Return to home 1800 Jan 7,
Millard Fillmore, 13th US president (1850-1853), was born in
Summerhill (Locke), N.Y.
(SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)(AP, 1/7/98)(HN, 1/7/99)
1800 Jan 8, Victor of Aveyron
(~1785-1828), a feral child, emerged from French forests on his own.
In 1797 he had been found wandering the woods near
Saint-Sernin-sur-Rance, France, and was captured, but soon escaped.
He was later portrayed in the 1969 movie, The Wild Child
(L'Enfant sauvage), by François Truffaut.
1800 Jan 10, The US Senate
ratified a peace treaty with Tunis.
(ON, 10/06, p.7)
1800 Jan 20, Carolina, the
sister of Napoleon I, married King Joachim Murat of Naples.
1800 Jan 23, Edward Rutledge
(50), US attorney (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
1800 Jan 24, Edwin Chadwick,
British social reformer, was born.
1800 Jan 30, US population was
reported at 5,308,483; Black population 1,002,037 (18.9%).
1800 Jan, Pierre Samuel du Pont
de Nemours, his two sons and their families, arrived in Newport,
Rhode Island, from France.
(SFC, 7/10/00, p.A32)
1800 Jan, Lord Elgin
established his British embassy in Constantinople. His orders were
to open the borders for trade, obtain entry for British ships to the
Black Sea and to secure an alliance against French military
expeditions in the eastern Mediterranean.
(ON, 11/99, p.2)
1800 Feb 11, William Henry Fox
Talbot (d.1877), British inventor and pioneer in instantaneous
photography, was born.
(AHD, 1971, p. 1312)(V.D.-H.K.p.273)(HN, 2/11/01)
1800 Mar 14, James Bogardus, US
inventor, builder (made cast-iron buildings), was born.
1800 Mar 17, English warship
Queen Charlotte caught fire and 700 people died.
1800 Mar 20, French army
defeated Turks at Heliopolis, Turkey, and advanced to Cairo.
1800 Mar 28, The Parliament in
Westminster passed an Act of Union formally binding Ireland with
England and abolished the Irish parliament. The Act of Union
entailed the loss of legislative independence of the Irish
Parliament. The Act of Union received royal assent on August 1 and
became effective on Jan 1, 1801.
12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)
1800 Apr 2, 1st performance of
Ludwig van Beethoven's 1st Symphony in C.
1800 Apr 15, Sir James Clark
Ross, Scottish explorer, was born. He located the Magnetic North
1800 Apr 16, George Charles
Bingham, British soldier, was born. He commanded the Light Brigade
during its famous charge.
1800 Apr 24, US Congress
approved a bill establishing the Library of Congress in Washington,
D.C. with a $5,000 allocation.
(HFA, ‘96, p.28)(AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)
1800 May 5, Louis Hachette,
French publisher (Librairie Hachette), was born.
1800 May 7, US Congress divided
the Northwest Territory into two parts. The western part became the
Indiana Territory and the eastern sections remained the Northwest
1800 May 7, Niccolo
Piccinni (72), Italian composer (Roland), died.
1800 May 9, John Brown,
American abolitionist, was born. His adventures came to an end at
Harper's Ferry, where he tried to start a revolution against
1800 May 14, Friedrich
Schiller's translation of "Macbeth" premiered in Weimar.
1800 May 15, King George III
survived a 2nd assassination attempt.
1800 May 19, French Bosbeeck,
veterinarian, robber, was hanged.
1800 May-Dec, US presidential
elections were held over this period. On Dec 3 state electors met
and cast their ballots and a tie resulted between Thomas Jefferson
and Aaron Burr.
1800 Jun 4, The US White House
was completed and President & Mrs. John Adams moved in. [see Nov
1800 Jun 14, French General
Napoleon Bonaparte pushed the forces of Austria out of Italy in the
Battle of Marengo. In 2007 the sword he wore was auctioned off for
over $6.4 million.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marengo)(SFC, 6/11/07, p.A2)
1800 Jun 14, Jean-Baptiste
Kleber (47), French general, architect, was murdered.
1800 Jul 6, The Sultan of
Constantinople at the behest of Lord Elgin issued written orders to
his officers in Athens for cooperation with Giovanni Lusieri and the
removal of sculptures from the Parthenon.
(ON, 11/99, p.2)
1800 Jul 8, Dr. Benjamin
Waterhouse gave the 1st cowpox vaccination to his son to prevent
smallpox. [see May 14, 1796]
1800 Aug 21, The US Marine Band
gave its first concert near the future site of the Lincoln Memorial.
(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-3)
1800 Sep 6, Catherine Esther
Beecher, educator who promoted higher education for women, was born
in East Hampton, Long Island, NY.
1800 Sep 7, The NYC Zion AME
Church was dedicated.
1800 Sep 23, William Holmes
McGuffey, educator, was born. He is famous for his book "Eclectic
Readers" (McGuffey Readers).
1800 Oct 1, Spain ceded
Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.
1800 Oct 2, Nat Turner, slave
and the property of Benjamin Turner, was born in Southampton county,
Va. He was sold in 1831 to Joseph Travis from Jerusalem, Southampton
1800 Oct 3, George Bancroft,
historian, known as the "Father of American History" for his
10-volume A History of the United States, was born.
1800 Oct 7, Gabriel, slave
revolt leader in Virginia, was hanged. Gabriel Prosser had mounted a
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(MC, 10/7/01)
1800 Oct 25, Thomas Babington
Macaulay (d.1859), England, poet and historian, was born. "No
particular man is necessary to the state. We may depend on it that,
if we provide the country with popular institutions, those
institutions will provide it with great men."
(AP, 11/30/97)(MC, 10/25/01)
1800 Oct 26, Helmuth Karl von
Moltke, Prussian Field Marshal and Count, was born. His
reorganization of the Prussian Army led to military victories that
allowed the unification of Germany. His father was a German officer
serving in the Danish army. His greatest innovation was the creation
of a fighting force that could mobilize quickly and strike when and
where it chose. He was one of the first generals to grasp the
importance of railroads in moving troops. In 1995 Otto Friedrich
authored a biography of the Moltke family line from Bismarck to
Hitler: “Blood and Iron: From Bismarck to Hitler the von Moltke
Family’s Impact on German History."
(WSJ, 11/7/95, p.A-20)(HN, 10/26/98)
1800 Oct, Napoleon banned the
smoking of hashish and consumption of drinks containing
1800 Nov 1, John and Abigail
Adams moved into "the President’s House" in Washington DC. It became
known as the White House during the Roosevelt administration.
(SFEC, 5/7/00, p.T8)(MC, 11/1/01)
1800 Nov 17, The Sixth Congress
(2nd session) convened for the first time in Washington, DC, in the
partially completed Capitol building. Previously, the federal
capital had briefly been in other cities, including New York,
Philadelphia, and Annapolis, Maryland. George Washington- a surveyor
by profession- had been assigned to find a site for a capital city
somewhere along the upper Potomac River, which flows between
Maryland and Virginia. Apparently expecting to become president,
Washington sited the capital at the southernmost possible point, the
closest commute from Mount Vernon, despite the fact that this placed
the city in a swamp called Foggy Bottom.
(HN, 11/17/98)(AP, 11/17/07)
1800 Nov 24, Weber's opera "Das
Waldmadchen," premiered in Freiburg.
1800 Dec 2, John Brown
(d.1859), US abolitionist, was born. He was hanged for murder in the
Harper’s Ferry Incident in 1859. John Brown led the raid on the
Federal Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. The incident is the backdrop for
George MacDonald Fraser’s novel "Flashman and the Angel of the
(WUD, 1994, p. 190)(HFA, ‘96, p.44)(WSJ, 4/10/95,
1800 Dec 3, Austrians were
defeated by the French at the Battle of Hohenlinden, near Munich.
1800 Dec 3, US state electors
met and cast their ballots for the presidency. A tie resulted
between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
1800 In the US presidential
elections Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied in electoral votes.
The selection was then moved to the House of Representatives where
on the 36th ballot Vermont and Maryland switch their votes to
Jefferson. [see Feb 17, 1801]
(A&IP, ESM, p.26)(WSJ, 10/27/99, p.A16)
1800 Dec 12, Washington DC was
established as the capital of US.
1800 Dec 29, Charles Goodyear
(d.1860), inventor of vulcanized rubber for tires, was born.
1800 Dec, In Virginia Martha
Washington set all her slaves free.
(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)
1800 France Presern (d.1849),
author, painter, poet, musician, mathematician and architect, was
born in Slovenia. His image was later featured on Slovenia’s
(SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C6)
c1800 Johann Christian Reinhart, German artist,
created his work: "The History Painter, Caricature."
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)
1800 Friedrich Schiller wrote
his drama "Mary Stuart." The play is compressed into the last 3 days
of Mary’s life.
(SFC, 4/3/98, p.C1)(WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)
1800 Rev. Mason L. Weems
(d.1825) authored the biography "Life of Washington."
(ON, 12/00, p.9)
c1800 Worcestershire sauce was a ketchup and came
out about this time.
(SFC, 7/3/96, zz-1,p.3)
c1800 Father Demetrius Gallitzin (1770-1840), a
Russian-born Catholic priest, was directed by bishop John Carroll to
investigate spirits in the home (Wizard's Clip) of Adam Livingstone
in the Shenandoah Valley.
(WSJ, 10/30/03, p.W17)
1800 Congress allocated a room
in the Capitol for the US Supreme Court.
1800 The American political
"revolution" brought the Republicans to office in the (sic) first
peaceful transition of power between rival political parties in
1800 Jean Baptiste Pointe du
Sable, a pioneer trader and founder of the village that became
Chicago, sold his holdings and moved to a Missouri farm.
(SFEC,10/19/97, Z1 p.2)
1800 Virginia congressman John
Randolph described Edward Livingston of New York as follows: “He was
a man of splendid abilities, but utterly corrupt. Like rotten
mackerel by moonlight, he shines and stinks."
(Econ, 6/1/13, p.16)
1800 The population of the
world doubled from what it was in 1500 to more than 800 million. The
world’s population reached about 1 billion about this time. In 1927
it reached 2 billion; in 1959 3 billion; in 1987 5 billion; in 1999
6 billion and in 2011 7 billion.
(V.D.-H.K.p.168)(Econ, 10/22/11, p.28)
1800 The population of London,
the largest city in Europe, was about one million.
(Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.3)
1800 William Herschel
(1738-1822), German-born English astronomer, detected what later
became known as infra-red red light in experiments with glass prisms
(NH, 11/1/04, p.54)
1800 Alessandro Volta
(1745-1827), Italian physicist, first demonstrated the electric pile
(V.D.-H.K.p.269)(Econ, 3/8/08, TQ p.22)
1800 Robert Fulton (35) tested
a 20-foot model of his torpedo-armed submarine on the Seine. He made
two 20-minute dives himself.
(WSJ, 9/24/01, p.A22)
1800 John Chapman (1774-1845),
Johnny Appleseed, a Swedenborgian missionary, a land speculator, a
heavy drinker and an eccentric dresser, began planting orchards
across western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana from seed. (T&L,
10/1980, p.42) )(AHD, p.225)(HNQ, 1/2/01)
1800 Lieven Bauwens stole a
spinning "mule jenny" machine from Britain. He had it dismantled and
smuggled out in a cargo of coffee. This enabled the textile industry
in Ghent, Belgium, to greatly expand. Britain sentenced Bauwens to
death in absentia and Ghent made him a hero.
(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T11)
1800 Mary Robinson (42/43),
writer, actress, courtesan and fashion icon, died. In 2005 Sarah
Gristwood authored “Perdita: Royal Mistress, Writer and Romantic."
Paula Byrne authored Perdita: The Literary, Theatrical, Scandalous
Life of Mary Robinson."
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E2)
1800 The French regained the
territory of Louisiana from Spain by the secret Treaty of Ildefenso.
(CO, Grolier’s, 11/10/95)
1800 Dessalines, a lieutenant
of Haitian rebel leader Toussaint L'Ouverture (Louverture),
butchered many mulattoes (the estimates range from 200 to 10,000).
(http://tinyurl.com/22xwby)(WSJ, 1/19/07, p.W4)
1800 The Althing of Iceland was
abolished by the Danish king.
1800 About this time an Arab
nomadic tribe settled in the southern Israeli desert of Negev. The
Al-Sayyid community that developed there grew with a high incidence
of profound deafness due to a recessive gene. The village developed
a sign language in response that came to be called the Al-Sayyid
Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL). In 2007 Margalit Fox authored “Signs
and Wonders," which told the Al-Sayyid story as part of a history of
linguistics and sign language in American and the world.
(WSJ, 8/23/07, p.D7)
1800 Ito Jakuchu (b.1716),
Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died.
(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E12)
1800 In Sweden Count Balthazar
Von Platen started the Gut Canal.
(SFEC, 4/20/97, p.T8)
c1800 Many Bantu people from Malawi, Mozambique
and Tanzania were taken from their homes and sold as slaves in
(NW, 9/2/02, p.35)
1800-1825 Kurdish emir Bedr Han rose up against the Ottomans in the
early 19th century.
(Econ, 2/14/15, p.46)
1800-1830 The Regency Period of England. It was
named after George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales, who became
prince regent in 1811.
(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)
1800-1861 This period was covered by Nicholas E.
Tawa in his 2000 book: "High-Minded and Low-Down: Music in the Lives
of Americans, 1800-1861."
(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A24)
c1800-1900 Charles M. Russell, 19th century
American landscape painter. In 2001 his painting "A Disputed Trail"
sold for $2.4 million.
(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.W11)
1800-1900 In the 1990s Claude Rawson wrote Vol. 4
of "The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism: The Eighteenth
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)
1800-1900 In California floods turned the Central
Valley into a lake 700 miles long.
(SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)
c1800-1900 Sir David Brewster, 19th cent. Scottish
scientist, inventor of the kaleidoscope.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.126)
c1800-1900 J.H. Salisbury was a 19th century
English dietician who recommended a diet of ground steak for a
variety of ailments including pernicious anemia, tuberculosis and
hardening of the arteries. His name gave rise to "Salisbury steak."
(WUD, 1994, p.1262)
1800-1900 19th century Tokyo was called Edo and
served as the shogun’s power seat.
(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.T5)
1800-1900 In what later became Pakistan feudal
families came to power when the British made weak vassals into a
hereditary land-owning elite loyal to London.
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.A1)
1800-1900 In South Africa the Witwatersrand gold
mines were discovered, the largest gold reserve find in the world.
The gold came from a strip of land 62 miles long and 25 miles wide
and produced three-fourths of all the gold ever mined.
(SFEC, 4/21/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/8/99, Z1 p.8)
1800-1900 The main river channel at Hoi An,
Vietnam, shifted toward Danang and made navigation by deep-draft
ships difficult, and thus lost its commercial importance. A new port
was built on the Han River at Da Nang.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)
1801 Jan 1, The Act of Union
formally binding Ireland with England and abolishing the Irish
parliament, became effective.
12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)
1801 Jan 1, Giuseppi Piazzi
(d.1826), Italian astronomer, discovered an asteroid orbiting
between Mars and Jupiter. He believed it to be a planet and named it
Ceres, after the Roman goddess of the harvest. Ceres was later
measured to be about 974km in diameter, roughly the length of Great
Britain and 1% the mass of Earth’s moon.
(NH, 7/02, p.36)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.70)
1801 Jan 11, Domenico Cimarosa
(51), Italian composer (Matrimonio segreto), died.
1801 Jan 20, US Secretary of
State John Marshall was nominated by President Adams to be chief
justice. He was sworn in on Feb. 4, 1801. Marshall effectively
created the legal framework within which free markets in goods and
services could establish themselves.
(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)(AP, 1/20/08)
1801 Jan 28, Francis Barber
(ca. 1735 – 1801), the Jamaican manservant of Samuel Johnson
(1752-1784), died at the Staffordshire General Infirmary.
1801 Jan, Toussaint Louverture,
ignoring the commands of Napoleon Bonaparte, overran Spanish Santo
Domingo, where slavery persisted.
1801 Feb 4, John Marshall was
sworn in as chief justice of the United States.
1801 Feb 7, John Rylands,
merchant, philanthropist, was born in England.
1801 Feb 17, The House of
Representatives broke an electoral tie between Thomas Jefferson and
Aaron Burr, electing Jefferson president. Burr became vice
president. When George Washington announced that he would retire
from office, he set the stage for the nation’s first two-party
(AP, 2/17/98)(HN, 2/17/98)
1801 Feb 17, Thomas Jefferson
won the White House vowing to get rid of all federal taxes. He was
supported by a new coalition of anti-Federalists that was the
ancestor of the Democratic Party. In 2003 Jules Witcover authored
"Party of the People: A History of the Democrats."
(WSJ, 10/10/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/10/98, p.A18)(SSFC,
1801 Feb 21, John Henry Newman,
was born. He was the Protestant vicar who converted to Catholicism
and became a Roman Catholic Cardinal. He authored "Dream of
(HN, 2/21/99)(MC, 2/21/02)
1801 Feb 27, The District of
Columbia was placed under the jurisdiction of Congress.
1801 Feb 28, Motiejus
Valancius, Lithuanian educator, historian, writer and bishop, was
born in Nasrenai in the Kretinga region. He died May 29, 1875, in
Kaunas. His portrait is on the 2-litas note.
(LC, 1998, p.4,10)(LHC,2/28/03)
1801 Mar 3, 1st US Jewish
Governor, David Emanuel, took office in Georgia.
1801 Mar 4, Thomas Jefferson
became the first President to be inaugurated in Washington, D.C.
(1801-1809). James Madison became secretary of state. In his
inaugural address Jefferson said: "Though the will of the majority
is in all cases to prevail, that will, to be rightful, must be
reasonable; the minority possesses their equal right, which equal
laws must protect, and to violate would be oppression."
(WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(HN,
1801 Mar 10, Britain conducted
its first census in order to find out how many men were available
1801 Mar 11, Paul I (46), Czar
of Russia (1796-1801), was strangled in his bedroom in St.
Petersburg ending 4 years of insane rule. His son Alexander I
Pavlovich (23) succeeded him.
(PCh, 1992, p.360)(SS, 3/23/02)
1801 Mar 14, Christian
Friedrich Penzel (63), composer, died.
1801 Mar 21, The Kingdom of
Etruria was created by the Treaty of Aranjuez. It was made up a
large part of modern Tuscany and its name from Etruria, the old
Roman name for the land of the Etruscans. The first king (Louis I)
died young in 1803. His underage son Charles Louis succeeded
him and continued to 1807 when Napoleon dissolved the kingdom
and integrated it into France.
1801 Mar 21, Andrea Lucchesi
(59), composer, died.
1801 Mar 24, Aleksandr P.
Romanov became emperor of Russia.
1801 Mar 25, Anthony Ziesenis
(69), architect, sculptor (Camper), died.
1801 Apr 2, The British navy
defeated the Danish at the Battle of Copenhagen.
1801 Apr 8, Soldiers rioted in
Bucharest and killed 128 Jews.
1801 Apr 11, Johann von
Schiller's "Die Jungfrau von Orleans (The Maid of Orleans),"
premieres in Leipzig.
1801 Apr 12, Josef Franz Karl
Lanner, Austrian composer, violist, was born.
1801 May 14, The Pasha of
Tripoli symbolically declared war on the US by cutting down the
glagstaff in front of the US Consulate, after learning that Pres.
Jefferson had refused to pay a renewed tribute of $225,000.
(ON, 10/06, p.8)
1801 Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led
Sunni raids into Karbala, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.
(Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/5qdnf3)
1801 Apr 24, The 1st
performance of Joseph Haydn's oratorio "Die Jahreszeiten (The
1801 Apr 28, Anthony
Ashley-Cooper, the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury and a leading social
reformer of the Victorian Age, was born in England. Shaftesbury
labored to establish schools, to abolish the use of small children
as chimney sweeps, and to wipe out child prostitution. He was a
vocal opponent of slavery but had little respect for the United
States’ President Abraham Lincoln and thought the South should be
permitted to secede from the Union.
1801 May 6, British Lt. Thomas
Cochrane, commander of the 14-gun sloop HMS Speedy, engaged and
captured the 32-gun Spanish frigate El Gamo. The climactic battle in
Patrick O’Brian’s novel “Master and Commander" is based on the
Speedy’s fight with El Gamo. Cochrane was later elected to
Parliament, pointed out corruption and was arrested on trumped up
charges. After that he served as the first commander of Chile’s
navy, then Brazil’s navy and the Greek navy before returning to
England. In 2000 Robert Harvey authored “Cochrane: The Life and
Exploits of a Fighting Captain."
(ON, 11/04, p.1)
1801 May 16, William Henry
Seward was born. He was later Gov. of New York and the American Sec.
of State from 1861-1869. Under Pres. Lincoln he purchased Alaska for
the United States at 2 cents per acre.
(HFA, '96, p.30)(AHD, p.1187)(HN, 5/16/99)(WSJ,
11/20/01, p.A16)(MC, 5/16/02)
1801 May, Russian General Carl
Heinrich Knorring removed the Georgian heir to the throne David
Batonishvili from power and deployed a provisional government headed
by General Ivan Petrovich Lasarev.
1801 Jun 1, Mormon leader
Brigham Young (d.1877), the second president of the Mormon Church,
was born in Whitingham, Vt.
1801 Jun 6, The Treaty of
Badajoz (also known as the Peace of Badajoz) was signed in Badajoz
between John VI of Portugal and representatives from the Kingdom of
1801 Jun 10, The North African
state of Tripoli declared war on the United States in a dispute over
safe passage of merchant vessels through the Mediterranean. Tripoli
declared war on the U.S. for refusing to pay tribute.
(AP, 6/10/97)(HN, 6/10/98)
1801 Jun 14, Former American
Revolutionary War General Benedict Arnold died in London.
(AP, 6/14/01)(ON, 11/01, p.5)
1801 Jun 29, Frederic Bastiat
(d.1850), French free-market economist, was born in Bayonne. "The
state is the great fictitious entity in which everyone seeks to live
at the expense of everyone else."
(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A12)
1801 Jul 3, Johann Nepomuk Went
(56), composer, died.
1801 Jul 5, David G. Farragut
(d.1870), American naval hero, was born in Knoxville, Tenn.
1801 Jul 7, A new constitution,
drafted by a committee appointed by Toussaint Louverture
(L’Ouverture), went into effect and declared the independence of
Hispaniola. The constitution made him governor general for life with
near absolute powers.
1801 Jul 15, Pope Pius VII and
Napoleon signed the Concordat of 1801 brokering religious peace with
Rome and granting equality to Jews. It solidified the Roman Catholic
Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its
1801 Jul 17, The U.S. fleet
arrived in Tripoli after Pasha Yusuf Karamanli declared war for
being refused tribute.
1801 Aug 1, The American
schooner Enterprise captured the Barbary cruiser Tripoli.
1801 Aug 6, A 9-day revival
began at the Cane Ridge Presbyterian Church in Bourbon County,
Kentucky. Some 20,000 people showed up for the revival called by
Rev. Barton W. Stone. 3 evangelistic Christian groups grew out of
(WSJ, 8/10/01, p.W15)
1801 Oct 6, Napoleon Bonaparte
imposed a new constitution on Holland.
1801 Oct 23, Gustav Albert
Lortzing, composer, was born.
1801 Oct 23, Johann Gottlieb
Naumann (60), German composer, died.
1801 Nov 3, Karl Baedeker
(d.1859), German publisher, was born. He became well known for
travel guides. His 1835 "Travel on the Rhine" is widely considered
as the 1st modern guidebook.
(HN, 11/3/00)(SSFC, 12/1/02, p.C3)
1801 Nov 3, Vincenzo Bellini,
Italian opera composer (La Sonnambula, Norma), was born.
1801 Nov 9, Carl Philipp
Stamitz, composer, died.
1801 Nov 10, Samuel Gridley
Howe (d.1876), educator of the blind, was born. He was the husband
of Julia Ward Howe, author of the "Battle Hymn of the Republic."
(NH, 6/96, p.20)(HN, 11/10/00)
1801 Nov 10, Kentucky banned
1801 Nov 16, The 1st edition of
New York Evening Post was published. Alexander Hamilton helped found
the paper and served as editor.
1801 Dec 24, Richard
Trevithick, inventor of the steam locomotive, completed a road test
of his 1st "traveling engine" in Camborne, England.
(ON, 4/04, p.5)
1801 Nov 9, Gail Borden
(d.1874), inventor of condensed milk, was born in New York.
(ON, 5/04, p.4)(Internet)
1801 Rembrandt Peale painted
his brother’s portrait: "Rubens Peale with Geranium."
(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.6)
1801 Francois Rene de
Chateaubriand (1768-1848), French writer, authored his novel “Atala"
following a trip to the US.
(WSJ, 5/8/08, p.A13)
1801 Samuel Taylor Coleridge,
English poet, wrote to Sir Humphrey Davy a letter in which he says:
"I seem to sink in upon myself in a ruin, like a Column of Sand,
informed and animated only by a Whirl-Blast of the Dessert."
Coleridge had become addicted to opium in this year.
(OAPOC-TH, p.71)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)
1801 Beethoven composed Op. 25
Serenade for flute, Violin and Viola.
(WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)
1801 Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl
of Elgin, took the 2,500 year-old bas-reliefs from the Parthenon
while he served as the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. 17
figures and 56 panels were put on display at the British Museum in
1816. Around 1939 the marbles were subjected to a botched scouring
operation that damaged 40% of the collection. Elgin had hired
Giovanni Lusieri, an Italian artist from the court of the King of
Naples, to oversee the Parthenon project.
(SFC, 12/2/99, p.D6)(ON, 11/99, p.2)
1801 Thomas Jefferson began a
set of proper rules for the Senate when he wrote: " No one is to
disturb another in his speech by hissing, coughing, spitting,
speaking, or whispering to another."
(SFC, 9/20/97, p.A9)
1801 Elder John Leland, a
Baptist minister, helped commission a 1,235-pound wheel of Cheshire
cheese as a gift of gratitude for Thomas Jefferson's steadfast
support of religious liberties.
(SSFC, 8/17/03, p.M1)
1801 The London Stock Exchange
formed. British government debt was the only security traded and
this remained so until 1822.
(Econ, 4/2/05, p.70)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.104)
1801 French artist Girodet
depicted Ossian, the mythical 3rd century blind Scottish poet,
before the story was exposed as a fraud.
(WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)
1801 In France Napoleon opened
the Louvre to the public.
(SFC, 2/11/97, p.E5)
1801 Napoleon's army in Egypt
surrendered to Turkish and English forces. The French civilian toll
topped 25 of 150, while the military toll topped 25,000 over the
(ON, 12/99, p.4)(SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)
1801 Friedrich von Hardenberg
(b.1772), German poet (Novalis), died. He was later known as the
father of German romantic nationalism.
(WUD, 1994 p.645)(WSJ, 4/8/03, p.D4)
1801 In Mexico La Iglesia de
Nuestra Senora del Refugio was a Franciscan-style mission church
built in the border town of Guerrero Viejo.
(SFC, 6/4/98, p.C2)
1801 South Ossetia was absorbed
into the Russian Empire along with Georgia.
(WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A12)
1801-1806 Alexandre Dumas (d.1870) covered these
years of French history in an 1869 serialized novel printed in the
journal, "The Universal Monitor." In the 1980s Claude Schopp, a
retired French lecturer, discovered the epic novel on microfilm. He
got it published under the title "Le Chevalier de Sainte-Hermine,"
and in 2005 it became a top ten seller.
1801-1835 John Marshall (1755-1835) was chief
justice of the US Supreme Court. In 1996 Charles F. Hobson wrote
"The Great Chief Justice: John Marshall and the Law" and Jean Edward
Smith wrote "John Marshall: Definer of a Nation."
(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A20)
1801-1848 Thomas Cole, English born US painter. He
and Asher B. Durand became fathers of the Hudson River School of
painting and founded the National Academy of Design.
(WUD, 1994, p.288)(WSJ, 8/10/99, p.A22)
1801-1864 Caroline Matilda Stansbury Kirkland,
American author: "Like other spurious things, fastidiousness is
often inconsistent with itself, the coarsest things are done, and
the cruelest things said by the most fastidious people."
1801-1866 Jane Welsh Carlyle, English writer: "In
spite of the honestest efforts to annihilate my ‘I-ity,’ or merge it
in what the world doubtless considers my better half (historian
Thomas Carlyle), I still find myself a self-subsisting and alas!
1801-1921 A single Parliament legislated all the
British Isles. A history of the archipelago was written in 2000 by
Norman Davies: "The Isles."
(WSJ, 3/9/00, p.A24)
1802 Jan 25, Napoleon was
elected president of Italian (Cisalpine) Republic.
1802 Jan 26, Congress passed an
act calling for a library to be established within the U.S. Capitol.
1802 Jan 29, John Beckley of
Virginia was appointed 1st Librarian of Congress.
1802 Jan, In London, England,
William Cobbett (1763-1835) set up the Weekly Political Register. It
spread dissent during the post-war recession.
1802 Feb 4, Mark Hopkins,
US educator, philosopher (Williams College), was born.
1802 Feb 8, Simon Willard
patented a banjo clock.
1802 Feb 23, Dewitt Clinton
(1769-1828) began serving as US Senator from New York and continued
1802 Feb 26, Victor Hugo
(d.1885), French novelist and poet, was born in Besancon. In 1998
Graham Robb published the biography: "Victor Hugo." "Initiative is
doing the right thing without being told."
(WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)(HN, 2/26/98)(AP, 6/13/99)
1802 Feb, Napoleon sent a large
army under his brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, to regain control of
St. Domingue. Thousands of soldiers died mainly to yellow fever and
French control was abandoned so as to support military ventures in
Europe. Toussaint L'Ouverture (Louverture) turned to guerrilla
warfare inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution and its
motto of "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity."
(CO, Grolier's, 11/10/95)(AP, 4/7/03)
1802 Mar 16, The US Congress
authorized the establishment of the US Military Academy at West
Point, N.Y. President Jefferson signed a measure authorizing the
establishment of the US Military Academy at West Point, N.Y.
1802 Mar 24, Richard Trevithick
was granted a patent in London for his steam locomotive.
(ON, 4/04, p.5)
1802 Mar 27, Treaty of Amiens
was signed. The French Revolutionary War ended.
1802 Apr 4, Dorothea Dix,
American proponent of treatment of mental inmates, was born.
1802 Apr 8, French Protestant
church became state-supported and controlled.
1802 Apr 19, Spain reopened the
New Orleans port to American merchants.
1802 Apr 27, Abraham Louis
Niedermeyer, composer, was born.
1802 May 3, Washington, D.C.,
was incorporated as a city, with the mayor appointed by the
president and the council elected by property owners.
1802 May 15, Isaac Ridgeway
Trimble (d.1888), Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
1802 May 18, Great Britain
declared war on Napoleon's France.
1802 May 19 Napoleon
established the French Order of Legion d'Honneur award (Legion of
Honor). It was a general military and civil order of merit conferred
without regard to birth or religion, provided that anyone admitted
swore to uphold liberty and equality.
(DrEE, 9/28/96, p.5)(SFC, 10/19/96, A7)
1802 May, In Saint-Domingue
(later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture surrendered to French
forces. Many of his generals continued to wage a guerilla campaign
against the French.
(ON, 2/10, p.9)
1802 Jul 4, The United State
Military Academy opened its doors at West Point, New York, welcoming
the first 10 cadets.
(AP, 7/4/97)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1802 Jul 7, The first comic
book was published in Hudson, NY. "The Wasp" was created by Robert
1802 Jul 8, Gen. Toussaint
L'Ouverture of Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) was sent to France in
(AP, 4/7/03)(ON, 2/10, p.9)
1802 Jul 9, Thomas Davenport,
invented 1st commercial electric motor, was born.
1802 Jul 24, Alexandre Dumas
(d.1870), French novelist and dramatist who wrote "The Count of
Monte Cristo" and "The Three Musketeers," was born. Alexandre Dumas,
pere, French author of romantic plays and novels. He wrote "The Man
in the Iron Mask." He was the father of Alexandre Dumas fils
(1824-1895), French author of plays of social realism.
(HFA, ‘96, p.34)(AHD, 1971, p.403)(WUD, 1994,
1802 Aug 2, Napoleon Bonaparte
was proclaimed "Consul for Life" by the French Senate after a
plebiscite from the French people.
1802 Aug 5, Niels Henrik Abel
(d.1829), mathematician, was born in Frindoe, Norway.
(Internet)(SFC, 3/26/04, p.A15)
1802 Aug 7, Napoleon ordered
the re-instatement of slavery on St. Domingue (Haiti).
1802 Aug 25, Toussaint
L'Ouverture (Louverture) was imprisoned in Fort de Joux, Jura,
1802 Aug 31, Captain Meriwether
Lewis left Pittsburgh to meet up with Captain William Clark and
begin their trek to the Pacific Ocean.
1802 Sep 4, A French aeronaut
dropped eight-thousand feet equipped with a parachute.
1802 Sep 11, Piedmont, Italy,
was annexed by France.
1802 Sep 19, Louis Kossuth
(d.1894), later president of Hungary, was born. "The instinctive
feeling of a great people is often wiser than its wisest men."
(AP, 7/2/97)(MC, 9/19/01)
1802 Oct 10, The 1st non-Indian
settlement in Oklahoma was made.
1802 Oct 22, Samuel Arnold
(62), English composer, died.
1802 Oct 28, The 34-gun Spanish
frigate Juno, enroute back to Spain from Mexico [Puerto Rico], ran
into a storm off the coast of Virginia. Captain Don Juan Ignacio
Bustillo perished along with 425 men, women and children and an
estimated half-billion dollars in treasure. A boy from the wreck
survived on Assateague Island and was named James Alone. He later
changed his name to James Lunn. Many Chincoteague islanders later
traced their descent to James.
(USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)(WSJ, 7/17/98, p.A1)(SFC,
1802 Oct 31, Benoit Fourneyron,
inventor of the water turbine, was born.
1802 Nov 9, Elijah P. Lovejoy,
American newspaper publisher and abolitionist, was born.
1802 Dec 20, The United States
bought the Louisiana territory from France. [see Jan 11, 1803]
1802 James Gillnay painted
"Cow-Pock," a satirization of the new cowpox vaccination to prevent
(NH, 9/98, p.9)
1802 Nathaniel Bowditch
(1773-1838) published "The New American Practical Navigator," later
known as the "seaman’s bible." It was a revision of his 1799 and
1800 works, which in turn revised the 1722 work of John Hamilton
(AH, 12/02, p.22)
1802 French author
Chateaubriand (1768-1848) authored “Rene" and introduced to the
world the French youth whose existence embodied the mal du siècle.
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.84)
1802 Vivant Denon (1747-1825),
French author and archeologist, authored Voyage dans la Basse et la
Haute Egypte" (Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt during the campaigns
of General Bonaparte in that country).
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.127)
1802 John Playfair published a
more readable volume of Hutton’s Theory of the Earth as
Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth.
1802 James Callender, an
English-born journalist, published a report in the Richmond, Va.,
Recorder about Thomas Jefferson and his relationship with the slave
Sally Hemmings [Hemings]. In 1997 Annette Gordon-Reed published:
"Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings, an American Controversy." DNA
tests of descendants in 1998 indicated that Jefferson fathered at
least one child with Hemmings, her youngest son Eston Hemmings in
1808. Dr. Eugene Foster, author of the DNA report, later said the
DNA tests showed that any one of 8 Jefferson males could have
fathered Eston. In 2008 Annette Gordon-Reed authored “The Hemmingses
of Monticello: An American Family."
