Return to home1811 Jan 2, US
Sen Timothy Pickering (1745-1829) of Massachusetts became the 1st US
senator to be censured. He had revealed confidential documents
communicated by the president of the US.
1811 Jan 6, Charles Sumner
(d.1874), leading anti-slavery senator and author, was born in
Boston. He was active in the movement to outlaw war, opposed the
Mexican War and was a founder in 1848 of the Free-Soil party. A
senator from Massachusetts, Sumner was an ardent abolitionist and
helped organize the Republican party. In c1867 Massachusetts Senator
Charles Sumner popularized the name Alaska for the territory that
had been known as Russian America in a famous Senate speech
supporting the treaty to purchase Russian America: "There is the
National flag. He must be cold, indeed, who can look upon its folds
rippling in the breeze without pride of country. If in a foreign
land, the flag is companionship, and country itself, with all its
(HNQ, 9/28/98)(AP, 6/14/97)(HNQ, 11/17/98)
1811 Jan 8, Charles Deslondes
led several hundred poorly armed slaves towards New Orleans in the
largest slave rebellion in US history.
(AH, 2/06, p.14)
1811 Jan 9, The USS Revenge, a
ship commanded by US Navy hero Oliver Hazard Perry ran aground on a
reef off of Watch Hill, Rhode Island. Divers discovered the wreck in
August 2005, but only made the news public in 2011.
1811 Jan 10, An uprising of
over 400 slaves was put down in New Orleans. Sixty-six blacks were
killed and their heads were strung up along the roads of the city.
1811 Jan 15, In a secret
session, Congress planned to annex Spanish East Florida.
1811 Feb 1, Scotlands Bell
Rock lighthouse, at the mouth of Scotlands Firth of Forth, began
operations. Robert Stevenson (1772-1850) had begun work on the
lighthouse in 1807.
(ON, 5/06, p.8)
1811 Feb 2, Russian settlers
established Ft. Ross trading post in northern California. Fort Ross
was settled by peg-legged Ivan Kuzkov (Kuskov) in Sonoma County
(1912). It was designed as a base for fur hunters and a warm weather
supplier for the Russian colonies in Alaska. The colonists included
25 Russians and over 80 Aleut Indians from the islands of western
Alaska. Kuskov managed the settlement until 1821.
(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1
p.4)(SFC, 6/15/01, WBb p.7)(MC, 2/2/02)
1811 Feb 3, Horace Greeley
(d.1872), abolitionist newspaper editor, was born in Amherst, New
Hampshire. He popularized the phrase "Go west, young man." Greeley,
who began his journalism career at The New Yorker, founded The New
York Tribune in 1841 with support from powerful political friends.
Under Greeley's direction, The Tribune took a strong stand against
slavery, the South and slave owners in the years leading up to the
Civil War. The Tribune and Greeley also crusaded against liquor,
gambling, prostitution and capital punishment. One of the founders
of the Republican Party, Greeley was also an eccentric who dabbled
in many of the fads of his day. The phrase was spoken to Josiah
Grinell, who went west to Iowa, became a Congregational minister and
founded Grinell College from which Robert Noyce, developer of the
microchip and founder of Intel, graduated. "There is no bigotry like
that of free thought run to seed."
(HNPD, 2/3/99)(WSJ, 10/26/00, p.W12)(AP, 7/21/98)
1811 Feb 5, George, Prince of
Wales, was named the Prince Regent due to the insanity of his
father, Britain's King George III. George Augustus Frederick became
prince regent after his father, George III, slipped permanently into
dementia. In 1999 Saul David published "The Prince of Pleasure: The
Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency."
(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)(AP, 2/5/08)
1811 Feb 11, Pres. Madison
prohibited trade with Britain for 3rd time in 4 years.
1811 Mar 1, In Egypt the
Ottoman viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha massacred the Mameluke leaders of
Egypt for plotting against him. He had invited them to a banquet at
the citadel of Cairo.
(PCh, 1992, p.373)(SC, 3/1/02)
1811 Mar 11, Urbain Jean Joseph
le Verrier, co-discoverer (Neptune), was born.
1811 Mar 11, Ned Ludd led a
group of workers in a wild protest against mechanization. Members of
the organized bands of craftsmen who rioted against automation in
19th century England were known as Luddites and also "Ludds." The
movement, reputedly named after Ned Ludd, began near Nottingham as
craftsman destroyed textile machinery that was eliminating their
jobs. By the following year, Luddites were active in Yorkshire,
Derbyshire, Lancashire and Leicestershire. Although the Luddites
opposed violence towards people (a position which allowed for a
modicum of public support), government crackdowns included mass
shootings, hangings and deportation to the colonies. It took 14,000
British soldiers to quell the rebellion. The movement effectively
died in 1813 apart from a brief resurgence of Luddite sentiment in
1816 following the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
(HN, 3/11/01)(HNQ, 5/14/01)(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A1)
1811 Mar 20, George Caleb
Bingham (d.1879), Missouri painter, was born in Virginia. He
paintings included "Fur Traders on the Missouri."
1811 Mar 20, Napoleon II, the
Duke of Reichstadt, was born. He was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte.
1811 Mar 25, A comet, dubbed
the Great Comet of 1811, was discovered by Honoré Flaugergues at 2.7
AU from the sun in the now-defunct constellation of Argo Navis. In
October 1811, at its brightest, it displayed an apparent magnitude
of 0, with an easily visible coma.
1811 Mar 31, Robert Wilhelm
Eberhard von Bunsen, German inventor of the Bunsen burner, was born.
1811 Apr 5, Robert Raikes,
founder of Sunday Schools, died.
1811 Apr 12, First U.S.
colonists on Pacific coast arrived at Cape Disappointment,
(HN, 4/12/98)(MC, 4/12/02)
1811 May 11, Chang and Eng
Bunker, Chinese Siamese twins, were born.
1811 Jun 14, Harriet Beecher
Stowe (d.1896), American writer and author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin,"
was born in Litchfield, Conn. The book showed the horrors of slavery
and President Abraham Lincoln joked she had started the American
(AHD, p.1272)(HN, 6/14/99)
Jun 19, Samuel P. Chase (b.Apr 17, 1741), Supreme Court Justice
(1798-1811), revolutionary, attorney, Declaration of Independence
signer; died. Chase was served with 6 articles of impeachment by the
House of Representatives in late 1804. Two more articles would later
be added. The Jeffersonian Republican-controlled United States
Senate began an impeachment trial against Justice Chase in early
1805. He was charged with political bias, but was acquitted by the
Senate of all charges on March 1, 1805. To this day, he remains the
only Supreme Court justice to be impeached.
1811 Jul 5, Venezuela became
the first South American country to declare independence from Spain.
(HFA, 96, p.34)(AP, 7/5/97)
1811 Jul 18, William Makepeace
Thackeray (d.1863), English novelist and satirist, was born. His
books were published as monthly serials. "Next to excellence is the
appreciation of it."
(HN, 7/18/98)(AP, 10/28/00)
1811 Jul 31, Miguel Hidalgo y
Costilla, Mexican hero priest, was executed by Spanish.
1811 Aug 3, Elisha Graves Otis
(d.1861), inventor (safe elevator), was born. The Vermont native,
was a master mechanic working at a bedstead factory in Yonkers,
N.Y., when he built a hoisting machine with two sets of metal teeth
at the cars sides. If the lifting rope broke, the teeth would lock
into place, preventing the car from falling. Otis ever realized the
potential of his invention. His sons built the Otis Elevator
Company, enabling the skylines of cities throughout the world to be
transformed with skyscrapers.
1811 Aug 5, C.L. Ambroise
Thomas, French composer (Mignon, Francoise de Rimini), was born.
1811 Aug 6, Judah Philip
Benjamin (d.1884), Sec. War and Sec. State for the Confederacy, was
born a British subject in the Virgin Islands. He went on to become
the first professed Jew elected to U.S. Senate, from the state of
Louisiana in 1852. He was brought to South Carolina as a child.
After attending Yale (1825--7) he settled in New Orleans. He served
Louisiana in the US Senate (Whig, 1853--9; Democrat, 1859--61). He
was noted for his pro-slavery speeches in the Senate. Favoring
secession, he served the Confederacy as attorney general (1861) and
then as secretary of war (1861--2). He was blamed for the
Confederate army's lack of equipment, but Jefferson Davis promoted
him to secretary of state (1862--5). Late in the war he urged the
recruitment of slaves into the Confederate Army. With the collapse
of the Confederacy he fled to the West Indies and then to England
(1866), where he made a brilliant new career as a British barrister,
especially in appeal cases. He wrote the Treatise on the Law of Sale
of Personal Property (1868), which at once became the standard in
the field. In 1872, he became a counsel to the queen. Benjamin died
(HNQ, 12/8/98)(MC, 8/6/02)
1811 Aug 12, John FE Acton
(77), cruel premier of Naples, died.
1811 Aug 14, Paraguay declared
independence from Spain.
(PC, 1992, p.373)
1811 Aug 31, Théophile Gautier,
French poet, novelist and author of "Art for Arts Sake," was born.
1811 Sep 3, John Humphrey Noyes
was born in Vermont. He founded the Oneida Community
(Perfectionists) in 1848.
(MC, 9/3/01)(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.A6)
1811 Oct 11, The first
steam-powered ferryboat, the Juliana, was put into operation between
New York City and Hoboken, N.J.
1811 Oct 22, Franz Liszt, piano
virtuoso, was born near Sopron, Hungary. He was the son of a steward
of the Esterhazy family.
(Hem., 6/98, p.128)(HN, 10/22/00)
1811 Oct 27, Isaac Merrit
Singer, inventor of a practical home sewing machine, was born.
(HN, 10/27/98)(MC, 10/27/01)
1811 Oct 29, The 1st Ohio River
steamboat left Pittsburgh for New Orleans.
1811 Nov 5, El Salvador fought
its 1st battle against Spain for independence.
1811 Nov 7, Gen. William Henry
Harrison won a battle against the Shawnee Indians at the Battle of
Tippecanoe in the Indiana territory. Tenskwatawa, the brother of
Shawnee leader Tecumseh, was engaged in the Battle of the Wabash,
aka Battle of Tippecanoe, in spite of his brothers strict
admonition to avoid it. The battle near the Tippecanoe River with
the regular and militia forces of Indiana Territory Governor William
Henry Harrison, took place while Tecumseh was out of the area
seeking support for a united Indian movement. The battle, which was
a nominal victory for Harrisons forces, effectively put an end to
Tecumsehs dream of a pan-Indian confederation. Harrisons
leadership in the battle also provided a useful campaign slogan for
his presidential bid in 1840.
(HFA, 96, p.46)(HNQ, 5/28/98)(HN, 11/7/98)
1811 Nov 16, John Bright,
British Victorian radical, was born. He founded the Anti-Corn Law
1811 Nov 16, An earthquake in
Missouri caused the Mississippi River to flow backwards. [see Dec
1811 Nov 21, Heinrich W. von
Kleist (34), German playwright, died.
1811 Nov 29, Wendell Phillips,
women's suffrage, antislavery, prison reformer, was born.
1811 Dec 15-1811 Dec 16, A 7.3
earthquake struck the central US on the Mississippi River. It was
centered at New Madrid, Missouri. Aftershocks continued into 1812.
In 1976 James Penick Jr. authored "The New Madrid Earthquakes of
1811-1812." [see Jan 23, Feb 7, 1812]
(HC, 6/7/98)(ON, 10/99, p.5,6)(SFC, 2/24/01,
p.A10)(NH, 3/1/04, p.66)
1811 The book "Sense and
Sensibility," by Jane Austen (1774-1817), was published. It appeared
anonymously as written by a lady.
(SFEC,11/9/97, BR p.4)(ON, 12/09, p.8)
1811 The Bowdoin College Museum
of Art in Brunswick was begun as a bequest from James Bowdoin III,
son of a college benefactor.
(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W2)
1811 A group of amateur
naturalists formed the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia.
(AH, 10/04, p.20)
1811 The 1st rubber factory was
(SFC, 3/21/07, p.G2)
1811 In the US politics killed
the Bank of the United States established by Hamilton as a central
bank and a mechanism for government borrowing.
(WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)
1811 Francis Cabot Lowell, an
American industrialist, moved to England and gathered information on
mill details. He returned to the US and started the textile industry
in New England and the Massachusetts mill town of his name.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1811 Fanny Burney (1752-1840),
English writer, underwent a mastectomy without anesthesia. In 2001
Claire Harman authored the biography: "Fanny Burney."
(SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)
1811 Avogadro proposed that the
ultimate particles of even elemental gases may not be atoms but
instead molecules made up of combinations of atoms. He also proposed
that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules.
1811 Gas hydrates were first
discovered but their molecular structure was not understood until
the late 20th century. They are crystals of water that look like ice
but contain a molecule of free-floating gas in a pentagonally-linked
(NH, 5/97, p.28)
1811 William Burchell, botanist
for the East India Company, set off into the bush for Hottentot
country after his girlfriend abandoned him just before marriage. He
stayed 4 years and is listed as the man who invented the working
(SFC, 8/5/00, p.B4)
1811 In Britain the Dulwich
Picture Gallery opened at Dulwich College. It contained an art
collection gathered by Noel Desenfans and Francis Bourgeois, who had
put it together for the Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, king of
Poland, before he was forced to abdicate.
(WSJ, 2/15/00, p.A24)
1811 British Foreign Secretary
Lord Wellesley, older brother of the Duke of Wellington, wrote that
the Peninsula War diverted French resources and that the time was
ripe to strike against Napoleon.
(WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1811 In England John Williams,
the Highway Hacker, murdered 2 whole families in the Docklands
section of London. He committed suicide while awaiting trial. A
crowd stole his body and drove a stake through his heart and buried
him in a lime pit off Cannon St. The murder later inspired Thomas De
Quinceys essay On Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts.
(SFEC, 10/17/98, p.T9)(WSJ, 6/9/07, p.P8)
1811 The British began a period
of sovereignty in Java (Indonesia).
(WSJ, 9/13/08, p.W18)
1811 The Mamelukes remained a
powerful influence in Egypt until they were massacred or dispersed
by Mehemet Ali.
(WUD, 1994, p.869)
1811 The Turks dispatched
Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali to overthrow the Wahabis and reinstate
Ottoman sovereignty in Arabia.
(NW, 9/30/02, p.33)
1811 Napoleon Bonaparte gave to
his wife, Empress Marie Louise, a tiara with 950 diamonds (700
carats). The original emeralds were later replaced with Persian
turquoise. Now part of the Smithsonian Inst. and bequeathed by
Marjorie Merriweather Post.
(Postcard , Natl Mus. Nat. Hist.,1995)
1811 Matsumura Gekkei (b.1752)
also known as Goshun, Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died.
(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)
1811 Scotsman Gregor MacGregor
(1786-1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of
Poyais, received a commission from Simon Bolivar in Venezuela to
serve in the Army of Liberation. After he returned to London in
1820, he began selling land in the fictional kingdom of Poyais. He
served 8 months in jail after English and French expeditions
revealed the hoax. In 1839 he returned to Venezuela. In 2004 David
Sinclair authored "The Land That Never Was: Sir Gregor MacGregor and
the Most Audacious Land Fraud in History."
(SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)
1811-1812 Marie Dorion, a 21-year-old Iowa Indian,
was the only woman to accompany the 1811-12 overland expedition to
the Pacific Northwest led by Wilson Price Hunt. Her husband, Pierre
Dorion was hired as an interpreter. Marie would endure many
hardships on the expedition to establish a fur trading post at the
mouth of the Columbia River.
1811-1812 The Scott expedition to the South Pole
culminated in tragedy.
(WSJ, 2/10/95), p.A-7)
1811-1812 In Mexico during the war for
independence the crime rate rose to double digits for two years in a
(SFEC, 1/26/97, p.A14)
1811-1816 The Luddite bands of workman destroyed
manufacturing machinery in England under the belief that their use
diminished employment. They were named after Ned Ludd, the 18th
cent. Leicestershire worker who originated the idea. Opponents of
technology harken back to the English weavers who broke textile
machinery, apparently at the urging of their leader, Ned Ludd. [see
May 3, 1811]
(WUD, 1994, p.852)(WSJ, 4/12/96, p.B-1)
1811-1843 Some 500,000 slaves arrived at Valongo,
Brazils main landing stage for African slaves. This port area of
Rio de Janeiro was re-discovered in 2010 as the city prepared for
the 2016 Olympics.
(Econ, 1/28/12, p.35)
1811-1857 Jacob Whitman Bailey, teacher of
chemistry, mineralogy and geology at West Point. He was a pioneer of
American science and is noted for his microscopical studies.
1811-1882 Louis Blanc, French utopian socialist,
proposed the social ideal of "from each according to his ability, to
each according to his needs." The nineteenth-century writer and
thinker had a profound influence on radical thought.
1811-1881 Prof. Ferdinand Neselman of Koenigsburg
Univ. first referred to the Aistians as the Balts in his book "The
Language of the Prussians According to its Surviving Fragments."
(DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)
1811-1882 Henry James, US philosopher and author.
He was the father of William and Henry.
(WUD, 1994, p.762)
1811-1884 Wendell Phillips, American
abolitionist: "Responsibility educates."
1812 Jan 23, A 2nd major
earthquake shook New Madrid, Missouri.
(NH, 3/1/04, p.67)
1812 Feb 5, Franz Schneider
(74), composer, died.
1812 Feb 7, A 3rd major
earthquake shook New Madrid, Missouri, and for a few hours reversed
the course of the Mississippi River. [see Dec 15-16, 1811, Jan 23,
(NH, 3/1/04, p.67)
1812 Feb 7, Charles Dickens,
English novelist, was born in Portsmouth, England. His stories
reflected life in Victorian England. In his novel "Dombey &
Son," Dickens confronted the subject of money, and its use as a
measure of success. His work also included "Master Humphreys
Clock," published in installments like most of his novels. The
closing line of A Christmas Carol: "And so, as Tiny Tim observed,
God Bless Us, Every One!" Some of his more famous novels include
"Oliver Twist" and "A Tale of Two Cities."
(SFC, 6/17/97, p.E3)(AP, 2/7/97)(HN, 2/7/99)
1812 Feb 7, Lord Byron made his
maiden speech in House of Lords.
1812 Feb 9, Franz Anton
Hoffmeister (57), composer, died.
1812 Feb 11, Alexander Hamilton
Stephens (d.1883), Vice Pres (Confederacy), was born near
Crawfordville, Georgia. Stephens, who served in the U.S. House of
Representatives from 1843 to 1859, was a delegate at the Montgomery
meeting that formed a new union of the seceded states. He was
elected vice president to Jefferson Davis on February 9, 1861.
Stephens was later elected governor of Georgia in 1882 but died
after serving just a few months.
(HNQ, 5/24/98)(MC, 2/11/02)
1812 Feb 11, Massachusetts Gov.
Elbridge Gerry signed a re-districting law that favored his
party, giving rise to the term "gerrymandering." His district was
shaped like a salamander.
(AP, 2/11/97)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.20)
1812 Feb 16, Henry Wilson, 18th
U.S. Vice President (Grant 1873-1875), was born.
1812 Mar 6, Aaron Lufkin
Dennison, father of American watch making, was born.
1812 Mar 9, Swedish Pomerania
was seized by Napoleon.
1812 Mar 11, Citizenship was
granted to Prussian Jews.
1812 Mar 14, The US Congress
authorized war bonds to finance War of 1812.
1812 Mar 19, Spanish Cortes
passed a liberal constitution under a hereditary monarch.
1812 Mar 25, (OS) Alexander
Herzen (d.1870), Russian author, was born. "Life has taught me to
think, but thinking has not taught me how to live."
1812 Mar 26, Earthquake
destroyed 90% of Caracas; about 20,000 died.
(SS, 3/26/02)(PCh, 1992, p.376)
1812 Apr 4, The territory of
Orleans became the 18th state and later became known as Louisiana.
1812 Apr 15,
Pierre-Etienne-Theodore Rousseau, painter, was born.
1812 Apr 20, George Clinton
(73), the 4th vice president of the United States, died in
Washington, becoming the first vice president to die while in
1812 Apr 26, Alfred Krupp,
German arms merchant, was born.
1812 Apr 27, Friedrich von
Flotow, composer (Martha), was born.
1812 Apr 30, Louisiana became
the 18th state.
(AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)
1812 May 7, Poet Robert
Browning was born in London. His works include "The Piper of
Hamelin" and "The Ring and the Book."
(AP, 5/7/97)(HN, 5/7/99)
1812 May 11, The Waltz was
introduced into English ballrooms. Most observers considered it
disgusting and immoral.
