Return to home This period
saw many changes occur and quite a bit of banking history.
The financing of the foundation of Belgium by the Rothschild
empire, the first recorded bank
robbery, the death of banking magnate Stephen Girard, and the
rechartering of the Second Bank of the United states all took
place in this time period. A knowledge of the past is a great way to truly
understand the present. Anyone
to someone involved in the money
market could invest themselves in history as well.1831 Jan 1,
William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879), 24-year-old reformer of
Massachusetts, began publishing his newspaper The Liberator,
dedicated to the abolition of slavery. Garrison's stridency and
uncompromising position on both the institution of slavery and slave
owners offended many in the North and South, but he vowed to
continue the fight until slavery was abolished. In the first issue
of his newspaper, he wrote, "I am aware that many object to the
severity of my language; but is there not cause for severity? I will
be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising as justice. On this
subject I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation.
No! No!" Garrison once burned a copy of the U.S. Constitution,
condemning it as "a covenant with death and an agreement with hell"
because it did not forbid slavery. The Liberator ceased publication
in 1865 after the 13th Amendment was passed, outlawing slavery. [see
1831 Jan 20, Protocols were
signed in London that recognized Belgium as an independent nation.
Belgium became a nation and combined French and Flemish-speaking
lands. The Rothschild banking empire financed the founding of
(SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)(SSFC, 2/24/02,
1831 Feb 7, The first Belgian
Constitution was ratified.
1831 Feb 13, John Aaron Rawlins
(d.1969), Bvt. Major General (Union Army), was born.
1831 Feb 19, The 1st practical
US coal-burning locomotive made its 1st trial run in Pennsylvania.
1831 Feb 20, Polish
revolutionaries defeated the Russians in the Battle of Grochow.
1831 Feb 25, The Polish army
halted the Russian advance into their country at the Battle of
1831 Mar 2, John Frazee becomes
1st US sculptor to receive a federal commission.
1831 Mar 3, George Pullman
(inventor: railroad sleeping car; industrialist: Pullman Palace Car
Company), was born.
(HC, Internet, 3/3/98)
1831 Mar 4, Georg Michael
Telemann (82), composer, died.
1831 Mar 6, Philip Henry
Sheridan, Union Army General and hero of the Battle of Cedar Creek,
1831 Mar 6, Edgar Allan Poe
failed out of West Point. He was discharged from West Point for
"gross neglect of duty." His parade uniform was supposedly
(SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.4)(HN, 3/6/98)
1831 Mar 12, Clement
Studebaker, auto maker, was born. John Studebaker mad a small
fortune manufacturing wheelbarrows and pick axes for the miners in
Placerville, Ca., that he used to found an automobile firm.
(HN, 3/12/98)(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T7)
1831 Mar 19, The first recorded
US bank robbery occurred at the City Bank, in New York. Some
$245,000 is stolen.
1831 Mar 26, An interim
government was set up in Raseiniai as a Lithuanian revolt against
Russian rule began. There was a major uprising led by the Polish
nobility in Warsaw against Russian rule. Russian forces began to
march through Lithuania and this led many people of Lithuania to
join in the rebellion against Russian rule. Serf uprisings also
followed. The rebellion was eventually quelled by Russian force.
(H of L, 1931, p.85-86)(LHC, 3/26/03)
1831 Mar 31, Archibald Scott,
Scottish chemist, was born.
1831 Mar 31, Quebec and
Montreal were incorporated.
1831 Apr 7, Pedro I of Brazil
abdicated in favor of his 5-year-old son, Pedro de Alcantara, Pedro
(EWH, 4th ed., p.855)
1831 Apr 12, Grenville Mellen
Dodge, Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1831 May 16, David Edward
Hughes, inventor (microphone, teleprinter), was born.
1831 May 26, Russians defeated
the Poles at battle of Ostrolenska.
1831 May 31, Captain John Ross,
English explorer, identified the magnetic north pole on the west
coast of the Boothia Peninsula, Netsilik territory.
1831 Jun 1, John B. Hood
Confederate Civil War general, was born.
1831 Jun 13, James Clerk
Maxwell (d.1879), Scottish physicist, was born. He showed that
electrical, magnetic and optical phenomena were all united in a
single universal force, electromagnetism, and formulated
1831 Jun 28, Joseph Joachim,
violinist (Hungarian Concerto), was born in Kittsee, Germany.
1831 Jul 4, "America (My
Country 'Tis of Thee)" was 1st sung in Boston. [see Jul 4, 1832]
1831 Jul 4, James Monroe, 5th
President of the United States, died in New York City at age 73,
making him the third ex-President to die on Independence Day.
(AP, 7/4/97)(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1831 Jul 21, Belgium became
independent as Leopold I was proclaimed King of the Belgians.
1831 Jul 30, Helene P.
Blavatsky, founder (Theosophist Cooperation), was born.
1831 Aug 1, London Bridge
opened to traffic.
1831 Aug 2, The Dutch army,
headed by the Dutch princes, invaded Belgium, in the so-called "Ten
Days Campaign", and defeated Belgian forces near Hasselt and Leuven.
Only the appearance of a French army under Marchal Gerard caused the
Dutch to stop their advance.
1831 Aug 9, 1st US steam engine
train run was from Albany to Schenectady, NY.
1831 Aug 10, William Driver of
Salem, Massachusetts, was the first to use the term "Old Glory" in
connection with the American flag, when he gave that name to a large
flag aboard his ship, the Charles Daggett.
1831 Aug 21, Nat Turner led a
rebellion in Southampton county, Va. This became known as "Nat
Turner's Rebellion" or the "Southampton Slave Revolt." Turner and
about seven followers murdered 55 white people, including the entire
family of his owners, the Joseph Travis's. Turner had been taught to
read by the Travis children and his studies of the bible led him to
have visions of insurrection. Turner was later executed. A 1998 play
by Robert OHara "Insurrection: Holding History" centered on the
1/16/98, p.D1)(AP, 8/21/07)
1831 Aug 24, John Henslow asked
Charles Darwin to travel with him on HMS Beagle.
1831 Aug 29, Michael Faraday,
British physicist, demonstrated the 1st electric transformer.
Faraday had discovered that a changing magnetic field produces an
electric current in a wire, a phenomenon known as electromagnetic
1831 Aug 30, Charles Darwin
refused to travel with the HMS Beagle. On Dec 27 he was onboard.
(MC, 8/30/01)(AP, 12/27/97)
1831 Sep 7, Victorien Sardou,
French stage writer (Madame Sans-Gene, Tosca), was born.
1831 Sep 9, Eleven men, accused
and convicted for participating in the revolt led by Nat Turner,
were hanged. The death sentence for 7 others was commuted by the
governor to "transportation," i.e. sale outside the state.
(ON, 10/99, p.10)
1831 Sep 27, Joannis
Capodistrias (55), Greek governor of Troezen, was murdered.
1831 Oct 17, Felix
Mendelssohn's 1st Piano concert in G premiered.