(WSJ, 9/23/97, p.A1)(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A6)(SFEC,
11/1/98, p.A1,7)(WSJ, 11/2/98, p.B11)(WSJ, 2/26/99, p.W15)(SFC,
1/27/00, p.A3)(SSFC, 10/19/08, Books p.4)
1802 Beethoven composed the 6
Gellert songs of Op. 48.
(WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)
1802 Congress repealed all
taxes except for a tax on salt and left the government dependent on
(WSJ, 10/10/97, p.A1)
1802 Andrew Jackson was elected
to command the Tennessee militia.
(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.M3)
1802 Eleuthere Irenee du Pont
de Nemours (d.1834), a French immigrant, set up a saltpeter mill in
Wilmington, Del., on the banks of the Brandywine River. In 8 years
it grew to become America's largest black-powder plant as it
supplied gunpowder to the US for the War of 1812.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)(SFC, 9/17/01, p.B2)
1802 Joseph Ellicott, New York
Quaker surveyor, founded Genessee County and the town of Batavia:
"God made Buffalo, I will try and make Batavia."
(WSJ, 6/28/02, p.W13)
1802 Heinrich Olbers, German
astronomer, discovered an asteroid orbiting between Mars and
Jupiter, He believed it to be a planet and named it Pallas after
Pallas Athena (goddess of wisdom and war).
(NH, 7/02, p.36)
1802 Edward Howard, English
chemist, determined that the iron in meteorites was a unique blend
of iron and nickel that did not occur in known terrestrial rocks.
(ON, 7/02, p.5)
1802 An American captain of the
ship Palmyra blew ashore on a southern atoll 1,052 miles south of
Hawaii and named it Palmyra after his ship.
(SFC, 5/4/00, p.A9)
1802 Harriot Wilson was
publicly executed by the state of Pennsylvania for the murder of her
infant child. An account of the "exploits of the murderess" is
published in 1822 by J. Wilkey.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.20)
1802 In Australia the
Aboriginal warrior Pemulwuy (b.~1750) was shot dead. His head was
cut off and believed to have been placed in a jar and sent to
England. He opposed British settlement and was described by Sydney's
then governor Philip King as "a terrible pest to the colony" but
also "a brave and independent character."
1802 Britain levied the first
English income tax to raise money to fight Napoleon. William Pit the
Younger 1st introduced the income tax to finance the war against
(SFEC, 4/5/98, Z1 p.8)(Econ, 9/10/05, p.53)
1802 England passed its first
law regulating child labor.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)
1802 A British exploring party
led by Matthew Flinders landed on a 96-mile-long island southwest of
Adelaide and slaughtered 31 kangaroos for a feast. This 3rd largest
island off Australia was thus named Kangaroo Island. Flinders named
the Great Barrier Reef and found a passage to the Corral Sea. He is
best remembered for circumnavigating Australia and giving the
continent its name.
(SFEC,12/21/97, p.T6)(SSFC, 3/24/02, p.C22)(WSJ,
7/23/04, p.W12)(Econ, 5/31/14, p.77)
1802 The Rosetta Stone was
seized by the British in Egypt after the defeat of Napoleon’s army
and was sent to England.
1802 The Rome stock exchange
was founded. The Borsa di Roma occupied the site of a temple
completed in 145 AD as a tribute to Emperor Hadrian.
(WSJ, 12/13/96, p.B11A)
1802 Emperor Gia Long, born as
Nguyen Phuc An, took over Hue and established it as the capital of
Vietnam. Its palaces, tombs and monuments are located along the
banks of the Perfume River.
(SSFC, 1/29/17, p.F4)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)
1802-1803 George Friedrich Grotefend published his
account of translating cuneiform script.
1802-1828 Richard Parkes, English watercolorist.
(Hem., 3/97, p.94)
1802-1838 Letitia Landon, English poet: "Few,
save the poor, feel for the poor."
1802-1876 Harriet Martineau, English writer and
social critic: "Religion is a temper, not a pursuit."
1802-1880 Lydia Maria Child, American author
Thought for Today: "It is right noble to fight with wickedness and
wrong; the mistake is in supposing that spiritual evil can be
overcome by physical means."
1802-1889 Juana Briones Y Tapia de Miranda was
born in Santa Cruz, Ca. She was a battered wife and became the first
California woman to get a divorce. She was the first to settle on
Powell St. in what is now North Beach, SF. In 1989 the Women’s
Heritage Museum persuaded the state to authorize a plaque in her
honor to be set in Washington Square.
(SFEC, 5/26/97, p.A11)(SFC,11/17/97, p.A1,21)
1803 Jan 11, Monroe and
Livingston sailed for Paris to buy New Orleans; they ended up buying
Louisiana. [see Dec 20, 1802]
1803 Jan, Lord Elgin concluded
his diplomatic mission to Constantinople.
(ON, 11/99, p.2)
1803 Feb 2, Albert Sidney
Johnston, Genl. (Confederate Army), was born. He died in 1862 at
1803 Feb 14, An apple parer was
patented by Moses Coats in Downington, Penn.
1803 Feb 15, John Augustus
Sutter (d.1880), Swiss-US colonist (New Helvetia, Ca., Sutter Mill),
1803 Feb 19, Congress voted to
accept Ohio’s borders and constitution. However, Congress did not
get around to formally ratifying Ohio statehood until 1953.
1803 Feb 21, The British return
the Cape of Good Hope to the Dutch (Batavian Republic) under the
Treaty of Amiens.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)
1803 Feb 21, Edward Despard
became the last person drawn & quartered in England.
1803 Feb 24, The US Supreme
Court ruled itself the final interpreter of constitutional issues.
Chief Justice John Marshall, by refusing to rule on the case of
Marbury vs. Madison, asserted the authority of the judicial branch.
The US Supreme Court 1st ruled a law unconstitutional (Marbury v
(AP, 2/24/98)(HN, 2/24/98)
1803 Feb 25, The 1,800
sovereign German states united into 60 states.
1803 Mar 1, Ohio became the
17th US state and was given a grant of land to support public
(HN, 3/1/98)(Econ, 4/15/17, p.22)
1803 Mar 3, The first
impeachment trial of a U.S. Judge, John Pickering, began.
1803 Mar 14, Friedrich Gottlieb
Klopstock (78), German poet, died.
1803 Mar 19, Johann von
Schiller's "Die Braut von Messina," premiered in Weimar.
1803 Apr 5, 1st performance of
Beethoven's 2nd Symphony in D.
1803 Apr 7, Francois D.
Toussaint L'Ouverture (Louverture), Haitian revolutionary, died in a
dungeon at Fort Joux in the French Alps. In 2007 Madison Smartt Bell
authored “Toussaint Louverture: A Biography."
1803 Apr 26, Villagers of
L’Aigle, France, witnessed a meteor shower. The rocks helped to
convince scientists that meteors were of extraterrestrial origin.
(ON, 7/02, p.5)
1803 Apr 30, The US under
Thomas Jefferson signed a treaty that accepted the purchase of the
Louisiana Territory from Napoleon Bonaparte's government of France
for 60 million francs or about $15 mil. The area included most of
the thirteen states that lie between the Mississippi River and the
Rocky Mountains. American envoys sent to France were originally
instructed to buy only the port city of New Orleans and were
astonished when Napoleon, abandoning plans for an American empire,
offered them all of Louisiana. The United States doubled in size
through the Louisiana Purchase. The federal government spent less
than $8 million in operations and borrowed the money needed for the
(CO, 11/10/95)(WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)(AP,
4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(HNPD, 5/1/99)
1803 May 7, Johan Peter
Cronhamm, composer, was born.
1803 May 16, Great Britain and
France renewed their war.
(PCh, 1992, p.362)
1803 May 17, John Hawkins and
Richard French patented a reaping machine.
1803 May 18, Great Britain
declared war on France after General Napoleon Bonaparte continued
interfering in Italy and Switzerland.
(HN, 5/18/99)(ON, 11/99, p.4)(SC, 5/18/02)
1803 May 22, The 1st US public
library opened in Connecticut.
1803 May 23, Lord Elgin and his
family were detained in Paris. Elgin's family was allowed to proceed
but he was arrested and declared a prisoner of war.
(ON, 11/99, p.4)
1803 May 24, Charles LJL
Bonaparte, Corsican, French prince of Canino, Musignano, was born.
1803 May 25, Ralph Waldo
Emerson (d.1882), American essayist and philosopher, was born. A
biography of Emerson that includes information about his friends was
written in 1996 by Carlos Baker and titled: "Emerson Among the
Eccentrics: A Group Portrait." It includes such people as: the
transcendental visionary Bronson Alcott, essayist Henry David
Thoreau, mad poet Jones Very, activist Margaret Fuller, poet Ellery
Channing. Other people included are Hawthorne, Melville, Theodore
Parker, and the family of Henry James. "Money often costs too much."
"Nothing astonishes men so much as common sense and plain dealing."
(AP, 10/22/97)(HN, 5/25/98)(AP, 7/8/98)
1803 Jul 8, Frederick Augustus
Hervey (b.1730), the 4th Earl of Bristol and Bishop of Derry, died.
He had toured Europe with his own cook and entourage and inspired a
number of hotels to take on the Bristol name.
1803 Jul 23, Irish patriots
throughout the country rebelled against Union with Great Britain.
Robert Emmett led the insurrection in Dublin.
(HN, 7/23/98)(MC, 7/23/02)
1803 Jul 31, John Ericsson,
inventor of the screw propeller, was born.
1803 Aug 31, The
government-sponsored transcontinental expedition under the
leadership of Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark
set off down the Ohio River. The 40-member expedition wintered and
trained near St. Louis before starting up the Missouri River in
three boats on May 14, 1804. Lewis and Clark’s three-year journey of
exploration and discovery to the Pacific Coast and back stimulated
western settlement and proved that an overland route to the West
Coast was possible.
1803 Sep 5, Francois Devienne,
composer, died at 44.
1803 Sep 8, A high pressure
steam boiler, made by Richard Trevithick, exploded at a corn mill in
Greenwich, England, and 3 men were killed. A worker had left a heavy
wrench on the safety valve and gone fishing.
(ON, 4/04, p.5)
1803 Sep 13, Commodore John
Barry, considered by many the father of the American Navy, died in
1803 Sep 17, Franz Xaver
Sussmayr, composer, died.
1803 Sep 23, British Major
General Sir Arthur Wellesley defeated the Marathas at Assaye, India.
1803 Sep 20, Robert Emmet,
Irish nationalist, was executed.
1803 Sep 27, Samuel Francis
DuPont (d.1865), Rear Admiral (Union Navy), was born.
1803 Sep 28, Prosper Merimee,
playwright (Carmen), was born in Paris, France.
1803 Oct 2, Samuel Adams
(b.1722), former Gov. of Mass. (1793-1797), died. He was a
propagandist, political figure, revolutionary patriot and statesman
who helped to organize the Boston Tea Party. In 2008 Ira Stoll
authored “Samuel Adams: A Life."
1971, p.14)(WSJ, 11/3/08, p.A17)
1803 Oct 3, John Gorrie,
inventor of the cold-air process of refrigeration, was born.
1803 Oct 20, The US Senate
voted to ratify Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase.
(CO, Grolier’s, 11/10/95)(AP, 10/20/97)
1803 Oct 31, Congress ratified
the purchase of the entire Louisiana area in North America, which
added territory to the United States for 13 subsequent states.
1803 Oct, The USS Philadelphia
was captured by the Tripolitans. 307 sailors were held for ransom by
the Pasha of Tripoli.
1803 Nov 3, Henri Moreau,
composer (75), died.
1803 Nov 5, Chalderon de
Laclos, writer, died.
1803 Nov 18, The Battle of
Vertieres was fought. Jean-Jacques Dessalines (b.1758), Haitian
rebel leader, led his army to decisive victory over the French with
his slogan "Cut off their heads and burn down their houses."
‘96, p.42)(AP, 4/7/03)
1803 Nov 29, Christian Doppler
(d.1853), Austrian physicist who discovered the Doppler effect, was
born. Hubble used his name for the Doppler Effect, that describes
the apparent change in the frequency of a wave depending on whether
the wave is approaching or receding.
(WUB, 1994, p.426)(HN, 11/29/98)
1803 Nov 30, Spain, in a
ceremony at New Orleans, completed the process of ceding Louisiana
to France, which had sold it to the United States.
(CO, Grolier’s, 11/10/95)(AP, 11/30/04)
1803 Dec 3, Hector Berlioz,
French composer (Symphony Fantastique), was born. [see Dec 11]
1803 Dec 11, Hector Berlioz
(d.1869), French composer and conductor, was born. He introduced
arresting and gaudy instrumental colors in combinations that had not
been dreamed of before him. He composed "Romeo and Juliet" in 1939
and conducted its first performance. He also composed the "Death of
Cleopatra." He composed "Symphonie Fantastique" and "La Damnation de
Faust." [see Dec 3]
(T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(SFC, 10/5/96, p.E1)(HN,
1803 Dec 20, The Louisiana
Purchase was completed as the territory was formally transferred
from France to the United States during ceremonies in New Orleans.
French Prefect Pierre Clement Laussat, US Gov. William CC Claiborne
and US Gen. James Wilkinson signed 4 copies the treaty. The
Louisiana Purchase effectively doubled the size of the existing U.S.
With 827,987 square miles in the deal, that price translates to
roughly $18 per square mile- under 3 cents/acre.
(AP, 12/20/97)(SFC, 12/21/03, p.A2)
1803 Dec 23, Lt. Stephen
Decatur, commanding the schooner Enterprise, captured a Barbary
ketch, which was entered into the US Navy as the Intrepid.
(ON, 2/03, p.2)
1803 The Pinkster Ode was
Dedicated To Carolus Africanus, Rex: Thus Rendered in English: King
Charles, Capital-General and Commander in Chief of the Pinkster Boys
in Albany, NY. Despite Pinkster’s Dutch origins, Africans in New
York and New Jersey were so successful at incorporating their own
cultures into the celebration that by the early 1800s Pinkster was
actually considered an African-American holiday.
1803 Beethoven composed his
"Kreutzer Sonata" dedicated to the French violinist Rudolphe
(WUD, 1994, p.795)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E4)
1803 One of the
architects of the US Capitol, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, who succeeded
William Thornton and Stephen Hallet as Capitol architect in 1803,
modified the original design of the Capitol and used Greek
inspiration in the details. Latrobe was chiefly responsible for
introducing the Greek Revival in the U.S. His Bank of Pennsylvania
building in Philadelphia was the first Greek building in the country
and was characteristic of his free adaptation of ancient precedent
and vaulted construction.
1803 The US Mint struck its
last silver dollars until 1934, when special 1804 silver dollars
were minted as gifts from left over dies.
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A6)
1803 Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828)
began serving his 1st term as Mayor of New York City and continued
to 1807. His 2nd term as mayor was from 1808-1810 and again from
1803 In NYC the
industrial district surrounded the Collect Pond. It got so polluted
that the Common Council called for it to be filled and the process
was begun in this year.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.47)
1803 In Virginia the Alexandria
Baptist Society was formed when members split from another church. A
slave was soon baptized as its first black member. In 1818 the
Alfred Street Baptist Church in Alexandria was founded.
1803 John Dalton, British
chemist and physicist, pointed out that the fact that chemical
compounds always combined in certain proportions could be explained
by the grouping together of atoms to form units called molecules.
(BHT, Hawking, p.63)
1803 The steel ink pen was
developed in Birmingham, England.
(SFC, 12/13/06, p.E3)
1803 Thomas Robert Malthus
(1766-1834), English political economist, authored the 2nd edition
of his 1798 “An Essay on the Principle of Population." This edition
introduced the idea of moral restraint.
1803 The French Academy of
Sciences insisted that meteorites could not exist because no
specimens had been produced.
(WSJ, 4/2/96, p.A-15)
1803 French economist
Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832) penned "A Treatise on Political
Economy," an exposition and expansion of the economic ideas of
Adam Smith. Here he said that management is a factor of production.
1803 Alexander Von Humboldt,
German explorer and scientist, spent some time in Taxco, Mexico. The
house where he stayed later became the Museum of Colonial Religious
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T7)
1803 Denmark became the first
country to ban slave trade.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1803-1812 Lord Elgin organized the removal of
sculptures from the Parthenon.
(AM, 5/01, p.14)
1803-1815 In 2007 Charles Esdaile covered this
period in his book: “Napoleon’s Wars: An International History,
(Econ, 11/10/07, p.103)
1803-1862 Barend Cornelis Koekkoek of Holland came
from a renowned family of artists. He considered the painting of
nature the only true calling of an artist.
(WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W16)
1803-1876 Orestes Augustus Brownson, American
author and clergyman was born in Stockbridge, Vt. At first a
Presbyterian, he later became a Universalist, a Unitarian minister,
head of his own church, a transcendentalist, and finally (1844) a
Roman Catholic. As a writer and magazine editor, Brownson dealt with
religious questions and fought social injustice: "We have heard
enough of the liberties and the rights of man, it is high time to
hear something of the duties of men and the rights of authority." In
1992 Gregory Butler wrote the biography: "In Search of the American
Spirit," and in 1999 R.A. Herrera published "Orestes Brownson: Sign
1804 Jan 1, Jean-Jacques
Dessalines proclaimed the Republic of Haiti and declared
independence from France. Documentation of his speech was then lost
and only re-discovered in 2010 by a Canadian graduate student
searching in the British National Archives.