1812 May 11, British PM Spencer
Perceval was shot by a bankrupt banker in the lobby of the House of
Commons. Lord Liverpool (1770-1828) was asked to serve as PM of
Britain and he served until 1827.
(HN, 5/11/99)(WSJ, 2/9/05,
1812 May 13, Johann Matthias
Sperger (62), composer, died.
1812 May 25, A series of coal
mine explosions took place around the Felling Colliery in
Durhamshire, England. 92 miners were killed. This prompted local
clergymen to organize the Society for Preventing Accidents in Coal
(ON, 12/01, p.6)
1812 May, William Moorcroft,
East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India,
departed for Tibet in search of horses to improve his stock.
(ON, 1/02, p.3)
1812 Jun 4, The Louisiana
Territory was renamed the Missouri Territory.
1812 Jun 18, The War of 1812
began as the United States declared war against Great Britain and
Ireland. The term "war hawk" was first used by John Randolph in
reference to those Republicans who were pro-war in the years leading
up to the War of 1812. These new types of Republicans, who espoused
nationalism and expansionism, included Henry Clay and John C.
Calhoun. Most of them came from the agrarian areas of the South and
West. In 2004 Walter R. Borneman authored 1812: The War That Forged
(AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/18/98)(HNQ, 5/13/99)(WSJ,
1812 Jun 18, Ivan Goncharov,
Russian novelist of the Russian realism school of thought, was born.
He is best known for his book "Oblomov."
1812 Jun 22, A pro-war mob
destroyed Hanson's newspaper office, four days after Americas
declaration of war against Great Britain. Revered American
Revolutionary cavalry hero Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee was nearly
beaten to death by a mob in Baltimore. Lee came to the aide of an
anti-war newspaper publisher in Baltimore, Alexander Contee Hanson,
defending his right to freedom of speech. When Hanson returned to
Baltimore five weeks later to resume publication, his office was
again besieged by vigilantes. After a tense standoff through the
night of July 27, Hanson and his supporters, including Lee, were
taken to a local jail. Later the mob stormed the jail, severely
beating those being held. Lee, father of Robert E. Lee, never fully
recovered from injuries sustained in the beating and died in 1818.
1812 Jun 23, The church at
Mission San Juan Bautista in California was dedicated.
(SJSVB, 6/24/96, p.41)
1812 Jun 24, Napoleon crossed
the Nieman River [in Lithuania] and invaded Russia. The French army
under Napoleon crossed the Nemunas River near Kaunas. Prior to his
march into Russia, Napoleon had taken land from Russia and returned
it to Polish control in Warsaw. This assured him safe passage
through Poland and Lithuania on his way to Russia. In 1824 the book
History of the Expedition to Russia, Undertaken by the Emperor
Napoleon in the Year 1812 by Count de Segur, a general in
Napoleons army, was first published. An English translation edited
by Gerard Shelley was published in 1928.
(HN, 6/24/98)(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)(H of L, 1931,
1812 Jun 30, William Moorcroft,
East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived
in Tibet. He found no horses to improve his stock but learned of
(ON, 1/02, p.3)
1812 Jul 12, United States
forces led by General William Hull entered Canada during the War of
1812 against Britain. However, Hull retreated shortly thereafter to
Detroit. Madison had called for 50,000 volunteers to invade Canada
but only 5,000 signed up.
(AP, 7/12/99)(ON, 9/02, p.2)
1812 Jul 18, Great Britain
signed the Treaty of Orebro, making peace with Russia and Sweden.
1812 Jul 22, English troops
under the Duke of Wellington defeated the French at the Battle of
Salamanca in Spain.
(AP, 7/22/97)(HN, 7/22/98)
1812 Jul, British troops under
the Duke of Wellington pillaged the Spanish town of Badajos. This
prompted Wellington to call his troops "the scum of the earth."
(WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)
1812 Aug 12, British commander
the Duke of Wellington occupied Madrid, Spain, forcing out Joseph
1812 Aug 16, American General
William Hull surrendered Detroit without resistance to a smaller
British and Indian forces under General Isaac Brock.
(AP, 8/16/97)(HN, 8/16/98)
1812 Aug 17, Napoleon
Bonapartes army defeated the Russians at the Battle of Smolensk
during the Russian retreat to Moscow.
1812 Aug 18, Returning from a
cruise into Canadian waters Captain Isaac Hull's USS Constitution of
the fledgling U.S. Navy encountered British Captain Richard Dacre's
HMS Guerriere about 750 miles out of Boston. After a frenzied
55-minute battle that left 101 dead, Guerriere rolled helplessly in
the water, smashed beyond salvage. Dacre struck his colors and
surrendered to Hull's boarding party. In contrast, Constitution
suffered little damage and only 14 casualties. The fight's outcome
shocked the British Admiralty while it heartened America through the
dark days of the War of 1812. [see Aug 19]
1812 Aug 19, The USS
Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, got its name when it
defeated the British warship Guerriere off Nova Scotia in a slugfest
of broadsides, when cannonballs were said to have bounced off her
sides. The USS Constitution won more than 30 battles against the
Barbary pirates off Africas coast in the War of 1812. [see Aug 18]
(SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.14)(AP, 8/19/97)
1812 Aug 20, Czar Alexander
gave Gen. Mikhail Ilarionovich Kutuzov (1745-1813) command of the
1812 Sep 7, On the road to
Moscow, Napoleon won a costly victory over the Russians under
Kutuzov at Borodino. This was the greatest mass slaughter in the
history of warfare until the Battle of the Somme in 1916. In 2004
Adam Zamoyski authored Napoleons Fatal March on Moscow.
(HN, 9/7/98)(Econ, 4/17/04, p.81)
1812 Sep 12, Richard March Hoe
was born in NYC. He built the first successful rotary printing
1812 Sep 14, The Russian army
left Moscow. Napoleon's invasion of Russia reached its climax as his
Grande Armee entered Moscow, only to find the enemy capital deserted
and burning, set afire by the few Russians who remained. The fires
were extinguished by Sep 19.
1812 Sep 18, A fire in Moscow
(set by Napoleon's troops) destroyed 90% of houses and 1,000
churches. [see Sep 14]
1812 Sep, In France as
Napoleons army proceeded to invade Russia it numbered 442,000
troops. In Sept. it reached Moscow with 100,000 men. The remains of
the Grandee Armee struggled out of Russia in 1813 with 10,000 men. A
map drawn by Charles Joseph Minard plots six variables to depict the
march over time: the size of the army, its location on a
2-dimensional surface, the direction of the armys movement, and
temperatures on various days during the retreat from Moscow. In 1970
Curtis Cate published the book: "The War of the Two Emperors."
(Adv. E. Tufte, 5/18/96, p.4)(SFEC, 6/15/97, Z1
1812 Sep, William Moorcroft,
East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, was
arrested in Nepal while returning from Tibet to India. They were
released after 17 days in captivity.
(ON, 1/02, p.3)
1812 Sep-Oct, Moscow was burned
under the brief occupation by Napoleon. After the burning the
Neglinnaya River was confined to an underground pipe.
(AM, Jul/Aug 97 p.28)
1812 Oct 9, American Lieutenant
Jesse Duncan Elliot captured two British brigs, the Detroit and
Caledonia on Lake Erie in the War of 1812. Elliot set the brig
Detroit ablaze the next day in retaliation for the British capture
seven weeks earlier of the city of Detroit.
1812 Oct 13, At the Battle of
Queenston Heights, a Canadian and British army defeated the
Americans who had tried to invade Canada. This was the 1st major
land battle in the War of 1812.
(HN, 10/13/98)(HNQ, 1/31/02)
1812 Oct 13, Isaac Brock,
English general (conquered Detroit), died in battle.
1812 Oct 18, The Russian army
attacked French forces on the outskirts of Moscow. Some 2,500-3,000
French soldiers were killed.
(ON, 10/2010, p.11)
1812 Oct 19, French forces
under Napoleon Bonaparte began their retreat from Moscow.
(AP, 10/19/97)(HN, 10/19/98)
1812 Oct 22, The Duke of
Wellington abandoned his 1st siege of Burgos, Spain.
1812 Oct 23, There was a failed
coup against emperor Napoleon.
1812 Oct 25, The U.S. frigate
United States captured the British vessel Macedonian during the War
1812 Nov 9, Paul Abadie, French
master builder (renovated Notre Dame), was born.
1812 Nov 14, As Napoleon
Bonaparte's army retreated form Moscow, temperatures dropped to 20
degrees below zero. Michel Ney defended the Napoleons rear during
the retreat from Moscow and was called by Napoleon "The bravest of
the brave." He rejoined Napoleon during the Hundred Days and the
Waterloo campaign. After Napoleons defeat, he was found guilty of
treason and shot. It was later suggested that many soldiers died
because their tin coat buttons deteriorated in the extreme cold.
(HN, 11/14/99)(HNQ, 9/21/00)(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.M2)
1812 Nov 26, Napoleon
Bonaparte's army began crossing the Beresina River over two hastily
1812 Nov 27, One of the two
bridges being used by Napoleon Bonaparte's army across the Beresina
River in Russia collapsed during a Russian artillery barrage.
1812 Nov 29, The last elements
of Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Armee retreated across the Beresina
River in Russia. Tens of thousands of French troops and civilians
perished when the Russians attacked Napoleon's army as it crossed
the Berezina River in Belarus on the punishing retreat from Moscow.
The following Spring it was recorded that 32,000 bodies were rounded
up and burned on the river banks near Studianka.
1812 Dec 2, James Madison was
re-elected president of US; Elbridge Gerry was vice-pres.
1812 Dec 4, Peter Gaillard of
Lancaster, Pa., patented a horse-drawn mower.
1812 Dec 6, The majority of
Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Armeé staggered into Vilnius, Lithuania,
ending the failed Russian campaign. An estimated 50,000 soldiers
reached Lithuania and as many as 20,000 died there. As many as
450,000 soldiers from France, Italy, Spain, Croatia, Germany and at
least 15 other countries died in the Russian campaign.
(HN, 12/6/99)(Arch, 9/02, p.41)
1812 Dec 8, In California the
Great Stone Church at Mission San Juan Capistrano crashed down after
an earthquake just 6 years after being completed. Forty worshippers
were killed. Half of the church under the work of architect Isidro
Aguilar (d.1803) remained standing.
(HT, 3/97, p.60)
1812 Dec 13, The last remnants
of Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Armeé reached the safety of Kovno,
Poland, after the failed Russian campaign.
1812 Dec, 14, The last French
units of Napoleons Grand Armeé crossed the Nieman River of
Lithuania, leaving Russia.
1812 Dec 18, Napoleon Bonaparte
arrived in Paris after his disastrous campaign in Russia.
1812 Dec 20, Achille Peri,
composer, was born.
1812 Dec 20, Sacagawea,
Shoshone interpreter for Lewis & Clark, died.
1812 Dec 23, Samuel Smiles
(d.1904), doctor and writer, was born in Scotland. He later
authored Self-Help 1859), a classic work on self-improvement.
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.86)
1812 Dec 24, Joel Barlow, aged
58, American poet and lawyer, died from exposure near Vilna, Poland
[Lithuania], during Napoleon's retreat from Moscow. Barlow was on a
diplomatic mission to the emperor for President Madison.
1812 Dec, Michael Faraday began
working for Sir Humphrey Davy at the British Royal Society.
(ON, 10/03, p.11)
1812 Jacques-Louis David,
French artist, painted a portrait of Napoleon as a working ruler.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.126)
Palliere, French painter, created his work Ulysses and Telemachus
Massacre Penelopes Suitors.
(WSJ, 12/28/05, p.D8)
1812 Pierre-Paul Prudhon
(1758-1823), French artist, painted "Venus and Adonis."
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)
1812 Georges Cuvier, French
anatomist, published his 4 volume work "Recherches sur les ossemens
fossiles" (Research on Fossil Bones).
(NH, 8/96, p.18)
1812 Nicodemus Havens authored
his Wonderful Vision of the City of New York, wherein he was
presented with a view of the Situation of the World, after the
dreadful Fourth of June, 1812, and showing what part of New York is
to be destroyed.
(http://tinyurl.com/4n6ycb)(WSJ, 10/3/08, p.A19)
1912 Louisa dAndelot du Pont
Copeland spearheaded the founding of the Delaware Art Museum.
(WSJ, 7/10/00, p.A32)
1812 Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
published their first collection of "Folk Tales for Children and the
Home." It included "The Frog King, or Iron Henry."
(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.10)
1812 The 1st American recipe
for tomato ketchup was published.
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)
1812 Madison proposed to France
and England that if one would stop attacking American commerce at
sea, then the US would break off commercial relations with the
other. Napoleon quickly accepted Madisons terms and under
congressional pressure Madison declared war on England. He did not
know that 24 hours prior to the declaration, England had voted to
stop its abuses on American shipping.
(A&IP, ESM, p.33)
1812 Mackinaw Island, Michigan,
was recaptured by the British.
(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.C5)
1812 The Cherokee Indians sided
with the United States in the War of 1812.
(NG, 5/95, p.78)
1812 Gen. "Mad" Anthony Wayne
established Fort Wayne, Indiana. He got his nickname because he was
crazy enough to join his troops on the front lines.
(WSJ, 2/6/04, p.A10)
1812 Maine separated from the
state of Massachusetts.
(WSJ, 8/6/99, p.W12)
1812 The 1st New England cotton
mill was erected in Fall River, Mass.
1912 Du Pont was forced to give
up a big piece of its explosives business due to government trust
busting but kept its military line and became the chief supplier to
the Allies in WW I. The Hagley Museum and Library in Wilmington
tracked the business history of the du Ponts.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)(WSJ, 2/25/99, p.A1)
1812 The small Bank of America
was founded in NYC.
(SFC, 4/14/98, p.B1)
1812 Aaron Benedict started a
button-making business in Waterbury, Conn. The name was changed to
Benedict & Burnham in 1834, and to Benedict & Burnham
Manufacturing in 1843.
(SFC, 3/19/97, z1 p.3)
1812 The steamboat New Orleans
was built in Pittsburgh and steamed to New Orleans but lacked
sufficient power to return upstream.
(ON, 7/02, p.9)
1812 Mason Weems made his
sermon concerning gambling: "O gamblers!... You are engaged in the
most horrible warfare that rational beings can ever undertake. A
warfare most unnatural; even against the best and noblest part of
your natureyour social affections and sympathies with your kind.
(WSJ, 8/14/98, p.W11)
1812 Mary Anning of Lyme Regis
in Dorcetshire, England, excavated a 17-foot-long skeleton and sold
it to Henry Hoste Henley, Lord of the Manor of Colway for £23. The
fossil was later named Icthyosaurus.
(ON, 3/01, p.5)
1812 Russia acquired
Bessarabia, the north eastern part of the original principality of
Moldavia, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1806-1812).
1812 Dec, Vilnius, Lithuania,
was recaptured by Russian forces.
1812 Swiss explorer Jean Louis
Burckhardt rediscovered the ancient city of Petra in present-day
1812-1840 Carl Ludvig Engel, a Prussian architect,
redesigned and rebuilt Helsinki as the capital of the Grand Duchy of
(SFEM, 8/8/99, p.44)
1812-1841 Russian fur traders established the
settlement of Fort Ross in northern California.
1812-1888 May 12, Edward Lear, English author of
nonsense verse is born.
(HFA, 96, p.30)(AHD, p.744)
1813 Jan 2, In Vilnius,
Lithuania, Russian Army head M. Kutuzov announced the end of war in
1813 Jan 4, Isaac Pitman
(d.1897), inventor (stenographic shorthand), was born in Britain.
(MC, 1/4/02)(WSJ, 8/20/04, p.A1)
1813 Jan 11, The 1st pineapples
were planted in Hawaii (or 1/21).
1813 Jan 18, Joseph Farwell
Glidden, inventor of barbed wire, was born.
(HN, 1/18/99)(MC, 1/18/02)
1813 Jan 22, During the War of
1812, British forces under Henry Proctor along with Indian allies
under Tecumseh defeated a U.S. contingent planning an attack on Fort
(HN, 1/22/99)(AM, 7/00, p.19)
1813 Jan 22, A combined British
and Indian force attacked an American militia retreating from
Detroit near Frenchtown, later known as Monroe, Mich. Only 33 men of
some 700 men escaped the battle of the River Raisin. Over 400
Kentucky frontiersmen were killed.
1813 Jan 24, Theodore Sedgwick
(b.1746), arch-Federalist and former Massachusetts Senator
(1796-1799), died. In 2007 John Sedgwick authored In My Blood: Six
Generations of Madness and Desire in an American Family.
1813 Jan 29, Jane Austin
published "Pride and Prejudice," a blend of instruction and moral
1813 Feb 18, Czar Alexander
entered Warsaw at the head of his Army.
1813 Feb 24, Off Guiana, the
American sloop Hornet under Master Commandant James Lawrence sank
the British sloop Peacock.
(HN, 2/24/98)(ON, 10/99, p.12)
1813 Feb 26, Robert R.
Livingston (66), US diplomat (Declaration of Independence), died in
Clermont, NY. He had helped Robert Fulton develop the "North River
Steam Boat" (1807).
1813 Feb 27, The 1st federal
vaccination legislation was enacted.
1813 Feb 28, Russia and
Prussia formed the Kalisz union against Napoleon.
1813 Mar 3, Office of Surgeon
General of the US army was established.
1813 Mar 4, The Russians
fighting against Napoleon reached Berlin. The French garrison
evacuated the city without a fight.
1813 Mar 8, The 1st concert of
1813 Mar 15, John Snow
(d.1858), obstetrician, was born in York, England. He worked on the
epidemiology of cholera.
1813 Mar 19, David Livingston,
explorer found by Stanley in Africa, was born in Scotland.
1813 Mar 21, James Jesse
Strang, King of Mormons on Beaver Is, MI. (1850-56), was born.
1813 Mar 25, The first U.S.
flag flown in battle was on the frigate Essex in the Pacific.
1813 Mar 27, Nathaniel Currier,
lithographer for Currier and Ives, was born.
1813 Apr 10, Joseph-Louis
Lagrange (b.1736), Italian-born mathematician, died in Paris. He is
considered to be the greatest mathematician of the eighteenth
1813 Apr 14, Junius S. Morgan,
US merchant, philanthropist (Metro Museum of Art), was born.
1813 Apr 14, Joachim Nicolas
Eggert (34), composer, died.
1813 Apr 15, U.S. troops under
James Wilkinson sieged the Spanish-held city of Mobile in future
state of Alabama.
1813 Apr 19, Benjamin Rush
(67), physician, revolutionary (signed Declaration of Independence),
1813 Apr 23, Stephen Douglas
(d.1861), the "Little Giant," was born. He debated Abraham Lincoln
for a seat on the U.S. Senate and later lost to Lincoln for the
presidency of the United States. He argued that the Declaration of
Independence did not mean to include blacks.
(WSJ,2/12/97, p.A16)(HN, 4/23/99)
1813 Apr 27, Americans forces
under Gen. Zebulon M. Pike (34) captured York (present day Toronto),
the seat of government in Ontario; Pike was killed.
(HN, 4/27/99)(MC, 4/27/02)
1813 Apr 28, Russian Gen.
Mikhail Ilarionovich Kutuzov (b.1745) died. (April 16 Old Style)
Kutuzov forced the French army to leave Russia along the path it had
devastated when it entered the country.
1813 Apr 29, Rubber was
1813 Apr, Captain David Porter
of the U.S. Navy sailed the USS Essex into the Galapagos Archipelago
after a six month journey around Cape Horn, eager to find a way to
help his country in their powder-keg relations with Great Britain.
Capt. Porter made his first landfall at a place called Post Office
Bay, on Charles Island, and raided the barrel there that served as
the informal but effective communications link between whaling ships
and the outside world. The primitive post box, a barrel system of
drop-off and pick-up, had been established some 20 years earlier,
but its efficiency had become well-known. Inside of half a year,
Capt. Porter and the Essex had captured 12 British whalers and
devastated the whale British industry in the Pacific, forcing a
reallocation of Royal Navy ships to a distant region far from the
"home front" in North America.
1813 May 2, Napoleon defeated a
Russian and Prussian army at Grossgorschen. During the Napoleonic
Wars a British naval officer proposed the use of saturation bombing
and chemical warfare.
1813 May 5, Soren Kierkegaard
(d.1855), Danish philosopher and theologian, was born. He founded
Existentialism and believed that man's relation to God must be an
agonizing experience. "Truth is not introduced into the individual
from without, but was within him all the time." His books included
the philosophical novel "Diary of a Seducer."
(WUD, 1994, p.786)(AP, 10/23/97)(SFC, 9/4/98,
1813 May 9, U.S. troops under
William Henry Harrison rescued Fort Meigs from British and Canadian
1813 May 10, Montgomery Blair,
lawyer in the Dred Scot case, was born in Franklin County, Ky. The
case decided the limits of slavery.