1831 Oct 31, Daniel Butterfield
(d.1901), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1831 Oct 31, Nat Turner, rebel
slave, was caught by Mr. Benjamin Phipps and locked up in Jerusalem,
Va. Thomas Gray, his court appointed attorney, spent 3 days talking
to Turner and compiled his notes into "The Confessions of Nat
Turner," which were published in 1969.
(ON, 10/99, p.10)
1831 Nov 3, Ignatius Donnelly
(d.1901), American social reformer, was born. Donnelly was an
important scholar of the mythical continent of Atlantis. In 1882 he
wrote "Atlantis: The Antediluvian World."
(SFEC, 7/26/98, BR p.3)(HN, 11/3/99)
1831 Nov 5, Nat Turner, rebel
slave, was tried in Southampton county, Va.
1831 Nov 8, Edward R.L.
Bulwer-Lytton (d.1891), English writer, was born.
1831 Nov 11, Nat Turner was
hanged and skinned in Southampton county, Va. Hysteria surrounded
this rebellion and over 200 slaves, some as far away as North
Carolina, were murdered by whites in fear of a generalized uprising.
A martyr to the anti-slavery cause, Turner's actions had the adverse
effect of virtually ending all abolitionist activities in the south
before the Civil War.
1831 Nov 14, Ignaz Joseph
Pleyel (74), Austrian composer and piano builder, died.
1831 Nov 16, Karl von
Clausewitz (51), Prussian strategist (Campaign 1813), died.
1831 Nov 19, James A. Garfield
(d.1881) the 20th Pres. of the US, was born in Orange Township,
(WUD, 1994, p.584)(AP, 11/19/08)
1831 Nov 22, Giacomo
Meyerbeer's opera "Robert Le Diable" was produced (Paris).
1831 Dec 5, Former President
John Quincy Adams took his seat as a member of the U.S. House of
1831 Dec 23, Emilija
Pliateryte (b.1831), Lithuanian rebel leader, died in Kapciamiestis
while retreating to Prussia with the rebel army. She had organized a
detachment in Dusetos with her cousin Cesar Pliateris (1810-1869)
and both took an active part in the uprising. Together with the
detachment of H. Horodeckij they defeated Zarasai. Emilija
Pliateryte took part in many battles: at Maiiagala, Kaunas, and
1831 Dec 26, Vincenzo Bellini's
opera "Norma," premiered at La Scala in Milan.
1831 Dec 27, HMS Beagle
departed from Plymouth. Naturalist Charles Darwin set out on a
voyage to the Pacific aboard the HMS Beagle. Darwin's discoveries
during the voyage helped formed the basis of his theories on
(HN, 12/27/98)(AP, 12/27/97)
1831 Dec 28, Samuel Sharp
(1801-1832) led a slave uprising that was put down at great cost by
the British. The Rebellion lasted for eight days and resulted in the
death of around 186 Africans and 14 white planters or overseers. The
white vengeance convicted over 750 rebel slaves, of which 138 were
sentenced to death.
(Econ, 2/24/07, p.73)(http://tinyurl.com/3cu2ds)
1831 Dec 29, Adam Badeau
(d.1895), Bvt Brig General (Union volunteers), was born.
1831 Balzac wrote his story
"The Unknown Masterpiece." It became a parable of modern art.
(WSJ, 1/4/98, p.A8)
1831 The "Hunchback of Notre
Dame" (Notre Dame de Paris) by Victor Hugo was published. Disney
released an animated film based on the classic in 1996.
(WSJ, 6/20/95, p.B-1)
1831 Frederic Chopin at 21
published his Waltz #1 in Eb Major and Waltz #3. These were his
third and fourth published waltzes.
(BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)
1831 The Sinking Spring
Presbyterian Church was built in Abingdon, Virginia. It was later
bought by the Sons of Temperance. In 1900 it was deeded to the city
and in 1933 became the home of the Barter Theater.
(HT, 3/97, p.14)
1831 Early followers of Joseph
Smith merged with a communal Christian sect and relocated to
Kirkland, Ohio. [see 1838]
(SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)
1831 The International Platform
Association was founded by Daniel Webster and Josiah Holbrook. It is
an organization for those on the lecture platform.
(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)
1831 At Yale the Skull and
Bones society was founded. Boneswomen were not admitted until 1991.
(USAT, 1/15/97, p.6D)
1831 The New York City Marble
Cemetery on Manhattan's Lower East Side was established.
1831 The American Railroad
Journal was established.
1831 US copyright protections
were expanded to cover musical compositions.
(SFC, 4/8/02, p.E1)
1831 The anti-Mason Party met
in Baltimore for the first presidential nominating convention in the
US. The 116 delegates selected William Wirt of Maryland.
(Hem, 8/96, p.86)
1831 New York Senator William
L. Marcy made the statement, "To the victor belong the spoils of the
enemy," on the floor of the U.S. Senate in 1831. Marcy was
responding to attacks on Secretary of State Martin van Buren made by
Senator Henry Clay with regard to the use of patronage for party
purposes, known as the "spoils system." Marcy, who retired from the
senate in 1833, became known as the "champion of the spoils system."
He went on to serve as secretary of war and secretary of state.
1831 George Calvert Yount of
North Carolina first arrived in the Napa Valley, Ca.
1831 In the US the first
federally financed artwork was a $400 bust John Jay, the first Chief
Justice of the US.
(WSJ, 12/1/95, p.A-1)
1831 Robert A. Kinzie paid
$127.68 for 102 acres of land that became much of Chicago.
(SFC, 2/26/00, p.B3)
1831 In New Hampshire Joseph
Foster began building reed organs and melodeons. In 1845 he moved
from Winchester to Keene and was joined by his brother Ephraim. The
firm became known as "J&E Foster." They worked together until
Joseph died in 1875.
(SFC, 2/18/98, Z1 p.3)
1831 The Ohio city of
Cincinnati became known as "Porkopolis". Strategically located on
the banks of the Ohio River, Cincinnati gained the nickname because
it was then Americas greatest meat packing center.
1831 The lawn mower was
invented in England.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)
1831 Stephen Girard (b.1750),
shipping, real estate, banking and insurance magnate, died. His $7
million estate was the largest in the nation and he bequeathed it to
create and sustain a school for orphan boys. His value in 1999
dollars totaled $56 billion.
(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)
1831 The original Zouaves,
Zouaoua tribesmen from Algeria, formed their brightly dressed
fighting force and later gained renown for their bravery during the
Crimean and Franco-Austrian wars. American units imitated both the
dress and battle courage of these fierce fighters.
1831 James Busby, Scottish-born
father of Australian viticulture, collected 680 different vines from
botanical gardens in Montpellier, Paris and London and brought them
to Australia. These included the syrah grape, called shiraz in
(SFC, 5/5/05, p.F10)
1831 The Austro-Italian
insurance company Assicurazioni Generali Austro-Italiche was
1831 In London a 9-bedroom
residence was built for a nobleman that in 1931 became the Abbey
Road recording studio.
