Timeline 1790-1799

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1790        Jan 6, Johann Trier (73), composer, died.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1790        Jan 8, President Washington delivered the 1st "State of the Union" address in NYC.

1790        Jan 21, Joseph Guillotine proposed a new, more humane method of execution: a machine designed to cut off the condemned person's head as painlessly as possible.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1790        Jan 26, Mozart's opera "Cosi Fan Tutte" premiered in Vienna.

1790        Feb 1, The US Supreme Court convened for 1st time in Royal Exchange Building, New York City, the nations temporary capital.

1790        Feb 6, The last stone of the Bastille, torn down by order of the French revolutionary leaders, was presented to the National Assembly.
    (ON, 4/01, p.3)

1790        Feb 11, The first petition to Congress for emancipation of the slaves was made by the Society of Friends.
    (HNQ, 1/11/99)

1790        Feb 20, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (48) died.
    (AP, 2/20/98)(MC, 2/20/02)

1790        Feb 26, As a result of the Revolution, France was divided into 83 departments.
    (HN, 2/26/99)

1790        Mar 1, President Washington signed a measure authorizing the first US Census. The Connecticut Compromise was a proposal for two houses in the legislature-one based on equal representation for each state, the other for population-based representation-that resolved the dispute between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman's proposal led to the first nationwide census in 1790. The population was determined to be 3,929,625, which included 697,624 slaves and 59,557 free blacks. The most populous state was Virginia, with 747,610 people and the most populous city was Philadelphia with 42,444 inhabitants. The average cost of this year’s census was 1.13 cents per person.
    (HNQ, 7/13/01)(AP, 3/1/08)(http://www.genealogybranches.com/censuscosts.html)
1790        Mar 14, Captain Bligh returned to England with news of the mutiny on the Bounty.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790        Mar 21, Thomas Jefferson (46) reported to President Washington in New York as the new US Secretary of state.
    (AP, 3/21/97)(www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)

1790        Mar 22, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) became the first US Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, he served on the first Board of Arts, the body that reviewed patent applications and granted patents. Jefferson was one of a triumvirate that served as both America’s first patent commissioner and first patent examiner.
    (HN, 3/22/97)(www.archipelago.org/vol10-34/matsuura.htm)

1790        Mar 24, King George ordered the Admiralty to capture Fletcher Henderson for the mutiny on the Bounty.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790        Mar 26, US Congress passed a Naturalization Act. It required a 2-year residency.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1790        Mar 27, The shoelace was invented.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1790        Mar 29, John Tyler, the 10th president of the United States (1841-1845), was born in Charles City County, Va. He was also the first vice-president to succeed to office on the death of a president.    
    (AP, 3/29/97)(HN, 3/29/99)(MC, 3/29/02)

1790        Mar 31, In Paris, France, Maximilien Robespierre was elected president of the Jacobin Club.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1790        Apr 3, Revenue Marine Service (US Coast Guard) was created.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1790        Apr 10, President George Washington signed into law the first United States Patent Act. The Patent Board was made up of the Secretary of State, Secretary of War and the Attorney General and was responsible for granting patents on "useful and important" inventions. In the first three years, 47 patents were granted. Until 1888 miniature models of the device to be patented were required. [see July 31] The US Patent and Trademark Office’s subject grouping scheme includes a major component called a class and a minor one called a subclass. A class distinguishes one technology from another. Subclasses of the USPTO delineate processes, structural features and functional features of the technology in that particular class. By 2015 there were 474 classes and over 160,000 codes.
    (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 8/6/99)(AP, 4/10/07)(Econ., 4/25/15, p.73)

1790        Apr 17, Benjamin Franklin (born 1706), American statesman, died in Philadelphia at age 84. He mechanized the process of making sounds from tuned glass with his glass armonica. In 2000 H.W. Brands authored his Franklin biography: "The First American." In 2003 Walter Isaacson authored "Benjamin Franklin: An American Life." In 2005 Philip Dray authored “Stealing God’s Thunder," an account of Franklin’s work with lightning rods.
    (AP, 4/17/97)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 7/3/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1790        May 21, Paris was divided into 48 zones.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1790        May 26, Territory South of River Ohio was created by Congress.
    (HN, 5/26/98)

1790        May 29, Rhode Island became the last of the 13 original colonies to ratify the United States Constitution. They held out for an amendment securing religious freedom. The state was largely founded by Baptists fleeing persecution in Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 5/29/97)(HN, 5/29/98)

1790        May 31, The US copyright law was enacted.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1790        May, John Tanner (9) was kidnapped from his home in northern Kentucky by Saginaw Indians. He was taken to an area near what later became Saginaw, Michigan, where he learned the Ojibway language. After about 2 years he was sold to a woman named Net-no-kwa, who took him up to northern Michigan and later to Manitoba, Canada.
    (ON, 4/10, p.4)(http://baptisthistoryhomepage.com/ky.boone.tanner.j.kidnapd.html)

1790        Jun 9, The "Philadelphia Spelling Book" was the first US work to be copyrighted.
    (WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1)(MC, 6/9/02)
1790        Jun 9, Civil war broke out in Martinique.
    (HN 6/9/98)

1790        Jul 3, In Paris, the Marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.
    (HN, 7/3/98)

1790        Jul 9, The Swedish navy captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1790        Jul 12, The French Assembly approved a Civil Constitution providing for the election of priests and bishops.
    (HN, 7/12/98)

1790        Jul 16, The District of Columbia was established as the seat of the United States government.
    (AP, 7/16/97)

1790        Jul 17, Economist Adam Smith (b.1723), Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy, died. In 2001 Emma Rothschild authored "Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment." In 2002 Peter J. Dougherty authored "Who’s Afraid of Adam Smith." In 2010 Nicholas Phillipson authored “Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith)(WSJ, 6/21/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10) (Econ, 8/7/10, p.84)

1790        Jul 26, US Congress passed Alexander Hamilton’s Assumption plan making it responsible for state debts. Virginia eventually withdrew its opposition in return for having the nation’s new capital located on its borders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Report_on_the_Public_Credit)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.132)
1790        Jul 26, An attempt at a counter-revolution in France was put down by the National Guard at Lyons.
    (HN, 7/26/98)

1790        Jul 31, The first US patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont for an improvement "in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process". This patent was signed by then President George Washington. The first 10,280 patents, issued between 1790 and 1836, were destroyed by a fire. The legal basis for the United States patent system (USPTO) is Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution wherein the powers of Congress are defined.

1790        Aug 2, The enumeration for the first US census began. It showed that 3,929,326 people were living in the US of which 697,681 were slaves, and that the largest cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia, with 28,000; Boston, with 18,000; Charleston, South Carolina, with 16,000; and Baltimore, with 13,000. Census records for Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830.
    (AP, 8/2/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_United_States_Census)

1790        Aug 4, US Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton urged that ten boats for the collection of revenue be built. This was to stop smuggling, especially of coffee, which was hampering trade. The Coast Guard was born as the Revenue Cutter Service. The Coast Guard was empowered to board and inspect any vessel in US waters and any US boat anywhere in the world.
    (Smith., 8/95, p.25)(HFA, '96, p.36)(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-16)(AP, 8/4/00)   

1790        Aug 9, The Columbia returned to Boston Harbor after a three-year voyage, becoming the first ship to carry the American flag around the world.
    (AP, 8/9/97)

1790        Sep 4, Jacques Necker was forced to resign as finance minister in France.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1790        Oct 3, John Ross, Chief of the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866, was born near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. Although his father was Scottish and his mother only part Cherokee, Ross was named Tsan-Usdi (Little John) and raised in the Cherokee tradition. A settled people with successful farms, strong schools, and a representative government, the Cherokee resided on 43,000 square miles of land they had held for centuries.
    (LCTH, 10/3/99)

1790        Oct 21, Alphonse-Marie Louis de Lamartine, writer (Rene), was born in Macon, France.
    (MC, 10/21/01)
1790        Oct 21, The Tricolor was chosen as the official flag of France.
    (HN, 10/21/98)