(HN, 5/10/99)(MC, 5/10/02)
1813 May 22, Richard Wagner,
German composer, conductor and writer, was born in Leipzig, Germany.
He composed "The Flying Dutchman."
(AP, 5/22/97)(HN, 5/22/99)
1813 May 27, Americans captured
Fort George, Canada.
1813 Jun 1, The U.S. Navy
gained its motto as the mortally wounded commander of the U.S.
frigate "Chesapeake", Captain James Lawrence (b.1871) was heard to
say, "Dont give up the ship!", during a losing battle with a
British frigate "Shannon"; his ship was captured by the British
(DTnet, 6/1/97)(AP, 6/1/98)(ON, 10/99, p.12)
1813 Jun 5, Captain James
Lawrence died from his wounds as the Shannon towed the Chesapeake to
Halifax. Lawrence was buried with honors on Jun 8 and his remains
were later sent to NYC for burial in Trinity churchyard.
(ON, 10/99, p.12)
1813 Jun 6, The U.S. invasion
of Canada was halted at Stoney Creek, Ontario.
1813 Jun 8, David D. Porter,
Union Admiral, was born.
1813 Jun 21, The Peninsular War
ended. It began on February 16, 1808, when Napoleon ordered a large
French force into Spain under the pretext of sending reinforcements
to the French army occupying Portugal.
1813 Jun 24, Henry Ward Beecher
(d.1887), American clergyman and brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe,
was born. "Even a liar tells a hundred truths to one lie; he has to,
to make the lie good for anything."
(AP, 5/2/97)(HN, 6/24/01)
1813 Jun 26, Metternich met
with Napoleon at Dresden and informed him that he must sue for peace
if he wanted continued Austrian support.
(ON, 5/04, p.3)
1813 Jul 15, Napoleon
Bonapartes representatives met with the Allies in Prague to discuss
1813 Jul 31, British invaded
1813 Aug 9, After reports that
British naval vessels were nearing St. Michaels, Md., to attack the
shipbuilding town that night, the county militia placed lanterns on
the tops of the tallest trees and on the masts of vessels in the
harbor; and had all other lights extinguished. When the British
attacked, they directed their fire too high and overshot the town.
1813 Aug 10, A number of
British barges manned by marines shelled the town of St. Michaels,
Md., on the Chesapeake Bay. Residents had hoisted lanterns to
treetops and masts and caused the British canons to overshoot their
mark. One house was hit by a cannonball on the roof and the ball
rolled across the attic and down the staircase frightening Mrs.
Merchant as she carried her infant daughter downstairs.
1813 Aug 14, British warship
Pelican attacked and captured US war brigantine Argus.
1813 Aug 23, At the Battle of
Grossbeeren Prussians under Von Bulow repulsed the French.
1813 Aug 23, Alexander Wilson
(b.1766), Scottish-born poet and naturalist, died in Philadelphia.
He had completed 7 volumes of American Ornithology and was working
on a 8th volume when he died.
1813 Aug 27, The Allies
defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Dresden.
1813 Aug 30, Creek Indians
massacred over 500 whites at Fort Mims Alabama.
1813 Sep 7, The earliest known
printed reference to the United States by the nickname "Uncle Sam"
occurred in the Troy Post. [see Oct, 1814]
1813 Sep 10, The nine-ship
American flotilla under Oliver Hazard Perry wrested naval supremacy
from the British on Lake Erie by capturing or destroying a force of
six English vessels in the War of 1812. With Commodore Oliver Hazard
Perrys flagship unable to fight, an outmatched British flotilla
faced the prospect of a remarkable victory. But Perry only
transferred his pennant to another ship and fought on. American
Captain Oliver Hazard Perry led his home-built 10-vessel fleet to
victory against a six-vessel British squadron commanded by Captain
Robert H. Barclay in the Battle of Lake Erie. Perrys triumph,
marked by his legendary message to General William Henry Harrison,
"We have met the enemy and they are ours," was of great strategic
value for the United States because it ensured American control of
the Northwest Territory. During the battle, Perry left his badly
damaged Lawrence and transferred his motto flag, reading, "Dont
Give Up the Ship," to Niagara. From there he continued the fight.
(AP, 9/10/97)(HN, 9/10/98)(HNPD, 9/10/98)
1813 Sep 13, John Sedgwick
(d.1864), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1813 Sep 24,
Andre-Ernest-Modeste Gretry, composer, died at 72.
1813 Oct 5, The Battle of
Moraviantown was decisive in the War of 1812. Known as the Battle of
the Thames in the United States, the U.S. victory over British and
Indian forces near Ontario at the village of Moraviantown on the
Thames River is know in Canada as the Battle of Moraviantown. Some
600 British regulars and 1,000 Indian allies under English General
and Shawnee leader Tecumseh were greatly outnumbered and quickly
defeated by U.S. forces under the command of Maj. Gen. William Henry
Harrison. Tecumseh (45) was killed in this battle.
(HN, 10/5/98)(PC, 1992 ed, p.378)
1813 Oct 9, Giuseppe Verdi,
Italian composer (Traviata, Rigoletto, Aida), was born. [see Oct 10]
1813 Oct 10, Composer Giuseppe
Verdi was born in Le Roncole, Italy. [see Oct 9]
(HFA, 96, p.40)(AP, 10/10/97)(HN, 10/10/98)
1813 Oct 16-1813, Oct 19, In
the Battle at Leipzig (aka Battle of the Nations) Napoleon faced
Prussia, Austria and Russia and suffered one of his worst defeats.
(DoW, 1999, p.325)
1813 Oct 17, Georg Buchner,
German playwright (Danton's Death, Woyzeck), was born.
1813 Oct 18, The Allies
defeated Napoleon Bonaparte at Leipzig.
1813 Oct 26, Canadian militia
defeated American forces at the Battle of Chateauguay.
1813 Oct 29, The Demologos, the
first steam-powered warship, was launched in New York City.
1813 Nov 2, Treaty of
Fulda. After the Battle of Leipzig (Oct 16-19) King Frederick I of
Württemberg (1754-1816) deserted Napoleons waning fortunes. By a
treaty made with Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar von Metternich
(1773-1858) at Fulda, Hessen, Germany he secured the confirmation of
his royal title and of his recent acquisitions of territory, while
his troops marched with those of the allies into France.
(DoW, 1999, p.325)
1813 Nov 3, American troops
destroy the Indian village of Tallushatchee in the Mississippi
Valley. US troops under Gen Coffee destroyed an Indian village at
(HN, 11/3/99)(MC, 11/3/01)
1813 Nov 6, Chilpancingo
congress declared Mexico independent of Spain.
1813 Nov 12, J. H. St. John de
Crevecouer, French explorer and writer, died. He had spent more than
half of his life in the New World and contributed two important
concepts to the American consciousness. The first is the idea of the
"American Adam," that there is something different, unique, special,
or new about these people called "Americans." The second idea is
that of the "melting pot," that people's "American-ness" transcends
their ethnic, cultural, or religious backgrounds.
1813 Nov 16, The British
announced a blockade of Long Island Sound, leaving only the New
England coast open to shipping.
1813 Nov 29, Giambattista
Bodoni (73), Italian stamp cutter, publisher, and type font designer
1813 Dec 8, Ludwig van
Beethoven's 7th Symphony in A, premiered.
1813 Dec 10, Zachariah
Chandler, US merchant and politician, was born. He founded the
1813 Dec 19, British forces
captured Fort Niagara during the War of 1812.
1813 Dec 20, Dr. Samuel Mudd,
doctor who helped Lincoln assassin John Wilkes Booth, was born. [2nd
ref. says 1833]
(HN, 12/20/98)(MC, 12/20/01)
1813 Dec 30, The British burned
Buffalo, N.Y., during the War of 1812.
1813 Dec 31, Some 83,000
Prussian and Russian soldiers pursued Napoleon across the Rhine at
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)
1813 Raphaelle Peale, son of
Charles Willson, painted his still life "Black-berries."
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E1)
1813 The Rossini opera
"LItaliana in Algeri" had its premier in Venice. [see 1808]
(SFC, 7/12/97, p.E1)
1813 In New Mexico El Santuario
del Senor de Esquipulas was built. It is a tiny chapel near the
village of Chimayo, and one of the 6 adobe missions scattered along
the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos
and Santa Fe. Rumor has it that Don Bernardo Abeyta, a Catholic
penitent from Santa Cruz, found a buried crucifix here in 1810 while
on a pilgrimage. Native Americans called this valley Tsimayo-pokwi
and believed it to be holy ground.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)
1813 The US federal government
was almost broke from the war with Britain but was able to get
Stephen Girard, wealthy ship owner and banker, to help finance the
war effort. Congress quickly moved to charter the Second Bank of the
(WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)
1813 Immigrants John Jacob
Astor, David Parish, Alexander Dallas and Stephen Girard stepped in
to provide over $9 million to finance the US War of 1812.
1813 Laws banning the carrying
of concealed weapons were passed in Kentucky and Louisiana.
1813 A new 45 carat blue
diamond emerged in France. It was guessed to have been cut from the
112 carat Blue Diamond of the crown jewels. The 112 carot stone was
recut in 1673 to 67 carats.
(THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)
1813 John (Cameron) Gilroy of
Scotland sailed from England on the Isaac Todd to Monterey, Ca.,
where he was dropped off to recover from scurvy.
(SFC, 11/29/97, p.A14)
1813 A troop ship returning
from the War of 1812 was blown ashore at Cape Pine on Newfoundlands
Avalon Peninsula. All 350 passengers died.
(SFEC, 9/29/96, p.T-6)
1813 Andrew Jackson received a
bullet wound that shattered his left shoulder. The bullet was not
removed until 1832 and was later suspected of causing lead
(SFC, 8/11/99, p.A2)
1813 Zebulon Montgomery Pike,
the American explorer who has a Colorado mountain named for him,
died leading an attack that captured York, now known as Toronto, in
the War of 1812. Pike, born in New Jersey in 1779, sighted in 1806
but did not climb the mountain that would later be named Pikes Peak
in the Colorado Rockies. Pike led two expeditions from 1805 to 1807,
one in the upper Mississippi region of the Louisiana Purchase and
the second in what is now New Mexico and Colorado. As a brigadier
general, Pike was killed, when a powder magazine exploded as he led
the assault on York, then capital of upper Canada. Some 320
Americans were killed or wounded in the explosion.
1813 In Australia explorers
Gregory Blaxland, William Wentworth and William Lawson blazed the
first trail from Sidney across the Blue Mountains to the fertile
(Hem., 1/97, p.53)
1813 Bennelong (49), an
Australian Aborigine, died. He was one of the first Aborigines to
live among white settlers after the landing of the First Fleet in
1788, when he was kidnapped and employed as a cultural interlocutor
by the British. Bennelong had adapted to the European way of life,
teaching the colonizers about Aboriginal customs and language and
learning to speak English, but ultimately became an alcoholic.
1813 Georg Heinrich von
Langsdorff was nominated consul general of Russia in Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. He acquired a farm (named "Mandioca", or manioc) in the
north of Rio and collected plants, animals and minerals. He hosted
and entertained foreign naturalists and scientists, and explored the
flora, fauna and geography of the province of Minas Gerais with
French naturalist Augustin Saint-Hilaire from 1813 to 1820.
1813 Thomas De La Rue
(1793-1866) launched a newspaper in Guernsey. He moved to London in
1821 and established a printing firm. It grew to become the worlds
largest commercial banknote printer.
1813 The British government
removed the British East India Companys monopoly of trade with
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)
1813 William Charles Wells
presented a paper to the Royal Society in which he introduced the
idea of natural selection to explain why people might vary in skin
color in different climates.
(Econ, 2/7/09, p.73)
1813 In Canada American
militiamen burned down the town of Niagara-on-the Lake.
(WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A9)
1813 The Tokujo-maru, a
Japanese ship with a cargo of rice for Edo, was blown off course.
Three surviving crew members were picked up 18 months later by a
British ship off the coast of California.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.64)
1813 Prussia took over Danzig.
(WSJ, 8/31/98, p.A4)
1813 The Prussians introduced
the Iron Cross during the Napoleonic wars.
(WSJ, 4/23/99, A1)
1813 The Clark family of
Paisley, Scotland, began manufacturing cotton thread. By the 1840s
members of the family moved to the US and in 1866 developed a
twisted cotton thread for sewing machines, which they named O.N.T.
(Our New Thread).
(SFC, 10/5/05, p.G3)
1813 A Swiss traveler
discovered the Great and Small Temples of Ramses II at Abu Simbel in
(NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.591)
1813-1820 The classic Vietnamese love poem "The
Tale of Kieu" was written by Nguyen Du (1766-1820). It was based on
an earlier Chinese novel entitled "The story of Kim-Van-Kieu ",
written by an author under the pen-name of "Thanh-Tam Tai-Nhan" in
the 16th or the early 17th century.
1813-1828 Russia gains control of northern
Azerbaijan due to the weak local power of the khanates.
Industrialization and oil extraction are expanded.
(Compuserve Online, Groliers Amer. Acad. Enc./
1813-1843 Robert Southey was the poet laureate of
England over this period. He was the author of "The Three Bears."
(SFEC, 2/15/98, Z1 p.8)
1813-1855 Soren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher:
"Truth is not introduced into the individual from without, but was
within him all the time." "Dont forget to love yourself."
(AP, 10/23/97)(AP, 3/5/98)
1813-1887 Ellen Wood, English playwright and
journalist: "It is not so much what we have done amiss, as what we
have left undone, that will trouble us, looking back."
1813-1891 Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, linguist,
amassed a collection of some 14,000 books on linguistics. Because
his special interest was the Finnish and Estonian languages, he
gathered extensively from the whole Baltic region. The collection
was sold in 1894 to the Newberry Library in Chicago from a London
(DrEE, 9/28/96, p.4)
1813-1901 Oct 10, Giuseppe Verdi, Italian composer
was born. Best know for his operas.
(AHD, 1971, p.1422)(HFA, 96, p.40)
1813-1908 Thomas Mellon, American empire builder
and judge, made his fortune in real-estate speculation and founded
the Mellon Bank.
(WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)
1814 Jan 2, Lord Byron
completed "The Corsair."
1814 Jan 27, Johann Gottlieb
Fichte (b.1762), German philosopher, died.
1814 Feb 9, Samuel Jones
Tilden, philanthropist, was born.
(HN, 2/9/97)(MC, 2/9/02)
1814 Feb 10, Napoleon
personally directed lightning strikes against enemy columns
advancing toward Paris, beginning with a victory over the Russians
at Champaubert. During the Napoleonic Wars a British naval officer
proposed the use of saturation bombing and chemical warfare to
undermine the strength of Emperor Napoleon.
1814 Feb 21, Nicolo Gabrielli,
composer, was born.
1814 Feb 27, Ludwig von
Beethoven's 8th Symphony in F, premiered.
1814 Feb 27, Napoleons Marshal
Nicholas Oudinot was pushed back at Barsur-Aube by the Emperors
allied enemies shortly before his abdication.
1814 Feb, A man claiming to be
an aide-de-camp to the armies fighting Napoleon landed in Dover and
claimed that Cossacks had butchered Napoleon and that Paris had
fallen. Stock prices soared and conspirators sold shares at a 15%
profit before the fraud was unmasked.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1849 Mar 3, Gold Coinage Act
authorized the $20 Double Eagle gold coin.
1849 Mar 4, The US had no
President. Polk's term ended on a Sunday and Taylor couldn't be
sworn-in; Senator David Atchison (pres pro tem) term had ended March
1814 Mar 10, Napoleon Bonaparte
was defeated by a combined Allied Army at the battle of Laon, in
1814 Mar 27, General Jackson
led U.S. soldiers who killed 700 Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend,
La. [in Northern Alabama] Jackson lost 49 men. In 2001 John Buchanon
authored "Jacksons Way" and Robert V. Remini authored "Andrew
Jackson and His Indian Wars."
(SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.4)(HN, 3/27/99)(WSJ,
1814 Mar 29, In the Battle at
Horseshoe Bend, Alabama, Andrew Jackson beat the Creek Indians. [see
1814 Mar 30, Britain and allies
marched into Paris after defeating Napoleon.
1814 Mar 31, Forces allied
against Napoleon captured Paris.
1814 Apr 2, Henry Lewis "Old
Rock" Benning, Brig General in Confederate Army, was born.
1814 Apr 4, Napoleon Bonaparte
first abdicated at Fontainebleau. He was allowed to keep the title
of emperor. [see Apr 11]
1814 Apr 11, Napoleon Bonaparte
(45) abdicated at Fontainebleau a 2nd time and was banished to the
island of Elba, a small island in the Mediterranean, retaining the
title of emperor and 400 volunteers to act as his guard. He was
granted sovereignty over Elba and a pension from the French
government. [see Apr 6]
1814 Apr 15, John Lothrop
Motley, US historian, author (Rise of Dutch Rep), was born.
1814 Apr 20, Napoleon departed
for exile in Elba.
(Econ, 4/14/07, p.94)
1814 Apr 26, King Louis XVIII
landed on Calais from England.
1814 Apr, The Duke of
Wellington led 60,000 troops against 325,000 French troops at
Toulouse and defeated them just days after Napoleon abdicated the
(WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)
1814 May 4, Napoleon Bonaparte
disembarked at Portoferraio on the island of Elba in the
1814 May 4, Bourbon reign was
restored in France. Louis XVIII was crowned as successor to his
1814 May 5, The British
attacked Ft. Ontario, Oswego, New York.
1814 May 6, Wilhelm Ernst,
violinist, composer, was born.
1814 May 6, George Joseph
Vogler (64), composer, died.
1814 May 11, Americans defeated
the British at Battle of Plattsburgh.
1814 May 12, Robert Treat Paine
(83), US judge (signed Declaration of Ind), died.
1814 May 17, Norways
constitution was signed, providing for a limited monarchy. Denmark
ceded Norway to Sweden.
(AP, 5/17/97)(HN, 5/17/98)
1814 May 29, Empress Josephine
(1804-14), first wife of Napoleon Bonaparte, died. She maintained
grand roses at Malmaison, where there were an estimated 250
(TGR, 1995, p.2)(SC, 5/29/02)
1814 May 30, The First Treaty
of Paris was declared, after Napoleon's first abdication. It
returned France to its 1792 borders and secured for the British
definite possession of the Cape of Good Hope.
(HN, 5/30/98)(HN, 5/30/99)(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)
1814 Jun 1, Philip Kearney,
Union Civil War general, was born. He was killed at the Battle of
1814 Jun 3, Nicolas Appert
(b.1749), French cook, died. He was the winner of a 12,000 franc
prize offered by Napoleon for developing a method to preserve food.
His original canning method took 14 years to develop and used glass
jars sealed with wax reinforced with wire.
(WSJ, 1/21/03, p.A1)(www.foodreference.com)
1814 Jul 5, US troops under
Gen. Jacob Brown and Gen. Winfield Scott defeated a superior British
force under Maj. Gen. Phineas Riall near the Niagara River at
Chippewa, Canada. British casualties exceeded 500 compared to some
(AH, 10/07, p.53)
1814 Jul 7, Sir Walter Scott's
(1771-1832) novel "Waverly" was published anonymously so as not to
damage his reputation as a poet.
(HN, 7/7/01)(WUD, 1994 p.1281)
1814 Jul 18, The British
captured Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.
1814 Jul 19, Samuel Colt,
inventor of the first practical revolver, was born.
1814 Jul 22, Five Indian tribes
in Ohio made peace with the United States and declared war on
1814 Jul 25, British and
American forces fought each other to a stand off at Lundy's Lane
(Niagara Falls), Canada, in some of the fiercest fighting in the War
1814 Aug 7, Pope Pius VII
reinstated the Jesuits.
1814 Aug 9, Andrew Jackson and
the Creek Indians signed the Treaty of Fort Jackson, giving the
whites 23 million acres of Mississippi Creek territory. This ended
Indian resistance in the region and opened the doors to pioneers
after the conclusion of the War of 1812.
(HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 8/13/99)
1814 Aug 10, John Clifford
Pemberton (d.1881), Lt Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
1814 Aug 13, Treaty of
London-Netherland was signed to stop the transport of slaves. By
agreement Britain paid the Dutch £6 million in compensation for the
Cape of Good Hope. [see May 30]
(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)(MC, 8/13/02)
1814 Aug 14, British marines
landed near the mouth of the Patuxent River in Maryland and began
marching overland to attack Washington, DC.
(ON, 6/08, p.1)
1814 Aug 24, 5,000 British
troops under the command of General Robert Ross marched into
Washington, D.C., after defeating an American force at Bladensburg,
Maryland. It was in retaliation for the American burning of the
parliament building in York (Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada.
