Timeline 1821-1830

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1821        Jan 4, The first native-born American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton, died in Emmitsburg, Md.
    (AP, 1/4/98)

1821        Jan 21, John Breckinridge (d.1875), 14th U.S. Vice President, was born. He served under James Buchanan (1857-1861). Breckenridge was a Confederate General in the Civil War. [His brother-in-law was Lloyd Tevis, founder of Wells Fargo]
    (WUD, 1994, p.183)(HN, 1/21/99)

1821        Feb 3, Elizabeth Blackwell (d.1910), first woman to get an MD from a U.S. medical school, was born in Bristol, England.
    (http://womenshistory.about.com/od/blackwellelizabeth/a/eliz_blackwell.htm)

1821        Feb 11, Auguste Edouard Mariette, French Egyptologist, (dug out Sphinx 12/16/42), was born.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1821        Feb 12, The Mercantile Library of City of NY opened.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1821        Feb 21, Charles Scribner, was born. He founded the New York Publishing firm which became Charles Scribner's Sons and also founded Scribner's magazine.
    (HN, 2/21/99)

1821        Feb 22, The Adams-Onis Treaty became final, whereby Spain gave up all of Florida to the US. The boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana Purchase was established and the US renounced all claims to Texas.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1821        Feb 23, College of Apothecaries, the 1st US pharmacy college, was organized in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1821        Feb 23, John Keats, English poet, died of tuberculosis at the age of 26. In 1998 the biography "Keats" by Andrew Motion was published. Earlier biographies included one by W. Jackson Bates (1963), and a novelistic psychological portrait by Aileen Ward (1963). The standard work on Keats was written by Robert Gittings in 1968.
    (WP, 1951, p.11)(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)(SFEC, 3/29/98, BR p.6)

1821        Feb 24, Mexico rebels proclaimed the "Plan de Iguala," their declaration of independence from Spain, and took over the mission lands in California.
    (HT, 3/97, p.61)(AP, 2/24/98)(HN, 2/24/98)

1821        Mar 5, Monroe was the first president to be inaugurated on March 5, only because the 4th was a Sunday.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1821        Mar 14, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church founded in NY.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1821        Mar 15, Josef Loschmidt (d.1895), a pioneer of 19th-century physics and chemistry, was born in Putschim (Pocerny), Bohemia. In his first publication (1861) Loschmidt proposed the first structural chemical formulae for many important molecules, introducing markings for double and triple carbon bonds. In 1865 he became the first person to use the kinetic theory of gases to obtain a reasonably good value for the diameter of a molecule. What we call "Avogadro's number" is, in German-speaking countries, called "Loschmidt's number."
    (www.physicstoday.org/pt/vol-54/iss-3/p45.html)

1821        Mar 19, Sir Richard Burton (d.1890), English explorer, was born.
    (HN, 3/19/01)

1821        Mar 25, Greece gained independence from Turkey (National Day). [see Mar 28]
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1821        Mar 26, Franz Grillparzer's "Das Goldene Vliess" premiered in Vienna.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1821        Mar 28, Greek Independence Day celebrates the liberation of Southern Greece from Turkish domination. In 1844 Thomas Gordon authored a study of the Greek revolution. In 2001 David Brewer authored "The Greek War of Independence."
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1821        Apr 4, Linus Yale, American portrait painter and inventor of the Yale lock, was born.
    (HN, 4/4/01)(MC, 4/4/02)

1821        Apr 9, Charles Baudelaire (d.1867), French poet, was born. His works were censored and he was considered a pathetic psychopath; he also became the most acute critic of his age in France. He was photographed by Felix Nadar in 1855.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.278)(Smith., 5/95, p.72)(HN, 4/9/01)

1821        Apr 20, Franz K. Achard (67), German physicist, chemist, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1821        May 3, The Richmond [Virginia] Light Artillery was organized.
    (RC handout, 5/27/96)