1790        Oct 23, Slaves revolted in Haiti.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1790        Oct 28, NY gave up claims to Vermont for $30,000.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1790        Nov 11, Chrysanthemums were introduced into England from China.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1790        Nov 17, August Ferdinand Mobius, mathematician, inventor (Mobius strip), was born.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1790        Dec 6, Congress moved from New York City to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
    (AP, 12/6/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)

1790        Dec 17, An Aztec calendar stone was discovered in Mexico City.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(MC, 12/17/01)

1790        Dec 19, Sir William Parry, England, Arctic explorer, was born.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1790        Dec 20, In Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 23-year-old British subject Samuel Slater began production of the first American spinning mill. The British jealously guarded their technological superiority in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, making it illegal for machinery, plans and even the men who built and repaired them to leave the country. After serving a 7-year mill apprenticeship in England, Slater recognized the potential offered in America. He memorized the plans for intricate machine specifications, disguised himself as a farm worker and in 1789 sailed to a new life across the Atlantic. Slater entered into a partnership with Rhode Island merchant Moses Brown and built a small spinning mill--the equivalent of 72 spinning wheels. At first, Slater's Mill employed only a handful of children between the ages of 7 and 12, but by 1800, he had more than 100 employees. By the time of Slater's death in 1835, he owned or had an interest in 13 textile mills and left an estate of almost $700,000. From this small beginning, America's own Industrial Revolution grew. [see Dec 21]
    (AP, 12/20/97)(HNPD, 12/20/98)(WSJ, 9/23/04, p.D10)

1790        Dec 21, Samuel Slater opened the first cotton mill in the United States in Rhode Island. [see Dec 20]
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1790        Dec 23, Jean François Champollion, French founder of Egyptology, was born. He deciphered the Rosetta Stone.
    (HN, 12/23/99)

c1790        Henry Fuseli painted his famous work "The Nightmare" wherein a sleeping woman has a glowing demon on her chest and a lantern-eyed stallion parting the curtains behind. He also painted "Woman Standing at a Dressing Table or Spinet" about this time.
    (SFC, 10/31/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790        Ito Jakuchu (1716-1800), Japanese painter, created his "Compendium of Vegetable and Insects."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E1)

1790        Thomas Rowlandson, English artist, painted "The Lock-Up."
    (WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790        Goethe’s "Faust: Ein Fragment," first appeared.

1790        Alexander Hamilton published his "Report on the Public Credit."
    (WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)

1790        Emmanuel Kant published his "Critique of Judgement." His analysis of the nature of art and aesthetic experience proved to be a major influence on modern ideas. These ideas were later revisited by Murdoch in her 1998 work "Existentialists and Mystics." [see 1781]
    (WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)

1790        Beethoven composed his "Cantata on the Death of Emperor Joseph II."
    (WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1790        The opera "The Philosopher’s Stone" was composed and first performed. A 1997 score showed that a number of composers wrote various sections. Mozart’s name was associated with the 2nd act finale and a duet. It was a singspiel based on fairytales with a libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. Other composers included Johann Baptist Henneberg, Benedikt Schack, Franz Haver Gerl and Emanuel Schikaneder.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)

1790        In South Carolina a 900-square-foot octagonal house was built about this time by Scottish immigrant William McKimmy. Ruins of the structure were found in 2009 on the banks of the May River in Blufton.  The design took off in 1848 following the publication of “A Home for All" by Orson Fowler, a self-taught architect and phrenologist.
    (SFC, 2/22/10, p.A6)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A2)

1790        The Episcopal Church was founded.
    (SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-11)

1790        The US government issued $80 million in bonds to cover Revolutionary War debts and their trade established the financial activity on Wall Street.
    (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

1790        The US Trade and Intercourse Act prohibited states from acquiring land from Indians without federal approval.
    (SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

1790        US Minister to France, Gouverneur Morris, said that the French "have taken Genius instead of Reason for their Guide, adopted Experiment instead of Experience, and wander in the Dark because they prefer Lightning to Light." In 2000 Susan Dunn published "Sister Revolutions: French Lightning, American Light."
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, Par p.28)

1790        The celerifere bicycle appeared in Paris about this time and was a two-wheeled, un-steerable vehicle that the rider propelled by striking his feet on the ground. This was improved upon with a bar to steer the front wheel in 1816 by Baron von Drais of Germany, and was called a draisine. The ordinary, which had a high front wheel, wire-spoked wheels and solid rubber tires, was developed in the 1870s.
    (HNQ, 10/29/99)

1790        The US census categorized the population as "free white person, all other free persons except Indians, and slaves."
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A21)
1790        The US population was 20% African and numbered about 760,000.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

1790        Fletcher Christian landed at Pitcairn Island.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A14)

1790        In Australia Pemulway, an Aboriginal warrior, speared and killed the governor’s gamekeeper at Botany Bay and waged war against the British for 12 years. His head was later sent to England. Eric Willmot later authored "Pemulway, the Rainbow Warrior."
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T4)

1790        In the Sandwich Islands [Hawaii] King Kamehameha built the Puukohola Heiau temple on the Big Island near the village of Kawaihau. It was built to the war god Ku-Ka’ili-moku. The king’s armies soon swept over all the Hawaiian islands and united the people for the first time.
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)

1790        Pineapples were introduced to the Sandwich Islands later called Hawaii.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.2)

1790        The Haleakala Volcano on Maui erupted.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.T8)

1790        La Fenice opera house in Venice was designed. It burned down for the 1st time in 1836.
    (WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)

1790         A bronze Buddha was cast in Japan. In 1945 it was donated by the Gump family to the city of San Francisco. It resides in the Japanese Tea Garden and was in need of $81,000 worth of repairs.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.A11)

1790        In Porto, Portugal, the House of Sandeman winery was found by the Scot, George Sandeman.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)

1790s        Denmark became the 1st country to abolish slavery.
    (WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)

1790s        Floreana Island in the Galapagos began serving as a mail drop for whalers and seal hunters.
    (SFEC, 11/19/00, p.T8)

c1790s         King Kamehameha slaughtered virtually everyone on the island of Lanai (which means day of conquest) after being thwarted in his bid to conquer Maui.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)

1790-1792    Sans-culottes (French for without knee-breeches) was a term created during this period by the French to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length trousers) instead of the chic knee-length culotte. The term came to refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, but, above all, to the working class radicals of the Revolution.

1790-1799    In 2009 Marcus Daniel authored “Scandal & Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy," a study of the American press during this period.
    (WSJ, 3/3/09, p.A11)
1790-1799    The revolutionary tide that swept Europe during this period was later covered by R.R. Palmer in his book “The Age of the Democratic Revolution."
    (WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)

1790-1830    The “Dalton Minimum," a period of low solar activity and especially cold climate, began this year and lasted to 1830.

1790-1848    Nicola Vaccai, Italian composer. He composed a version of "I Capuletti ed I Montecchi," that was also done by Bellini.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1790-1869    Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, French poet, historian and statesman.
    (WUD, 1994, p.803)

1790s        Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland and united the country in the battle against Prussian and Russian domination.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)

1790s        The solitaire of Rodrigues, a flightless pigeon, was last seen.
    (NH, 11/96, p.24)

1791        Jan 14, Calvin Phillips, shortest known adult male (67 cm; 2' 2"), was born.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1791        Feb 12, Peter Cooper, industrialist, philanthropist (Cooper Union), was born.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1791        Feb 20, Carl Czerny, pianist, composer (Schule der Virtuosen), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1791        Feb 25, President George Washington signed a bill creating the Bank of the United States.
    (HN, 2/25/99)

1791        Mar 3, Congress established the U.S. Mint.
    (HN, 3/3/99)
1791        Mar 3, The 1st Internal Revenue Act taxed distilled spirits and carriages.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1791        Mar 4, President Washington called the US Senate into its 1st special session.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1791        Mar 4, Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)
1791        Mar 4, 1st Jewish member of US Congress, Israel Jacobs (Pennsylvania), took office.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1791        Mar 6, Anna Claypoole Peale, painted miniatures, was born.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1791        Mar 10, John Stone of Concord, Mass, patented a pile driver.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1791        Mar 10, Pope condemned France's Civil Constitution of the clergy.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1791        Mar 11, Samuel Mulliken of Philadelphia was the 1st to obtain more than 1 US patent.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1791        Mar 21, Captain Hopley Yeaton (1740-1812) of New Hampshire became the first commissioned officer of the US Revenue Cutter Service.

