Timeline 1790-1799

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1790        Jan 6, Johann Trier (73), composer, died.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1790        Jan 8, President Washington delivered the 1st "State of the Union" address in NYC.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_State_of_the_Union_Address)

1790        Jan 21, Joseph Guillotine proposed a new, more humane method of execution: a machine designed to cut off the condemned person's head as painlessly as possible.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1790        Jan 26, Mozart's opera "Cosi Fan Tutte" premiered in Vienna.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cos%C3%AC_fan_tutte)

1790        Feb 1, The US Supreme Court convened for 1st time in Royal Exchange Building, New York City, the nations temporary capital.
    (www.supremecourthistory.org)

1790        Feb 6, The last stone of the Bastille, torn down by order of the French revolutionary leaders, was presented to the National Assembly.
    (ON, 4/01, p.3)

1790        Feb 11, The first petition to Congress for emancipation of the slaves was made by the Society of Friends.
    (HNQ, 1/11/99)

1790        Feb 20, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (48) died.
    (AP, 2/20/98)(MC, 2/20/02)

1790        Feb 26, As a result of the Revolution, France was divided into 83 departments.
    (HN, 2/26/99)

1790        Mar 1, President Washington signed a measure authorizing the first US Census. The Connecticut Compromise was a proposal for two houses in the legislature-one based on equal representation for each state, the other for population-based representation-that resolved the dispute between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman's proposal led to the first nationwide census in 1790. The population was determined to be 3,929,625, which included 697,624 slaves and 59,557 free blacks. The most populous state was Virginia, with 747,610 people and the most populous city was Philadelphia with 42,444 inhabitants. The average cost of this year’s census was 1.13 cents per person.
    (HNQ, 7/13/01)(AP, 3/1/08)(http://www.genealogybranches.com/censuscosts.html)
   
1790        Mar 14, Captain Bligh returned to England with news of the mutiny on the Bounty.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790        Mar 21, Thomas Jefferson (46) reported to President Washington in New York as the new US Secretary of state.
    (AP, 3/21/97)(www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)

1790        Mar 22, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) became the first US Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, he served on the first Board of Arts, the body that reviewed patent applications and granted patents. Jefferson was one of a triumvirate that served as both America’s first patent commissioner and first patent examiner.
    (HN, 3/22/97)(www.archipelago.org/vol10-34/matsuura.htm)

1790        Mar 24, King George ordered the Admiralty to capture Fletcher Henderson for the mutiny on the Bounty.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790        Mar 26, US Congress passed a Naturalization Act. It required a 2-year residency.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1790        Mar 27, The shoelace was invented.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1790        Mar 29, John Tyler, the 10th president of the United States (1841-1845), was born in Charles City County, Va. He was also the first vice-president to succeed to office on the death of a president.    
    (AP, 3/29/97)(HN, 3/29/99)(MC, 3/29/02)

1790        Mar 31, In Paris, France, Maximilien Robespierre was elected president of the Jacobin Club.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1790        Apr 3, Revenue Marine Service (US Coast Guard) was created.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1790        Apr 10, President George Washington signed into law the first United States Patent Act. The Patent Board was made up of the Secretary of State, Secretary of War and the Attorney General and was responsible for granting patents on "useful and important" inventions. In the first three years, 47 patents were granted. Until 1888 miniature models of the device to be patented were required. [see July 31] The US Patent and Trademark Office’s subject grouping scheme includes a major component called a class and a minor one called a subclass. A class distinguishes one technology from another. Subclasses of the USPTO delineate processes, structural features and functional features of the technology in that particular class. By 2015 there were 474 classes and over 160,000 codes.
    (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 8/6/99)(AP, 4/10/07)(Econ., 4/25/15, p.73)

1790        Apr 17, Benjamin Franklin (born 1706), American statesman, died in Philadelphia at age 84. He mechanized the process of making sounds from tuned glass with his glass armonica. In 2000 H.W. Brands authored his Franklin biography: "The First American." In 2003 Walter Isaacson authored "Benjamin Franklin: An American Life." In 2005 Philip Dray authored “Stealing God’s Thunder," an account of Franklin’s work with lightning rods.
    (AP, 4/17/97)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 7/3/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1790        May 21, Paris was divided into 48 zones.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1790        May 26, Territory South of River Ohio was created by Congress.
    (HN, 5/26/98)

1790        May 29, Rhode Island became the last of the 13 original colonies to ratify the United States Constitution. They held out for an amendment securing religious freedom. The state was largely founded by Baptists fleeing persecution in Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 5/29/97)(HN, 5/29/98)

1790        May 31, The US copyright law was enacted.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1790        May, John Tanner (9) was kidnapped from his home in northern Kentucky by Saginaw Indians. He was taken to an area near what later became Saginaw, Michigan, where he learned the Ojibway language. After about 2 years he was sold to a woman named Net-no-kwa, who took him up to northern Michigan and later to Manitoba, Canada.
    (ON, 4/10, p.4)(http://baptisthistoryhomepage.com/ky.boone.tanner.j.kidnapd.html)

1790        Jun 9, The "Philadelphia Spelling Book" was the first US work to be copyrighted.
    (WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1)(MC, 6/9/02)
1790        Jun 9, Civil war broke out in Martinique.
    (HN 6/9/98)

1790        Jul 3, In Paris, the Marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.
    (HN, 7/3/98)

1790        Jul 9, The Swedish navy captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1790        Jul 12, The French Assembly approved a Civil Constitution providing for the election of priests and bishops.
    (HN, 7/12/98)

1790        Jul 16, The District of Columbia was established as the seat of the United States government.
    (AP, 7/16/97)

1790        Jul 17, Economist Adam Smith (b.1723), Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy, died. In 2001 Emma Rothschild authored "Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment." In 2002 Peter J. Dougherty authored "Who’s Afraid of Adam Smith." In 2010 Nicholas Phillipson authored “Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith)(WSJ, 6/21/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10) (Econ, 8/7/10, p.84)

1790        Jul 26, US Congress passed Alexander Hamilton’s Assumption plan making it responsible for state debts. Virginia eventually withdrew its opposition in return for having the nation’s new capital located on its borders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Report_on_the_Public_Credit)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.132)
1790        Jul 26, An attempt at a counter-revolution in France was put down by the National Guard at Lyons.
    (HN, 7/26/98)

1790        Jul 31, The first US patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont for an improvement "in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process". This patent was signed by then President George Washington. The first 10,280 patents, issued between 1790 and 1836, were destroyed by a fire. The legal basis for the United States patent system (USPTO) is Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution wherein the powers of Congress are defined.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Patent_and_Trademark_Office)

1790        Aug 2, The enumeration for the first US census began. It showed that 3,929,326 people were living in the US of which 697,681 were slaves, and that the largest cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia, with 28,000; Boston, with 18,000; Charleston, South Carolina, with 16,000; and Baltimore, with 13,000. Census records for Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830.
    (AP, 8/2/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_United_States_Census)

1790        Aug 4, US Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton urged that ten boats for the collection of revenue be built. This was to stop smuggling, especially of coffee, which was hampering trade. The Coast Guard was born as the Revenue Cutter Service. The Coast Guard was empowered to board and inspect any vessel in US waters and any US boat anywhere in the world.
    (Smith., 8/95, p.25)(HFA, '96, p.36)(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-16)(AP, 8/4/00)   

1790        Aug 9, The Columbia returned to Boston Harbor after a three-year voyage, becoming the first ship to carry the American flag around the world.
    (AP, 8/9/97)

1790        Sep 4, Jacques Necker was forced to resign as finance minister in France.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1790        Oct 3, John Ross, Chief of the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866, was born near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. Although his father was Scottish and his mother only part Cherokee, Ross was named Tsan-Usdi (Little John) and raised in the Cherokee tradition. A settled people with successful farms, strong schools, and a representative government, the Cherokee resided on 43,000 square miles of land they had held for centuries.
    (LCTH, 10/3/99)

1790        Oct 21, Alphonse-Marie Louis de Lamartine, writer (Rene), was born in Macon, France.
    (MC, 10/21/01)
1790        Oct 21, The Tricolor was chosen as the official flag of France.
    (HN, 10/21/98)

1790        Oct 23, Slaves revolted in Haiti.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1790        Oct 28, NY gave up claims to Vermont for $30,000.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1790        Nov 11, Chrysanthemums were introduced into England from China.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1790        Nov 17, August Ferdinand Mobius, mathematician, inventor (Mobius strip), was born.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1790        Dec 6, Congress moved from New York City to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
    (AP, 12/6/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)

1790        Dec 17, An Aztec calendar stone was discovered in Mexico City.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(MC, 12/17/01)

1790        Dec 19, Sir William Parry, England, Arctic explorer, was born.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1790        Dec 20, In Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 23-year-old British subject Samuel Slater began production of the first American spinning mill. The British jealously guarded their technological superiority in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, making it illegal for machinery, plans and even the men who built and repaired them to leave the country. After serving a 7-year mill apprenticeship in England, Slater recognized the potential offered in America. He memorized the plans for intricate machine specifications, disguised himself as a farm worker and in 1789 sailed to a new life across the Atlantic. Slater entered into a partnership with Rhode Island merchant Moses Brown and built a small spinning mill--the equivalent of 72 spinning wheels. At first, Slater's Mill employed only a handful of children between the ages of 7 and 12, but by 1800, he had more than 100 employees. By the time of Slater's death in 1835, he owned or had an interest in 13 textile mills and left an estate of almost $700,000. From this small beginning, America's own Industrial Revolution grew. [see Dec 21]
    (AP, 12/20/97)(HNPD, 12/20/98)(WSJ, 9/23/04, p.D10)

1790        Dec 21, Samuel Slater opened the first cotton mill in the United States in Rhode Island. [see Dec 20]
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1790        Dec 23, Jean François Champollion, French founder of Egyptology, was born. He deciphered the Rosetta Stone.
    (HN, 12/23/99)

c1790        Henry Fuseli painted his famous work "The Nightmare" wherein a sleeping woman has a glowing demon on her chest and a lantern-eyed stallion parting the curtains behind. He also painted "Woman Standing at a Dressing Table or Spinet" about this time.
    (SFC, 10/31/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790        Ito Jakuchu (1716-1800), Japanese painter, created his "Compendium of Vegetable and Insects."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E1)

1790        Thomas Rowlandson, English artist, painted "The Lock-Up."
    (WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790        Goethe’s "Faust: Ein Fragment," first appeared.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.239)

1790        Alexander Hamilton published his "Report on the Public Credit."
    (WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)

1790        Emmanuel Kant published his "Critique of Judgement." His analysis of the nature of art and aesthetic experience proved to be a major influence on modern ideas. These ideas were later revisited by Murdoch in her 1998 work "Existentialists and Mystics." [see 1781]
    (WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)

1790        Beethoven composed his "Cantata on the Death of Emperor Joseph II."
    (WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1790        The opera "The Philosopher’s Stone" was composed and first performed. A 1997 score showed that a number of composers wrote various sections. Mozart’s name was associated with the 2nd act finale and a duet. It was a singspiel based on fairytales with a libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. Other composers included Johann Baptist Henneberg, Benedikt Schack, Franz Haver Gerl and Emanuel Schikaneder.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)

1790        In South Carolina a 900-square-foot octagonal house was built about this time by Scottish immigrant William McKimmy. Ruins of the structure were found in 2009 on the banks of the May River in Blufton.  The design took off in 1848 following the publication of “A Home for All" by Orson Fowler, a self-taught architect and phrenologist.
    (SFC, 2/22/10, p.A6)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A2)

1790        The Episcopal Church was founded.
    (SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-11)

1790        The US government issued $80 million in bonds to cover Revolutionary War debts and their trade established the financial activity on Wall Street.
    (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

1790        The US Trade and Intercourse Act prohibited states from acquiring land from Indians without federal approval.
    (SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

1790        US Minister to France, Gouverneur Morris, said that the French "have taken Genius instead of Reason for their Guide, adopted Experiment instead of Experience, and wander in the Dark because they prefer Lightning to Light." In 2000 Susan Dunn published "Sister Revolutions: French Lightning, American Light."
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, Par p.28)

1790        The celerifere bicycle appeared in Paris about this time and was a two-wheeled, un-steerable vehicle that the rider propelled by striking his feet on the ground. This was improved upon with a bar to steer the front wheel in 1816 by Baron von Drais of Germany, and was called a draisine. The ordinary, which had a high front wheel, wire-spoked wheels and solid rubber tires, was developed in the 1870s.
    (HNQ, 10/29/99)

1790        The US census categorized the population as "free white person, all other free persons except Indians, and slaves."
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A21)
1790        The US population was 20% African and numbered about 760,000.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

1790        Fletcher Christian landed at Pitcairn Island.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A14)

1790        In Australia Pemulway, an Aboriginal warrior, speared and killed the governor’s gamekeeper at Botany Bay and waged war against the British for 12 years. His head was later sent to England. Eric Willmot later authored "Pemulway, the Rainbow Warrior."
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T4)

1790        In the Sandwich Islands [Hawaii] King Kamehameha built the Puukohola Heiau temple on the Big Island near the village of Kawaihau. It was built to the war god Ku-Ka’ili-moku. The king’s armies soon swept over all the Hawaiian islands and united the people for the first time.
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)

1790        Pineapples were introduced to the Sandwich Islands later called Hawaii.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.2)

1790        The Haleakala Volcano on Maui erupted.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.T8)

1790        La Fenice opera house in Venice was designed. It burned down for the 1st time in 1836.
    (WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)

1790         A bronze Buddha was cast in Japan. In 1945 it was donated by the Gump family to the city of San Francisco. It resides in the Japanese Tea Garden and was in need of $81,000 worth of repairs.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.A11)

1790        In Porto, Portugal, the House of Sandeman winery was found by the Scot, George Sandeman.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)

1790s        Denmark became the 1st country to abolish slavery.
    (WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)

1790s        Floreana Island in the Galapagos began serving as a mail drop for whalers and seal hunters.
    (SFEC, 11/19/00, p.T8)

c1790s         King Kamehameha slaughtered virtually everyone on the island of Lanai (which means day of conquest) after being thwarted in his bid to conquer Maui.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)

1790-1792    Sans-culottes (French for without knee-breeches) was a term created during this period by the French to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length trousers) instead of the chic knee-length culotte. The term came to refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, but, above all, to the working class radicals of the Revolution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sans-culottes)

1790-1799    In 2009 Marcus Daniel authored “Scandal & Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy," a study of the American press during this period.
    (WSJ, 3/3/09, p.A11)
1790-1799    The revolutionary tide that swept Europe during this period was later covered by R.R. Palmer in his book “The Age of the Democratic Revolution."
    (WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)

1790-1830    The “Dalton Minimum," a period of low solar activity and especially cold climate, began this year and lasted to 1830.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalton_Minimum)

1790-1848    Nicola Vaccai, Italian composer. He composed a version of "I Capuletti ed I Montecchi," that was also done by Bellini.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1790-1869    Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, French poet, historian and statesman.
    (WUD, 1994, p.803)

1790s        Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland and united the country in the battle against Prussian and Russian domination.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)

1790s        The solitaire of Rodrigues, a flightless pigeon, was last seen.
    (NH, 11/96, p.24)

1791        Jan 14, Calvin Phillips, shortest known adult male (67 cm; 2' 2"), was born.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1791        Feb 12, Peter Cooper, industrialist, philanthropist (Cooper Union), was born.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1791        Feb 20, Carl Czerny, pianist, composer (Schule der Virtuosen), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1791        Feb 25, President George Washington signed a bill creating the Bank of the United States.
    (HN, 2/25/99)

1791        Mar 3, Congress established the U.S. Mint.
    (HN, 3/3/99)
1791        Mar 3, The 1st Internal Revenue Act taxed distilled spirits and carriages.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1791        Mar 4, President Washington called the US Senate into its 1st special session.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1791        Mar 4, Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)
1791        Mar 4, 1st Jewish member of US Congress, Israel Jacobs (Pennsylvania), took office.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1791        Mar 6, Anna Claypoole Peale, painted miniatures, was born.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1791        Mar 10, John Stone of Concord, Mass, patented a pile driver.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1791        Mar 10, Pope condemned France's Civil Constitution of the clergy.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1791        Mar 11, Samuel Mulliken of Philadelphia was the 1st to obtain more than 1 US patent.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1791        Mar 21, Captain Hopley Yeaton (1740-1812) of New Hampshire became the first commissioned officer of the US Revenue Cutter Service.
    (www.uscg.mil/history/WEBCUTTERS/Scammel_1791.html)(http://tinyurl.com/goke5)

1791        Mar 23, Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman's rights, set up a group of women's clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth.
    (HN, 3/23/99)

1791        Mar 4, Vermont was admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)

1791        Mar 29, Pres. George Washington and French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant examined the site along the Potomac River that would become the US capital. Maryland and Virginia had ceded land to the federal government to form the District of Columbia. Chosen as the permanent site for the capital of the United States by Congress in 1790, President Washington was given the power by Congress to select the exact site—an area ten-miles square, made up of land given by Virginia and Maryland. Washington became the official federal capital in 1800. In 2008 Fergus Bordewich authored “Washington: The Making of the American Capital."
    (HNQ, 8/13/00)(HN, 8/2/98)(WSJ, 8/8/08, p.A13)

1791        Apr 23, The 15th president of the United States, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa.
    (AP, 4/23/97)

1791        Apr 12, Francis Preston Blair, Washington Globe newspaper editor, was born.
    (HN, 4/12/98)

1791        Apr 15, Surveyor General Andrew Ellicott consecrated the southern tip of the triangular District of Columbia at Jones Point.
    (WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)

