardinas).
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(MC, 10/24/01)

1795        Oct 26, Napoleon Bonaparte, second-in-command, became the army's commander when General Paul Barras resigned his commission as head of France's Army of the Interior to become head of the Directory.
    (HN, 10/26/99)

1795        Oct 27, The United States and Spain signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also known as Pinckney's Treaty), which provided for free navigation of the Mississippi River.
    (AP, 10/27/97)

1795        Oct 31, John Keats (d.1821), English poet, was born in London.
    (WUD, 1994, p.781)(AP, 10/31/97)(HN, 10/31/98)

1795        Nov 2, James Knox Polk, the 11th president of the United States, was born in Mecklenburg County, N.C.
    (AP, 11/2/97)(HN, 11/2/98)

1795        Nov 28, US paid $800,000 and a frigate as tribute to Algiers and Tunis.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1795        Dec 3, Rowland Hill, introduced 1st adhesive postage stamp (1840), was born.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1795        Dec 4, Thomas Carlyle (d.1881), English (Scot) essayist, critic and historian, friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson, was born. His work included "The French Revolution" and "Sartor Resartus." "A man doesn’t know what he knows, until he knows what he doesn’t know." "No great man lives in vain. The history of the world is but the biography of great men."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.400)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 7/2/98)(HN, 12/4/00)

1795        Dec 14, John Bloomfield Jarvis, civil engineer, was born.
    (HN, 12/14/00)

1795        William Blake painted his "Elohim Creating Adam."
    (SFC,1/21/97, p.A20)

c1795        Wilhelm von Kobell, German artist, made his watercolor "Staff Officers Listening to the Reading of the Day’s Orders."
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1795        Charles Wilson Peale painted "The Staircase Group: Raphaelle and Titian Ramsay Peale." He also did a portrait of Martha Washington. [see 1853]
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.E1)(SFEC, 7/27/97, DB p.35)

1795        Kitagawa Utamoro, Japanese artist, made his woodblock print "Oiran" about this time.
    (WSJ, 4/24/96, A-12)

1795        Hutton’s "Theory of the Earth" appeared in book form, but did not impact the reading public due to his stiff style.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.70)(DD-EVTT, p.17)

1795        Beethoven had a terrible bout of "continual diarrhea" while finishing his B-flat piano concerto.
    (WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A1)

1795        Samuel Adams and Paul Revere laid the cornerstone for the Massachusetts State House in Boston. In 2014 crews removed a time capsule from the cornerstone.
    (AH, 10/07, p.73)(SFC, 12/12/14, p.A11)

1795        The oldest tomato ketchup recipe, according to Andrew F. Smith author of "Pure Ketchup: A History of America’s National Condiment," was written in Worcester, Mass.
    (SFC, 7/3/96, zz-1,p.3)

1795        Jim Beam, US producer of fine Bourbon whiskey was founded.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.82)

1795        Franciscan priests first visited the site of San Ysabel in San Diego County.
    (SFE, 9/16/96, p.A15)

1795        Britain reinforced its forces in St. Domingue. It was the largest expedition that had ever left England.
    (SFCM, 5/30/04, p.12)
1795        Lime juice was issued to all British sailors to aid in prevention of scurvy. Captain James Cook (d.1779) had prepared a paper detailing his groundbreaking work against scurvy. He was awarded the gold Copley Medal-one of the highest honors of England's Royal Society. Scurvy epidemics were once common among sailors on long voyages. Cook was the first to beat the problem, recognizing the need for an appropriate diet for his sailors.
    (HNQ, 7/21/98)
1795        The British won a battle against the local Garifuna on St. Vincent’s Island.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)
1795        In England the Coalport Porcelain Works began operations about this time.
    (SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)(www.thepotteries.org/allpotters/283.htm)

1795        In Nova Scotia, Canada, local youths on Oak Island stumbled on an unusual depression that appeared to lead to a shaft. For years treasure hunters dug down into what became known as the “Money Pit."
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1795        A set of remains that the Spaniards believed to be of Christopher Columbus were dug up from behind the main altar in the newly built cathedral of Santo Domingo and shipped to a cathedral in Havana, where they remained until the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, when Spain brought them to Seville. In 1877 workers digging inside the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing 13 large bone fragments and 28 small ones. It was inscribed "Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon." The Dominicans said these were the real remains of Columbus and that the Spaniards must have taken the wrong remains.
    (SFC, 1/18/05, p.A8)

1795        In Paris the Place de la Concorde, a public square designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1755, was renamed Place de la Revolution.
    (WSJ, 10/26/99, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_de_la_Concorde)
1795        France adopted the metric system. France had begun moving to base ten in the 16th century after using a vigesimal, base 20, system.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.62)

1795        Georgia’s Narikala Fortress and the buildings of Old Tbilisi suffered at the hands of Persian invaders.
    (Reuters, 6/2/17)

1795        Maruyama Okyo (b.1733), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died. His work included a 50 mile scene in "Both Banks of the Yodo River."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)

1795        The Loyal Orange Institution was established in Portadown to proclaim Protestant ascendancy. The Orange Order was founded as a force for uniting disparate Protestant denominations under one anti-Catholic banner. It was instrumental in creating Northern Ireland in 1921 shortly before the predominantly Catholic rest of Ireland won independence from Britain.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 7/12/99, p.A19)(AP, 7/12/13)

1795        Persians invaded Afghanistan's Khurasan province.
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)

1795        Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, the last king of Poland, was forced to abdicate.
    (WSJ, 2/15/00, p.A24)
1795        Poland and Lithuania were partitioned for the last time by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
    (Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)

1795        The South African Cape was first occupied by the British.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)

1795        In Tripoli Pasha Yusef Karamanli deposed his older brother Hamet in a bloodless coup.
    (ON, 10/06, p.8)

1795-1805    Elias Boudinot served as the director of the US mint.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1795-1818    The US flag had 15 stars and 15 stripes over this period.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A11)

1795-1818    Carl Phillip Fohr, German artist.
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1795-1825    Joshua Johnson, the first professional African-American portrait painter, plied his art in Baltimore.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)

1795-1840    New York state and local governments entered into 26 treaties and several purchase agreements with the Oneida Indians to acquire all but 32 of 270,000 acres. Almost none of the transactions were approved by Congress as required by a 1790 law.
    (SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)

1795-1874    Peter Andreas Hansen, Danish astronomer.
    (WUD, 1994, p.644)

1795-1875    Christian Gottfried Ehlenberg, German naturalist, known especially for his studies of infusoria, i.e. microscopic organisms.
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1795-1921    The state of Poland was gobbled up by Russia, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prussia.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)

1796        Jan 5, Samuel Huntington (64), US judge (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1796        Jan 8, Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois (46), French Revolution leader, died in exile. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety that ruled during The Terror.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1796        Feb 8, China’s Emperor Qianlong (1711-1799) abdicated in favor of his son. Despite his voluntary abdication, from 1796 to 1799 Qianlong continued to hold on to power and the Jiaqing Emperor (d.1820) ruled only in name.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.95)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.95)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qianlong_Emperor)

1796        Feb 17, Giovanni Pacini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/17/02)
1796        Feb 17, James Macpherson (b.1736), Scottish poet, died. In 1761 he had announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal written by Ossian (based on Fionn's son Oisín). He then published poems by Ossian, the alleged blind 3rd century poet, which became very popular and later exposed as a fraud.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Macpherson)

1796        Mar 1, The 1st National Meeting was held in the Hague.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1796        Mar 9, Napoleon Bonaparte (26) married Josephine Tascher de Beauharnais (32) in Paris.
    (AP, 3/9/98)(HN, 3/9/98)