1791        Mar 23, Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman's rights, set up a group of women's clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth.
    (HN, 3/23/99)

1791        Mar 4, Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)

1791        Mar 29, Pres. George Washington and French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant examined the site along the Potomac River that would become the US capital. Maryland and Virginia had ceded land to the federal government to form the District of Columbia. Chosen as the permanent site for the capital of the United States by Congress in 1790, President Washington was given the power by Congress to select the exact site—an area ten-miles square, made up of land given by Virginia and Maryland. Washington became the official federal capital in 1800. In 2008 Fergus Bordewich authored “Washington: The Making of the American Capital."
    (HNQ, 8/13/00)(HN, 8/2/98)(WSJ, 8/8/08, p.A13)

1791        Apr 23, The 15th president of the United States, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa.
    (AP, 4/23/97)

1791        Apr 12, Francis Preston Blair, Washington Globe newspaper editor, was born.
    (HN, 4/12/98)

1791        Apr 15, Surveyor General Andrew Ellicott consecrated the southern tip of the triangular District of Columbia at Jones Point.
    (WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)

1791        Apr 18, National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1791        Apr 23, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa. He was the fifteenth U.S. president (1857-1861) and the only president not to marry.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1791        Apr 27, Samuel F.B. Morse, inventor, was born in Boston. He created the telegraph and the code which bears his name. Morse was a well-known painter who gained a wide reputation as a portrait artist. He graduated from Yale in 1810 and then studied painting in England for several years. Morse painted two notable portraits of Lafayette, was a founder of the National Academy of Design in 1826 and became professor of painting and sculpture at New York University in 1832-a position he held until his death in 1872. Morse invented the first practical recording telegraph in America and developed the Morse code, revolutionizing communication.
    (HN, 4/27/99)(HNQ, 2/26/00)

1791        Apr, William Wilberforce again introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade, but lost by a vote of 163 to 88.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)

1791        May 3, Poland adopted a new Constitution. It was designed to redress long-standing political defects of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and its traditional system of "Golden Liberty." The constitution put Lithuania under Polish domination. It is generally regarded as Europe's first and the world's second modern codified national constitution, following the 1788 ratification of the US Constitution.
    (SFC, 4/25/09, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_May_3,_1791)(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1791        May 8, Capt. Edward Edwards set sail from Tahiti in the Pandora with the Bounty mutineers abandoned by Fletcher Henderson.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791        May 9, Francis Hopkinson (53), US writer, music, lawyer, died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1791        May 14, In Mexico a time capsule was placed atop a bell tower at Mexico City's Metropolitan Cathedral when the building's topmost stone was laid, 218 years after construction had begun. Workers restoring the church found it in October, 2007.
    (AP, 1/15/08)

1791        May 16, James Boswell’s celebrated 2-volume work, "The Life of Samuel Johnson," was published. In 2001 Adam Sisman authored "Boswell’s Presumptuous Task," an account of how Boswell came to write the Johnson biography.
    (WSJ, 8/24/01, p.W8)(ON, 11/06, p.10)

1791        May 28, Joseph Schmitt (57), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1791        May 29, Pietro Romani, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1791        Jun 9, John Howard Payne, American playwright and actor, was born.
    (HN, 6/9/01)

1791        Jun 20, King Louis XVI of France attempted to flee the country in the so-called Flight to Varennes, but was caught.
    (AP, 6/20/97)

1791        Jun 21, King Louis XVI and the French royal family were arrested in Varennes. In 2003 Timothy Tackett authored "When the King Took Flight," an examination of the political culture during this period of transformation.
    (HN, 6/21/98)(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.M6)

1791        Jul 7, Benjamin Rush, Richard Allen and Absalom Jones founded the Non-denominational African Church.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1791        Jul 13, The bones of the greatest French satirist, philosopher, and writer, Voltaire (Jean-Marie Arouet) were enshrined in the Pantheon in Paris.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1791        Jul 14-1791 Jul 17, Riots took place in Birmingham, England. The houses of Joseph Priestley and other political dissenters were burned to the ground. Priestley had rejected various supernatural elements of Christianity, criticized the Church of England, and supported the French Revolution.
    (SFC, 1/9/09, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priestley_Riots)

1791        Jul 16, Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the constitution.
    (HN, 7/16/98)

1791        Jul 17, National Guard troops opened fire in Paris on a crowd of demonstrators calling for the deposition of the king.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1791        Jul 24, Robespierre expelled all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1791        Jul 25, Free African Society (FAS) leaders drew up a plan to organize the African Church. Richard Allen purchased a site for a church for the African-American community in Philadelphia. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church.

1791        Jul 26, Franz Xavier Wolfgang Mozart, 6th child of Austrian composer WAM, was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1791        Aug 1, Robert Carter III, a Virginia plantation owner, freed all 500 of his slaves in the largest private emancipation in U.S. history.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1791        Aug 2, Samuel Briggs and his son patented a nail-making machine.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1791        Aug 4, The chief item in the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and Turkey was the return of Belgrade to Turkey. The peace initiative resulted from the terms of the Convention of Reichenbach between Prussia and Austria. Belgrade had been taken in 1789 by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II.
    (HNQ, 6/25/99)

1791        Aug 14, Haitian slaves, led by voodoo priest Boukman Dutty, gathered to plan a revolution.
    (SFCM, 5/30/04, p.9)( http://tinyurl.com/yun3k3)

1791        Aug 26, John Fitch and James Rumsey, rival inventors, were both granted a US patent for a working steamboat.
    (MC, 8/26/02)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)

1791        Aug 29, The Pandora under Capt. Edward Edwards sank in Endeavour Strait (later Torres Strait) between Australia and New Guinea. 33 crewmen and 4 prisoners died. They managed to use small boats and arrived in Timor on Sep 16.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791        Sep 1, Lydia Sigourney, US religious author (How to Be Happy), was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1791        Sep 3, The French National Assembly passed a French Constitution passed.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1791        Sep 5, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Vogelsdorf Germany, opera composer (Les Huguenots, Le Prophete), was born.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1791        Sep 6, Mozart’s last opera "La Clemenza di Tito," premiered in Prague. It was composed for the coronation festivities of the King of Bohemia.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)(MC, 9/6/01)

1791        Sep 9, French Royalists took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1791        Sep 13, France's King Louis XVI accepted a constitution.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1791        Sep 14, Louis XVI solemnly swore his allegiance to the French constitution.
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1791        Sep 22, Michael Faraday (d.1867), English physicist, was born in London. He demonstrated that a magnetic field induces a current in a moving conductor. He invented the dynamo, the transformer and the electric motor.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.269)(HN, 9/22/00)

1791        Sep 26, J.L.A. Theodore Gericault, French painter, was born.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1791        Sep 27, Jews in France were granted French citizenship. Jews were granted religious and civic rights in 1791.
    (HN, 9/27/98)(WSJ, 8/7/00, p.A13)

1791        Sep 30, Mozart's opera "The Magic Flute" premiered in Vienna, Austria.
    (AP, 9/30/97)

1791        Oct 1, In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly held its first meeting.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1791            Nov 3, Gen. St. Clair moved his force of approximately 1,400 men to some high ground on the upper Wabash River. St. Clair was looking for the forces of Michikinikwa (Chief Little Turtle 1752-1812), who had recently defeated Gen. Josiah Harmar’s (1753-1813) army. St. Clair deployed only minimal sentry positions. [see Nov 4]
    (DoW, 1999, p.168)