1791        Apr 18, National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1791        Apr 23, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa. He was the fifteenth U.S. president (1857-1861) and the only president not to marry.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1791        Apr 27, Samuel F.B. Morse, inventor, was born in Boston. He created the telegraph and the code which bears his name. Morse was a well-known painter who gained a wide reputation as a portrait artist. He graduated from Yale in 1810 and then studied painting in England for several years. Morse painted two notable portraits of Lafayette, was a founder of the National Academy of Design in 1826 and became professor of painting and sculpture at New York University in 1832-a position he held until his death in 1872. Morse invented the first practical recording telegraph in America and developed the Morse code, revolutionizing communication.
    (HN, 4/27/99)(HNQ, 2/26/00)

1791        Apr, William Wilberforce again introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade, but lost by a vote of 163 to 88.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)

1791        May 3, Poland adopted a new Constitution. It was designed to redress long-standing political defects of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and its traditional system of "Golden Liberty." The constitution put Lithuania under Polish domination. It is generally regarded as Europe's first and the world's second modern codified national constitution, following the 1788 ratification of the US Constitution.
    (SFC, 4/25/09, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_May_3,_1791)(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1791        May 8, Capt. Edward Edwards set sail from Tahiti in the Pandora with the Bounty mutineers abandoned by Fletcher Henderson.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791        May 9, Francis Hopkinson (53), US writer, music, lawyer, died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1791        May 14, In Mexico a time capsule was placed atop a bell tower at Mexico City's Metropolitan Cathedral when the building's topmost stone was laid, 218 years after construction had begun. Workers restoring the church found it in October, 2007.
    (AP, 1/15/08)

1791        May 16, James Boswell’s celebrated 2-volume work, "The Life of Samuel Johnson," was published. In 2001 Adam Sisman authored "Boswell’s Presumptuous Task," an account of how Boswell came to write the Johnson biography.
    (WSJ, 8/24/01, p.W8)(ON, 11/06, p.10)

1791        May 28, Joseph Schmitt (57), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1791        May 29, Pietro Romani, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1791        Jun 9, John Howard Payne, American playwright and actor, was born.
    (HN, 6/9/01)

1791        Jun 20, King Louis XVI of France attempted to flee the country in the so-called Flight to Varennes, but was caught.
    (AP, 6/20/97)

1791        Jun 21, King Louis XVI and the French royal family were arrested in Varennes. In 2003 Timothy Tackett authored "When the King Took Flight," an examination of the political culture during this period of transformation.
    (HN, 6/21/98)(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.M6)

1791        Jul 7, Benjamin Rush, Richard Allen and Absalom Jones founded the Non-denominational African Church.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1791        Jul 13, The bones of the greatest French satirist, philosopher, and writer, Voltaire (Jean-Marie Arouet) were enshrined in the Pantheon in Paris.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1791        Jul 14-1791 Jul 17, Riots took place in Birmingham, England. The houses of Joseph Priestley and other political dissenters were burned to the ground. Priestley had rejected various supernatural elements of Christianity, criticized the Church of England, and supported the French Revolution.
    (SFC, 1/9/09, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priestley_Riots)

1791        Jul 16, Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the constitution.
    (HN, 7/16/98)

1791        Jul 17, National Guard troops opened fire in Paris on a crowd of demonstrators calling for the deposition of the king.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1791        Jul 24, Robespierre expelled all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1791        Jul 25, Free African Society (FAS) leaders drew up a plan to organize the African Church. Richard Allen purchased a site for a church for the African-American community in Philadelphia. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church.
    (www.pbs.org)

1791        Jul 26, Franz Xavier Wolfgang Mozart, 6th child of Austrian composer WAM, was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1791        Aug 1, Robert Carter III, a Virginia plantation owner, freed all 500 of his slaves in the largest private emancipation in U.S. history.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1791        Aug 2, Samuel Briggs and his son patented a nail-making machine.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1791        Aug 4, The chief item in the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and Turkey was the return of Belgrade to Turkey. The peace initiative resulted from the terms of the Convention of Reichenbach between Prussia and Austria. Belgrade had been taken in 1789 by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II.
    (HNQ, 6/25/99)

1791        Aug 14, Haitian slaves, led by voodoo priest Boukman Dutty, gathered to plan a revolution.
    (SFCM, 5/30/04, p.9)( http://tinyurl.com/yun3k3)

1791        Aug 26, John Fitch and James Rumsey, rival inventors, were both granted a US patent for a working steamboat.
    (MC, 8/26/02)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)

1791        Aug 29, The Pandora under Capt. Edward Edwards sank in Endeavour Strait (later Torres Strait) between Australia and New Guinea. 33 crewmen and 4 prisoners died. They managed to use small boats and arrived in Timor on Sep 16.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791        Sep 1, Lydia Sigourney, US religious author (How to Be Happy), was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1791        Sep 3, The French National Assembly passed a French Constitution passed.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1791        Sep 5, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Vogelsdorf Germany, opera composer (Les Huguenots, Le Prophete), was born.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1791        Sep 6, Mozart’s last opera "La Clemenza di Tito," premiered in Prague. It was composed for the coronation festivities of the King of Bohemia.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)(MC, 9/6/01)

1791        Sep 9, French Royalists took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1791        Sep 13, France's King Louis XVI accepted a constitution.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1791        Sep 14, Louis XVI solemnly swore his allegiance to the French constitution.
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1791        Sep 22, Michael Faraday (d.1867), English physicist, was born in London. He demonstrated that a magnetic field induces a current in a moving conductor. He invented the dynamo, the transformer and the electric motor.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.269)(HN, 9/22/00)

1791        Sep 26, J.L.A. Theodore Gericault, French painter, was born.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1791        Sep 27, Jews in France were granted French citizenship. Jews were granted religious and civic rights in 1791.
    (HN, 9/27/98)(WSJ, 8/7/00, p.A13)

1791        Sep 30, Mozart's opera "The Magic Flute" premiered in Vienna, Austria.
    (AP, 9/30/97)

1791        Oct 1, In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly held its first meeting.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1791            Nov 3, Gen. St. Clair moved his force of approximately 1,400 men to some high ground on the upper Wabash River. St. Clair was looking for the forces of Michikinikwa (Chief Little Turtle 1752-1812), who had recently defeated Gen. Josiah Harmar’s (1753-1813) army. St. Clair deployed only minimal sentry positions. [see Nov 4]
    (DoW, 1999, p.168)

1791        Nov 4, General Arthur St. Clair, governor of Northwest Territory, was badly defeated by a large Indian army near Fort Wayne. Miami Indian Chief Little Turtle (1752-1812) led the powerful force of Miami, Wyandot, Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, Ojibwa and Potawatomi that inflicted the greatest defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Army at the hands of North American Indians. Some 623 regulars led by General Arthur St. Clair were killed and 258 wounded on the banks of the Wabash River near present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. The staggering defeat moved Congress to authorize a larger army in 1792.
    (HNQ, 8/10/98)(HN, 11/4/98)

1791        Dec 4, Britain's Observer, oldest Sunday newspaper in world, was 1st published.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1791        Dec 5, Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna, Austria, at age 35. His first opera was "Idomeneo." In 1920 Hermann Abert authored “W.A. Mozart." In 1991 Georg Knepler authored "Wolfang Amade Mozart," a Marxist view of Mozart in his times. In 1995 Maynard Solomon published a psychoanalytic biography of Mozart. In 1999 Peter Gay authored a Penguin short life of Mozart and Robert W. Gutman authored the comprehensive biography "Mozart."
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.54)(AP, 12/5/97)(WSJ, 12/2/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)

1791        Dec 15, The US Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, took effect following ratification by Virginia. The First Amendment declared the separation of church and state and guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, the press and assembly. In 2007 Anthony Lewis authored “Freedom for the Thought That We Hate: A biography of the Frist Amendment."
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 12/15/97)(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)

1791        Dec 17, NYC traffic regulation created the 1st 1-way street.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1791        Dec 22, Alexander Hamilton paid a $600 installment of $1,000 in blackmail to James Reynolds, who threatened to expose Hamilton’s relationship with Reynolds’ wife. Hamilton had begun a relationship with Maria Reynolds during the summer. A 2nd payment was made Jan 3.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.1,12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)

1791        Dec, The 1st Bank of the US opened under Alexander Hamilton.  It did the work of a central bank even though private investors held most of its shares. James Madison opposed the plans of Alexander Hamilton for a National Bank. [see 1780-1792, Banning book on Madison] It was dissolved in 1811.
    (WSJ, 12/20/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A8)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.91)(Econ, 4/12/14, p.50)

1791        Jose Cardero, a Spanish artist in California, painted "Vista del Presidio de Monterey."
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.E6)

1791        Alexander Hamilton authored his “Report on the Subject of Manufactures." His plan to get the country’s economy going included tariffs to protect the young industries.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.74)(Econ, 1/21/12, SR p.5)

1791        Englishman Thomas Paine wrote the “Rights of Man" in Paris, promoting the French Revolution. It defended the French Revolution against Edmund Burke's attack in “Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790).
    (ON, 6/2011, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rights_of_Man)

1791        French Comte de Volney (1757-1820) authored “The Ruins, or a Survey of the Revolutions of Empires," a treatise on why civilizations fell and what men should do to find happiness.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.128)

1791        The opera "The Beneficent Dervish" was initially attributed to Emanuel Schikaneder but a 1997 find indicated that Mozart wrote the work. Schikaneder was a Vienna theater impresario who had commissioned "The Magic Flute."
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)

1791        Aaron Burr (1756-1836), later US vice president (1801-1805), was elected as US Senator from New York (1791-1797).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Burr)

1791        The US Providence Bank was later reported to have profited from traffic in slaves to the New World. The bank eventually became part of FleetBoston Financial Corp.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.D3)

1791        A document was released in 2004 from Pittsfield, Mass., that contained a 1791 bylaw to protect the windows of a new meeting house from baseball players.
    (SFC, 5/12/04, p.A2)

1791        A New Hampshire law called for convicted adulterers to be paraded on the gallows for an hour and then be publicly whipped no exceeding 39 stripes before being sent to prison and fined £100. By 2014 the penalty had been reduced to a fine of $1,200 as legislators proposed a repeal of the law.
    (Econ, 4/19/14, p.24)

1791        William Sprague opened the 1st US carpet mill in Philadelphia.
    (SFCM, 10/10/04, p.8)

1791        Legend says the Harel family began making Camembert cheese before this time. The family had given a priest refuge, who in gratitude gave them the recipe. In 2003 Pierre Boisard authored "Camembert: A National Myth."
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.M3)

1791        Frantisek Koczwara, a Bohemian musician, died in a London brothel from auto-asphyxiation.
    (SSFC, 3/18/01, DB p.49)
1791        Grigory A. Potemkin (b.1739), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II's lover, died. In 2002 Simon Sebag Montefiore authored "Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin."
    (MC, 9/13/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)
1791        John Wesley (b.1703), English evangelist and theologian, died. He founded the Methodist movement.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1622)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1791        In Australia officials granted parcels of land around Sydney to convicts who have served their time, beginning years of dispossession of Aborigines that continued as white settlers dispersed throughout Australia. Clashes between Aborigines and settlers led to tens of thousands of deaths among Aborigines and hundreds of settler deaths.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

1791        Sheikh Mansur, Chechen leader, was captured and died in the Schlusselburg Fortress.
    (www.chechnyafree.ru)

1791        The United Irishmen Society was formed. Inspired by the French Revolution many Catholics and Protestants took up the cause of Irish nationalism during the next decade.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1791        The Berlin Sing-Academie was established.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.C13)
1791        In Berlin, Germany, the Brandenburg Gate was completed. It stood 66 feet tall and 213 feet wide, and was topped by the copper Quadriga, a sculpture of a goddess riding into the city aboard a chariot. It was restored in 2002.
    (AP, 10/2/02)

1791        The Marquesas Islands were officially discovered. Over a 30 year period western diseases ravaged the populace and only about 2,000 of 100,000 people survived.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)

1791        In St. Domingue Toussaint L’Ouverture joined the slave rebellion against plantation owners and later led a colonial revolt against France. In 1995 Madison Smart Bell authored "All Souls Rising," a novel set in this period.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97 BR, p.10)(SSFC, 4/8/01, BR p.4)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.10)

1791-1824    Theodore Gericault, French painter. He painted "Mounted Officer of the Imperial Guard."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.593)

1791-1888    In Korea 124 Catholics were executed during this period under the Joseon Dynasty, which tried to shut off the Korean Peninsula off from Western influence. They were canonized as saints in 1984 during a visit by Pope John Paul II.
    (Econ, 7/26/14, p.A7)

1792        Jan 17, One of the first US Treasury bonds was issued to Pres. George Washington and bears the earliest use of the dollar sign.
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W9)

1792        Jan 28, Rebellious slaves in Santo Domingo launched an attack on the city of Cap.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1792        Feb 7, Cimarosa's opera "Il Matrimonio Segreto," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1792        Feb 15, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre (42), astronomer and surveyor, was elected to the French Academy of Sciences to help establish the length of a proposed new unit of measurement, the meter.
    (ON, 2/09, p.8)

1792        Feb 20, President Washington signed an act creating the U.S. Post Office. [see Feb 20, 1789, May 8, 1794]
    (HN, 2/20/98)(AP, 2/20/98)

1792        Feb 21, US Congress passed the Presidential Succession Act. [see Mar 1]
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1792        Feb 23, Joseph Haydn’s 94th Symphony in G premiered.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1792        Feb 23, Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1792        Feb 23, Joshua Reynolds (68), English portrait painter (Simplicity), died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1792        Feb 29, The composer Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (d.1868) was born in Pesaro, Italy. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gioachino_Rossini)

1792        Mar 1, US Presidential Succession Act was passed. [see Feb 21]
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1792        Mar 4, Oranges were introduced to Hawaii.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1792        Mar 10, John Stuart (78), 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1792        Mar 16, Sweden's King Gustav III was shot and mortally wounded during a masquerade party by a former member of his regiment. He was murdered by Count Ankarstrom at an opera. It became the inspiration for Giuseppe Verdi's Un Ballo in Maschera. Gustav died 13 days later.
    (AP, 3/16/06)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)

1792        Mar 20, In Paris, the Legislative Assembly approved the use of the guillotine.
    (HN, 3/20/99)

1792        Mar 23, Franz Joseph Haydn’s "Symphony No. 94 in G Major," also known as the "Surprise Symphony," was performed publicly for the first time, in London.
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1792        Mar 29, Gustav III, King of Sweden (1771-92), died of wounds inflicted by an assassin on March 16.
    (AP, 3/16/06)

1792        Mar/Apr, Speculator William Duer defaulted on Hamilton’s freshly exchanged "Stock in the Public Funds," and caused the first American stock market crash. Hamilton injected liquidity, asked the banks not to call in loans and allowed merchants to pay customs duties with short-term notes.
    (WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)

1792        Apr 1, Gronings feminist Etta Palm demanded women's right to divorce.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1792        Apr 2, Congress passed the Coinage Act, which authorized establishment of the U.S. Mint. It established the US dollar defined in fixed weights of gold and silver. State chartered banks issued paper money convertible to gold or silver coins to ease business transactions. U.S. authorized $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle & 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins & silver dollar, dollar, quarter, dime & half-dime.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(AP, 4/2/97)(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)(HN, 4/2/98)

1792        Apr 4, American abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens, U.S. Radical Republican congressional leader, was born in Danville, Vt..
    (AP, 4/4/98)(HN, 4/4/98)

1792        Apr 5, George Washington cast the first presidential veto, rejecting a congressional measure for apportioning representatives among the states.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)

1792        Apr 14, Pres. George Washington appointed David Rittenhouse, the foremost scientist of America, the first director of the US Mint at a salary of $2000 per annum. Rittenhouse was then in feeble health and lived at the northwest corner of Seventh and Arch Streets, then one of the high places of Old Philadelphia, where he had an observatory and where he later died and was first buried.
    (http://tinyurl.com/per3q6f)

1792        Apr 20, France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the French Revolutionary wars.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)

1792        Apr 21, Jose da Silva Xavier, aka Tiradentes (teeth puller), considered by many to be Brazil's George Washington, was drawn and quartered by the Portuguese. He was hung in Rio de Janeiro. His body was broken to pieces. A document was written With his blood declaring his memory infamous. His head was exposed in Vila Rica. Pieces of his body were exposed in the cities between Vila Rica and Rio, in an attempt to scare the people who had listened to his independence ideas.
    (AP, 4/19/03)(www.v-brazil.com/culture/historic-characters/tiradentes.html)

1792        Apr 22, President Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
    (HN, 4/22/98)

1792        Apr 24, Capt. Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, an officer stationed in Strasbourg, composed "La Marseillaise," which later became the national anthem of France.
    (AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)

1792        Apr 25, Highwayman Nicolas Jacques Pelletier became the first person under French law to be executed by guillotine.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)

1792        Apr 30, John Montague (73), 4th Earl of Sandwich, English Naval minister, died.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1792        May 7, Capt. Robert Gray discovered Gray's  Harbor in Washington state.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1792        May 8, US established a military draft.
    (MC, 5/8/02)
1792        May 8, British Capt. George Vancouver sighted and named Mt. Rainier, Wash.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1792        May 11, The Columbia River was discovered and named by Captain Robert Gray.
    (HN, 5/11/98)(MC, 5/11/02)