1796        Mar 19, Stephen Storace (33), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1796        Mar 31, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's "Egmont," premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1796        Apr 2, Haitian revolt leader Toussaint L’Ouverture commanded French forces at Santo Domingo.
    (AP, 4/2/99)

1796        Apr 3, The 1st elephant was shipped to the US from Bengal, India, by Broadway showman Jacob Croninshield.
    (SFC, 11/18/00, p.B3)

1796        Apr 13, The 1st elephant arrived in US from India.
    (MC, 4/13/02)
1796        Apr 13, Battle at Millesimo, Italy: Napoleon beat the Austrians.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1796        Apr 22, Napoleon defeated the Piedmontese at Battle of Mondovi.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1796        May 4, Horace Mann, "the father of American Public Education" educator and author, was born.
    (HN, 5/4/99)

1796        May 10, Napoleon Bonaparte won a brilliant victory against the Austrians at Lodi bridge in Italy.
    (HN, 5/10/99)

1796        May 14, English physician Edward Jenner administered the first vaccination against smallpox to his gardener's son, James Phipps (8). A single blister rose up on the spot, but James later demonstrated immunity to smallpox. Jenner actually used vaccinia, a close viral relation to smallpox. [see July 21, 1721]
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.77)(AP, 5/14/08)

1796        May 19, A game protection law was passed by Congress to restrict encroachment by whites on Indian hunting grounds.
    (DTnet 5/19/97)

1796        May 27, James S. McLean patented his piano.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1796         Jun 1, Tennessee became the 16th state of the Union.
    (AP, 6/1/97)
1796         Jun 1, In accordance with the Jay Treaty, all British troops were withdrawn from U.S. soil.
    (DTnet 6/1/97)

1796        Jul 4, The 1st US Independence Day celebration was held.
    (Maggio)

1796        Jul 11, Captain Moses Porter led a party of American troops into Detroit. At noon, the Union Jack came down, and the flag of the United States was raised over Detroit for the first time. Under provisions of the Jay Treaty of 1794, the British had agreed to give up control of Michigan and other parts of the Northwest Territory they had occupied since the conclusion of the Revolutionary War.
    (http://tinyurl.com/kuws9m3)

1796        Jul 15, Thomas Bulfinch, historian and mythologist (The Age of Fable), was born.
    (HN, 7/15/01)

1796        Jul 16, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (d.1875), French painter, was born. His work included "Madame Corot" (1833-1835) and "Interrupted Reading" (1870-1873). He led the way toward new forms of perspective and composition that was later mined by impressionism and photography.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(WSJ, 10/25/96, p.A15)(WSJ, 3/25/97, p.A16)(MC, 7/16/02)

1796        Jul 21, Robert Burns (b.1759), Scottish poet and a lyricist (Auld Lang Syne), died. In 2009 Robert Crawford authored “The Bard: Robert Burns."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Burns)(SSFC, 1/25/09, Books p.3)

1796        Jul 22, Cleveland, Ohio, was founded by Gen. Moses Cleaveland. Moses Cleaveland came to where the city of Cleveland now sits and surveyed the land. After three months he returned to Connecticut. The city bears his name.
    (SFC, 6/2/96, T10)(AP, 7/22/97)

1796        Jul 23, Franz Adolf Berwald, Sweden, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1796        Jul 26, George Catlin, American artist and author, was born.
    (HN, 7/26/01)

1796        Jul, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, reached the Niger River at Segou, (Mali). Mansong, the African chief at Segou, gave Park enough money to return to the coast. Park described his journey in his book: "Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa" (1799).
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)(Econ 5/13/17, p.74)

1796        Sep 17, President George Washington delivered his "Farewell Address" to Congress before concluding his second term in office. Washington counseled the republic in his farewell address to avoid "entangling alliances" and involvement in the "ordinary vicissitudes, combinations, and collision of European politics." Also "we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies."
    (WSJ, 5/31/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A15)(HN, 9/17/98)

1796        Sep 19, President Washington's farewell address was published. In it, America's first chief executive advised, "Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all."
    (AP, 9/19/97)

1796        Nov 3, John Adams was elected president. [see Dec 7]
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1796        Nov 7, Catharina II (67), "the Great", tsarina of Russia (1762-96), died. [see Nov 17]
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1796        Nov 17, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated an Italian army near the Alpone River, Italy, in the Battle of Arcole.
    (HN, 11/17/98)(MC, 11/17/01)
1796        Nov 17, Catharine II (67), empress of Russia known as Catharine the Great (1762-96), died. Over her 69 years she had at least 12 lovers including Prince Potemkin. [see Nov 7]
    (MC, 11/17/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)

1796        Dec 7, Electors chose John Adams to be the second president of the United States. [see Nov 3]
    (AP, 12/7/97)

1796        Dec 18, The Baltimore Monitor appeared as the 1st US Sunday newspaper.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1796        Dec 30, Jean-Baptiste Lamoyne (45), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1796        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted "Marie-Anne-Celestine Pierre de Vellefrey," the portrait of a little girl.
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1796        British writer Jane Austen (b.1775) began her novel “Pride and Prejudice." Its initial title was “first Impressions." It was finally published in 1830.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.104)(ON, 12/09, p.8)

1796        George Owen’s "History of Pembrokeshire" was published. It was written in 1570 and sets forth the principle of geological stratigraphy.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.7)

1796        Immanuel Kant wrote his "Perpetual Peace," advocating a world government.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.317)

1796        The White House and Congress engaged in its 1st struggle over background documents. Pres. Washington denied a House request for documents on the Jay Treaty. The documents had already been shared with the Senate.
    (WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A24)

1796        Supporters of John Adams in his victorious campaign against Thomas Jefferson, called Jefferson "an atheist, anarchist, demagogue, coward, mountebank, trickster, and Francomaniac."
    (WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A22)

1796        An Aleutian island named Bogoslof first appeared after an underwater eruption. Its base lay 5,500 down on the floor of the Bering Sea. By 2017 it measured 169 acres with a peak at 490 feet.
    (SFC, 2/7/17, p.A6)

1796        Andrew Jackson was elected as Tennessee’s 1st congressman.
    (SSFC, 10/30/05, p.M3)

1796        In [France] Michael Thonet was born in the Rhenish village of Boppard. He invented the classic bent wood chair.
    (WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

c1796        Austrian numbered bank accounts originated during the Hapsburg era.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C2)

1796        Harry Phillips (d.1840), a former clerk to James Christie, founded the Phillips auction house in London.
    (Econ, 1/30/15, p.54)
1796        The British seized the island of Sri Lanka, then under the name of Ceylon.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.A8)

c1796        The Orange Order was founded to commemorate the King William of Orange Protestant victory over Catholic King James II.
    (SFC, 6/26/96, p.A8)

1796        Mary Lamb (31) killed her mother with a carving knife. England deemed her a lunatic and released into the custody of her brother Charles. In 1806 they published “Tales From Shakespeare." In 2005 Susan Tyler Hitchcock authored “Mad Mary Lamb."
    (WSJ, 2/18/05, p.W6)

1796        Cuba exported Havana cigars to Britain.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

c1796        In Lithuania Elijah ben Solomon Zalmen, the Gaon of Vilna, urged Jews to study grammar, astronomy and other disciplines as well as the Torah. His writings survived and in 1996 were being stored under controversy in a Roman Catholic Church in Vilnius as property of the Lithuanian National Library.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A15)

