Return to home 1790 Jan 6,
Johann Trier (73), composer, died.
1790 Jan 8, President
Washington delivered the 1st "State of the Union" address in NYC.
1790 Jan 21, Joseph Guillotine
proposed a new, more humane method of execution: a machine designed
to cut off the condemned person's head as painlessly as possible.
1790 Jan 26, Mozart's opera
"Cosi Fan Tutte" premiered in Vienna.
1790 Feb 1, The US Supreme
Court convened for 1st time in Royal Exchange Building, New York
City, the nations temporary capital.
1790 Feb 6, The last stone of
the Bastille, torn down by order of the French revolutionary
leaders, was presented to the National Assembly.
(ON, 4/01, p.3)
1790 Feb 11, The first petition
to Congress for emancipation of the slaves was made by the Society
1790 Feb 20, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II (48) died.
(AP, 2/20/98)(MC, 2/20/02)
1790 Feb 26, As a result of the
Revolution, France was divided into 83 departments.
1790 Mar 1, President
Washington signed a measure authorizing the first US Census. The
Connecticut Compromise was a proposal for two houses in the
legislature-one based on equal representation for each state, the
other for population-based representation-that resolved the dispute
between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention.
Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman's proposal led to the first
nationwide census in 1790. The population was determined to be
3,929,625, which included 697,624 slaves and 59,557 free blacks. The
most populous state was Virginia, with 747,610 people and the most
populous city was Philadelphia with 42,444 inhabitants. The average
cost of this year’s census was 1.13 cents per person.
1790 Mar 14, Captain Bligh
returned to England with news of the mutiny on the Bounty.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)
1790 Mar 21, Thomas Jefferson
(46) reported to President Washington in New York as the new US
Secretary of state.
1790 Mar 22, Thomas Jefferson
(1743-1826) became the first US Secretary of State. As Secretary of
State, he served on the first Board of Arts, the body that reviewed
patent applications and granted patents. Jefferson was one of a
triumvirate that served as both America’s first patent commissioner
and first patent examiner.
1790 Mar 24, King George
ordered the Admiralty to capture Fletcher Henderson for the mutiny
on the Bounty.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)
1790 Mar 26, US Congress passed
a Naturalization Act. It required a 2-year residency.
1790 Mar 27, The shoelace was
1790 Mar 29, John Tyler, the
10th president of the United States (1841-1845), was born in Charles
City County, Va. He was also the first vice-president to succeed to
office on the death of a president.
(AP, 3/29/97)(HN, 3/29/99)(MC, 3/29/02)
1790 Mar 31, In Paris, France,
Maximilien Robespierre was elected president of the Jacobin Club.
1790 Apr 3, Revenue Marine
Service (US Coast Guard) was created.
1790 Apr 10, President George
Washington signed into law the first United States Patent Act. The
Patent Board was made up of the Secretary of State, Secretary of War
and the Attorney General and was responsible for granting patents on
"useful and important" inventions. In the first three years, 47
patents were granted. Until 1888 miniature models of the device to
be patented were required. [see July 31] The US Patent and Trademark
Office’s subject grouping scheme includes a major component called a
class and a minor one called a subclass. A class distinguishes one
technology from another. Subclasses of the USPTO delineate
processes, structural features and functional features of the
technology in that particular class. By 2015 there were 474 classes
and over 160,000 codes.
(HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 8/6/99)(AP, 4/10/07)(Econ.,
1790 Apr 17, Benjamin Franklin
(born 1706), American statesman, died in Philadelphia at age 84. He
mechanized the process of making sounds from tuned glass with his
glass armonica. In 2000 H.W. Brands authored his Franklin biography:
"The First American." In 2003 Walter Isaacson authored "Benjamin
Franklin: An American Life." In 2005 Philip Dray authored “Stealing
God’s Thunder," an account of Franklin’s work with lightning rods.
(AP, 4/17/97)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 7/3/03,
p.D8)(WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)
1790 May 21, Paris was divided
into 48 zones.
1790 May 26, Territory South of
River Ohio was created by Congress.
1790 May 29, Rhode Island
became the last of the 13 original colonies to ratify the United
States Constitution. They held out for an amendment securing
religious freedom. The state was largely founded by Baptists fleeing
persecution in Massachusetts.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 5/29/97)(HN, 5/29/98)
1790 May 31, The US copyright
law was enacted.
1790 May, John Tanner (9) was
kidnapped from his home in northern Kentucky by Saginaw Indians. He
was taken to an area near what later became Saginaw, Michigan, where
he learned the Ojibway language. After about 2 years he was sold to
a woman named Net-no-kwa, who took him up to northern Michigan and
later to Manitoba, Canada.
1790 Jun 9, The "Philadelphia
Spelling Book" was the first US work to be copyrighted.
(WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1)(MC, 6/9/02)
1790 Jun 9, Civil war broke out
1790 Jul 3, In Paris, the
Marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.
1790 Jul 9, The Swedish navy
captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of
Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.
1790 Jul 12, The French
Assembly approved a Civil Constitution providing for the election of
priests and bishops.
1790 Jul 16, The District of
Columbia was established as the seat of the United States
1790 Jul 17, Economist Adam
Smith (b.1723), Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of
political economy, died. In 2001 Emma Rothschild authored "Economic
Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment." In 2002
Peter J. Dougherty authored "Who’s Afraid of Adam Smith." In 2010
Nicholas Phillipson authored “Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life."
6/21/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10) (Econ, 8/7/10, p.84)
1790 Jul 26, US Congress passed
Alexander Hamilton’s Assumption plan making it responsible for state
debts. Virginia eventually withdrew its opposition in return for
having the nation’s new capital located on its borders.
1790 Jul 26, An attempt at a
counter-revolution in France was put down by the National Guard at
1790 Jul 31, The first US
patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont for an improvement
"in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and
Process". This patent was signed by then President George
Washington. The first 10,280 patents, issued between 1790 and 1836,
were destroyed by a fire. The legal basis for the United States
patent system (USPTO) is Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution
wherein the powers of Congress are defined.
1790 Aug 2, The enumeration for
the first US census began. It showed that 3,929,326 people were
living in the US of which 697,681 were slaves, and that the largest
cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia,
with 28,000; Boston, with 18,000; Charleston, South Carolina, with
16,000; and Baltimore, with 13,000. Census records for Delaware,
Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia were lost sometime between 1790
1790 Aug 4, US Treasury
Secretary Alexander Hamilton urged that ten boats for the collection
of revenue be built. This was to stop smuggling, especially of
coffee, which was hampering trade. The Coast Guard was born as the
Revenue Cutter Service. The Coast Guard was empowered to board and
inspect any vessel in US waters and any US boat anywhere in the
(Smith., 8/95, p.25)(HFA, '96, p.36)(SFC,
5/20/96, p.A-16)(AP, 8/4/00)
1790 Aug 9, The Columbia
returned to Boston Harbor after a three-year voyage, becoming the
first ship to carry the American flag around the world.
1790 Sep 4, Jacques Necker was
forced to resign as finance minister in France.
1790 Oct 3, John Ross, Chief of
the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866, was born near Lookout
Mountain, Tennessee. Although his father was Scottish and his mother
only part Cherokee, Ross was named Tsan-Usdi (Little John) and
raised in the Cherokee tradition. A settled people with successful
farms, strong schools, and a representative government, the Cherokee
resided on 43,000 square miles of land they had held for centuries.
1790 Oct 21, Alphonse-Marie
Louis de Lamartine, writer (Rene), was born in Macon, France.
1790 Oct 21, The Tricolor was
chosen as the official flag of France.
1790 Oct 23, Slaves revolted in
1790 Oct 28, NY gave up claims
to Vermont for $30,000.
1790 Nov 11, Chrysanthemums
were introduced into England from China.
1790 Nov 17, August Ferdinand
Mobius, mathematician, inventor (Mobius strip), was born.
1790 Dec 6, Congress moved from
New York City to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two
terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White
(AP, 12/6/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)
1790 Dec 17, An Aztec calendar
stone was discovered in Mexico City.