1792        May 12, A toilet that flushed itself at regular intervals was patented.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1792        May 13, Giovanni-Maria Mastaia-Ferretti, later Pope Pius IX, "Pio Nono" (1846-78), was born at Sinigaglia.
    (PTA, 1980, p.510)(MC, 5/13/02)

1792        May 16, Denmark abolished slave trade.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1792        May 17, Stock traders signed the Buttonwood Agreement in New York City at the Tontine Coffee House Company near a Buttonwood tree, where business had been transacted in the past. 24 merchants formed their exchange at Wall and Water Streets where they fixed rates on commissions on stocks and bonds. This later developed into the New York Stock Exchange. A market crash and almost total halt in credit, trading and liquidity prompted the Buttonwood Agreement under the influence of Alexander Hamilton. The organization drafted its constitution on March 8th, 1817, and named itself the "New York Stock & Exchange Board."
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/crash/timeline/)(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A19)(HN, 5/17/98)

1792        May 18, Russian troops invaded Poland.
    (HN, 5/18/98)

1792        May 19, The Russian army entered Poland.
    (DTnet 5/19/97)

1792        May 21, Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis (d.1843), French engineer and mathematician, was born. He became first person to describe the Coriolis force.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaspard-Gustave_Coriolis)(SFC, 5/21/09, p.D10)

1792         Jun 1, Kentucky became the 15th state of the Union.
     (AP, 6/1/97)

1792        Jun 4, Captain George Vancouver claimed Puget Sound for Britain. Englishman George Vancouver sailed into the SF Bay on his ship Discovery in this year and explored the Santa Clara Valley. Vancouver sailed the Inside Passage, the 1000-mile waterway between Puget Sound and Alaska.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)
1792        Jun 4, John Burgoyne, soldier, playwright, died.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1792        Jul 18, American naval hero John Paul Jones died in Paris at age 45. His body was preserved in rum in case the American government wished him back. In 1905 his body was transported to the US and placed in a crypt in Annapolis. In 2003 Evan Thomas authored "John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father of the American Navy."
    (AP, 7/18/97)(SSFC, 6/22/03, p.M3)

1792        Jul 30, The French national anthem "La Marseillaise" by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, was first sung in Paris.
    (AP, 7/30/99)

1792        Jul 31, The foundation-stone was laid for the US Mint by David Rittenhouse, Esq. The property was paid for and deeded to the United States of America for a consideration of $4266.67 on July 18, 1792. The money for the Mint was the first money appropriated by Congress for a building to be used for a public purpose.
    (http://tinyurl.com/per3q6f)

1792        Aug 4, Percy Bysshe Shelley (d.1822), English poet and author who wrote "Prometheus Unbound," was born in Field Place, England. He married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, author of "Frankenstein." He wrote the poem "Adonais."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1314)(HN, 8/4/98)

1792        Aug 5, Frederick 7th baron Lord North (60), English premier, died. He presided over Britain's loss of its American colonies (1770-82).
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1792        Aug 10, Some 10,000 Parisians attacked the Tuileries Palace of Louis XVI at the instigation of Georges Jacques Danton (33), after Louis ordered his Swiss guard to stop firing on the people. The mob massacred some 600 guardsmen. The king was later arrested, put on trial for treason, and executed the following January.
    (PC, 1992, p.345)(AP, 8/10/07)(ON, 2/09, p.8)

1792        Aug 11, A revolutionary commune was formed in Paris, France.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1792        Aug 13, Revolutionaries imprisoned the French royal family, including King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. [see Aug 10]
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1792        Aug 18, Lord John Russel, Prime Minister of England from 1846 to 1852 and 1865 to 1866, was born.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1792        Aug 29, The English warship Royal George capsized in Spithead and 900 people were killed.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1792        Sep 2, Verdun, France, surrendered to the Prussian Army.
    (HN, 9/2/98)
1792        Sep 2, In the "September Massacres"- French mobs removed nobles and clergymen from jails, and some 1,600.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)

1792        Sep 3, In France Princess de Lamballe (b.1749), the best friend of Marie Antoinette, was killed and her body mutilated by an angry mob. Her head was displayed under the window of Marie Antoinette, interned in Temple Prison.
    (SSFC, 4/23/06, p.G5)(www.batguano.com/vigeeart100.html)

1792        Sep 5, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the National Convention in France.
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1892        Sep 18, At Spithaead, England, verdicts and sentences were announced for the 10 prisoners from the mutiny on the Bounty. 4 men were acquitted, and 6 were found guilty and condemned to death. 2 of the condemned were pardoned and another was freed on a technicality. 3 were later hanged.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1792        Sep 21, Collot D'Herbois proposed to abolish the monarchy in France. The French National Convention voted to abolish the monarchy. 1st French Republic formed
    (AP, 9/21/97)(MC, 9/21/01)

1792        Sep 22, The first French Republic was proclaimed.
    (AP, 9/22/06)

1792        Sep 27, George Cruikshank, London, caricaturist (Oliver Twist), was born.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1792        Oct 7, James Mason (b.1725), American Revolutionary statesman, died at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. In 2006 Jeff Broadwater authored “George Mason."
    (HNQ, 2/18/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mason)(WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)

1792        Oct 12, Columbus Day was 1st celebrated in the US.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1792        Oct 13, The "Old Farmer's Almanac" was 1st published. [see Nov 25]
    (MC, 10/13/01)
1792        Oct 13, The cornerstone of the executive mansion, later known as the White House, was laid during a ceremony in the District of Columbia.
    (AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)

1792        Nov 6, Battle at Jemappes: French army beat the Austrians.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1792        Nov 13, Edward John Trelawney, traveler and author (Adventure of a Younger Son), friend of Byron and Shelley, was born in England.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1792        Nov 25, The Farmer's Almanac was 1st published. [see Oct 13]
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1792        Dec 5, George Washington was re-elected president; John Adams was re-elected vice president.
    (AP, 12/5/97)

1792        Dec 8, The 1st cremation in US: Henry Laurens.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1792        Dec 11, France's King Louis XVI went before the Convention to face charges of treason. Louis was convicted and executed the following month.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1792        Dec 12, In Vienna Ludwig Van Beethoven (22) received 1st lesson in music composition from Franz Joseph Haydn.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1792        Dec 15, Alexander Hamilton, US Sec. of the Treasury, was accused of teaming with Mr. James Reynolds to speculate illegally in government securities. Hamilton then acknowledged to three lawmakers, including James Monroe, that he had paid hush money to Mr. Reynolds to cover an affair with Reynolds’ wife.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)

1792        Dec 26, Charles Babbage (d.1871), English inventor of the calculating machine, was born.
    (HN, 12/26/98)

1792        John Trumbell painted his portrait of Alexander Hamilton.
    (WSJ, 10/20/04, p.D12)

1792        Captain Bligh published "A Voyage to the South Sea" after his return from the Mutiny on the Bounty.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1792        James Madison published an essay in a newspaper on property and slaves. In this essay Madison extended the idea of property from material possessions to the property in his opinions, especially his religious beliefs.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.227)

1792        Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) wrote her essay "Vindication of the Rights of Woman." She married Godwin in 1797 after learning that she was pregnant and died in childbirth.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.28)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1792        Construction began on the Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca. It was dedicated in 1795.
    (SSFC, 1/4/09, p.B3)

1792        An edition of the Bible was first printed in New York.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1792        George Washington signed a law giving shipowners “allowances" (i.e. subsidies) to offset tariffs they had to pay on their inputs. This was part of an effort to rebuild new England’s cod industry.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.75)
1792        A US Militia Act was created.
    (SFC, 3/2/02, p.A21)
1792        US veterans hired William Hull to petition congress for more compensation.
    (Econ, 10/4/08, p.32)
1792        A US penny was struck to test a design. It came to be called the Birch cent after engraver Robert Birch. In 2015 it sold at auction for $2.6 million.
    (SFC, 1/13/15, p.A6)
1792        The dime coin "dismes" were first produced. Then came "half-dismes," or what we call nickels.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97, zone 3 p.4)
1792        Explorer Jose Longinos Martinez wrote in his diary about grizzly maulings that killed 2 Indians in California.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.A6)

1792        Archibald Menzies, Scottish doctor/surgeon, was the naturalist aboard the Discovery under Captain George Vancouver. He collected his first California poppy and classified it incorrectly as Celandine, an old world member of the same family (Papaveracae). [see 1794,1816,1825-1833]
    (NBJ, 2/96, p.12)
1792        Three English sailors wandered from Vancouver’s supply ship Daedalus, anchored in Waimea Bay. They were captured and killed by native Hawaiians.
    (SFCM, 3/11/01, p.87)

1792        Arthur Phillip, the 1st governor of New South Wales, Australia, returned to England accompanied by Bennelong, an Aboriginal who had earlier attacked and wounded him. Philip later gave Bennelong a house on a point in Sydney Cove. In 1973 it became the site of the Sydney Opera House.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)
1792        In England consumers began an organized boycott against West Indian sugar. The Anti-Saccharine Society displayed a cross-section of a slave ship with men shackled head-to-toe like sardines.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.94)
1792        William Wilberforce introduced a new motion in British Parliament for the gradual abolition of the slave trade. The “gradual" wording, proposed by home office minister Henry Dundas, led to passage of the bill in the House of Commons 230 to 85.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)
1792        James Penny, Liverpool slave trader, was presented with a magnificent silver epergne for speaking in favor of the slave trade to a parliamentary committee. Liverpool’s Penny Lane was named after him.
    (SSFC, 7/9/06, p.A2)(www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/maritime/slavery/liverpool.asp)
1792        The British St. George’s Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of rebellious slaves from other colonies.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1792        Niagara-on-the-Lake became the 1st capital of the Upper Canada (later Ontario). The Parliament met for 5 sessions before moving to York (Toronto).
    (WSJ, 7/25/02, p.D10)

1792        The Chinese poet Shih Tao-nan, shortly before succumbing to the plague noted: "Few days following the death of the rats, Men pass away like falling walls."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)

1792        The crown jewels of France were stolen including the 67 carat Blue Diamond.
    (THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1792        The La Felecia opera house in Venice opened.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.D3)

1792        In Mexico Campeche’s northern fort, the Reducto de San Jose, was built. It later housed the Museo de Barcas y Armas.
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E5)

1792        In Scotland gas lighting was developed.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1792        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity" (1736). In 2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad."
    (www.concise.britannica.com)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)

1792-1793    Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828), Spanish painter, went deaf from an unexplained illness.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)

1792-1796    In St. Petersburg, Russia, Catherine the Great commissioned the building of the neoclassical rococo Alexander Palace for her eldest grandson, the future Alexander I.
    (WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A16)

1792-1867    Giovanni Pacing, Italian composer. His work included "Maria, Regina d’Inghilterra," based on Victor Hugo’s drama "Marie Tudor."
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1792-1868    Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, Italian composer. His work included the opera "La Donna del Lago," based on the Walter Scott romance "The Lady of the Lake."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1246)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1793        Jan 1, Francesco Guardi (b.1712), Venetian painter, died.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Guardi)

1793        Jan 3,  Lucretia Coffin Mott women’s rights activist, was born. She was a teacher, minister, antislavery leader and founder of the 1st Women’s Rights Convention.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)(HN, 1/3/02)

1793        Jan 9, The first US manned balloon flight occurred as Frenchman Jean Pierre Blanchard, using a hot-air balloon, flew between Philadelphia and Woodbury, N.J. He stayed airborne for 46 minutes, traveled close to 15 miles and set down at the "old Clement farm" in Deptford, New Jersey. [see Jun 23, 1784, Mar 9, 1793]
    (WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)(AP, 1/9/99)(ON, 6/09, p.2)

1793        Jan 19, French King Louis XVI was sentenced to death. [see Jan 21]
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1793        Jan 21, Louis XVI (38), last of the French Bourbon dynasty, was executed on the guillotine. The vote in the National Convention for execution for treason won by a margin of one vote. The Great Terror followed his execution.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1677)(V.D.-H.K.p.231)(NH, 6/97, p.23)(AP, 1/21/98)

1793        Jan 23, Prussia and Russia signed an accord on the 2nd partition of Lithuania and Poland. The 2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of Poland independent.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1677)(LHC, 1/23/03)

1793        Feb 1, Ralph Hodgson of Lansingburg, NY, patented one of the world’s greatest inventions this day: Oiled silk.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1793        Feb 1, France declared war on Britain and the Netherlands.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1793        Feb 12, The US federal government passed its first fugitive slave law. This gave slave holders the right to reclaim their human property in free states.
    (HN, 2/12/97)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)

1793        Feb 25, The department heads of the U.S. government met with President  Washington at his Mt. Vernon home for the first Cabinet meeting on record.
    (AP, 2/25/98)(MC, 2/25/02)

1793        Mar 2, Sam Houston, the first president of the Republic of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44), was born near Lexington, Va. He fought for Texas' independence from Mexico; President of Republic of Texas; U.S. Senator; Texas governor
    (AP, 3/2/98)(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(SC, 3/2/02)

1793        Mar 3, Charles Sealsfield, writer (The Making of America), was born.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1793        Mar 4, George Washington was inaugurated as President for the second time. His 2nd inauguration was the shortest with just 133 words. Since George Washington’s second term, Inauguration Day had been March 4 of the year following the election. That custom meant that defeated presidents and congressmen served four months after the election. In 1933, the so-called Lame Duck Amendment to the U.S. Constitution moved the inauguration of newly elected presidents and congressmen closer to Election Day. The 20th Amendment required the terms of the president and vice-president to begin at noon on January 20, while congressional terms begin on January 3.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(HNPD, 3/4/99)(SC, 3/4/02)
1793        Mar 4, French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1793        Mar 5, Austrian troops crush the French and recapture Liege.
    (HN, 3/5/99)

1793        Mar 10, In France, on a proposal by Georges-Jacques Danton (1759-1794), the National Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium had given rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793. On Oct 20 the extraordinary criminal tribunal received by decree the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary_Tribunal)

1793        Mar 18, The 2nd Battle at Neerwinden: Austria army beat France.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1793        Mar 26, Pro-royalist uprising took place in Vendée region of France.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1793        Apr 1,  The volcano Unsen on Japan erupted killing about 53,000.
    (OTD)

1793        Apr 6, In France all executive power was conferred upon a Committee of Public Safety. Georges-Jacques Danton was one of the nine original members.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Danton)

1793        Apr 14, A royalist rebellion in Santo Domingo was crushed by French republican troops.
    (HN, 4/14/99)

1793        Apr 17, The Battle of Warsaw was fought.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1793        Apr 22, Pres. Washington attended the opening of Rickett's, the 1st circus in US.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1793        May 7, Pietro Nardini (71), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1793        May 25, Father Stephen Theodore Badin became the 1st US Roman Catholic priest ordained.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1793        Jun 2, Maximillian Robespierre, a member of France’s Committee on Public Safety, initiated the "Reign of Terror," a purge of those suspected of treason against the French Republic. Months of the Great Terror, followed the Revolution in France as thousands died beneath the guillotine.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.231)(HN, 6/2/98)

1793        Jun 20, Eli Whitney petitioned for a cotton gin patent in Philadelphia.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h1517t.html)

1793        Jun 24, The first republican constitution in France was adopted.
    (AP, 6/24/97)

1793        Jul 13, John Clare, English poet, was born.
    (HN, 7/13/01)
1793        Jul 13, Pierre Dupont de Nemours was ordered arrested in Paris on charges of plotting with rebels against the French Revolutionary National Assembly.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1793        Jul 13, French revolutionary writer Jean Paul Marat was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday, who was executed four days later. In 1970 Marie Cher authored "Charlotte Corday, and Certain Men of the Revolutionary Torment."
    (AP, 7/13/97)(ON, SC, p.8)

1793        Jul 23, Roger Sherman (b.1721) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence, died. He was only man to sign the four most important documents that were most significant in the formation of the United States. Sherman signed the Association (the 1774 compact to boycott British goods), the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and Constitution. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress, served in the first U.S.  House of Representatives and was a U.S.  senator.
    (HN, 4/19/97)(HNQ, 7/10/99)
1793        Jul 23, The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, fell to the Prussians.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1793        Jul 24, France passed the 1st copyright law.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1793        Jul 27, In France, Robespierre became a member of the Committee of Public Safety.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1793        Jul, Napoleon Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet that made a good impression on the Jacobin faction that had seized power in Paris.
    (ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793        Aug 14, Republican troops in France laid siege to the city of Lyons.
    (HN, 8/14/98)

1793        Aug 22, Louis Duke de Noailles (80), marshal of France, was guillotined.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1793        Aug 27, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris, France.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1793        Aug 28, Adam-Philippe Custine, Duke de Lauzun (French duke, general, fought in American Revolution, hero in both countries), was guillotined in Paris.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1793        Aug 29, Slavery was abolished in the French colony of Santo Domingo (Haiti).
    (HN, 8/29/98)(MC, 8/29/01)

1793        Sep 5, The Reign of Terror began during the French Revolution as the National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress counter-revolutionary activities. One delegate, claiming that the middle class Girondist (moderates) leaders be sentenced to death cried, "It is time for equality to wield its scythe over all the heads. Very well, Legislator, place Terror on the agenda!" The delegates agreed to arrest all suspects and dissenters, try them swiftly in the kangaroo courts known as the Revolutionary Tribunals, and sentence them uniformly to death.
    (MC, 9/5/01)(AP, 9/4/07)

1793        Sep 6, French General Jean Houchard and his 40,000 men began a three-day battle against an Anglo-Hanoverian army at Hondschoote, southwest Belgium, in the wars of the French Revolution.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1793        Sep 17, Captain Napoleon Bonaparte reached Toulon and presented himself to his new commander, General Carteaux, a former house painter and policeman.
    (ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793        Sep 18, President George Washington laid the foundation stone for the U.S. Capitol on Jenkins Hill.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)(HN, 9/18/98)