(WSJ, 3/1/04, p.A16)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.19)(SFC,
1804 Jan 5, Ohio legislature
passed the 1st laws restricting free blacks movement. [see Mar 28]
1804 Jan 31, British
vice-admiral William Bligh (of HMS Bounty infamy) fleet reached
1804 Feb 6, Joseph Priestley
(b.1733), English-born US writer, philosopher and chemist, died in
Pennsylvania. He became best known for having discovered oxygen.
Priestley also figured out how to manufacture carbonated water and
is sometimes called “the father of the soft-drink industry." In 2008
Steven Johnson authored “The Invention of Air: A Story of Science,
Faith, Revolution, and the Birth of America."
10/05, p.1)(SFC, 1/9/09, p.E3)
1804 Feb 7, John Deere, farm
equipment manufacturer, was born.
1804 Feb 15, New Jersey became
the last northern state to abolish slavery.
1804 Feb 16, Lt. Stephen
Decatur attacked Tripoli, where pirates held the USS Philadelphia.
Decatur and 76 volunteers, aboard the captured Intrepid, attempted
to recapture the Philadelphia, which caught fire, exploded and sank.
Decatur and his crew escaped.
(AP, 2/16/98)(HN, 2/16/98)(ON, 2/03, p.2)
1804 Feb 20, Hobart, Tasmania,
was founded as a penal colony.
1804 Feb 25, Thomas Jefferson
was nominated for president at the Democratic-Republican caucus.
1804 Feb 26, Vice-Admiral
William Bligh ended the siege of Fort Amsterdam, Willemstad.
1804 Mar 7, John Wedgwood,
founder (Royal Horticulture Society), died.
1804 Mar 8, Alvan Clark,
telescope manufacturer, was born.
1804 Mar 12, Judge John
Pickering, a federal district judge in New Hampshire, was the first
American official impeached and then found guilty by the Senate.
Pickering, a Federalist, was impeached as unfit based on charges
related to his habitual drunkenness and bizarre handling of cases.
He was adjudged guilty and removed from office in spite of evidence
establishing that he was insane and hence not culpable of high
crimes or misdemeanors. Impeached during the same period, Chief
Justice Samuel Chase was acquitted by the Senate on March 1, 1805,
ending the Republican campaign against the Federalist bench and
discouraging subsequent administrations from using impeachment to
remove politically obnoxious judges.
1804 Mar 14, Johann Strauss
(d.1849), Austrian orchestra conductor and composer, was born. His
son was also named Johann (1825-1899).
(WUD, 1994, p.1405)(HN, 3/14/98)
1804 Mar 21, The French civil
code, later called the "Code Napoleon," was adopted.
1804 Mar 26, Congress ordered
the removal of Indians east of the Mississippi to Louisiana.
1804 Mar 26, The Louisiana
Purchase was divided into the Territory of Orleans and the District
1804 Mar 28, Ohio passed law
restricting movement of Blacks. [see Jan 5]
1804 Apr 20, Jean-Jacques
Dessalines, Haitian rebel leader, commanded a massacre of the French
at town of Cape Francois. It is generally thought that Dessalines
had around 20,000 French slaughtered in early 1804.
1804 Apr 22, Gioacchino Rossini
(12) performed in Imola.
1804 May 14, The Lewis and
Clark expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory left St. Louis.
Explorer William Clark sets off from St. Louis, Missouri, to travel
upriver to wait for Meriwether Lewis. The two will soon depart
together on a journey to reach the Pacific. The trip was retold in a
TV movie by Ken Burns in 1997. [see May 22]
(AP, 5/14/97)(SFC,11/4/97, p.B1)(HN, 5/14/99)
1804 May 16, Elizabeth Palmer
Peabody, founder of the first U.S. kindergarten, was born.
1804 May 18, The French Senate
proclaimed Napoleon Bonaparte emperor.
(AP, 5/18/97)(HN, 5/18/98)
1804 May 22, The Lewis and
Clark Expedition officially began as the Corps of Discovery departed
from St. Charles, Missouri. [see May 14]
1804 Jun 3, Richard Cobden,
English economist and politician, was born. He became known as 'the
Apostle of free trade.' He led the Anti-Corn League, which in
1839-1846 fought to remove price controls and import barriers for
(HN, 6/3/99)(Econ, 6/5/04, p.10)
1804 Jun 26, The Lewis and
Clark Expedition reached the mouth of the Kansas River after
completing a westward trek of nearly 400 river miles.
1804 Jun 29, Privates John
Collins and Hugh Hall of the Lewis and Clark Expedition were found
guilty by a court-martial consisting of members of the Corps of
Discovery for getting drunk on duty. Collins receives 100 lashes on
his back and Hall receives 50.
1804 Jul 1, George Sand
(Amandine-Aurore Lucille Dupin de Francueil, d.1876), French
novelist, was born in Paris. She wrote some 80 novels that included
“Consuelo" (1842) and “La Comtesse de Rudolstadt" (1843). In 1975
Curtis Cate published the biography: "George Sand." "I would rather
believe that God did not exist than believe that He was
(WUD, 1994, p.1265)(HN, 7/1/01) (AP,
10/17/98)(HN, 7/1/01)(Econ, 7/31/04, p.72)
1804 Jul 4, Nathaniel Hawthorne
(d.1864) American novelist and short-story writer, was born in
Marblehead, [Salem], Massachusetts. Hawthorne was born to a
prominent but decaying family. One of his ancestors, a judge in the
Salem witchcraft trials, became the model for the accursed founder
of The House of the Seven Gables. Hawthorne would often wonder
whether the decline of his family’s fortune was a punishment for the
sins of his "sable-cloaked steeple-crowned progenitors." Marblehead
is also the location of the house in his book "The House of Seven
Gables." He also wrote "The Scarlet Letter."
(WUD, 1994, p.651)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)(HN,
1804 Jul 11, Vice President
Aaron Burr mortally wounded Alexander Hamilton (47), former first
Treasury Secretary, in a pistol duel near Weehawken, N.J. A warrant
for Burr’s arrest was soon issued in New Jersey and New York, where
Hamilton died. In 1999 Richard Brookhiser wrote "Alexander Hamilton:
American." In 2001 Joanne B. Freeman edited his writings and
published: Alexander Hamilton: Writings."
(AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)(WSJ, 2/25/99,
p.A16)(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)(ON, 12/08, p6)
1804 Jul 12, Alexander Hamilton
(47), US Sec. of Treasury, died in New York of wounds from a pistol
duel in New Jersey with VP Aaron Burr. In 1920 Frederick Scott
Oliver authored a Hamilton biography. In 2002 Stephen Knott authored
"Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth." In 2004 Ron
Chernow authored the biography "Alexander Hamilton." Lawyer Ambrose
Spencer (1765-1848) said Hamilton “more than any man, did the
thinking of his time."
(WSJ, 2/4/04, p.A1)(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.M3)(WSJ,
1804 Jul 21, Victor Schoelcher,
abolished French slavery, was born in Guadeloupe.
1804 Aug 3, US Commodore Edward
Prebble’s squadron bombarded Tripoli inflicting heavy damages on the
(ON, 2/03, p.4)
1804 Aug 20, Charles Floyd
died, the only fatality of the Lewis & Clark Expedition. In 1901
a memorial was erected at his gravesite in Sioux City, Iowa.
1804 Aug 25, In England Alice
Meynell became the 1st woman jockey.
1804 Aug 31, Lewis and Clark
held a council with local Sioux Indian chiefs in what is now eastern
(ON, 4/12, p.9)
1804 Sep 5, In a daring night
raid, American sailors under Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, boarded the
captured USS Philadelphia and burned the ship to keep it out of the
hands of the Barbary pirates who captured her.
1804 Sep 21, Another major
hurricane hit Puerto Rico on the feast day of St. Matthew and became
known as the San Mateo II hurricane [see 1575].
(SSFC, 8/6/06, Par p.24)
1804 Sep 25, The 12th Amendment
was ratified. It required electors to vote separately for the
president and vice-president.
(HN, 9/25/98)(WSJ, 10/27/99, p.A16)(WSJ,
1804 Oct 2, England mobilized
to protect against an expected French invasion by Napoleon.
1804 Oct 5, Robert Parker
Parrott (d.1877), Inventor (Parrot Gun- 1st machine gun), was born.
1804 Oct 5, The Nuestra Senora
de las Mercedes, a Spanish galleon, was sunk by the British navy
southwest of Portugal with more than 200 people on board. In May
2007, Odyssey Marine Exploration announced that it had discovered a
wreck in the Atlantic and its cargo of 500,000 silver coins and
other artifacts worth an estimated $500 million. Spain claimed this
was the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes. In 2009 Peru pushed claims
to the silver coins arguing that they were minted in Lima. In 2012 a
US judge ordered that the treasure be returned to Spain.
1/29/09)(SFC, 2/18/12, p.A7)
1804 Oct 6, Jean-Jacques
Dessalines (b.1758) had himself crowned James I, Emperor of Haiti.
He was murdered two years later in a conspiracy under Christophe and
1804 Oct 26, Lewis and Clark
accepted an invitation to camp for the winter near a cluster of
villages inhabited by the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians.
(ON, 4/12, p.10)
1804 Nov 18, Palver Purim
(Feast of Lots) was 1st celebrated to commemorate miraculous escape.
The Jewish festival marked the deliverance of the Jews in Persia
(WUD, 1994 p.1167)(MC, 11/18/01)
1804 Nov 23, Franklin Pierce,
14th president of the United States, was born in Hillsboro, N.H.
1804 Nov 27, Pres. Jefferson
issued a nationwide proclamation to military and public officials
warning of a conspiracy to attack Spanish territory in Texas. He had
opened negotiations with Spain to purchase Texas territory west of
New Orleans. Jefferson had heard rumors that Aaron Burr had begun
plotting an invasion of Texas. Jefferson ordered Gen. James
Wilkinson to move federal troops into defensive positions between
the Sabine River and New Orleans. Wilkinson, unbeknownst to
Jefferson, was a close confidant of Burr and also worked as a spy in
the employ of Spanish officials in Mexico.
(ON, 12/08, p6)
1804 Nov 30, Supreme Court
Justice Samuel Chase went on trial, accused of political bias. He
was acquitted by the Senate in 1805.
1804 Nov, Thomas Jefferson was
re-elected US president. George Clinton, the seven-term governor of
New York, was elected vice president under Jefferson and again under
Madison in 1808. Clinton died in office on April 20, 1812.
1804 Nov, Lewis and Clark hired
French-Canadian fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau as an interpreter,
with the understanding that Sacagawea, who was only about 16 and
pregnant, would come along to interpret the Shoshone language. She
and another woman had been purchased by Charbonneau, who lived among
the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians, to be his wives.
(HN, 2/11/99)(HNQ, 12/1/99)
1804 Dec 1, Emperor Napoleon
married Josephine de Beauharnais, of Martinique.
1804 Dec 2, Napoleon crowned
himself emperor of France with Josephine as Empress as Pope Pius VII
looked on. In 1807 Jacques-Louis David completed his painting of the
(WSJ, 12/14/04, p.D10)(AP, 12/2/07)
1804 Dec 21, Benjamin Disraeli
(d.1881), Prime Minister of Great Britain (1868, 1874-80), was born.
He instituted reforms in housing, public health and factory
regulations. "Youth is a blunder; manhood a struggle; old age a
regret." In 1993 Stanley Weintraub published "Disraeli: A
(AP, 10/21/97)(WSJ, 11/17/98, p.21)(HN,
1804 John Quincy Adams
published his travel book: "Letters on Silesia."
(WSJ, 10/22/97, p.A20)
1804 Fort Dearborn was erected
on the Chicago River on the site of present-day downtown Chicago.
With the outbreak of the War of 1812, the garrison of 67 soldiers,
their dependents and settlers were ordered to evacuate to Fort
Wayne. Most of them were massacred en route by Pottawatomie Indians,
who then burned the fort. Fort Dearborn was rebuilt in 1816 and
around it grew the settlement that would become Chicago. Abandoned
in 1837, Fort Dearborn was demolished in 1856.
1804 Meriwether Lewis and
William Clark packed up 5,555 rations of flour, and 120 gallons of
whiskey for their western journey of exploration that would last 2 ½
years. In 1996 Stephen Ambrose published an account of their trip
titled: "Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and
the opening of the American West." The cutthroat trout,
Onchorhynchus clarki lewisi, was found to be highly abundant. In
1997 the fish was on the brink of extinction.
(WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-12)(SFC, 5/21/97, p.A2)
1804 The town of St. Michaels
on the Chesapeake Bay was incorporated, resurveyed and laid out in
three squares: Harrison’s square to the north, Thompson’s square to
the west and Braddock’s square to the east.
1804 Australian soldiers fired
on an aboriginal hunting party on Tasmania and killed some 50
people. Some were salted down and sent to Sydney as anthropological
(WSJ, 8/2100, p.A1)
1804 The British Royal
Horticultural Society was formed.
(WSJ, 5/30/01, p.A1)
1804 The British Royal
Watercolour Society was formed.
(Hem., 3/97, p.94)
1804 Samuel Taylor Coleridge
(32), English poet, fled to Malta and worked as an assistant to the
civilian governor. He returned to England in 1806.
(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)
1804 A motion in British
Parliament for abolition of the slave trade passed in the House of
Commons 124 to 29, but was defeated in the House of Lords.
(ON, 4/05, p.2)
1804 In England John Barrow
(1764-1848) was appointed Second Secretary to the Admiralty by
Viscount Melville, a post which he held for forty years (apart from
a short period in 1806-07 when there was a Whig government in
1804 Sir George Cayley,
England’s “father of aeronautics," built and flew the world’s first
successful model glider.
(NPub, 2002, p.4)
1804 The Botanical Gardens of
Antwerp, Belgium, began as a large herb garden dedicated to
(Hem., 7/95, p.27)
1804 A stone signal tower was
built on Clare Island as part of a series along the Irish west coast
in fear of an invasion by Napoleon.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)
1804 The Pere Lachaise Cemetery
of Paris was founded.
(SFC, 6/16/96, T-6)
1804 Empress Josephine, wife of
Napoleon I, began a rose collection at Malmaison, and sparked a wide
interest in rose culture.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)
1804 French economist
Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832) enrolled in the National Conservatory
of Arts in Paris to learn the principles of spinning cotton.
(Econ, 8/12/17, p.54)
1804 The Wahabis captured
(NW, 9/30/02, p.33)
1804 Immanuel Kant (b. 1724),
German philosopher, died. His "categorical imperative" helped to
ascertain the proper course under any circumstances: "Act only on
the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should
become a universal law." Kant had described how the sun and planets
might have condensed from a primordial cloud with no divine
(V.D.-H.K.p.40)(HN, 4/22/98)(SFC, 4/25/01,
p.E5)(SFC, 6/17/02, p.A6)
1804-1866 Eliphalet Nott, Presbyterian minister,
president of Union College during this period. UC was the first
non-denominational college in the US. It emphasized practical
education as well as classical studies.
(WSJ, 3/21/95, p.A-12)
1804-1999 In 2000 Misha Glenny authored "The
(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A32)
1805 Jan 11, The Michigan
Territory was created.
1805 Jan 31, Mungo Park set
sail from Portsmouth to Africa where he planned to navigate the
Niger River to its mouth.
(ON, 7/00, p.10)
1805 Feb 11, At Fort Mandan ND
Sacajawea (16), the Shoshoni guide for Lewis & Clark, gave birth
to a son, with Meriwether Lewis serving as midwife. Sacagawea, the
young Native American girl who aided the Lewis and Clark Expedition,
was of the Lemhi Shoshones, who made their home in what is now
southeastern Idaho and southwestern Montana. About 1800 Sacagawea
was captured by a Hidatsa raiding party at the Three Forks of the
Missouri River. Sometime in 1804, she and another woman were
purchased by French-Canadian fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau, who
lived among the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians, to be his wives.
(HN, 2/11/99)(HNQ, 12/1/99)(AH, 2/05, p.17)
1805 Feb 18, Louis Malesherbes
Goldsborough, Rear Admiral (Union Navy), was born.
1805 Feb 26, Alexander
Stulginskis, the 2nd president of Lithuania, was born at Kutaliai in
the Silale region. He died Sep 22, 1969 in Kaunas.
1805 Mar 1, Chief Justice
Samuel Chase was acquitted by the Senate ending the Republican
campaign against the Federalist bench and discouraging subsequent
administrations from using impeachment to remove politically
1805 Mar 3, Louisiana-Missouri
1805 Mar 4, Pres. Thomas
Jefferson delivered his 2nd inaugural address.
1805 Apr 2, Hans Christian
Andersen (d.1875), author of 150 fairy tales, was born in Odense,
(CFA, '96, p.44)(HN, 4/2/98)(AP, 4/2/99)
1805 Apr 7, Francis Wilkinson
Pickens (d.1869), later Confederate governor of South Carolina, was
born in South Carolina.
1805 Apr 7, The Lewis and Clark
Corps of Discovery resumed their journey to the headwaters of the
(ON, 4/12, p.10)
1805 Apr 7, Beethoven conducted
the premiere of his "Eroica" symphony. It was 1st published in
(MC, 4/7/02)(WSJ, 5/20/03, p.A1)
1805 Apr 24, U.S. Marines
attacked and captured the town of Derna in Tripoli from the Barbary
pirates. [see Apr 27]
1805 Apr 27, US navy ships
began to bombard the Tripoli port of Derna. Mercenaries gathered in
Egypt and a small contingent of US Marines under former Tunis consul
William Eaton attacked Tripoli and captured the city of Derna [later
part of Libya].
(AP, 4/27/97)(HN, 4/27/98)(ON, 10/06, p.9)
1805 May 1, The state of
Virginia passed a law requiring all freed slaves to leave the state,
or risk either imprisonment or deportation.
1805 May 9, Johann Christoph
Friedrich von Schiller (45), poet, playwright, died in Weimar.
(MC, 5/9/02)(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)
1805 May 14, Johann Peter
Emilius Hartmann, composer, was born.