(Sky, 9/97, p.53)
1831 The Garrick Club was
founded in London for actors, writers and politicians.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A20)(NW, 4/24/03, p.55)
1831 A cholera epidemic broke
out in London.
(ON, 5/05, p.8)
1831 Sayyid Ahmad of Rai
Bareilly (b.1786), Islamic warrior, died in a battle against the
Sikhs. Sayeed Ahmad Shaheed was slain in Balakot (later part of
Pakistan) while failing to repel Sikh invaders.
1831 Slaves in Jamaica were
(SFC, 12/10/99, p.AA8)
1831 Takashsimaya was founded
in Kyoto, Japan, as a kimono shop. It grew to become the nations
largest department store chain.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)
1831 Patrick Matthew, a
Scottish landowner, provided a description of natural selection in
an appendix to a book about growing the best trees to make warships.
(Econ, 2/7/09, p.73)
1831-1832 Animals from the Tower of London
menagerie created the core of the London Zoo.
(Hem, 9/04, p.71)
1831-1837 Abraham Lincoln lived in New Salem, Ill.
During this time he enlisted in the Black Hawk War. [see 1832]
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T4)
1831-1870 Louis Remy Mignot, painter. He was a
landscape artist of the Hudson River School and painted in North
America, Europe and South America.
(WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A20)
1831-1892 The 16 ½ mile Savannah-Ogeechee Canal in
Savannah, Georgia, was built by slaves and Irish workers to
transport cotton and timber between the 2 rivers. Plans for
restoration of the canal were made in 1998.
(SFEC, 8/23/98, p.T3)
1831-1899 Othniel Charles Marsh, born in Lockwood,
New York, becomes Professor of Paleontology at Yale Univ. and
vertebrate Paleontologist to the US Geological Survey. His
expeditions unearthed 80 new species of dinosaur.
1831-1919 Amelia Edith Barr, American author and
journalist "The fate of love is that it always seems too little or
1832 Jan 6, Gustave Dore,
illustrator (Inferno, Ancient Mariner), was born in Strasbourg,
1832 Jan 13, Horatio Alger,
Jr., the author of more than 100 inspirational books for young
people from the Civil War to the turn of the 20th century, was born
the son of a Unitarian minister. Rejected by the Union Army because
of asthma, Horatio Alger was a poet, teacher and newspaper
correspondent before he eventually followed in his father's
footsteps and became a minister on Cape Cod. Alger is best-known,
however, for his books with rags-to-riches themes. In Alger's world,
everyone, no matter how poor or powerless, could succeed through
hard work, honesty and high moral values. His "pluck and luck" books
of hope in the face of adversity were always bestsellers and almost
every home, school and church owned a large collection. More than
250 million copies of his books have been sold worldwide. His books
included "Ragged Dick" and "Tattered Tom."
1832 Jan 23, Edouard Manet
(d.1883), French impressionist painter. His work was a major
influence on the young artists who created the Impressionist
movement. His style was influenced by the Spanish masters,
particularly Velasquez. His work included the "Execution of
Maximilian," "Luncheon on the Grass," the pastel "Portrait of
Mademoiselle Lemaire," "In the Boat," "La Promenade" and "Le Journal
Illustre" (ca. 1878-79).
(WUD, 1994, p.871)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)(SFC,
8/21/96, p.A9)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.871)(WSJ, 2/13/97,
1832 Jan 27, Charles Lutwidge
Dodgson (d.1898), who wrote "Alices Adventures in Wonderland" in
1865 under the pen name Lewis Carroll, was born in Cheshire,
England. He was also know as a skilled photographer and did nude
photography with an "intense focus on his subjects personalities."
Dodgson lectured on mathematics at Oxford from 1855 to 1881 and made
up the stories about Alice in Wonderland for his daughter Alice and
her sisters. He wrote "Through the Looking Glass" in 1872 and other
childrens books. His most important mathematical work was the 1879
"Euclid and His Modern Rivals." "If you limit your actions in life
to things that nobody can possibly find fault with, you will not do
much." In 1995 Morton N. Cohen published an authoritative biography
titled "Lewis Carroll: A Biography."
(WSJ, 11/9/95, p.A-20)(AP, 1/14/98)(AP, 1/27/98)
1832 Feb 6, A US ship destroyed
a Sumatran village in retaliation for piracy.
1832 Feb 6, There was an
appearance of cholera at Edinburgh, Scotland.
1832 Feb 13, Cholera appeared
in London for the 1st time.
1832 Feb 20, Charles Darwin
visited Fernando Noronha in Atlantic Ocean.
1832 Feb 22, Johann Wolfgang
von Goethe (b.1749), poet, (Faust, Egmont) died in Weimar, Germany.
Goethe had served as minister of mines under Bismarck. He completed
"Faust" just before his death: "When Ideas fail, words come in
handy." In 1988 Kenneth Weisinger authored "The Classical Facade: A
Non-Classical Reading of Goethe's Criticism." In 2006 John Armstrong
authored Love, Life, Goethe: How to Be Happy in an Imperfect
(SFEC, 4/26/98, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 8/7/03, p.A19)(SFC,
12/14/04, p.B1)(WSJ, 1/13/07, p.P10)
1832 Feb 26, Jo George Nicolay,
private secretary to Abraham Lincoln and his biographer, was
(HN, 2/26/98)(SC, 2/26/02)
1832 Feb 26, The Polish
constitution was abolished by Czar Nicholas I.
1832 Feb, A cholera epidemic
ended in Great Britain. Some 800 people died of the disease in
London. Dr. John Snow eventually traced the London epidemic to a
water pump on Broad Street. [see 1849] In 2006 Steven Johnson
authored The Ghost Map, a history of Londons cholera outbreak.
1832 Mar 4, Jean Francois
Champollion (b.1790), French scholar, died. His work included the
2-volume book Egypt Under the Pharaohs (1814) and a translation of
the hieroglyphics of the Rosetta Stone, completed in 1822.
1832 Mar 10, Muzio Clementi
(79), Italian composer, died.
1832 Mar 11, Franz Melde,
German physicist (Melde test), was born.
1832 Mar 12, Charles Boycott,
estate manager who caused boycotts, was born in Ireland.
1832 Mar 17, Daniel Conway
Moncure, U.S. clergyman, author, abolitionist, was born.
1832 Mar 24, Mormon founder,
martyr Joseph Smith was beaten, tarred and feathered in Ohio.
1832 Mar 24, The British Reform
Act passed the House of Commons under the Whig government. It
introduced the first changes to electoral franchise legislation in
almost one hundred and fifty years. On June 4 it passed the House of
Lords and on June 7 received Royal Assent.
1832 Mar 26, Famed western
artist George Catlin began his voyage up the Missouri River aboard
the American Fur Company steamship Yellowstone. Painted Warriors.
1832 Apr 4, Charles Darwin
aboard HMS Beagle reached Rio de Janeiro.