1791        Nov 4, General Arthur St. Clair, governor of Northwest Territory, was badly defeated by a large Indian army near Fort Wayne. Miami Indian Chief Little Turtle (1752-1812) led the powerful force of Miami, Wyandot, Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, Ojibwa and Potawatomi that inflicted the greatest defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Army at the hands of North American Indians. Some 623 regulars led by General Arthur St. Clair were killed and 258 wounded on the banks of the Wabash River near present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. The staggering defeat moved Congress to authorize a larger army in 1792.
    (HNQ, 8/10/98)(HN, 11/4/98)

1791        Dec 4, Britain's Observer, oldest Sunday newspaper in world, was 1st published.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1791        Dec 5, Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna, Austria, at age 35. His first opera was "Idomeneo." In 1920 Hermann Abert authored “W.A. Mozart." In 1991 Georg Knepler authored "Wolfang Amade Mozart," a Marxist view of Mozart in his times. In 1995 Maynard Solomon published a psychoanalytic biography of Mozart. In 1999 Peter Gay authored a Penguin short life of Mozart and Robert W. Gutman authored the comprehensive biography "Mozart."
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.54)(AP, 12/5/97)(WSJ, 12/2/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)

1791        Dec 15, The US Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, took effect following ratification by Virginia. The First Amendment declared the separation of church and state and guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, the press and assembly. In 2007 Anthony Lewis authored “Freedom for the Thought That We Hate: A biography of the Frist Amendment."
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 12/15/97)(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)

1791        Dec 17, NYC traffic regulation created the 1st 1-way street.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1791        Dec 22, Alexander Hamilton paid a $600 installment of $1,000 in blackmail to James Reynolds, who threatened to expose Hamilton’s relationship with Reynolds’ wife. Hamilton had begun a relationship with Maria Reynolds during the summer. A 2nd payment was made Jan 3.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.1,12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)

1791        Dec, The 1st Bank of the US opened under Alexander Hamilton.  It did the work of a central bank even though private investors held most of its shares. James Madison opposed the plans of Alexander Hamilton for a National Bank. [see 1780-1792, Banning book on Madison] It was dissolved in 1811.
    (WSJ, 12/20/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A8)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.91)(Econ, 4/12/14, p.50)

1791        Jose Cardero, a Spanish artist in California, painted "Vista del Presidio de Monterey."
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.E6)

1791        Alexander Hamilton authored his “Report on the Subject of Manufactures." His plan to get the country’s economy going included tariffs to protect the young industries.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.74)(Econ, 1/21/12, SR p.5)

1791        Englishman Thomas Paine wrote the “Rights of Man" in Paris, promoting the French Revolution. It defended the French Revolution against Edmund Burke's attack in “Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790).
    (ON, 6/2011, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rights_of_Man)

1791        French Comte de Volney (1757-1820) authored “The Ruins, or a Survey of the Revolutions of Empires," a treatise on why civilizations fell and what men should do to find happiness.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.128)

1791        The opera "The Beneficent Dervish" was initially attributed to Emanuel Schikaneder but a 1997 find indicated that Mozart wrote the work. Schikaneder was a Vienna theater impresario who had commissioned "The Magic Flute."
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)

1791        Aaron Burr (1756-1836), later US vice president (1801-1805), was elected as US Senator from New York (1791-1797).

1791        The US Providence Bank was later reported to have profited from traffic in slaves to the New World. The bank eventually became part of FleetBoston Financial Corp.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.D3)

1791        A document was released in 2004 from Pittsfield, Mass., that contained a 1791 bylaw to protect the windows of a new meeting house from baseball players.
    (SFC, 5/12/04, p.A2)

1791        A New Hampshire law called for convicted adulterers to be paraded on the gallows for an hour and then be publicly whipped no exceeding 39 stripes before being sent to prison and fined £100. By 2014 the penalty had been reduced to a fine of $1,200 as legislators proposed a repeal of the law.
    (Econ, 4/19/14, p.24)

1791        William Sprague opened the 1st US carpet mill in Philadelphia.
    (SFCM, 10/10/04, p.8)

1791        Legend says the Harel family began making Camembert cheese before this time. The family had given a priest refuge, who in gratitude gave them the recipe. In 2003 Pierre Boisard authored "Camembert: A National Myth."
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.M3)

1791        Frantisek Koczwara, a Bohemian musician, died in a London brothel from auto-asphyxiation.
    (SSFC, 3/18/01, DB p.49)
1791        Grigory A. Potemkin (b.1739), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II's lover, died. In 2002 Simon Sebag Montefiore authored "Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin."
    (MC, 9/13/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)
1791        John Wesley (b.1703), English evangelist and theologian, died. He founded the Methodist movement.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1622)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1791        In Australia officials granted parcels of land around Sydney to convicts who have served their time, beginning years of dispossession of Aborigines that continued as white settlers dispersed throughout Australia. Clashes between Aborigines and settlers led to tens of thousands of deaths among Aborigines and hundreds of settler deaths.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

1791        Sheikh Mansur, Chechen leader, was captured and died in the Schlusselburg Fortress.

1791        The United Irishmen Society was formed. Inspired by the French Revolution many Catholics and Protestants took up the cause of Irish nationalism during the next decade.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1791        The Berlin Sing-Academie was established.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.C13)
1791        In Berlin, Germany, the Brandenburg Gate was completed. It stood 66 feet tall and 213 feet wide, and was topped by the copper Quadriga, a sculpture of a goddess riding into the city aboard a chariot. It was restored in 2002.
    (AP, 10/2/02)

1791        The Marquesas Islands were officially discovered. Over a 30 year period western diseases ravaged the populace and only about 2,000 of 100,000 people survived.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)

1791        In St. Domingue Toussaint L’Ouverture joined the slave rebellion against plantation owners and later led a colonial revolt against France. In 1995 Madison Smart Bell authored "All Souls Rising," a novel set in this period.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97 BR, p.10)(SSFC, 4/8/01, BR p.4)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.10)

1791-1824    Theodore Gericault, French painter. He painted "Mounted Officer of the Imperial Guard."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.593)

1791-1888    In Korea 124 Catholics were executed during this period under the Joseon Dynasty, which tried to shut off the Korean Peninsula off from Western influence. They were canonized as saints in 1984 during a visit by Pope John Paul II.
    (Econ, 7/26/14, p.A7)

1792        Jan 17, One of the first US Treasury bonds was issued to Pres. George Washington and bears the earliest use of the dollar sign.
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W9)

1792        Jan 28, Rebellious slaves in Santo Domingo launched an attack on the city of Cap.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1792        Feb 7, Cimarosa's opera "Il Matrimonio Segreto," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1792        Feb 15, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre (42), astronomer and surveyor, was elected to the French Academy of Sciences to help establish the length of a proposed new unit of measurement, the meter.
    (ON, 2/09, p.8)

1792        Feb 20, President Washington signed an act creating the U.S. Post Office. [see Feb 20, 1789, May 8, 1794]
    (HN, 2/20/98)(AP, 2/20/98)

1792        Feb 21, US Congress passed the Presidential Succession Act. [see Mar 1]
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1792        Feb 23, Joseph Haydn’s 94th Symphony in G premiered.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1792        Feb 23, Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1792        Feb 23, Joshua Reynolds (68), English portrait painter (Simplicity), died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1792        Feb 29, The composer Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (d.1868) was born in Pesaro, Italy. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gioachino_Rossini)

1792        Mar 1, US Presidential Succession Act was passed. [see Feb 21]
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1792        Mar 4, Oranges were introduced to Hawaii.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1792        Mar 10, John Stuart (78), 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1792        Mar 16, Sweden's King Gustav III was shot and mortally wounded during a masquerade party by a former member of his regiment. He was murdered by Count Ankarstrom at an opera. It became the inspiration for Giuseppe Verdi's Un Ballo in Maschera. Gustav died 13 days later.
    (AP, 3/16/06)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)