(HFA, '96, p.44)(MC, 12/17/01)
1790 Dec 19, Sir William Parry,
England, Arctic explorer, was born.
1790 Dec 20, In Pawtucket,
Rhode Island, 23-year-old British subject Samuel Slater began
production of the first American spinning mill. The British
jealously guarded their technological superiority in the early
stages of the Industrial Revolution, making it illegal for
machinery, plans and even the men who built and repaired them to
leave the country. After serving a 7-year mill apprenticeship in
England, Slater recognized the potential offered in America. He
memorized the plans for intricate machine specifications, disguised
himself as a farm worker and in 1789 sailed to a new life across the
Atlantic. Slater entered into a partnership with Rhode Island
merchant Moses Brown and built a small spinning mill--the equivalent
of 72 spinning wheels. At first, Slater's Mill employed only a
handful of children between the ages of 7 and 12, but by 1800, he
had more than 100 employees. By the time of Slater's death in 1835,
he owned or had an interest in 13 textile mills and left an estate
of almost $700,000. From this small beginning, America's own
Industrial Revolution grew. [see Dec 21]
(AP, 12/20/97)(HNPD, 12/20/98)(WSJ, 9/23/04,
1790 Dec 21, Samuel Slater
opened the first cotton mill in the United States in Rhode Island.
[see Dec 20]
1790 Dec 23, Jean François
Champollion, French founder of Egyptology, was born. He deciphered
the Rosetta Stone.
c1790 Henry Fuseli painted his
famous work "The Nightmare" wherein a sleeping woman has a glowing
demon on her chest and a lantern-eyed stallion parting the curtains
behind. He also painted "Woman Standing at a Dressing Table or
Spinet" about this time.
(SFC, 10/31/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)
1790 Ito Jakuchu (1716-1800),
Japanese painter, created his "Compendium of Vegetable and Insects."
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(SFC, 1/14/06, p.E1)
1790 Thomas Rowlandson, English
artist, painted "The Lock-Up."
(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)
1790 Goethe’s "Faust: Ein
Fragment," first appeared.
1790 Alexander Hamilton
published his "Report on the Public Credit."
(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)
1790 Emmanuel Kant published
his "Critique of Judgement." His analysis of the nature of art and
aesthetic experience proved to be a major influence on modern ideas.
These ideas were later revisited by Murdoch in her 1998 work
"Existentialists and Mystics." [see 1781]
(WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)
1790 Beethoven composed his
"Cantata on the Death of Emperor Joseph II."
(WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)
1790 The opera "The
Philosopher’s Stone" was composed and first performed. A 1997 score
showed that a number of composers wrote various sections. Mozart’s
name was associated with the 2nd act finale and a duet. It was a
singspiel based on fairytales with a libretto by Emanuel
Schikaneder. Other composers included Johann Baptist Henneberg,
Benedikt Schack, Franz Haver Gerl and Emanuel Schikaneder.
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)
1790 In South Carolina a
900-square-foot octagonal house was built about this time by
Scottish immigrant William McKimmy. Ruins of the structure were
found in 2009 on the banks of the May River in Blufton. The
design took off in 1848 following the publication of “A Home for
All" by Orson Fowler, a self-taught architect and phrenologist.
(SFC, 2/22/10, p.A6)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A2)
1790 The Episcopal Church was
(SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-11)
1790 The US government issued
$80 million in bonds to cover Revolutionary War debts and their
trade established the financial activity on Wall Street.
(WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)
1790 The US Trade and
Intercourse Act prohibited states from acquiring land from Indians
without federal approval.
(SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)
1790 US Minister to France,
Gouverneur Morris, said that the French "have taken Genius instead
of Reason for their Guide, adopted Experiment instead of Experience,
and wander in the Dark because they prefer Lightning to Light." In
2000 Susan Dunn published "Sister Revolutions: French Lightning,
(SFEC, 5/7/00, Par p.28)
1790 The celerifere bicycle
appeared in Paris about this time and was a two-wheeled,
un-steerable vehicle that the rider propelled by striking his feet
on the ground. This was improved upon with a bar to steer the front
wheel in 1816 by Baron von Drais of Germany, and was called a
draisine. The ordinary, which had a high front wheel, wire-spoked
wheels and solid rubber tires, was developed in the 1870s.
1790 The US census categorized
the population as "free white person, all other free persons except
Indians, and slaves."
1790 The US population was 20%
African and numbered about 760,000.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)
1790 Fletcher Christian landed
at Pitcairn Island.
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A14)
1790 In Australia Pemulway, an
Aboriginal warrior, speared and killed the governor’s gamekeeper at
Botany Bay and waged war against the British for 12 years. His head
was later sent to England. Eric Willmot later authored "Pemulway,
the Rainbow Warrior."
(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T4)
1790 In the Sandwich Islands
[Hawaii] King Kamehameha built the Puukohola Heiau temple on the Big
Island near the village of Kawaihau. It was built to the war god
Ku-Ka’ili-moku. The king’s armies soon swept over all the Hawaiian
islands and united the people for the first time.
(SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)
1790 Pineapples were introduced
to the Sandwich Islands later called Hawaii.
(SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.2)
1790 The Haleakala Volcano on
(SFEC, 8/27/00, p.T8)
1790 La Fenice opera house in
Venice was designed. It burned down for the 1st time in 1836.
(WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)
1790 A bronze Buddha was cast
in Japan. In 1945 it was donated by the Gump family to the city of
San Francisco. It resides in the Japanese Tea Garden and was in need
of $81,000 worth of repairs.
(SFC, 12/30/96, p.A11)
1790 In Porto, Portugal, the
House of Sandeman winery was found by the Scot, George Sandeman.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)
1790s Denmark became the 1st
country to abolish slavery.
(WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)
1790s Floreana Island in the
Galapagos began serving as a mail drop for whalers and seal hunters.
(SFEC, 11/19/00, p.T8)
c1790s King Kamehameha
slaughtered virtually everyone on the island of Lanai (which means
day of conquest) after being thwarted in his bid to conquer Maui.
(SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)
1790-1792 Sans-culottes (French for without
knee-breeches) was a term created during this period by the French
to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the
dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length
trousers) instead of the chic knee-length culotte. The term came to
refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the
Revolutionary army during the early years of the French
Revolutionary Wars, but, above all, to the working class radicals of
1790-1799 In 2009 Marcus Daniel authored “Scandal
& Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy," a
study of the American press during this period.
(WSJ, 3/3/09, p.A11)
1790-1799 The revolutionary tide that swept Europe
during this period was later covered by R.R. Palmer in his book “The
Age of the Democratic Revolution."
(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)
1790-1830 The “Dalton Minimum," a period of low
solar activity and especially cold climate, began this year and
lasted to 1830.
1790-1848 Nicola Vaccai, Italian composer. He
composed a version of "I Capuletti ed I Montecchi," that was also
done by Bellini.
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)
1790-1869 Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de
Lamartine, French poet, historian and statesman.
(WUD, 1994, p.803)
1790s Tadeusz Kosciusko
returned to Poland and united the country in the battle against
Prussian and Russian domination.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)
1790s The solitaire of
Rodrigues, a flightless pigeon, was last seen.
(NH, 11/96, p.24)
1791 Jan 14, Calvin Phillips,
shortest known adult male (67 cm; 2' 2"), was born.
1791 Feb 12, Peter Cooper,
industrialist, philanthropist (Cooper Union), was born.
1791 Feb 20, Carl Czerny,
pianist, composer (Schule der Virtuosen), was born in Vienna,
1791 Feb 25, President George
Washington signed a bill creating the Bank of the United States.
1791 Mar 3, Congress
established the U.S. Mint.
1791 Mar 3, The 1st Internal
Revenue Act taxed distilled spirits and carriages.
1791 Mar 4, President
Washington called the US Senate into its 1st special session.
1791 Mar 4, Vermont was
admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the
original 13 colonies.
(HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)
1791 Mar 4, 1st Jewish member
of US Congress, Israel Jacobs (Pennsylvania), took office.
1791 Mar 6, Anna Claypoole
Peale, painted miniatures, was born.
1791 Mar 10, John Stone of
Concord, Mass, patented a pile driver.