1796        Hacienda Santa Teresa began producing rum in Venezuela. In 1885 it was bought out by the Vollmer family.
    (WSJ, 11/10/04, p.A8)

c1796        The Tutsi Banyamulenge arrived into Zaire.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)

1796-1797    Napoleon conquered northern Italy.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)

1796-1799    Brazilian Baroque sculptor Aleijadinho (Antonio Francisco Lisboa), completed his greatest work: the sculptures of Congonhas do Campo, 66 wooden images that include the 12 prophets.
    (USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.10)

1796-1865    Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Canadian jurist and humorist: "When a man is wrong and won't admit it, he always gets angry."
    (AP, 6/14/99)

1797        Jan 1, Albany became the capital of New York state, replacing New York City.
    (AP, 1/1/98)

1797        Jan 11, Francis Lightfoot Lee (62), US farmer and signer Declaration of Independence, died.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1797        Jan 14, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Austrians at Rivoli in northern Italy.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1797          Jan 31, Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born in Lichtenthal, Austria. His works included the C Major Symphony and The Unfinished Symphony.
     (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B11)(AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)

1797        Feb 4, Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador, some killed 40,000 people. Riobamba was destroyed.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/13061c.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/btbdc)

1797        Feb 9, John Quincy Adams’ (Sr.) emerged victorious from America's first contested presidential election.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1797        Feb 12, Haydn’s song "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser," (popularized years later as "Deutschland Uber Alles," by Nazis), premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1797        Feb 14, The Spanish fleet was destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.
    (HN, 2/14/99)

1797        Feb 15, Henry Steinway (d.1871), German-American piano maker, was born in Germany as Heinrich Steinweg. He move to the US in 1851. The name was anglicized in 1864.
    (WSJ, 7/15/06, p.P8)(http://tinyurl.com/qn6dy)

1797        Feb 19, Pope Pius VI ceded papal territory to France in the Treaty of Tolentino.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.353)

1797        Feb 21, Trinidad, West Indies surrendered to the British.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1797        Feb 23, Antoine d'Auvergne (83), French opera composer (Coquette), died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1797        Feb 26, Bank of England issued 1st £1-note.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1797        Mar 2, The Directory of Great Britain authorized vessels of war to board and seize neutral vessels, particularly if the ships were American.
    (HN, 3/2/99)
1797        Mar 2, Horace [Horatio] Walpole (79), British horror writer, died.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1797        Mar 4, Vice-President John Adams, elected President on December 7, to replace George Washington, was sworn in. Adams soon selected Timothy Pickering as his secretary of state. Pickering extended aid to Haitian slaves in their ongoing revolt against French colonists. This policy was reversed under Jefferson.
    (HN, 3/4/99)(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.M6)

1797        Mar 13, Cherubini's opera "Medee," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1797        Mar 22, Kaiser Wilhelm I, German Emperor (1871-88), was born.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1797        Mar 25, John Winebrenner, U.S. clergyman who founded the Church of God, was born.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1797        Mar 26, James Hutton, geologist, died.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1797        Mar 28, Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire patented a washing machine.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1797        Apr 14, Adolphe Thiers, 1st president of 3rd French Republic (1871-77), was born. [see Apr 18]
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1797        Apr 18, Louis-Adolphe Thiers, president of France, was born. [see Apr 14]
    (MC, 4/18/02)
1797        Apr 18, France and Austria signed a cease fire.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1797        Apr, A British armada of 68 vessels and 7,000 men under Scotsman Sir Ralph Abercromby attacked San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Spanish defenses held. A procession of women made up to look like soldiers caused the siege to be called off. An annual parade later commemorated this event.
    (HT, 4/97, p.34)(SFEC, 2/13/00, p.T1)

1797        May 2, A mutiny in the British navy spread from Spithead to the rest of the fleet.
    (HN, 5/2/99)

1797        May 10, The 1st American Navy ship, the "United States," was launched.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1797        May 12, Johann Hermann Kufferath, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)
1797        May 12, George Washington addressed the Delaware chiefs and stated: "It is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and to humbly implore his protection and favor."
    (WSJ, 6/26/01, p.A23)

1797        May 18, Frederik Augustus II, King of Saxon (1836-54), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1797        Jun 2, 1st ascent of "Great Mountain" (4,622') in Adirondack, NY, was by C. Broadhead.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1797        Jun 11, Padre Fermin Francisco de Lasuen and a few Spanish soldiers established Mission San Jose on a little creek and grove of trees that they called Alameda. It was the 14th of 21 California missions. It was the end of a way of life for the local Ohlone Indians.
    (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A17)

1797        Jun 17, Aga Mohammed Khan, cruel ruler of Persia, was castrated and killed.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1797        Jun 24, Mission San Juan Bautista, the 15th in California, was founded in the lands of the Mutsun Indians. Father Fermin de Lasuen blessed the future site of Mission San Juan Bautista in California.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)(SJSVB, 6/24/96, p.41)(SFC, 9/3/97, p.A17)

1797        Jun, In London, England, Hatchards bookstore on Piccadilly was founded.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.99)

1797        Jul 7, The US House of Representatives exercised its constitutional power of impeachment, and voted to charge Senator William Blount of Tennessee with "a high misdemeanor, entirely inconsistent with his public duty and trust as a Senator." Blount had financial problems which led him to enter into a conspiracy with British officers to enlist frontiersmen and Cherokee Indians to assist the British in conquering parts of Spanish Florida and Louisiana.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1797        Jul 9, Edmund Burke (b.1729), Irish-born British statesman, parliament leader, died. His writing included “Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790). In 2013 Jesse Norman authored “Edmund Burke: The First Conservative." In 2014 David Bromwich authored “The Intellectual Life of Edmund Burke: From the Sublime and Beautiful to American Independence.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.85)(Econ, 7/5/14, p.69)

1797        Jul 10, 1st US frigate, the "United States," was launched in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1797        Jul 25, Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuen founded Mission San Miguel Archangel, the 16th California mission. He took possession of the land on behalf of Viceroy Branciforte. The mission facilitated travel between Mission San Luis Obispo and Mission San Antonio.
    (SB, 3/28/02)

1797        Aug 30, Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), the creator of "Frankenstein," or the Modern Prometheus, was born in London. Her mother died days later.
    (AHD, p.1193)(AP, 8/30/97)(HN, 8/30/98)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1797        Sep 6, William "Extra Billy" Smith, Confederacy (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1797        Sep 10, Mary Wollstonecraft (b.1759), English writer, philosopher, advocate of women's rights and the spouse of journalist William Godwin, died of septicemia. This was several days after the birth of her daughter, who later as Mary Shelley authored Frankenstein.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Wollstonecraft)(Econ, 2/25/17, p.73)

1797        Sep 20, The US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) was launched in Boston. [see Oct 21]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1797        Oct 9, In Lithuania Elijahu ben Solomon Zalman (b.1720), the Great Gaon of Vilnius, died. He was one of the most influential Rabbinic authorities since the Middle Ages.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vilna_Gaon)

1797        Oct 16, Lord Cardigan, leader of the famed Light Brigade which was decimated in the Crimean War, who eventually had a jacket named after him, was born.
    (HN, 10/16/98)

1797        Oct 21, The 44-gun 204-foot U.S. Navy frigate USS Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, was launched in Boston's harbor. It was never defeated in 42 battles. 216 crew members set sail again in 1997 for its 200th birthday. [see Sep 20]
    (AP, 10/21/97)(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A1)(SFC,10/22/97, p.A6)