1792        Mar 20, In Paris, the Legislative Assembly approved the use of the guillotine.
    (HN, 3/20/99)

1792        Mar 23, Franz Joseph Haydn’s "Symphony No. 94 in G Major," also known as the "Surprise Symphony," was performed publicly for the first time, in London.
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1792        Mar 29, Gustav III, King of Sweden (1771-92), died of wounds inflicted by an assassin on March 16.
    (AP, 3/16/06)

1792        Mar/Apr, Speculator William Duer defaulted on Hamilton’s freshly exchanged "Stock in the Public Funds," and caused the first American stock market crash. Hamilton injected liquidity, asked the banks not to call in loans and allowed merchants to pay customs duties with short-term notes.
    (WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)

1792        Apr 1, Gronings feminist Etta Palm demanded women's right to divorce.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1792        Apr 2, Congress passed the Coinage Act, which authorized establishment of the U.S. Mint. It established the US dollar defined in fixed weights of gold and silver. State chartered banks issued paper money convertible to gold or silver coins to ease business transactions. U.S. authorized $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle & 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins & silver dollar, dollar, quarter, dime & half-dime.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(AP, 4/2/97)(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)(HN, 4/2/98)

1792        Apr 4, American abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens, U.S. Radical Republican congressional leader, was born in Danville, Vt..
    (AP, 4/4/98)(HN, 4/4/98)

1792        Apr 5, George Washington cast the first presidential veto, rejecting a congressional measure for apportioning representatives among the states.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)

1792        Apr 14, Pres. George Washington appointed David Rittenhouse, the foremost scientist of America, the first director of the US Mint at a salary of $2000 per annum. Rittenhouse was then in feeble health and lived at the northwest corner of Seventh and Arch Streets, then one of the high places of Old Philadelphia, where he had an observatory and where he later died and was first buried.

1792        Apr 20, France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the French Revolutionary wars.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)

1792        Apr 21, Jose da Silva Xavier, aka Tiradentes (teeth puller), considered by many to be Brazil's George Washington, was drawn and quartered by the Portuguese. He was hung in Rio de Janeiro. His body was broken to pieces. A document was written With his blood declaring his memory infamous. His head was exposed in Vila Rica. Pieces of his body were exposed in the cities between Vila Rica and Rio, in an attempt to scare the people who had listened to his independence ideas.
    (AP, 4/19/03)(www.v-brazil.com/culture/historic-characters/tiradentes.html)

1792        Apr 22, President Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
    (HN, 4/22/98)

1792        Apr 24, Capt. Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, an officer stationed in Strasbourg, composed "La Marseillaise," which later became the national anthem of France.
    (AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)

1792        Apr 25, Highwayman Nicolas Jacques Pelletier became the first person under French law to be executed by guillotine.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)

1792        Apr 30, John Montague (73), 4th Earl of Sandwich, English Naval minister, died.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1792        May 7, Capt. Robert Gray discovered Gray's  Harbor in Washington state.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1792        May 8, US established a military draft.
    (MC, 5/8/02)
1792        May 8, British Capt. George Vancouver sighted and named Mt. Rainier, Wash.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1792        May 11, The Columbia River was discovered and named by Captain Robert Gray.
    (HN, 5/11/98)(MC, 5/11/02)

1792        May 12, A toilet that flushed itself at regular intervals was patented.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1792        May 13, Giovanni-Maria Mastaia-Ferretti, later Pope Pius IX, "Pio Nono" (1846-78), was born at Sinigaglia.
    (PTA, 1980, p.510)(MC, 5/13/02)

1792        May 16, Denmark abolished slave trade.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1792        May 17, Stock traders signed the Buttonwood Agreement in New York City at the Tontine Coffee House Company near a Buttonwood tree, where business had been transacted in the past. 24 merchants formed their exchange at Wall and Water Streets where they fixed rates on commissions on stocks and bonds. This later developed into the New York Stock Exchange. A market crash and almost total halt in credit, trading and liquidity prompted the Buttonwood Agreement under the influence of Alexander Hamilton. The organization drafted its constitution on March 8th, 1817, and named itself the "New York Stock & Exchange Board."
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/crash/timeline/)(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A19)(HN, 5/17/98)

1792        May 18, Russian troops invaded Poland.
    (HN, 5/18/98)

1792        May 19, The Russian army entered Poland.
    (DTnet 5/19/97)

1792        May 21, Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis (d.1843), French engineer and mathematician, was born. He became first person to describe the Coriolis force.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaspard-Gustave_Coriolis)(SFC, 5/21/09, p.D10)

1792         Jun 1, Kentucky became the 15th state of the Union.
     (AP, 6/1/97)

1792        Jun 4, Captain George Vancouver claimed Puget Sound for Britain. Englishman George Vancouver sailed into the SF Bay on his ship Discovery in this year and explored the Santa Clara Valley. Vancouver sailed the Inside Passage, the 1000-mile waterway between Puget Sound and Alaska.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)
1792        Jun 4, John Burgoyne, soldier, playwright, died.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1792        Jul 18, American naval hero John Paul Jones died in Paris at age 45. His body was preserved in rum in case the American government wished him back. In 1905 his body was transported to the US and placed in a crypt in Annapolis. In 2003 Evan Thomas authored "John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father of the American Navy."
    (AP, 7/18/97)(SSFC, 6/22/03, p.M3)

1792        Jul 30, The French national anthem "La Marseillaise" by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, was first sung in Paris.
    (AP, 7/30/99)

1792        Jul 31, The foundation-stone was laid for the US Mint by David Rittenhouse, Esq. The property was paid for and deeded to the United States of America for a consideration of $4266.67 on July 18, 1792. The money for the Mint was the first money appropriated by Congress for a building to be used for a public purpose.

1792        Aug 4, Percy Bysshe Shelley (d.1822), English poet and author who wrote "Prometheus Unbound," was born in Field Place, England. He married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, author of "Frankenstein." He wrote the poem "Adonais."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1314)(HN, 8/4/98)

1792        Aug 5, Frederick 7th baron Lord North (60), English premier, died. He presided over Britain's loss of its American colonies (1770-82).
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1792        Aug 10, Some 10,000 Parisians attacked the Tuileries Palace of Louis XVI at the instigation of Georges Jacques Danton (33), after Louis ordered his Swiss guard to stop firing on the people. The mob massacred some 600 guardsmen. The king was later arrested, put on trial for treason, and executed the following January.
    (PC, 1992, p.345)(AP, 8/10/07)(ON, 2/09, p.8)

1792        Aug 11, A revolutionary commune was formed in Paris, France.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1792        Aug 13, Revolutionaries imprisoned the French royal family, including King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. [see Aug 10]
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1792        Aug 18, Lord John Russel, Prime Minister of England from 1846 to 1852 and 1865 to 1866, was born.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1792        Aug 29, The English warship Royal George capsized in Spithead and 900 people were killed.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1792        Sep 2, Verdun, France, surrendered to the Prussian Army.
    (HN, 9/2/98)
1792        Sep 2, In the "September Massacres"- French mobs removed nobles and clergymen from jails, and some 1,600.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)

1792        Sep 3, In France Princess de Lamballe (b.1749), the best friend of Marie Antoinette, was killed and her body mutilated by an angry mob. Her head was displayed under the window of Marie Antoinette, interned in Temple Prison.
    (SSFC, 4/23/06, p.G5)(www.batguano.com/vigeeart100.html)

1792        Sep 5, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the National Convention in France.
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1892        Sep 18, At Spithaead, England, verdicts and sentences were announced for the 10 prisoners from the mutiny on the Bounty. 4 men were acquitted, and 6 were found guilty and condemned to death. 2 of the condemned were pardoned and another was freed on a technicality. 3 were later hanged.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1792        Sep 21, Collot D'Herbois proposed to abolish the monarchy in France. The French National Convention voted to abolish the monarchy. 1st French Republic formed
    (AP, 9/21/97)(MC, 9/21/01)