1791 Mar 10, Pope condemned
France's Civil Constitution of the clergy.
1791 Mar 11, Samuel Mulliken of
Philadelphia was the 1st to obtain more than 1 US patent.
1791 Mar 21, Captain Hopley
Yeaton (1740-1812) of New Hampshire became the first commissioned
officer of the US Revenue Cutter Service.
1791 Mar 23, Etta Palm, a Dutch
champion of woman's rights, set up a group of women's clubs called
the Confederation of the Friends of Truth.
1791 Mar 4, Vermont was
admitted as the 14th state. It was the first addition to the
original 13 colonies.
(HN, 3/4/98)(AP, 3/4/98)
1791 Mar 29, Pres. George
Washington and French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant examined the
site along the Potomac River that would become the US capital.
Maryland and Virginia had ceded land to the federal government to
form the District of Columbia. Chosen as the permanent site for the
capital of the United States by Congress in 1790, President
Washington was given the power by Congress to select the exact
site—an area ten-miles square, made up of land given by Virginia and
Maryland. Washington became the official federal capital in 1800. In
2008 Fergus Bordewich authored “Washington: The Making of the
(HNQ, 8/13/00)(HN, 8/2/98)(WSJ, 8/8/08, p.A13)
1791 Apr 23, The 15th president
of the United States, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County,
1791 Apr 12, Francis Preston
Blair, Washington Globe newspaper editor, was born.
1791 Apr 15, Surveyor General
Andrew Ellicott consecrated the southern tip of the triangular
District of Columbia at Jones Point.
(WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)
1791 Apr 18, National Guardsmen
prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.
1791 Apr 23, James Buchanan,
was born in Franklin County, Pa. He was the fifteenth U.S. president
(1857-1861) and the only president not to marry.
(AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)
1791 Apr 27, Samuel F.B. Morse,
inventor, was born in Boston. He created the telegraph and the code
which bears his name. Morse was a well-known painter who gained a
wide reputation as a portrait artist. He graduated from Yale in 1810
and then studied painting in England for several years. Morse
painted two notable portraits of Lafayette, was a founder of the
National Academy of Design in 1826 and became professor of painting
and sculpture at New York University in 1832-a position he held
until his death in 1872. Morse invented the first practical
recording telegraph in America and developed the Morse code,
(HN, 4/27/99)(HNQ, 2/26/00)
1791 Apr, William Wilberforce
again introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of
the slave trade, but lost by a vote of 163 to 88.
(ON, 4/05, p.2)
1791 May 3, Poland adopted a
new Constitution. It was designed to redress long-standing political
defects of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and its traditional
system of "Golden Liberty." The constitution put Lithuania under
Polish domination. It is generally regarded as Europe's first and
the world's second modern codified national constitution, following
the 1788 ratification of the US Constitution.
#27-28, 7/1996, p.13)
1791 May 8, Capt. Edward
Edwards set sail from Tahiti in the Pandora with the Bounty
mutineers abandoned by Fletcher Henderson.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)
1791 May 9, Francis Hopkinson
(53), US writer, music, lawyer, died.
1791 May 14, In Mexico a time
capsule was placed atop a bell tower at Mexico City's Metropolitan
Cathedral when the building's topmost stone was laid, 218 years
after construction had begun. Workers restoring the church found it
in October, 2007.
1791 May 16, James Boswell’s
celebrated 2-volume work, "The Life of Samuel Johnson," was
published. In 2001 Adam Sisman authored "Boswell’s Presumptuous
Task," an account of how Boswell came to write the Johnson
(WSJ, 8/24/01, p.W8)(ON, 11/06, p.10)
1791 May 28, Joseph Schmitt
(57), composer, died.
1791 May 29, Pietro Romani,
composer, was born.
1791 Jun 9, John Howard Payne,
American playwright and actor, was born.
1791 Jun 20, King Louis XVI of
France attempted to flee the country in the so-called Flight to
Varennes, but was caught.
1791 Jun 21, King Louis XVI and
the French royal family were arrested in Varennes. In 2003 Timothy
Tackett authored "When the King Took Flight," an examination of the
political culture during this period of transformation.
(HN, 6/21/98)(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.M6)
1791 Jul 7, Benjamin Rush,
Richard Allen and Absalom Jones founded the Non-denominational
1791 Jul 13, The bones of the
greatest French satirist, philosopher, and writer, Voltaire
(Jean-Marie Arouet) were enshrined in the Pantheon in Paris.
1791 Jul 14-1791 Jul 17, Riots
took place in Birmingham, England. The houses of Joseph Priestley
and other political dissenters were burned to the ground. Priestley
had rejected various supernatural elements of Christianity,
criticized the Church of England, and supported the French
1791 Jul 16, Louis XVI was
suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the constitution.
1791 Jul 17, National Guard
troops opened fire in Paris on a crowd of demonstrators calling for
the deposition of the king.
1791 Jul 24, Robespierre
expelled all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French
1791 Jul 25, Free African
Society (FAS) leaders drew up a plan to organize the African Church.
Richard Allen purchased a site for a church for the African-American
community in Philadelphia. It later stood as the oldest parcel of
land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen
Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church.
1791 Jul 26, Franz Xavier
Wolfgang Mozart, 6th child of Austrian composer WAM, was born.
1791 Aug 1, Robert Carter III,
a Virginia plantation owner, freed all 500 of his slaves in the
largest private emancipation in U.S. history.
1791 Aug 2, Samuel Briggs and
his son patented a nail-making machine.
1791 Aug 4, The chief item in
the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and
Turkey was the return of Belgrade to Turkey. The peace initiative
resulted from the terms of the Convention of Reichenbach between
Prussia and Austria. Belgrade had been taken in 1789 by the Holy
Roman emperor Joseph II.
1791 Aug 14, Haitian slaves,
led by voodoo priest Boukman Dutty, gathered to plan a revolution.
(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.9)( http://tinyurl.com/yun3k3)
1791 Aug 26, John Fitch and
James Rumsey, rival inventors, were both granted a US patent for a
(MC, 8/26/02)(WSJ, 7/27/04, p.D10)
1791 Aug 29, The Pandora under
Capt. Edward Edwards sank in Endeavour Strait (later Torres Strait)
between Australia and New Guinea. 33 crewmen and 4 prisoners died.
They managed to use small boats and arrived in Timor on Sep 16.
(ON, 3/04, p.9)
1791 Sep 1, Lydia Sigourney, US
religious author (How to Be Happy), was born.
1791 Sep 3, The French National
Assembly passed a French Constitution passed.
1791 Sep 5, Giacomo Meyerbeer,
Vogelsdorf Germany, opera composer (Les Huguenots, Le Prophete), was
1791 Sep 6, Mozart’s last opera
"La Clemenza di Tito," premiered in Prague. It was composed for the
coronation festivities of the King of Bohemia.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)(MC, 9/6/01)
1791 Sep 9, French Royalists
took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.
1791 Sep 13, France's King
Louis XVI accepted a constitution.
1791 Sep 14, Louis XVI solemnly
swore his allegiance to the French constitution.
1791 Sep 22, Michael Faraday
(d.1867), English physicist, was born in London. He demonstrated
that a magnetic field induces a current in a moving conductor. He
invented the dynamo, the transformer and the electric motor.
1791 Sep 26, J.L.A. Theodore
Gericault, French painter, was born.
1791 Sep 27, Jews in France
were granted French citizenship. Jews were granted religious and
civic rights in 1791.
(HN, 9/27/98)(WSJ, 8/7/00, p.A13)
1791 Sep 30, Mozart's opera
"The Magic Flute" premiered in Vienna, Austria.
1791 Oct 1, In Paris, the
National Legislative Assembly held its first meeting.
Nov 3, Gen. St. Clair moved his force of approximately 1,400 men to
some high ground on the upper Wabash River. St. Clair was looking
for the forces of Michikinikwa (Chief Little Turtle 1752-1812), who
had recently defeated Gen. Josiah Harmar’s (1753-1813) army. St.