1797        Oct 22, French balloonist Andre-Jacques Garnerin made the first parachute descent, landing safely from a height of about 3,000 feet; at some 2,200 feet over Paris.
    (AP, 10/22/97)(HN, 10/22/98)

1797        Nov 19, Sojourner Truth (d.1883), abolitionist and women's rights advocate, was born. "Religion without humanity is a poor human stuff."
    (HN, 11/19/98)(AP, 10/29/00)

1797        Nov 29, Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti, composer (Lucia di Lamermoor, l'Elisir d'Amore), was born.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1797        Dec 13, Heinrich Heine (d.1856), German lyric poet, critic, satirist and journalist, was born. His works included "Trip to the Hartz Mountains" and "Germany, a Winter Tale." "In these times we fight for ideas, and newspapers are our fortresses."
    (AHD, p.611)(AP, 7/18/97)(HN, 12/13/99)

1797        Dec 17, Joseph Henry, US scientist, inventor, pioneer of electromagnetism, was born. [see Dec 18]
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1797        Dec 18, Joseph Henry, inventor, scientist and the first director of the Smithsonian Inst., was born. [see Dec 17]
    (WSJ, 12/17/97, p.A20)

1797        Dec 29, John Wilkes (b.1725), British journalist and politician, died. He opposed King George’s policies in Massachusetts. In 1974 Audrey Williamson authored “Wilkes: A Friend to Liberty." 
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)(www.eastlondonhistory.com/wilkes.htm)(ON, 12/11, p.9)

1797        Franz Kruger (d.1857), German Biedermeier artist of cityscapes and rural genre scenes, was born.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1797        Samuel Taylor Coleridge authored his "Rime of the Ancient Mariner."
    (CW, Winter 04, p.17)

1797        John Frere published his paper "The Beginnings of Paleolithic Archaeology." It described his finding in 1790 Acheulean hand axes associated with the large bones of unknown animals (actually elephants).
    (RFH-MDHP, p.81)

1797        Thomas Paine (1737-1809), English-American political activist, authored the pamphlet Agrarian Justice. Here he discussed the origins of property and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(Econ, 5/23/15, p.64)

1797        Mrs. Gannett of Mass. (1760-1827), born as Deborah Sampson, authored her memoir. She had fought in the American Revolution as a man under the alias Robert Shurtleff. In 2004 Alfred F. Young authored "Masquerade: The Life and Times of Deborah Sampson, Continental Soldier."
    (www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/sampson.html)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.M4)

1797        The first recorded performance of an English-language drama, the tragedy Douglas, west of the Alleghenies took place here at Washington, Kentucky.
    (HNQ, 8/8/99)

1797        In San Jose the first Juzgado (courthouse) was constructed. The Spanish Commandante Lt. Jose Moraga built a 1-story, 3-room adobe structure to house the jail, assembly hall and seat of government for the Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe that served until 1850.
    (SFC, 7/14/97, p.A15,16)

1797        Father Juan Norberto de Santiago arrived in the area of Temecula in Riverside County, Ca., to build a mission and convert the Pechanga Indians (renamed Luiseno Indians by the Spanish).
    (SSFC, 5/23/04, p.D5)

1797        James T. Callender, journalist, published charges concerning the alleged financial misdeeds of Alexander Hamilton. The information came from letters that Hamilton provided to interrogators around 1792 concerning funds paid to James Reynolds to keep quiet an affair with Reynold’s wife. The letters were passed from James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson, who passed them to Callender. Hamilton published a 28,000-word defense, Observations on Certain Documents, that revealed his relationship with Maria Reynolds and his payment of hush money.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A12)(ON, 10/05, p.6)

1797        Thomas Jefferson (53) began serving as US Vice President. He was also elected president of the American Philosophical Society and continued to 1815.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)
1797        John Anderson, a Scottish farm manager, convinced George Washington that distilling whiskey would make money. In a six-week season each spring, Washington’s men netted about a million shad and herring from the Potomac River. The catch was then salted, packed in barrels, and exported. His diversified farming was less successful, largely because of his long absences from Mount Vernon.
    (AM, 9/01, p.80)(HNQ, 8/30/02)

1797        A major fire in Savannah, Georgia destroyed two-thirds of the wood buildings from the pioneer period.
    (SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)

1797        Australia’s first coal mining began at Newcastle.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.39)

1797        A British publisher produced “The Young Man’s Valentine Writer," a collection of writing and verses for men who couldn’t create their own.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.54)(http://tinyurl.com/mp3582r)
1797        The Bank of England suspended the convertibility of its notes to gold in order to better finance Britain’s war with France. This continued to 1821.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)

1797        Some 5,000 black Carib Indians, also known as Garifuna or Garinagu, were exiled from St. Vincent Island to Roatan Island off of Honduras. The Garifuna defined themselves not by country or territory but by language and culture.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A6)

1797        French forces attacked Britain at the port of Fishguard. The event was depicted in the tapestry "The Last Invasion of Brittain."
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T5)
1797        In France Henry-Louis Pernod began to manufacture absinthe. The drink was made with fennel and aniseed and the oil of wormwood which contained thujone, a poisonous ketone.
    (WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W8)
1797        The wine bottles of Chateau Lafite that date back to this year are recorked every 25 years to safeguard the wine and prevent deterioration caused by oxidation through decayed corks.
    (WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A12)

1797        Switzerland began its the three-week "Fete des Vignerons," a once-in-a-generation celebration of its winemakers. Its roots go back a century further when winemakers used to shame the country's worst vineyard worker each year by crowning them in front of the church at Vevey, in the heart of the wine-producing canton of Vaud.
    (Reuters, 7/18/19)

1797        Gammarelli was founded under Pope Pius VI as tailors to the clergy.
    (SSFC, 12/28/03, p.I4)
1797        Venice, the city-state that liked to call itself La Serenissima, lost its independence and its empire. Ludovico Manin, the 120th doge of Venice, surrendered to Napoleon. A few months later Napoleon traded Venice to Austria which ruled it until 1866.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.T1)(WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)
1797        The Jewish ghetto in Venice was destroyed following the Napoleon’s invasion of Italy. This began the gradual liberation of the country’s ghettos.
    (SFC, 12/2/08, p.E1)

1797        There was a naval battle at Cape St. Vincent off the SW tip of Portugal.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1412)

1797-1801    John Adams, 2nd president of the US was in office. It was during his term that France and Britain, engaged in war with each other, insisted on the right to seize American ships. When the US protested French diplomats demanded bribes and a loan of $10 mil to stop the acts of piracy. Adams published the letters of the diplomats with the letters X,Y,Z (hence the X,Y,Z Affair) for the names of the diplomats. This enraged the populace and the country braced for war and called Washington in from Mt. Vernon to lead the army against France. Captain Thomas Truxtom captured a French frigate and defeated another French frigate in a sea battle and the French backed down. It was under Adams that the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed. These acts allowed the President sole discretion to banish aliens from the country and jail editors for writing against the President or Congress. This was vehemently opposed by Jefferson who led the Southern Republicans to adopt a resolution declaring that a state had the right to nullify a law believed to be unconstitutional.
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(A&IP, Miers, p.21)

1797-1815    Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, served as president of the American Philosophical Society. A philosopher-statesman of the Enlightenment, Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, was George Washington’s first Secretary of State and vice-president under John Adams. He was born in Virginia on April 13, 1743, and died on July 4, 1826.
    (HNQ, 9/24/99)

1797-1849     Mary Lyon, American educator: "There is nothing in the universe that I fear but that I shall not know all my duty, or shall fail to do it."
    (AP, 4/27/98)