1792        Sep 22, The first French Republic was proclaimed.
    (AP, 9/22/06)

1792        Sep 27, George Cruikshank, London, caricaturist (Oliver Twist), was born.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1792        Oct 7, James Mason (b.1725), American Revolutionary statesman, died at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. In 2006 Jeff Broadwater authored “George Mason."
    (HNQ, 2/18/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mason)(WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)

1792        Oct 12, Columbus Day was 1st celebrated in the US.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1792        Oct 13, The "Old Farmer's Almanac" was 1st published. [see Nov 25]
    (MC, 10/13/01)
1792        Oct 13, The cornerstone of the executive mansion, later known as the White House, was laid during a ceremony in the District of Columbia.
    (AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)

1792        Nov 6, Battle at Jemappes: French army beat the Austrians.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1792        Nov 13, Edward John Trelawney, traveler and author (Adventure of a Younger Son), friend of Byron and Shelley, was born in England.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1792        Nov 25, The Farmer's Almanac was 1st published. [see Oct 13]
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1792        Dec 5, George Washington was re-elected president; John Adams was re-elected vice president.
    (AP, 12/5/97)

1792        Dec 8, The 1st cremation in US: Henry Laurens.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1792        Dec 11, France's King Louis XVI went before the Convention to face charges of treason. Louis was convicted and executed the following month.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1792        Dec 12, In Vienna Ludwig Van Beethoven (22) received 1st lesson in music composition from Franz Joseph Haydn.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1792        Dec 15, Alexander Hamilton, US Sec. of the Treasury, was accused of teaming with Mr. James Reynolds to speculate illegally in government securities. Hamilton then acknowledged to three lawmakers, including James Monroe, that he had paid hush money to Mr. Reynolds to cover an affair with Reynolds’ wife.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)

1792        Dec 26, Charles Babbage (d.1871), English inventor of the calculating machine, was born.
    (HN, 12/26/98)

1792        John Trumbell painted his portrait of Alexander Hamilton.
    (WSJ, 10/20/04, p.D12)

1792        Captain Bligh published "A Voyage to the South Sea" after his return from the Mutiny on the Bounty.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1792        James Madison published an essay in a newspaper on property and slaves. In this essay Madison extended the idea of property from material possessions to the property in his opinions, especially his religious beliefs.

1792        Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) wrote her essay "Vindication of the Rights of Woman." She married Godwin in 1797 after learning that she was pregnant and died in childbirth.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.28)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1792        Construction began on the Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca. It was dedicated in 1795.
    (SSFC, 1/4/09, p.B3)

1792        An edition of the Bible was first printed in New York.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1792        George Washington signed a law giving shipowners “allowances" (i.e. subsidies) to offset tariffs they had to pay on their inputs. This was part of an effort to rebuild new England’s cod industry.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.75)
1792        A US Militia Act was created.
    (SFC, 3/2/02, p.A21)
1792        US veterans hired William Hull to petition congress for more compensation.
    (Econ, 10/4/08, p.32)
1792        A US penny was struck to test a design. It came to be called the Birch cent after engraver Robert Birch. In 2015 it sold at auction for $2.6 million.
    (SFC, 1/13/15, p.A6)
1792        The dime coin "dismes" were first produced. Then came "half-dismes," or what we call nickels.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97, zone 3 p.4)
1792        Explorer Jose Longinos Martinez wrote in his diary about grizzly maulings that killed 2 Indians in California.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.A6)

1792        Archibald Menzies, Scottish doctor/surgeon, was the naturalist aboard the Discovery under Captain George Vancouver. He collected his first California poppy and classified it incorrectly as Celandine, an old world member of the same family (Papaveracae). [see 1794,1816,1825-1833]
    (NBJ, 2/96, p.12)
1792        Three English sailors wandered from Vancouver’s supply ship Daedalus, anchored in Waimea Bay. They were captured and killed by native Hawaiians.
    (SFCM, 3/11/01, p.87)

1792        Arthur Phillip, the 1st governor of New South Wales, Australia, returned to England accompanied by Bennelong, an Aboriginal who had earlier attacked and wounded him. Philip later gave Bennelong a house on a point in Sydney Cove. In 1973 it became the site of the Sydney Opera House.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)
1792        In England consumers began an organized boycott against West Indian sugar. The Anti-Saccharine Society displayed a cross-section of a slave ship with men shackled head-to-toe like sardines.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.94)
1792        William Wilberforce introduced a new motion in British Parliament for the gradual abolition of the slave trade. The “gradual" wording, proposed by home office minister Henry Dundas, led to passage of the bill in the House of Commons 230 to 85.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)
1792        James Penny, Liverpool slave trader, was presented with a magnificent silver epergne for speaking in favor of the slave trade to a parliamentary committee. Liverpool’s Penny Lane was named after him.
    (SSFC, 7/9/06, p.A2)(www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/maritime/slavery/liverpool.asp)
1792        The British St. George’s Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of rebellious slaves from other colonies.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1792        Niagara-on-the-Lake became the 1st capital of the Upper Canada (later Ontario). The Parliament met for 5 sessions before moving to York (Toronto).
    (WSJ, 7/25/02, p.D10)

1792        The Chinese poet Shih Tao-nan, shortly before succumbing to the plague noted: "Few days following the death of the rats, Men pass away like falling walls."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)

1792        The crown jewels of France were stolen including the 67 carat Blue Diamond.
    (THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1792        The La Felecia opera house in Venice opened.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.D3)

1792        In Mexico Campeche’s northern fort, the Reducto de San Jose, was built. It later housed the Museo de Barcas y Armas.
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E5)

1792        In Scotland gas lighting was developed.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1792        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity" (1736). In 2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad."
    (www.concise.britannica.com)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)

1792-1793    Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828), Spanish painter, went deaf from an unexplained illness.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)

1792-1796    In St. Petersburg, Russia, Catherine the Great commissioned the building of the neoclassical rococo Alexander Palace for her eldest grandson, the future Alexander I.
    (WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A16)

1792-1867    Giovanni Pacing, Italian composer. His work included "Maria, Regina d’Inghilterra," based on Victor Hugo’s drama "Marie Tudor."
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1792-1868    Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, Italian composer. His work included the opera "La Donna del Lago," based on the Walter Scott romance "The Lady of the Lake."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1246)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1793        Jan 1, Francesco Guardi (b.1712), Venetian painter, died.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Guardi)

1793        Jan 3,  Lucretia Coffin Mott women’s rights activist, was born. She was a teacher, minister, antislavery leader and founder of the 1st Women’s Rights Convention.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)(HN, 1/3/02)

1793        Jan 9, The first US manned balloon flight occurred as Frenchman Jean Pierre Blanchard, using a hot-air balloon, flew between Philadelphia and Woodbury, N.J. He stayed airborne for 46 minutes, traveled close to 15 miles and set down at the "old Clement farm" in Deptford, New Jersey. [see Jun 23, 1784, Mar 9, 1793]
    (WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)(AP, 1/9/99)(ON, 6/09, p.2)

1793        Jan 19, French King Louis XVI was sentenced to death. [see Jan 21]
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1793        Jan 21, Louis XVI (38), last of the French Bourbon dynasty, was executed on the guillotine. The vote in the National Convention for execution for treason won by a margin of one vote. The Great Terror followed his execution.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1677)(V.D.-H.K.p.231)(NH, 6/97, p.23)(AP, 1/21/98)

1793        Jan 23, Prussia and Russia signed an accord on the 2nd partition of Lithuania and Poland. The 2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of Poland independent.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1677)(LHC, 1/23/03)

1793        Feb 1, Ralph Hodgson of Lansingburg, NY, patented one of the world’s greatest inventions this day: Oiled silk.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1793        Feb 1, France declared war on Britain and the Netherlands.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1793        Feb 12, The US federal government passed its first fugitive slave law. This gave slave holders the right to reclaim their human property in free states.
    (HN, 2/12/97)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)