1821        May 5, Napoleon Bonaparte (b.1769), former emperor of France (1799-1815), died in exile on the island of St. Helena. He died by slow poisoning at the hands of his companion Charles Tristan de Montholon. Scottish pathologist Dr. Hamilton Smith later used Napoleon’s hair to determine that arsenic had been administered about 40 times from 1820-1821. In 2010 a lock of Napoleon’s hair fetched 140,000 New Zealand dollars ($97,000) at auction. In 1992 Proctor Patterson Jones authored "Napoleon, An Intimate Account." In 1999 an English translation of Jean-Paul Kauffmann's "The Black Room at Longwood: Napoleon's Exile on St. Helena" was published. In 1904 F. De Bouirrienne published "Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte." In 1988 S. De Chair edited "Napoleon's Memoirs." In 2014 Andrew Roberts authored “Napoleon the Great."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.232)(AP, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)(SFEC, 8/16/98, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 4/8/99, p.C5)(AP, 8/8/97)(SFEC, 8/1/99, Par p.16)(AP, 7/01/10)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.77)

1821        May 25, Diederich Krug, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1821        May 25, Klemens von Metternich (1773-1858) became chancellor of Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klemens_von_Metternich)(Econ, 11/15/14, p.84)

1821        Jun 2, Ion Bratianu (Lib), premier of Romania (1876-88), was born.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1821        Jun 19, The Ottomans defeated the Greeks at the Battle of Dragasani.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1821        Jun 21, African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church was organized in NYC as a national body. [see Mar 14]
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1821        Jun 24, Battle of Carabobo: Bolivar defeated the royalists outside of Caracas.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1821        Jul 2, Charles Tupper, 6th Canadian PM (1896), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1821        Jul 6, Edmund Pettus (d.1907), for whom the civil rights landmark Edmund Pettus Bridge was named, was born in Alabama. He earned his fame as a Confederate brigadier general. Pettus was a lawyer and judge and served throughout the western theater during the Civil War. He resumed his law practice after the war and went on to serve in the U.S. Senate. Pettus died while in his second term in Congress. The Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, became a civil rights landmark when on March 7, 1965, a band of civil rights marchers on their way to Montgomery crossed the bridge, only to be attacked by state troopers on the other side.
    (HNQ, 10/21/01)

1821        Jul 13, Confederate cavalry commander Nathan Bedford Forrest was born in Tennessee’s Bedford County.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1821        Jul 16, Mary Baker Eddy (d.1910), founder of the Christian Science movement (1879), was born.
    (HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 9/26/03, p.W17)

1821        Jul 17, Spain ceded Florida to the United States. [see Feb 22]
    (AP, 7/17/97)
1821        Jul 17, Andrew Jackson became the governor of Florida.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1821        Jul 19, The coronation of George IV of England was held. His wife, Caroline, was refused admittance. She died Aug 7.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_IV_of_the_United_Kingdom)

1821        Jul 28, Peru declared its independence from Spain. Lima had been the seat of the Spanish viceroys until this time. Jose Francisco de San Martin of Argentina had blockaded Lima and forced the Spanish viceroy to abandon the city. Martin returned to Argentina in 1822
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(AP, 7/28/97)(ON, 10/09, p.10)

1821        Jul, English captain John Franklin led a party to explore the Barrens in northwest section of Canada’s Hudson Bay. George Back, midshipman, Royal Navy, painted a scene of the Sandstone Rapids on the Arctic Circle of Canada’s Northwest Territories. Of the 20 men in the party to map the northern coast of Canada west of the Hudson Bay, 11 starved and froze to death. Back returned to England and was hailed as "the man who ate his boots." Twenty-three years later he led a third arctic expedition of 129 men in two ships and all perished.
    (NH, 5/96, p.30)(WSJ, 2/10/95, p.A-7)