1805 May 25, William Paley
(b.1805), orthodox Anglican writer, died. He is remembered today
primarily for classical formulation of the teleological argument for
the existence of God. Arguing from the analogy of a watch and
watchmaker, Paley suggested that the analogy offered evidence that
the universe includes order and design, hence a Designer.
1805 May 26, Lewis and Clark
first saw the Rocky Mountains.
1805 May 26, Napoleon Bonaparte
was crowned king of Italy. [see May 28}
1805 May 28, Napoleon was
crowned in Milan, Italy. [see May 26]
1805 May 28, Ridolfo Luigi
Boccherini (62), Italian composer, cellist (Minuet), died.
1805 Jun 4, The US signed a
Treaty of Peace and Amity at Tripoli. The US agreed to pay Tripoli
$60,000 in war reparations and was in turn absolved of tribute
demands. The treaty was ratified by the US on Apr 17, 1806.
1805 Jun 14, Robert Anderson
(d.1871), Bvt. Major General (Union Army), defender of Ft. Sumpter,
1805 Jul 19, Members of the
Lewis & Clark expedition made their way up river through the
limestone walled gorge they called the Gates of the Mountains on the
Missouri River in Montana.
1805 Jul 25, Aaron Burr visited
New Orleans with plans to establish a new country, with New Orleans
as the capital city.
1805 Jul 26, Constantine
Brumidi, artist (Myrtle Murdock), was born.
1805 Jul 26, Naples and
Calabria were struck by an earthquake and some 26,000 died.
1805 Jul 29, Alexis de
Tocqueville (d.1859), French historian who wrote "Democracy in
America, was born. "America is a land of wonders, in which
everything is in constant motion and every change seems an
(HN, 7/29/98)(AP, 1/20/01)
1805 Aug 3, Mohammed Ali became
the new ruler of Egypt.
1805 Aug 4, William Rowan
Hamilton (d.1865), Irish scientist, was born.
1805 Aug 9, Austria joined
Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the
Third Coalition against Napoleonic France and Spain.
(HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 10/19/98)
1805 Aug 17, Sacagawea, while
traveling with the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery, reunited with
her brother Cameahwait, a Shoshoni Indian chief on the Lemhi River
1805 Aug 30, The Lewis and
Clark Corps of Discovery resumed their westward journey with 29
horses and 6 guides provided by Shoshoni Chief Cameahwait. They
spent the next 4 weeks crossing the Bitterroot Mountains (Idaho).
(ON, 4/12, p.12)
1805 Sep 23, Lieutenant Zebulon
Pike paid $2,000 to buy from the Sioux a 9-square-mile tract at the
mouth of the Minnesota River that would be used to establish a
military post, Fort Snelling.
1805 Sep 30, Napoleon's army
entered the Rhine valley.
1805 Oct 17, Vice Adm. Horatio
Nelson wrote a letter to the governor, Rear Admiral John Knight just
four days before the historic Battle of Trafalgar, in which Nelson
was killed. In it Nelson declared he was "anxious for an Easterly
wind," as that would encourage the enemy to leave port and finally
face the British.
1805 Oct 19, Austrian general
Karl Mac surrendered to Napoleon’s army at the battle of Ulm.
1805 Oct 21, A British fleet
commanded by Vice Adm. Horatio Nelson defeated a French-Spanish
fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar fought off Cape Trafalgar, Spain.
Admiral Nelson won his greatest victory and though fatally wounded
in the battle aboard his flagship, he lived long enough to see
victory: "England expects every man to do his duty." The crew
fittingly preserved his body in rum. Over 8,500 Englishmen,
Frenchmen and Spaniards were lost in the battle or the hurricane
that swept over the ships the next day. In 1807 Nelson’s surgeon
William Beatty authored “authentic narrative of the Death of Lord
Nelson." In 1999 Barry Unsworth authored the novel "Losing Nelson."
In 2001 Joseph F. Callo edited "Nelson Speaks: Admiral Lord Nelson
in His Own Words." In 2005 Adam Nicolson authored “Men of Honour:
Trafalgar and the Making of the English Hero;" Roy Adkins authored
“Nelson’s Trafalgar," and Adam Nicolson authored “Seize the Fire."
(WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A20)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.82)(WSJ,
8/19/05, p.W6)(ON, 3/06, p.2)(Reuters, 7/13/10)
1805 Nov 7, Lewis and Clark
vamped opposite Pillar Rock, between Brookfield and Dahlia,
Washington, west of Jim Crow Point, in the estuary of the Columbia
1805 Nov 14, Fanny Cecilia
Mendelssohn Hensel (d.1847), composer, was born in Hamburg, Germany.
1805 Nov 14, Napoleon took
control of Vienna, Austria.
1805 Nov 15, Captain Meriwether
Lewis and four men of the Corps of Discovery reached the Pacific
Ocean near what is now Seaview, Washington. On November 18, Captain
Clark and eleven men left Station Camp for their turn to view the
1805 Nov 19, Ferdinand de
Lesseps, French diplomat and engineer (built Suez Canal), was born.
1805 Nov 20, Beethoven's
"Fidelio," premiered in Vienna.
1805 Nov 28, John Stephens, US
archaeologist, was born. He founded the study of Central America.
1805 Dec 2, Napoleon Bonaparte
celebrated the first anniversary of his coronation with a victory at
Austerlitz over a Russian and Austrian army.
1805 Dec 6, Nicholas-Jacques
Conti (b.1755), French pencil maker, died in Paris. He created the
number system used to rate pencil lead hardness: the higher the
number, the harder the graphite.
(SSFC, 1/23/05, p.C2)
1805 Dec 10, William Lloyd
Garrison (d.1879), abolitionist publisher, was born in Newburyport,
Mass. In 1831 he published "The Liberator." In 1998 Henry Mayer
published "All On Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of
(SFEC, 1/3/99, BR p.1)(MC, 12/10/01)
1805 Dec 12, Henry Wells,
founder of American Express and Wells Fargo, was born.
1805 Dec 23, Joseph Smith
Junior (d.1844), principal founder of the Mormon religious movement,
was born in Sharon, Vermont.
(SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)(AP, 12/23/05)
1805 Dec 31, The French
Revolutionary calendar law was abolished. France returned to the
(K.I.-365D, p.43)(MC, 12/31/01)
1805 Charles Willson Peale,
American painter began his painting "The Exhumation of the
Mastodon." It was based on an 1881 real exhumation in rural New York
that helped topple biblically inspired beliefs of the history of the
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)
1805 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon
(1758-1823), French artist, painted "Empress Josephine at
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)
1805 Joseph Mallord William
Turner (1775-1851), English painter and printmaker, created his
painting “The Shipwreck."
1805 "Leonore," the only opera
by Beethoven, premiered. It later became known as "Fidelio" and was
based on a play by Jean Nicolas Bouilly.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, DB p.21)
1805 Louisiana passed
legislation against sodomy. The law was upheld in 2002.
(SFC, 11/23/02, p.A5)
1805 The Massachusetts state
Legislature staged a mock impeachment trial of Pres. Jefferson. His
affair with Sally Hemmings was one of the charges.
(SFEC, 11/1/98, p.A1)
1805 The Philadelphia harbor
was dredged with a high-pressure steam engine invented by Oliver
Evans. He was unable to get a proper patent for it.
(WSJ, 6/4/08, p.A19)
1805 As early as 1805,
Bostonian Frederic Tudor (b.1783) considered ways to make money by
exporting ice, a valueless commodity in New England, to the tropics.
Tudor supported technical innovations, like the horse-drawn sleigh
with saw-like runners, which improved the cutting, shipping and
storage of large ice blocks. Recognizing that people living in warm
climates were not familiar with cool food and drinks, Tudor traveled
to prospective markets making ice cream and providing free ice for
barkeepers. By 1856, Tudor's role as the "Ice King" was firmly
established as 146,000 tons of ice shipped from Boston transformed
the eating habits of people from the Philippines to the southern
1805 Napoleon defeated Austria
and Prussia. In 1997 Alistair Horne wrote: "How Far from Austerlitz?
(WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A16)
1805 Lord Charles Cornwallis,
governor general of India, died in India.
1805 Jean-Baptiste Greuze
(b.1725), French artist, died. Diderot said: "This man draws like an
(WSJ, 5/14/02, p.D7)
1805 Prussia sent Baron Wilhelm
von Humboldt as envoy to the Vatican, the first Protestant state to
(Econ, 7/21/07, p.59)
1805 Walter Scott (1771-1832)
of Edinburgh, Scotland, published his first long poem: “The Lay of
the Last Minstrel."
1805 Spanish soldiers under Lt.
Francisco Ruiz discovered badgers in a canyon during an expedition
in southern California. The area was thus named El Tejon (the
(SFC, 5/9/08, p.A1)
1805 The slave ship Tryal,
under Captain Don Benito Cereno, was taken over in a slave
insurrection led by a man named Babo. The rebellion failed and the
slaves were tried and executed in Concepcion, Chile. In 1854 Herman
Melville’s authored his novella “Benito Cereno," based on the Tryal
revolt. In 2014 Greg Grandin authored “The Empire of Necessity:
Slavery, Freedom and Deception in the New World," also covering the
(SSFC, 1/26/14, p.F3)
1805-1815 The 1997 book by British historian
Alistair Horne: "How Far From Austerlitz," covered this period
(SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10)
1805-1848 Khachatur Abovian, Armenian novelist,
helped develop a nationalist literature.
(Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)
1805-1848 Mehemet Ali (Muhammad Ali) served as the
viceroy of Egypt.
(WUD, 1994, p.892)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)
1805-1859 Alexis de Tocqueville, French writer and
1805-1882 Ralph Waldo Emerson, American essayist
and poet, author of English Notes. [this date is incorrect, see
1806 Jan 1, Bavaria was
proclaimed as a kingdom. A crowning celebration for the crown prince
Max Joseph, however, never took place.
1806 Jan 8, Lewis & Clark
found the skeleton of 105' blue whale in Oregon.
1806 Jan 10, The Capitulation
of Papendorp: The Dutch in Cape Town surrendered to a British fleet.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)
1806 Jan 17, James Madison
Randolph, Thomas Jefferson's grandson, was the 1st to be born in
White House. His mother was Martha Randolph one of President Thomas
Jefferson's two daughters, this was her 8th child.
1806 Jan 23, William Pitt (46),
the Younger, PM Great Britain (1783-1801 and 1804-1806), died. Pitt
was the founder of the modern Conservative Party. In 2004 William
Hague authored the biography “William Pitt The Younger."
1806 Feb 11, Vicente Martin y
Soler (51), composer, died.
1806 Feb 22, James Barry
(b.1741), Irish-born Neoclassical painter, died.
(www.artnet.com/library/00/0065/T006539.asp)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.78)
1806 cFeb, Mungo Park drowned
in the Niger River during an attack by armed men near Bussa. He had
traveled some 1500 miles down the Niger River.
(ON, 7/00, p.12)
1806 Mar 6, Elizabeth Barrett
Browning (d.1861), English poet, was born in Durham, England. She
wrote "Sonnets from the Portuguese." "Since when was genius found
(AP, 3/6/98)(HN, 3/6/99)(AP, 8/12/99)
1806 Mar 16, Norbert Rillieux,
inventor (sugar refiner), was born.
1806 Mar 21, Mexican statesman
Benito Juarez, who was Mexico’s first president of Indian ancestry,
was born in Oaxaca.
1806 Mar 23, Explorers Lewis
and Clark, having reached the Pacific coast, left Fort Clatsop,
Oregon, and began their journey back East.
1806 Mar 29, President Thomas
Jefferson commissioned the National Road, the first federally
financed interstate. Although it took decades to finish, the
National Road helped open the land west of the Appalachians to
settlers and commerce. It was later lengthened, paved and renamed
U.S. 40, but was eclipsed in the 1960s by Interstate 70, a parallel
1806 Mar 30, In England Lady
Georgiana Cavendish, an adept negotiator for the Whigs, died at age
49. In 1999 Amanda Foreman authored "Georgiana," a biography of
(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)
1806 Mar, Frederic Tudor
arrived in the brigantine Favorite at a Martinique port with 130
toms of New England ice. An anticipated icehouse and his partners
were nowhere to be found, so Tudor peddled the ice directly from the
ship and convinced a local restaurateur to sell the previously
unknown dessert, ice cream. Despite his efforts, Tudor lost
$4,000 on the venture, the first of several setbacks throughout his
rocky business career.
1806 Apr, Nicolai Rezanov (42),
a director of the Russian-American Co., arrived in SF aboard the
Juno. He had proposed a California outpost to serve the Russian
colonies in Alaska and sailed south to establish a settlement on the
Columbia River but could not land there due to difficult seas. He
sailed south to the Presidio at Monterey and negotiated a trade deal
with Commander Jose Arguello. He also fell in love with Concepcion
Arguello (d.1857), the daughter of Commander Arguello, and proposed
marriage. He died that winter while crossing Siberia. In 2013 Owen
Matthews “Glorious Misadventures: Nikolai Rezanov and the Dream of a
(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T5)(SFC, 2/18/06,
p.A1)(Econ, 7/20/13, p.74)
1806 May 6, Chapin Aaron
Harris, founder of the America Society of Dental Surgeons, was born.
1806 May 12, J.V. Snellman,
Finnish journalist, statesman and nationalist, was born. The day is
remembered in Finland as Snellman day.
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)
1806 May 20, John Stuart Mill
(d.1873), British philosopher and economist, was born. He promoted
utilitarianism and is known as the last great economist of the
classical school. He authored "Principles of Political Economy"
wherein in theorized that production was the real basis for economic
law. He felt that the market was capable of allocating resources but
not of distributing income. "If all mankind minus one, were of one
opinion, and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankind
would be no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if
he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind."
(V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(AP,
1806 May 21, Nicolai Rezanov
(1764-1806), a director of the Russian-American Co., departed SF for
Sitka, Alaska. He died that winter while crossing Siberia.
(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T5)(SFC, 2/18/06, p.A1)
1806 Jun 12, John Roebling,
civil engineer, pioneer in designing suspension bridges, was born.
1806 Jun 27, Buenos Aires was
captured by British. [see Jul 5]
1806 Jun, Lord Elgin was
paroled by the French government.
(ON, 11/99, p.4)
1806 Jul 3, Michael Keens
exhibited the 1st cultivated strawberry.
1806 Jul 5, A Spanish army
repelled the British during their attempt to retake Buenos Aires,
1806 Jul 10, George Stubbs
(b.1724), British artist, died. His work included the publication
“Anatomy of the Horse" (1766).
1806 Jul 12, The Confederation
of the Rhine was established in Germany.
1806 Jul 12, Napoleon granted
1806 Jul 15, Lieutenant Zebulon
Pike began his famous western expedition from Fort Belle Fountaine,
near St. Louis, Missouri. Pike was the US Army officer who in 1805
led an exploring party in search of the source of the Mississippi
(HN, 7/15/99)(MC, 7/15/02)
1806 Aug 6, The Holy Roman
Empire went out of existence as Emperor Francis I abdicated.
1806 Aug 10, Johann Michael
Haydn (68), composer, died.
1806 Aug 22, Jean-Honore
Fragonard (74), French painter, engraver, died.
1806 Sep 20, Explorers
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark passed the French village of La
Charette, the first white settlement they had seen in more than two
1806 Sep 23, The Lewis and
Clark expedition returned to St. Louis from the Pacific Northwest
over three years after its departure. In 2004 Larry E. Morris
authored “The Fate of the Corps," a look at what happened to all the
members of the expedition.
(AP, 9/23/97)(HN, 9/23/98)(WSJ, 7/2/04, p.W10)
1806 Oct 7, Carbon paper was
patented in London by inventor Ralph Wedgewood.
1806 Oct 8, British forces laid
siege to French port of Boulogne using Congreve rockets, invented by
Sir William Congreve.
1806 Oct 14, The forces of
French Emperor Napoleon I defeated the Prussians in the twin battles
of Jena and Auerstadt.
1806 Oct 17, Jean-Jacques
Dessalines (b.1758), Emp. Jacques I of Haiti, was assassinated.
1806 Oct 27, Emperor Napoleon
1806 Nov 16, Moses Cleaveland
(52), the land surveyor for whom the city of Cleveland is named,
died in Canterbury, Conn.
1806 Nov 13, The 14,110-foot
Pike's Peak was discovered, but not climbed, by Lieutenant Zebulon
Montgomery Pike during an expedition to locate the source of the
Mississippi. Explorations by Lt. Zebulon Pike and Kit Carson mapped
out much of the state. [see Nov 15]
(HN, 11/13/98)(Time, 1990s Almanac CD)
1806 Nov 13, Emilija
Pliaterytė, Lithuanian rebel leader, was born in Vilnius, Lithuania.
In 1831 she organized a rebel detachment in Dusetos with her cousin
Cesar Pliateris (1810-1869) and both took an active part in the
uprising. [see Dec 23, 1831]
1806 Nov 15, 1st US college
magazine, Yale Literary Government, published its 1st issue.
1806 Nov 15, Explorer Zebulon
Pike discovered the Colorado mountaintop, originally called "The
Long One" by Ute Indians, and now known as Pikes Peak. Lt. Pike was
leading a survey party into the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase
when he spotted the snow capped peak in the distance. He didn’t
climb it. [see Nov 13]
(AP, 11/15/97)(HN, 11/15/98)(MC, 11/15/01)
1806 Nov 21, In the Decree of
Berlin Emperor Napoleon banned all trade with England.
1806 Nov 28, French forces led
by Joachim Murat entered Warsaw.
1806 Dec 3, Henry Alexander
Wise (d.1876), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
1806 Dec 6, The African Meeting
House was dedicated in Boston. It was later used by Frederick
Douglass and other prominent abolitionists to rail against slavery.