1793        Oct 8, John Hancock, US merchant and signer (Declaration of Independence), died at 56.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1793        Oct 10, The rebellious French city of Lyons surrendered to Revolutionary troops.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1793        Oct 16, During the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette was beheaded. Prosecutors claimed she had sexually abused her son and financially abused the French Monarchy.  In mourning for her husband, Louis XVI, who had been guillotined the previous January, clad in rags, her once-dazzling locks shorn by the executioner's assistant, she even suffered the indignity of a crude sketch by the great French painter, Jacques Louis David. Antoinette bore herself with a regal indifference to her martyrdom. Madame Tussaud used her severed head as a model for her wax bust death mask. In 2001 Antonia Fraser authored "Marie Antoinette: The Journey."
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.T5)(AP, 10/16/97)(WSJ, 10/5/01, p.W13)

1793        Oct 19, Captain Napoleon Bonaparte was promoted to chef de bataillon (major) giving him greater voice in the councils of war and the siege of Toulon.
    (ON, 2/12, p.5)

1793        Oct 20, In France an extraordinary criminal tribunal received the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal by a decree. The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium gave rise in Paris to popular movements on March 9 and 10, 1793, and on March 10, on the proposal of Danton, the Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary_Tribunal)

1793        Oct 28, Eliphalet Remington, US gun maker, was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)
1793        Oct 28, Eli Whitney applied for a patent on the cotton gin, a machine which cleaned the tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton easily and effectively--a job which was previously done by hand. The patent was granted the following March. [see Mar 13, Jun 20, 1793, Mar 14, 1794]
    (AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)

1793        Oct 31, Execution of 21 Girondins (moderates) in Paris, stepping up the Reign of Terror. Pierre V. Vergniaud (40), French politician and elegant, impassioned orator of Girondins, was guillotined.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1793        Nov 3, Stephen Fuller Austin was born. He colonized Texas.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1793        Nov 8, The Louvre opened in Paris as a museum. It was originally constructed as a fortress in the early thirteenth century.
    (HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)

1793        Nov 10, France outlawed the forced worship of God.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1793        Nov 12, Jean-Sylvain Bailley (53), French astronomer and mayor of Paris, was guillotined.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1793        Nov 19, The Jacobin Club was formed in Paris. Robespierre (1758-1794), Jacobin leader: "Terror is nothing but justice, prompt, severe and inflexible."
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C5)(MC, 11/19/01)

1793        Nov 26, Republican calendar replaced the Gregorian calendar in France.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1793        Nov, In France Philippe Aspairt, a hospital porter, ventured alone into the limestones quarries south of Paris, site of the new cemetery, and got lost. Workmen found his bones 11 years later.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.119)

1793        Dec 6, Marie Jeanne Becu, Comtesse du Barry, flamboyant mistress of Louis XV, was guillotined in Paris.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1793        Dec 9, Noah Webster established NY's 1st daily newspaper, American Minerva.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1793        Dec 19, French troops recaptured Toulon from the British. Napoleon Bonaparte led the intense shelling of British positions. This led to his promotion to brigadier general.
    (ON, 2/12, p.6)

1793        Dec 20, Joseph Legros (54), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1793        Dec 23, Thomas Jefferson warned of slave revolts in West Indies.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1793        Antonio Canova created his clay model for the sculpture "Penitent Magdalen." The final marble version was completed in 1809.
    (WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1793        Jacques-Louis David painted "Death of Marat."
    (SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.5)

1793        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted "Cupid Laughs at the Tears He Causes."
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1793        William Blake (1757-1827) produced his "Labors of the Artist, the Poet, and the Musician." He painted "Aged Ignorance." Blake’s work “The Complaint of Job" was also done about this time.
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)(NH, 4/97, p.6)(SFC, 7/16/15, p.C6)

1793        Augustin Ximenez (1726-1817), Marquis of Ximenez, a Frenchman of Spanish origin, wrote a poem with the line “Attaquons dans ses eaux la perfide Albion," which means "Let us attack perfidious Albion in her waters." The poet of perfidy later lectured French soldiers that “Il est beau de perir," which means “it is beautiful to perish."
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M4)(http://tinyurl.com/ye6bd7)

1793        The German Reformed Church was established in the US by Calvinist Puritans.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1793        Capt. George Vancouver introduced cattle to the islands of Hawaii and wrested from King Kamehameha the concession that women as well as men be allowed to eat the meat. The king agreed if separate animals were used.
    (SFEM, 2/8/98, p.10)

1793        The 1st US half-cent and one cent coins were minted. For almost 6 decades the obverse side carried an image of Lady Liberty. The first coins were related to the silver dollar. The half-dollar contained half as much silver, the quarter had one-fourth as much. The dime had a 10th and the half dime has a 20th as much silver as the dollar. Only the penny was made of copper. In 1866 the Mint decided to produce a larger five-cent coin. In 2012 a one-cent copper coin minted this year fetched $1 million at a Florida auction.
    (SFC, 9/11/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)(SSFC, 9/27/09, Par p.25)(AP, 1/8/12)

1793        Cape Girardeau, Missouri, was first founded where the present day Cape Rock Park sits, when Don Louis Lorimier was given a land grant by the Spanish government. The City of Cape Girardeau celebrated its 200th year in 2006.
    (www.cityofcapegirardeau.org/)

1793        In Vermont Captain John Norton founded a stoneware pottery shop in Bennington. The wares were rarely marked until 1823. Various members of the family worked at the pottery until it closed shop in 1894.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, Z1 p.3)

1793        The Spanish Governor of Alta California made the first official notice of the fire problem in California. He warned military officers, missions and civil authorities of the problem.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)

1793        There was a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia. Stephen Girard risked his life and fortune in stopping the epidemic.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)

1793        Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, reached the Pacific coast completing his crossing of North America. He began the trip in 1789. He raised Britain's claims to the pacific Northwest.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1793        The British took over the island of St. Vincent and a series of wars ensued against the black Caribs.
    (SFC, 7/25/07, p.E2)

1793        China’s Emperor Qianlong accepted gifts from Lord George Macartney, but turned away the British fleet under his command with the declaration that China had all things in abundance and had no interest in “foreign manufactures."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.13)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.43)

1793        The courthouse at the St. Maarten Island Dutch capital of Philipsburg was built.
    (SFEC,2/16/97, p.T7)

1793        The Minton dishware company was established in Stoke, Staffordshire, England.
    (SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)(SFC, 3/19/08, p.G6)

1793-1795    The British engaged in the ill-fated Flanders Campaign.
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1793-1801     In Afghanistan Zaman Shah ruled. Constant internal revolts continued.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1793-1835    Felicia Dorothea Browne Hemans, English poet: "Though the past haunt me as a spirit, I do not ask to forget."
    (AP, 12/31/98)

1793-1860    Thomas Addison, English physician, discovered Addison’s disease, a usually fatal disease caused by the failure of the adrenal cortex to function and marked by a bronze-like skin pigmentation, anemia, and prostration.
    (AHD, 1971, p.15)

1793-1863    Sam Houston, US soldier and political leader. He was president of the Republic of Texas from 1836-1838.
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)

1794        Jan 13, President Washington approved a measure adding two stars and two stripes to the American flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the union. The number of stripes was later reduced to the original 13.
    (AP, 1/13/01)

1794        Jan 14, Dr. Jessee Bennet of Edom, Va., performed the 1st successful Cesarean section operation on his wife.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1794        Feb 4, France’s First Republic (Convention) voted for the abolition of slavery in all French colonies. The abolition decree stated that "the Convention declares the slavery of the Blacks abolished in all the colonies; consequently, all men, irrespective of color, living in the colonies are French citizens and will enjoy all the rights provided by the Constitution." Slavery was restored by the Consulate in 1802, and was definitively abolished in 1848 by the Second Republic, on Victor Schoelcher’s initiative.
    (www.ambafrance-uk.org/Slavery-Slavery-was-abolished-in.html)
1794        Feb 4, Slaves in Haiti won emancipation.
    (AP, 4/7/03)(WSJ, 3/1/04, p.A16)

1794        Feb 10, Joseph Haydn’s 99th Symphony in E, premiered.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1794        Feb 11, A session of US Senate was 1st opened to the public.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1794        Feb 14, 1st US textile machinery patent was granted, to James Davenport in Phila.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1794        Feb 21, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Mexican Revolutionary, was born.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1794        Mar 3, 1st performance of Joseph Haydn’s 101st Symphony in D.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1794        Mar 3, Richard Allen founded AME Church.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1794        Mar 14, Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin, an invention that revolutionized America's cotton industry. He paid substantial royalties to Catherine T. Greene and this makes his claim to the invention suspect.
    (AP, 3/14/97)(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E3)

1794        Mar 22, Congress passed laws prohibiting slave trade with foreign countries, although slavery remained legal in the United States. Congress banned US vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.
    (HN, 3/22/01)(MC, 3/22/02)

1794        Mar 23, Josiah Pierson patented a "cold-header" (rivet) machine.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1794        Mar 23, Lieutenant-General Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1794        Mar 24, In Cracow a revolutionary manifesto was proclaimed. The Lithuanian and Polish nobility under the leadership of Tadas Kasciuska revolted against Russian control.
    (H of L, 1931, p. 81-82)(LHC, 3/23/03)

1794        Mar 27, The US Congress approved "An Act to provide a Naval Armament" of six armed ships. [see Oct 13, 1775]
    (AP, 3/27/07)

1794        Mar 28, Marie-Joseph de Condorcet (b.1743), mathematician (Theory of Comets) and philosopher, died as a fugitive from French Revolution Terrorists.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marquis_de_Condorcet)

1794        Apr 5, Georges-Jacques Danton (b.1759), French revolutionary leader, was guillotined along with Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, French author, politician, and Camille Desmoullins, popular journalist. In 2009 Jonathan Cape authored “Danton: The Gentle Giant of Terror."
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Danton)

1794        Apr 7, In Poland at the battle of Raclawice the revolutionary forces of Tadeusz Kosciusko defeated the imperial armies.
    (DrEE, 9/21/96, p.5)

1794        Apr 8, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicholas-Caritat, mathematician died.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1794        Apr 19, Tadeusz Kosciusko forced Russians out of Warsaw.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1794        Apr 10, Matthew Calbraith Perry, the American Navy Commodore who opened Japan, was born.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1794        Apr 11, Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, statesman and orator, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1794        May 6, In Haiti Toussaint Louverture (L’Ouverture), Haitian rebel leader, ended his alliance with the Iberian monarchy and embraced the French Republicans. An order followed that led to the massacre of Spaniards.
    (www.travelinghaiti.com/history_of_haiti/toussaint_louverture.asp)(WSJ, 1/19/07, p.W4)
1794        May 6, Jean-Jacques Beauvarget-Charpentier (59), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1794        May 8, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry (identified oxygen), was executed on the guillotine during France's Reign of Terror. In 2005 Madison Smartt Bell authored “Lavoisier in the Year One: The Birth of a New Science in the Age of Revolution."
    (AP, 5/8/97)(SSFC, 7/3/05, p.E1)

1794        May 10, In France Elizabeth (30), the sister of King Louis XVI, was beheaded.
    (HN, 5/10/99)(MC, 5/10/02)

1794        May 18, The 2nd battle of Bouvines was between France and Austria.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1794        May 27, Cornelius Vanderbilt (d.1877), owner of the B & O railroad, was born on Staten Island. He started running steamships in 1818 and shuttled passengers to the West coast across Nicaragua for the gold rush. At age 70 he entered the railroad business. He was never accepted into New York elite society and died with an estimated $105 million fortune.
    (HN, 5/27/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1794        May, Richard Allen purchased a blacksmith shop in Philadelphia and had it moved near St. Thomas. There he founded an African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church he called Bethel, "House of God." The Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia was founded by Richard Allen after he was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church. In 1997 it was the world’s oldest AME church. The church elected its first female bishop in 2000.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)(www.pbs.org)

1794        Jun 1, English fleet under Richard Earl Howe defeated the French. (MC, 6/1/02)

1794        Jun 4, Congress passed a Neutrality Act that banned Americans from serving in armed forces of foreign powers.
    (MC, 6/4/02)
1794        Jun 4, British troops captured Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
    (HN, 6/4/98)
1794        Jun 4, Robespierre was unanimously elected president of the Convention in the French Revolution.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1794        Jun 5, Congress passed the Neutrality Act, which prohibited Americans from enlisting in the service of a foreign power.
    (AP, 6/5/99)(HN, 6/5/98)

1794        Jun 8, Maximilian Robespierre, French Revolutionary leader, worried about the influence of French atheists and philosophers, staged the "Festival of the Supreme Being" in Paris.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1794        Jun 15, The Guillotine was moved to outskirts of Paris.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1794        Jun 18, George Grote, British historian, was born.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1794        Jun 23, Empress Catherine II granted Jews permission to settle in Kiev.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1794        Jun 26, French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1794        Jul 5, Sylvester Graham, developed graham cracker, was born.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1794        Jul 8, French troops captured Brussels, Belgium.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1794        Jul 12, British Admiral Lord Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of Calvi, in Corsica.
    (HN, 7/12/98)

1794        Jul 13, Robespierre boycotted the Committee of Public Safety and the National convention after being denounced as a dictator.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1794        Jul 17, In Philadelphia the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, one of the first black churches in the country, opened its doors.
    (www.pbs.org)

1794        Jul 23, Chaos and anarchy were averted temporarily when Robespierre joined conciliation talks in Paris.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1794        Jul 26, After remaining uncharacteristically silent for several weeks, Robespierre demanded that the National Convention punish "traitors" without naming them.
    (MC, 7/26/02)
1794        Jul 26, The French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus in France.
    (HN, 7/26/98)

1794        Jul 27, French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre was overthrown and placed under arrest; he was executed the following day.
    (AP, 7/27/00)

1794        Jul 28, Maximilien Robespierre, a leading figure of the French Revolution, was sent to the guillotine. Robespierre had dominated the Committee of Public Safety during the "Reign of Terror." He asserted the collective dictatorship of the revolutionary National Convention and attacked factions led by men such as Jacques-René Hébert which he felt threatened the government‘s power. Factions opposed to Robespierre gained momentum in the summer of 1794.  Declared an outlaw of the National Convention, Robespierre and many of his followers were captured and he—along with 22 of his supporters—were guillotined before cheering crowds.
    (AP, 7/28/97)(HN, 7/28/98)(HNQ, 11//00)

1794        Jul 29, Seventy of Robespierre's followers were guillotined.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1794        Aug 7, George Washington issued a proclamation telling a group of Western Pennsylvania farmers to stop their Whiskey Rebellion. In the US in western Pennsylvania, angry farmers protested a new federal tax on whiskey makers. The protest flared into the open warfare known as the Whiskey Rebellion between US marshals and whiskey farmers.
    (http://www.ttb.gov/public_info/whisky_rebellion.shtml)(A&IP, ESM, p.16)(HNQ, 10/14/99)

1794        Aug 20, American General "Mad Anthony" Wayne defeated the Ohio Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in the Northwest territory, ending Indian resistance in the area.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1794        Aug 21, France surrendered the island of Corsica to the British.
    (HN, 8/21/98)
 
1794        Sep 10, America's first non-denominational college, Blount College (later the University of Tennessee), was chartered.
    (AP, 9/10/97)

1794        Sep 28, The Anglo-Russian-Austrian Alliance of St. Petersburg, which was directed against France, was signed.
    (HN, 9/28/98)

1794        Oct 10, The Russian Army under Gen’l. Alexander Suvorov took Warsaw and captured Tadeus Kosciusko at Maciejowice. T. Vavzeckis was became the new commander of the revolutionary forces.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(HN, 10/10/98)

1794        Oct 15, US moneymakers minted some 2,000 silver dollars of which 1,750 were deemed good enough to go into circulation. The press initially used was designed for a smaller coin and large scale production on a bigger press began a year later.
    (SFC, 7/27/05, p.C8)

1794        Nov 3, William Cullen Bryant, poet and journalist, was born.
    (HN, 11/3/00)
1794        Nov 3, Thomas Paine was released from a Parisian jail with help from the American ambassador James Monroe. He had been arrested in 1893 for not endorsing the execution of Louis XVI and thus offending the Robespierre faction. While in prison Paine began writing his "The Age of Reason" (1794-1796).
    (HN, 11/3/99)(www.ushistory.org/Paine/index.htm)

1794        Nov 11, The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council of the Six Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy (including the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes), and by Timothy Pickering, official agent of President George Washington.  The Canandaigua Treaty, a Treaty Between the United States of America and the Tribes of Indians Called the Six Nations, was signed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Canandaigua)

1794        Nov 16, Warsaw capitulated to the Russian Army and the revolution ended.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1794        Nov 19, The United States and Britain signed the Jay Treaty, which resolved some issues left over from the Revolutionary War. This was the 1st US extradition treaty.
    (AP, 11/19/97)(MC, 11/19/01)

1794        Nov 21, Honolulu Harbor was discovered.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1794        Nov 22, Strasbourg, Alsace-Lorraine, prohibited circumcision and the wearing of beards.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1794        Nov 28, Friedrich WLGA von Steuben (64), Prussian-US inspector-general of Washington’s army, died in Oneida, NY. Baron von Steuben, a former Prussian captain, had arrived in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1777, and despite false credentials, was hired to drill and train Washington’s Continental Army. His manual of arms, known as the “Blue Book," shaped basic training for American recruits for generations to come. In 2008 Paul Lockhart authored “The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army."
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)