Meeting no resistance from the disorganized American forces, the
British burned the White House, the Capitol and almost every public
building in the city before a downpour extinguished the fires.
President James Madison and his wife fled from the advancing enemy,
but not before Dolly Madison saved the famous Gilbert Stuart
portrait of George Washington. This wood engraving of Washington in
flames was printed in London weeks after the event to celebrate the
1814 Aug 24, The US Capitol and
White House in Washington D.C. were burned and sacked by British
General Robert Ross and Rear Admiral Sir George Cockburn. This made
Congress realize the need for quick transportation and sparked the
digging of the Chesapeake-Delaware Canal.
(NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.379)
1814 Aug 25, British forces
destroyed the Library of Congress, containing some 3,000 books.
1814 Aug, After the British
burned the White House in 1814, President James Madison lived in the
nearby Octagonso named because of its unique eight-sided
shapeuntil the end of his term.
1814 Sep 11, An American fleet
led by Thomas Macdonough scored a decisive victory over the British
in the Battle of Lake Champlain in the War of 1812.
(AP, 9/11/97)(HN, 9/11/98)
1814 Sep 12, A British fleet
under Sir Alexander Cochrane began the bombardment of Fort McHenry,
the last American defense before Baltimore. Lawyer Francis Scott Key
had approached the British attackers seeking the release of a friend
who was being held for unfriendly acts toward the British. Key
himself was detained overnight on September 13 and witnessed the
bombardment of Fort McHenry from a guarded American boat.
1814 Sep 12, The Battle of
North Point was fought near Baltimore during War of 1812. British
General Ross was killed by a snipers bullet in a skirmish just
prior to the main battle. The battle proved to be strategic American
victory, but since they left the field in the hands of the British,
tactically it was a defeat for the Americans.
1814 Sep 13, British ships
bombarded Ft. McHenry under the command of General Armistead.
Francis Scott Key watched the bombing from a detained American boat.
The British used red glaring Congreve rockets and air bursting bombs
during the war.
(NG, Sept. 1939, p.392)(SFC, 6/22/96, p.E4)
1814 Sep 14, In the dawn light
Francis Scott Key saw that the American flag still waved over Fort
McHenry in Maryland during the War of 1812. He looked on from the
deck of a boat on the Patasco River nine miles away and wrote The
Star Spangled Banner. The lyrics were alter adopted to the British
tune "To Anacreon in Heaven, which had also served as Irish
drinking song and a number of other songs. "The Star-Spangled
Banner" was officially recognized as the national anthem in 1931.
The 40 feet long flag had been made by Baltimore widow Mary Young
Pickersgill and her 13-year-old daughter just a month before the
attack. In 1907 the flag was donated to the Smithsonian.
(SFC, 7/4/97, p.A2)(AP, 9/14/97)(HN,
9/14/98)(WSJ, 7/3/02, p.B1)
1814 Sep 15, The words of the
"Star-Spangled Banner," written by Francis Scott Key following the
Sep 13 attack on Fort Henry, was printed on a handbill without the
name of Francis Scott Key and originally known as "The Defense of
1814 Sep 21, "Star Spangled
Banner" was published as a poem.
1814 Sep, Alexander I of Russia
entered Paris at the head of an anti-Napoleon coalition.
(WSJ, 6/26/96, p.A16)
1814 Sep, The Congress of
Vienna convened in late September and continued to June 8, 1815.
Friedrich von Gentz of Austria served as secretary to the Congress.
It was held after the banishment of Napoleon to Elba. The congress
aimed at territorial resettlement and restoration to power of the
crowned heads of Europe with Prince Metternich of Austria as the
dominant figure. Viscount Castlereagh and the Duke of Wellington
represented Britain. Alexander I stood for Russia. Talleyrand stood
for France. Prince von Hardenberg stood for Prussia. In 2007 Adam
Zamoyski authored Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the
Congress of Vienna. In 2008 David King authored Vienna 1814: How
the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War and Peace at the Congress
p.94)(www.bartleby.com/65/vi/Vienna-C.html)(SSFC, 4/6/08, Books p.4)
1814 Oct 3, Mikhail Yurevich
Lermontov (d.1841), Russian poet and writer (Demon), was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.822)(MC, 10/3/01)
1814 Oct 4, Jean Francois
Millet (d.1875), French painter, was born.
1814 Oct 17, Two giant porter
vats at the Horse Shoe Brewery on Londons Tottenham Court Road
burst when the securing hoops failed. The 25-foot-high vats were
owned by Sir Henry Meux and. Several lives were lost along with an
estimated 8,000-9,000 barrels of porter.
1814 Oct, The name Uncle Sam, a
nickname for the United States, was coined during the War of 1812.
Workers at Samuel Wilsons meat-packing plant in Troy, N.Y., which
supplied provisions to the U.S. Army, joked that the U.S. stamped on
the barrels bound for the troops actually stood for their boss Uncle
Sam Wilson. Army contractor Elbert Anderson, Jr. sought bids to
provide food for the 5,000 soldiers at the Greenbush Cantonment near
Troy, NY. The firm of E. & S. Wilson (Ebenezar and Samuel,
d.1854 at 87) provided many of the rations in oak casks labeled
"E.A.-U.S.," as required by the contract. A quip attributed the
casks to Elbert Anderson and his Uncle Sam. Later government
property in general became referred to as "Uncle Sams." [see Sep 7,
(Hem., 7/95, p.89)(WC, Summer 97, p.3)
1814 Nov 5, Having decided to
abandon the Niagara frontier, the American army blew up Fort Erie.
1814 Nov 6, Adolphe Sax
(d.1894), instrument maker and inventor of the saxophone, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1272)(HN, 11/6/98)
1814 Nov 7, Andrew Jackson
attacked and captured Pensacola, Florida, defeating the Spanish and
driving out a British force.
1814 Nov 13, Joseph Hooker
(d.1879), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1814 Nov 23, Elbridge Gerry
(b.1744), former Massachusetts governor (1810-1811), died in office
as vice-president of the US under Madison (1812-1814).
1814 Nov, Unable to pay in
specie [i.e. gold] as required by law, the US government offered to
pay its debt in paper. Most banks refused to accept the Treasury
notes as security and war bonds fell to 60 cents on the dollar.
(WSJ, 12/12/95, p.A-19)
1814 Dec 1, The shallow-draft
steamboat Enterprise, completed in Pittsburgh under the direction of
keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, left for New Orleans to
deliver guns and ammunition to Gen. Jackson.
(ON, 7/02, p.9)
1814 Dec 2, Marquis de Sade
(74), writer, died.
1814 Dec 13, General Andrew
Jackson announced martial law in New Orleans, Louisiana, as British
troops disembarked at Lake Borne, 40 miles east of the city.
1814 Dec 14, The steamboat
Enterprise, designed by keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve,
arrived in New Orleans with guns and ammunition for Gen. Jackson. It
was immediately commandeered for military service.
(ON, 7/02, p.9)
1814 Dec 19, Edwin McMasters
Stanton, US Secretary of War (1861-65), was born in Ohio.
1814 Dec 24, The Treaty of
Ghent between the United States and Great Britain, terminating the
War of 1812, was signed at Ghent, Belgium. The news did not reach
the United States until two weeks later (after the decisive American
victory at New Orleans). The treaty, signed by John Quincy Adams for
the US, committed the US and Britain "to use their best endeavors"
to end the Atlantic slave trade.
(AP, 12/24/97)(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)(HN,
12/24/98)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)
1814 Dec 24, Austrian Emperor
Francis I appointed Joseph Ritter von Prechtl as the first director
of the Polytechnical Institute of Vienna.
(StuAus, April 95, p.18)
1814 Mir Ali created a
full-length portrait of Persias Fath-Ali Shah (1771) shortly after
Shahs loss of a major battle against the Russians.
1814 Jacques-Louis David
created his painting Leonidas at Thermopylae.
(WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)
c1814 Pierre-Paul Prudhon
(1758-1823), French artist, drew his "Bust of a Female Figure."
(WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)
1814 ETA Hoffmans "Best Tales
of Hoffman" was published.
1814 Rossini composed his opera
"Il Turco in Italia."
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)
1814 The Avila House, a
thick-walled adobe building at 14 Olvera in Los Angeles, was built.
1814 The Monterey Customs
House was built by the Mexican government on the Monterey Peninsula
(Hem., 1/96, p.26)
1814 The 1st Odd Fellows
arrived in the US from Europe. The fraternal organization was
founded in Europe in the 18th century. [see 1819]
(SFC, 11/28/00, p.A25)
1814 Andrew Jackson called the
followers of French freebooter Jean Lafitte "hellish banditti."
Jackson later revised his opinion and asked Lafitte to aid him
against the British in the defense of New Orleans. Many of the 4,500
men behind Jacksons entrenchments at New Orleans on January 8,
1815, were followers of Lafitte.
1814 David Farragut, a ship's
boy on the frigate Essex, was captured by the British when the Essex
was defeated by the British.
(WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)
1814 Jose Dario Arguello,
Spanish-born commander of the Presidio, served as the governor of
Alta California. He was later buried at Mission Dolores.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1814 The Marquis de Sade died.
His writings included "Justine," "Juliette," and "120 Days of
Sodom." In 1999 Neal Schaeffer published "The Marquis De Sade: A
Life," and Francine du Plessix Gray published "At Home With the
Marquis De Sade: A Life."
(SFEC, 7/25/99, BR p.3)
1814 Jose Francisco de San
Martin (1778-1850) became general in chief of Argentinas Army of
the North. His primary mission was to protect Argentina against
Spanish royalists in Peru.
(ON, 10/09, p.8)
1814 In Austria rebuilding
began of the 14th century Arenberg Castle following a major fire.
(SFC, 4/20/09, p.A2)
1814 In Legazpi, Philippines,
the Mayon volcano erupted and 1,200 people were killed.
(SFC, 6/25/01, p.A9)
1814 The Kingdom of Sardinia
was united with the Kingdom of Liguria.
(WUD, 1994, p.830)
1814-1815 Sep-Jun, The Congress of Vienna was held
after the banishment of Napoleon to Elba. Prince Metternich of
Austria was the dominant figure and it aimed at territorial
resettlement and restoration to power of the crowned heads of
Europe. Viscount Castlereagh and the Duke of Wellington represented
Britain. Alexander I stood for Russia. Talleyrand stood for France.
Prince von Hardenberg stood for Prussia. In 2007 Adam Zamoyski
authored Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of
(WUD, 1994, p.310, 1677)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.94)
1814-1864 Hong Xiuquan, believed himself to be the
second son of God. In 1851 he declared himself king of China and the
world. In 1853 his Taiping army took the city of Nanjing as its
heavenly capital. He ruled there until 1864. When the Qing (Manchu)
government troops tightened their siege he died from eating what he
said was manna sent by God to alleviate his believers starvation.
His story is told by Jonathan D. Spence in Gods Chinese Son: The
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan.
(WSJ, 1/5/96, p.A-8)
1814-1876 Mikhail Bakunin was an authoritarian
(WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A10)
1814-1903 Nicolaas Beets, born Sept. 13, died Mar.
13. Dutch poet and prose writer. He was a professor of theology at
Utrecht after 1874. In 1839, while a student in Leiden, he published
under the pseudonym of Hildebrand the first version of his Camera
Obscura (completed 1854), a remarkable collection of stories and
essays filled with keen observations, insight into character, and
(CO, Amer. Her. Dic., 6/25/95)
1814-1969 In Hohenberg, Bavaria, C.M.
Hutschreuther operated a porcelain factory and inscribed his ware
with various marks. e.g. A crown over the initials CM in a shield
with 18 on one side and 14 on the other was used from 1950-1963.
(SFC, 8/14/96, z-1 p.5)
1815 Jan 5, Federalists from
all over New England, angered over the War of 1812, drew up the
Hartford Convention, demanding several important changes in the U.S.
1815 Jan 8, US forces led by
Gen. Andrew Jackson and French pirate Jean Lafitte led some 3,100
backwoodsmen to victory against 7,500 British veterans at Chalmette
in the Battle of New Orleans in the closing engagement of the War of
1812. A British army marched on New Orleans without knowing that the
War of 1812 had ended on Christmas Eve of 1814. A massacre ensued,
as 2,044 British troops, including three generals, fell dead,
wounded or missing before General Andrew Jackson's well-prepared
earthworks, compared with only 71 American casualties. Among the
British victims were Gen. Sir Edward Pakenham and the Highlanders of
the 93rd Regiment of Foot. In 2000 Robert V. Remini published "The
Battle of New Orleans."
(AP, 1/8/98)(HN, 1/8/99)(WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)(AH,
1815 Jan 11, Sir John A.
Macdonald, the first prime minister of Canada, was born in Glasgow,
1815 Jan 21, Horace Wells
(d.1845), dentist, was born. He pioneered the use of medical
anesthesia and was the 1st to use nitrous oxide as a pain killer.
(Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)(MC, 1/21/02)
1815 Jan 30, The burned Library
of Congress was reestablished with Jefferson's 6,500 volumes.
1815 Feb 3, World's 1st
commercial cheese factory was established, in Switzerland.
1815 Feb 6, The state of New
Jersey issued the first American railroad charter to John Stevens,
who proposed a rail link between Trenton and New Brunswick. The
line, however, was never built.
1815 Feb 11, News of the Treaty
of Ghent, ending the War of 1812, finally reached the United States.
1815 Feb 24, Robert Fulton
(b.1765), steamboat pioneer, died at age 49. In 2001 Kirkpatrick
Sale authored the biography: "The Fire of His Genius."
(WSJ, 9/24/01, p.A22)(MC, 2/24/02)
1815 Feb 25, Napoleon left his
exile on the Island of Elba, intending to return to France.
1815 Feb 26, Napoleon, escaped
from the Island of Elba, and 1,200 of his men started the 100-day
re-conquest of France.
(HN, 2/26/98)(AP, 2/26/98)
1815 Feb, Congress appropriated
funds for the restoration of the White House and hired James Hoban,
the original designer and builder, to do the work.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Par p.5)
1815 Mar 1, In France,
returning from Elba, Napoleon landed at Cannes with a force of 1,
500 men and marched on Paris.
1815 Mar 1, Sunday observance
in Netherlands was regulated by law.
1815 Mar 2, To put an end to
robberies by the Barbary pirates, the United States declared war on
1815 Mar 5, Friedrich (Franz)
Anton Mesmer (b.1734), German physician who pioneered the medical
field of hypnotic therapy, died in obscurity in Meersburg, Swabia
(now Germany). He was suspected of having seduced a pretty pianist
while attempting to cure her blindness through hypnosis.
(HN, 5/23/98)(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)(MC, 3/5/02)
1815 Mar 16, William I
(1772-1843), prince of Orange-Nassau, proclaimed the Netherlands a
kingdom at the urging of the powers gathered at the Congress of
Vienna. In 1813 he had proclaimed himself 'Sovereign Prince' of the
(Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)
1815 Mar 20, Napoleon Bonaparte
entered Paris, beginning his "Hundred Days" rule. He had escaped
from his imprisonment on the island of Elba off the coast of
Tuscany. He gathered his veterans and marched on Paris. At Waterloo,
Belgium, he met the Duke of Wellington, commander of the allied
anti-French forces and was resoundingly defeated. Napoleon was then
imprisoned on the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic. In
1997 Gregor Dallas published: The Final Act: The Roads to Waterloo."
the book includes a good account of the Congress of Vienna.
(AP, 3/20/97)(V.D.-H.K.p.232)(SFEC,11/2/97, Par
1815 Apr 1, Otto von Bismarck
(d.1898), German statesman, was born. He founded the German Empire
and was the chancellor of Germany, the Second Reich, from 1866-90
[1971-1990]. The Iron Chancellor created the modern social insurance
state when he introduced transfer payments to appease worker
insecurities. "History is simply a piece of paper covered with
print; the main thing is still to make history, not to write it."
"Every man had his basic worth - from which must be subtracted his
(WUD, 1994, p.151)(AP, 11/6/97)(WSJ, 4/24/98,
p.A14)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.8)(HN, 4/1/99)
1815 Apr 5, Mount Tambora on
Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, in the Java Sea began erupting. [see Apr
1815 Apr 6, At Dartmoor Prison
in southwest England 7 American prisoners were killed by British
soldiers under the command of Captain Thomas G. Shortland. Some
6,000 prisoners were awaiting return to the US. A farmers jury with
no victims or witnesses issued a verdict on April 8 of "justifiable
(AH, 10/02, p.36)
1815 Apr 10, A third of the
13,000 foot Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, was blasted
into the air. Some 50,000 islanders were killed and the whole planet
was shrouded in a debris of sulfuric droplets. In 2006 scientist
reported finding traces of Tambora society.
1815 Apr 28, Andrew Jackson
Smith (d.1897), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1815 Apr 24, Anthony Trollope
(d.1882), British novelist, was born. His 47 novels included "The
American Senator." His 33rd novel was "The Way We Live Now." "Nobody
holds a good opinion of a man who has a low opinion of himself." An
essay by Cynthia Ozick on the novel is in her 1996 book "Fame and
(WUD, 1994, p.1517)(WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-18)(AP,
10/13/97)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W17)(HN, 4/24/01)
1915 Apr, Arthur R. Smith (20)
auditioned to fly for the Panama-Pacific Expo in SF and performed 14
consecutive loop-the-loops. He painted each loop with a stream of
gray smoke. He died in 1926 while testing a new airplane on a night
flight from Chicago to Bryan.
(Ind, 9/5/98, p.5A)
1815 Apr, British General
Arthur Wellesley, duke of Wellington, began assembling troops at
Brussels, Belgium. 73,000 British troops were joined by 33,000
German, Dutch and Belgian troops preparing to face Napoleon.
Prussian Gen. Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher gathered an army of
120,000 southeast of Brussels.
(ON, 4/06, p.1)
1815 May 5, Eugene-Marin
Labiche, French playwright, was born.
1815 May 29, Cornelis de
Gijselaar (64), politician, patriot, died.
1815 Jun 1, James Gillray
(b.1757), British caricaturist and printmaker, died. He is famous
for his etched political and social satires, mainly published
between 1792 and 1810.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Gillray)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.99)
1815 Jun 8, The Congress of
Vienna ended. Negotiations had begun in 1812 to rearrange Europe
following the defeat of Napoleon. The final conclave began Nov 1,
1814. In 2007 Adam Zamoyski authored Rites of Peace: The Fall of
Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna.
(www.victorianweb.org/history/forpol/vienna.html)(WSJ, 8/1/07, p.D7)
1815 Jun 16, Napoleon defeated
the Prussians at the Battle of Ligny, Belgium.
1815 Jun 16, A French attack at
the crossroads called Quatre Bras badly mauled the British army, but
failed to rout it or to take the crossroads. Emperor Napoleon
Bonaparte had marched into Belgium to find himself confronted by two
allied armies, which he tried to split apart. Although similarly
battered at Ligny that day, the Prussian army also retired intact.
Both armies would face Napoleon again two days later at Waterloo.
1815 Jun 17, A heavy rainstorm
prevented French forces from catching up with Wellingtons army as
they retreated to Waterloo.
(Econ, 7/16/05, p.15)(ON, 4/06, p.3)
1815 Jun 18, British and
Prussian troops under the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon
Bonaparte and his forces at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium. The
French elite troops of the Imperial Guard wore bearskins to appear
more intimidating. Afterwards Britain established towering bear skin
hats for soldiers in ceremonial duties and to guard royal
residencies and the Tower of London. Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht
von Blucher made a short speech to his troops saying that he was
pregnant and about to give birth to an elephant. He was taken from
the front in protective custody and missed the battle. Napoleon lost
over 40,000 men at Waterloo; the British and Belgians lost 15,000;
the Prussians lost 7,000. The total losses in 3 days of fighting was
later estimated at 91,800. In 2002 Andrew Roberts authored "Napoleon
and Wellington." In 2005 Andrew Roberts authored Waterloo:
Napoleons Last Gamble.
(SFEC, 2/28/99, Z1p.10)(WSJ, 9/13/02,
p.W10)(Econ, 2/12/05, p.81)(ON, 4/06, p.5)
1815 Jun 22, Napoleon Bonaparte
abdicated a second time.
1815 Jun 30, US naval hero
Stephen Decatur signed a treaty ending attacks by Algerian pirates.
Commodores Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge had conducted
successful operations against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis
and Tripoli [See Aug 5].
1815 Jul 7, After defeating
Napoleon at Waterloo, the victorious Allies marched into Paris.
1815 Jul 8, With Napoleon
defeated, Louis XVIII returned to Paris.
1815 Jul 9, The 1st US natural
gas well was discovered.
1815 Jul 9, King Louis XVIII
left Ghent for France.