1832 Apr 8, Charles Darwin
began a trip through Rio de Janeiro.
1832 Apr 8, Some 300 American
troops of the 6th Infantry left Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, to
confront the Sauk Indians in what would become known as the Black
1832 Apr 13, James Wimshurst,
British designer, inventor (electric static generator), was born.
1832 Apr 15, Wilhelm Busch,
German artist, was born. He created the precursor to the cartoon
1832 Apr 19, Lucretia Rudolph,
President Garfields first lady, was born.
1832 Apr 21, Abraham Lincoln
(23) assembled with his New Salem neighbors for the Black Hawk War
on the Western frontier. Illinois Governor John Reynolds had called
for volunteers to beat back a new Indian threat. Black Hawk, chief
of the Sac and Fox Indians, had returned to his homeland at the head
of a band of 450 warriors, intent on forcibly reversing the treaty
he had signed 28 years earlier that ceded control of the tribes
ancestral home in northwestern Illinois to the U.S.
1832 May 5, H.H. Bancroft,
historian, publisher (History of Pacific States), was born.
1832 May 7, The Treaty of
London protocol was signed between Bavaria and the protecting
Powers. It basically dealt with the way in which the Regency of
Bavaria was to be managed until Otto of Bavaria reached his
majority. Greece was defined as an independent kingdom, with the
Arta-Volos line as its northern frontier and Otto as king.
1832 May 12, Gaetano
Donizetti's opera "L'elisir d'amore," premiered in Milan.
1832 May 14, Felix
Mendelssohn's "Hebrides," premiered.
1832 May 18, Bonafacio Asioli,
1832 May 21, The first
Democratic National Convention got under way, in Baltimore and
re-nominated Andrew Jackson.
(Hem, 8/96, p.86)(AP, 5/21/97)
1832 May 23, Samuel Sharp was
hanged in Jamaica for leading a slave rebellion. He is survived by
his immortal declaration: "I would rather die upon yonder gallows
than live in slavery."
(Econ, 2/24/07, p.73)(http://tinyurl.com/3cu2ds)
1832 May 31, Evariste Galois
(b.1811), French mathematician who developed a general theory of
equations, died from wounds suffered in a duel. In 2005 Mario Livio
authored The Equation That couldnt Be Solved: How Mathematical
Genius Discovered the Language of Symmetry.
1832 Jun 5, In Paris an
insurrection took place during General Lamarque's funeral when
insurgents got as far as the Rue Montorgueil and were then driven
1832 Jun 6, Jeremy Bentham
(b.1748), English social reformer, died. He had his body preserved
at the Univ. College, London. Bentham was later considered the
father of utilitarianism. He thought that enlightened policymakers
should seek the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people.
(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(www.britannica.com)(Econ,
1832 Jun 7, The British Reform
Act received royal assent and became law. The act, pressed through
by PM Earl Grey, forestalled a revolution by increasing the number
of people who were eligible to vote. The bergamot-flavored Earl Grey
tea was later named after the PM.
(ON, 4/09, p.10)(AP, 2/1/13)
1832 Jul 1, The firm Jardine,
Matheson & Co. was founded in Canton following a meeting between
William Jardine and another Scots trader, James Matheson from
(Econ, 6/30/07, SR p.13)
1832 Jul 4, The song "America"
was sung publicly for the first time at a Fourth of July celebration
by a group of children at Park Street Church in Boston. The words
were written on a scrap of paper in half an hour by Dr. Samuel
Francis Smith, a Baptist minister, and were set to the music of "God
Save the King."
(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1832 Jul 5, The German
government began curtailing freedom of the press after German
Democrats advocate a revolt against Austrian rule.
1832 Jul 10, President Andrew
Jackson vetoed legislation to re-charter the Second Bank of the
1832 Jul 13, Henry Schoolcraft
discovered the source of the Mississippi River in Minnesota. Henry
Rowe Schoolcraft came upon the lake where the Mississippi starts and
intended to call it Veritas Caput, the Latin for "true head." The
name was too long and got shortened at both ends to Itasca.
(SFC, 10/5/96, p.E3)(HN, 7/13/98)
1832 Jul 22, Napoleon FKJ
Bonaparte (21), [l'Aiglon], king of Rome, died.
1832 Jul 25, The 1st US
railroad accident was at Granite Railway, Quincy, Mass., and 1 died.
1832 Aug 2, Some 1,300 Illinois
militia under General Henry Atkinson massacred Sauk Indian men,
women and children who were followers of Black Hawk at the Bad Axe
River in Wisconsin. Black Hawk himself finally surrendered three
weeks later, bringing the Black Hawk War to an end.
(HN, 8/2/98)(MC, 8/2/02)
1832 Aug 27, Black Hawk, leader
of Sauk-Indians, gave himself up.
1832 Aug 31, Jean Nicolas
Auguste Kreutzer, composer, died at 53.
1832 Aug, In Pennsylvania 57
Irish immigrants died of cholera after traveling there to build a
railroad. In 2009 their bones were found at a woodsy site known as
Duffy's Cut, named after Philip Duffy, who hired the immigrants from
Donegal, Tyrone and Derry to help build the Philadelphia and
Columbia Railroad. In 2010 evidence indicated that at least some of
the mens remains showed signs of violence.
(AP, 3/25/09)(AP, 8/16/10)
1832 Sep 21, Sir Walter Scott
(b.1771), Scottish poet and novelist, died at Abbotsford near
Melrose in the Scottish Borders. His novels included "Ivanhoe" and
"Rob Roy." Scott was later credited with inventing the genre of
historical fiction. In 2010 Stuart Kelley authored Scott-land: The
Man Who Invented a Nation.
3/11/07, p.G3)(Econ, 7/31/10, p.67)
1832 Sep 25, William Le Baron
Jenney, US, architect and "father of the skyscraper," was born.
1832 Oct 4, William Griggs,
inventor (photo chromo lithography), was born.
1832 Oct 14, Blackfeet Indians
attacked American Fur Company trappers near Montanas Jefferson
River, killing one.
1832 Oct 22, Leopold Damrosch,
composer, was born.
1832 Nov 14, Charles Carroll
(95), large landowner and signer Declaration of Independence, died.
1832 Nov 14, The first
streetcara horse-drawn vehicle called the John Masonwent into
operation in New York City.
1832 Nov 15, Felix
Mendelssohn's Symphony # 5 ("Reformation") premiered.
1832 Nov 15, Jean-Baptiste Say
(b.1767), French economist, died. He is remembered for what came to
be called Says Law: the supply (sale) of X creates the demand
(purchase) of Y. This law can be shown by business-cycle
statistics. When downturns start, production is always first to
decline, ahead of demand. When the economy recovers, production
recovers ahead of demand. A society cant consume if it does not
1832 Nov 24, South Carolina
passed an Ordinance of Nullification. The US government had enacted
a tariff. South Carolina nullified it and threatened to secede.