Clair deployed only minimal sentry positions. [see Nov 4]
(DoW, 1999, p.168)
1791 Nov 4, General Arthur St.
Clair, governor of Northwest Territory, was badly defeated by a
large Indian army near Fort Wayne. Miami Indian Chief Little Turtle
(1752-1812) led the powerful force of Miami, Wyandot, Iroquois,
Shawnee, Delaware, Ojibwa and Potawatomi that inflicted the greatest
defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Army at the hands of North American
Indians. Some 623 regulars led by General Arthur St. Clair were
killed and 258 wounded on the banks of the Wabash River near present
day Fort Wayne, Indiana. The staggering defeat moved Congress to
authorize a larger army in 1792.
(HNQ, 8/10/98)(HN, 11/4/98)
1791 Dec 4, Britain's Observer,
oldest Sunday newspaper in world, was 1st published.
1791 Dec 5, Austrian composer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna, Austria, at age 35. His
first opera was "Idomeneo." In 1920 Hermann Abert authored “W.A.
Mozart." In 1991 Georg Knepler authored "Wolfang Amade Mozart," a
Marxist view of Mozart in his times. In 1995 Maynard Solomon
published a psychoanalytic biography of Mozart. In 1999 Peter Gay
authored a Penguin short life of Mozart and Robert W. Gutman
authored the comprehensive biography "Mozart."
(SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.54)(AP, 12/5/97)(WSJ,
12/2/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)
1791 Dec 15, The US Bill of
Rights, the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, took
effect following ratification by Virginia. The First Amendment
declared the separation of church and state and guaranteed freedom
of religion, speech, the press and assembly. In 2007 Anthony Lewis
authored “Freedom for the Thought That We Hate: A biography of the
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 12/15/97)(SFC, 1/21/04,
p.D2)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)
1791 Dec 17, NYC traffic
regulation created the 1st 1-way street.
1791 Dec 22, Alexander Hamilton
paid a $600 installment of $1,000 in blackmail to James Reynolds,
who threatened to expose Hamilton’s relationship with Reynolds’
wife. Hamilton had begun a relationship with Maria Reynolds during
the summer. A 2nd payment was made Jan 3.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.1,12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)
1791 Dec, The 1st Bank of the
US opened under Alexander Hamilton. It did the work of a
central bank even though private investors held most of its shares.
James Madison opposed the plans of Alexander Hamilton for a National
Bank. [see 1780-1792, Banning book on Madison] It was dissolved in
(WSJ, 12/20/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/19/04,
p.A8)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.91)(Econ, 4/12/14, p.50)
1791 Jose Cardero, a Spanish
artist in California, painted "Vista del Presidio de Monterey."
(SFC, 4/21/99, p.E6)
1791 Alexander Hamilton
authored his “Report on the Subject of Manufactures." His plan to
get the country’s economy going included tariffs to protect the
(Econ, 9/1/07, p.74)(Econ, 1/21/12, SR p.5)
1791 Englishman Thomas Paine
wrote the “Rights of Man" in Paris, promoting the French Revolution.
It defended the French Revolution against Edmund Burke's attack in
“Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790).
1791 French Comte de Volney
(1757-1820) authored “The Ruins, or a Survey of the Revolutions of
Empires," a treatise on why civilizations fell and what men should
do to find happiness.
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.128)
1791 The opera "The Beneficent
Dervish" was initially attributed to Emanuel Schikaneder but a 1997
find indicated that Mozart wrote the work. Schikaneder was a Vienna
theater impresario who had commissioned "The Magic Flute."
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.C11)
1791 Aaron Burr (1756-1836),
later US vice president (1801-1805), was elected as US Senator from
New York (1791-1797).
1791 The US Providence Bank was
later reported to have profited from traffic in slaves to the New
World. The bank eventually became part of FleetBoston Financial
(SFC, 3/10/00, p.D3)
1791 A document was released in
2004 from Pittsfield, Mass., that contained a 1791 bylaw to protect
the windows of a new meeting house from baseball players.
(SFC, 5/12/04, p.A2)
1791 A New Hampshire law called
for convicted adulterers to be paraded on the gallows for an hour
and then be publicly whipped no exceeding 39 stripes before being
sent to prison and fined £100. By 2014 the penalty had been reduced
to a fine of $1,200 as legislators proposed a repeal of the law.
(Econ, 4/19/14, p.24)
1791 William Sprague opened the
1st US carpet mill in Philadelphia.
(SFCM, 10/10/04, p.8)
1791 Legend says the Harel
family began making Camembert cheese before this time. The family
had given a priest refuge, who in gratitude gave them the recipe. In
2003 Pierre Boisard authored "Camembert: A National Myth."
(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.M3)
1791 Frantisek Koczwara, a
Bohemian musician, died in a London brothel from auto-asphyxiation.
(SSFC, 3/18/01, DB p.49)
1791 Grigory A. Potemkin
(b.1739), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II's lover,
died. In 2002 Simon Sebag Montefiore authored "Prince of Princes:
The Life of Potemkin."
(MC, 9/13/01)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A18)
1791 John Wesley (b.1703),
English evangelist and theologian, died. He founded the Methodist
(WUD, 1994, p.1622)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)
1791 In Australia officials
granted parcels of land around Sydney to convicts who have served
their time, beginning years of dispossession of Aborigines that
continued as white settlers dispersed throughout Australia. Clashes
between Aborigines and settlers led to tens of thousands of deaths
among Aborigines and hundreds of settler deaths.
1791 Sheikh Mansur, Chechen
leader, was captured and died in the Schlusselburg Fortress.
1791 The United Irishmen
Society was formed. Inspired by the French Revolution many Catholics
and Protestants took up the cause of Irish nationalism during the
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)
1791 The Berlin Sing-Academie
(SFC, 8/6/99, p.C13)
1791 In Berlin, Germany, the
Brandenburg Gate was completed. It stood 66 feet tall and 213 feet
wide, and was topped by the copper Quadriga, a sculpture of a
goddess riding into the city aboard a chariot. It was restored in
1791 The Marquesas Islands were
officially discovered. Over a 30 year period western diseases
ravaged the populace and only about 2,000 of 100,000 people
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1791 In St. Domingue Toussaint
L’Ouverture joined the slave rebellion against plantation owners and
later led a colonial revolt against France. In 1995 Madison Smart
Bell authored "All Souls Rising," a novel set in this period.
(SFEC, 1/26/97 BR, p.10)(SSFC, 4/8/01, BR
p.4)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.10)
1791-1824 Theodore Gericault, French painter. He
painted "Mounted Officer of the Imperial Guard."
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.593)
1791-1888 In Korea 124 Catholics were executed
during this period under the Joseon Dynasty, which tried to shut off
the Korean Peninsula off from Western influence. They were canonized
as saints in 1984 during a visit by Pope John Paul II.
(Econ, 7/26/14, p.A7)
1792 Jan 17, One of the first
US Treasury bonds was issued to Pres. George Washington and bears
the earliest use of the dollar sign.
(WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W9)
1792 Jan 28, Rebellious slaves
in Santo Domingo launched an attack on the city of Cap.
1792 Feb 7, Cimarosa's opera
"Il Matrimonio Segreto," premiered in Vienna.
1792 Feb 15,
Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre (42), astronomer and surveyor, was
elected to the French Academy of Sciences to help establish the
length of a proposed new unit of measurement, the meter.
(ON, 2/09, p.8)
1792 Feb 20, President
Washington signed an act creating the U.S. Post Office. [see Feb 20,
1789, May 8, 1794]
(HN, 2/20/98)(AP, 2/20/98)
1792 Feb 21, US Congress passed
the Presidential Succession Act. [see Mar 1]
1792 Feb 23, Joseph Haydn’s
94th Symphony in G premiered.
1792 Feb 23, Humane Society of
Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for
1792 Feb 23, Joshua Reynolds
(68), English portrait painter (Simplicity), died.
1792 Feb 29, The composer
Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (d.1868) was born in Pesaro, Italy.
1792 Mar 1, US Presidential
Succession Act was passed. [see Feb 21]
1792 Mar 4, Oranges were
introduced to Hawaii.
1792 Mar 10, John Stuart (78),
3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), died.