1815 Jul 15, Napoleon Bonaparte
was captured and exiled to St Helena. [see Jul 17]
1815 Jul 17, Napoleon Bonaparte
surrendered to the British at Rochefort, France.
1815 Aug 1, Richard Henry Dana
(d.1882), US jurist, novelist, lawyer and sailor, was born. He wrote
"Two Years Before the Mast."
(WUD, 1994, p.366)(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W5)(MC,
1815 Aug 5, A peace treaty with
Tripoli, which followed treaties with Algeria (Jun 30) and Tunis
(Aug 28), brought an end to the Barbary Wars. Commodores Stephen
Decatur and William Bainbridge had conducted successful operations
against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli.
(HN, 8/5/98)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)(ON, 10/06,
1815 Aug 8, Napoleon Bonaparte
set sail for St. Helena, in the South Atlantic, to spend the
remainder of his days in exile.
1815 Sep 8, Alexander Ramsey
(d.1903), territorial governor of Minnesota (1849-1853), was born
near Harrisburg, Pa.
1815 Sep 9, John Singleton
Copley (b.1737), American artist, died in London.
1815 Aug, The merchant ship
Commerce, under Capt. James Riley (1877-1939) of Connecticut,
wrecked off the northwest coast of Africa. He survived captivity
under Muslim slave traders and endured a lengthy trek across the
Sahara. He later authored Sufferings in Africa (1817) and "An
authentic Narrative of the Loss of the American Brig Commerce"
(1818). In 2004 Dean King authored "Skeletons on the Zahara: A True
Story of Survival."
(SSFC, 2/22/04, p.M1)(WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)
1815 Sep 26, Russia, Prussia
and Austria signed a Holy Alliance. "Justice, charity and peace"
were to be the precepts that guided the Holy Alliance as envisioned
by Czar Alexander I of Russia. The alliance of Russia, Austria and
Prussia was formed after the downfall of Napoleon and later all
European rulers signed the agreement except the prince regent of
Great Britain, the pope and the sultan of Turkey. With no specific
aims beyond mutual assistance, the provisions of the Holy Alliance
were so vague that it had little effect on European diplomacy.
Metternich quietly replaced the entire alliance by the purely
political alliance of 20 November, 1815, between Austria, Prussia,
Russia and England.
1815 Sep 28, Joachim Murat's
fleet sailed from Corsica to Naples.
1815 Oct 7, Marshal Ney, one of
Napoleons most trusted field commanders, was condemned to death and
shot for having left the services of the King.
1815 Oct 8, General Joachim
Murat's forces landed at Pizzo, Italy.
1815 Oct 13, Joachim Murat,
marshal of France and King of Naples (1808-15), was executed.
1815 Oct 17, Napoleon (d.1821)
arrived in St. Helena.
1815 Oct 22, Ascension Island
was garrisoned by the British Admiralty. For administrative purposes
it was treated as a ship, the HMS Ascension. Some 20 million birds
are believed to have lived on the island. By 2000 the number of
birds was down to a few hundred thousand due to cats.
p.160)(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.9)
1815 Oct 29, Daniel Decatur
Emmett, the composer of "Dixie," which became the unofficial
national anthem of the Confederacy during the American Civil War,
was born in Mount Vernon, Ohio. Organizer of one of the first
minstrel shows, "Dixie" was written in 1859 as a concluding number,
or "walk-around," for a minstrel show. Emmett died on June 28, 1904.
1815 Oct 31, Sir Humphrey Davy
of London patented miner's safety lamp after being hired by the
Society for Preventing Accidents in Coal Mines.
(MC, 10/31/01)(ON, 12/01, p.7)
1815 Nov 1, Crawford Williamson
Long, surgeon and pioneer (use of ether), was born.
1815 Nov 2, George Boole
(d.1864), English-Irish mathematician and logician (Boolean
algebra), was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.170)(SFC, 12/2/97, p.C3)(MC,
1815 Nov 3, Adrien Louis Victor
Boieldieu, composer, was born.
1815 Nov 12, Elizabeth Cady
Stanton, a social reformer and militant feminist, was born in
Johnstown, New York, and graduated from the Troy Female Seminary in
1832. She worked closely with Susan B. Anthony and served as
president of the National Woman Suffrage Association. She died on
October 26, 1902. She said, "The male element is a destructive
force" in an address to the Womens Suffrage Convention in
Washington, D.C. in 1868.
(AP, 11/12/97)(HNQ, 5/17/98)
1815 Nov 15, John Banvard,
painter of the worlds largest painting (3 mile canvas), was born in
1815 Nov 20, The treaties known
collectively as the 2nd Peace of Paris were concluded. Austrias
chancellor Klemens von Metternich helped create a Concert of
Europe, a system by which 4-5 big powers kept miscreants in check
and managed the affairs of smaller states for over a decade.
1815 Nov 25, Johann Peter
Saloman (70), composer, died.
1815 Nov 27, Cracow, Poland,
declared itself a free republic.
1815 Nov 28, Johann Peter
Salomon (70), composer, died.
1815 Dec 10, Ada Lovelace (d.
Nov 27, 1852), Lord Byrons daughter and the inventor of computer
language, was born. In 1998 the sci-fi film, "Conceiving Ada," was
directed by Lynn Hershman-Leeson.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.D7)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E1)
1815 Dec 22, Spaniards executed
Mexican revolutionary priest Jose Maria Morelos.
1815 Dec 31, George Gordon
Meade (d.1872), Union general, was born. He defeated Robert E. Lee
at the Battle of Gettysburg.
(HN, 12/31/99)(MC, 12/31/01)
1815 Adolph Menzel (d.1905),
German painter, was born. He combined elements of many styles and
was considered the greatest artist in Germany at the time and was
Prussias foremost historical artist. He was considered Germanys
(WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A20)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)
1815 J.M.W. Turner made
paintings in this summer renowned for their red skies. The
coloration was due to the April 5 eruption of Mt. Tambora in
(SFEC, 7/9/00, Z1 p.2)
1815 The novel "Emma," by
English writer Jane Austen (1774-1817), was published.
(ON, 12/09, p.8)
1815 Nathaniel Coverly Jr. and
ghostwriter Nathaniel Hill Wright published a fictitious narrative
of the adventures of Lucy Brewer, a "Female Marine" who disguised
herself as a sailor and served as a marine in the War of 1812.
(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A20)
1815 John Roulstone of
Sterling, Mass., penned the first 3 stanzas of the poem "Mary Had a
Little Lamb" after his classmate Mary Sawyer came to school followed
by her pet lamb.
(SFC, 8/24/98, p.B6)
1815 William Smith (d.1839),
British geologist, made the 1st geological map of England and became
impoverished in the process. In 2001 Simon Winchester authored "The
Map That Changed the World."
(RTH, 8/28/99)(WSJ, 8/17/01, p.W6)(SSFC, 8/26/01,
1815 The San Francisco de Asis
church de Taos, New Mexico, was completed and still operates today
as a parish church. It is one of the 6 adobe missions scattered
along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between
Taos and Santa Fe, New Mexico.
(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.68)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)
1815 Mackinaw Island, Michigan,
was permanently signed over to the US.
(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.C5)
1815 Jose Francisco de San
Martin, governor of Cuyo, Argentina, founded a militia and prepared
for an attack on Spanish royalists in Chile.
(ON, 10/09, p.8)
1815 Austrias chancellor
Klemens von Metternich helped create a Concert of Europe, a system
by which 4-5 big powers kept miscreants in check and managed the
affairs of smaller states for over a decade.
(Econ, 6/9/07, p.68)
1815 The city-state of Geneva,
briefly the capital of the Kingdom of Burgundy, and then a republic,
became part of the Confederation of Switzerland.
(Hem., 1/96, p.81)
1815 The British Foreign
Secretary, Lord Castlereagh, warned the Prime Minister, Lord
Liverpool, that Czar Alexander must be watched and resisted just
(WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1815 Britain passed a law
severely restricting grain imports from European neighbors. Austria
retaliated with tariffs on wool and cotton. Sicily raised tariffs on
textiles, Sweden raised tariffs on silk, wool, cotton, iron steel
and copper. English manufacturers formed the anti-Corn-Law League to
lobby against the measure.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1815 Britain took action
against pirate sheikhs protected by the Wahabis, later rulers of
Saudi Arabia, because ships of the East India Company were attacked
in intl. waters. Britain allied with the ruler of Muscat and Oman
and Mohamed Ali of Egypt.
(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)
1815 The British took over
Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
(Arch, 7/02, p.34)
1815 British debt reached 745
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.105)
1815 Following the wars with
Napoleon John Barrow, 2nd secretary to the admiralty, directed the
British Navy to a campaign of exploration. In 2000 Fergus Fleming
authored "Barrows Boys," an account of the expeditions he
(WSJ, 4/18/00, p.A16)
1815 Nepalese soldiers, later
known as Gurkhas, began serving in the British military.
(Econ, 5/2/09, p.58)
1815 The first German
Burschenschaft (fraternity) was founded in Jena, Germany.
(Econ, 2/11/06, Survey p.15)
1815 Authorities in Milan
issued an edict that forbade gambling in the back rooms of the opera
houses including La Scala.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., 95, p.88)
1815 Giovanni Battista Belzoni,
Italian hydraulic engineer and vaudeville entertainer, arrived in
Egypt and began to search for tombs of pharaohs.
(NG, 9/98, p.19)
1815 As part of the
post-Napoleonic settlement at the Congress of Vienna, most of
Lithuania was absorbed by Russia.
(Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)
1815 Switzerland became
(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)
1815-1820 The current Mission Santa Barbara in
Santa Barbara, Ca. was built around an earlier structure damaged by
earthquake. It is the 10th of Californias 21 missions and is the
only one with twin towers.
(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.66)
1815-1848 This period in US history was later
covered in the book Waking Giant: American in the Age of Jackson
(2008), by David S. Reynolds.
(WSJ, 9/27/08, p.W10)
1815-1862 Edwin P. Christy, originator of the
popular Negro minstrel shows.
(BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)
1815-1864 Eliza Farnham, American reformer: "The
ultimate aim of the human mind, in all its efforts, is to become
acquainted with Truth."
1816 Jan 12, France decreed the
Bonaparte family to be excluded from the country forever.
1816 Feb 5, Gioachino Rossini's
Opera "Barber of Seville" premiered in Rome.
1816 Feb 13-14, Teatro San
Carlo in Naples was destroyed by fire.
1816 Mar 6, Jews were expelled
from Free city of Lubeck, Germany.
1816 Mar 20, the U.S. Supreme
Court, in Martin vs. Hunters Lessee, affirmed its right to review
state court decisions.
1816 Mar 31, Francis Asbury
(b.1745), English-born US itinerant Methodist minister, died in
1816 Apr 21, Charlotte Bronte
(d.1855), English novelist, writer of "Vilette" and "Jane Eyre," was
born in Thornton, England. "Better to be without logic than without
feeling." In 1999 Brian Wilks published "Charlotte in Love: The
Courtship and Marriage of Charlotte Bronte."
(WP, 1952, p.37)(AP, 9/13/99)(HN, 4/21/98)(WSJ,
1816 May 12, Lord Grimthorpe
was born. He was the designer of "Big Ben," the most recognized
structure in London.
1816 May 24, Emanuel Leutze, US
painter, was born. His work included "Washington Crossing the
1816 Jun 6, There was a 10"
snowfall in New England in this "year without a summer". The
oceanographer Henry Stommel and his wife Elizabeth described this
year in their (1983) book Volcano Weather: The Story of 1816, The
year Without a Summer. The 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora lofted a
cloud of ash that turned this summer into a virtual winter with snow
in Europe and New England.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.130)(SFC, 5/19/97, p.D1)
1816 Jul 3, Dorothea Jordan
(65), French actress, mistress (William IV), died.
1816 Jul 6, Philipp Meissner
(67), composer, died.
1816 Jul 9, Argentina declared
independence from Spain. Argentina assumed that the Malvina Islands
(AP, 7/9/97)(SFC, 6/19/98, p.A12)
1816 Jul 11(Jun 11), Gas Light
Co. of Baltimore was founded.
1816 Jul 21, Paul Julius Baron
von Reuter (d.1899), founder of the British news agency bearing his
name, was born in Hesse, Germany, as Israel Beer Josaphat.
1816 Jul 27, US troops
destroyed the Seminole Fort Apalachicola, to punish the Indians for
harboring runaway slaves.
1816 Jul 31, George Henry
Thomas (d.1870), Union general in the Civil War whose bravery at the
battle of Chickamauga earned him the nickname "the Rock of
Chickamauga," was born.
(HN, 7/31/98)(MC, 7/31/02)
1816 Aug 14, Great Britain
annexed Tristan da Cunha.
1816 Aug 24, Daniel Gooch, laid
1st successful transatlantic cables, was born.
1816 Aug 27, Admiral Sir Edward
Pellew, a noble from Devon, England, bombed Algiers, a refuge for
Barbary pirates. He flew the green, white and black flag of St.
Petroc. In 1836 the battle was pictured in a painting by George
Chambers, Senior. Pellew was subsequently named Lord Exmouth.
(http://tinyurl.com/gjooc)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.66)
1816 Sep 5, Louis XVIII of
France dissolved the chamber of deputies, which had been challenging
1816 Sep 12, Russian agents
commenced construction of a Western-style fortress commanding Waimea
Bay on the island of Kauai, named Fort Elizabeth after the Russian
czarina. Before the fort was completed, Hawaiian King Kamehameha
acted to force the Russians out. The Hawaiians finished construction
of the fort and renamed it Fort Hipo.
1816 Oct 7, The 1st double
decked steamboat, Washington, arrived in New Orleans.
1816 Nov 3, Jubal Anderson
Early (d.1891), Lt. General (Confederate Army), was born.
1816 Dec 2, The first savings
bank in the United States, the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society,
opened for business.
1816 Dec 4, James Monroe of
Virginia was elected the fifth president of the United States. He
defeated Federalist Rufus King.
(AP, 12/4/97)(MC, 12/4/01)
1816 Dec 10, The estranged wife
of poet Percy Shelley committed suicide by drowning in Londons Hyde
Park. 20 days later Percy married Mary Godwin, author of
(ON, 11/07, p.8)
1816 Dec 11, Indiana became the
1816 Dec 13, E. Werner von
Siemens, German artillery officer and inventor, was born.
1816 Dec 13, Patent for a dry
dock was issued to John Adamson in Boston.
1816 Dec, Henry Orator Hunt
made a speech in Spa fields in East London which was disrupted by a
group of revolutionaries who murdered a gunsmith and plundered his
shop. They then set off for London, but the insurrection was quickly
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.104)
1816 Jacques Louis David
(1748-1825) painted the portrait: "Comte Henri-Amedee de Turenne".
(WUD, 1994 p.369)
1816 Caspar David Friedrich,
German romantic artist, painted "View of a Harbor." It was soon
purchased by Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia as a birthday present
for the crown prince.
(WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A7)
1816 William Smith published
his "Strata identified by Organized Fossils."
1816 William Cullen Bryant,
James Fennimore Cooper, and Washington Irving were popular writers
of this period.
(A&IP, ESM, p.34)
1816 Robert Adams, the 1st
Westerner to reach Timbuktu, transcribed an account of his
experiences there as an enslaved American sailor.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.126)
1816 Jane Austin completed her
last novel, "Persuasion." In 1995 it was made into a film by a
(WSJ, 10/6/95, p.A-8)
1816 Gioachino Rossini composed
his opera "Otello."
(SI-WPC, 1997)(SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)(WSJ, 8/1/01,
1816 The American Bible Society
was founded. The first president was Elias Boudinot. He was
succeeded by his vice president John Jay. In 1998 its library had
53,000 copies of the Bible in over 2,000 languages and dialects.
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)
1816 Elijah Goodridge of
Newbury, Massachusetts, was tried for committing robbery on his own
person and then having Ebenezer Pearson arrested for the crime.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.22)
1816 The US passed the first
tariff to protect its industries.
(A&IP, ESM, p.34)
1816 The Second Bank of the US
was chartered. It over-lent wildly and then called in its money
sparking financial panic. Pres. Jackson ended its special status in
(WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A8)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.91)
1816 Indiana was admitted to
(A&IP, ESM, p.34)
1816 Pittsburgh was
incorporated on the site of old Fort Pitt.
(SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)
1816 Medical records from
upstate NY showed that a patient paid 25 cents to have a tooth
pulled and $1.25 to have a baby.
(SFEC, 6/27/99, Z1 p.8)
1816 Henry Hall, a Cape Cod
farmer, discovered that sand spread over wild cranberry plants
induced good growth.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.123)
1816 The California poppy was
correctly described and named by Adelbert von Chamisso, a native
Frenchmen driven to Germany by the revolution. He was appointed
naturalist with the Russian scientific and trapping voyage of
Kotzebue and developed an intimate relationship with the ships
surgeon, Dr. Johann Frederich Eschscholtz, for whom he named the San
Francisco poppy, Eschscholzia californica. [see 1792,1794,
(NBJ, 2/96, p.12)
1816 Gouverneur Morris
(b.1752), chief writer of the US Constitution (1787), died at
Morrisania, NY. In 2003 Richard Brookhiser authored "Gentleman
Revolutionary," a biography of Morris.
(WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)
1816 In London, England,
William Cobbett brought out twopenny version of his Weekly Political
Register on a single sheet of paper to avoid the stamp duty.
1816 Robert Stirling, British
clergyman, proposed a sealed heated air engine to compete with the
ubiquitous steam engine. His Stirling engine converted heat into
mechanical energy by compressing and expanding a fixed quantity of
(Econ, 8/14/04, p.72)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.24)
1816 Beau Brummell, English
dandy, first sought obscurity to escape his creditors.
(SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)
1816 Lord Byron (George
Gordon), English romantic poet, separated from his wife Annabella
(d.1860) following an incestuous relationship with his half-sister
Augusta Leigh (d.1851). In 2002 David Crane authored "The Kindness
of Sisters: Annabella Milbanke and the Destruction of the Byrons."
(SSFC, 10/27/02, p.M2)
1816 Lord Byron and guests
gathered at the Villa Diodati on Lake Geneva, Switz. It was here
that Byron challenged his guests to write a ghost story. This led
Mary Shelley to produce Frankenstein in 1818 and John Polidori to
create his short story The Vampyre (1819).
(Econ, 1/13/07, p.75)
1816 Lord Elgin sold his
Parthenon sculptures to the British government for 35,000 pounds. A
request in 1811 for 62,400 pounds had been rejected. Elgin later
fled to France to avoid his creditors.
(ON, 11/99, p.4)
1816 Two British naval ships
under Captain Basil Hall landed at Okinawa, in the Ryukyu
archipelago, which was then known as Loo-Choo. In 1818 Hall
published an account of his voyage: Account of a Voyage of
Discovery to the West Coast of Corea, and the Great Loo-Choo
1816 General A.P.Yermolov
served as Commander of the Russian army in the Caucasus. Military
pressure intensifies as Russian troops continue to advance deep into
Chechnya. Chechnya responded by stepping up its resistance movement,
which, for more than 30 years, was headed by Beibulat Teimiev.
1816 In France Dr. Rene
Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec invented the stethoscope.
(ON, 9/00, p.11)
1816 In France Joseph N.
Niepce developed the first photographic negative. His earliest
recorded image, an 1825 print of a man leading a horse, sold for
$443,220 in 2002.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)(SFC,
1816 In Germany Johann Maelzel
patented the metronome a couple of years after it was drawn up by
Dutch inventor Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel.
(SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)
1816 Saartjie Baartman (26),
taken from S. Africa in 1810, fell sick and died penniless and
friendless in France after being exhibited as the "Hottentot Venus."
Her body was dissected, her brain and genitals were bottled, and her
skeleton was wired and exhibited in the Musee de lHomme in Paris.
In 2002 her remains were returned to S. Africa. In 2003 Barbara
Chase-Ribaud authored the novel "Hottentot Venus" based on the
Baartman story. In 2007 Rachel Holmes authored African Queen: The
Real Life of the Hottentot Venus.
(SFC, 5/4/02, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.M6)(SFC,
1816 Mohammed Ali Pasha,
Ottoman ruler over Egypt, sent Fredric Cailliaud, a French goldsmith
and mineralogist, to find the Roman emerald mines of southeastern
(AM, 5/01, p.A38)
1816-1841 Ellen Sturgis Hooper, American poet: "I
slept, and dreamed that life was Beauty; I woke, and found that life
1816-1865 C.J. Thomsen, curator during these years
of the Museum of Northern Antiquities (later the Danish National
Museum), formulates the three age system, from stone to bronze to
iron. He was probably helped in his ideas by the work of Goguet.