1793        Feb 25, The department heads of the U.S. government met with President  Washington at his Mt. Vernon home for the first Cabinet meeting on record.
    (AP, 2/25/98)(MC, 2/25/02)

1793        Mar 2, Sam Houston, the first president of the Republic of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44), was born near Lexington, Va. He fought for Texas' independence from Mexico; President of Republic of Texas; U.S. Senator; Texas governor
    (AP, 3/2/98)(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(SC, 3/2/02)

1793        Mar 3, Charles Sealsfield, writer (The Making of America), was born.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1793        Mar 4, George Washington was inaugurated as President for the second time. His 2nd inauguration was the shortest with just 133 words. Since George Washington’s second term, Inauguration Day had been March 4 of the year following the election. That custom meant that defeated presidents and congressmen served four months after the election. In 1933, the so-called Lame Duck Amendment to the U.S. Constitution moved the inauguration of newly elected presidents and congressmen closer to Election Day. The 20th Amendment required the terms of the president and vice-president to begin at noon on January 20, while congressional terms begin on January 3.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(HNPD, 3/4/99)(SC, 3/4/02)
1793        Mar 4, French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1793        Mar 5, Austrian troops crush the French and recapture Liege.
    (HN, 3/5/99)

1793        Mar 10, In France, on a proposal by Georges-Jacques Danton (1759-1794), the National Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium had given rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793. On Oct 20 the extraordinary criminal tribunal received by decree the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal.

1793        Mar 18, The 2nd Battle at Neerwinden: Austria army beat France.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1793        Mar 26, Pro-royalist uprising took place in Vendée region of France.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1793        Apr 1,  The volcano Unsen on Japan erupted killing about 53,000.

1793        Apr 6, In France all executive power was conferred upon a Committee of Public Safety. Georges-Jacques Danton was one of the nine original members.

1793        Apr 14, A royalist rebellion in Santo Domingo was crushed by French republican troops.
    (HN, 4/14/99)

1793        Apr 17, The Battle of Warsaw was fought.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1793        Apr 22, Pres. Washington attended the opening of Rickett's, the 1st circus in US.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1793        May 7, Pietro Nardini (71), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1793        May 25, Father Stephen Theodore Badin became the 1st US Roman Catholic priest ordained.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1793        Jun 2, Maximillian Robespierre, a member of France’s Committee on Public Safety, initiated the "Reign of Terror," a purge of those suspected of treason against the French Republic. Months of the Great Terror, followed the Revolution in France as thousands died beneath the guillotine.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.231)(HN, 6/2/98)

1793        Jun 20, Eli Whitney petitioned for a cotton gin patent in Philadelphia.

1793        Jun 24, The first republican constitution in France was adopted.
    (AP, 6/24/97)

1793        Jul 13, John Clare, English poet, was born.
    (HN, 7/13/01)
1793        Jul 13, Pierre Dupont de Nemours was ordered arrested in Paris on charges of plotting with rebels against the French Revolutionary National Assembly.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1793        Jul 13, French revolutionary writer Jean Paul Marat was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday, who was executed four days later. In 1970 Marie Cher authored "Charlotte Corday, and Certain Men of the Revolutionary Torment."
    (AP, 7/13/97)(ON, SC, p.8)

1793        Jul 23, Roger Sherman (b.1721) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was only man to sign the four most important documents that were most significant in the formation of the United States. Sherman signed the Association (the 1774 compact to boycott British goods), the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and Constitution. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress, served in the first U.S.  House of Representatives and was a U.S.  senator.
    (HN, 4/19/97)(HNQ, 7/10/99)
1793        Jul 23, The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, fell to the Prussians.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1793        Jul 24, France passed the 1st copyright law.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1793        Jul 27, In France, Robespierre became a member of the Committee of Public Safety.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1793        Jul, Napoleon Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet that made a good impression on the Jacobin faction that had seized power in Paris.
    (ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793        Aug 14, Republican troops in France laid siege to the city of Lyons.
    (HN, 8/14/98)

1793        Aug 22, Louis Duke de Noailles (80), marshal of France, was guillotined.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1793        Aug 27, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris, France.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1793        Aug 28, Adam-Philippe Custine, Duke de Lauzun (French duke, general, fought in American Revolution, hero in both countries), was guillotined in Paris.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1793        Aug 29, Slavery was abolished in the French colony of Santo Domingo (Haiti).
    (HN, 8/29/98)(MC, 8/29/01)

1793        Sep 5, The Reign of Terror began during the French Revolution as the National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress counter-revolutionary activities. One delegate, claiming that the middle class Girondist (moderates) leaders be sentenced to death cried, "It is time for equality to wield its scythe over all the heads. Very well, Legislator, place Terror on the agenda!" The delegates agreed to arrest all suspects and dissenters, try them swiftly in the kangaroo courts known as the Revolutionary Tribunals, and sentence them uniformly to death.
    (MC, 9/5/01)(AP, 9/4/07)

1793        Sep 6, French General Jean Houchard and his 40,000 men began a three-day battle against an Anglo-Hanoverian army at Hondschoote, southwest Belgium, in the wars of the French Revolution.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1793        Sep 17, Captain Napoleon Bonaparte reached Toulon and presented himself to his new commander, General Carteaux, a former house painter and policeman.
    (ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793        Sep 18, President George Washington laid the foundation stone for the U.S. Capitol on Jenkins Hill.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)(HN, 9/18/98)

1793        Oct 8, John Hancock, US merchant and signer (Declaration of Independence), died at 56.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1793        Oct 10, The rebellious French city of Lyons surrendered to Revolutionary troops.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1793        Oct 16, During the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette was beheaded. Prosecutors claimed she had sexually abused her son and financially abused the French Monarchy.  In mourning for her husband, Louis XVI, who had been guillotined the previous January, clad in rags, her once-dazzling locks shorn by the executioner's assistant, she even suffered the indignity of a crude sketch by the great French painter, Jacques Louis David. Antoinette bore herself with a regal indifference to her martyrdom. Madame Tussaud used her severed head as a model for her wax bust death mask. In 2001 Antonia Fraser authored "Marie Antoinette: The Journey."
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.T5)(AP, 10/16/97)(WSJ, 10/5/01, p.W13)

1793        Oct 19, Captain Napoleon Bonaparte was promoted to chef de bataillon (major) giving him greater voice in the councils of war and the siege of Toulon.
    (ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793        Oct 20, In France an extraordinary criminal tribunal received the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal by a decree. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium gave rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793, and on March 10, on the proposal of Danton, the Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal.

1793        Oct 28, Eliphalet Remington, US gun maker, was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)
1793        Oct 28, Eli Whitney applied for a patent on the cotton gin, a machine which cleaned the tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton easily and effectively--a job which was previously done by hand. The patent was granted the following March. [see Mar 13, Jun 20, 1793, Mar 14, 1794]
    (AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)

1793        Oct 31, Execution of 21 Girondins (moderates) in Paris, stepping up the Reign of Terror. Pierre V. Vergniaud (40), French politician and elegant, impassioned orator of Girondins, was guillotined.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1793        Nov 3, Stephen Fuller Austin was born. He colonized Texas.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1793        Nov 8, The Louvre opened in Paris as a museum. It was originally constructed as a fortress in the early thirteenth century.
    (HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)

1793        Nov 10, France outlawed the forced worship of God.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1793        Nov 12, Jean-Sylvain Bailley (53), French astronomer and mayor of Paris, was guillotined.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1793        Nov 19, The Jacobin Club was formed in Paris. Robespierre (1758-1794), Jacobin leader: "Terror is nothing but justice, prompt, severe and inflexible."
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C5)(MC, 11/19/01)