1821        Aug 4, The 1st edition of Saturday Evening Post was published. It continued until 1969.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1821        Aug 7, Caroline of Brunswick (b.1768), wife of England’s King George IV, died. In 2006 Jane Robins authored “The Trial of Queen Caroline: The Scandalous Affair that Nearly Ended a Monarchy."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_IV_of_the_United_Kingdom)(Econ, 8/5/06, p.76)

1821        Aug 10, Missouri became the 24th state.
    (AP, 8/10/97)

1821        Aug 19, There was a failed liberal coup against French King Louis XVIII.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1821        Aug 23, After 11 years of war, Spain granted Mexican independence as a constitutional monarchy. Spanish Viceroy Juan de O'Donoju signed the Treaty of Cordoba, which approved a plan to make Mexico an independent constitutional monarchy.
    (HN, 8/23/00)(MC, 8/23/02)

1821        Aug 28, In the city of Puebla a nun served a tri-colored chili dish to the Emperor Agustin de Iturbide, who was on his way home from signing the Treaty of Cordoba, which effectively freed Mexico from Spain. Iturbide, a Creole, had led the suppression of the initial rebellion for independence. He later abdicated, went into exile, returned and was executed. After Iturbide Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led the country over 11 presidential terms.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)

1821        Sep 1, William Becknell led a group of traders from Independence, Mo., toward Santa Fe on what would become the Santa Fe Trail.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1821        Sep 10, English captain John Franklin led a party to explore the Barrens in northwest section of Canada’s Hudson Bay. Naturalist John Richards recorded that they found the summer track of a man, where summer last only 8-weeks.
    (NH, 5/96, p.30)

1821        Sep 15, A junta convened by the captain-general in Guatemala declared independence for its provinces Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua San Salvador and Chiapas.
    (AP, 9/15/97)(EWH, 1968, p.843)

1821        Sep 27, The Mexican Empire declared its independence. Revolutionary forces occupied Mexico City as the Spanish withdraw.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1821        Oct 5, Greek rebels captured Tripolitza, the main Turkish fort in the Peloponnesian area of Greece.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1821        Oct 13, Rudolf Virchow, German politician and anthropologist (cell pathology), was born.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1821        Oct 16, Albert Franz Doppler, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1821        Oct 17, Alexander Gardner, American photographer, was born. He documented the Civil War and the West.
    (HN, 10/17/00)

1821        Nov 9, The 1st US pharmacy college held 1st classes in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1821        Nov 10, Andreas J Romberg (54), German violinist and composer (Der Rabe), died.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1821        Nov 11, Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (d.1881), Russian novelist who wrote "The Brothers Karamazov," was born. "Originality and a feeling of one’s own dignity are achieved only through work and struggle."
    (AP, 12/9/97)(HN, 11/11/98)

1821        Nov 16, Trader William Becknell reached Santa Fe, N.M., on the route that will become known as the Santa Fe Trail.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1821        Dec 12, Gustave Flaubert (d.1880), French novelist, was born. "Our ignorance of history causes us to slander our own times." [see May 8, 1880]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.278)(AP, 6/19/99)(HN, 12/12/99)

1821        Dec 17, Kentucky abolished debtor’s prisons.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1821        Dec 25, Clara Barton (d.1912), the founder of the American Red Cross, was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts. She worked as a volunteer nurse during the Civil War, distributing food and medical supplies to troops and earning herself the label "Angel of the Battlefield." She later served alongside the International Red Cross in Europe--however, she could not work directly with the organization because she was a woman. In 1882 she formed an American branch of the Red Cross. Barton lobbied for the Geneva Convention and she expanded the mission of the Red Cross to include helping victims of peacetime disasters. Clara Barton died at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland, on April 12, 1912, when she was 90 years old.
    (HNPD, 12/26/98)(WUD, 1994 p.123)

1821        Dec 28, Gioacchino Rossini moved to Bologna.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1821        In California Esteban Munras, engaged by Friar Juan Francisco Martin, arrived at Mission San Miguel and supervised the interior decorations of the new church. Munras, an artist trained by the Spanish, designed murals for the new church.
    (SB, 3/28/02)(SFC, 10/1/09, p.E6)