1816-1876 Charlotte Saunders Cushman, American
actress: "To me it seems as if when God conceived the world, that
was Poetry; He formed it, and that was Sculpture; He colored it, and
that was Painting; He peopled it with living beings, and that was
the grand, divine, eternal Drama."
1817 Jan 17, Jose Francisco de
San Martin led a revolutionary army from Argentina over Andes into
(ON, 10/09, p.10)
1817 Jan 25, Giocchino
Rossini's opera "La Cenerentola" premiered in Rome. It was based on
the Cinderella story.
(WSJ, 11/2/95, p.A-12)(MC, 1/25/02)
1817 Feb 2, John Glover,
English chemist (sulphuric acid), was born.
1817 Feb 8, Richard Stoddert
Ewell (d.1872(), Lt Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
1817 Feb 12, Argentinas Jose
de San Martin, having led a revolutionary army over the Andes into
Chile, helped defeat the Spanish forces at Chacabuco. The royalists
lost 500 men in the battle and another 600 were taken prisoner.
p.87)(ON, 10/09, p.10)
1817 Feb 12, Under the
leadership of Bernardo OHiggins, Chile gained its independence from
Spain, when a combined Argentine and Chilean army defeated the
Spaniards. OHiggins went on to become head of state on February 17,
supported by the army but not favored by the oligarchy because he
sought abolition of their privileges. Once the threat from Spain was
eliminated from the region, opposition to OHiggins mounted. General
unrest and a poor harvest combined to force OHiggins to abdicate
his position in 1823. The official proclamation was made on Feb 12,
(HNQ, 9/1/99)(AP, 2/12/07)
1817 Feb 14, Frederick Douglass
(d.1895), "The Great Emancipator," was born in Maryland as Frederick
Augustus Washington Bailey. He was the son of a slave and a white
father who bought his own freedom and published The Narrative Life
of Frederick Douglass (1845) a memoir of his life as a slave. "The
life of the nation is secure only while the nation is honest,
truthful, and virtuous."
(AHD, 1971, p.394)(HN, 2/14/99)(AP, 2/20/99)(ON,
1817 Feb 17, A street in
Baltimore became the first to be lighted with gas from Americas
first gas company.
1817 Feb 18, Lewis Addison
Armistead (d.1863), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born. He
died leading "Pickett's Charge" on the final day of the Gettysburg
1817 Feb 18, Walter Paye Lane
(d.1892), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
1817 Feb 19, William III, King
of the Netherlands, was born.
1817 Mar 2, The 1st US
Evangelical church building was dedicated in New Berlin, PA.
1817 Mar 3, Mississippi
Territory was divided into Alabama Territory and Mississippi.
1817 Mar 3, The first
commercial steamboat route from Louisville to New Orleans was
1817 Mar 22, Braxton Bragg
(d.1876), Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
1817 Mar 25, Tsar Alexander I
recommended the formation of Society of Israeli Christians.
1817 Apr 15, The first American
school for the deaf opened in Hartford, Conn.
1817 Apr 17, 1st US school for
deaf was founded in Hartford, Conn.
1817 Apr 18, George Henry
Lewes, philosophical writer, was born.
1817 Jul 1, Dewitt Clinton
(1769-1828) began serving his first term as governor of New York and
continued to 1822.
1817 Jul 12, Henry David
Thoreau (d.1862), essayist, naturalist and poet, was born in
Concord, Mass. His work included "On Walden Pond." He referred to
the three Greek goddesses of fate: Clotho (spinner of the thread of
destiny), Lachesis (disposer of lots) and especially Atropos (who
holds the scissors that will cut endeavor short). "We have
constructed a fate, an Atropos, that never turns aside." He was also
the author of the essays "Civil Disobedience and Slavery in
(AHD, p.1339)(Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.66)(HFA,
'96, p.34)(HN, 7/12/98)
1817 Jul 14, Madame de Stael
(51), writer and daughter of former French finance minister Jacques
Necker, died. She was intimate with Benjamin Constant and their
intellectual collaboration made them one of the most important
intellectual pairs of their time. In 2005 Maria Fairweather authored
Madame de Stael. In 2008 Renee Winegarten authored the dual
biography Germaine de Stael & Benjamin Constant.
p.88)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/stael.htm)(WSJ, 6/23/08, p.A15)
1817 Jul 18, Jane Austen
(b.1775), English writer, died at age 41. In 1869 her nephew James
Edward Austen-Leigh published A Memoir of Jane Austen.
p.3)(www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/janelife.html)(ON, 12/09, p.8)
1817 Aug 18, Gloucester, Mass.,
newspapers told of a wild sea serpent seen offshore.
1817 Aug 24, Aleksei K.
Tolstoy, [Kozjma Prutkov], Russian poet, writer, was born.
1817 Sep 21, Carter Littlepage
Stevenson, Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
1817 Sep 23, Leon Charles
Francois Kreutzer, composer, was born.
1817 Oct 13, William Kirby,
Canadian writer, was born.
1817 Oct 15, Tadeusz AB
Kosciusko (b.1746), Polish Lt-Gen. and American Revolution freedom
1817 Oct 19, Tom Taylor,
British playwright, was born. His play "Our American Cousin" was
being performed at Fords Theater when President Abraham Lincoln was
assassinated by John Wilkes Boothe.
1817 Oct 20, The 1st
Mississippi "Showboat," left Nashville on maiden voyage.
1817 Oct, Pres. and Mrs. James
Monroe moved back into the restored White House.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Par p.5)
1817 Nov 8, Andrea Appiana
(63), Italian royal painter of Napoleon, died.
1817 Nov 9, Edward Richard
Sprigg Canby, Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1817 Nov 10, The Tennessee
legislature enacted laws that defined the common boundary with
Georgia and created a boundary commission to jointly survey and mark
the state border.
1817 Nov 12, Mirza Hoseyn 'Ali
Nuri (Baha' Ullah), founder of the Baha'i faith, was born.
1817 Nov 20, 1st Seminole War
began in Florida. [see Nov 27]
1817 Nov 21, Richard Brooke
Garnett (d1863), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born. He died
1817 Nov 22, Fredric Cailliaud
discovered the old Roman emerald mines at Sikait, Egypt.
(AM, 5/01, p.39)
1817 Nov 27, US soldiers
attacked a Florida Indian village and began the Seminole War. [see
1817 Nov, William Wirt was
selected as the attorney general. He served for 11 years and 3
(SFC, 1/11/99, p.A5)
1817 Dec 7, William Bligh (63),
British naval officer of "Bounty" infamy, died.
1817 Dec 10, Mississippi was
admitted as the 20th state of the Union.
(HFA, 96, p.44)(AP, 12/10/97)
1817 Dec 16, The Georgia
legislature enacted laws that defined the common boundary with
Tennessee and created a boundary commission to jointly survey and
mark the state border.
1817 Dec 28, Benjamin Robert
Haydon (d.1846), British painter, threw a dinner party in London to
show his nearly completed painting "Christs Entry Into Jerusalem"
and to introduce poet John Keats to William Wordsworth. Other guests
included essayist Charles Lamb. In 2002 Penelope Hughes-Hallett
authored "The Immortal Dinner."
(WSJ, 9/13/02, p.W10)
1817 Dec, The book Northanger
Abbey, by English novelist Jane Austen (1775-1817), was published
following her death in July. It was written around 1798-1799 and
revised in 1803.
1817 Francis Beaufort
(1774-1857), Irish-born hydrogapher, authored a best-selling travel
book about the southern coast of Turkey.
(NH, 11/1/04, p.51)
1817 John Bradbury, Scottish
naturalist, authored "Travels in the Interior of America in the
Years 1809, 1810 and 1811."
(ON, 10/99, p.6)
1817 William Hazlitt, the
finest of the romantic critics, published "Characters of
(WSJ, 10/23/98, p.W8)
1817 Dr. William Kitchiner
authored his cookbook "Apicius Redivivus, or the Cook's Oracle." It
included 11 ketchup recipes, including 2 each for mushroom, walnut
and tomato ketchups, and one each for cucumber, oyster and cockles
and mussels ketchups.
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)
1817 Thomas Love Peacock, a
friend and neighbor of poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, authored his comic
novel Melincourt. A character in the novel was based on Shelley.
(Econ, 12/23/06, p.94)
1817 David Ricardo published
"Principles of Political Economy and Taxation." In this he argued
for the labor theory of value. Ricardo here explained why the best
farmland often makes money for the landlord, not the farmer.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.91)
1817 Percy Bysshe Shelley (25),
English romantic poet, authored his sonnet Ozymandias. It was
first published in 1818.
1817 The multi-volume "Flora
Brasiliensis" was commissioned by Maximilian I of Austria. The
definitive volume on Brazilian botany was completed in 1906.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1817 Work began on the
Erie Canal, more properly named the New York State Barge Canal. The
canal connected Lake Erie with the Hudson and opened on October 26,
1825. The canal was proposed by NY Gov. Dewitt Clinton and
detractors called it "Clinton's Folly." Workers were paid a quart of
whiskey a day plus $1. [see 1826]
(WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, Internet,
12/7/98)(SFEC, 12/27/98, Z1 p.8)(SFEC, 1/31/99, Z1 p.8)
1817 The Univ. of Michigan was
founded by a Presbyterian minister, John Monteith, and a Catholic
priest, Gabriel Richard and Judge Gus Woodward. The Univ. of
Michigan was established by a Michigan Public Act under a Board of
(MT, 12/94, p.2-3)(LSA., Fall 1995, p.10)(MT,
Fall 96, p.10)
1817 Tuscumbia, Alabama was
founded by the US government.
(Postcard, Polychrome Picture Products)
1817 The New York Stock and
Exchange Board (NYSE) was formalized and established its first
quarters in a rented room at 40 Wall St.
(SFC, 4/23/98, p.D2)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)
1817 Frederick Eberle was tried
for illegally conspiring to prevent the introduction of the English
language into German Lutheran church services in Philadelphia.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.22)
1817 Sir Thomas Stamford
Bingley Raffles (1781-1826), British statesman, wrote a book
entitled History of Java. He was heavily involved in the conquest
of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military
forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion
of the British Empire.
1817 Britain banned private
coins. They had been issued to address a major shortage of
government coinage. From 1787 to 1797 and again from 1811 to 1818,
the greater part of Great Britain's stock of coins came not from the
Royal Mint in London but from a score of private mints in
(WSJ, 1/5/09, p.A11)(http://mises.org/story/3168)
1817 The Bank of Montreal was
established as Canada's first bank. It later became known as BMO
1817 In Egypt Giovanni Battista
Belzoni discovered the tomb of Seti I.
(NG, 9/98, p.19)
1817 Baron Karl de Drais de
Sauerbrun of Germany invented the draisienne, the first 2-wheeled,
rider-propelled machine and exhibited it in Paris in 1818. The
vehicle came to be known as the velocipede, a 2-wheeled running
machine without pedals.
p.172)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.77)
1817 The Metropolitan Cathedral
in Mexico City was completed.
(Hem., 1/96, p.49)
1817 Pedro Moreno and Victor
Rosales died fighting Spain in western Mexico. Their bodies were
among 14 later placed in urns as heros of Mexicos 1810-1821
independence movement. In 1925 urns holding the remains were sealed
in crypts at the Independence monument. Others in the urns included
Miguel Hidalgo and Ignacio Allende.
1817 The Dutch and French
agreed on a final pact to divide the control of St. Martin Island.
The southern Dutch half comprises the Eilandgebied Sint Maarten
(Island Territory of St. Maarten) and is part of the Netherlands
Antilles. The northern French half comprises the Collectivité de
Saint-Martin (Collectivity of St. Martin) and is an overseas
collectivity of France.
1817 Spain formally accepted
the principle to abolish slavery.
(WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A18)
1817-1819 Titian Ramsey Peale was curator at the
Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia; and again from
1825-1931. He helped amass one of the largest and earliest
systematic collections of insects in the US. He invented special
book boxes for mounting moths and butterflies between sheets of
(NH, 7/96, p.4)
c1817-1924 Pierre Joseph Redoute printed "Les
(SFEM, 4/6/97, p.16)
1817-1825 James Monroe became the 5th President of
the US. [see 1758-1831, Monroe]
(A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(WUD, 1994, p.927)
1818 Jan 1, An official
reopening of the White House took place after being repaired from
burning by British during War of 1812.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Par
1818 Jan 1, The novel
"Frankenstein" by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851) was
published anonymously. It was an attack on industrialization. The
work stemmed from a contest in 1816 at Byrons Villa Diodati in
Geneva, between Byron, Shelley and Mary to produce a ghost story. In
1998 Joan Kane Nichols published "Mary Shelley: Frankensteins
Creator." In 2006 Dorothy and Thomas Hoobler authored The Monsters:
Mary Shelley and the Curse of Frankenstein. In 2007 Susan Tyler
Hitchcock authored Frankenstein: A Cultural History.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SSFC, 5/21/06, p.M6)(WSJ,
10/30/07, p.D6)(ON, 11/07, p.8)
1818 Jan 2, Lord Byron
completed "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" (4th canto).
1818 Feb 7, The first
successful U.S. educational magazine, Academician, began publication
in New York City.
1818 Feb 11, In Louisiana sugar
plantation owner Levi Foster sold to his in-laws the slaves named
Kit (28) for $975 and Alick (9) for $400. In 2000 Gwendolyn Midlo
Hall and LSU Press published a CD-ROM database on Louisiana slave
transactions: "Databases for the Study of Afro-Louisiana History and
Genealogy, 1699-1860: Computerized Information from Original
(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.)(www.afrigeneas.com)
1818 Feb 12, Chile officially
proclaimed its independence, more than seven years after initially
renouncing Spanish rule [see Feb 12, 1817].
1818 Mar 28, Wade Hampton
(d.1902), Confederate general, was born.
(HN, 3/28/98)(MC, 3/28/02)
1818 Mar 28, Giuseppe Antonio
Capuzzi (62), composer, died.
1818 Apr 4, Congress decided
the flag of the United States would consist of 13 red and white
stripes and 20 stars, with a new star to be added for every new
state of the Union.
(AP, 4/4/97)(HN, 4/4/98)
1818 Apr 7, Gen. Andrew Jackson
captured St. Marks, Fla., from the Seminole Indians.
1818 Apr 14, The US Medical
1818 Apr 16, U.S. Senate
ratified the Rush-Bagot amendment to form an unarmed U.S.-Canada
border. The Rush-Bagot Agreement between Great Britain and the U.S.
had to do with mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes. In the
exchange of notes between British minister to the U.S. Charles Bagot
and Richard Rush, Acting Secretary of State, the countries agreed to
limits on their inland naval forces. A sequel to the Treaty of
Ghent, the agreement was approved by the U.S. Senate on April 16,
(HN, 4/16/98)(HNQ, 6/7/00)
1818 Apr 18, A regiment of
Indians and blacks was defeated at the Battle of Suwanna, in
Florida, ending the first Seminole War.
1818 Apr 28, President Monroe
proclaimed naval disarmament on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.
1818 Apr 29, Alexander II, Tsar
of Russia (1855-1881), was born.
(HN, 4/29/98)(MC, 4/29/02)
1818 Apr, Dr. John William
Polidori published The Vampyre, a novel based on an unpublished
story fragment by Lord Byron. Polidori was Byrons personal
(ON, 11/07, p.8)
1818 May 5, Karl Marx, German
philosopher, was born in Prussia. He argued that history was marked
by various stages of class struggle and capitalism which had
overcome feudalism would in turn be overcome by socialism and the
elimination of private property. He and Friedrich Engels founded
Communism (1847). Together they wrote "The Communist Manifesto" and
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/99)
1818 May 10, Paul Revere
(b.1735) American patriot, died in Boston. Revere, best known for
his midnight ride, fathered 16 children-eight by his first wife
Sarah Orne and eight by his second wife, Rachel Walker. Born to
Apollos Rivoire and Deborah Hitchbourne, Paul Revere was one of 13
(AP, 5/10/97)(HNQ, 7/26/99)
1818 May 20, William George
Fargo, one of the founders of Wells, Fargo & Co., actor, was
1818 May 24, Gen. Andrew
Jackson captured Pensacola, Florida.
1818 May 25, Jacob Christoph
Burckhardt (d.1897), Swiss cultural historian, was born. "The people
no longer believe in principles, but will probably periodically
believe in saviors." "Neither in the life of the individual nor in
that of mankind is it desirable to know the future."
(AP, 5/6/98)(AP, 6/11/98)(SC, 5/25/02)
1818 May 27, Amelia Jenks
Bloomer (d.1894), American reformer who popularized the "bloomers"
garment that bears her name, was born in Homer, N.Y. Amelia Jenks
Bloomer, Seneca Falls, N.Y., was the editor of The Lily, a
periodical "devoted to the interests of women. "Along with her
support of woman suffrage and temperance, Bloomer was an advocate of
dress reform. Believing that restrictive corsets and cumbersome
skirts were injurious to the health of women, in the 1850s Bloomer
designed and often wore a comfortable costume of a short skirt worn
over baggy trousers drawn tight at the ankle. Bloomers costume,
portrayed in this Currier and Ives print, became so controversial
that any reasonable talk of dress reform was drowned out by the
jeers. Finally, Elizabeth Cady Stanton advised bloomer advocates to
abandon the costume. It was not until the 1930s and 40s that women
began wearing pants, although bloomers were the inspiration for
early bicycling and beach apparel.
(AP, 5/27/99)(HNPD, 9/9/98)
1818 May 28, P.G.T. Beauregard,
Confederate general, was born. He first fired on Fort Sumpter and
fought at First Manassas, and Shiloh.
1818 Jun 1, Mathematician James
Camak demarcated the border between Georgia and Tennessee. Due to a
faulty sextant and bad astronomical charts he drew the line a mile
south of the intended boundary, the 35th parallel.
1818 Jun 2, The British army
defeated the Maratha alliance in Bombay, India.
1818 Jun 10, Pesaro opera
theater opened with Rossini's "La Gaza Ladra."
1818 Jun 16, An ice-dammed lake
in the Val de Bagnes above Martigny broke through its barrier
causing many deaths. This event led Jean de Charpentier to focus on
Swiss glaciers and then influence Louis Agassiz with his ideas
regarding glacier development.
1818 Jun 17, Charles Francois
Gounod, opera composer of "Faust" and "Romeo et Juliette," was born
in Paris, France.
1818 Jul 1, Ignaz Semmelweis
(d.1865), Hungarian gynecologist, was born. He later connected
childbed fever to doctors who spread of germs due to their failure
to wash their hands. In 2003 Sherwin B. Nuland authored "The
Doctors' Plague: Germs, Childbed Fever and the Strange Story of
(MC, 7/1/02)(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.M3)
1818 Jul 30, Emily Bronte
(d.1848), English author of "Wuthering Heights," was born. She was
the younger sister of Charlotte Bronte and died of tuberculosis.
(WP, 1952, p.38)(HN, 7/30/98)(WSJ, 7/28/99,
1818 Aug 1, Maria Mitchell
(d.1889), the first female astronomer in the U.S., was born. She
discovered a comet in 1847 and was the first prof. of astronomy at
Vassar College. In 1869 she was the first woman elected to the
American Philosophical Society.
(Alg, 1990, p.30)(HN, 8/1/00)
1818 Aug 7, Henri Charles
Litolff, French composer, pianist, was born.
1818 Aug 13, Suffragist Lucy
Stone, womens rights activist, founder of Womans Journal, was born
in West Brookfield, Mass.
(AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)
1818 Aug 22, Warren Hastings
(85), 1st governor-general of India (1773-84), died.
1818 Aug 28, Jean Baptiste
Pointe du Sable, trader, founder of Chicago, died.
1818 Sep 12, Richard Gatling
(d.1903), American inventor, was born. The Gatling gun, an early
type of machine gun, was named after him.
1818 Oct 8, 2 English boxers
were 1st to use padded gloves.
1818 Oct 15, Irvin McDowell
(d.1985), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1818 Oct 19, US and Chickasaw
Indians signed a treaty.
1818 Oct 20, The United States
and Britain established the 49th Parallel as the boundary between
Canada and the United States.
1818 Oct 22, Leconte de Lisle,
writer, was born.
1818 Oct 24, Felix Mendelssohn
(9) performed his 1st public concert in Berlin.
1818 Oct 28, Abigail Adams,
wife of former Pres. John Adams, died. In 1975 some 200 letters of
Abigail Adams were published as The Book of Abigail and John.
1818 Oct 28, Ivan Turgenev
(d.1883), Russian novelist, poet, playwright (Fathers & Sons),
was born. [see Nov 9]
1818 Nov 1, James Renwick,
architect, was born. His work included St. Patricks Cathedral in
1818 Nov 5, Benjamin Butler
(d.1893), later Union Civil War general, was born in New Hampshire.