1793        Nov 26, Republican calendar replaced the Gregorian calendar in France.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1793        Nov, In France Philippe Aspairt, a hospital porter, ventured alone into the limestones quarries south of Paris, site of the new cemetery, and got lost. Workmen found his bones 11 years later.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.119)

1793        Dec 6, Marie Jeanne Becu, Comtesse du Barry, flamboyant mistress of Louis XV, was guillotined in Paris.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1793        Dec 9, Noah Webster established NY's 1st daily newspaper, American Minerva.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1793        Dec 19, French troops recaptured Toulon from the British. Napoleon Bonaparte led the intense shelling of British positions. This led to his promotion to brigadier general.
    (ON, 2/12, p.6)

1793        Dec 20, Joseph Legros (54), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1793        Dec 23, Thomas Jefferson warned of slave revolts in West Indies.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1793        Antonio Canova created his clay model for the sculpture "Penitent Magdalen." The final marble version was completed in 1809.
    (WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1793        Jacques-Louis David painted "Death of Marat."
    (SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.5)

1793        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted "Cupid Laughs at the Tears He Causes."
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1793        William Blake (1757-1827) produced his "Labors of the Artist, the Poet, and the Musician." He painted "Aged Ignorance." Blake’s work “The Complaint of Job" was also done about this time.
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)(NH, 4/97, p.6)(SFC, 7/16/15, p.C6)

1793        Augustin Ximenez (1726-1817), Marquis of Ximenez, a Frenchman of Spanish origin, wrote a poem with the line “Attaquons dans ses eaux la perfide Albion," which means "Let us attack perfidious Albion in her waters." The poet of perfidy later lectured French soldiers that “Il est beau de perir," which means “it is beautiful to perish."
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M4)(http://tinyurl.com/ye6bd7)

1793        The German Reformed Church was established in the US by Calvinist Puritans.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1793        Capt. George Vancouver introduced cattle to the islands of Hawaii and wrested from King Kamehameha the concession that women as well as men be allowed to eat the meat. The king agreed if separate animals were used.
    (SFEM, 2/8/98, p.10)

1793        The 1st US half-cent and one cent coins were minted. For almost 6 decades the obverse side carried an image of Lady Liberty. The first coins were related to the silver dollar. The half-dollar contained half as much silver, the quarter had one-fourth as much. The dime had a 10th and the half dime has a 20th as much silver as the dollar. Only the penny was made of copper. In 1866 the Mint decided to produce a larger five-cent coin. In 2012 a one-cent copper coin minted this year fetched $1 million at a Florida auction.
    (SFC, 9/11/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)(SSFC, 9/27/09, Par p.25)(AP, 1/8/12)

1793        Cape Girardeau, Missouri, was first founded where the present day Cape Rock Park sits, when Don Louis Lorimier was given a land grant by the Spanish government. The City of Cape Girardeau celebrated its 200th year in 2006.

1793        In Vermont Captain John Norton founded a stoneware pottery shop in Bennington. The wares were rarely marked until 1823. Various members of the family worked at the pottery until it closed shop in 1894.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, Z1 p.3)

1793        The Spanish Governor of Alta California made the first official notice of the fire problem in California. He warned military officers, missions and civil authorities of the problem.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)

1793        There was a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia. Stephen Girard risked his life and fortune in stopping the epidemic.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)

1793        Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, reached the Pacific coast completing his crossing of North America. He began the trip in 1789. He raised Britain's claims to the pacific Northwest.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1793        The British took over the island of St. Vincent and a series of wars ensued against the black Caribs.
    (SFC, 7/25/07, p.E2)

1793        China’s Emperor Qianlong accepted gifts from Lord George Macartney, but turned away the British fleet under his command with the declaration that China had all things in abundance and had no interest in “foreign manufactures."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.13)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.43)

1793        The courthouse at the St. Maarten Island Dutch capital of Philipsburg was built.
    (SFEC,2/16/97, p.T7)

1793        The Minton dishware company was established in Stoke, Staffordshire, England.
    (SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)(SFC, 3/19/08, p.G6)

1793-1795    The British engaged in the ill-fated Flanders Campaign.
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1793-1801     In Afghanistan Zaman Shah ruled. Constant internal revolts continued.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1793-1835    Felicia Dorothea Browne Hemans, English poet: "Though the past haunt me as a spirit, I do not ask to forget."
    (AP, 12/31/98)

1793-1860    Thomas Addison, English physician, discovered Addison’s disease, a usually fatal disease caused by the failure of the adrenal cortex to function and marked by a bronze-like skin pigmentation, anemia, and prostration.
    (AHD, 1971, p.15)

1793-1863    Sam Houston, US soldier and political leader. He was president of the Republic of Texas from 1836-1838.
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)

1794        Jan 13, President Washington approved a measure adding two stars and two stripes to the American flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the union. The number of stripes was later reduced to the original 13.
    (AP, 1/13/01)

1794        Jan 14, Dr. Jessee Bennet of Edom, Va., performed the 1st successful Cesarean section operation on his wife.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1794        Feb 4, France’s First Republic (Convention) voted for the abolition of slavery in all French colonies. The abolition decree stated that "the Convention declares the slavery of the Blacks abolished in all the colonies; consequently, all men, irrespective of color, living in the colonies are French citizens and will enjoy all the rights provided by the Constitution." Slavery was restored by the Consulate in 1802, and was definitively abolished in 1848 by the Second Republic, on Victor Schoelcher’s initiative.
1794        Feb 4, Slaves in Haiti won emancipation.
    (AP, 4/7/03)(WSJ, 3/1/04, p.A16)

1794        Feb 10, Joseph Haydn’s 99th Symphony in E, premiered.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1794        Feb 11, A session of US Senate was 1st opened to the public.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1794        Feb 14, 1st US textile machinery patent was granted, to James Davenport in Phila.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1794        Feb 21, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Mexican Revolutionary, was born.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1794        Mar 3, 1st performance of Joseph Haydn’s 101st Symphony in D.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1794        Mar 3, Richard Allen founded AME Church.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1794        Mar 14, Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin, an invention that revolutionized America's cotton industry. He paid substantial royalties to Catherine T. Greene and this makes his claim to the invention suspect.
    (AP, 3/14/97)(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E3)

1794        Mar 22, Congress passed laws prohibiting slave trade with foreign countries, although slavery remained legal in the United States. Congress banned US vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.
    (HN, 3/22/01)(MC, 3/22/02)

1794        Mar 23, Josiah Pierson patented a "cold-header" (rivet) machine.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1794        Mar 23, Lieutenant-General Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1794        Mar 24, In Cracow a revolutionary manifesto was proclaimed. The Lithuanian and Polish nobility under the leadership of Tadas Kasciuska revolted against Russian control.
    (H of L, 1931, p. 81-82)(LHC, 3/23/03)

1794        Mar 27, The US Congress approved "An Act to provide a Naval Armament" of six armed ships. [see Oct 13, 1775]
    (AP, 3/27/07)

1794        Mar 28, Marie-Joseph de Condorcet (b.1743), mathematician (Theory of Comets) and philosopher, died as a fugitive from French Revolution Terrorists.

1794        Apr 5, Georges-Jacques Danton (b.1759), French revolutionary leader, was guillotined along with Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, French author, politician, and Camille Desmoullins, popular journalist. In 2009 Jonathan Cape authored “Danton: The Gentle Giant of Terror."
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Danton)

1794        Apr 7, In Poland at the battle of Raclawice the revolutionary forces of Tadeusz Kosciusko defeated the imperial armies.
    (DrEE, 9/21/96, p.5)

1794        Apr 8, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicholas-Caritat, mathematician died.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1794        Apr 19, Tadeusz Kosciusko forced Russians out of Warsaw.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1794        Apr 10, Matthew Calbraith Perry, the American Navy Commodore who opened Japan, was born.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1794        Apr 11, Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, statesman and orator, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1794        May 6, In Haiti Toussaint Louverture (L’Ouverture), Haitian rebel leader, ended his alliance with the Iberian monarchy and

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