1821        Owen Chase, the first mate, ghost-wrote the "Narrative of the Most Extraordinary and Distressing Shipwreck of the White-Whale ship Essex." The story inspired Herman Melville’s "Moby Dick." In 2000 Nathaniel Philbrick authored "In the Heart of the Sea," a complete investigation into the Nantucket whaler’s story and "the taboo of gastronomic incest."
    (WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W6)

1821        Thomas Jefferson wrote his autobiography.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.62)

1821        Stefano Cavaletti, Italian tuner and craftsman, left a note on the snaggle-toothed spinet that he tuned for the young Verdi, free of charge due to Verdi’s talent.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.90)

1821        An independent institution for the instruction of Lutheran and reformed theologies was established at the Univ. of Vienna.
    (StuAus, April ‘95, p.18)

1821        In the US Emma Willard started the first secondary school for girls in Troy, N.Y.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, Z1,p.2)

1821        John Quincy Adams, Sec. of State, wrote: "America does not go abroad in search of monsters to destroy. She is the well-wisher to the freedom and independence of all. She is the champion only of her own."
    (WSJ, 6/25/97, p.A20)

1821        Tucson raised the Mexican flag after the Revolution in Mexico.
    (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.31)

1821        In the US south Denmark Vessey mounted a slave rebellion.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)

1821        John (Cameron) Gilroy of Scotland married Maria Clara Ortega, the 13-year-old granddaughter of Jose Francis Ortega, a member of the "Sacred Expedition" of 1769. They lived in San Ysidro. The town of Gilroy, Ca., is named after John Gilroy.
    (SFC, 11/29/97, p.A18)

1821        Ignaz Venetz-Sitten, Swiss civil engineer, recognized the continent covering scale of the Pleistocene glaciers.
    (DD-EVTT, p.128)

1821        Thomas Johann Seebeck (1770-1831), Estonia-born German physicist, discovered that applying a temperature difference across two adjoined metals would give rise to a small voltage. This came to be called the Seebeck effect.
    (Econ, 9/6/08, TQ p.6)

1821        The 1st alphabet for Hawaiians was prepared by Christians missionaries. The letters of the alphabet were a,e,h,i,k,l,m,n,o,p,u,w.
    (SSFC, 4/4/04, Par p.17)(Internet)

1821        Amherst College was founded in Amherst, Mass.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amherst_College)
1821        The Boston English High School, the first US public high school, held its opening classes.
    (HNQ, 7/5/00)

1821        One hunter in 12 months shot 18,000 migrating golden plover for the dinner table.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, Z1,p.2)

1821        William Playfair, Scottish engineer, political economist and scoundrel, published a visual chart that displayed the “weekly wages of a good mechanic" along with the price of a “quarter of wheat" with the reigns of monarchs displayed along the top.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.74)

1821        Anita Ribeiro (d.1849), later wife of Italian revolutionary Garibaldi, was born in Laguna Brazil.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1821         Guatemala established independence
    (NG, 6/1988, p.781)

1821        Mexican rule began over the New Mexico territory.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E12)
1821        Mexico outlawed slavery.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.69)

1821        Ignatz Venetz, Swiss civil engineer, presented a paper titled “Temperature Variation in the Swiss Alps" to the Helvetic Society of Natural Sciences, in which he described retreating ice glaciers and acknowledged Jean-Pierre Perraudin, a hunter and mountain guide, as the originator of the idea that a glacier had once occupied the full length of the Val de Bagnes. In 1833 Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855), a German-Swiss geologist, arranged to have the paper published.
    (ON, 10/08, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_de_Charpentier)

1821-1823    In Iceland the Eyjafjallajokull volcano erupted over this period.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.62)