1818 Nov 9, Ivan Turgenev,
Russian author, was born. His work includes "Fathers and Sons" and
"A Month in the Country." [see Oct 28]
1818 Nov 21, Frenchman Hipolito
Bouchard and Englishman Peter Corney led a 2-ship attack against the
presidio at Monterey, Ca. Gov. Pablo de Sola and his soldiers and
families fled as some 400 rebels pulled to shore. The presidio was
ransacked and burned. Bouchard and Corney days later plundered
Mission San Juan Capistrano and the rancho at El Refugio.
(SFC, 10/10/03, p.B3)
1818 Nov 21, Russia's Czar
Alexander I petitioned for a Jewish state in Palestine.
1818 Dec 3, Illinois was
admitted as the 21st state.
(AP, 12/3/97)(HN, 12/3/98)
1818 Dec 13, Mary Todd Lincoln,
wife of President Abraham Lincoln, was born.
1818 Dec 14, The pirate
Hippolyte Bouchard demanded gunpowder and other supplies from the
padres at Mission San Juan Capistrano, Ca. The padres refused and
the pirate sent 140 men to destroy the mission and the town was
stripped of its provisions.
(HT, 3/97, p.61)
1818 Dec 21, Lewis H. Morgan,
US ethnologist (Systems of Consanguinity), was born.
1818 Dec 24, James Prescott
Joule, physicist , was born. He discovered the principal of the
conservation of energy.
1818 Dec 24, "Silent Night" was
composed by Franz Joseph Gruber.
(HFA, 96, p.44)(SI-WPC, 12/6/96)(MC, 12/24/01)
1818 Dec 25, "Silent Night" by
Franz Gruber was performed for the first time, at the Church of St.
Nikolaus in Oberndorff, Austria.
(HFA, 96, p.44)(AP, 12/25/97)
1818 Theophile Bra, French
academic sculptor, won the Prix de Rome.
(SFEM, 11/1/98, p.4)
1818 Caspar David Friedrich
(1774-1840), German Romantic landscape artist, creating his painting
Wanderer Above a Sea of Clouds.
(Econ, 10/29/11, IL
1818 The Autobiography of
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), an unfinished record of his life,
was published posthumously in London. An earlier French edition had
appeared in 1791.
1818 John Keats published his
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)
1818 David Young, poet, teacher
and astronomer, began publishing a Farmers Almanac.
(CFA, 96,Vol 179, p.98)
1818 The Epistles of John were
published by the American Bible Society in the language of the
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)
1818 People began wearing left
and right shoes. Shoes were made identical for either foot prior to
(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)
1818 Henry Sands Brooks began
H. & D.H. Brooks & Co. in mostly rural Manhattan. It became
a key military supplier during the Civil War. A 2nd store opened in
1928 and operations grew to the well known chain known as Brooks
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)(SFC, 6/29/01, p.A8)(NW,
1818 A handful of Cherokee
emigrated to Oklahoma 20 years before the Trail of Tears. They are
known as the Old Settlers.
(NG, 5/95, p.91)
1818 Franciscan priests
established the Santa Ysabel Mission to convert the Kumeyaay Indians
in San Diego County.
(SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)
1818 Illinois became the 21st
state of the US.
(HFA, 96, p.20)
1818 The Libbey Glass Co. of
Toledo, Ohio, was founded as the New England Glass Company by Edward
Drummond Libbey. Libbey collected glass "through the ages" in a
museum for the inspiration his workers. In 1999 it was a division of
(SFC, 3/31/99, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 10/19/01, p.W15)
1818 Brown Brothers Harriman
(BBH) was founded in Philadelphia as John A. Brown and Company, an
importer of linen. On January 1, 1931, Brown Brothers And Company
merged with Harriman Brothers & Company, an investment company
started in 1912 with railway money.
1818 Abigail Adams, wife of
former Pres. John Adams, died.
(WSJ, 5/30/01, p.A20)
1818 Dr. James Blundell
(1791-1878), a British obstetrician, performed the first successful
transfusion of human blood, for the treatment of postpartum
1818 Grozny was established in
the northern Caucasus as a Russian fortress.
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.C14)
1818 In Russia the Smirnoff
family went into the vodka business.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1818 In Spain the last
prosecution of the Spanish Inquisition was held.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)
1818 In Spain an annual
national Christmas lottery was begun.
1818-1820 John Keats (d.1821), English poet, lived
in Hampstead and wrote "The Eve of St. Agnes," "Ode on a Grecian
Urn," and "Ode to a Nightingale."
(SFC, 12/24/96, p.E4)(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)
1818-1820 Cotton prices dropped by 50% during this
period as world production exploded.
(Econ, 4/6/13, p.88)
1818-1883 Karl Marx, German writer and theorist
for socialism. Marx called his own philosophy dialectical
materialism, and claims to start philosophically from a point of
view opposite to Hegel. Marx asserts that he starts from concrete
reality and not from an idea, as does Hegel. Knowing history as well
as he hid, he claimed to be able not only to explain why things
happened as they had, but also to predict what was going to happen
in the future.
1818-1885 Henry Wheeler Shaw, "Josh Billings,"
American author: "As scarce as truth is, the supply is always
greater than the demand."
1818-1889 James Prescott Joule, English
experimental physicist, measured the mechanical, or energy,
equivalent of heat itself.
(TNG, Klein, p.55)
1819 Jan 17, Simon Bolivar the
"liberator" proclaimed Colombia a republic.
1819 Feb 8, John Ruskin
(d.1900), writer, critic, artist, Gothic Revivalist
(Pre-Raphaelite), was born. His work included "Modern Painter" and
"The Stones of Venice."
(WSJ, 3/6/00, p.A28)(MC, 2/8/02)
1819 Feb 9, Lydia E. Pinkham,
patent-medicine maker and entrepreneur, was born.
1819 Feb 14, Christopher Latham
Sholes, inventor of the first practical typewriter, was born.
1819 Feb 22, James Russell
Lowell (d.1891), American essayist, poet, critic, diplomat,
abolitionist, was born: "He who is firmly seated in authority soon
learns to think security, and not progress, the highest lesson of
(AP, 6/29/99)(MC, 2/22/02)
1819 Feb 22, Spain signed the
Adams-Onis Treaty with the United States ceding eastern Florida.
Spanish minister Do Luis de Onis and U.S. Secretary of State John
Quincy Adams signed the Florida Purchase Treaty, in which Spain
agrees to cede the remainder of its old province of Florida. Spain
renounced claims to Oregon Country. [see 1821]
(AP, 2/22/99)(HN, 2/22/99)
1819 Mar 2, Territory of
Arkansas was organized. [see Jul 4]
1819 Mar 2, US passed its 1st
1819 Mar 3, An Act to protect
the commerce of the United States and punish the crime of piracy
became a federal statute. It was amended in 1820 to declare the
slave trade and robbing a ship to be piracy as well. The last
execution for piracy in the United States was of slave trader
Nathaniel Gordon in 1862 under the amended act.
1819 Mar 3, The Civilization
Fund Act was created by the United States legislature to encourage
activities of benevolent societies in providing education for Native
Americans and also authorized an annuity to stimulate the
1819 Mar 6, The US Supreme
Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that the state could not impose
a tax on the notes of banks not chartered in the state. Luther
Martin represented Maryland in the landmark case.
1819 Mar 26, Louise Otto,
German feminist author, was born.
1819 Mar 29, Edwin Drake
(d.1890), the man who drilled the first productive oil well (1859),
1819 Mar 29, Isaac Mayer Wise,
rabbi, founder (American Hebrew Congregations), was born.
1819 Apr 14, Charles Halle,
pianist, conductor, founder (Halle Orch), was born.
1819 Apr 18, Franz von Suppa,
composer (Light Cavalry Overture), was born in Spalato, Dalmatia.
1819 Apr 19, The USS Alabama
and Louisiana destroyed a pirate base at the Patterson's Town Raid
on Breton Island, Louisiana.
1819 Apr 26, The first Odd
Fellow lodge (Independent Order of Odd Fellows or IOOF) was
established in the U.S. in Baltimore, Md. They started in Great
Britain with the purpose: "to relieve the brethren, bury the dead,
and care for the widow and orphan."
(440 Intl. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)
1819 Mar 29, Edwin Drake, the
man who drilled the first productive oil well, was born.
1819 May 15, Thomas Leonidas
Crittenden, Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1819 May 21, The 1st bicycles
(swift walkers) in US were introduced in NYC.
1819 May 23, Bolivars
revolutionary commanders met in the deserted village of Setenta,
Venezuela, and planned a march across the Andes to attack Spanish
forces in New Granada (Colombia).
(ON, 3/05, p.1)
1819 May 24, Queen Victoria
(d.1901) was born in London. Her reign (1836-1901) restored dignity
to the British crown. She had nine children. "Great events make me
quiet and calm; it is only trifles that irritate my nerves."
(AP, 5/24/97)(HN, 5/24/99)(AP, 2/24/99)
1819 May 26, The first
steam-propelled vessel to attempt a trans-Atlantic crossing, the
350-ton Savannah, departed from Savannah, Ga., May 26 and arrived in
Liverpool, England, Jun 20. [HNQ set May 24 for the departure]
(AP, 5/22/97)(HNQ, 3/18/02)
1819 May 27, Julia Ward Howe,
writer of the "Battle Hymn of the Republic," was born.
1819 May 31, Poet Walt Whitman
(d.1892) was born in West Hill, N.Y. He became Americas national
poet with vibrant works such as 1855s Leaves of Grass. He poems
included: "When Lilacs Last in the Doorway Bloomed." Some of
Whitmans poems were inspired by his Civil War experience as a
hospital volunteer in Washington. Although a staunch supporter of
the Union cause, Whitman comforted dying soldiers of both sides, as
described in one of the poet's wartime newspaper dispatches: "I
stayed a long time by the bedside of a new patient.... In an
adjoining ward I found his brother...It was in the same battle both
were hit. One was a strong Unionist, the other Secesh; both fought
for their respective sides, both badly wounded, and both brought
together after a separation of four years. Each died for his cause."
(AP, 5/31/97)(HN, 5/31/98)(HNQ,
6/1/98)(V.D.-H.K.p.278)(HNPD, 5/25/99)(HN, 5/31/99)
1819 Jun 10, J.D. Gustave
Courbet (d.1877), French realist painter (Demoiselles the la Seine),
was born. His realistic landscapes were marked by bold shadows and
compositions fragmented by the play of natural light. This technique
was pursued more fully by the impressionists. His work included
"Rock at HautePierre."
(DPCP, 1984)(WSJ, 3/10/00, p.W16)(MC, 6/10/02)
1819 Jun 20, Jacques Offenbach
(d.1880), French composer (Tales of Hoffmann), was born in Cologne.
His work included the comedy opera "Barbe-Bleue" (Blue Beard).
(MC, 6/20/02)(WSJ, 2/20/98, p.A16)
1819 Jun 20, The paddle-wheel
steamship Savannah arrives in Liverpool, England, after a voyage of
27 days and 11 hours--the first steamship to successfully cross the
1819 Jun 26, Abner Doubleday
(d.1893), Civil War General, was born. He was incorrectly credited
with inventing American baseball.
(HN, 6/26/99)(WSJ, 7/19/01, p.A20)
1819 Jun 26, The bicycle was
patented by W.K. Clarkson, Jr. of New York City. [see May 21]
1819 Jul 4, The Territory of
Arkansas was created.
(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1819 Jul 4, William Herschel
(1738-1822), German-born English astronomer, made his last
telescopic observation of an 1819 comet. His son, Sir John Frederick
William Herschel (1792-1871), was also an astronomer.
(WUD, 1994, p.666)(Maggio, 98)
1819 Jul 9, Elias Howe
(d.1867), inventor of the sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Mass.
Howe, a machinist, developed his sewing machine in 1843-45 and
patented it in 1846. Although Howe's machine sewed only short,
straight lines, tailors and seamstresses saw it as a threat to their
jobs. Unable to market his machine in America, Howe took it to
Britain where he sold the rights to an English manufacturer in 1847.
Upon his return to the United States, Howe discovered that his
patent had been infringed upon by other sewing machine
manufacturers, such as Isaac Singer. After a lengthy court battle,
Howe's patent was upheld and royalties from sewing machine sales
made him a wealthy man.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)(HN, 7/9/99)(MC, 7/9/02)
1819 Jul, Stephen Long joined
Gen. Henry Atkinson's Yellowstone Expedition bound from St. Louis to
the Rockies on the steamboat Western Engineer. This was the first
steamboat to travel up the Missouri River into the Louisiana
Purchase territory. Edwin James, a medical doctor, botanist and
ethnologist, also served on the expedition.
1819 Aug 1, Herman Melville
(d.1891), American novelist, author of Moby Dick, was born. In 1996
part one of a 2-part biography was published by Hershel Parker:
Herman Melville: 1819-1851. In 1951 Leon Howard wrote a biography.
Melville wrote 5 books between 1845-1850. They included "Typee,"
"Omoo," and "White-Jacket."
(AHD, p.818)(WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A14)(HN,
8/1/98)(SFEC, 2/13/00, BR p.6)
1819 Aug 2, The first parachute
jump from a balloon was made by Charles Guille in New York City.
1819 Aug 7, South American
liberator Simon Bolivar defeated Spanish forces under Gen. Jose
Barreiro in New Granada (Colombia) at the Battle of Boyaca. The
revolutionary army entered Bogota Aug 10.
(HNQ, 9/12/99)(ON, 3/05, p.2)
1819 Aug 9, William Thomas
Green Morton (d.1868), American dentist who 1st used ether on a
patient (1846), was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.932)(MC, 8/9/02)
1819 Aug 16, English police
charged unemployed demonstrators at St. Peter's Field in the
Manchester Massacre. 11 people were killed in the Peterloo massacre.
The press responded with a volley of attacks that included The
Political House that Jack Built by William Hone and illustrator
1819 Aug 23, Oliver Hazard
Perry, naval hero, died on his 34th birthday.
1819 Aug 25, Allan Pinkerton
(d.1884) was born in Glasgow, Scotland. He fled Scotland in 1842 to
avoid capture for his involvement with the revolutionary group
called the Chartists. In 1850 he founded the Pinkerton detective
agency in Chicago and later worked as Abe Lincoln's bodyguard.
1819 Aug 25, Scotsman James
Watt (b.1736), Scottish inventor, died. His 1775 improved steam
engine advanced coal mining and made the Industrial Revolution
1819 Aug 26, Albert "Bertie"
von Saxon-Coburg-Gotha (d.1861), husband of queen Victoria, was born
at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, Bavaria.
1819 Aug 31, A naval battle
took place between United States Revenue Cutter Service cutters and
one of Jean Lafitte's pirate ships off southern Florida.
1819 Sep 6, William Starke
Rosecrans, Maj. General (Union volunteers), was born.
1819 Sep 6, Thomas Blanchard
(b.1788) patented the lathe.
1819 Sep 13, Clara Josephine
Schumann, [nee Wieck], pianist and composer, was born in Leipzig,
1819 Sep 16, Dr. John Jeffries,
who crossed the English Channel (1785) with Frenchman Jean-Pierre
Blanchard for the first time in a hydrogen balloon, died in Boston.
(HN, 5/15/98)(HN, 1/7/99)
1819 Sep 18, Leon Foucault,
French physicist, was born. [see Sep 17]
1819 Oct 6, Willem A. Scholten,
Dutch potato flour manufacturer, was born.
1819 Oct 20, Daniel Edgar
Sickles (d.1914), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1819 Oct 22, The 1st ship
passed through Erie Canal (Rome-Utica).
1819 Nov 22, George Eliot
(d.1880), English writer, was born as Mary Ann Evans. Her books
included Adam Bede, Silas Marner and Middlemarch. She was
driven out of England with her companion, G.H. Lewes, for a while
for not being married. Her books tore away the curtain of Victorian
life and revealed its bitter small-mindedness for anyone to see.
"The happiest women, like the happiest nations, have no history."
11/22/98)(SSFC, 2/9/14, p.F7)
1819 Nov, Nantucket whalers
lost their ship to an 80-ton bull sperm whale and attempted to make
landfall in 3 boats on the coast of South America. 8 crewmen
survived after they consumed 7 of their mates. [see Owen Chase in
1821] 5 men in 2 boats were picked up after 90 days. In 1960 cabin
boy Thomas Nickerson wrote an account of the tragedy. In 2000
Nathaniel Philbrick authored "In the Heart of the Sea, The Tragedy
of the Whale Ship Essex."
(WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W6)(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.12)
1819 Dec 14, Alabama was
admitted as the 22nd state, making 11 slave states and 11 free
(AP, 12/14/97)(HN, 12/14/98)
1819 Theodore Chasseriau
(d.1856), artist, was born in Semana, Dominican Republic. He was the
son of a French diplomat and French-Creole mother.
(WSJ, 11/26/02, p.D8)
1819 Caspar David Friedrich
(1774-1840), German Romantic painter, created his "Two Men
Contemplating the Moon." He painted it as part of a series of 3
(1824,1830). The 3rd had the same title, the 2nd was titled "Man and
Woman Contemplating the Moon."
(WSJ, 9/21/01, p.W2)(WSJ, 10/17/01, p.A24)
1819 J.M.W. Turner (44),
English artist (1775-1851), visited Venice for the 1st time. He
returned in 1833 and 1840. His 1st oil painting with a Venetian
setting was done in 1833.
(WSJ, 3/17/04, p.D4)
1819 Spains Prado opened as
the Real Mueso de Pintura y Escultura.
(WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)
1819 John Vanderlyn depicted
the Versailles gardens in a panorama later transferred to the
Metropolitan Museum of Art.
(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)
1819 Washington Irving
published "The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon," which included "The
Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle."
(USAT, 11/12/99, p.2D)
1819 Johann Wilhelm Klein of
Vienna, Austria, published a book on training dogs for the blind.
(ON, 12/03, p.5)
1819 The opera "La Donna del
Lago," by Gioacchino Antonio Rossini premiered in Naples. It was
based on the Walter Scott romance "The lady of the Lake."
(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)
1819 William Jay age 22,
English architect, built several fine homes in Savannah, Georgia.
These included the Scarbrough House and the Owens-Thomas House.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 70)
1819 The American Geological
Society was founded at Yale College. The membership included the
illustrious Benjamin Silliman (17791864). The Society was
short-lived, going out of existence in 1828.
1819 Thomas Jefferson
(1743-1826) almost single-handedly created the University of
Virginia and served as its first president. The university opened
for classes in 1825.
1819 The city of Vandalia was
founded and began serving as the state capital of Illinois. The
capital was moved to Springfield in 1839.
1819 A recession hit the US. As
farms prices dropped leveraged buyers went bust.
(Econ, 4/6/13, p.88)
1819 Hannibal, Missouri, the
small Midwestern city and boyhood home of Mark Twain (Samuel
Clemens), was settled by Moses Bates on land belonging to Abraham
1819 In Savannah Chatham
Artillery Punch was served to Pres. James Monroe. It was a
concoction of Catawba, rum, gin, brandy, rye whiskey, strong tea,
brown sugar, Benedictine, juices of oranges and lemons, Maraschino
cherries and champagne.
1819 Chief Justice John
Marshall in Dartmouth College v. Woodward described the corporation
as "an artificial being, invisible, intangible." Among its
properties "are immortality; and if the expression be allowed,
(WSJ, 4/11/01, p.A16)
1819 In Philadelphia Dr. Thomas
W. Dyott, (druggist, patent-medicine vendor, and physician)
purchased the Kensington Glass Works. He expanded the business and
changed the name to the Dyottville Glass Works. He was forced out of
the firm in 1838, but the glassworks continued operating until about
(SFC, 1/14/98, Z1 p.2)
1819 Caffeine was isolated by
this year. Its pure form turned out to be a bitter powder readily
soluble in boiling water.
(WSJ, 1/30/00, p.A20)
1819 Hans Christian Oersted
discovered that an electric current will deflect the needle of a
compass pointing to the unity of the electromagnetic force.
1819 In Sidney, Australia,
convict labor built the Hyde Park Barracks and the state Parliament.
(SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)
1819 Johann Baptist von Spix
discovered the Spix macaw of Brazil (Cyanopsitta spixii). The last
wild Spix macaw disappeared in 2000.
(SFC, 10/7/99, p.A15,18)(SFC, 12/27/00, p.C2)
1819 The British burned the
Arab port of Ras al Khaymah in response to attacks by Arab "pirate"
ships. Sheikh Sultan bin Muhammad of the emirate of Sharjah
publishes a book in 1987, The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf,
claiming the Arabs were defending their native waters.
(NG, 5/88, p.662, 670)
1819 Bogota became the capital
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)
1819 The government of Egypt
formally presented the obelisk of Alexandria as a gift to Great
Britain. It was first erected in Heliopolis in 1461 BC. The Romans
had moved it to Alexandria in 14BC and it had lain prone since an
earthquake soon after 1300.