1794        Dec 27, The Portuguese slave ship Sao Jose--Paquete de Africa sank off the coast of South Africa’s Cape Town. Some 400-500 African slaves from Mozambique were on board the vessel bound for Brazil. About half of them perished. Wreckage of the ship was found in 2015.
    (http://tinyurl.com/q9xyg73)(AP, 6/2/15)

1794        William Blake painted "The Ancient of Days." "He formed golden com-passes / And began to explore the Abyss." From the epic "The First Book of Urizen." Urizen is a pun and stands for "Your Reason." On display at the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, England.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A16)
1794        "The Book of Thell" was printed by Blake in 14+ sets of 8 different designs.
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.18)

1794        Spanish painter Goya completed his painting “Yard With Lunatics," the last in a series of uncommissioned small paintings executed during his convalescence from an illness that left him deaf.
    (WSJ, 6/18/08, p.D7)

1794        French Azilum near Towanda, Pa., was planned as an asylum for Marie-Antoinette, her children and other loyalists of the monarchy seeking refuge from the French Revolution. Loyalists who kept their heads did come and settle.
    (HT, 5/97, p.18)

1794        In the US Richard Allen was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. He founded the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church in 1787.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)

1794        The St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans was rebuilt. Two previous structures had burned down.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.63)

1794        George Washington established the first national armory at Springfield, Mass. He also authorized the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Md., where the Shenandoah flows into the Potomac.
    (WSJ, 9/12/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T7)

1794        The first American silver dollar was minted. Congress decided in 1785 that the country‘s monetary system would be based on a silver coin called a dollar, similar to that of the Spanish dollar.
    (HNQ, 1/5/00)

1794        Twenty horse soldiers were dispatched from the Presidio of San Francisco to quell an Ohlone rebellion in the Santa Cruz mountains.
    (SFC, 9/29/14, p.A1)

1794        A French inventor mixed ground graphite with clay and water and fired it to make strong pencil leads. [see 1765]
    (WSJ, 11/24/00, p.A1)

1794        Gov. Diego Borica took command of Alta California and remarked on the general fecundity of the Bay Area.
    (Bay, 4/07, p.25)
1794        Archibald Menzies introduced the California poppy to England. The seed that he brought to Kew Gardens did not survive. [see 1792, 1816,1825-1833]
    (NBJ, 2/96, p.12)

1794        British Admiral Earl Howe defeated the French fleet.
    (SFEC,10/26/97, p.T4)

1794        Ernst Chladni, German scientist, proposed that meteorites were masses of iron-rich extraterrestrial rock, which occasionally penetrated the earth’s atmosphere to strike the surface.
    (ON, 7/02, p.5)
1794        The Royal Bayreuth porcelain factory was founded in Bavaria. The factory stamped this date on dishes made after 1900.
    (SFC,11/5/97, Z1 p.3)

1794        In Italy the Bourbon monarchy created the Banca Nazionale di Napoli bringing together eight public banks including the Banco dei Poveri, established in 1563. The Piedmontese monarchy settled on the name Banco di Napoli in 1861.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.165)

1794        Napoleon’s occupying army in Maastricht, Netherlands, took back to France a giant dinosaur head that was found in a dark recess of St. Peter’s mountain in 1780. It was named the Mosasaurus and roamed the seas some 70 million years ago. The head was lugged to the home of Theodorus Godding, a canon at the local church. The French say that he swapped it to Napoleon for 600 bottles of wine. Records however seem to indicate otherwise.
    (NYT, 6/7/96, p.A4)

1794        Scotland, parish of Kirkmichael, Banffshire, on the holy well of St. Michael. (Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xii, p.464): Many a patient have its water restored to health and many more have attested the efficacies of their virtues. But as the presiding power is sometimes capricious and apt to desert his charge, it now lies neglected, choked with weeds, unhonored, and unfrequented. In better days it was not so; for the winged guardian, under the semblance of a fly, was never absent from his duty... Every movement of the sympathetic fly was regarded in silent awe...
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.93)

1794        The Russian Orthodox mission was founded in Alaska. It led to the Orthodox Church in America with 600,000 members.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)

1794        Ukraine’s port city of Odessa was founded.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.86)

1794-1824    Matthias Schmutzer, artist, produced over 1000 large-format watercolors of specimens from the imperial gardens  of Francis I. In 2006 H. Walter Lack authored “Florilegium Imperiale: Botanical Illustrations for Francis I of Austria."
    (WSJ, 5/27/06, p.P9)

1794-1815    An anthology of first hand reports on the naval war between France and Britain was edited by Dean King and John B. Hattendorf and published in 1997.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10)

1794-1872    Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German artist.
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1794-1925    The Kajar Dynasty ruled over Iran. The Gulistan Palace (constructed in this era), contains the much disputed Peacock Throne.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.326)

1795        Jan 3, The 3rd division of the Lithuanian Polish Republic was made between Russia and Austria.
    (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.5)
1795        Jan 3, Josiah Wedgwood (b.1730), British ceramics manufacturer, died. His daughter, Susannah, was the mother of Charles Darwin. In 2004 Brian Dolan authored “Wedgwood: The First Tycoon."
    (SSFC, 12/5/04, p.E5)(www.wedgwoodmuseum.org.uk/wedgwood_chronology.htm)

1795        Jan 25, The Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca., was dedicated with a Mass of Thanksgiving. A major renovation was undertaken in 1856.
    (SSFC, 1/4/09, p.B3)

1795        Jan 26, Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1795        Feb 2, Joseph Haydn’s 102nd Symphony in B premiered.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1795        Feb 4, France abolished slavery in her territories and conferred slaves to citizens.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1795        Feb 7, The 11th Amendment to US Constitution was ratified.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1795        Feb 13, The University of North Carolina became the first US state university to admit students with the arrival of Hinton James, who was the only student on campus for two weeks.
    (AP, 2/13/04)

1795        Feb 18, George Peabody, U.S. merchant and philanthropist, was born in South Danvers, Mass. 
    (HN, 2/18/98)(MC, 2/18/02)

1795        Feb 21, Francisco Manuel da Silva, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/21/02)
1795        Feb 21, Freedom of worship was established in France under constitution.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1795        Mar 11, Battle at Kurdla,  India: Mahratten beat Moguls.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1795        Mar 22, A Lithuanian delegation under L. Tiskevicius went to Jekaterina II in Petersburg and declared that Lithuania’s union with Poland was ended.
    (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.5)

1795        Mar 29, Beethoven (24) debuted as pianist in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1795        Apr 7, The National Convention of Revolutionary France put into effect a new calendar system, similar to that of ancient Egypt. The year began with the autumn equinox, and had 360 days divided into twelve months of thirty days. Five extra days were placed at the end of the year. The months were divided into three 10 day groups. The day was divided into 10 new hours, each hour into 100 minutes, and each minute into 100 seconds.
    (K.I.-365D, p.42)

1795        Apr 8, The Prince of Wales, later England’s King George IV, married his German cousin, Caroline, to produce an heir and increase his income. On their wedding night the drunken bridegroom spent the night "under the grate, where he fell, and where I left him." The story is told by Flora Fraser in her book: "The Unruly Queen: The Life of Queen Caroline." Masterpiece Theater made a TV presentation in 1997.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, DB p.3)(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_of_Brunswick)

1795        Apr 21, Vincenzo Pallotti, Italian saint, was born.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1795        Apr 23, In Britain the trial to impeach Warren Hastings, governor-general of India (1773-1785), on 21 charges for high crimes and misdemeanors ended after 7 years. Hastings was acquitted on all charges.
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.11)(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 4/23/02)

1795        Apr 28, Charles Sturt (d.1869), explorer of Australia, was born in India. British explorer Charles Sturt is known as the "father of Australian exploration." He was the first to penetrate deep into Australia's interior from 1828 to 1845 during three hazardous expeditions. In 1828 he discovered the Darling River and in January 1830 the Murray River, which he followed until he reached present day Goolwa. His last expedition came to an end when his eyesight was impaired by exposure and illness. Scotsman John McDouall Stuart was part of Stuart's final expedition and went on to become a major explorer, crossing the continent from Adelaide to Port Darwin in 1862.
    (http://members.ozemail.com.au/~fliranre/home.htm)
    (HN, 4/28/98)(HNQ, 5/26/98)

1795        Spring, Some 300 Indians fled Mission Dolores in San Francisco following a year of food shortages and disease that killed over 200. They sought refuge in the East Bay hills and Napa.
    (SFC, 9/26/03, p.D15)

1795        May 4, Thousands of rioters entered jails in Lyons, France, and massacred 99 Jacobin prisoners.
    (HN, 5/4/99)

1795        May 6, Dr. Pierre-Joseph Dessault visited the incarcerated 10-year-old dauphin, the heir to the French throne. He found the dying child in abject misery. The boy died June 8.
    (WSJ, 10/18/02, p.W9)

1795        May 10, Jacques-Nicolas-Augustin Thierry, historian, was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1795        May 13, Joshua Ratoon Sands (d.1883), Commander (Union Navy), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1795        May 15, Napoleon entered the Lombardian capital of Milan in triumph. After taking Milan he released his troops on the townspeople who became victims of an orgy of destroying, raping and killing. The events are described in the 1998 biography "Napoleon Bonaparte" by Alan Schom.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)(HN, 5/15/98)

1795        May 19, Johns Hopkins, founder of Johns Hopkins University, was born.
    (HN, 5/19/98)
1795        May 19, James Boswell (54), friend and biographer of Samuel Johnson, died. His 1791 biography, the Life of Samuel Johnson," changed the way biographies were written by its emphasis on character and careful research.
    (ON, 11/06, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Boswell)

1795        May 20, Ignac Martinovics, Hungarian physicist, revolutionary, was beheaded.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1795        May, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, sailed from England on behalf of the British African Association to search for the Niger River.
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)

1795        Jun 8, In France the Dauphin (Louis XVII), son and sole survivor of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, died at age 10 after succumbing to tuberculosis in the Temple prison. His heart was cut from his body when he died in prison, pickled, stolen, returned, and DNA-tested two centuries later. In 2002 Deborah Cadbury authored "The Lost King of France."
    (SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/18/02, p.W9)(AP, 6/3/04)

1795        Jul 7, Thomas Paine defended the principal of universal suffrage at the Constitutional Convention in Paris.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1795        Jul 9, James Swan paid off the $2,024,899 US national debt.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1795        Jul 14, "La Marseillais," written in 1792, became the French national anthem.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7a4p9)

1795        Jul 22, Spain signed the Peace of Basel, a treaty with France ending the War of the Pyrenees. The treaty ceded Santo Domingo to France.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Basel)

1795        Aug 3, A defeated Indian coalition met with Gen. Anthony Wayne in a treaty council at Greenville, Ohio. The event is the subject of a painting by Howard Chandler Christy. From a review of 500 Nations by Alvin M. Josephy Jr., published by Knopf in 1995 to accompany an 8-hour television documentary.
    (SFE Mag., 2/12/95, p. 18)

1795        Aug 15, Franz Joseph Haydn left England for the last time.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1795        Aug 20, Joseph Haydn returned to Vienna from England.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1795        Aug 31, Franxois-Andre Danican Philidor, composer, died at 68.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1795        Sep 1, James Gordon Bennet was born. He later served as the editor of the New York Sun, the first tabloid-sized daily newspaper.
    (HN, 9/1/00)

1795        Sep 16, The Capitulation of Rustenburg: A Dutch garrison at the Cape of Good Hope surrendered to a British fleet under Adm. George Elphinstone.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1795        Sep 17, Giuseppi Saverio Rafaele Mercadante, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1795        Sep 23, A national plebiscite approved the new French constitution, but so many voters sustained that the results were suspect.
    (HN, 9/23/99)
1795        Sep 23, Conseil of the Cinq-Cents (Council of 500), formed in Paris.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1795        Oct 4, General Napoleon Bonaparte led the rout of counterrevolutionaries in the streets of Paris, beginning his rise to power. France was in the midst of economic disaster—a factor that aided royalist counterrevolutionaries in their attempts to incite rebellion against the young republican government. Bonaparte, looking for a new command while on half pay in Paris, joined the defense of the Convention against overwhelming odds.
    (HN, 10/4/99)(HNQ, 10/26/00)

1795        Oct 5, The day after he routed counterrevolutionaries in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte accepted their formal surrender. Napoleon takes charge.
    (HN, 10/5/99)

1795        Oct 11, In gratitude for putting down a rebellion in the streets of Paris, France's National Convention appointed Napoleon Bonaparte second in command of the Army of the Interior.
    (HN, 10/11/99)

1795        Oct 13, William Prescott, American Revolutionary soldier, died.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1795        Oct 24, Russia, Austria and Prussia held a convention in Petersburg to finalize the 3rd division of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic. Most of Lithuania with Vilnius went to Russia, Warsaw and the left bank of the Nemunas River went to Prussia and Cracow went to Austria. King Stanislovas Augustas of Poland was forced from his capital and moved to Grodno (Gardinas).
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(MC, 10/24/01)

1795        Oct 26, Napoleon Bonaparte, second-in-command, became the army's commander when General Paul Barras resigned his commission as head of France's Army of the Interior to become head of the Directory.
    (HN, 10/26/99)

1795        Oct 27, The United States and Spain signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also known as Pinckney's Treaty), which provided for free navigation of the Mississippi River.
    (AP, 10/27/97)

1795        Oct 31, John Keats (d.1821), English poet, was born in London.
    (WUD, 1994, p.781)(AP, 10/31/97)(HN, 10/31/98)

1795        Nov 2, James Knox Polk, the 11th president of the United States, was born in Mecklenburg County, N.C.
    (AP, 11/2/97)(HN, 11/2/98)

1795        Nov 28, US paid $800,000 and a frigate as tribute to Algiers and Tunis.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1795        Dec 3, Rowland Hill, introduced 1st adhesive postage stamp (1840), was born.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1795        Dec 4, Thomas Carlyle (d.1881), English (Scot) essayist, critic and historian, friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson, was born. His work included "The French Revolution" and "Sartor Resartus." "A man doesn’t know what he knows, until he knows what he doesn’t know." "No great man lives in vain. The history of the world is but the biography of great men."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.400)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 7/2/98)(HN, 12/4/00)

1795        Dec 14, John Bloomfield Jarvis, civil engineer, was born.
    (HN, 12/14/00)

1795        William Blake painted his "Elohim Creating Adam."
    (SFC,1/21/97, p.A20)

c1795        Wilhelm von Kobell, German artist, made his watercolor "Staff Officers Listening to the Reading of the Day’s Orders."
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1795        Charles Wilson Peale painted "The Staircase Group: Raphaelle and Titian Ramsay Peale." He also did a portrait of Martha Washington. [see 1853]
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.E1)(SFEC, 7/27/97, DB p.35)

1795        Kitagawa Utamoro, Japanese artist, made his woodblock print "Oiran" about this time.
    (WSJ, 4/24/96, A-12)

1795        Hutton’s "Theory of the Earth" appeared in book form, but did not impact the reading public due to his stiff style.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.70)(DD-EVTT, p.17)

1795        Beethoven had a terrible bout of "continual diarrhea" while finishing his B-flat piano concerto.
    (WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A1)

1795        Samuel Adams and Paul Revere laid the cornerstone for the Massachusetts State House in Boston. In 2014 crews removed a time capsule from the cornerstone.
    (AH, 10/07, p.73)(SFC, 12/12/14, p.A11)

1795        The oldest tomato ketchup recipe, according to Andrew F. Smith author of "Pure Ketchup: A History of America’s National Condiment," was written in Worcester, Mass.
    (SFC, 7/3/96, zz-1,p.3)

1795        Jim Beam, US producer of fine Bourbon whiskey was founded.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.82)

1795        Franciscan priests first visited the site of San Ysabel in San Diego County.
    (SFE, 9/16/96, p.A15)

1795        Britain reinforced its forces in St. Domingue. It was the largest expedition that had ever left England.
    (SFCM, 5/30/04, p.12)
1795        Lime juice was issued to all British sailors to aid in prevention of scurvy. Captain James Cook (d.1779) had prepared a paper detailing his groundbreaking work against scurvy. He was awarded the gold Copley Medal-one of the highest honors of England's Royal Society. Scurvy epidemics were once common among sailors on long voyages. Cook was the first to beat the problem, recognizing the need for an appropriate diet for his sailors.
    (HNQ, 7/21/98)
1795        The British won a battle against the local Garifuna on St. Vincent’s Island.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)
1795        In England the Coalport Porcelain Works began operations about this time.
    (SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)(www.thepotteries.org/allpotters/283.htm)

1795        In Nova Scotia, Canada, local youths on Oak Island stumbled on an unusual depression that appeared to lead to a shaft. For years treasure hunters dug down into what became known as the “Money Pit."
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1795        A set of remains that the Spaniards believed to be of Christopher Columbus were dug up from behind the main altar in the newly built cathedral of Santo Domingo and shipped to a cathedral in Havana, where they remained until the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, when Spain brought them to Seville. In 1877 workers digging inside the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing 13 large bone fragments and 28 small ones. It was inscribed "Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon." The Dominicans said these were the real remains of Columbus and that the Spaniards must have taken the wrong remains.
    (SFC, 1/18/05, p.A8)

1795        In Paris the Place de la Concorde, a public square designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1755, was renamed Place de la Revolution.
    (WSJ, 10/26/99, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_de_la_Concorde)
1795        France adopted the metric system. France had begun moving to base ten in the 16th century after using a vigesimal, base 20, system.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.62)