1821-1844    Haiti occupied the Dominican Rep. during this period.
    (Econ, 5/31/14, p.30)

1821-1846    Mexico ruled over California with a series of 12 governors. During part of this time Gen’l. Jose Castro commanded all of the Spanish forces in California and was an active opponent of US rule in 1846.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1821-1858    Elisa Rachel Felix, French actress, died of tuberculosis. She introduced a new voicing into French theater in part due to her physical condition.
    (WP, 1951, p.21-22)

1821-1881     Henri Frederic Amiel, Swiss critic: "The man who has no inner life is the slave of his surroundings."
    (AP, 8/3/97)

1821-1894    Hermann Helmholtz, German physician turned physicist, a leader in energetics who helped establish the principle of the conservation of energy along with Kelvin.
    (TNG, Klein, p.88)

1821-1924    Thirty-three million people arrive into the US in this period.   
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.52)

1822        Jan 2, Rudolph J.E. Clausius (d.1888), German physicist (thermodynamics), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Clausius)

1822        Jan 6, Heinrich Schliemann (d.1890), German businessman and amateur archeologist, was born. He began excavating Troy in 1870 following a visit to Hissarlik in 1868.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Schliemann)(http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/849)

1822        Feb 4, Free American Blacks settled Liberia, West Africa. The first group of colonists landed in Liberia and founded Monrovia, the colony's capital city, named in honor of President James Monroe.
    (HNPD, 7/26/98)(MC, 2/4/02)

1822        Feb 9, The American Indian Society organized.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1822        Feb 16, Francis Galton (d.1911), English scientist, was born. He was one of the first moderns to present a carefully considered eugenics program.
    (NH, 6/97, p.18)(SFC, 8/28/97, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Galton)

1822        Feb 22, Adolf Kuszmaul, German physician (stomach pump, Kuszmaul disease), was born.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1822        Feb 23, Boston was granted a charter to incorporate as a city.
    (AP, 2/23/98)

1822        Mar 9, The first patent for false teeth was requested by C. Graham of NY. [see Jun 9, 1882]
    (HN, 3/9/98)(MC, 3/9/02)

1822        Mar 16, John Pope, Union general in the American Civil War, was born.
    (HN, 3/16/01)
1822        Mar 16, Rosa Bonheur, French painter and sculptor, was born.
    (HN, 3/16/01)

1822        Mar 19, Boston was incorporated as a city.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1822        Mar 22, Gioacchino Rossini married Isabella Colbran in Bologna.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1822        Mar 30, Congress combined East and West Florida into the Florida Territory.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(MC, 3/30/02)

1822        Apr 3, Edward Everett Hale, American clergyman and author (Man without a Country) , was born.
    (HN, 4/3/98)

1822        Apr 13, Gaetano Valeri (61), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1822        Apr 26, Frederick Olmstead, landscape architect, was born in Connecticut. His work included Yosemite Nat’l. Park, Central Park in New York City (1858), and other city parks in Boston, Ma., Hartford, Ct., and Louisville, Ky.
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.5)(SFC, 4/5/04, p.B5)

1822        Apr 27, Ulysses S. Grant (d.1885), general and 18th U.S. president (1869-1877), was born in Point Pleasant [Hiram], Ohio.
    (AP, 4/27/97)(HN, 4/27/02)

1822        May 24, At Battle of Pichincha (Ecuador) General Sucre (1795-1830) won a decisive victory against Spanish forces. Shortly after the battle, Sucre and Bolivar entered the newly-liberated Quito and Sucre was named President of the Province of Quito, which formed Gran Colombia with Venezuela and Colombia.
    (HN, 5/24/98)(AP, 11/24/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Jos%C3%A9_de_Sucre)

1822        May 26, Edmond de Goncourt, writer, was born.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1822        May, Dr. Gideon Mantell published his book “The Fossils of South Downs," based on his studies of huge teeth and bones found at the Tilgate Forest quarry.
    (ON, 7/06, p.1)