1797-1851    Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), English novelist, author of Frankenstein. Her mother, also Mary Wollstonecraft, died in childbirth of puerperal fever. Her death prompted Godwin to publish her memoirs.
    (AHD, p.1193)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)

1797-1856    Nicholas Marcellus Hentz, a pioneer collector of North American spiders. He was a skilled painter and has left some 90 intricately executed watercolors of spiders. He published descriptions in the Journal of the Boston Society of Natural History from 1842-1850.
    (NH, 7/96, p.74,75)

1797-1858    Utagawa Hiroshige, Japanese artist, made numerous color woodblock prints.
    (SFC, 12/26/98, p.C1)

1797-1863    Theophile Bra, French academic sculptor.
    (SFC, 12/19/98, p.C18)

1797-1875    Sir Charles Lyell, British geologist. He wrote the "Principles of Geology" (1830-33) and had a profound influence upon the thinking of Charles Darwin.
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1798        Jan 1, Joseph Lancaster (19) opened his 1st low cost school in London, England, aimed at educating the children of poor. In 1803 he published the booklet “Improvements in Education, As It Respects The Industrious Classes Of the Community…"
    (ON, 3/06, p.9)

1798        Jan 8, The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was declared in effect by President John Adams nearly three years after its ratification by the states; it prohibited a citizen of one state from suing another state in federal court.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

1798        Jan 11, Erekle II (b.~1720), Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi Dynasty, died. He had reigned as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798. His name is frequently transliterated from the Latinized form Heraclius.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_within_the_Russian_Empire)

1798        Jan 22, Lewis Morris (71), US farmer (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1798        Jan 30, A brawl broke out in the House of Representatives in Philadelphia. Matthew Lyon of Vermont spat in the face of Roger Griswold of Connecticut, who responded by attacking him with a hickory walking stick. Lyon was re-elected congressman while serving a jail sentence for violating the Sedition Acts of 1798.
    (AP, 1/30/98)(SFC, 4/27/00, p.A5)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1798        Feb 15, The first serious fist fight occurred in Congress.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1798        Feb 20, Pope Pius VI fled Rome to Siena. He was later arrested and deported 1st to Florence and then to France.
    (PTA, 1980, p.500)(www.zum.de/whkmla/region/italy/papalstate17891799.html)

1798        Mar 4, Catholic women were force to do penance for kindling a Sabbath fire for Jews.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1798        Mar 9, Dr. George Balfour became 1st naval surgeon in the US Navy.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1798        Mar 13, Abigail Powers Fillmore, First Lady, was born.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1798        Mar 26, Tunis, under the rule of Bey Hamuda Pasha, signed a treaty of peace and friendship with the US following negotiations with William Eaton. The American Revolutionary War veteran had been recently appointed consul to the North African kingdom.
    (ON, 10/06, p.7)

1798        Mar 29, Republic of Switzerland formed.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1798        Apr 3, Charles B. Wilkes (d.1877), American rear admiral and explorer, was born. In Jan, 1840, Wilkes coasted along part of the Antarctic barrier from about 150 degrees east to 108 degrees east, the areas that was subsequently named Wilkes Land.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1634)(HNQ, 1/12/99)

1798        Apr 7, Territory of Mississippi was organized.
    (HN, 4/7/97)

1798        Apr 19, Franz Joseph Glaser, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1798        Apr 26, Ferdinand Eugene Delacroix (d.1863), French painter, lithograph, etcher (Journal), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eug%C3%A8ne_Delacroix)

1798        Apr 28, Joseph Haydn's oratorio "The Creation" was rehearsed in Vienna, Austria, before an invited audience.
    (AP, 4/29/07)

1798        Apr 30, US Department of Navy formed.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1798        May 2, The black General Toussaint L'ouverture forced British troops to agree to evacuate the port of Santo Domingo. After 5 years of fighting over 60% of 20,000 British troops were buried on St. Domingue.
    (HN, 5/2/99)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.12)(AP, 5/30/04)

1798        May 10, George Vancouver (40), British explorer, (Voyage of Discovery), died.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1798        May 19, A French armada of 335 ships carrying nearly 40,000 men set sail for Alexandria, Egypt, which Napoleon planned to conquer. In 2008 Paul Strathern authored “Napoleon in Egypt."
    (WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1798        May 24, Believing that a French invasion of Ireland was imminent, Irish nationalists rose up against the British occupation. It was put down by the Orange yeomanry who were enlisted by the government to restore peace. The slogan "Croppies lie down" originated here after some of the rebel Catholics had their hair cropped in the French revolutionary manner.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A15)(HN, 5/24/99)

1798        May 26, British killed about 500 Irish insurgents at the Battle of Tara.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1798        Jun 4, Giovanni Jacopo Casanova (b.1725), fabled Italian seducer, adventurer, spy, librarian, died of prostate cancer in Dux, Bohemia. While at Dux he authored his memoirs: “History of My Life." The standard English edition runs over 3,600 pages. In 2008 Ian Kelly authored “Casanova: Actor, Lover, Priest, Spy."
    (www.1911encyclopedia.org/Giovanni_Jacopo_Casanova_de_Seingalt)(WSJ, 10/24/08, p.W5)

1798        Jun 11, Napoleon Bonaparte took the island of Malta.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1798        Jun 13, Mission San Luis Rey [in California] was founded.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)

1798        Jul 1, Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria, Egypt. In 1962 J.C. Herold authored "Bonaparte in Egypt." A corps of 150 civilian artists and scientists traveled with Napoleon’s troops to Egypt. In 2007 Nina Burleigh authored “Mirage: Napoleon’s Scientists and the Unveiling of Egypt."
    (SFC, 9/11/97, p.E3)(HN, 7/1/98)(ON, 12/99, p.4)(SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)

1798        Jul 2, John Fitch, American inventor, clockmaker, died.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1798        Jul 7, Napoleon Bonaparte's army began its march towards Cairo, Egypt, from Alexandria.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1798        Jul 11, The US Marine Corps was formally re-established by a congressional act. US Pres. John Adams signed legislation that established the US Marine Band, composed of 32 drummers and fifers. Continental marines had existed during the Revolutionary War, but had since been discontinued.
    (SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-3)(HNQ, 8/1/99)(AP, 7/11/08)

1798        Jul 13, English poet William Wordsworth visited the ruins of Tintern Abbey.
    (HN, 7/13/01)

1798        Jul 14, The Sedition Act, the last of four pieces of legislation known as the Alien and Sedition Acts, was passed by Congress, making it unlawful to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the U.S. president and the U.S. government, among other things. Violations were made punishable by up to 2 years in jail and a fine of $2,000.
    (AP, 7/14/97)(HN, 7/14/98)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)
1798        Jul 14, 1st direct federal tax in US states took effect on dwellings, land and slaves.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1798        Jul 16, The Marine Hospital Service was established in the Department of the Treasury under provisions of an act (1 Stat. 605) authorizing marine hospitals for the care of American merchant seamen. In 1902 it was redesignated the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service by an act of July 1, 1902 (32 Stat. 712),
    (www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/090.html)
1798        Jul 16, US Public Health Service formed and a US Marine Hospital was authorized.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1798        Jul 21, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Murad Bey and his Arab Mameluke warriors on the outskirts of Cairo at the Battle of the Pyramids, thus becoming the master of Egypt.
    (WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1798        Jul 22, Napoleon captured Cairo, Egypt.
    (PC, 1992, p.354)