1792 Mar 16, Sweden's King
Gustav III was shot and mortally wounded during a masquerade party
by a former member of his regiment. He was murdered by Count
Ankarstrom at an opera. It became the inspiration for Giuseppe
Verdi's Un Ballo in Maschera. Gustav died 13 days later.
(AP, 3/16/06)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)
1792 Mar 20, In Paris, the
Legislative Assembly approved the use of the guillotine.
1792 Mar 23, Franz Joseph
Haydn’s "Symphony No. 94 in G Major," also known as the "Surprise
Symphony," was performed publicly for the first time, in London.
1792 Mar 29, Gustav III, King
of Sweden (1771-92), died of wounds inflicted by an assassin on
1792 Mar/Apr, Speculator
William Duer defaulted on Hamilton’s freshly exchanged "Stock in the
Public Funds," and caused the first American stock market crash.
Hamilton injected liquidity, asked the banks not to call in loans
and allowed merchants to pay customs duties with short-term notes.
(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)
1792 Apr 1, Gronings feminist
Etta Palm demanded women's right to divorce.
1792 Apr 2, Congress passed the
Coinage Act, which authorized establishment of the U.S. Mint. It
established the US dollar defined in fixed weights of gold and
silver. State chartered banks issued paper money convertible to gold
or silver coins to ease business transactions. U.S. authorized $10
Eagle, $5 half-Eagle & 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins &
silver dollar, dollar, quarter, dime & half-dime.
(HFA, '96, p.28)(AP, 4/2/97)(WSJ, 1/13/98,
1792 Apr 4, American
abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens, U.S. Radical Republican congressional
leader, was born in Danville, Vt..
(AP, 4/4/98)(HN, 4/4/98)
1792 Apr 5, George Washington
cast the first presidential veto, rejecting a congressional measure
for apportioning representatives among the states.
(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)
1792 Apr 14, Pres. George
Washington appointed David Rittenhouse, the foremost scientist of
America, the first director of the US Mint at a salary of $2000 per
annum. Rittenhouse was then in feeble health and lived at the
northwest corner of Seventh and Arch Streets, then one of the high
places of Old Philadelphia, where he had an observatory and where he
later died and was first buried.
1792 Apr 20, France declared
war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the
French Revolutionary wars.
(AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)
1792 Apr 21, Jose da Silva
Xavier, aka Tiradentes (teeth puller), considered by many to be
Brazil's George Washington, was drawn and quartered by the
Portuguese. He was hung in Rio de Janeiro. His body was broken to
pieces. A document was written With his blood declaring his memory
infamous. His head was exposed in Vila Rica. Pieces of his body were
exposed in the cities between Vila Rica and Rio, in an attempt to
scare the people who had listened to his independence ideas.
1792 Apr 22, President
Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
1792 Apr 24, Capt. Claude
Joseph Rouget de Lisle, an officer stationed in Strasbourg, composed
"La Marseillaise," which later became the national anthem of France.
(AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)
1792 Apr 25, Highwayman Nicolas
Jacques Pelletier became the first person under French law to be
executed by guillotine.
(AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)
1792 Apr 30, John Montague
(73), 4th Earl of Sandwich, English Naval minister, died.
1792 May 7, Capt. Robert Gray
discovered Gray's Harbor in Washington state.
1792 May 8, US established a
1792 May 8, British Capt.
George Vancouver sighted and named Mt. Rainier, Wash.
1792 May 11, The Columbia River
was discovered and named by Captain Robert Gray.
(HN, 5/11/98)(MC, 5/11/02)
1792 May 12, A toilet that
flushed itself at regular intervals was patented.
1792 May 13, Giovanni-Maria
Mastaia-Ferretti, later Pope Pius IX, "Pio Nono" (1846-78), was born
(PTA, 1980, p.510)(MC, 5/13/02)
1792 May 16, Denmark abolished
1792 May 17, Stock traders
signed the Buttonwood Agreement in New York City at the Tontine
Coffee House Company near a Buttonwood tree, where business had been
transacted in the past. 24 merchants formed their exchange at Wall
and Water Streets where they fixed rates on commissions on stocks
and bonds. This later developed into the New York Stock Exchange. A
market crash and almost total halt in credit, trading and liquidity
prompted the Buttonwood Agreement under the influence of Alexander
Hamilton. The organization drafted its constitution on March 8th,
1817, and named itself the "New York Stock & Exchange Board."
3/24/97, p.A19)(HN, 5/17/98)
1792 May 18, Russian troops
1792 May 19, The Russian army
1792 May 21, Gustave-Gaspard
Coriolis (d.1843), French engineer and mathematician, was born. He
became first person to describe the Coriolis force.
1792 Jun 1, Kentucky became
the 15th state of the Union.
1792 Jun 4, Captain George
Vancouver claimed Puget Sound for Britain. Englishman George
Vancouver sailed into the SF Bay on his ship Discovery in this year
and explored the Santa Clara Valley. Vancouver sailed the Inside
Passage, the 1000-mile waterway between Puget Sound and Alaska.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 11/5/99,
1792 Jun 4, John Burgoyne,
soldier, playwright, died.
1792 Jul 18, American naval
hero John Paul Jones died in Paris at age 45. His body was preserved
in rum in case the American government wished him back. In 1905 his
body was transported to the US and placed in a crypt in Annapolis.
In 2003 Evan Thomas authored "John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father
of the American Navy."
(AP, 7/18/97)(SSFC, 6/22/03, p.M3)
1792 Jul 30, The French
national anthem "La Marseillaise" by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle,
was first sung in Paris.
1792 Jul 31, The
foundation-stone was laid for the US Mint by David Rittenhouse, Esq.
The property was paid for and deeded to the United States of America
for a consideration of $4266.67 on July 18, 1792. The money for the
Mint was the first money appropriated by Congress for a building to
be used for a public purpose.
1792 Aug 4, Percy Bysshe
Shelley (d.1822), English poet and author who wrote "Prometheus
Unbound," was born in Field Place, England. He married Mary
Wollstonecraft Godwin, author of "Frankenstein." He wrote the poem
(WUD, 1994, p.1314)(HN, 8/4/98)
1792 Aug 5, Frederick 7th baron
Lord North (60), English premier, died. He presided over Britain's
loss of its American colonies (1770-82).
1792 Aug 10, Some 10,000
Parisians attacked the Tuileries Palace of Louis XVI at the
instigation of Georges Jacques Danton (33), after Louis ordered his
Swiss guard to stop firing on the people. The mob massacred some 600
guardsmen. The king was later arrested, put on trial for treason,
and executed the following January.
(PC, 1992, p.345)(AP, 8/10/07)(ON, 2/09, p.8)
1792 Aug 11, A revolutionary
commune was formed in Paris, France.
1792 Aug 13, Revolutionaries
imprisoned the French royal family, including King Louis XVI and
Marie Antoinette. [see Aug 10]
1792 Aug 18, Lord John Russel,
Prime Minister of England from 1846 to 1852 and 1865 to 1866, was
1792 Aug 29, The English
warship Royal George capsized in Spithead and 900 people were
1792 Sep 2, Verdun, France,
surrendered to the Prussian Army.
1792 Sep 2, In the "September
Massacres"- French mobs removed nobles and clergymen from jails, and
(Econ, 7/18/09, p.80)
1792 Sep 3, In France Princess
de Lamballe (b.1749), the best friend of Marie Antoinette, was
killed and her body mutilated by an angry mob. Her head was
displayed under the window of Marie Antoinette, interned in Temple
1792 Sep 5, Maximilien
Robespierre was elected to the National Convention in France.
1892 Sep 18, At Spithaead,
England, verdicts and sentences were announced for the 10 prisoners
from the mutiny on the Bounty. 4 men were acquitted, and 6 were
found guilty and condemned to death. 2 of the condemned were
pardoned and another was freed on a technicality. 3 were later
(ON, 3/04, p.9)
1792 Sep 21, Collot D'Herbois
proposed to abolish the monarchy in France. The French National
Convention voted to abolish the monarchy. 1st French Republic formed
(AP, 9/21/97)(MC, 9/21/01)
1792 Sep 22, The first French
Republic was proclaimed.