1822        Jun 6, Alexis St. Martin, a fur trader at Fort Mackinac in the Michigan territory, was accidentally shot in the abdomen. William Beaumont, a US Army assistant surgeon, treated the wound and St. Martin survived. The stomach wound did not close and Beaumont undertook experiments in 1825 to study the digestive system.
    (ON, 1/02, p.6)

1822        Jun 9, Charles Graham patented false teeth. [see Mar 9, 1822]
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1822        Jun 16, Denmark Vessey [Vesey] led a slave rebellion in South Carolina. [see Jul 2]
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1822        Jun 18, Slave revolt leaders Denmark Vesey [Vessey] and Peter Poyas were arrested in SC.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1822        Jun 14, Charles Babbage (1792-1871), a young Cambridge mathematician, announced the invention of a machine capable of performing simple arithmetic calculations in a paper to the Astronomical Society. His 1st Difference Engine could perform up to 60 error-free calculation in 5 minutes. Babbage and engineer John Clement completed the calculator portion of a new engine in 1832, but the project lost funding and remained unfinished.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.94)(ON, 5/05, p.5)

1822        Jun 25, Ernst Theodor Amadeus (ETA) Hoffmann (46), German writer, judge, composer, died.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1822        Jul 2, Denmark Vesey [Vessey] (b.1767) was executed in Charleston, South Carolina, for planning a massive slave revolt.
    (HN, 7/2/01)

1822        Jul 8, Percy Bysshe Shelley (b.1792), English poet, drowned while sailing in Italy at age 29.
    (HN, 7/8/01)

1822        Jul 22, Gregor Johann Mendel (d.1884), Austrian botanist who developed the theory of heredity, was born.
    (HN, 7/22/98)(NH, 6/01, p.30)

1822        Jul 25, Gen. Agustin de Iturbide was crowned Agustin I, 1st emperor of Mexico.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1822        Jul 26, Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin held a secret meeting.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1822        Aug 19, Melchor Lopez Jimenez (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1822        Aug 25, F. William Herschel (85), German astronomer (discovered Uranus), died.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1822        Aug 31, Fitz John Porter (d.1901), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1822        Sep 6, John Constable, English painter, painted his “Cloud Study, 6 September 1822." He painted some 100 studies of the sky between 1821-1822.
    (MC, 3/31/02)(WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)

1822        Sep 7, Brazil declared its independence from Portugal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_of_Brazil)(AP, 9/7/97)

1822        Sep 9, Napoleon J K P Bonaparte, French prince and member National Convention, was born.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1822        Oct 4, Rutherford B. Hayes, the 19th president (R) of the United States, was born in Delaware, Ohio. Hayes was a major-general in the Civil War, then an Ohio congressman, then succeeded Grant as president (1877-81). Hayes won the Electoral College by a margin of one vote after his opponent won the popular vote in an election so fraught with charges of vote fraud that there were even fears of a coup.  Hayes refused to seek a second term.
    (AP, 10/4/97)(HN, 10/4/98)(MC, 10/3/01)

1822        Oct 8, The Galunggung volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left 4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.
    (www.emergency-management.net/volcanic.htm)

1822        Oct 9, George Sykes (d.1880), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1822        Oct 13, Antonio Canova (b.1757), Italian sculptor, died at age 64. His work included a sculpture of Napoleon’s sister Pauline, as a semi-naked Venus Victrix.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Canova)(Econ, 11/10/07, p.105)

1822        Oct 15, Alfred Meissner, Austrian physician and writer, was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1822        Oct 20, The 1st edition of the London Sunday Times was published.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1822        Nov 2, The USRC Louisiana along with USS Peacock and the Royal Navy schooner HMS Speedwell captured five pirate vessels off Havana, Cuba.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_31_August_1819)