1798        Aug 1, Admiral Horatio Nelson routed the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile at Aboukir Bay, Egypt. Nelson's fleet of 14 ships led the attack on Napoleon's fleet in Abu Qir Bay, capturing six and destroying seven of the 17 French vessels. The flagship of Napoleon's fleet, L'Orient, sank in the battle. It was uncovered by a French team in 1998. More than 1,500 Frenchmen and 200 British soldiers reportedly died in the sea battle.
    (AP, 4/19/05)

1798        Aug 21, Jules Michelet, French historian was born in Paris to a family with Huguenot traditions. He wrote the 24-volume "Historie de France".
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Michelet)

1798        Sep 2, The Maltese people revolted against the French occupation, forcing the French troops to take refuge in the citadel of Valetta in Malta.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1798        Sep 11, Franz E Neumann, German mineralogist, mathematician and physicist, was born.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1798        Oct 12, The play "Wallenstein's Camp" by Friedrich von Schiller premiered in Weimar. It was set in 3 parts during the 30 Years War as Gen. Albrecht von Wallenstein fought for Catholic Emp. Ferdinand II.
    (www.schillerinstitute.org/fid_02-06/2005/051-2_Schiller_friends.html)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.78)

1798        Nov 1, Benjamin Lee Guinness, Irish brewer and Dublin mayor, was born.
    (HN, 11/1/00)(MC, 11/1/01)

1798        Nov 4, Congress agreed to pay a yearly tribute to Tripoli, considering it the only way to protect U.S. shipping.
    (HN, 11/4/98)

1798        Nov 16, Kentucky became the 1st state to nullify an act of Congress.
    (MC, 11/16/01)
1798        Nov 16, The British boarded the U.S. frigate Baltimore and impressed a number of crewmen as alleged deserters, a practice which contributed to the War of 1812.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1798        Nov 19, Theobald Wolfe Tone, Irish nationalist (United Irishmen), died.
    (MC, 11/19/01)(WSJ, 9/12/02, p.D8)

1798        Nov 30, Friedrich Fleischmann (32), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1798        Dec 4, Luigi Galvani (61), Italian anatomist and physicist, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luigi_Galvani)

1798        Dec 14, David Wilkinson of Rhode Island patented a nut and bolt machine.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1798        Dec 17, The 1st impeachment trial against a US senator, William Blount of Ten., began.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1798        Dec 24, Russia and England signed a Second anti-French Coalition.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1798        Eugene Delacroix (d.1863), French artist, was born. His work included the "Baron Schwiter."
    (WUD, 1994, p.381)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)

1798        Thomas Robert Malthus authored his “An Essay on the Principle of Population As it affects the future improvement of society with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers." His forecast for a population crash was based on the calculation that it was impossible to improve wheat yields as fast as people make babies. His 2nd edition in 1803 introduced the idea of moral restraint.
    (www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Malthus/essay2.htm)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.29)(Econ, 5/17/08, p.94)

1798        Samuel Solomon published “Guide to Health or, advice to both sexes with an essay on a certain disease, seminal weakness, and a destructive habit of private nature. Also an address to parents, tutors, and guardians of youth. To which one added, observations on the use and abuse of cold bathing" gave advice on topics including abortion, onanism, asthma, barrenness and bleeding. The main remedy for all ailments was Dr Solomon’s "Cordial Balm of Gilead."
    (http://tinyurl.com/2rrttq)(www.erudit.org/revue/ron/2001/v/n23/005993ar.html)

1798        Judith Sargent Murray wrote "The Gleaner," a collection of essays pleading for changes in women’s education and alternatives to marriage.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)

1798        Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth published "Lyrical Ballads."
    (WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)

1798        Beethoven completed his piano sonata, Op. 10, No 3, begun in 1796.
    (WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1798        Pres. John Adams stated: "Our constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.
    (WSJ, 6/26/01, p.A23)

1798         US Vice President Thomas Jefferson and Virginia Congressman James Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Jefferson became the active head of Republican Party. The Virginia Senate agreed to the Virginia Resolution on Dec 24.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky_and_Virginia_Resolutions)
1798        In the Kentucky Resolutions Thomas Jefferson protested the Alien and Sedition Acts and maintained that "free government is founded in jealousy, not in confidence; it is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind down those whom we are obliged to trust with power."
    (WSJ, 5/18/95, p.A-14)

1798        America’s first national survey of the housing stock was completed by the federal government in order to set property values for taxation.
    (AH, 4/07, p.48)

1798        The US Supreme Court ruled in the Calder vs. Bull case that Congress and the states could not pass any "ex post facto law."
    (SFC, 5/2/00, p.A3)
   
1798        Vermont Congressman Matthew Lyon (1749-1822), Irish-born former indentured servant, became the 1st person indicted under the Sedition Act of 1918. Lyon was convicted of sedition after he printed his honest opinion of Pres. John Adams. Vermont re-elected Lyon to Congress while he served his jail time. He later represented Kentucky (1803-1811) in the US House of Representatives.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1798        American seamen began paying 20 cents a month for a pension and hospitalization fund. US Navy service records date back to this time.
    (AH, 2/06, p.12)(www.archives.gov/research/order/vets-records.html)

1798        The first big US bank robbery was at the Philadelphia Carpenter's Hall, which was leased to the Bank of Philadelphia.
    (SFEC, 2/20/00, Z1 p.2)

c1798        The Peabody Essex Museum was founded in Marblehead, Mass., by 22 sea captains to preserve the exotic treasures they brought back from their voyages. It is the oldest museum in the US.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)

1798        Henry Cavendish, English chemist, came up with a reliable measure of the gravitational constant, G. His value was 0.000000000067 cubic meters per kilogram per second squared.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.20)

1798        Benjamin Thompson disproved the caloric theory of heat proposed by Antoine Lavoisier. Thompson went on to marry Lavoisier's widow.
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)

1798        Edmund Fanning, an American explorer, 1st charted Tabuaeran coral atoll (part of the Gilbert Islands, Kiribati). Fanning Island Plantations Ltd. owned the island through the 1800s and exported coconuts.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.C22)

c1798        In Germany Aloys Hirt, founder of the Berlin Academy of Art, laid plans for an art museum to present art in a systematic fashion. This led to the 1830 Altes Museum.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

1798        Napoleon annexed Egypt.
    (SFC, 9/11/97, p.E3)
1798        Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, fled in front of advancing French troops. He took with him some 20 art works from the Farnese collection, which included “Antea" by Parmigianino.
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)
1798        Napoleon expelled the Knights of Malta from their base in Malta. The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem (SMOM), without citizens or territory, became a permanent observer at the UN in 1994.
    (WSJ, 6/28/01, p.A1)
1798        The French National Assembly began sitting in the Palais Bourbon.
    (Econ, 7/27/19, p.51)
1798        Henri Jomini (d.1869), began his military career volunteering his services to the French Army. With the peace of Amiens, he left the army and wrote his "Treatise of Grand Military Operations." The book impressed Napoleon enough to have Jomini appointed a staff colonel in 1805, Jomini having volunteered again in 1804. Jomini rose to become chief of staff under Marshall Ney, but left the French army to fight for Russia in 1813 as a general and aide-de-camp of Alexander I.
    (HNQ, 9/1/00)

1798        Oct, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture negotiated a secret peace agreement in which the British renounced all claim to the colony’s lands in exchange for the right to trade freely on an equal basis with France.
    (ON, 2/10, p.7)

1798        Lord Edward Fitzgerald, an Irish rebel, was killed. He had fathered a daughter with Elizabeth Linley (d.1792), the wife of Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1798-1857    Auguste Comte, the French founder of the philosophical system of Positivism.
    (WUD, 1994, p.303)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)