In 1974 it was named as a National History Landmark. In 2011 a $9
million restoration was completed.
1806 Dec 26, Napoleon’s army
was checked by the Russians at the Battle of Pultusk.
1806 Jean-Gabriel Charvet
painted his wallpaper panel "Savages of the Pacific Ocean."
(SFEC, 6/7/98, Z1 p.2)
1806 Jean Ingres painted his
magnificent: "Napoleon I on His Imperial Throne."
(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W12)
1806 In London James Beresford
published his bestselling book “The Miseries of Human Life, or the
groans of Samuel Sensitive and Timothy Testy. With a few
supplementary sighs from Mrs. Testy. In twelve dialogues."
1806 Charles and Mary Lamb
authored “Tales from Shakespeare." [see 1796: Mad Mary Lamb]
(WSJ, 2/18/05, p.W6)
1806 Noah Webster (1758-1843),
a Connecticut schoolmaster, published a short dictionary. He then
began work on a longer work: “An American Dictionary of the English
language," which was completed in England 1825 and published as a
2-volume set in 1828.
(ON, 12/09, p.9)
1806 Wordsworth (1770-1850)
composed the lines: "The world is too much with us."
(NOHY, 3/90, p.163)
1806 A catalog of the plants at
Elgin Botanical Garden was published. This was the first botanical
garden in NYC and was located at what later became Rockefeller
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1806 A printed reference to a
mixed drink cocktail first appeared in the US.
(SFC,12/24/97, Z1 p.6)
1806 In San Francisco an
epidemic of measles and flu killed 343 of the 850 native people at
the Dolores Street mission.
(SSFC, 9/20/15, p.A14)
1806 William Strickland,
architect of the first Town Hall in New York, introduced the
technique of the suspension bridge in the United States, which he
learned in France.
1806 In Baltimore, Maryland,
ground was broken for a cathedral designed by Benjamin Henry
Latrobe. Bungles and war delayed dedication until 1821. In 1937 Pope
Pius XI elevated the cathedral to a basilica.
(WSJ, 11/2/06, p.D8)
1806 Jesse Wood of
Poughkeepsie, N.Y. was tried for the murder of his son.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.20)
1806 Aaron Burr, Vice-President
under Thomas Jefferson, was implicated in a reputed plot among
northeastern Federalists to break up the Union rather than to submit
to four more years of Republican rule. One of the goals of the Burr
Conspiracy was to separate Louisiana and other Western states from
the Union and establish an empire with Burr at the head. Aaron Burr,
formerly vice president under Thomas Jefferson, had recently slain
Alexander Hamilton in a duel in July 1804 when he began plotting a
movement to separate the Western states from the Union. Burr was
later tried for treason in federal court and acquitted. Burr was
captured in 1806 on the Ohio River and charged with recruiting
forces to further plot the disunion.
(A&IP, ESM, p.28)(HNQ, 11/30/98)
1806 Shoemakers in Philadelphia
formed a union.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)
1806 Ye Old Pepper Companie was
founded in Salem, Mass., USA. It claims to be the country’s oldest
(Hem., Dec. ‘95, p.35)
1806 NYC Mayor DeWitt Clinton,
having read the work of Englishman Joseph Lancaster, formed the New
York Free School Society to found Lancastrian schools.
(ON, 3/06, p.10)
1806 Andrew Jackson killed
Charles Dickinson in a duel over a debt owed on a horse race bet.
Jackson was struck in the chest by Dickinson‘s shot but returned
fire and killed his opponent. "I should have hit him," he reportedly
said, "if he had shot me through the brain." His duel with Dickinson
was one of several the often ill-tempered Jackson engaged in.
Jackson, who became the seventh U.S. president in 1829, carried
Dickinson‘s bullet in his chest until he died in 1845.
1806 Lord Grenville succeeded
William Pitt as British prime minister.
(ON, 4/05, p.3)
1806 The British wrested power
over South Africa from the Dutch and prompt the Boer farmers to
later move into the interior.
(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 564)
1806 The British began the
construction of Dartmoor Prisoner to house French soldiers captured
in the Napoleonic Wars. It was capable of housing 10,500 prisoners
and 2,000 guards.
(AH, 10/02, p.33)
1806 In Paris the 3-mile Canal
St. Marten waterway was built to connect the Seine to northeast
(SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T7)
1806 Napoleon issued his Berlin
Decrees. They established the Continental System to restrict
European trade with Britain.
(WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1806 Napoleon ordered that all
French citizens be vaccinated against smallpox.
(NW, 10/14/02, p.50)
1806 Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led
Sunni raids into Najaf, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.
(Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/5qdnf3)
1806 A ruling by the Spanish
king set a boundary between Honduras and Nicaragua projecting
eastward along the 15th parallel from the mouth of the Coco River.
In 1999 Nicaragua filed a border case against Honduras with the UN.
It was resolved in 2007.
1806 In Switzerland a landslide
into Lake Lauerz triggered a tsunami 20 meters high.
(Econ, 11/3/12, p.79)
1806-1813 Trieste was held under French rule.
1806-1914 In 1996 Public Broadcasting featured
"The West," a historical documentary covering this period in the US.
(SFC, 7/17/96, p.E5)
1807 Jan 2, Lord Grenville
presented to British Parliament a “Bill for the Abolition of the
Slave Trade," effective May 1. He introduced it directly to the
House of Lords. It passed the House of Lords by 64 votes and cleared
the House of Commons on March 25.
(ON, 4/05, p.3)
1807 Jan 7, Responding to
Napoleon's blockade of the British Isles, The British blockaded
1807 Jan 11, Ezra Cornell,
founder of Western Union Telegraph and Cornell University (NY), was
born in Westchester, NY.
1807 Jan 19, Robert E. Lee, the
commander-in-chief of the Civil War Confederate Armies, was born in
(AP, 1/19/98)(HN, 1/19/99)
1807 Jan 20, Napoleon convened
the great Sanhedrin in Paris.
1807 Jan 22, President Thomas
Jefferson exposed a plot by Aaron Burr to form a new republic in the
1807 Jan 28, London's Pall Mall
was 1st street lit by gaslight.
1807 Feb 8, At Eylau, Poland,
Napoleon’s Marshal Pierre Agureau attacked Russian forces in a heavy
snowstorm. Like Napoleon, to whom he is most often compared,
Alexsandr Suvorov believed that opportunities in battle are created
by fortune but exploited by intelligence, experience and an
intuitive eye. To him, mastery of the art and science of war was
not, therefore, purely instinctive. Napoleon’s forces ran low on
supplies at Eylau and ate their horses.
(HN, 2/7/97)(WSJ, 9/21/05, p.A8)
1807 Feb 9, French Sanhedrin
was convened by Napoleon.
1807 Feb 19, Former Vice
President Aaron Burr was arrested in Alabama. He was subsequently
tried for treason and acquitted. [see May 22, Sep 1]
(HN, 2/19/98)(AP, 2/19/98)
1807 Feb 24, In a crush to
witness the hanging of Holloway, Heggerty and Elizabeth Godfrey in
England 17 died and 15 were wounded.
1807 Feb 27, Henry Wadsworth
Longfellow (d.1882), was born in Portland, Maine. He was an American
poet famous for "The Children's Hour," and "Evangeline." "What is
time? The shadow on the dial, the striking of the clock, the running
of the sand, day and night, summer and winter, months, years,
centuries—these are but arbitrary and outward signs, the measure of
Time, not Time itself. Time is the Life of the soul."
(AP, 10/11/97)(AP, 2/27/98)(HN, 2/27/99)
1807 Mar 2, US Congress banned
slave trade effective January 1, 1808. The further importation of
slaves was abolished but an inter-American slave trade continued.
(V.D.-H.K.p.276)(WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A18)(WSJ,
10/19/98, p.A24)(SC, 3/2/02)
1807 Mar 3, US Pres. Thomas
Jefferson signed into law a bill passed by Congress a day earlier to
shut down the foreign slavery trade. Congress gave all traders nine
months to cease their operations in the United States.
1807 Mar 5, 1st performance of
Ludwig von Beethoven's 4th Symphony in B.
1807 Mar 25, William
Wilberforce (1759-1833), evangelical member of Parliament, piloted a
slave-trade abolition bill through the British House of Commons.
This led to a labor problem in South Africa. In 1833 Britain
abolished slavery throughout the British Empire when the Slavery
Abolition Bill was read a third time
(HN, 3/24/98)(WSJ, 5/26/04,
1807 Mar 25, 1st railway
passenger service began in England.
1807 Apr 4, Joseph Jerome Le
Francaise de Lalande, French astronomer, died.
1807 Apr 20, Aloysius Bertrand
("Gaspard de la Nuit"), French poet, was born.
1807 May 1, John Bankhead
"Prince John" Magruder, Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
1807 May 22, The treason trial
of former VP Aaron Burr began in Richmond, Va. [see Sep 1]
(PCh, 1992, p.367)(MC, 5/22/02)
1807 May 22, Townsend Speakman
1st sold fruit-flavored carbonated drinks in Phila.
1807 May 28, Jean Louis Agassiz
(d.1873), Swiss naturalist and educator, was born. He wrote a
succession of papers  outlining continental glaciation not
only of Europe but of North America.
(DD-EVTT, p.129)(AHD,1971, p.24)(HN, 5/28/01)
1807 Jun 25, Napoleon I of
France and Russian Czar Alexander I met near Tilsit, in northern
Prussia, to discuss terms for ending war between their empires.
1807 Jun 22, British officers
of the HMS Leopard boarded the USS Chesapeake after she had set sail
for the Mediterranean, and demanded the right to search the ship for
deserters. Commodore James Barron refused and the British opened
fire with broadsides on the unprepared Chesapeake and forced her to
surrender. The British provocation led to the War of 1812.
(NG, Sept. 1939, p.363)(HN, 6/22/98)
1807 Jun 24, A grand jury in
Richmond, Va., indicted former Vice President Aaron Burr on charges
of treason and high misdemeanor. He was later acquitted.
1807 Jun 25, Napoleon I of
France and Russian Czar Alexander I met near Tilsit, in northern
Prussia, to discuss terms for ending war between their empires.
1807 Jul 2, In the wake of the
Chesapeake incident, in which the crew of a British frigate boarded
an American ship and forcibly removed four suspected deserters,
President Thomas Jefferson ordered all British ships to vacate U.S.
1807 Jul 4, Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-1882) Italian military leader, was born in Nice, France. He
led the movement to make Italy one nation.
(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1807 Jul 7, Napoleon I of
France and Czar Alexander I of Russia signed a treaty at Tilsit
ending war between their empires. It divided Europe among themselves
and isolated Britain.
(HN, 7/7/98)(AP, 7/7/07)
1807 Aug 3, Former Vice
President Aaron Burr went on trial before a federal court in
Richmond, Va., charged with treason. He was acquitted less than a
1807 Aug 5, Jeanne Baret
(b.1740), botanist, died in France. She had joined the (1766-1769)
expedition of Louis Antoine de Bougainville, disguised as a man, and
enlisting as valet and assistant to the expedition's naturalist,
Philibert Commerson, shortly before Bougainville's ships sailed on a
voyage to circumnavigate the globe. In 2013 Glynis Ridley authored
“The Discovery of Jeanne Baret: A Story of Science, the High Seas,
and the First Woman to Circumnavigate the Globe."
1807 Aug 11, David Atchison,
legislator, was born. He was president pro tempore of the U.S.
Senate, and president of U.S. for one day [March 4, 1849], the
Sunday before Zachary Taylor was sworn in.
1807 Aug 11, The Eclipse, a
Yankee fur trading vessel, sank in the Shumagin Islands, south of
the Alaska Peninsula. It is the oldest known American shipwreck in
Alaska and as of 2007 had not been found.
1807 Aug 17, Robert Fulton’s
"North River Steam Boat" (popularly, if erroneously, known to this
day as the Clermont) began heading up New York’s Hudson River on its
successful round-trip to Albany. It was 125 feet (142-feet) long and
20 feet wide with side paddle wheels and a sheet iron boiler. He
averaged 5 mph for the 300-mile round trip. The boat was developed
with business partner Robert Livingston.
(SFC, 6/20/98, p.F4)(WSJ, 9/21/01, p.A22)(AP,
8/17/07)(ON, 6/12, p.1)
1807 Aug 18, Charles Francis
Adams (d.1886), U.S. diplomat and public official whose father was
John Quincy Adams, was born.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(HN, 8/18/98)
1807 Aug 18, Robert Stevenson
(1772-1850) began work on the 117-foot Bell Rock lighthouse at the
mouth of Scotland’s Firth of Forth based on a proposal he submitted
in 1800. The lighthouse began operating on Feb 1, 1811.
(ON, 5/06, p.6)
1807 Aug 19, Robert Fulton's
North River Steamboat arrived in Albany, two days after leaving New
1807 Aug 21, Robert Fulton's
North River Steamboat set off from Albany on its return trip to New
York, arriving some 30 hours later.
1807 Sep 1, Former Vice
President Aaron Burr was found innocent of treason. [see 1806] Burr
had been arrested in Mississippi for complicity in a plot to
establish a Southern empire in Louisiana and Mexico. Burr was then
tried on a misdemeanor charge, but was again acquitted.
1807 Sep 2, British forces
began bombarding Copenhagen for several days, until the Danes agreed
to surrender their naval fleet.
1807 Sep 4, Robert Fulton began
operating his steamboat. [see Aug 17]
1807 Sep 7, Denmark surrendered
to British forces that had bombarded the city of Copenhagen for four
1807 Sep 15, Former Vice
President Aaron Burr was acquitted of a misdemeanor charge two weeks
after he was found innocent of treason.
1807 Oct 17, Britain declared
it would continue to reclaim British-born sailors from American
ships and ports regardless of whether they held US citizenship.
1807 Dec 14, A number of
meteorites fell onto Weston, Connecticut.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.122)
1807 Dec 17, John Greenleaf
Whittier, American poet, was born in Haverhill, Mass. He was an
abolitionist, reformer and founder of the Liberal Party.
(HN, 12/17/99)(AP, 12/17/07)
1807 Dec 22, Congress passed
the Embargo Act, designed to force peace between Britain and France
by cutting off all trade with Europe. It was hoped that the act
would keep the United States out the European Wars.
(AP, 12/22/97)(HN, 12/22/98)
1807 The US Congressional
Cemetery near Capital Hill was established.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)
1807 The US Survey of the Coast
formed. It later developed into the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
1807 Lieutenant Zebulon
Montgomery Pike strayed beyond the limits of the territory into the
Spanish-held territory of New Mexico, and was accused of spying by
Spanish authorities. The Spaniards released Pike and his men after
they could find no evidence against him. Pike’s explorations the
previous November had taken him to the Rockies, where he reached the
base of a mountain that would later be named Pikes Peak in his
honor. Pike’s mission was to explore the southwestern limits of the
Louisiana Territory, the vast tract of land that the United States
had purchased from France in 1803 in a deal known as the Louisiana
1807 The Geological Society of
London was born. It was the first body of men devoted to the earth
c1807 Englishmen William and
John Cockerill brought the Industrial Revolution to continental
Europe around 1807 by developing machine shops in Liege, Belgium,
transforming the country’s coal, iron and textile industries much as
it had done in Britain. From roughly 1760 to about 1830, the
Industrial Revolution largely occurred in Britain. Realizing the
economic advantages, Britain did not allow the export of any
machinery, methods or skilled men that might blunt its technological
edge. Eventually, the lure of new opportunities convinced
continental entrepreneurs and British businessmen to evade England’s
1807 After Britain outlawed the
slave trade people called “Recaptives," those freed from slave
ships, were sent to join the settlers in Sierra Leone. The settlers
formed a new tribe called the Kri and created a language called
(MT, summer 2003, p.8)
1807 Britain opened factories
to make sailing blocks for the Royal Navy as part of the war effort
against France. The factories were later cited as the world’s first
standardized mass production line.
(Econ, 11/23/13, p.82)
1807 Zheng Yi Sao took over a
confederation of pirates in the South China Sea about this time
following the death if her husband. At its peak the confederation
numbered some 50-70 thousand mend and controlled 800 large vessels.
The group disbanded in 1810 under an offer of amnesty.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W2)
1807 Napoleon gave Danzig
(later Gdansk) 6 years of formal independence.
(WSJ, 8/31/98, p.A4)
1807 France’s Pleyel piano
company was founded by Ignaz Pleyel, a composer and music publisher
who studied with Franz Joseph Haydn. In 2013 the company closed its
factory, unable to keep up with cheaper and more agile competition.
(SFC, 10/30/96, Z1 p.8) (AP, 11/16/13)
1807 Saud al-Saud invaded
Karbala, Iraq, for the second time in 1807, but he could not occupy
1807 In Naples, Italy, Major
Leopold Hugo, the father of Victor Hugo, was promoted after a
successful campaign against the Calabrian banditti.
(WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)
1807 Serfdom was abolished in
the Lithuanian territories known as Suvalkija and Dzukija as far as
the Nemunas river. This area had been given to Prussia in the 1795
division and then included into the Warsaw Principality.
(DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)
1807-1808 In South Carolina some 700 black people
froze to death this winter in a warehouse near Charleston’s Gadsden
(Econ, 1/7/17, p.24)
1807-1808 Mustafa IV succeeded Selim III in the
Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1807-1809 A Jefferson imposed embargo kept
American ships at home. [see Dec 22 1807]
(SFC, 3/31/98, p.F4)
1807-1815 Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon,
1807-1915 by Rory Muir was published in 1996.
(WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1807-1859 Gamaliel Bailey, American abolitionist:
"Who never doubted, never half believed. Where doubt is, there truth
is—it is her shadow."
1807-1877 US Sen. John Petit. He once called the
Declaration of Independence a "self-evident-lie" in reference to the
freedom of blacks.