Pres. Jackson threatened armed force on his home state but a
compromise was devised by Henry Clay that ducked the central
1832 Nov 24, The doctrine of
nullification involved an argument concerning the nature of the
union as defined by the writers of the Constitution and addressed
the question: "Was the US a compact of sovereign states, each
retaining ultimate authority, or was the US one nation formed by the
people through the writing of the Constitution?" John C. Calhoun,
supporter of the doctrine of nullification, was Pres. Jackson's
principal opponent in the nullification crises.
1832 Nov 26, Public streetcar
service began in New York City. The fare: 12 ½ cents.
1832 Nov 29, Louisa May Alcott
(d.1888), American author who wrote "Little Women," was born in
Germantown, Pa. Under the pen name A.M. Barnard she wrote stories of
violence and revenge that included "Paulines Passion and
Punishment." "It takes people a long time to learn the difference
between talent and genius, especially ambitious young men and
(WUD, 1994, p.35)(SFC, 6/17/97, p.E3)(AP,
1832 Dec 5, Andrew Jackson was
re-elected US president and became the 1st president to win an
election in which the turnout exceeded 50%. The US anti-Mason Party
with William Wirt drew 8% of the vote against Henry Clay and the
eventual winner, Andrew Jackson. Clay led the Whig Party which
coalesced against the power of Andrew Jackson. The Whigs came from
the conservative, nationalist wing of the Jeffersonian Republicans.
The election served as a referendum on Jacksons position against
the 2nd Bank of the US.
(Hem, 8/96, p.86)(WSJ, 7/8/99, p.A16)(Panic,
p.3)(AH, 6/07, p.45)
1832 Dec 15, Alexandre-Gustave
Eiffel, designed named the tower in Paris, was born.
1832 Dec 22, HMS Beagle and
Charles Darwin reached Barnevelts Islands.
1832 Dec 25, Charles Darwin
celebrated Christmas in St. Martin at Cape Receiver.
1832 Dec 28, John C. Calhoun
became the first vice president of the United States to resign,
stepping down over differences with President Jackson. Van Buren
served as vice president under Andrew Jackson from 1833 to 1837.
(SFC, 9/19/96, p.A18)(AP, 12/28/97)(HNQ, 9/19/99)
1832 Uriah Phillips Levy, a US
naval lieutenant, commissioned a statue of Thomas Jefferson by Paris
sculptor Piere-Jean David DAnger. In 1847 Pres. Polk set the statue
in front of the white House, where it stood for 27 years.
(SFC, 11/23/01, p.D8)
1832 Delacroix painted the
Moroccan scene "A Street in Meknes."
(WSJ, 9/27/00, p.A24)
1832 Jean Ingres, French
artist, painted the portrait of the self-made newspaperman
(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W12)
1832 The Durham Steer was
painted by Austin Neame for the Kent & Canterbury Show of
(WSJ, 9/66/96, p.B8)
1832 Jean Giono wrote his 1954
novel: "The Horseman on the Roof." In 1996 it was made into a film
directed by Jean-Paul Rappeneau and is set in plague-stricken
Provence in 1832.
1832 A lexicon of famous hand
gestures was written by a canon of the Cathedral of Naples. In 2000
it was translated by to English by Andrea de Jorio.
(SFCM, 3/11/01, p.32)
1832 The Hudson Bay Company
founded its trading post of Fort Nisqually. 2nd source has it
established in 1833, 15 miles south of Tacoma as the hub of the
Puget Sound Agricultural Company.
(AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)(HT, 3/97, p.8)
1832 Pres. Jackson dispatched
the US Navy to South Carolina to quash an effort to nullify federal
tariffs within the state.
(WSJ, 5/19/05, p.D8)
1832 Pres. Jackson sent the
frigate Potomac to bombard the pirate lair of Kuala Batu.
(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)
1832 The US Congress passed a
law that required all US citizens to fast and pray one day a week.
It was neither enforced nor observed.
(SFC, 10/31/98, p.D4)
1832 Congress set aside the
thermal springs at Hot Springs, Ark., as a federal reservation.
(USAT, 2/4/04, p.9A)
1832 In Hampton, Conn., the
Bevin Brothers Manufacturing Co. began making bells. A fire in 2012
destroyed the factory.
(SFC, 5/28/12, p.A8)
1832 Phrenology, the "science"
of reading the human personality from bumps on the skull, was
brought to America by German physician Johann Spurzheim. It was
founded on the theory that the brain had 35 to 45 sectors, each the
site of a particular character trait such as appetite, combativeness
and benevolence. Phrenology gained an enthusiastic following in
America and spawned a whole industry producing phrenological
paraphernalia. Cranial "maps" could be purchased to chart the
topography of the skull and reveal the subject's true self. Although
phrenology was ultimately rejected as having no basis in scientific
fact, it reflected 19th-century scientists' growing interest in the
workings of the human brain.
1832 Alfred Mosher Butts, an
architect in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., invented the game he called
"Lexico." He made millions after the name was changed to "Scrabble."
(SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.6)
1832 A cholera epidemic hit
Baltimore and at least 853 people were killed. Fundamentalist
Christians blamed the deaths on the "judgement of God."
(SFEC, 3/5/00, Z1 p.4)
1832 The Pittsburgh riverfront
home of coal baron Abraham Hays flooded. Hays built a new
mansion, which later became a stop on the Underground
Railroad, harboring slaves who traveled a tunnel from the
Monongahela River to the vast brick-lined basement.
1832 Charles Carroll, one of
the signers of the US Declaration of Independence, died at age 95.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, Z1 p.7)
1832 Franz Sacher, a chef in
the employ of Prince Metternich, invented the torte. Family
documents at the Hotel Sacher in Vienna support the claim.
(SFEM, 10/13/96, p.14)
1832 The United Kingdom passed
the Anatomy Act, which allowed hospitals and workhouses to hand over
for dissection bodies left unclaimed for two days.
(Econ, 11/15/08, p.99)
1832 Honore Daumier, French
artist, was imprisoned for 6 months for his barbs against King
(WSJ, 3/10/00, p.W16)
1832 Charles-Louis Havas sets
up a foreign newspapers translation agency.
1832 The Garifuna (Garinagu)
arrived in British Honduras (later Belize). They were descendants of
the Black Caribbeans who were first deported from St Vincent in
1797. This is celebrated every year on Nov 19 as Garifuna Settlement
Day. The holiday was created by Thomas Vincent Ramos, Belizean civil
rights activist, in 1941 and was declared a national holiday in
(http://tinyurl.com/mqm6euc)(SSFC, 11/3/13, p.P6)
1832 In Kazakhstan Akmolinsk
was founded. It was later renamed Tselinograd and then Akmola. In
1998 it became the capital and was renamed Astana, which means
(SFC, 5/22/98, p.A14)
1832 In Sweden King Karl XIV
Johan inaugurated the Göta Canal.