1798-1868    Jacques Boucher Crevecoeur de Perthes, French customs official, collected bones and chipped implements at Abbeville and Amiens that he recognized as the remains of man’s handiwork.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.95)

1798-1993    Instances of use of US forces abroad, a report of 234 instances over this period other than peace time use.
    http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/foabroad.htm

1779        Jan 5, Stephen Decatur, U.S. naval hero during actions against the Barbary pirates and the War of 1812, was born.
    (HN, 1/5/99)

1799        Jan 30, The US Logan Act was enacted. It prohibited citizens from working against the government’s foreign policy.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logan_Act)(Econ 7/15/17, p.24)

1799        Feb 9, The USS Constellation captured the French frigate Insurgente off the coast of Wisconsin.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1799        Feb 10, Napoleon Bonaparte left Cairo, Egypt, for Syria, at the head of 13,000 men.
    (AP, 2/10/99)

1799        Jan 14, Eli Whitney received a government contract for 10,000 muskets.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1799        Jan 25, Eliakim Spooner of Vermont received the 1st US patent for a seeding machine.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1799        Feb 7, China’s Emperor Qianlong (b.1711) died. He was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China (1735-1796).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qianlong_Emperor)

1799        Feb 15, The 1st US printed ballots were authorized in Pennsylvania.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1799        Feb 24, Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, German scientist, satirist, and Anglophile, died. He is remembered for his posthumously published notebooks, which he himself called Sudelbücher, a description modelled on the English bookkeeping term "scrapbooks", and for his discovery of the strange tree-like patterns now called Lichtenberg figures. “It is almost impossible to carry the torch of truth through a crowd without singeing somebody's beard."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Christoph_Lichtenberg)(http://tinyurl.com/qzlpuna)

1799        Mar 2, Congress standardized US weights and measures.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1799        Mar 6, Napoleon captured Jaffa, Palestine.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1799        Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured the Turkish citadel at Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners. [see Mar 26] The prisoners were massacred because Napoleon claimed that he could not feed them. About this time bubonic plague broke out among his troops.
    (HN, 3/7/99)(ON, 12/99, p.2)

1799        Mar 8, Simon Cameron, political boss, was born.
    (HN, 3/8/01)

1799        Mar 12, Austria declared war on France.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1799        Mar 17, Napoleon Bonaparte and his army reached the Mediterranean seaport of St. Jean d'Acra, only to find British warships ready to break his siege of the town.
    (HN, 3/17/00)

1799        Mar 19, Joseph Haydn’s "Die Schopfung," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/19/02)
1799        Mar 19, Napoleon Bonaparte began the siege of Acre ( later Akko, Israel), which was defended by Turks.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1799        Mar 26, Napoleon Bonaparte captured Jaffa, Palestine. [see Mar 7]
    (HN, 3/26/99)

1799        Mar 28, NY state abolished slavery.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1799        Mar, Napoleon moved on to the Turkish fortress at Acre. His 2 month siege was unsuccessful. In 1999 N. Schur authored Napoleon in the Holy Land."
    (ON, 12/99, p.2,4)

1799        Apr 1, Narciso Casanovas (52), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1799        Apr 14, Napoleon called for establishing Jerusalem for Jews.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1799        Apr 20, Friedrich Schiller's "Wallensteins Tod," the third part of his Wallenstein trilogy, premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 4/20/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallenstein_%28play%29)

1799        Apr 27, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture signed a treaty of friendship with the US under Pres. John Adams.
    (ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799        Apr 28, Francois Giroust (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1799        May 4, In India Tipu Sultan was killed in a battle against 5,000 British soldiers who stormed and razed his capital, Seringapatanam. British forces defeated the sultan of Mysore at the Battle of Seringapatam.
    (www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080048779)(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1799        May 17, Napoleon's army began its overland retreat from Acre. The march to Jaffa took one week.
    (ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799        May 18, Pierre de Beaumarchais (b.1732), French inventor and dramatist, died. In 2007 Hugh Thomas authored “Beaumarchais in Seville." In 2009 Susan Emanuel translated to English “Beaumarchais: A Biography"  by Maurice Lever (d.2006).
    (www.theatrehistory.com/french/beaumarchais001.html)(SFC, 5/30/09, p.E2)

1799        May 20, Honore de Balzac, French novelist, was born in Tours, France. He is considered the founder of the realistic school and wrote "The Human Comedy" and "Lost Illusions."
    (AP, 5/20/99)(HN, 5/20/99)
1799        May 20, Napoleon Bonaparte ordered a withdrawal from his siege of St. Jean d'Acre in Egypt. Plague had run through his besieging French forces, forcing a retreat. Napoleon, in pursuance of his scheme for raising a Syrian rebellion against Turkish domination, appeared before Acre, but after a siege of two months (March–May) was repulsed by the Turks.
    (HN, 5/20/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acre,_Israel)

1799        May 23, Thomas Hood (d.1845), English poet, composer (Song of the Shirt), was born. "I saw old Autumn in the misty morn Stand shadowless like silence, listening To silence."
    (AP, 9/23/98)(MC, 5/23/02)

1799        May 26, Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet (d.1837), was born (OC). His bicentennial in Russia was celebrated Jun 6,1999. [see Jun 6]
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(AHD, p.1062)(SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)

1799        May 28, Napoleon ordered the retreat of all troops back to Egypt from Jaffa. The march lasted 17 days with one week  to cross the Sinai.
    (ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799        May, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture signed a trade agreement with Britain. Certain elements were kept secret in order not to alienate France.
    (ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799        Jun 6, Patrick Henry, American orator, died at Red Hill Plantation, Va. Henry urged the restoration of the property and rights of Loyalists after the Revolutionary War. He believed that Loyalists would make good citizens of the new republic. Henry also bitterly opposed the Constitution as a threat to the liberties of the people and rights of the states. He believed that once the war had been won, a central authority was no longer needed. In 1998 Henry Mayer (d.2000) authored a biography of Patrick Henry.
    (SFC, 7/28/00, p.D5)(HN, 7/12/02)(AP, 6/6/08)
1799        Jun 6, Alexander Pushkin (d.1837), Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature, was born (NC). He was the descendant of an Abyssinian slave of royal blood who was given to Peter the Great as a gift. His works included "Boris Godunov," "Eugene Onegin," and "The Queen of Spades." [see May 26]
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(AHD, p.1062)(SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)(HN, 6/6/99)(WSJ, 7/15/99, p.A16)

1799        Jun 17, Napoleon Bonaparte incorporated Italy into his empire.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1799        Jun 22, In France a scientific congress adopted the length of the meter as one ten-millionth of the distance along the surface of the Earth from its equator to its pole, in a curved line of latitude passing through the center of Paris. The congress used data gathered by astronomers, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre and Pierre-François-André Mechain. The established meter proved to be .2 millimeters too short, due to incorrect latitude data gathered by Mechain.
    (http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2009/01/21/hump-day-history-the-length-of-the-meter/)(ON, 2/09, p.9)

1799        Jul 3, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture formally declared Gen. Andre Rigaud, the leader of a revolutionary army in the south and west of Saint-Domingue, a rebel.
    (ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799        Jul 11, An Anglo-Turkish armada bombarded Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in Alexandria Egypt. The attack was ineffective.
    (HN, 7/11/00)

1799        Jul 17, Ottoman forces, supported by the British, captured Aboukir, Egypt from the French.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1799        Jul 25, On his way back from Syria, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Ottomans at Aboukir, Egypt.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1800        Jul 29, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Andre Rigaud, defeated by Gen. Dessalines, set sail for France.
    (ON, 2/10, p.9)