1822        Dec 1, Franz Liszt (11) made his debut as a pianist for Isabella Colbran.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1822        Dec 4, Frances Crabbe, English feminist and founder of the Anti-Vivisection Society, was born.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1822        Dec 6, John Eberhard was born. He built the 1st large-scale pencil factory in US.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1822        Dec 12, Mexico was officially recognized as an independent nation by US.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1822        Dec 14, John Christie, English patron of music, was born. He founded the Glyndebourne Festival Opera. 
    (HN, 12/14/99)
1822        Dec 14, The Congress of Verona ended, ignoring the Greek war of independence.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1822        Dec 26, Dion Boucicault, Irish-US actor and playwright (Rip van Winkle), was born.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1822        Dec 27, Louis Pasteur (d.1895), French chemist and microbiologist, was born in Dole, France. One of his several monumental contributions to science and industry was pasteurization, the process of heating wine, beer and milk to kill microorganisms that cause fermentation and disease. Pasteur also developed important vaccines and his work on molecular asymmetry led to the science of stereochemistry. He was the first to vaccinate animals for anthrax and chicken cholera, and in 1885 he proved that his rabies vaccine could be used successfully on humans when he saved the life of a 9-year-old boy who had been bitten by a rabid dog. The Pasteur Institute was formed in Paris in 1888 for research on rabies. Pasteur ran the institute until his death in 1895.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1055)(AP, 12/27/97)(HNPD, 12/27/98)

1822        Dec 28, William Booth Taliaferro (d.1898), Brig Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1822        Charles Willson Peale painted his "Self Portrait."
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.E1)

1822        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823) painted "A Grief-Stricken Family." It was painted shortly after his student and mistress, Constance Mayer, slit her throat.
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1822        Utagawa Kunisada, Japanese artist, painted "The Popular Type."
    (WSJ, 4/24/96, A-12)

1822        William West painted a portrait of the poet Lord Byron.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)

1822        J.F. Champollion published his work on deciphering the Rosetta Stone.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.183)

1822        Thomas De Quincey wrote his "Confessions of an English Opium Eater." He used the word tranquilizer to describe the effect of the drug.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, Z 1 p.2)

1822        The Queen of the Angels Roman Catholic Church in Los Angeles was built.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T3)

1822        Twenty years after the war of 1812 the US government finished paying off the national debt entirely.
    (WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)

1822        The Superintendent of Mails in Washington, D.C., complained about the need to hire 16 extra mailmen because of the volume of Christmas cards and holiday mail. The tradition of Christmas cards had become so popular it became a burden for the United States Postal System, which petitioned Congress to limit the exchange of cards by post. But the cards kept coming and the postal burden worsened.
    (HNQ, 12/15/99)

1822        California became part of Mexico.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)

1822        Monterey had begun the century as the Spanish capital of Alta California but in this year became the Mexican capital of Alta California.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.71)

1822        Christian Buschmann (17), organ and clavier tuner, constructed the first primitive accordion. It wasn’t until the 1840s that the "magdaburgerspelen" came into fashion, the instrument generally believed to be the forerunner to the durspel of our time.
    (www.weirdal.0catch.com/txt/squeezeplay.html)

1822        Mary Mantell, a fossil collector in Sussex, England, discovered a handful of teeth that her husband, Dr. Gideon Mantell, recognized as similar to those of the iguana lizard of South America. This was recorded as one of the first dinosaurs to be discovered.
    (T.E.-J.B. p.20)

1822        The parasitic plant Rafflesia was discovered in the lowland forests of Southeast Asia. It steals nutrition from other plants and periodically creates a monstrous, red-brown flower with the perfume of rotten flesh.
    (SFC, 1/19/04, p.A4)

1822         Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena was assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1822        London’s St. Matthew’s Church was built to commemorate the victory at Waterloo.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.100)
1822        In London a bronze Achilles cast from cannons from the Napoleonic wars was unveiled at the residence of the Duke of Wellington. A strategic fig leaf was soon added.
    (SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)

1822        Gebruder Heuba

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