1792 Sep 27, George Cruikshank,
London, caricaturist (Oliver Twist), was born.
1792 Oct 7, James Mason
(b.1725), American Revolutionary statesman, died at Gunston Hall
Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of
Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia
Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of
fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and
the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. In
2006 Jeff Broadwater authored “George Mason."
1792 Oct 12, Columbus Day was
1st celebrated in the US.
1792 Oct 13, The "Old Farmer's
Almanac" was 1st published. [see Nov 25]
1792 Oct 13, The cornerstone of
the executive mansion, later known as the White House, was laid
during a ceremony in the District of Columbia.
(AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)
1792 Nov 6, Battle at Jemappes:
French army beat the Austrians.
1792 Nov 13, Edward John
Trelawney, traveler and author (Adventure of a Younger Son), friend
of Byron and Shelley, was born in England.
1792 Nov 25, The Farmer's
Almanac was 1st published. [see Oct 13]
1792 Dec 5, George Washington
was re-elected president; John Adams was re-elected vice president.
1792 Dec 8, The 1st cremation
in US: Henry Laurens.
1792 Dec 11, France's King
Louis XVI went before the Convention to face charges of treason.
Louis was convicted and executed the following month.
1792 Dec 12, In Vienna Ludwig
Van Beethoven (22) received 1st lesson in music composition from
Franz Joseph Haydn.
1792 Dec 15, Alexander
Hamilton, US Sec. of the Treasury, was accused of teaming with Mr.
James Reynolds to speculate illegally in government securities.
Hamilton then acknowledged to three lawmakers, including James
Monroe, that he had paid hush money to Mr. Reynolds to cover an
affair with Reynolds’ wife.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A12)(ON, 10/05, p.5)
1792 Dec 26, Charles Babbage
(d.1871), English inventor of the calculating machine, was born.
1792 John Trumbell painted his
portrait of Alexander Hamilton.
(WSJ, 10/20/04, p.D12)
1792 Captain Bligh published "A
Voyage to the South Sea" after his return from the Mutiny on the
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1792 James Madison published an
essay in a newspaper on property and slaves. In this essay Madison
extended the idea of property from material possessions to the
property in his opinions, especially his religious beliefs.
1792 Mary Wollstonecraft
(Godwin) wrote her essay "Vindication of the Rights of Woman." She
married Godwin in 1797 after learning that she was pregnant and died
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.28)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)
1792 Construction began on the
Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca. It was dedicated in 1795.
(SSFC, 1/4/09, p.B3)
1792 An edition of the Bible
was first printed in New York.
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)
1792 George Washington signed a
law giving shipowners “allowances" (i.e. subsidies) to offset
tariffs they had to pay on their inputs. This was part of an effort
to rebuild new England’s cod industry.
(Econ, 11/23/13, p.75)
1792 A US Militia Act was
(SFC, 3/2/02, p.A21)
1792 US veterans hired William
Hull to petition congress for more compensation.
(Econ, 10/4/08, p.32)
1792 A US penny was struck to
test a design. It came to be called the Birch cent after engraver
Robert Birch. In 2015 it sold at auction for $2.6 million.
(SFC, 1/13/15, p.A6)
1792 The dime coin "dismes"
were first produced. Then came "half-dismes," or what we call
(SFEC, 1/12/97, zone 3 p.4)
1792 Explorer Jose Longinos
Martinez wrote in his diary about grizzly maulings that killed 2
Indians in California.
(SFC, 8/18/96, p.A6)
1792 Archibald Menzies,
Scottish doctor/surgeon, was the naturalist aboard the Discovery
under Captain George Vancouver. He collected his first California
poppy and classified it incorrectly as Celandine, an old world
member of the same family (Papaveracae). [see 1794,1816,1825-1833]
(NBJ, 2/96, p.12)
1792 Three English sailors
wandered from Vancouver’s supply ship Daedalus, anchored in Waimea
Bay. They were captured and killed by native Hawaiians.
(SFCM, 3/11/01, p.87)
1792 Arthur Phillip, the 1st
governor of New South Wales, Australia, returned to England
accompanied by Bennelong, an Aboriginal who had earlier attacked and
wounded him. Philip later gave Bennelong a house on a point in
Sydney Cove. In 1973 it became the site of the Sydney Opera House.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)
1792 In England consumers began
an organized boycott against West Indian sugar. The Anti-Saccharine
Society displayed a cross-section of a slave ship with men shackled
head-to-toe like sardines.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.94)
1792 William Wilberforce
introduced a new motion in British Parliament for the gradual
abolition of the slave trade. The “gradual" wording, proposed by
home office minister Henry Dundas, led to passage of the bill in the
House of Commons 230 to 85.
(ON, 4/05, p.2)
1792 James Penny, Liverpool
slave trader, was presented with a magnificent silver epergne for
speaking in favor of the slave trade to a parliamentary committee.
Liverpool’s Penny Lane was named after him.
1792 The British St. George’s
Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This
included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of
rebellious slaves from other colonies.
(MT, summer 2003, p.8)
1792 Niagara-on-the-Lake became
the 1st capital of the Upper Canada (later Ontario). The Parliament
met for 5 sessions before moving to York (Toronto).
(WSJ, 7/25/02, p.D10)
1792 The Chinese poet Shih
Tao-nan, shortly before succumbing to the plague noted: "Few days
following the death of the rats, Men pass away like falling walls."
(NG, 5/88, p.678)
1792 The crown jewels of France
were stolen including the 67 carat Blue Diamond.
(THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)
1792 The La Felecia opera house
in Venice opened.
(SFC, 6/27/96, p.D3)
1792 In Mexico Campeche’s
northern fort, the Reducto de San Jose, was built. It later housed
the Museo de Barcas y Armas.
(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E5)
1792 In Scotland gas lighting
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)
1792 Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
(b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded
Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity" (1736). In
2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and
Reform to Global Jihad."
(www.concise.britannica.com)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)
1792-1793 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes
(1746-1828), Spanish painter, went deaf from an unexplained illness.
(WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)
1792-1796 In St. Petersburg, Russia, Catherine the
Great commissioned the building of the neoclassical rococo Alexander
Palace for her eldest grandson, the future Alexander I.
(WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A16)
1792-1867 Giovanni Pacing, Italian composer. His
work included "Maria, Regina d’Inghilterra," based on Victor Hugo’s
drama "Marie Tudor."
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)
1792-1868 Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, Italian
composer. His work included the opera "La Donna del Lago," based on
the Walter Scott romance "The Lady of the Lake."
(WUD, 1994, p.1246)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)
1793 Jan 1, Francesco Guardi
(b.1712), Venetian painter, died.
1793 Jan 3, Lucretia
Coffin Mott women’s rights activist, was born. She was a teacher,
minister, antislavery leader and founder of the 1st Women’s Rights
(440 Int'l. 1/3/99)(HN, 1/3/02)
1793 Jan 9, The first US manned
balloon flight occurred as Frenchman Jean Pierre Blanchard, using a
hot-air balloon, flew between Philadelphia and Woodbury, N.J. He
stayed airborne for 46 minutes, traveled close to 15 miles and set
down at the "old Clement farm" in Deptford, New Jersey. [see Jun 23,
1784, Mar 9, 1793]
(WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)(AP, 1/9/99)(ON, 6/09, p.2)
1793 Jan 19, French King Louis
XVI was sentenced to death. [see Jan 21]
1793 Jan 21, Louis XVI (38),
last of the French Bourbon dynasty, was executed on the guillotine.
The vote in the National Convention for execution for treason won by
a margin of one vote. The Great Terror followed his execution.
(WUD, 1994, p.1677)(V.D.-H.K.p.231)(NH, 6/97,
1793 Jan 23, Prussia and Russia
signed an accord on the 2nd partition of Lithuania and Poland. The
2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a
new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but
Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and
the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of
(WUD, 1994, p.1677)(LHC, 1/23/03)
1793 Feb 1, Ralph Hodgson of
Lansingburg, NY, patented one of the world’s greatest inventions
this day: Oiled silk.