1807-1881 Giovanni Ruffini, Italian writer:
"Curses are like processions. They return to the place from which
1808 Jan 1, A US law banning
the import of slaves came into effect, but was widely ignored.
(HN, 1/1/99)(AP, 1/1/08)
1808 Jan 13, Salmon P. Chase,
US Treasury secretary during the American Civil War and 6th Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court, was born. His picture was later put on
the $10,000 bill.
1808 Feb 11, Anthracite coal
was 1st burned as fuel, experimentally, in Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
1808 Feb 16, The Peninsular War
began when Napoleon ordered a large French force into Spain under
the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying
1808 Feb 20, Honoré Daumier
(d.1879), French painter, sculptor, caricaturist and lithographer,
was born in Marseilles. He painted Crispin and Scapin.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.369)(WSJ, 3/10/00,
1808 Mar 1, In France, Napoleon
created an imperial nobility.
1808 Mar 6, 1st college
orchestra in US was founded at Harvard.
1808 Mar 15, Gaetano Gaspari,
composer, was born.
1808 Mar 19, Spain's King
Charles IV abdicated.
1808 Mar 23, Napoleon's brother
Joseph took the throne of Spain.
1808 Mar 27, Joseph Haydn’s
oratorio "The Seasons," premiered in Vienna.
1808 Mar 31, French created the
Kingdom of Westphalia and ordered Jews to adopt family names.
1808 Apr 13, William Henry Lane
("Juda") perfected the tap dance.
1808 Apr 17, The Bayonne Decree
by Napoleon I of France ordered the seizure of U.S. ships.
1808 Apr 20, Charles Louis
Napoleon (d.1873), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was born. He later
served as president (1848-1852) and as emperor of France
(WUD, 1994, p.950)(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)(HN,
1808 Apr 30, Italian Pellegrini
Turri built the 1st practical typewriter for the blind Countess
Carolina Fantoni da Fivizono, the world's first typist.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 7/26/00, p.D3)(MC,
1808 May 2, The citizens of
Madrid rose up against Napoleon. It culminated in a fierce battle
fought out in the Puerta del Sol, Madrid's central square. The
Spanish were defeated, and during the night the French army lead by
Grand Duke Joachim Murat slaughtered hundreds of citizens along the
Prado promenade in reprisal.
(HN, 5/2/98)(MC, 5/2/02)
1808 May 3, Spanish executions
took place and were later commemorated in Goya’s painting
"Executions of 3rd of May."
1808 May 15, Michael William
Balfe, composer ("The Bohemian Girl"), was born.
1808 May 18, Jacob Albright
[Albrecht] (49), German-US preacher, died.
1808 May 21, Eston Hemmings was
born to slave Sally Hemmings, who was owned by Thomas Jefferson.
Genetic tests in 1998 showed that DNA from Jefferson's descendants
was consistent with DNA from descendants of Hemmings. Some argued
that Randolph Jefferson, brother of Thomas, was Eston's father.
(USAT, 1/7/99, p.3A)
1808 May 30, Napoleon annexed
Tuscany and gave it seats in French Senate.
1808 Jun 1, The first US
land-grant university was founded-Ohio Univ., Athens, Ohio.
1808 Jun 3, Jefferson Davis --
the first and only president of the Confederacy -- was born in
Christian County, Ky. He was imprisoned and indicted for treason,
but the case was dropped.
(AP, 6/3/97)(HN, 6/3/99)
1808 Jul 2, Simon Fraser
completed his trip down Fraser River, BC. He landed at Musqueam.
1808 Jul 9, A leather-splitting
machine was patented by Samuel Parker of Billerica, MA.
1808 Jul 20, Napoleon decreed
that all French Jews adopt family names.
1808 Jul 28, Sultan Mustapha IV
of the Ottoman Empire was deposed and his cousin Mahmud II gained
the throne and ruled to 1839.
(HN, 7/28/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1808 Aug 1, Joachim Murat
(1767-1815), French marshal and Napoleon's brother in law, became
king of Naples (1808-1815) and Sicily.
1808 Aug 21, Napoleon
Bonaparte's General Junot was defeated by Wellington at the first
Battle of the Peninsular War at Vimiero, Portugal.
1808 Sep 12, Jose Celestino
Mutis (b.1732-1808), Spanish naturalist, died in Santa Fe de Bogote
(Colombia). He spent 40 years on his unfinished work “Flora de Nueva
1808 Oct 17, The political
rights of Jews was suspended in Duchy of Warsaw.
1808 Oct 24, Ernst Friedrich
Richter, composer, was born.
1808 Nov 22, Thomas Cook,
founder (Cook travel bureau), was born.
1808 Dec 1, Anton Fischer (30),
1808 Dec 7, Electors chose
James Madison to be the fourth president of the United States in
succession to Thomas Jefferson.
(HN, 12/7/98)(AP, 12/7/08)
1808 Dec 21, Ludwig van
Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor and Symphony No. 6 in F Major
had their world premieres in Vienna, Austria.
1808 Dec 29, Andrew Johnson,
the 17th president of the United States who succeeded Lincoln, was
born in a 2-room shack in Raleigh, N.C. [Waxhaw, South Carolina]
(AP, 12/29/97)(SFC, 12/21/98, p.A3)(HN,
1808 Yi Eung-nok, Korean court
painter, was born.
(SFC, 3/11/03, p.D1)
1808 Charles Willson Peale
painted the only known portrait of his friend William Bartram, the
naturalist. [see Bartram 1739-1823]
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.10)
1808 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon
(1758-1823), French artist, painted "Justice and Divine Vengeance
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)
1808 Goethe completed the first
part of Faust at the insistence of his friend, the poet Friedrich
Schiller. Part two was not finished until a few months before
1808 Heinrich von Kleist wrote
his novella "Michael Kohlhaas." It later inspired the screenplay for
a 1999 HBO movie "The Jack Bull," written by Dick Cusack.
(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)
1808 The libretto for Rossini’s
"L’Italiana in Algeri" was written by Anelli.
(WSJ, 8/12/97, p.A12)
1808 John Randel Jr., the
secretary, surveyor and chief engineer for New York City’s street
commissioners, and his colleagues began drafting and executing the
street grid plan for Manhattan.
1808 The first US newspaper
west of the Mississippi was founded in St. Louis by Joseph Charles,
an Irish refugee. He was financed by Meriwether Lewis, the local
territorial governor, who needed someone to print the local laws. In
1998 David Dary published: "Red Blood and Black Ink: Journalism in
the Old West."
(SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.6)
1808 In the 1st test of the US
Constitution Chief Justice Marshall ruled in favor of Gideon
Olmstead and against the state of Pennsylvania to enforce a 1779
decree that only the federal government, and not individual states,
had the power to determine the legality of captures on the high
(ON, 12/01, p.9)
1808 John Dalton, chemist,
argued that for each chemical element there is a corresponding atom,
and that all else is made from a combination of those atoms.
(NG, May 1985, , p. 642)
1808 Sir Humphrey Davy showed
that electricity could produce heat or light between two electrodes
separated in space and connected by an arc.
1808 The American whaling ship
Topaz found one of the bounty mutineers living on Pitcairn Island
among many women and children. The other men had all died mostly in
conflict over the Tahitian women.
(ON, 3/04, p.11)
1808 Napoleon chased Portugal’s
royal family to Brazil. King Joao VI of Portugal and his court were
installed in Rio de Janeiro by a British fleet.
(Econ, 4/14/07, SR p.5)(Econ, 9/11/10, SR p.3)
1808 Napoleon codified the
French educational curriculum.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.91)
1808 Emperor Alexander I of
Russia met with Napoleon I at Erfurt, Thuringia, Ger.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)
1808 A 56-foot oarfish washed
ashore in Scotland. This was the first documented sighting of the
(SFC, 12/4/10, p.A7)
1808-1814 The Duke of Wellington led the
Peninsular Campaign wherein the British send troops to Spain to
assist the Spanish revolt against Joseph Bonaparte.
(WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)
1808-1821 Rio de Janeiro was made the capital of
the Portuguese empire.
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.3)
1808-1830 In 2005 William Anthony Hay authored
“The Whig Revival, 1808-1830," a picture of the British Whigs in the
early 19th century.
(WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)
1809 Jan 4, Louis Braille
(d.1852), inventor of a universal reading system for the blind, was
born in Coupvray, France. He was blinded at age four as the result
of an accident in his father's shop. He became an accomplished
organist and cellist and won a scholarship in 1819 to attend the
National Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. In 1821 Louis learned
of a communication system devised by Captain Charles Barbier of the
French Army. While Barbier's system was too complex to be practical,
Braille simplified and adapted it to a six-dot code representing
letters that enabled people with impaired vision to not only read
but also write for themselves. In 1829 his first Braille book was
published, but Braille himself died of tuberculosis at age
43--before his system gained widespread acceptance.
1809 Jan 19, Edgar Allan Poe
(d.1949), American writer, was born in Boston. His father, David
Poe, was an Irish-American actor and abandoned his family shortly
after Edgar’s birth. His mother, Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins, died in
1811 and he grew up with a foster family. Poe studied briefly at the
University of Virginia, but then he quarreled with his foster father
and went to Boston in 1827, where he published his first volume of
poetry anonymously. In the early 1840s Poe became known for his
lyrical, brooding poems and detective stories, such as "The Gold
Bug" and "Murders at the Rue Morgue." In fact, he is recognized as
the father of the modern detective story. Poe was unafraid to
criticize literary practices of the time, stressing the importance
of artistic value more than moral value. After battles with
alcoholism and his wife Virginia's illness and death, Poe became
depressed but continued to write. He became engaged again in 1849
but soon died at the age of 40. His best known stories include:
"Fall of the House of Usher " and "The Tell-Tale Heart." His most
famous poems are "The Raven" and Annabel Lee." "I hold that a long
poem does not exist. I maintain that the phrase, 'a long poem,' is
simply a flat contradiction in terms."
(CFA, '96,Vol 179, p.38)(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T5)(AP,
1/19/98)(HNPD, 1/19/99)(AP, 1/29/99)
1809 Jan 20, The 1st US geology
book was published by William Maclure.
1809 Feb 3, US Congress passed
an act establishing the Illinois Territory.
1809 Feb 11, Robert Fulton
patented the steamboat.
1809 Feb 12, Charles Robert
Darwin (d.1882) was born. He proposed that evolution was the
principle that underlay the development of all species and that man,
an animal, had evolved from nonhuman ancestors. Shortly after his
graduation from Cambridge, Darwin sailed as a naturalist with the
surveying ship HMS Beagle. All life, he said, is a struggle for
existence and some species are better able to adapt to the
environment and survive to pass along their characteristics. During
the five-year voyage, Darwin's observations of wildlife led to the
writing of his 1859 book "The Origin of the Species," in which he
proposed the theory of natural selection. Besides the "Origin of the
Species," he wrote three books on geology and devoted 8 years to his
monograph on barnacles. His last book was "The Formation of
Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms." In 1871 Darwin wrote
"Descent of Man," which demonstrated that man and ape could have had
a common ancestor. Darwin's theories were highly controversial and
unsettling to those who believed in creationism. Many Victorians
condemned Darwin as blasphemous, but many important scientists of
the day agreed with his theories. "How can anyone not see that all
observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any
(V.D.-H.K.p.281)(PacDis., Spg. 96, p.52)(NH,
2/97, p.69)(NH, 5/97, p.11)(HNPD, 2/13/99)
1809 Feb 12, Abraham Lincoln,
16th president of the US, was born in Hardin County (present-day
Larue County), Kentucky. Lincoln was president of the United States
during one of the most turbulent times in American history. Although
roundly criticized during his own time, he is recognized as one of
history's greatest figures who preserved the Union during the Civil
War and proved that democracy could be a lasting form of government.
Lincoln entered national politics as a Whig congressman from
Illinois, but he lost his seat after one term due to his unpopular
position on the Mexican War and the extension of slavery into the
territories. The 1858 Lincoln-Douglas debates for the Senate gave
him a national reputation. In 1860, Lincoln became the first
president elected from the new Republican Party. Abraham Lincoln was
fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington,
D.C., on April 14, 1865. In 1996 a new biography of Abraham Lincoln
by David Donald was published.
(AP, 2/12/98)(AHD, 1971, p.759)(WSJ, 2/10/95,
p.A-8) (SFC, 9/1/96, Par.
1809 Feb 15, Cyrus Hall
McCormick (d.1884), inventor of the mechanical reaper, was born.
(MC, 2/15/02)(WUD, 1994 p.887)
1809 Feb 20, The Supreme Court
ruled that the power of the federal government is greater than that
of any individual state.
1809 Mar 1, Embargo Act of 1807
was repealed and the Non-Intercourse Act signed.
1809 Mar 4, Madison became 1st
President inaugurated in American-made clothes.
1809 Mar 12, Great Britain
signed a treaty with Persia forcing the French out of the country.
1809 Mar 15, Joseph Jenkins
Roberts, first president of Liberia, was born.
1809 Mar 27, Georges-Eugene
Haussmann (d.1891), French town planner, was born. He designed
1809 Mar 31, Edward Fitzgerald,
American writer, was born. He is famous for writing "Rubaiyat of
1809 Mar 31, Nikolai V. Gogol
(d.1852), Ukrainian-born Russian writer, was born (NS) in
Sorochyntsi, Poltava Governorate (later Ukraine). Some sources give
April 1 as his birthday. His work included the play “The Inspector
General" (1836) and the novels “Taras Bulba" (1835) and “Dead
1809 Mar 31, Otto Jonas
Lindblad, composer, was born.
1809 Apr 10, Austria declared
war on France and her forces entered Bavaria.
1809 Apr 20, Napoleon defeated
Austria at Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria.
1809 Apr 22, At the Battle at
Eckmahl Napoleon beat Austrian archduke Karl.
1809 Apr 23, Eugene-Prosper
Prevost, composer, was born.
1809 May 5, Mary Kies was 1st
woman issued a US patent (weaving straw).
1809 May 5, Citizenship was
denied to Jews of Canton of Aargau, Switzerland.
1809 May 17, The Papal States
were annexed by France. Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating
(MC, 5/17/02)(PTA, 1980, p.502)
1809 May 24, Dartmoor Prison
opened to house French prisoners of war.
1809 May 31, Composer Franz
Joseph Haydn died in Vienna, Austria on his 77th birthday. When
Napoleon’s armies marched into Vienna, the commanding general posted
guards in front of Haydn’s house to protect Haydn from trouble, and
a young officer was sent to sing for the old man.
(AP, 5/31/97)(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)
1809 Jun 3, John "Christmas"
Beckwith (58), composer, died.
1809 Jun 6, Sweden declared
independence and a constitutional monarchy was established.
1809 Jun 8, Thomas Paine
(b.1737), British born political essayist, died in poverty and
obscurity in NYC at age 72. His revolutionary essays included
“Common Sense" (1776) and "The Rights of Man" (1991) and "The Age of
Reason." His body was exhumed in 1819 by William Cobbett, shipped to
England, and kept in an attic trunk till Cobbett died in 1835. Parts
of his skeleton were later said to be sold at auction. In 2006 Craig
Nelson authored “Thomas Paine" and Harvey J. Kaye authored “Thomas
Paine and the Promise of America."
(HN, 1/29/99)(HNQ, 9/21/99)(SSFC, 4/1/01,
p.A7)(WSJ, 9/22/06, p.W4)
1809 Jul 3, Joseph Quesne (62),
1809 Jul 5, Pope Pius VII was
taken prisoner to France and held there until 1814.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.371)
1809 Jul 5-1809 Jul 6, Napoleon
beat Austria’s archduke Charles at the Battle of Wagram. He annexed
the Illyrian Provinces (now part of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Serbia, and Montenegro), and abolished the Papal
1809 Jul 16, A well-prepared
revolutionary insurrection burst out in La Paz, Bolivia.
1809 Jul 27, In Bolivia a
proclamation of independence of the La Paz colony, said to have been
written by Priest Medina and the first proclamation of that kind,
was released and sent to the other main cities of the colony, hoping
they would support the uprising.
1809 Jul 27-1809 Jul 28, Arthur
Wellesley led the British army to triumph against the Spanish King
Joseph Bonaparte at Talavera de la Reina against a French army twice
his size. For this he was made Lord (the Duke of) Wellington.
(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A15)(PC, 1992 ed, p.371)
1809 Aug 4, Hapsburg Emp.
Francis I appointed Count Clemens von Metternich (36) minister of
(PC, 1992 ed, p.371)
1809 Aug 6, Alfred Lord
Tennyson (d.1892), English poet laureate (1850), was born. His work
included: "The Charge of the Light Brigade." "Knowledge comes, but
(HN, 8/6/98)(AP, 10/6/00)
1809 Aug 10, Ecuador struck its
first blow for independence from Spain.
1809 Aug 17, In Canada work
commenced on Nelson’s column, a tribute Adm. Horatio Nelson, was
erected Place Jacques-Cartier, Montreal, Quebec.
1809 Aug 29, Oliver Wendell
Holmes, Sr., poet, essayist and father of Supreme Court Justice
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., was born.
1809 Sep, The Old Price Riots
broke out in England when Covent Garden manager John Philip Kemble
raised ticket prices. The riots continued to December.
(SFC, 12/31/08, p.E2)
1809 Oct 8, Hapsburg Emp.
Francis I appointed Count Clemens von Metternich (36) foreign
minister of Austria.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.371)(ON, 5/04, p.1)
1809 Oct 11, Meriwether Lewis
committed suicide at 35. [see Oct 12]
1809 Oct 12, Meriwether Lewis,
of the Lewis and Clark expedition, died under mysterious
circumstances in St. Louis. [see Oct 11]
1809 Oct 14, The Treaty of
Schönbrunn, also known as the Treaty of Vienna, ended hostilities
between France and Austria. This treaty ended the Fifth Coalition
during the Napoleonic Wars.