(SFEC, 4/20/97, p.T8)
1832-1889 Juan Montalvo, Ecuadorian essayist and
political writer: "There is nothing harder than the softness of
1832-1904 Luigi Palma di Cesnola was born in Italy
and later served for the Union Army in the Civil War. He was
appointed as American Consul to Cyprus in 1865, where he collected
many artifacts. He later sold his collection to the NYC Metropolitan
(AM, 7/00, p.60)
1832-1914 This period was covered by Robert
Bickers in his 2011 book: The Scramble For China: Foreign Devils in
the Qing Empire, 1832-1914.
(Econ, 2/19/11, p.92)
1833 Jan 3, Britain seized
control of the Malvina Islands (Falkland Islands) in the South
Atlantic. In 1982 Argentina seized the islands, but Britain took
them back after a 74-day war.
(AP, 1/3/98)(SFC, 4/3/02, p.A7)
1833 Jan 8, Boston Academy of
Music, 1st US music school, was established.
1833 Jan 19, Louis J. Ferdinand
Herold (41), French composer (Zampa), died.
1833 Jan 26, Gaetano
Donizettis tragic opera "Lucrezia Borgia," premiered in Milan.
(WSJ, 7/27/98, p.A12)(MC, 1/26/02)
1833 Jan 28, Charles George
"Chinese" Gordon, general (China, Khartoum), was born in London.
1833 Feb 11, Melville Weston
Fuller, 8th U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice was born.
1833 Feb 13, William Whedbee
Kirkland (d.1915), Brig Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
1833 Feb 17, Lt. George Back
departed Liverpool, England, on the packet ship Hibernia with 4 men
to search for missing Arctic explorer Captain John Ross. Ross had
left England in 1829 to seek a Northwest Passage by way of the
(ON, 5/04, p.10)
1833 Mar 14, Lucy Hobbs Taylor,
first woman dentist, was born.
1833 Mar 16 Susan Hayhurst
became the first woman to graduate from a pharmacy college.
1833 Mar 20, The United States
and Siam (now Thailand) concluded a commercial treaty in Bangkok.
1833 Apr 9, The US first
tax-supported public library was founded in Peterborough, N.H.
1833 Apr 22, Richard Trevithick
(b.1771), British engineer, died in Kent, England. In 1804 he built
the first steam locomotive.
(ON, 4/04, p.6)(WSJ, 4/11/09,
1833 Apr 24, A patent was
granted for the first soda fountain.
1833 May 2, Czar Nicholas
banned the public sale of serfs.
1833 May 6, John Deere made his
1st steel plow.
1833 May 7, Composer Johannes
Brahms was born in Hamburg, Germany, and died on Apr 3, 1897. His
works number through Opus 122 and included: the "Hungarian Dances,"
the "Haydn Variations," the "Violin Concerto in D Major," "Lullaby"
and compositions for the pianoforte, organ, chamber music,
orchestral compositions, numerous songs, small and large choral
works. A biography of his life and work was written by Karl
Geiringer in 1934 titled: "Brahms: His Life and Work." In 1997 Jan
Swafford published the biography: "Johannes Brahms." In 1998 Styra
Avins published "Johannes Brahms: Life and Letters."
(BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed.)(AP, 5/7/97)(WSJ,
12/3/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 5/4/98, p.A20)(HN, 5/7/99)
1833 May 15, Edmund Kean (46),
English actor (Shylock), died.
1833 May 28, Johann Christian
Friedrich Haeffner (74), composer, died.
1833 May 29, William Marshall
(84), composer, died.
1833 Jun 16, Lucie (Ruthy)
Blackburn (30), a fugitive slave, escaped from jail in Detroit and
made her way to Canada. The next day a riot erupted, The Blackburn
Riots, as her husband, Thornton Blackburn (21), was escorted for
return to slavery. Thornton escaped to Canada to join his wife. The
first extradition case between the US and Canada over the issue of
fugitive slaves soon followed. Canada ruled it could not extradite
people to a jurisdiction that imposed harsher penalties then they
would have received for the same offense in Canada and the
Blackburns remained in Ontario.
(AH, 4/07, p.43)
1833 Jun 27, Prudence Crandall,
a white woman, was arrested for conducting an academy for black
women in Canterbury, Conn. The academy was eventually closed.
1833 Jul 5, Joseph Nicephore
Niepce (b.1765), French inventor most noted as the inventor of
photography, died. He is well-known for taking some of the earliest
photographs, dating to the 1820s.
1833 Jul 29, William
Wilberforce (b.1759), English abolitionist, died. He was best known
for his efforts relating to the abolition of slavery in the British
Empire. A politician and philanthropist, Wilberforce was prominent
from 1787 in the struggle to abolish the slave trade and slavery
itself in British overseas possessions. He was an ardent and
eloquent sponsor of anti-slavery legislation in the House of Commons
until his retirement in 1825. Wilberforce University in Ohio, an
African Methodist Episcopal Church institution (f.1856), was named
for William Wilberforce. In 2008 William Hague authored William
Wilberforce: The Life of the Great Anti-Slave Trade Campaigner.
1833 Jul, In Australia the
native warrior Yagan was shot dead by teenage bounty hunters. He had
been a go-between for his people and European settlers in Western
Australia and later an implacable foe. His head and the tribal
tattoo on his back were hacked off and taken to Britain for study
and display. The body parts were returned in Sep 1997. A statue was
erected in his honor on an island park in Perth in 1983. It was
repeatedly vandalized and its head was sawed off in 1997 shortly
after the homecoming of Yagans real head. In 2010 his remains were
laid to rest in a traditional ceremony after his skull was recovered
(SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A20)(AFP, 7/10/10)
1833 Aug 7, Powell Clayton,
Brig. General (Union volunteers), (Gov-R-Ark), was born in Pa.
1833 Aug 8, Lt. George Back and
his team reached Fort Resolution on Great Slave Lake on their
expedition to find Arctic explorer Capt. John Ross.
(ON, 5/04, p.10)
1833 Aug 9, Maximilian, German
Prince of Wied, reached Fort McKenzie, the westernmost outpost of
white settlement on the Missouri River. He was a student of natural
history and planned to collect native plants and animals and to
study the native people. He was accompanied by Swiss artist Karl
Bodmer. Maximilians "Travels in the Interior of North America" was
published between 1839 and 1843.
(SFC, 2/6/01, p.10)
1833 Aug 11, Robert G.
Ingersoll (d.1899), American lawyer and statesman and advocate of
scientific realism and humanistic philosophy, was born. "Heresy is
what the minority believe; it is the name given by the powerful to
the doctrines of the weak." "The history of the world shows that
when a mean thing was done, man did it; when a good thing was done,
man did it." "Courage without conscience is a wild beast."
(AP, 6/28/97)(AP, 6/7/98)(AP, 7/20/98)(HN,
1833 Aug 12, Chicago
incorporated as a village of about 350.
1833 Aug 13, The Bank of the US
under Nicholas Biddle began to contract its loans.