1795        Maruyama Okyo (b.1733), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died. His work included a 50 mile scene in "Both Banks of the Yodo River."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)

1795        The Loyal Orange Institution was established in Portadown to proclaim Protestant ascendancy. The Orange Order was founded as a force for uniting disparate Protestant denominations under one anti-Catholic banner. It was instrumental in creating Northern Ireland in 1921 shortly before the predominantly Catholic rest of Ireland won independence from Britain.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 7/12/99, p.A19)(AP, 7/12/13)

1795        The Persians invaded Khurasan (province) in Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1795        Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, the last king of Poland, was forced to abdicate.
    (WSJ, 2/15/00, p.A24)
1795        Poland and Lithuania were partitioned for the last time by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
    (Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)

1795        The South African Cape was first occupied by the British.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)

1795        In Tripoli Pasha Yusef Karamanli deposed his older brother Hamet in a bloodless coup.
    (ON, 10/06, p.8)

1795-1805    Elias Boudinot served as the director of the US mint.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1795-1818    The US flag had 15 stars and 15 stripes over this period.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A11)

1795-1818    Carl Phillip Fohr, German artist.
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1795-1825    Joshua Johnson, the first professional African-American portrait painter, plied his art in Baltimore.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)

1795-1840    New York state and local governments entered into 26 treaties and several purchase agreements with the Oneida Indians to acquire all but 32 of 270,000 acres. Almost none of the transactions were approved by Congress as required by a 1790 law.
    (SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)

1795-1874    Peter Andreas Hansen, Danish astronomer.
    (WUD, 1994, p.644)

1795-1875    Christian Gottfried Ehlenberg, German naturalist, known especially for his studies of infusoria, i.e. microscopic organisms.
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1795-1921    The state of Poland was gobbled up by Russia, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prussia.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)

1796        Jan 5, Samuel Huntington (64), US judge (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1796        Jan 8, Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois (46), French Revolution leader, died in exile. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety that ruled during The Terror.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1796        Feb 8, China’s Emperor Qianlong (1711-1799) abdicated in favor of his son. Despite his voluntary abdication, from 1796 to 1799 Qianlong continued to hold on to power and the Jiaqing Emperor (d.1820) ruled only in name.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.95)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.95)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qianlong_Emperor)

1796        Feb 17, Giovanni Pacini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/17/02)
1796        Feb 17, James Macpherson (b.1736), Scottish poet, died. In 1761 he had announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal written by Ossian (based on Fionn's son Oisín). He then published poems by Ossian, the alleged blind 3rd century poet, which became very popular and later exposed as a fraud.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Macpherson)

1796        Mar 1, The 1st National Meeting was held in the Hague.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1796        Mar 9, Napoleon Bonaparte (26) married Josephine Tascher de Beauharnais (32) in Paris.
    (AP, 3/9/98)(HN, 3/9/98)

1796        Mar 19, Stephen Storace (33), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1796        Mar 31, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's "Egmont," premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1796        Apr 2, Haitian revolt leader Toussaint L’Ouverture commanded French forces at Santo Domingo.
    (AP, 4/2/99)

1796        Apr 3, The 1st elephant was shipped to the US from Bengal, India, by Broadway showman Jacob Croninshield.
    (SFC, 11/18/00, p.B3)

1796        Apr 13, The 1st elephant arrived in US from India.
    (MC, 4/13/02)
1796        Apr 13, Battle at Millesimo, Italy: Napoleon beat the Austrians.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1796        Apr 22, Napoleon defeated the Piedmontese at Battle of Mondovi.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1796        May 4, Horace Mann, "the father of American Public Education" educator and author, was born.
    (HN, 5/4/99)

1796        May 10, Napoleon Bonaparte won a brilliant victory against the Austrians at Lodi bridge in Italy.
    (HN, 5/10/99)

1796        May 14, English physician Edward Jenner administered the first vaccination against smallpox to his gardener's son, James Phipps (8). A single blister rose up on the spot, but James later demonstrated immunity to smallpox. Jenner actually used vaccinia, a close viral relation to smallpox. [see July 21, 1721]
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.77)(AP, 5/14/08)

1796        May 19, A game protection law was passed by Congress to restrict encroachment by whites on Indian hunting grounds.
    (DTnet 5/19/97)

1796        May 27, James S. McLean patented his piano.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1796         Jun 1, Tennessee became the 16th state of the Union.
    (AP, 6/1/97)
1796         Jun 1, In accordance with the Jay Treaty, all British troops were withdrawn from U.S. soil.
    (DTnet 6/1/97)

1796        Jul 4, The 1st US Independence Day celebration was held.
    (Maggio)

1796        Jul 11, Captain Moses Porter led a party of American troops into Detroit. At noon, the Union Jack came down, and the flag of the United States was raised over Detroit for the first time. Under provisions of the Jay Treaty of 1794, the British had agreed to give up control of Michigan and other parts of the Northwest Territory they had occupied since the conclusion of the Revolutionary War.
    (http://tinyurl.com/kuws9m3)

1796        Jul 15, Thomas Bulfinch, historian and mythologist (The Age of Fable), was born.
    (HN, 7/15/01)

1796        Jul 16, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (d.1875), French painter, was born. His work included "Madame Corot" (1833-1835) and "Interrupted Reading" (1870-1873). He led the way toward new forms of perspective and composition that was later mined by impressionism and photography.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(WSJ, 10/25/96, p.A15)(WSJ, 3/25/97, p.A16)(MC, 7/16/02)

1796        Jul 21, Robert Burns (b.1759), Scottish poet and a lyricist (Auld Lang Syne), died. In 2009 Robert Crawford authored “The Bard: Robert Burns."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Burns)(SSFC, 1/25/09, Books p.3)

1796        Jul 22, Cleveland, Ohio, was founded by Gen. Moses Cleaveland. Moses Cleaveland came to where the city of Cleveland now sits and surveyed the land. After three months he returned to Connecticut. The city bears his name.
    (SFC, 6/2/96, T10)(AP, 7/22/97)

1796        Jul 23, Franz Adolf Berwald, Sweden, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1796        Jul 26, George Catlin, American artist and author, was born.
    (HN, 7/26/01)

1796        Jul, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, reached the Niger River at Segou, (Mali). Mansong, the African chief at Segou, gave Park enough money to return to the coast. Park described his journey in his book: "Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa."
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)

1796        Sep 17, President George Washington delivered his "Farewell Address" to Congress before concluding his second term in office. Washington counseled the republic in his farewell address to avoid "entangling alliances" and involvement in the "ordinary vicissitudes, combinations, and collision of European politics." Also "we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies."
    (WSJ, 5/31/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A15)(HN, 9/17/98)

1796        Sep 19, President Washington's farewell address was published. In it, America's first chief executive advised, "Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all."
    (AP, 9/19/97)

1796        Nov 3, John Adams was elected president. [see Dec 7]
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1796        Nov 7, Catharina II (67), "the Great", tsarina of Russia (1762-96), died. [see Nov 17]
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1796        Nov 17, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated an Italian army near the Alpone River, Italy, in the Battle of Arcole.
    (HN, 11/17/98)(MC, 11/17/01)
1796        Nov 17, Catharine II (67), empress of Russia known as Catharine the Great (1762-96), died. Over her 69 years she had at least 12 lovers including Prince Potemkin. [see Nov 7]
    (MC, 11/17/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)

1796        Dec 7, Electors chose John Adams to be the second president of the United States. [see Nov 3]
    (AP, 12/7/97)

1796        Dec 18, The Baltimore Monitor appeared as the 1st US Sunday newspaper.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1796        Dec 30, Jean-Baptiste Lamoyne (45), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1796        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted "Marie-Anne-Celestine Pierre de Vellefrey," the portrait of a little girl.
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1796        Jane Austen began her novel “Pride and Prejudice." Its initial title was “first Impressions." It was finally published in 1830.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.104)(ON, 12/09, p.8)

1796        George Owen’s "History of Pembrokeshire" was published. It was written in 1570 and sets forth the principle of geological stratigraphy.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.7)

1796        Immanuel Kant wrote his "Perpetual Peace," advocating a world government.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.317)

1796        The White House and Congress engaged in its 1st struggle over background documents. Pres. Washington denied a House request for documents on the Jay Treaty. The documents had already been shared with the Senate.
    (WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A24)

1796        Supporters of John Adams in his victorious campaign against Thomas Jefferson, called Jefferson "an atheist, anarchist, demagogue, coward, mountebank, trickster, and Francomaniac."
    (WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A22)

1796        Andrew Jackson was elected as Tennessee’s 1st congressman.
    (SSFC, 10/30/05, p.M3)

1796        In [France] Michael Thonet was born in the Rhenish village of Boppard. He invented the classic bent wood chair.
    (WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

c1796        Austrian numbered bank accounts originated during the Hapsburg era.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C2)

1796        The British seized the island of Sri Lanka, then under the name of Ceylon.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.A8)

c1796        The Orange Order was founded to commemorate the King William of Orange Protestant victory over Catholic King James II.
    (SFC, 6/26/96, p.A8)

1796        Mary Lamb (31) killed her mother with a carving knife. England deemed her a lunatic and released into the custody of her brother Charles. In 1806 they published “Tales From Shakespeare." In 2005 Susan Tyler Hitchcock authored “Mad Mary Lamb."
    (WSJ, 2/18/05, p.W6)

1796        Cuba exported Havana cigars to Britain.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

c1796        In Lithuania Elijah ben Solomon Zalmen, the Gaon of Vilna, urged Jews to study grammar, astronomy and other disciplines as well as the Torah. His writings survived and in 1996 were being stored under controversy in a Roman Catholic Church in Vilnius as property of the Lithuanian National Library.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A15)

1796        Hacienda Santa Teresa began producing rum in Venezuela. In 1885 it was bought out by the Vollmer family.
    (WSJ, 11/10/04, p.A8)

c1796        The Tutsi Banyamulenge arrived into Zaire.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)

1796-1797    Napoleon conquered northern Italy.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)

1796-1799    Brazilian Baroque sculptor Aleijadinho (Antonio Francisco Lisboa), completed his greatest work: the sculptures of Congonhas do Campo, 66 wooden images that include the 12 prophets.
    (USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.10)

1796-1865    Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Canadian jurist and humorist: "When a man is wrong and won't admit it, he always gets angry."
    (AP, 6/14/99)

1797        Jan 1, Albany became the capital of New York state, replacing New York City.
    (AP, 1/1/98)

1797        Jan 11, Francis Lightfoot Lee (62), US farmer and signer Declaration of Independence, died.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1797        Jan 14, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Austrians at Rivoli in northern Italy.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1797          Jan 31, Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born in Lichtenthal, Austria. His works included the C Major Symphony and The Unfinished Symphony.
     (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B11)(AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)

1797        Feb 4, Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador, some killed 40,000 people. Riobamba was destroyed.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/13061c.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/btbdc)

1797        Feb 9, John Quincy Adams’ (Sr.) emerged victorious from America's first contested presidential election.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1797        Feb 12, Haydn’s song "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser," (popularized years later as "Deutschland Uber Alles," by Nazis), premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1797        Feb 14, The Spanish fleet was destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.
    (HN, 2/14/99)

1797        Feb 15, Henry Steinway (d.1871), German-American piano maker, was born in Germany as Heinrich Steinweg. He move to the US in 1851. The name was anglicized in 1864.
    (WSJ, 7/15/06, p.P8)(http://tinyurl.com/qn6dy)

1797        Feb 19, Pope Pius VI ceded papal territory to France in the Treaty of Tolentino.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.353)

1797        Feb 21, Trinidad, West Indies surrendered to the British.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1797        Feb 23, Antoine d'Auvergne (83), French opera composer (Coquette), died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1797        Feb 26, Bank of England issued 1st £1-note.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1797        Mar 2, The Directory of Great Britain authorized vessels of war to board and seize neutral vessels, particularly if the ships were American.
    (HN, 3/2/99)
1797        Mar 2, Horace [Horatio] Walpole (79), British horror writer, died.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1797        Mar 4, Vice-President John Adams, elected President on December 7, to replace George Washington, was sworn in. Adams soon selected Timothy Pickering as his secretary of state. Pickering extended aid to Haitian slaves in their ongoing revolt against French colonists. This policy was reversed under Jefferson.
    (HN, 3/4/99)(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.M6)

1797        Mar 13, Cherubini's opera "Medee," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1797        Mar 22, Kaiser Wilhelm I, German Emperor (1871-88), was born.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1797        Mar 25, John Winebrenner, U.S. clergyman who founded the Church of God, was born.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1797        Mar 26, James Hutton, geologist, died.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1797        Mar 28, Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire patented a washing machine.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1797        Apr 14, Adolphe Thiers, 1st president of 3rd French Republic (1871-77), was born. [see Apr 18]
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1797        Apr 18, Louis-Adolphe Thiers, president of France, was born. [see Apr 14]
    (MC, 4/18/02)
1797        Apr 18, France and Austria signed a cease fire.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1797        Apr, A British armada of 68 vessels and 7,000 men under Scotsman Sir Ralph Abercromby attacked San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Spanish defenses held. A procession of women made up to look like soldiers caused the siege to be called off. An annual parade later commemorated this event.
    (HT, 4/97, p.34)(SFEC, 2/13/00, p.T1)

1797        May 2, A mutiny in the British navy spread from Spithead to the rest of the fleet.
    (HN, 5/2/99)

1797        May 10, The 1st American Navy ship, the "United States," was launched.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1797        May 12, Johann Hermann Kufferath, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)
1797        May 12, George Washington addressed the Delaware chiefs and stated: "It is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and to humbly implore his protection and favor."
    (WSJ, 6/26/01, p.A23)

1797        May 18, Frederik Augustus II, King of Saxon (1836-54), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1797        Jun 2, 1st ascent of "Great Mountain" (4,622') in Adirondack, NY, was by C. Broadhead.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1797        Jun 11, Padre Fermin Francisco de Lasuen and a few Spanish soldiers established Mission San Jose on a little creek and grove of trees that they called Alameda. It was the 14th of 21 California missions. It was the end of a way of life for the local Ohlone Indians.
    (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A17)

1797        Jun 17, Aga Mohammed Khan, cruel ruler of Persia, was castrated and killed.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1797        Jun 24, Mission San Juan Bautista, the 15th in California, was founded in the lands of the Mutsun Indians. Father Fermin de Lasuen blessed the future site of Mission San Juan Bautista in California.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)(SJSVB, 6/24/96, p.41)(SFC, 9/3/97, p.A17)

1797        Jun, In London, England, Hatchards bookstore on Piccadilly was founded.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.99)

1797        Jul 7, The US House of Representatives exercised its constitutional power of impeachment, and voted to charge Senator William Blount of Tennessee with "a high misdemeanor, entirely inconsistent with his public duty and trust as a Senator." Blount had financial problems which led him to enter into a conspiracy with British officers to enlist frontiersmen and Cherokee Indians to assist the British in conquering parts of Spanish Florida and Louisiana.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1797        Jul 9, Edmund Burke (b.1729), Irish-born British statesman, parliament leader, died. His writing included “Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790). In 2013 Jesse Norman authored “Edmund Burke: The First Conservative." In 2014 David Bromwich authored “The Intellectual Life of Edmund Burke: From the Sublime and Beautiful to American Independence.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.85)(Econ, 7/5/14, p.69)

1797        Jul 10, 1st US frigate, the "United States," was launched in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1797        Jul 25, Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuen founded Mission San Miguel Archangel, the 16th California mission. He took possession of the land on behalf of Viceroy Branciforte. The mission facilitated travel between Mission San Luis Obispo and Mission San Antonio.
    (SB, 3/28/02)

1797        Aug 30, Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), the creator of "Frankenstein," or the Modern Prometheus, was born in London. Her mother died in childbirth.
    (AHD, p.1193)(AP, 8/30/97)(HN, 8/30/98)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1797        Sep 6, William "Extra Billy" Smith, Confederacy (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1797        Sep 20, The US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) was launched in Boston. [see Oct 21]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1797        Oct 9, In Lithuania Elijahu ben Solomon Zalman (b.1720), the Great Gaon of Vilnius, died. He was one of the most influential Rabbinic authorities since the Middle Ages.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vilna_Gaon)

1797        Oct 16, Lord Cardigan, leader of the famed Light Brigade which was decimated in the Crimean War, who eventually had a jacket named after him, was born.
    (HN, 10/16/98)

1797        Oct 21, The 44-gun 204-foot U.S. Navy frigate USS Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, was launched in Boston's harbor. It was never defeated in 42 battles. 216 crew members set sail again in 1997 for its 200th birthday. [see Sep 20]
    (AP, 10/21/97)(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A1)(SFC,10/22/97, p.A6)

1797        Oct 22, French balloonist Andre-Jacques Garnerin made the first parachute descent, landing safely from a height of about 3,000 feet; at some 2,200 feet over Paris.
    (AP, 10/22/97)(HN, 10/22/98)

1797        Nov 19, Sojourner Truth (d.1883), abolitionist and women's rights advocate, was born. "Religion without humanity is a poor human stuff."
    (HN, 11/19/98)(AP, 10/29/00)

1797        Nov 29, Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti, composer (Lucia di Lamermoor, l'Elisir d'Amore), was born.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1797        Dec 13, Heinrich Heine (d.1856), German lyric poet, critic, satirist and journalist, was born. His works included "Trip to the Hartz Mountains" and "Germany, a Winter Tale." "In these times we fight for ideas, and newspapers are our fortresses."
    (AHD, p.611)(AP, 7/18/97)(HN, 12/13/99)