1809 Oct 22, Federico Ricci,
composer, was born.
1809 Oct 27, President James
Madison ordered the annexation of the western part of West Florida.
Settlers there had rebelled against Spanish authority.
1809 Nov 13, John A.B.
Dahlgren, US Union Lt Adm and inventor (Civil war Dahlgren cannon),
1809 Nov 22, Peregrine
Williamson of Baltimore patented a steel pen.
1809 Nov 27, Frances Anne
"Fanny" Kemble (d.1893), Shakespearian actress, writer and
anti-slavery activist, was born in London, England. Her work
included "Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation. She died
1809 Dec 9, William Barret
Travis, Commander of the Texas troops at the battle of the Alamo,
1809 Dec 16, Napoleon Bonaparte
was divorced from the Empress Josephine by an act of the French
Senate. Metternich had convinced Francis I of Austria to offer his
daughter Marie Louise as a bride to Napoleon.
(AP, 12/16/97)(ON, 5/04, p.2)
1809 Dec 24, Kit Carson, one of
the most famous mountain men and scouts in the West, was born in
(HN, 12/24/98)(MC, 12/24/01)
1809 Dec 29, William
Gladstone (1809-1898), British statesman and four times Prime
Minister from 1868-1894, was born. He was called the Grand Old Man
of Victorian England. He began as a devout Tory but moved over to
the liberal camp. A biography by Roy Jenkins, "Gladstone," was
published in 1995.
(CFA, '96, p.60)(AHD, p.559)(WSJ, 1/14/03, p.D6)
1809 Dec 30, Wearing masks at
balls was forbidden in Boston.
1809 Dec, In Danville,
Kentucky, Dr. Ephraim McDowell (1771-1830) performed a successfully
surgery on Jane Crawford (45) in which he removed an ovary and a
large tumor with no anesthesia. Crawford lived to age 78 and was the
world’s first known survivor of an elective exploration of the
abdomen and removal of an ovary. The story was later told by David
Dary in “Frontier Medicine: From the Atlantic to the Pacific
(ON, 12/99, p.11)(WSJ, 11/28/08, p.A13)
1809 William Cave created his
painting "The Trusty Servant," a uniformed pig with a padlocked
(WSJ, 11/26/03, p.D10)
1809 Lamarck wrote his classic
"Philosophie zoologique." In 1997 this edition was valued at
(NH, 5/96, p.22)(HT, 3/97, p.74)
1809 Boston’s Exchange Coffee
House, which also contained a hotel and offices, opened and was said
to be the largest building in the country. It burned down in 1818.
1809 Elizabeth Bayley Seton
founded the Roman Catholic Sisters of Charity. She was later made a
(SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)
1809 Thomas Leiper laid the
first railroad track in the US at Crum Creek, Pa. They were wooden.
(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)
1809 Thomas Jefferson
(1743-1826), US president (1801-1809) retired to Monticello, Va.
1809 Connecticut Sen. James
Hillhouse proposed a constitutional amendment under which the
president would be elected by lot from among the senators.
(WSJ, 1/28/03, p.D6)
1809 Meriwether Lewis died of
gunshot wounds near present-day Hohenwald, Tenn. It was uncertain
whether he was killed or committed suicide.
1809 A large volcanic eruption
took place, but the exact location was unknown. Evidence was later
found in ice cores of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
(Econ., 4/11/15, p.22)
1809 Lord Byron (1788-1824)
traveled to Spain, Albania and Greece with John Cam Hobhouse and
soon met with Ali Pasha.
1809 English poet Samuel Taylor
Coleridge published his essay “On the Vulgar Errors Respecting Taxes
(Econ, 5/19/12, p.21)
1809 Humphry Davy (1778-1809),
an English chemist, invented the first electric light. Davy
connected two wires to a battery and attached a charcoal strip
between the other ends of the wires. The charged carbon glowed
making the first arc lamp.
1809 Bourne’s Pottery in Denby,
Derbyshire, England, dates to this time. In 1850 it began using the
J. Bourne & Son mark.
(SFC, 4/12/06, p.G4)
1809 Finland broke free of
Sweden to become a Grand Duchy of Russia. Finland fell into Russian
hands after Europe's Napoleonic wars, though it was allowed to
develop as an autonomous part of the Czarist empire until 1917.
(SFEC, 4/11/99, p.T4)(AP, 12/6/17)
1809 Nicholas Appert won a
French prize of 12,000 francs for his method of keeping food in
glass bottles. Napoleon had offered the prize with military needs in
(SFC, 9/19/07, p.G6)
1809 Sibbet House at 26
Northumberland St. was constructed in a Georgian design in
(SFC, 7/7/96, T8)
1809 The Portuguese crown, now
in Brazil, granted authors and inventors exclusive rights to their
works in Brazil fro 14 years.
(Econ, 11/3/12, p.38)
1809 Russia took the Aland
island group from the Swedes and held it until the Russian
(WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A1)
1809-1817 James Madison served as President of the
(A&IP, ESM, p.96b)
1809-1826 Civilians and soldiers who returned home
from Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt (1798-1801) published during
this period in serial form “Description de l’Egypte" (The
Description of Egypt), the most comprehensive view of Egypt to date.
(SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)(WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)
1809-1891 Alexander William Kinglake, English
(WUD, 1994, p.788)
1809-1894 Tryon Edwards, American clergyman: "One
of the great lessons the fall of the leaf teaches, is this: Do your
work well and then be ready to depart when God shall call."
1809-1894 Oliver Wendell Holmes, American author:
"A man may fulfill the object of his existence by asking a question
he cannot answer, and attempting a task he cannot achieve."
1809-1917 Finland was an autonomous grand duchy
under the Czar of Russia.
(WSJ, 12/17/98, p.A1)
1810 Jan 10, French church
annulled the marriage of Napoleon I & Josephine.
1810 Feb 20, Andreas Hofer
(42), military leader (fought Napoleon's France), was executed.
1810 Feb 24, Henry Cavendish
(b.1731), British natural philosopher, died. He is noted for his
discovery of hydrogen or what he called "inflammable air" (1766).
1810 Feb 28, The 1st US fire
insurance joint-stock company was organized in Philadelphia.
1810 Mar 1, Frederic Chopin
(d.1849), Polish composer and pianist, was born. He studied in
Poland but spent most of his adult life in Paris. He met George Sand
in Paris in 1838 and they were together until 1847. His works
include the Waltz #2 in C# Minor (1835).
(BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)(HN, 3/1/98)
1810 Mar 2, Leo XIII (Vincenzo
G Pecci), 256th Catholic Pope (1878-1903), was born.
(HN, 3/2/99)(SC, 3/2/02)
1810 Mar 6, Illinois passed the
1st state vaccination legislation in US.
1810 Mar 10, John McCloskey,
president of St. Johns College, was born.
1810 Mar 11, Emperor Napoleon
of France was married by proxy to Archduchess Marie Louise of
(AP, 3/11/98)(HN, 3/11/98)
1810 Apr 17, Lewis Norton of
Troy, PA., introduced his pineapple cheese.
(440 Int'l, 4/17/03)
1810 Apr, In Hawaii Kaumualiʻi,
king of Kauai became a vassal of King Kamehameha I (c.1736-1810),
who therefore emerged as the sole sovereign of the unified Hawaiian
1810 May 3, Lord Byron swam the
1810 May 9, Louis Gallait,
historical painter, was born.
1810 May 21, Charles Chevalier
d'Eon de Beaumont (81), French spy, cross dresser, died.
1810 May 23, Margaret Fuller
(d.1850), American social reformer, writer and critic, was born. She
was the first female journalist for the New York Tribune. "Man is
not made for society, but society is made for man. No institution
can be good which does not tend to improve the individual."
(AP, 7/12/97)(HN, 5/23/99)
1810 May 25, Argentina declared
independence and began its revolt from Napoleonic Spain.
(AP, 5/25/97)(HN, 5/25/98)
1810 May 29, Erasmus Darwin
Keyes (d.1895), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1810 May 29, Solomon Meredith
(d,1875), Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1810 Jun 8, Robert Schumann
(d.1856), German composer, was born in Zwickau, Germany.
(BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed. p.49)(HN, 6/8/01)
1810 Jun 9, Carl Otto
Ehrenfried Nicolai, composer (Merry Wives of Windsor), was born.
1810 Jun 15, Englishman William
Cobbett (1763-1810) was found guilty of treasonous libel after
objecting in The Register to the flogging at Ely of local militiamen
by Hanoverians. He was sentenced to two years imprisonment in
infamous Newgate Prison. While in prison he wrote the pamphlet Paper
against Gold, warning of the dangers of paper money, as well as many
Essays and Letters. On his release a dinner in London, attended by
600 people, was given in his honor, presided over by Sir Francis
Burdett who, like Cobbett, was a strong voice for parliamentary
1810 Jun 23, John Jacob Astor
(1763-1848) organized the Pacific Fur Co. in Astoria, Oregon.
1810 Jul 5, P.T. Barnum
(d.1891), American showman who formed the Barnum and Bailey Circus,
was born. Years before founding the famous circus that bears his
name, Barnum was recognized as the greatest showman and museum-owner
of his time. Barnum’s goal was to attract attention, and it never
bothered him if the wonders he exhibited in his New York American
Museum were genuine or fake. Barnum opened the American Museum on
Broadway in 1842, luring in customers by installing festive flags
and New York’s first revolving spotlight on the roof of the
building, both visible in this contemporary engraving. Abandoning
the high-minded tone of most other museums, Barnum attracted huge
audiences with marvels like the Feejee Mermaid, a grotesque
composite of the top half of a monkey and the bottom half of a fish,
and General Tom Thumb, a 25-inch-tall dwarf.
(HN, 7/5/98)(HNPD, 3/18/99)
1810 Jul 11, The
Australian-Briton Frederick Hasselborough discovered the uninhabited
Macquarie island, half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica,
accidentally when looking for new sealing grounds. The island took
its name after Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South
Wales from 1810 to 1821.
1810 Jul 20, Colombia declared
independence from Spain.
1810 Aug 10, Camillo di Cavour,
helped bring about the unification of Italy under the House of
1810 Aug 14, Samuel Sebastian
Wesley (d.1876), English composer, was born in London.
1810 Aug 21, Sweden’s Riksdag
elected Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France under Napoleon,
as heir apparent to the Swedish throne.
1810 Aug 24, Theodore Parker,
anti-slavery movement leader, was born.
1810 Aug 29, Juan Bautista
Alberdi (d.1884), Argentine politician, writer, was born.
1810 Sep 4, Donald McKay, US
naval architect, built fastest clipper ships, was born.
1810 Sep 16, In Mexico Father
Miguel Hidalgo-Costilla delivered the cry for freedom in front of a
small crowd of his parishioners (The Grito de Dolores). This action
stemmed from meetings of the literary and social club of Queretaro
(now a central state of Mexico), which included the priest, the
mayor of the town, and a local military captain named Ignacio
Allende. They believed that New Spain should be governed by the
Creoles (criollos) rather than the Gachupines (peninsulares). Rev.
Hidalgo was joined by Rev. Jose Maria Morelos. Both priests were
later executed by firing squads. When Mexico revolted the Spanish
settlements began to fall apart. Under Mexican rule the missions
were secularized and the huge land holdings were broken up.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(SCal, Sept.
1995)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(AP, 9/16/97)
1810 Sep 18, Chile declared its
independence from Spain (National Day). Bernardo O’Higgins helped
lead Chile to independence.
(AP, 9/18/97)(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)
1810 Oct 4, Alexander Walewski,
French earl, foreign minister, son of Napoleon I, was born.
1810 Oct 8, James Wilson
Marshall, discoverer of gold in California, was born.
1810 Oct 12, Bavarian Crown
Prince Ludwig, later to become King Ludwig I, was married to
Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen. In honor of the
wedding a horse race took place at the Theresienwiese (the Theresien
meadow). The decision to repeat the horse races in subsequent years
gave rise to the tradition of the Oktoberfest.
1810 Oct 16, Rabbi Nachman
(b.1772) of Bratslav died and was buried in Uman, Ukraine.
Nachman was renowned for his mystical interpretations of
Jewish texts and his belief that higher spirituality could be
achieved through a combination of prayer, meditation and good deeds.
On his deathbed, he is said to have promised to be an advocate for
anyone who would come and pray beside his tomb.
1810 Oct 19, Cassius Marcellus
Clay (d.1903), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1810 Oct 27, US annexes West
Florida from Spain.
1810 Nov 2, Andrew Atkinson
Humphreys (d.1883), Mjr. Gen. (Union volunteers), was born.
1810 Nov 18, Asa Gray (d.1888),
American botanist, was born. He wrote "Gray's Manual."
1810 Nov 30, Oliver Fisher
Winchester, rifle maker, was born.
1810 Dec 7, Theodor Schwann,
German physiologist, was born.
1810 Dec 22, British frigate
Minotaur sank killing 480.
1810 Dec, Gen. Andre Rigaud
(1761-1811) returned to Haiti yet a third time, establishing himself
as President of the Department of the South, in opposition to both
Alexandre Petion and Henri Christophe.
1810 The Maryland legislature
authorizes a lottery for the erection of a memorial to George
Washington, a 188 foot Doric column in Baltimore’s Mt Vernon Place.
(NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.390)
1810 Ephraim Basher (b.1744),
NYC silversmith, died. He marked his pieces “EB" inside a square or
(SFC, 1/30/08, p.G4)
1810 Salzburg, Austria was
annexed by Bavaria during the Napoleonic Wars and the Univ. of
Salzburg was suspended.
(StuAus, April ‘95, p.87)
1810 In Bristol, England, the
Commercial Rooms were constructed under architect C.A. Busby.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T3)
1810 The British Bullion
Committee pronounced that it was folly to let governments print as
much money as they wanted and not expect inflation.
(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)
1810 Peter Durand, a British
merchant, was granted a patent by King George III for his idea of
preserving food in "vessels of glass, pottery, tin (tin can), or
other metals or fit materials."
1810 Sake Dean Mahomed founded
the Hindoostane Coffee House, London's first known curry
establishment. Born in Patna, India in 1759, Mahomed was also the
first known Indian to write a book in English. Published in 1786, it
describes his adventures as a soldier with the East India Company's
army, his journey to Europe, his marriage to an Irish woman and
their move to London.
1810 The British wrestled
Mauritius from France. Indians were brought in as indentured
laborers and later waves of Chinese immigrants arrived.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A8)
1810 A typhoon devastated the
Caroline Islands, 500 miles south of the Marianas. The survivors
sailed to Guam but only half survived. Spanish authorities sent the
Carolinians to Saipan and Tinian to manage the Spanish cattle herds.
(SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)
1810 A German folk tale
appeared in “Gespensterbuch" (The Book of Ghosts), which formed the
basis for the 1821 opera “Der Freishutz" (The Free-Shooter) by Carl
Maria von Weber. In 1991 American writer William Burroughs wrote
“The Black Rider," an English version of the story with music by Tom
(SFC, 8/31/04, p.E7)
1810 In Germany Friedrich
Wilhelm III began the construction of Museum Island in Berlin.
(WSJ, 2/1/96, p.A-16)
1810 In Germany construction of
the first brew kettle at the Hallerbräustadel, the "factory," as it
is called in the books, that Gabriel Sedlmayr leased in 1808 at the
west end of the Neuhauserstraße. The kettle is only used to refine
vinegar. Today at this site stands the Hertie department store.
1810 Wilhelm von Humboldt
founded the Univ. of Berlin, later Humboldt University, to give
students a broad humanist education.
(WSJ, 2/26/00, p.A8)(Econ, 12/13/14, p.56)
1810 Juan Jose de los Reyes
Martinez, miner and revolutionary hero (El Pipila), joined some
20,000 rebels who stormed Guanajuato, Mexico, and cornered Spanish
colonists inside a granary. Martinez set fire to the granary and
died in the flames.
(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D6)
1810 Saartjie Baartman (~21)
left South Africa with 2 white men who promised to make her rich.
(SFC, 5/4/02, p.A8)
1810 In Spain General Count
Hugo, the father of Victor Hugo, governed Central Spain during the
Peninsula War. He exterminated guerrillas and nailed up their
(WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)
1810-1811 The Duke of Wellington has the Lines of
Torres Vedras heavily fortified and blocks all French movement
forcing them to slow starvation during this winter. The resulting
French retreat is considered the turning point of the Peninsular
(WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)
1810-1813 Boston-based whalers slaughtered an
estimated 150,000 fur seals on the Farallon Islands, 28 miles west
of San Francisco. Russian hunters followed and occupied the islands
for the next 25 years during which they wiped out the remaining fur
seals. Fur seals began to return around 1977, but their first pup
wasn’t born until 1996.
(Bay, 4/07, p.33)
1810-1832 The 54-mile Göta Canal was built to
connect Sweden's east and west coasts to circumvent Danish shipping
controls between the Baltic and North Seas. The project was
conceived and led by Count Baltzar von Platen (d.1830).
(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.D12)
1810-1857 Alfred de Musset, French author: "How
glorious it is -- and also how painful -- to be an exception."
1810-1860 Theodore Parker, American religious
leader: "Religion without joy—it is no religion."
1810-1862 The Regency Period in English
architecture. Oriental curves and cupolas influenced English
(SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)
1810-1891 PT Barnum (Phineas Taylor Barnum), US
showman and founder of "The Greatest Show On Earth." He established
his circus in 1871. He served in the Connecticut State House of
Representatives for 2 terms, was mayor of Bridgeport, and was the
first president of Bridgeport Hospital. "More persons, on the whole,
are humbugged by believing nothing, than by believing too much."
(WUD, 1994, p.121)(WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A19)(AP,
1810-1893 Ferenc Erkel, Hungarian composer,
founder of the Nationalist school. His works include The Festive
(WSJ, 8/24/95, p.A-14)