1833 Aug 17, The first steam
ship to cross the Atlantic entirely on its own power, the Canadian
ship Royal William, began her journey from Nova Scotia to The Isle
1833 Aug 20, Benjamin Harrison,
the 23rd president of the United States (1889-1893) and grandson of
President William Henry Harrison, was born in North Bend, Ohio.
(HN 8/20/97)(AP, 8/20/99)(MC, 8/20/02)
1833 Aug 23, The British
Parliament ordered the abolition of slavery in its colonies by Aug
1, 1834. This would free some 700,000 slaves, including those in the
West Indies. The Imperial Emancipation Act also allowed blacks to
enjoy greater equality under the law in Canada as opposed to the US.
Some 46,000 people were paid a total of 20 million pounds in
compensation for freeing their slaves.
(V.D.-H.K.p.276)(MT, 3/96, p.14)(PC, 1992,
p.412)(AH, 10/02, p.54)(SFC, 2/28/13, p.A2)
1833 Aug 28, Edward
Burne-Jones, British painter, was born.
1833 Sep 3, The first
successful penny newspaper was published. Benjamin H. Day issued the
first copy of "The New York Sun". By 1826, circulation was the
largest in the country at 30,000. New Yorks population was over
250,000, but its 11 daily newspapers had a combined circulation of
1833 Sep 4, Barney Flaherty
(10) answered an ad in "The New York Sun" and became the first
newsboy, what we now call a paperboy.
1833 Sep 8, Charles Darwin
departed to Buenos Aires.
1833 Sep 20, Petroleum V. Nasby
(David Ross Locke), humorist, was born. His work was enjoyed by
1833 Sep 20, Charles Darwin
rode a horse to Buenos Aires.
1833 Sep 27, Charles Darwin
rode a horse to Santa Fe.
1833 Sep 28, Lemuel Haynes,
Revolutionary War veteran, died at 88.
1833 Sep 29, King Ferdinand of
Spain died and his daughter Isabella was proclaimed as queen. A
civil war broke out in Spain between Carlisists, who believed Don
Carlos deserved the throne, and supporters of Queen Isabella.
(HNQ, 8/20/98)(HN, 9/29/98)
1833 Oct 1, Charles Darwin
reached Rio Tercero, Argentina.
1833 Oct 2, The NY Anti-Slavery
Society was organized.
1833 Oct 12, Charles Darwin
began his return trip to Buenos Aires.
1833 Oct 19, Adam Lindsay
Gordon, Australian poet, was born.
1833 Oct 20, Charles Darwin
reached the river mouth of Parana.
1833 Oct 21, Alfred Bernhard
Nobel (d.1896) was born in Sweden. The chemist, engineer and
industrialist who invented dynamite, later established the
prestigious Nobel prizes to honor the worlds greatest scientists,
writers and peacemakers. In 1859, after four years in the United
States, Nobel returned to Sweden and built a factory to manufacture
the explosive nitro-glycerine. In 1864 the factory accidentally blew
up, killing Nobels youngest brother and four others. Two years
later, Nobel invented dynamite, a safe and manageable form of
nitro-glycerine. A pacifist by nature, Nobel hoped that the
destructive power of his invention would bring an end to wars.
By the time of his death on December 10, 1897, Nobel had acquired a
massive fortune. In his will, he left instructions that the bulk of
his estate should endow the annual Nobel prizes for those who had
most contributed to the areas of physics, chemistry, medicine,
literature and peace. In 1968, a sixth award for economics was
(WUD, 1994, p.969)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.28)(HNPD,
1833 Oct, Capt. John Ross
(1877-1856), Arctic explorer, returned to England.
1833 Nov 12, Aleksandr
Porfirievich Borodin (d.1887), physician, chemist, composer (Prince
Igor), was born in Russia. His work included the "Sunless" and
the opera "Prince Igor, which was left incomplete.
(SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T11)(WSJ, 2/6/00, p.A16)(MC,
11/12/01)(LGC, 1970, p.338)
1833 Nov 13, Edwin Thomas
Booth, actor (Hamlet), was born.
1833 Nov 14, Charles Darwin
departed by horse to Montevideo.
1833 Nov 20, Charles Darwin
reached Punta Gorda and saw Rio Uruguay.
1833 Nov 28, Charles Darwin
rode through Las Pietras while returning to Montevideo.
1833 Dec 3, Carlos Juan Finlay,
Cuban epidemiologist, was born.
1833 Dec 3, Oberlin College in
Ohio, the first truly coeducational school of higher learning in the
United States, opened its doors.
1833 Dec 4, American
Anti-Slavery Society was formed by Arthur Tappan in Phila.
1833 Dec 6, John Singleton
Mosby (d.1916), lawyer and Col. ("Grey Ghost" of Confederate Army),
was born. He later gave riding lessons to young George Patton.
1833 Dec 6, HMS Beagle and
Charles Darwin departed Rio de la Plata.
1833 Dec 12, Matthias Hohner
(d.1902), German manufacturer (harmonica), was born.
1833 Dec 13, HMS Beagle and
Charles Darwin arrived in Port Deseado, Patagonia.
1833 Dec 25, Charles Darwin
celebrated Christmas in Port Desire, Patagonia.
1833 Dec, William Beaumont
(d.1853), a US Army assistant surgeon, published his new book:
"Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the
Physiology of Digestion. It was based on the digestive system of
Alexis St. Martin, a fur trader who was accidentally shot in the
abdomen at Fort Mackinac in 1822.
(ON, 1/02, p.6)
1833 John Marshall Harlan
(d.1911), later US Supreme Court Justice, was born.
(WSJ, 5/28/02, p.D7)
1833 John Mohler Studebaker was
born in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. In 1858 joined his two older
brothers in a South Bend firm producing wagons. The company went on
to become the worlds largest producer of farm wagons and carriages,
coining the slogan: "Always give more than you promise. From the
1920s until its closing, Studebaker was a leader in styling and
engineering. Studebaker went out of business after its 1966 Avanti
(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)(HNQ, 1/21/02)
1833 J.M.W. Turner completed
his 1st oil painting "Bridge of Sighs and the Ducal Palace," his 1st
exhibited painting of Venice.
(WSJ, 3/17/04, p.D4)
1833 James Boardman
(1801-1855), English traveler and writer, authored America and the
1833 Alexander Pushkin, Russian
poet, wrote his poem "The Bronze Horseman" (Myedny Vsadnik).
(SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T11)(WSJ, 8/5/06, p.P12)
1833 In NYC Benjamin Day
founded the New York Sun newspaper. He appealed to a general
readership and charged a penny a copy.
(SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)
1833 The NY Mechanics Institute
opened to encourage the mechanical arts.
1833 American Navy pensioners
moved into what was then called the Naval Asylum, a 180-room stone
building on the bank of the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia. The
name was later changed to the Naval Home. It closed in 1977.