1797        Dec 17, Joseph Henry, US scientist, inventor, pioneer of electromagnetism, was born. [see Dec 18]
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1797        Dec 18, Joseph Henry, inventor, scientist and the first director of the Smithsonian Inst., was born. [see Dec 17]
    (WSJ, 12/17/97, p.A20)

1797        Dec 29, John Wilkes (b.1725), British journalist and politician, died. He opposed King George’s policies in Massachusetts. In 1974 Audrey Williamson authored “Wilkes: A Friend to Liberty." 
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)(www.eastlondonhistory.com/wilkes.htm)(ON, 12/11, p.9)

1797        Franz Kruger (d.1857), German Biedermeier artist of cityscapes and rural genre scenes, was born.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1797        Samuel Taylor Coleridge authored his "Rime of the Ancient Mariner."
    (CW, Winter 04, p.17)

1797        John Frere published his paper "The Beginnings of Paleolithic Archaeology." It described his finding in 1790 Acheulean hand axes associated with the large bones of unknown animals (actually elephants).
    (RFH-MDHP, p.81)

1797        Thomas Paine (1737-1809), English-American political activist, authored the pamphlet Agrarian Justice. Here he discussed the origins of property and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(Econ, 5/23/15, p.64)

1797        Mrs. Gannett of Mass. (1760-1827), born as Deborah Sampson, authored her memoir. She had fought in the American Revolution as a man under the alias Robert Shurtleff. In 2004 Alfred F. Young authored "Masquerade: The Life and Times of Deborah Sampson, Continental Soldier."
    (www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/sampson.html)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.M4)

1797        The first recorded performance of an English-language drama, the tragedy Douglas, west of the Alleghenies took place here at Washington, Kentucky.
    (HNQ, 8/8/99)

1797        In San Jose the first Juzgado (courthouse) was constructed. The Spanish Commandante Lt. Jose Moraga built a 1-story, 3-room adobe structure to house the jail, assembly hall and seat of government for the Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe that served until 1850.
    (SFC, 7/14/97, p.A15,16)

1797        Father Juan Norberto de Santiago arrived in the area of Temecula in Riverside County, Ca., to build a mission and convert the Pechanga Indians (renamed Luiseno Indians by the Spanish).
    (SSFC, 5/23/04, p.D5)

1797        James T. Callender, journalist, published charges concerning the alleged financial misdeeds of Alexander Hamilton. The information came from letters that Hamilton provided to interrogators around 1792 concerning funds paid to James Reynolds to keep quiet an affair with Reynold’s wife. The letters were passed from James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson, who passed them to Callender. Hamilton published a 28,000-word defense, Observations on Certain Documents, that revealed his relationship with Maria Reynolds and his payment of hush money.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A12)(ON, 10/05, p.6)

1797        Thomas Jefferson (53) began serving as US Vice President. He was also elected president of the American Philosophical Society and continued to 1815.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)
1797        John Anderson, a Scottish farm manager, convinced George Washington that distilling whiskey would make money. In a six-week season each spring, Washington’s men netted about a million shad and herring from the Potomac River. The catch was then salted, packed in barrels, and exported. His diversified farming was less successful, largely because of his long absences from Mount Vernon.
    (AM, 9/01, p.80)(HNQ, 8/30/02)

1797        A major fire in Savannah, Georgia destroyed two-thirds of the wood buildings from the pioneer period.
    (SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)

1797        Australia’s first coal mining began at Newcastle.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.39)

1797        A British publisher produced “The Young Man’s Valentine Writer," a collection of writing and verses for men who couldn’t create their own.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.54)(http://tinyurl.com/mp3582r)
1797        The Bank of England suspended the convertibility of its notes to gold in order to better finance Britain’s war with France. This continued to 1821.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)

1797        Some 5,000 black Carib Indians, also known as Garifuna or Garinagu, were exiled from St. Vincent Island to Roatan Island off of Honduras. The Garifuna defined themselves not by country or territory but by language and culture.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A6)

1797        French forces attacked Britain at the port of Fishguard. The event was depicted in the tapestry "The Last Invasion of Brittain."
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T5)
1797        In France Henry-Louis Pernod began to manufacture absinthe. The drink was made with fennel and aniseed and the oil of wormwood which contained thujone, a poisonous ketone.
    (WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W8)
1797        The wine bottles of Chateau Lafite that date back to this year are recorked every 25 years to safeguard the wine and prevent deterioration caused by oxidation through decayed corks.
    (WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A12)

1797        Gammarelli was founded under Pope Pius VI as tailors to the clergy.
    (SSFC, 12/28/03, p.I4)
1797        Venice, the city-state that liked to call itself La Serenissima, lost its independence and its empire. Ludovico Manin, the 120th doge of Venice, surrendered to Napoleon. A few months later Napoleon traded Venice to Austria which ruled it until 1866.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.T1)(WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)
1797        The Jewish ghetto in Venice was destroyed following the Napoleon’s invasion of Italy. This began the gradual liberation of the country’s ghettos.
    (SFC, 12/2/08, p.E1)

1797        There was a naval battle at Cape St. Vincent off the SW tip of Portugal.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1412)

1797-1801    John Adams, 2nd president of the US was in office. It was during his term that France and Britain, engaged in war with each other, insisted on the right to seize American ships. When the US protested French diplomats demanded bribes and a loan of $10 mil to stop the acts of piracy. Adams published the letters of the diplomats with the letters X,Y,Z (hence the X,Y,Z Affair) for the names of the diplomats. This enraged the populace and the country braced for war and called Washington in from Mt. Vernon to lead the army against France. Captain Thomas Truxtom captured a French frigate and defeated another French frigate in a sea battle and the French backed down. It was under Adams that the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed. These acts allowed the President sole discretion to banish aliens from the country and jail editors for writing against the President or Congress. This was vehemently opposed by Jefferson who led the Southern Republicans to adopt a resolution declaring that a state had the right to nullify a law believed to be unconstitutional.
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(A&IP, Miers, p.21)

1797-1815    Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, served as president of the American Philosophical Society. A philosopher-statesman of the Enlightenment, Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, was George Washington’s first Secretary of State and vice-president under John Adams. He was born in Virginia on April 13, 1743, and died on July 4, 1826.
    (HNQ, 9/24/99)

1797-1849     Mary Lyon, American educator: "There is nothing in the universe that I fear but that I shall not know all my duty, or shall fail to do it."
    (AP, 4/27/98)

1797-1851    Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), English novelist, author of Frankenstein. Her mother, also Mary Wollstonecraft, died in childbirth of puerperal fever. Her death prompted Godwin to publish her memoirs.
    (AHD, p.1193)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)

1797-1856    Nicholas Marcellus Hentz, a pioneer collector of North American spiders. He was a skilled painter and has left some 90 intricately executed watercolors of spiders. He published descriptions in the Journal of the Boston Society of Natural History from 1842-1850.
    (NH, 7/96, p.74,75)

1797-1858    Utagawa Hiroshige, Japanese artist, made numerous color woodblock prints.
    (SFC, 12/26/98, p.C1)

1797-1863    Theophile Bra, French academic sculptor.
    (SFC, 12/19/98, p.C18)

1797-1875    Sir Charles Lyell, British geologist. He wrote the "Principles of Geology" (1830-33) and had a profound influence upon the thinking of Charles Darwin.
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1798        Jan 1, Joseph Lancaster (19) opened his 1st low cost school in London, England, aimed at educating the children of poor. In 1803 he published the booklet “Improvements in Education, As It Respects The Industrious Classes Of the Community…"
    (ON, 3/06, p.9)

1798        Jan 8, The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was declared in effect by President John Adams nearly three years after its ratification by the states; it prohibited a citizen of one state from suing another state in federal court.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

1798        Jan 11, Erekle II (b.~1720), Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi Dynasty, died. He had reigned as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798. His name is frequently transliterated from the Latinized form Heraclius.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_within_the_Russian_Empire)

1798        Jan 22, Lewis Morris (71), US farmer (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1798        Jan 30, A brawl broke out in the House of Representatives in Philadelphia. Matthew Lyon of Vermont spat in the face of Roger Griswold of Connecticut, who responded by attacking him with a hickory walking stick. Lyon was re-elected congressman while serving a jail sentence for violating the Sedition Acts of 1798.
    (AP, 1/30/98)(SFC, 4/27/00, p.A5)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1798        Feb 15, The first serious fist fight occurred in Congress.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1798        Feb 20, Pope Pius VI fled Rome to Siena. He was later arrested and deported 1st to Florence and then to France.
    (PTA, 1980, p.500)(www.zum.de/whkmla/region/italy/papalstate17891799.html)

1798        Mar 4, Catholic women were force to do penance for kindling a Sabbath fire for Jews.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1798        Mar 9, Dr. George Balfour became 1st naval surgeon in the US Navy.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1798        Mar 13, Abigail Powers Fillmore, First Lady, was born.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1798        Mar 26, Tunis, under the rule of Bey Hamuda Pasha, signed a treaty of peace and friendship with the US following negotiations with William Eaton. The American Revolutionary War veteran had been recently appointed consul to the North African kingdom.
    (ON, 10/06, p.7)

1798        Mar 29, Republic of Switzerland formed.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1798        Apr 3, Charles B. Wilkes (d.1877), American rear admiral and explorer, was born. In Jan, 1840, Wilkes coasted along part of the Antarctic barrier from about 150 degrees east to 108 degrees east, the areas that was subsequently named Wilkes Land.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1634)(HNQ, 1/12/99)

1798        Apr 7, Territory of Mississippi was organized.
    (HN, 4/7/97)

1798        Apr 19, Franz Joseph Glaser, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1798        Apr 26, Ferdinand Eugene Delacroix (d.1863), French painter, lithograph, etcher (Journal), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eug%C3%A8ne_Delacroix)

1798        Apr 28, Joseph Haydn's oratorio "The Creation" was rehearsed in Vienna, Austria, before an invited audience.
    (AP, 4/29/07)

1798        Apr 30, US Department of Navy formed.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1798        May 2, The black General Toussaint L'ouverture forced British troops to agree to evacuate the port of Santo Domingo. After 5 years of fighting over 60% of 20,000 British troops were buried on St. Domingue.
    (HN, 5/2/99)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.12)(AP, 5/30/04)

1798        May 10, George Vancouver (40), British explorer, (Voyage of Discovery), died.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1798        May 19, A French armada of 335 ships carrying nearly 40,000 men set sail for Alexandria, Egypt, which Napoleon planned to conquer. In 2008 Paul Strathern authored “Napoleon in Egypt."
    (WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1798        May 24, Believing that a French invasion of Ireland was imminent, Irish nationalists rose up against the British occupation. It was put down by the Orange yeomanry who were enlisted by the government to restore peace. The slogan "Croppies lie down" originated here after some of the rebel Catholics had their hair cropped in the French revolutionary manner.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A15)(HN, 5/24/99)

1798        May 26, British killed about 500 Irish insurgents at the Battle of Tara.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1798        Jun 4, Giovanni Jacopo Casanova (b.1725), fabled Italian seducer, adventurer, spy, librarian, died of prostate cancer in Dux, Bohemia. While at Dux he authored his memoirs: “History of My Life." The standard English edition runs over 3,600 pages. In 2008 Ian Kelly authored “Casanova: Actor, Lover, Priest, Spy."
    (www.1911encyclopedia.org/Giovanni_Jacopo_Casanova_de_Seingalt)(WSJ, 10/24/08, p.W5)

1798        Jun 11, Napoleon Bonaparte took the island of Malta.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1798        Jun 13, Mission San Luis Rey [in California] was founded.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)

1798        Jul 1, Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria, Egypt. In 1962 J.C. Herold authored "Bonaparte in Egypt." A corps of 150 civilian artists and scientists traveled with Napoleon’s troops to Egypt. In 2007 Nina Burleigh authored “Mirage: Napoleon’s Scientists and the Unveiling of Egypt."
    (SFC, 9/11/97, p.E3)(HN, 7/1/98)(ON, 12/99, p.4)(SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)

1798        Jul 2, John Fitch, American inventor, clockmaker, died.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1798        Jul 7, Napoleon Bonaparte's army began its march towards Cairo, Egypt, from Alexandria.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1798        Jul 11, The US Marine Corps was formally re-established by a congressional act. US Pres. John Adams signed legislation that established the US Marine Band, composed of 32 drummers and fifers. Continental marines had existed during the Revolutionary War, but had since been discontinued.
    (SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-3)(HNQ, 8/1/99)(AP, 7/11/08)

1798        Jul 13, English poet William Wordsworth visited the ruins of Tintern Abbey.
    (HN, 7/13/01)

1798        Jul 14, The Sedition Act, the last of four pieces of legislation known as the Alien and Sedition Acts, was passed by Congress, making it unlawful to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the U.S. president and the U.S. government, among other things. Violations were made punishable by up to 2 years in jail and a fine of $2,000.
    (AP, 7/14/97)(HN, 7/14/98)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)
1798        Jul 14, 1st direct federal tax in US states took effect on dwellings, land and slaves.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1798        Jul 16, The Marine Hospital Service was established in the Department of the Treasury under provisions of an act (1 Stat. 605) authorizing marine hospitals for the care of American merchant seamen. In 1902 it was redesignated the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service by an act of July 1, 1902 (32 Stat. 712),
    (www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/090.html)
1798        Jul 16, US Public Health Service formed and a US Marine Hospital was authorized.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1798        Jul 21, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Murad Bey and his Arab Mameluke warriors on the outskirts of Cairo at the Battle of the Pyramids, thus becoming the master of Egypt.
    (WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1798        Jul 22, Napoleon captured Cairo, Egypt.
    (PC, 1992, p.354)

1798        Aug 1, Admiral Horatio Nelson routed the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile at Aboukir Bay, Egypt. Nelson's fleet of 14 ships led the attack on Napoleon's fleet in Abu Qir Bay, capturing six and destroying seven of the 17 French vessels. The flagship of Napoleon's fleet, L'Orient, sank in the battle. It was uncovered by a French team in 1998. More than 1,500 Frenchmen and 200 British soldiers reportedly died in the sea battle.
    (AP, 4/19/05)

1798        Aug 21, Jules Michelet, French historian was born in Paris to a family with Huguenot traditions. He wrote the 24-volume "Historie de France".
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Michelet)

1798        Sep 2, The Maltese people revolted against the French occupation, forcing the French troops to take refuge in the citadel of Valetta in Malta.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1798        Sep 11, Franz E Neumann, German mineralogist, mathematician and physicist, was born.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1798        Oct 12, The play "Wallenstein's Camp" by Friedrich von Schiller premiered in Weimar. It was set in 3 parts during the 30 Years War as Gen. Albrecht von Wallenstein fought for Catholic Emp. Ferdinand II.
    (www.schillerinstitute.org/fid_02-06/2005/051-2_Schiller_friends.html)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.78)

1798        Nov 1, Benjamin Lee Guinness, Irish brewer and Dublin mayor, was born.
    (HN, 11/1/00)(MC, 11/1/01)

1798        Nov 4, Congress agreed to pay a yearly tribute to Tripoli, considering it the only way to protect U.S. shipping.
    (HN, 11/4/98)

1798        Nov 16, Kentucky became the 1st state to nullify an act of Congress.
    (MC, 11/16/01)
1798        Nov 16, The British boarded the U.S. frigate Baltimore and impressed a number of crewmen as alleged deserters, a practice which contributed to the War of 1812.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1798        Nov 19, Theobald Wolfe Tone, Irish nationalist (United Irishmen), died.
    (MC, 11/19/01)(WSJ, 9/12/02, p.D8)

1798        Nov 30, Friedrich Fleischmann (32), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1798        Dec 4, Luigi Galvani (61), Italian anatomist and physicist, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luigi_Galvani)

1798        Dec 14, David Wilkinson of Rhode Island patented a nut and bolt machine.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1798        Dec 17, The 1st impeachment trial against a US senator, William Blount of Ten., began.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1798        Dec 24, Russia and England signed a Second anti-French Coalition.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1798        Eugene Delacroix (d.1863), French artist, was born. His work included the "Baron Schwiter."
    (WUD, 1994, p.381)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)

1798        Thomas Robert Malthus authored his “An Essay on the Principle of Population As it affects the future improvement of society with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers." His forecast for a population crash was based on the calculation that it was impossible to improve wheat yields as fast as people make babies. His 2nd edition in 1803 introduced the idea of moral restraint.
    (www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Malthus/essay2.htm)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.29)(Econ, 5/17/08, p.94)

1798        Samuel Solomon published “Guide to Health or, advice to both sexes with an essay on a certain disease, seminal weakness, and a destructive habit of private nature. Also an address to parents, tutors, and guardians of youth. To which one added, observations on the use and abuse of cold bathing" gave advice on topics including abortion, onanism, asthma, barrenness and bleeding. The main remedy for all ailments was Dr Solomon’s "Cordial Balm of Gilead."
    (http://tinyurl.com/2rrttq)(www.erudit.org/revue/ron/2001/v/n23/005993ar.html)

1798        Judith Sargent Murray wrote "The Gleaner," a collection of essays pleading for changes in women’s education and alternatives to marriage.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)

1798        Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth published "Lyrical Ballads."
    (WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)

1798        Beethoven completed his piano sonata, Op. 10, No 3, begun in 1796.
    (WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1798        Pres. John Adams stated: "Our constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.
    (WSJ, 6/26/01, p.A23)