(ON, 6/20/11, p.9)
1819 In Hawaii monarchists
defeated traditionalists at the battlefield of Kuamoo. 300 warriors
perished along with the old Hawaiian religion.
(SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T9)
1819 William Moorcroft, East
India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, set out for
Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses.
(ON, 1/02, p.3)
1819 In India a British hunting
party discovered the painted caves at Ajanta that dated from
(WSJ, 11/12/98, p.A28)
c1819 In France a silver soup
tureen was manufactured by Jean-Baptiste Claude Odiot. It fetched
over a million dollars in a 1997 auction.
(WSJ, 10/24/97, p.B18)
1819 Hawaiis King Kamehameha
II abolished the brutal kapu system of laws. Temples and sacred
sites associated with the system began to fall into disrepair. Queen
Kaahumanu, helped overturn the kapu belief system by sharing a meal
with Kamehameha II following the death of King Kamehameha.
(SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)(SSFC, 8/30/09, p.M5)
1819 Russia declared Odessa to
be a free port.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.86)
1819 Singapore was declared a
free port after it was taken over by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles
(1781-1826), an officer of the British East India Co. Sultan Hussein
was enthroned by the British but he never ruled. Raffles laid out
the city into ethnic zones.
(WSJ, 11/12/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/22/99,
p.A23)(SFCM, 3/11/01, p.70)(SSFC, 2/07/04, p.C9)
1819-1820 The James Long Expedition was an attempt
to take control of Spanish Texas. Long successfully established a
small independent government, known as the Republic of Texas
(distinct from the later Republic of Texas created by the Texas
Revolution). The expedition crumbled later in the year, as Spanish
troops drove the invaders out. Long returned to Texas in 1820 and
attempted to reestablish his control.
1819-1861 Prince Albert of Britain, consort to
(WUD, 1994, p.34)
1819-1880 George Eliot, English writer, was driven
out of England with her companion, G.H. Lewes, for a while for not
being married. Her books tore away the curtain of Victorian life and
revealed its bitter small-mindedness for anyone to see. "The
happiest women, like the happiest nations, have no history."
1819-1891 Donn Piatt, American journalist: "There
is no tyranny so despotic as that of public opinion among a free
1819-1898 Theodor Fontane, German author:
"Happiness, it seems to me, consists of two things: first, in being
where you belong, and second -- and best -- in comfortably going
through everyday life, that is, having had a good night's sleep and
not being hurt by new shoes." His work included practical hiking
guides to Brandenburg, poetry theater criticism, foreign
correspondence and novels. His novels included "Effi Briest" and
"LAdultera." In 1998 a biography by Gordon Craig was scheduled to
(AP, 8/7/97)(WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A20)
1819-1910 Julia Ward Howe, US writer and reformer.
She wrote "The Battle Hymn of the Republic."
(WUD, 1994, p.689)
1820 Jan 12, Royal Astronomical
Society was founded in England.
1820 Jan 20, Anne Clough,
promoter of higher education, was born.
1820 Jan 20-1820 Jan 29, As
George IV was about to become King of England, his wife Caroline
(the German princess of Brunswick) returned to claim her rights. She
had been living on the continent and was rumored to have had as
lovers such men as: the politician George Canning, the admiral Sir
Sydney Smith, the painter Sir Thomas Lawrence. The House of Lords
introduced a Bill of Pains and Penalties, which sought to strip
Caroline of her title of Queen on the grounds of her scandalous
conduct. George had previously married Maria Anne Fitzherbert in
secret. A trial ensued, but witnesses refused to speak against the
queen and the bill had to be amended.
p.A-10)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)
1820 Jan 29, Britain's King
George III (b.1760) died insane at Windsor Castle at age 81, ending
a reign that saw both the American and French revolutions. He
was succeeded by his son George IV (1762-1830), who as Prince of
Wales had been regent for 9 years during his fathers insanity. In
2005 scientists reported high levels of arsenic in the hair of King
George III and said the deadly poison may be to blame for the bouts
of apparent madness he suffered. In 2006 Stella Tillyard authored A
Royal Affair: George III and His Troublesome Siblings and Jeremy
Black authored George III: Americas Last King.
12/26/06, p.D8)(Econ, 1/28/06, p.80)
1820 Jan 30, Edward Bransfield
discovered Antarctica and claimed it for the UK.
1820 Jan, A large fire in
Savannah, Georgia wiped out 463 buildings.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)
1820 Feb 6, The American
Colonization Society sent its 1st organized emigration of blacks
back to Africa from NY to Sierra Leone.
(AH, 2/05, p.17)
1820 Feb 6, US population
announced at 9,638,453 including 1,771,656 blacks (18.4%).
1820 Feb 7, Samuel Adams
Holyoke (57/58), composer, died.
1820 Feb 8, General William T.
Sherman (d.1891), Union general in America's Civil War, was born.
His famous "March to the Sea" changed the face of modern warfare.
(HN, 2/8/99)(AP, 4/7/99)(MC, 2/8/02).
1820 Feb 15, American
suffragist Susan B. Anthony (d.1906) was born in Adams, Mass. Her
middle name was Brownell. Her biography by Lynn Sherr was titled:
"Failure Is Impossible."
(SFEC, 9/21/97, Par p.4)(AP, 2/15/98)(HN,
2/15/98)(SFC, 8/15/98, p.E4)
1820 Feb 15, Pierre-Joseph
Cambon (63), member of Committee of Public Safety (French
1820 Feb 17, Henri Vieuxtemps,
composer, teacher (Brussels Cons), was born in Verviers, Belgium.
1820 Feb 28, John Tenniel
(d.1914), illustrator of "Alice in Wonderland," was born. He was an
(HN, 2/28/98)(WUD, 1994, p.1463)
1820 Feb, The Cato Street
Conspiracy, organized by revolutionary Arthur Thistlewood, was
the. assassination of the entire British Cabinet.
Earlier, in 1816, Thistlewood helped plan the Spa Fields Riots,
during which the Bank of England and Tower of London were to be
seized. In February, 1820, Thistlewood learned the entire British
Cabinet planned to dine at the Earl of Harrowbys house in Londons
Grosvenor Square. His plot for murder was revealed to the police,
who apprehended Thistlewood and a number of accomplices as they
prepared to leave a room on Cato Street for Grosvenor Square.
Thistlewood was tried for high treason and hanged, along with four
1820 cFeb, Five surviving crew
members in 2 boats of whale ship Essex were picked up by 2 ships.
[see Owen Chase in 1819, 1821]
(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.12)
1820 Mar 3, The Missouri
Compromise was passed by Congress. It allowed Missouri to enter the
Union as a slave state and Maine to enter as a free state. [see Mar
(PCh, 1992, p.389)(SC, 3/3/02)
1820 Mar 5, Dutch city of
Leeuwarden forbade Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays.
1820 Mar 6, The Missouri
Compromise, enacted by Congress, was signed by President James
Monroe. This compromise provided for the admission of Missouri into
the Union as a slave state, but prohibited slavery in the rest of
the northern Louisiana Purchase territory. The compromise was
invalidated in the 1856 Scott vs. Sanford case. [see Mar 3]
(HN, 3/6/98)(SFC, 11/30/00, p.A3)
1820 Mar 9-11, Philippines
chased out foreigners and about 125 died.
1820 Mar 9, Congress passed the
Land Act, paving the way for westward expansion.
1820 Mar 14, Victor Emmanuel
II, King of Sardinia (1849-61) and Italy (1861-78), was born.
1820 Mar 15, Maine, a province
of Massachusetts since 1647, became the 23rd state. Maine entered
the Union as a free state and helped maintain the balance in the US
Senate, that would have been disrupted by the entrance of Missouri
Territory into the Union as a slave state.
1820 Mar 22, The Decatur-Barron
Duel. U.S. naval hero Stephen Decatur (b.1779) was killed in a duel
with Commodore James Barron near Washington, D.C.
(HFA, 96, p.26)(AP, 3/22/97)
1820 Mar 30, Anna Sewell,
English novelist, was born. Her "Black Beauty" has become the
classic story about horses.
1820 Apr 15, Evander McNair,
Brig General (Confederate Army), died in 1902, was born.
1820 Apr 17, Alexander
Cartwright, sportsman, was born. He developed baseball.
1820 Apr 20, Arthur Young,
author (Annals of Agriculture), died.
1820 May 4, Joseph Whitaker,
bookseller and publisher, was born. He founded Whitaker's Almanac.
1820 May 12, Florence
Nightingale (d.1910), Crimean War British nurse known as Lady with
the Lamp, was born in Florence, Italy. She is also known as the
founder of modern nursing.
1820 May 13, The opera "Die
Jearsbraut" was completed.
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1820 May 15, The US Congress
designated the slave trade to a form of piracy.
1820 May 23, James Buchanan
Eads, engineer of the Eads Bridge in St. Louis, was born.
1820 Jun 14, John Bartlett,
editor, compiler of Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, was born.
1820 Jun 19, Joseph Banks,
English natural historian (Cook, Australia), died.
1820 Jun 28, The tomato was
proven to be non-poisonous.
1820 Jul 10, Captain Jairus of
the USRC Louisiana captured four pirate ships off Belize.
1820 Aug 2, John Tyndall
(d.1893), British physicist, was born. He was the first scientist to
show why the sky is blue. "It is as fatal as it is cowardly to blink
(at) facts because they are not to our taste."
(AP, 9/25/99)(HN, 8/2/00)
1820 Aug 6, M.A. Elisa
Bonaparte (43), Corsican monarch of Lucca, died.
1820 Aug 7, The 1st potatoes
were planted in Hawaii.
1820 Aug 12, Oliver Mowat, a
founder of the Canadian Confederation, was born.
1820 Aug 13, George Grove,
biblical scholar, musicographer (Grove's Dictionary), was born in
1820 Aug 14, The 1st US eye
hospital, the NY Eye Infirmary, opened in NYC.
1820 Sep 4, Czar Alexander
declared that Russian influence in North America extended as far
south as Oregon and closed Alaskan waters to foreigners.
1820 Sep 20, John Fulton
Reynolds, Major General (Union volunteers), was born. He died in
1863 on first day at Gettysburg.
1820 Sep 26, The legendary
frontiersman Daniel Boone died quietly at the Defiance, Mo., home of
his son Nathan, at age 85.
1820 Sep 28, Friedrich Engels,
socialist who collaborated with Karl Marx on The Communist Manifesto
and Das Kapital, was born.
1820 Sep, John Keats and the
young painter Severn started for Italy aboard the cargo boat Maria
(WP, 1951, p.15)
1820 Sep, William Moorcroft,
East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived
in Ladakh, while enroute to Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for
horses. He spent 2 years here before continuing his journey.
(ON, 1/02, p.5)
1820 Oct 6, Jenny Lind
(d.1887), soprano, was born. She was known as the "Swedish
1820 Oct 11, Sir George
Williams, founder of the YMCA, was born.
1820 Oct 12, John James Audubon
boarded the steamboat Western Engineer in Cincinnati, Ohio, and
embarked on a 5-year journey along the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
collecting and painting birds.
(ON, 12/05, p.7)
1820 Oct 15, Florence
Nightingale (d.1910), English hospital reformer and nursing pioneer,
was born. "Were there none who were discontented with what they
have, the world would never reach anything better."
(AP, 11/12/97)(HN, 10/15/98)
1820 Oct 20, Spain sold a part
of Florida to US for $5 million.
1820 Oct, Argentinas Jose de
San Martin blockaded Lima, Peru, and urged the people of Peru to
join in the uprising against Spain.
p.87)(ON, 10/09, p.10)
1820 Nov 18, U.S. Navy Capt.
Nathaniel B. Palmer discovered the frozen continent of Antarctica.
1820 Nov 28, Friedrich Engels
(d.1895), German social philosopher; Marx's collaborator, was born.
1820 Dec 6, James Monroe, the
5th US president, was elected for a 2nd term.
1820 Dec 7, Perus army, after
sweeping out the Spanish, swore in the first mayor of the Peruvian
Republic, in Chaupimarca plaza, the central district of Cerro de
Pasco. By 2010 the town faced destruction due to industrial mining.
1820 Dec 20, Missouri imposed a
$1 bachelor tax on unmarried men between 21 and 50.
1820 Dec, Franz Schubert
composed his String Quartet No. 12 in C Minor (Quartettsatz). It was
only introduced to the public in 1867.
1820 Anne Bronte (d.1849),
younger sister of Charlotte and Emily, was born. Her novels included
"Agnes Grey" and "The Tenant of Wildfell Hall."
(WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A21)
1820 Lola Montez, cabaret
singer and countess, was born Eliza Gilbert and grew up in India as
a military brat. She was later involved with King Ludvig of Bavaria
and he made her Countess of Landsfeld. She later traveled to
California. Her biography by Bruce Seymour is titled: "Lola Montez:
(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.8)
1820 Constable made his
painting of Salisbury Cathedral.
(WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)
1820 Keisai Eisen, Japanese
artist, pictured an intricately coifed woman that later appeared on
the cover of a French magazine and inspired Van Goghs 1887
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1820 Mary Shelley wrote her
childrens story "Maurice, or the Fishers Cot. " It did not get
published until 1998 when Claire Tomalin published an edition with
an extensive editorial preface.
(SFEC, 11/15/98, BR p.3)
1820 Helen Kellers grandfather
built the Ivy Green House in Tuscumbia, Alabama.
(PC, Polychrome Picture Products)
1820 The Mexican government
granted Luis Peralta (1759-1851) the 44,800-acre Rancho San Antonio
in the East Bay of northern California, for his military services.
The rancho ran from San Leandro Creek to a rise known as El Cerrito.
Peralta settled in San Jose, while his four sons took over the land
grant. The Peralta Hacienda in Oakland was built in 1870.
5/3/02, p.A20)(SFC, 11/26/10, p.D9)
1820 A law banning the carrying
of concealed weapons was passed in Indiana.
1820 In New Jersey a county
poorhouse farm was established on 200 acres of land in what later
became Hudson County, directly across the river from Manhattan. Be
the end of the century it had become the sprawling Snake Hill
complex with isolation hospitals and 3 burial grounds. In the 20th
century it was renamed Laurel Hill. The institutions steadily
emptied after the Depression and in 1950 the new New Jersey Turnpike
ran through the site. In 2002 the New Jersey Turnpike Authority
purchased the eastern burial ground of Snake Hill. Research soon
revealed an estimated 3,500 burials on the purchased property, which
became known as the Secaucus Potters field site. In 2003 the last
burial was disinterred for a total of 4,571 sets of human remains
from 2686 graves.
(Arch, 5/05, p.43)
1820 In Tennessee an iron forge
was established by settler Isaac Love on the Little Pigeon River at
the foot of the Great Smokey Mountains.
(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A3)
missionaries from New England arrived. The brig Thaddeus delivered
the first missionaries and Lucy Thurston taught the native women to
sew calico patch work. James Michener later used their story as the
focus of his historical novel "Hawaii."
(Wired, 8/95, p.90)(Hem., 2/96, p.72)(SFEM,
1820 Thomas Jefferson wrote of
slavery: "We have a wolf by the ears and can neither hold him, nor
safely let him go." Although a slaveholder himself, Jefferson had
expressed hopes that in the wake of the American Revolution, slavery
in the South would wither and die.
1820 Eliphalet Snedecor rented
land on Long Island, NY, and established a tavern. It became popular
among fisherman and bird shooters.
(WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D6)
1820 Norwich Univ. began as a
private military college in the Green Mountains of Vermont.
(Hem, 9/04, p.69)
1820 American cotton exports
reached 400,000 bales a year.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.46)
1820 An American whaling ship
from Brighton, Massachusetts, was later believed to be the first to
enter Japanese waters.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.64)
1820 In the Antelope seizure, a
Spanish flag vessel was involved at a time when Spain still
sanctioned the slave trade.
(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)
1820 The industrial force
exceeded the number of people engaged in agriculture in Great
1820 There are more than a
thousand ships engaged in transporting timber from the North America
to the British Isles. Human cargo filled the return journey.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.52)
1820 US census takers on the
Virginia-Tennessee border at Stone Mountain labeled the local
Melungeons as "free persons of color." The people were of a mixed
ancestry, neither all black, nor all white, nor all Indian. In 1997
some 500 Melungeon descendents still lived in the area. Later N.
Brent Kennedy wrote: "The Melungeons... An Untold Story of Ethnic
Cleansing in America."
(WSJ, 4/14/97, p.B1)
1820 Hans Christian Oersted,
Danish physicist, discovered that an electric current creates a
magnetic field around a conductor.
1820 The Greek Venus de Milo
statue of marble was found in 1820 on Melos and is now in the
Louvre. It was sculpted about c200BC. [2nd source says 2,500 years
(WUD, 1994, p.1586)(SFEC, 3/9/96, Z1 p.5)
1820 Scotsman Gregor MacGregor
(1791-1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of
Poyais, returned to London from Venezuela and began selling land in
the fictional kingdom of Poyais. He served 8 months in jail after
English and French expeditions revealed the hoax. In 1839 he
returned to Venezuela. In 2004 David Sinclair authored "The Land
That Never Was: Sir Gregor MacGregor and the Most Audacious Land
Fraud in History."
(SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)
1820 Some 4,000 British
colonists, the Albany settlers, settled in the eastern coastal
region of the Cape of Good Hope.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)
c1820 In London Thomas Hancock sliced up a rubber
bottle from the Americas to create garters and waistbands.
(SFC, 9/19/98, p.E3)
1820 In India the Prince of
Baroda was forbidden to increase his daily number of canon salutes
by the British Raj, so instead he had his fort's canons made from
solid gold at 28 pounds each.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)
1820 Cats were introduce to
Macquarie Island, located half-way between New Zealand and
Antarctica. Rabbits were introduced in 1878. The eradication of cats
led to an epidemic of rabbits, which devastated the native
(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.10)
1820 In southern Poland Jan
Kutschera opened the Sczcawnica Zdroj health resort. He sold it in
1929 to the Hungarian Szalay family, which turned it into a
fashionable place. Josef Szalay bequeathed it to Krakows Academy of
Arts and Sciences, which sold it to Count Stadnicki in 1909.
Stadnicki (d.1982 at 99) was ousted by the communists in 1948. By
2008 his heirs had regained control of the spa and invested $4.5
million in restoration.
(SSFC, 8/17/08, p.F7)
1820 The first permanent
astronomical observatory in the southern hemisphere was built near
Cape Town, South Africa.
(Econ, 6/2/12, p.95)
1820 Nguyen Du (b.1766), author
of The Tale of Kieu, died. His Vietnamese epic tells the story of
woman who sells herself into prostitution to pay off her fathers
(SSFC, 8/21/05, p.B1)
1820s Grain prices collapsed in
(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)
1820s Renegade Zulus rebelled
against King Chaka, but were crushed. Descendents of the renegade
Zulus are of the Ndebele tribe, which forms a 5th of Zimbabwes 11
million people, the majority of which are of the Shona tribe.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.C16)
1820s The Garinagu, descendants
of African slaves and Caribbean Indians, fled to Belize from the Bay
Islands of Honduras.
(SFEC, 6/1/97, p.T3)
1820-1825 In India Ghulam Ali Khan painted his
gouache and watercolor: "Assembly of Ascetics and Yogins around a
(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)
1820-1891 George Hearst, later businessman and
politician, was born.
(SFEM, 10/24/99, p.20)
1820-1903 Herbert Spencer, nineteenth-century
British thinker and early upholder of the theory of evolution,
regarded human progress as "not an accident but a necessity."
Spencer was born in England believed that every aspect of reality
must be viewed in terms of a continuing development from lower to
higher stages. His naturalistic philosophy had a great influence on
the development of biology, psychology, anthropology and sociology.
Spencer published his idea of the evolution of biological species
before Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. Spencer coined the
phrase "survival of the fittest in his 1864 work Principles of
Biology. "Hero-worship is strongest where there is least regard for
(HNQ, 8/19/98)(AP, 2/25/00)
1820-1904 Christian Nestell Bovee, American
author: "Doubt whom you will, but never doubt yourself."
1820-1910 Felix Nadar, French photographer, was
born in Paris as Gaspard-Felix Tournachon. He is known for
photographing such people as George Sand, Alexandre Dumas,
Gioacchino Rossini, Eugene Delacroix, Sarah Burnhardt, Charles
Baudelaire and Gerard de Nerval. He was the first photographer to
experiment with electric lighting, and explored the realm of aerial
(Smith., 5/95, p.72)
1820-1920 Some 6 million Irish people, 90% of them
Catholic, immigrated to America.
(WSJ, 10/27/08, p.A15)