1799        Jul 30, The French garrison at Mantua, Italy surrendered to the Austrians.
    (HN, 7/30/98)

1799        Aug 2, Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier (54), balloonist, died.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1779        Aug 10, Louis XVI of France freed the last remaining serfs on royal land.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1799        Aug 16, Vincenzo Manfredini (b.1737), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1799        Aug 22, Napoleon slipped through the British blockade of the Egyptian coast and returned to France.
    (ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799            Aug 29, Pope Pius VI (b.1717) died in Valence, France.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/12131a.htm)

1799        Sep 1, Bank of Manhattan Company opened in NYC. It was the forerunner to Chase Manhattan.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1799        Oct 7, Napoleon landed at Saint Raphael, 50 miles east of Toulon.
    (ON, 1/02, p.11)

1799        Oct 16, Napoleon arrived in Paris and met with government leaders.
    (ON, 1/02, p.11)

1799        Oct 24, Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (59), Austrian composer, died.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1799        Nov 5, The Danish ship Oldenborg was wrecked on her outward passage by being beached in the roadstead at Cape Town, South Africa, during a north-westerly gale, thus becoming one of the 127 ships that have been lost on this minuscule portion of the South African coast.
    (www.milhist.dk/weapons/oldenbur/oldenbur.htm)

1799        Nov 9, Napoleon Bonaparte instigated coup of 18 Brumaire and declared himself dictator, 1st consul, of France.
    (HN, 11/9/98)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.77)

1799        Nov 22, Baroness van Dorth, organist, was executed.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1799        Nov 29, Amos Bronson Alcott, US educator and poet (Concord Days), was born.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1799        Dec 10, The metric system was established in France.
    (MC, 12/10/01)

1799        Dec 12,  Two days before his death, George Washington composed his last letter, to Alexander Hamilton, his aide-de-camp during the Revolution and later his Secretary of the Treasury. In the letter he urged Hamilton to work for the establishment of a nationally military academy. Washington wrote that letter at the end of a long, cold day of snow, sleet and rain that he had spent out-of-doors. He remained outside for more than five hours, according to his secretary Tobias Lear, did not change out of his wet clothes or dry his hair when he returned home.
    (HNQ, 10/25/02)

1799        Dec 13, Washington awoke the following morning with a sore throat.
    (HNQ, 10/25/02)

1799        Dec 14, George Washington (b.1732), the first president of the United States, died at his Mount Vernon, Va., home. Richard Brookhiser authored "Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington." The Washingtons at this time had 317 slaves. His 5 stills in Virginia turned out some 12,000 gallons of corn whiskey a year. In 1993 Richard Norton Smith authored "George Washington and the New American Nation." In 2010 Ron Chernow authored “Washington: A Life."
    (A&IP, ESM, p.16)(AP, 12/14/97)(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W15)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A40)(Econ, 10/23/10, p.102)

1799        Dec 18, George Washington's body was interred at Mount Vernon.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1799        Dec, 21, William Wordsworth (29) and his sister, Dorothy, returned from a year in Germany to Grasmere in the Lake District. His Lyrical Ballads written jointly with Samuel Taylor Coleridge (27) had just been published. The ballads launched the Great Romantic Period in English literature.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.71)

1799        Dec 24, A Jacobin plot against Napoleon was uncovered.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1799        Dec 25, Napoleon’s new constitution went into effect. It gave him, as First Consul, powers to promulgate laws, nominate senior officials, control finances and conduct negotiations with foreign powers.
    (ON, 1/02, p.12)
1799        Dec 25, Chevalier De Saint Georges (b.1739), violinist and composer, died in Paris, France.
    http://ChevalierDeSaintGeorges.Homestead.com/Page1.html

1799        Dec 26, The late George Washington was eulogized by Col. Henry Lee as "first in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen."
    (AP, 12/26/97)

1799        In England Richard Sheridan wrote his play "Pizzaro." It implied an equivalence between persecuted Indians and the Irish.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1799        Jacques-Louis David created his painting “Rape of the Sabines."
    (WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)
1799        In Paris, France, the Passage de Panoramas, a covered arcade, was built on the site of the former Hotel de Montmorency-Luxembourg. It was the first building in Paris equipped for gas lighting.
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, p.M4)

1799        Goya (1746-1828) made his famous etching "The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters," in which fluttering bats hover darkly above a man dozing at his desk.
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1799        Antonio Salieri (1750-1825), Italian composer, wrote his opera "Falstaff."
    (WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)

1799        The Musun Indians built a chapel at the California Mission San Juan Bautista.
    (SFC, 9/3/97, p.A17)

1799        Sitka, Alaska, was founded by Alexander Baranof of the Russian American Company.
    (AH, 6/07, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitka,_Alaska)

1799        In Pennsylvania the Lazaretto Quarantine Station was built in Tinicum Township to protect the Port of Philadelphia against the introduction of diseases that could lead to epidemics. The Lazaretto closed as a hospital in 1890 but then served as a resort and seaplane base before the start of World War I. In 2019 plans called for converting the structure into township offices.
    (AP, 8/22/19)

1799        Lord Elgin was appointed British ambassador to Constantinople. He was responsible for taking down the Metopes, sculptured by Phidias, from the Parthenon, and transporting them to England.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.218)

1799        Pierre Bouchard [Boussart], an officer in Napoleon‘s army, discovered the Rosetta Stone in the city of Rosetta [Rashid], Egypt. The Rosetta Stone is a tablet with hieroglyphic translations into Greek. The stone is black basalt... and bears three texts: the uppermost is in early Egyptian hieroglyphic; the middle one in the Neo-Egyptian demotic script often used in writing papyri; and the lowermost text is Greek. Deciphering the stone, the work of English physicist Thomas Young and then French archaeologist Jean-Francois Champollion, led to an understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. Champollion published memoirs on the decipherment in 1822.
    (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.584)(RFH-MDHP, p.182)(HN, 7/19/98)(HNQ, 7/7/00)   

1799        A South African hunter shot the last blaauwboch, the blue antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus). Its numbers had been severely reduced by the introduction of domestic sheep by native Africans as early as 400AD.
    (NH, 11/96, p.24)

c1799    In China at the close of the 18th century the White Lotus Movement led a violent uprising in northeastern China.
    (WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A6)

1799        In Jaipur, India, the Hawa Mahal (the palace of wind) a five-storied sandstone building, was built by a Hindu king for his queen.
    (Reuters, 5/14/08)

1799        The Dutch East India Company liquidated and the Dutch government took control over the islands of Indonesia.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1799        In Naples, Italy, a massacre of innocents occurred that was blamed on British Admiral Horatio Nelson.
    (WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)

1799        Nagasawa Rosetsu (b.1754), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died. His work included “Monkey on a Rock."
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E10)

1799        The Russian-American Co. was chartered by Tsar Paul I. It expanded into Spanish California (see 1812) when sea otter populations declined in Alaska.
    (SFC, 6/15/01, WBb p.7)

1799        Some 70 ships were lost in the Scottish Firth of Tay.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, BR p.3)

1799        Pope Pius VI died.
    (WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1799-1804    Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), German explorer, and Aime Bonpland, botanist, led an expedition to South America. They collected over 60,000 plants.
    (http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa020298.htm)(CW, Spring ‘99, p.49)

1799-1914    This period in France was covered by Robert Gildea in his 2008 book: Children of the Revolution: The French 1799-1914."
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.87)

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