1798         US Vice President Thomas Jefferson and Virginia Congressman James Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Jefferson became the active head of Republican Party. The Virginia Senate agreed to the Virginia Resolution on Dec 24.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky_and_Virginia_Resolutions)
1798        In the Kentucky Resolutions Thomas Jefferson protested the Alien and Sedition Acts and maintained that "free government is founded in jealousy, not in confidence; it is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind down those whom we are obliged to trust with power."
    (WSJ, 5/18/95, p.A-14)

1798        America’s first national survey of the housing stock was completed by the federal government in order to set property values for taxation.
    (AH, 4/07, p.48)

1798        The US Supreme Court ruled in the Calder vs. Bull case that Congress and the states could not pass any "ex post facto law."
    (SFC, 5/2/00, p.A3)
   
1798        Vermont Congressman Matthew Lyon (1749-1822), Irish-born former indentured servant, became the 1st person indicted under the Sedition Act of 1918. Lyon was convicted of sedition after he printed his honest opinion of Pres. John Adams. Vermont re-elected Lyon to Congress while he served his jail time. He later represented Kentucky (1803-1811) in the US House of Representatives.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1798        American seamen began paying 20 cents a month for a pension and hospitalization fund. US Navy service records date back to this time.
    (AH, 2/06, p.12)(www.archives.gov/research/order/vets-records.html)

1798        The first big US bank robbery was at the Philadelphia Carpenter's Hall, which was leased to the Bank of Philadelphia.
    (SFEC, 2/20/00, Z1 p.2)

c1798        The Peabody Essex Museum was founded in Marblehead, Mass., by 22 sea captains to preserve the exotic treasures they brought back from their voyages. It is the oldest museum in the US.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)

1798        Henry Cavendish, English chemist, came up with a reliable measure of the gravitational constant, G. His value was 0.000000000067 cubic meters per kilogram per second squared.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.20)

1798        Benjamin Thompson disproved the caloric theory of heat proposed by Antoine Lavoisier. Thompson went on to marry Lavoisier's widow.
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)

1798        Edmund Fanning, an American explorer, 1st charted Tabuaeran coral atoll (part of the Gilbert Islands, Kiribati). Fanning Island Plantations Ltd. owned the island through the 1800s and exported coconuts.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.C22)

c1798        In Germany Aloys Hirt, founder of the Berlin Academy of Art, laid plans for an art museum to present art in a systematic fashion. This led to the 1830 Altes Museum.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

1798        Napoleon annexed Egypt.
    (SFC, 9/11/97, p.E3)
1798        Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, fled in front of advancing French troops. He took with him some 20 art works from the Farnese collection, which included “Antea" by Parmigianino.
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)
1798        Napoleon expelled the Knights of Malta from their base in Malta. The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem (SMOM), without citizens or territory, became a permanent observer at the UN in 1994.
    (WSJ, 6/28/01, p.A1)
1798        Henri Jomini (d.1869), began his military career volunteering his services to the French Army. With the peace of Amiens, he left the army and wrote his "Treatise of Grand Military Operations." The book impressed Napoleon enough to have Jomini appointed a staff colonel in 1805, Jomini having volunteered again in 1804. Jomini rose to become chief of staff under Marshall Ney, but left the French army to fight for Russia in 1813 as a general and aide-de-camp of Alexander I.
    (HNQ, 9/1/00)

1798        Oct, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture negotiated a secret peace agreement in which the British renounced all claim to the colony’s lands in exchange for the right to trade freely on an equal basis with France.
    (ON, 2/10, p.7)

1798        Lord Edward Fitzgerald, an Irish rebel, was killed. He had fathered a daughter with Elizabeth Linley (d.1792), the wife of Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1798-1857    Auguste Comte, the French founder of the philosophical system of Positivism.
    (WUD, 1994, p.303)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)

1798-1868    Jacques Boucher Crevecoeur de Perthes, French customs official, collected bones and chipped implements at Abbeville and Amiens that he recognized as the remains of man’s handiwork.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.95)

1798-1993    Instances of use of US forces abroad, a report of 234 instances over this period other than peace time use.
    http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/foabroad.htm

1779        Jan 5, Stephen Decatur, U.S. naval hero during actions against the Barbary pirates and the War of 1812, was born.
    (HN, 1/5/99)

1799        Feb 9, The USS Constellation captured the French frigate Insurgente off the coast of Wisconsin.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1799        Feb 10, Napoleon Bonaparte left Cairo, Egypt, for Syria, at the head of 13,000 men.
    (AP, 2/10/99)

1799        Jan 14, Eli Whitney received a government contract for 10,000 muskets.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1799        Jan 25, Eliakim Spooner of Vermont received the 1st US patent for a seeding machine.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1799        Feb 7, China’s Emperor Qianlong (b.1711) died. He was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China (1735-1796).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qianlong_Emperor)

1799        Feb 15, The 1st US printed ballots were authorized in Pennsylvania.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1799        Mar 2, Congress standardized US weights and measures.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1799        Mar 6, Napoleon captured Jaffa, Palestine.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1799        Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured the Turkish citadel at Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners. [see Mar 26] The prisoners were massacred because Napoleon claimed that he could not feed them. About this time bubonic plague broke out among his troops.
    (HN, 3/7/99)(ON, 12/99, p.2)

1799        Mar 8, Simon Cameron, political boss, was born.
    (HN, 3/8/01)

1799        Mar 12, Austria declared war on France.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1799        Mar 17, Napoleon Bonaparte and his army reached the Mediterranean seaport of St. Jean d'Acra, only to find British warships ready to break his siege of the town.
    (HN, 3/17/00)

1799        Mar 19, Joseph Haydn’s "Die Schopfung," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/19/02)
1799        Mar 19, Napoleon Bonaparte began the siege of Acre ( later Akko, Israel), which was defended by Turks.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1799        Mar 26, Napoleon Bonaparte captured Jaffa, Palestine. [see Mar 7]
    (HN, 3/26/99)

1799        Mar 28, NY state abolished slavery.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1799        Mar, Napoleon moved on to the Turkish fortress at Acre. His 2 month siege was unsuccessful. In 1999 N. Schur authored Napoleon in the Holy Land."
    (ON, 12/99, p.2,4)

1799        Apr 1, Narciso Casanovas (52), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1799        Apr 14, Napoleon called for establishing Jerusalem for Jews.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1799        Apr 20, Friedrich Schiller's "Wallensteins Tod," the third part of his Wallenstein trilogy, premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 4/20/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallenstein_%28play%29)

1799        Apr 27, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture signed a treaty of friendship with the US under Pres. John Adams.
    (ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799        Apr 28, Francois Giroust (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1799        May 4, In India Tipu Sultan was killed in a battle against 5,000 British soldiers who stormed and razed his capital, Seringapatanam. British forces defeated the sultan of Mysore at the Battle of Seringapatam.
    (www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080048779)(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1799        May 17, Napoleon's army began its overland retreat from Acre. The march to Jaffa took one week.
    (ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799        May 18, Pierre de Beaumarchais (b.1732), French inventor and dramatist, died. In 2007 Hugh Thomas authored “Beaumarchais in Seville." In 2009 Susan Emanuel translated to English “Beaumarchais: A Biography"  by Maurice Lever (d.2006).
    (www.theatrehistory.com/french/beaumarchais001.html)(SFC, 5/30/09, p.E2)

1799        May 20, Honore de Balzac, French novelist, was born in Tours, France. He is considered the founder of the realistic school and wrote "The Human Comedy" and "Lost Illusions."
    (AP, 5/20/99)(HN, 5/20/99)
1799        May 20, Napoleon Bonaparte ordered a withdrawal from his siege of St. Jean d'Acre in Egypt. Plague had run through his besieging French forces, forcing a retreat. Napoleon, in pursuance of his scheme for raising a Syrian rebellion against Turkish domination, appeared before Acre, but after a siege of two months (March–May) was repulsed by the Turks.
    (HN, 5/20/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acre,_Israel)

1799        May 23, Thomas Hood (d.1845), English poet, composer (Song of the Shirt), was born. "I saw old Autumn in the misty morn Stand shadowless like silence, listening To silence."
    (AP, 9/23/98)(MC, 5/23/02)

1799        May 26, Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet (d.1837), was born (OC). His bicentennial in Russia was celebrated Jun 6,1999. [see Jun 6]
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(AHD, p.1062)(SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)

1799        May 28, Napoleon ordered the retreat of all troops back to Egypt from Jaffa. The march lasted 17 days with one week  to cross the Sinai.
    (ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799        May, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture signed a trade agreement with Britain. Certain elements were kept secret in order not to alienate France.
    (ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799        Jun 6, Patrick Henry, American orator, died at Red Hill Plantation, Va. Henry urged the restoration of the property and rights of Loyalists after the Revolutionary War. He believed that Loyalists would make good citizens of the new republic. Henry also bitterly opposed the Constitution as a threat to the liberties of the people and rights of the states. He believed that once the war had been won, a central authority was no longer needed. In 1998 Henry Mayer (d.2000) authored a biography of Patrick Henry.
    (SFC, 7/28/00, p.D5)(HN, 7/12/02)(AP, 6/6/08)
1799        Jun 6, Alexander Pushkin (d.1837), Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature, was born (NC). He was the descendant of an Abyssinian slave of royal blood who was given to Peter the Great as a gift. His works included "Boris Godunov," "Eugene Onegin," and "The Queen of Spades." [see May 26]
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(AHD, p.1062)(SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)(HN, 6/6/99)(WSJ, 7/15/99, p.A16)

1799        Jun 17, Napoleon Bonaparte incorporated Italy into his empire.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1799        Jun 22, In France a scientific congress adopted the length of the meter as one ten-millionth of the distance along the surface of the Earth from its equator to its pole, in a curved line of latitude passing through the center of Paris. The congress used data gathered by astronomers, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre and Pierre-François-André Mechain. The established meter proved to be .2 millimeters too short, due to incorrect latitude data gathered by Mechain.
    (http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2009/01/21/hump-day-history-the-length-of-the-meter/)(ON, 2/09, p.9)

1799        Jul 3, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture formally declared Gen. Andre Rigaud, the leader of a revolutionary army in the south and west of Saint-Domingue, a rebel.
    (ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799        Jul 11, An Anglo-Turkish armada bombarded Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in Alexandria Egypt. The attack was ineffective.
    (HN, 7/11/00)

1799        Jul 17, Ottoman forces, supported by the British, captured Aboukir, Egypt from the French.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1799        Jul 25, On his way back from Syria, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Ottomans at Aboukir, Egypt.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1800        Jul 29, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Andre Rigaud, defeated by Gen. Dessalines, set sail for France.
    (ON, 2/10, p.9)

1799        Jul 30, The French garrison at Mantua, Italy surrendered to the Austrians.
    (HN, 7/30/98)

1799        Aug 2, Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier (54), balloonist, died.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1779        Aug 10, Louis XVI of France freed the last remaining serfs on royal land.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1799        Aug 16, Vincenzo Manfredini (b.1737), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1799        Aug 22, Napoleon slipped through the British blockade of the Egyptian coast and returned to France.
    (ON, 12/99, p.4)

1799            Aug 29, Pope Pius VI (b.1717) died in Valence, France.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/12131a.htm)

1799        Sep 1, Bank of Manhattan Company opened in NYC. It was the forerunner to Chase Manhattan.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1799        Oct 7, Napoleon landed at Saint Raphael, 50 miles east of Toulon.
    (ON, 1/02, p.11)

1799        Oct 16, Napoleon arrived in Paris and met with government leaders.
    (ON, 1/02, p.11)

1799        Oct 24, Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (59), Austrian composer, died.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1799        Nov 5, The Danish ship Oldenborg was wrecked on her outward passage by being beached in the roadstead at Cape Town, South Africa, during a north-westerly gale, thus becoming one of the 127 ships that have been lost on this minuscule portion of the South African coast.
    (www.milhist.dk/weapons/oldenbur/oldenbur.htm)

1799        Nov 9, Napoleon Bonaparte instigated coup of 18 Brumaire and declared himself dictator, 1st consul, of France.
    (HN, 11/9/98)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.77)

1799        Nov 22, Baroness van Dorth, organist, was executed.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1799        Nov 29, Amos Bronson Alcott, US educator and poet (Concord Days), was born.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1799        Dec 10, The metric system was established in France.
    (MC, 12/10/01)

1799        Dec 12,  Two days before his death, George Washington composed his last letter, to Alexander Hamilton, his aide-de-camp during the Revolution and later his Secretary of the Treasury. In the letter he urged Hamilton to work for the establishment of a nationally military academy. Washington wrote that letter at the end of a long, cold day of snow, sleet and rain that he had spent out-of-doors. He remained outside for more than five hours, according to his secretary Tobias Lear, did not change out of his wet clothes or dry his hair when he returned home.
    (HNQ, 10/25/02)

1799        Dec 13, Washington awoke the following morning with a sore throat.
    (HNQ, 10/25/02)

1799        Dec 14, George Washington (b.1732), the first president of the United States, died at his Mount Vernon, Va., home. Richard Brookhiser authored "Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington." The Washingtons at this time had 317 slaves. His 5 stills in Virginia turned out some 12,000 gallons of corn whiskey a year. In 1993 Richard Norton Smith authored "George Washington and the New American Nation." In 2010 Ron Chernow authored “Washington: A Life."
    (A&IP, ESM, p.16)(AP, 12/14/97)(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W15)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A40)(Econ, 10/23/10, p.102)

1799        Dec 18, George Washington's body was interred at Mount Vernon.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1799        Dec, 21, William Wordsworth (29) and his sister, Dorothy, returned from a year in Germany to Grasmere in the Lake District. His Lyrical Ballads written jointly with Samuel Taylor Coleridge (27) had just been published. The ballads launched the Great Romantic Period in English literature.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.71)

1799        Dec 24, A Jacobin plot against Napoleon was uncovered.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1799        Dec 25, Napoleon’s new constitution went into effect. It gave him, as First Consul, powers to promulgate laws, nominate senior officials, control finances and conduct negotiations with foreign powers.
    (ON, 1/02, p.12)
1799        Dec 25, Chevalier De Saint Georges (b.1739), violinist and composer, died in Paris, France.
    http://ChevalierDeSaintGeorges.Homestead.com/Page1.html

1799        Dec 26, The late George Washington was eulogized by Col. Henry Lee as "first in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen."
    (AP, 12/26/97)

1799        In England Richard Sheridan wrote his play "Pizzaro." It implied an equivalence between persecuted Indians and the Irish.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1799        Jacques-Louis David created his painting “Rape of the Sabines."
    (WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)
1799        In Paris, France, the Passage de Panoramas, a covered arcade, was built on the site of the former Hotel de Montmorency-Luxembourg. It was the first building in Paris equipped for gas lighting.
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, p.M4)

1799        Goya (1746-1828) made his famous etching "The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters," in which fluttering bats hover darkly above a man dozing at his desk.
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1799        Antonio Salieri (1750-1825), Italian composer, wrote his opera "Falstaff."
    (WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)

1799        The Musun Indians built a chapel at the California Mission San Juan Bautista.
    (SFC, 9/3/97, p.A17)

1799        Sitka, Alaska, was founded by Alexander Baranof of the Russian American Company.
    (AH, 6/07, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitka,_Alaska)

1799        The first printed ballot in the US appeared in Pennsylvania.
    (BD emp. letter, 9/27/96)

1799        Lord Elgin was appointed British ambassador to Constantinople. He was responsible for taking down the Metopes, sculptured by Phidias, from the Parthenon, and transporting them to England.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.218)

1799        Pierre Bouchard [Boussart], an officer in Napoleon‘s army, discovered the Rosetta Stone in the city of Rosetta [Rashid], Egypt. The Rosetta Stone is a tablet with hieroglyphic translations into Greek. The stone is black basalt... and bears three texts: the uppermost is in early Egyptian hieroglyphic; the middle one in the Neo-Egyptian demotic script often used in writing papyri; and the lowermost text is Greek. Deciphering the stone, the work of English physicist Thomas Young and then French archaeologist Jean-Francois Champollion, led to an understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. Champollion published memoirs on the decipherment in 1822.
    (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.584)(RFH-MDHP, p.182)(HN, 7/19/98)(HNQ, 7/7/00)   

1799        A South African hunter shot the last blaauwboch, the blue antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus). Its numbers had been severely reduced by the introduction of domestic sheep by native Africans as early as 400AD.
    (NH, 11/96, p.24)

c1799    In China at the close of the 18th century the White Lotus Movement led a violent uprising in northeastern China.
    (WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A6)

1799        In Jaipur, India, the Hawa Mahal (the palace of wind) a five-storied sandstone building, was built by a Hindu king for his queen.
    (Reuters, 5/14/08)

1799        The Dutch East India Company liquidated and the Dutch government took control over the islands of Indonesia.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1799        In Naples, Italy, a massacre of innocents occurred that was blamed on British Admiral Horatio Nelson.
    (WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)

1799        Nagasawa Rosetsu (b.1754), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died. His work included “Monkey on a Rock."
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E10)

1799        The Russian-American Co. was chartered by Tsar Paul I. It expanded into Spanish California (see 1812) when sea otter populations declined in Alaska.
    (SFC, 6/15/01, WBb p.7)

1799        Some 70 ships were lost in the Scottish Firth of Tay.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, BR p.3)

1799        Pope Pius VI died.
    (WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1799-1804    Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), German explorer, and Aime Bonpland, botanist, led an expedition to South America. They collected over 60,000 plants.
    (http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa020298.htm)(CW, Spring ‘99, p.49)

1799-1914    This period in France was covered by Robert Gildea in his 2008 book: Children of the Revolution: The French 1799-1914."
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.87)

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