(440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1793 Feb 1, France declared war
on Britain and the Netherlands.
1793 Feb 12, The US federal
government passed its first fugitive slave law. This gave slave
holders the right to reclaim their human property in free states.
(HN, 2/12/97)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)
1793 Feb 25, The department
heads of the U.S. government met with President Washington at
his Mt. Vernon home for the first Cabinet meeting on record.
(AP, 2/25/98)(MC, 2/25/02)
1793 Mar 2, Sam Houston, the
first president of the Republic of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44), was
born near Lexington, Va. He fought for Texas' independence from
Mexico; President of Republic of Texas; U.S. Senator; Texas governor
(AP, 3/2/98)(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(SC, 3/2/02)
1793 Mar 3, Charles Sealsfield,
writer (The Making of America), was born.
1793 Mar 4, George Washington
was inaugurated as President for the second time. His 2nd
inauguration was the shortest with just 133 words. Since George
Washington’s second term, Inauguration Day had been March 4 of the
year following the election. That custom meant that defeated
presidents and congressmen served four months after the election. In
1933, the so-called Lame Duck Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
moved the inauguration of newly elected presidents and congressmen
closer to Election Day. The 20th Amendment required the terms of the
president and vice-president to begin at noon on January 20, while
congressional terms begin on January 3.
(HN, 3/4/98)(HNPD, 3/4/99)(SC, 3/4/02)
1793 Mar 4, French troops
conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.
1793 Mar 5, Austrian troops
crush the French and recapture Liege.
1793 Mar 10, In France, on a
proposal by Georges-Jacques Danton (1759-1794), the National
Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an
extraordinary criminal tribunal. The news of the failure of the
French arms in Belgium had given rise in Paris to popular movements
on March 9 and 10, 1793. On Oct 20 the extraordinary criminal
tribunal received by decree the official name of the Revolutionary
1793 Mar 18, The 2nd Battle at
Neerwinden: Austria army beat France.
1793 Mar 26, Pro-royalist
uprising took place in Vendée region of France.
1793 Apr 1, The volcano
Unsen on Japan erupted killing about 53,000.
1793 Apr 6, In France all
executive power was conferred upon a Committee of Public Safety.
Georges-Jacques Danton was one of the nine original members.
1793 Apr 14, A royalist
rebellion in Santo Domingo was crushed by French republican troops.
1793 Apr 17, The Battle of
Warsaw was fought.
1793 Apr 22, Pres. Washington
attended the opening of Rickett's, the 1st circus in US.
1793 May 7, Pietro Nardini
(71), composer, died.
1793 May 25, Father Stephen
Theodore Badin became the 1st US Roman Catholic priest ordained.
1793 Jun 2, Maximillian
Robespierre, a member of France’s Committee on Public Safety,
initiated the "Reign of Terror," a purge of those suspected of
treason against the French Republic. Months of the Great Terror,
followed the Revolution in France as thousands died beneath the
1793 Jun 20, Eli Whitney
petitioned for a cotton gin patent in Philadelphia.
1793 Jun 24, The first
republican constitution in France was adopted.
1793 Jul 13, John Clare,
English poet, was born.
1793 Jul 13, Pierre Dupont de
Nemours was ordered arrested in Paris on charges of plotting with
rebels against the French Revolutionary National Assembly.
1793 Jul 13, French
revolutionary writer Jean Paul Marat was stabbed to death in his
bath by Charlotte Corday, who was executed four days later. In 1970
Marie Cher authored "Charlotte Corday, and Certain Men of the
(AP, 7/13/97)(ON, SC, p.8)
1793 Jul 23, Roger Sherman
(b.1721) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence,
died. He was only man to sign the four most important documents that
were most significant in the formation of the United States. Sherman
signed the Association (the 1774 compact to boycott British goods),
the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and
Constitution. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament
had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the
Continental Congress, served in the first U.S. House of
Representatives and was a U.S. senator.
(HN, 4/19/97)(HNQ, 7/10/99)
1793 Jul 23, The French
garrison at Mainz, Germany, fell to the Prussians.
1793 Jul 24, France passed the
1st copyright law.
1793 Jul 27, In France,
Robespierre became a member of the Committee of Public Safety.
1793 Jul, Napoleon Bonaparte
published a pro-republican pamphlet that made a good impression on
the Jacobin faction that had seized power in Paris.
(ON, 2/12, p.5)
1793 Aug 14, Republican troops
in France laid siege to the city of Lyons.
1793 Aug 22, Louis Duke de
Noailles (80), marshal of France, was guillotined.
1793 Aug 27, Maximilien
Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris,
1793 Aug 28, Adam-Philippe
Custine, Duke de Lauzun (French duke, general, fought in American
Revolution, hero in both countries), was guillotined in Paris.
1793 Aug 29, Slavery was
abolished in the French colony of Santo Domingo (Haiti).
(HN, 8/29/98)(MC, 8/29/01)
1793 Sep 5, The Reign of Terror
began during the French Revolution as the National Convention
instituted harsh measures to repress counter-revolutionary
activities. One delegate, claiming that the middle class Girondist
(moderates) leaders be sentenced to death cried, "It is time for
equality to wield its scythe over all the heads. Very well,
Legislator, place Terror on the agenda!" The delegates agreed to
arrest all suspects and dissenters, try them swiftly in the kangaroo
courts known as the Revolutionary Tribunals, and sentence them
uniformly to death.
(MC, 9/5/01)(AP, 9/4/07)
1793 Sep 6, French General Jean
Houchard and his 40,000 men began a three-day battle against an
Anglo-Hanoverian army at Hondschoote, southwest Belgium, in the wars
of the French Revolution.
1793 Sep 17, Captain Napoleon
Bonaparte reached Toulon and presented himself to his new commander,
General Carteaux, a former house painter and policeman.
(ON, 2/12, p.5)
1793 Sep 18, President George
Washington laid the foundation stone for the U.S. Capitol on Jenkins
(AP, 9/18/97)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)(HN, 9/18/98)
1793 Oct 8, John Hancock, US
merchant and signer (Declaration of Independence), died at 56.
1793 Oct 10, The rebellious
French city of Lyons surrendered to Revolutionary troops.
1793 Oct 16, During the French
Revolution, Marie Antoinette was beheaded. Prosecutors claimed she
had sexually abused her son and financially abused the French
Monarchy. In mourning for her husband, Louis XVI, who had been
guillotined the previous January, clad in rags, her once-dazzling
locks shorn by the executioner's assistant, she even suffered the
indignity of a crude sketch by the great French painter, Jacques
Louis David. Antoinette bore herself with a regal indifference to
her martyrdom. Madame Tussaud used her severed head as a model for
her wax bust death mask. In 2001 Antonia Fraser authored "Marie
Antoinette: The Journey."
(SFEC, 11/17/96, p.T5)(AP, 10/16/97)(WSJ,
1793 Oct 19, Captain Napoleon
Bonaparte was promoted to chef de bataillon (major) giving him
greater voice in the councils of war and the siege of Toulon.
(ON, 2/12, p.5)
1793 Oct 20, In France an
extraordinary criminal tribunal received the official name of the
Revolutionary Tribunal by a decree. The news of the failure of the
French arms in Belgium gave rise in Paris to popular movements on
March 9 and 10, 1793, and on March 10, on the proposal of Danton,
the Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an
extraordinary criminal tribunal.
1793 Oct 28, Eliphalet
Remington, US gun maker, was born.
1793 Oct 28, Eli Whitney
applied for a patent on the cotton gin, a machine which cleaned the
tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton easily and
effectively--a job which was previously done by hand. The patent was
granted the following March. [see Mar 13, Jun 20, 1793, Mar 14,
(AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)
1793 Oct 31, Execution of 21
Girondins (moderates) in Paris, stepping up the Reign of Terror.
Pierre V. Vergniaud (40), French politician and elegant, impassioned
orator of Girondins, was guillotined.
1793 Nov 3, Stephen Fuller
Austin was born. He colonized Texas.
1793 Nov 8, The Louvre opened
in Paris as a museum. It was originally constructed as a fortress in
the early thirteenth century.
(HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)
1793 Nov 10, France outlawed
the forced worship of God.
1793 Nov 12, Jean-Sylvain
Bailley (53), French astronomer and mayor of Paris, was guillotined.
1793 Nov 19, The Jacobin Club
was formed in Paris. Robespierre (1758-1794), Jacobin leader:
"Terror is nothing but justice, prompt, severe and inflexible."
(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C5)(MC, 11/19/01)
1793 Nov 26, Republican
calendar replaced the Gregorian calendar in France.
1793 Nov, In France Philippe
Aspairt, a hospital porter, ventured alone into the limestones
quarries south of Paris, site of the new cemetery, and got lost.
Workmen found his bones 11 years later.
(Hem., 3/97, p.119)
1793 Dec 6, Marie Jeanne Becu,
Comtesse du Barry, flamboyant mistress of Louis XV, was guillotined
1793 Dec 9, Noah Webster
established NY's 1st daily newspaper, American Minerva.
1793 Dec 19, French troops
recaptured Toulon from the British. Napoleon Bonaparte led the
intense shelling of British positions. This led to his promotion to
(ON, 2/12, p.6)
1793 Dec 20, Joseph Legros
(54), composer, died.
1793 Dec 23, Thomas Jefferson
warned of slave revolts in West Indies.
1793 Antonio Canova created his
clay model for the sculpture "Penitent Magdalen." The final marble
version was completed in 1809.
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)
1793 Jacques-Louis David
painted "Death of Marat."
(SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.5)
1793 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon
(1758-1823), French artist, painted "Cupid Laughs at the Tears He
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)
1793 William Blake (1757-1827)
produced his "Labors of the Artist, the Poet, and the Musician." He
painted "Aged Ignorance." Blake’s work “The Complaint of Job" was
also done about this time.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)(NH, 4/97, p.6)(SFC,
1793 Augustin Ximenez
(1726-1817), Marquis of Ximenez, a Frenchman of Spanish origin,
wrote a poem with the line “Attaquons dans ses eaux la perfide
Albion," which means "Let us attack perfidious Albion in her
waters." The poet of perfidy later lectured French soldiers that “Il
est beau de perir," which means “it is beautiful to perish."
(SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M4)(http://tinyurl.com/ye6bd7)
1793 The German Reformed Church
was established in the US by Calvinist Puritans.
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)
1793 Capt. George Vancouver
introduced cattle to the islands of Hawaii and wrested from King
Kamehameha the concession that women as well as men be allowed to
eat the meat. The king agreed if separate animals were used.
(SFEM, 2/8/98, p.10)
1793 The 1st US half-cent and
one cent coins were minted. For almost 6 decades the obverse side
carried an image of Lady Liberty. The first coins were related to
the silver dollar. The half-dollar contained half as much silver,
the quarter had one-fourth as much. The dime had a 10th and the half
dime has a 20th as much silver as the dollar. Only the penny was
made of copper. In 1866 the Mint decided to produce a larger
five-cent coin. In 2012 a one-cent copper coin minted this year
fetched $1 million at a Florida auction.
(SFC, 9/11/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)(SSFC,
9/27/09, Par p.25)(AP, 1/8/12)
1793 Cape Girardeau, Missouri,
was first founded where the present day Cape Rock Park sits, when
Don Louis Lorimier was given a land grant by the Spanish government.
The City of Cape Girardeau celebrated its 200th year in 2006.
1793 In Vermont Captain John
Norton founded a stoneware pottery shop in Bennington. The wares
were rarely marked until 1823. Various members of the family worked
at the pottery until it closed shop in 1894.
(SFC, 2/18/98, Z1 p.3)
1793 The Spanish Governor of
Alta California made the first official notice of the fire problem
in California. He warned military officers, missions and civil
authorities of the problem.
(SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)
1793 There was a yellow fever
epidemic in Philadelphia. Stephen Girard risked his life and fortune
in stopping the epidemic.
(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)
1793 Alexander Mackenzie,
Scottish-born fur trader, reached the Pacific coast completing his
crossing of North America. He began the trip in 1789. He raised
Britain's claims to the pacific Northwest.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)
1793 The British took over the
island of St. Vincent and a series of wars ensued against the black
(SFC, 7/25/07, p.E2)
1793 China’s Emperor Qianlong
accepted gifts from Lord George Macartney, but turned away the
British fleet under his command with the declaration that China had
all things in abundance and had no interest in “foreign
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.13)(Econ,
1793 The courthouse at the St.
Maarten Island Dutch capital of Philipsburg was built.
1793 The Minton dishware
company was established in Stoke, Staffordshire, England.
(SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)(SFC, 3/19/08, p.G6)
1793-1795 The British engaged in the ill-fated
(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)
1793-1801 In Afghanistan Zaman Shah ruled.
Constant internal revolts continued.
1793-1835 Felicia Dorothea Browne Hemans, English
poet: "Though the past haunt me as a spirit, I do not ask to
1793-1860 Thomas Addison, English physician,
discovered Addison’s disease, a usually fatal disease caused by the
failure of the adrenal cortex to function and marked by a
bronze-like skin pigmentation, anemia, and prostration.
(AHD, 1971, p.15)
1793-1863 Sam Houston, US soldier and political
leader. He was president of the Republic of Texas from 1836-1838.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)
1794 Jan 13, President
Washington approved a measure adding two stars and two stripes to
the American flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky
to the union. The number of stripes was later reduced to the
1794 Jan 14, Dr. Jessee Bennet
of Edom, Va., performed the 1st successful Cesarean section
operation on his wife.
1794 Feb 4, France’s First
Republic (Convention) voted for the abolition of slavery in all
French colonies. The abolition decree stated that "the Convention
declares the slavery of the Blacks abolished in all the colonies;
consequently, all men, irrespective of color, living in the colonies
are French citizens and will enjoy all the rights provided by the
Constitution." Slavery was restored by the Consulate in 1802, and
was definitively abolished in 1848 by the Second Republic, on Victor
1794 Feb 4, Slaves in Haiti won
(AP, 4/7/03)(WSJ, 3/1/04, p.A16)
1794 Feb 10, Joseph Haydn’s
99th Symphony in E, premiered.
1794 Feb 11, A session of US
Senate was 1st opened to the public.
1794 Feb 14, 1st US textile
machinery patent was granted, to James Davenport in Phila.
1794 Feb 21, Antonio Lopez de
Santa Anna, Mexican Revolutionary, was born.
1794 Mar 3, 1st performance of
Joseph Haydn’s 101st Symphony in D.
1794 Mar 3, Richard Allen
founded AME Church.
1794 Mar 14, Eli Whitney
received a patent for his cotton gin, an invention that
revolutionized America's cotton industry. He paid substantial
royalties to Catherine T. Greene and this makes his claim to the
(AP, 3/14/97)(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E3)
1794 Mar 22, Congress passed
laws prohibiting slave trade with foreign countries, although
slavery remained legal in the United States. Congress banned US
vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.
(HN, 3/22/01)(MC, 3/22/02)
1794 Mar 23, Josiah Pierson
patented a "cold-header" (rivet) machine.
1794 Mar 23, Lieutenant-General
Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
1794 Mar 24, In Cracow a
revolutionary manifesto was proclaimed. The Lithuanian and Polish
nobility under the leadership of Tadas Kasciuska revolted against
(H of L, 1931, p. 81-82)(LHC, 3/23/03)
1794 Mar 27, The US Congress
approved "An Act to provide a Naval Armament" of six armed ships.
[see Oct 13, 1775]
1794 Mar 28, Marie-Joseph de
Condorcet (b.1743), mathematician (Theory of Comets) and
philosopher, died as a fugitive from French Revolution Terrorists.
1794 Apr 5, Georges-Jacques
Danton (b.1759), French revolutionary leader, was guillotined along
with Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, French author, politician, and
Camille Desmoullins, popular journalist. In 2009 Jonathan Cape
authored “Danton: The Gentle Giant of Terror."
1794 Apr 7, In Poland at the
battle of Raclawice the revolutionary forces of Tadeusz Kosciusko
defeated the imperial armies.
(DrEE, 9/21/96, p.5)