1833 Sylvester Graham,
Presbyterian minister, preached against overindulging the appetites
and warned that intemperance would lead to "diseased irritability
and inflammation, painful sensibility, and finally, disorganization
and death." His whole wheat Graham flour was the main ingredient in
(WSJ, 9/29/00, p.W17)
1833 George C. Yount built the
first structure in Sonoma, Ca., and planted the first grape vines in
Napa Valley, the coarse Mission variety.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, p.T4)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.T8)
1833 In New Orleans the
Lafayette Cemetery No. 1 opened to take in the victims of yellow
(Hem., 1/97, p.65)
1833 John Anderson, a
Kentucky-based slave trader, was one of 10 dealers who, during a
cholera epidemic, petitioned to move the Natchez, Miss., slave
market outside the city limits.
(WSJ, 12/2/04, p.D12)
1833 The McKesson Corp. began
as a drugstore in NYC.
(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B1)
1833 Charles Babbage abandoned
his calculator project completely in favor of a programmable
machine. It was to be controlled by punched cards adapted from the
devices French weavers used to control thread sequences in their
(I&I, Penzias, p.95)
1833 An improved version of the
typographer (typewriter) was made in France. The early versions were
chiefly for the blind as they produced embossed writing.
(SJSVB, 3/25/96, p.27)
1833 George Fibbleton invented
the first shaving machine. It was an imperfect device that left
numerous scars on his face.
(SFEC, 3/23/97, z1 p.7)
1833 Walter Hunt of NY state
invented a lock stitching sewing machine, but it was never patented.
(ON, 11/00, p.9)
1833 M. Tournal published his
paper General Consideration on the Phenomenon of Bone Caverns. His
work is one of the first accounts which produced evidence of the
contemporaneity of man and extinct animals.
1833 The British government
removed the British East India Companys monopoly of trade with
China and banned it from trading in India entirely.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)
1833 England passed stronger
measures regulating child labor.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)
1833 The first clearing house
to exchange checks was built in London, England. Prior to this
checks were exchanged informally in coffee houses.
1833 John James Audubon visited
Canadas Grand Manan Island off the southeast coast of New Brunswick
to see herring gulls nesting in trees.
(NH, 9/96, p.58)
1833 In Paris the St. Vincent
de Paul Society was founded to provide aid to the poor.
(SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)
1833 The slave trade in Ghana
1833 Giuseppe Garibaldi,
Italian revolutionary, was forced to flee Italy following a failed
uprising against Austrian rule in northern Italy. In 1939 he arrived
in Brazil to aid the rebel cause.
(ON, 10/06, p.5)
1833 In Jamaica Annie Palmer, a
"white witch," was murdered in her bed. She had reportedly murdered
3 husbands and various lovers and slaves. She was later said to
haunt Rose Hall.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T7)
1833 Aoki Mokubei (b.1767),
Japanese poet and potter, died.
(NYT, 10/8/04, p.B35)
1833 Mexico took mission
property from the Church and turned out the Acagchemem Indians at
Mission San Juan Capistrano.
(HT, 3/97, p.61)
1833 The people of Iztapalapa,
Mexico, began re-enacting the Passion of Christ, to give thanks for
divine protection during a cholera epidemic.
1833 Sir Henry C. Rawlinson was
sent to Persia as one of a group of British officers charged with
reorganizing the Shahs army.
1833-1841 Lawyer and poet Francis Scott Key was
the U.S. attorney for the District of Columbia serving under three
presidents. Key penned the verses to "The Star-Spangled Banner"
after watching the British bombardment of Fort McHenry on the night
of September 13, 1814, during the War of 1812. Keys four-stanza
verse was later put to the tune of a British drinking song and
became enormously popular. It officially became the American
national anthem on March 3, 1931. These were the only lyrics Key
1833-1868 The Carlist Wars comprised the dynastic
struggle in Spain between Isabelline liberalism and the reactionary
rural traditionalism represented by Don Carlos. With the death of
Ferdinand on September 29, 1833, and the proclamation of his
daughter Isabella as queenexcluding Ferdinands brother Don Carlos
from the successionthe First Carlist War was ignited.
1833-1905 Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen, German
geographer and geologist. He coined the expression "Silk Road" to
describe the ancient trade routes between China and the West.
(AM, 7/00, p.72)
1834 Jan 10, Lord Acton [John
E.E. Dalberg], English historian and editor of The Rambler, a Roman
Catholic monthly, was born.
1834 Jan 29, President Jackson
ordered the 1st use of US troops to suppress a labor dispute.
Jackson ordered the War Department to put down a "riotous assembly"
near Willamsport, Maryland, among Irish laborers constructing the
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.
(HNQ, 1/23/99)(MC, 1/29/02)
1834 Jan, New of the failure of
business houses and banks in Philadelphia, NY, and Washington
heralded the newspapers.
1834 Feb 8, Dmitri Ivanovich
Mendeleyev (d.1907), Russian chemist, was born. He formulated the
periodic table of elements.
1834 Feb 9, Franz Xaver Witt,
composer, was born.
1834 Feb 26, New York and New
Jersey ratified the 1st US interstate crime compact.
1834 Mar 6, The city of York in
Upper Canada was incorporated as Toronto.
1834 Mar 22, Horace Greeley
published "New Yorker," a weekly literary and news magazine and
forerunner of Harold Ross' more successful "The New Yorker."
1834 Mar 24, John Wesley
Powell, US, geologist, explorer, ethnologist, was born.
(HFA, '96, p.26)(MC, 3/24/02)
1834 Mar 24, William Morris,
English craftsman, poet, socialist, was born.
1834 Mar 28, The US Senate
voted to censure Pres. Jackson for the removal of federal deposits
from the Bank of the United States. The Senate declared that Pres.
Andrew Jackson: "in the last executive proceedings in relation to
the public revenue, has assumed upon himself authority and power not
conferred by the constitution and laws, but in derogation of both."
1834 Apr 29, Charles Darwin's
expedition saw the top of Andes from Patagonia.
1834 May 5, The first mainland
railway line opened in Belgium.
1834 May 5, Charles Darwin's
expedition continued at Rio Santa Cruz.
1834 May 20, The Marquis de
Lafayette (78), US Revolutionary War hero (Marie Joseph Paul Yves
Roche Gilbert du Motier), died in Paris, France. He was the 1st
foreigner to address Congress. In 2002 Congress moved to make him an
honorary US citizen. In 1983 Olivier Bernier authored Lafayette,
Hero of Two Worlds. In 200 Harlow Giles Unger authored Lafayette.
(WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)(SFC, 7/23/02, p.A2)(ON,
1834 Jun 2, The 5th national
black convention met in NYC.
1834 Jun 21, Cyrus Hall
McCormick received a patent for his reaping machine.
(AP, 6/21/97)(HN, 6/21/98)
1834 Jun 30, Congress passed
the final Indian Intercourse Act. In addition to regulating
relations between Indians living on Indian land and non-Indians,
this final act identified an area known as "Indian country". This
land was described as being " all that part of the United States
west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and
Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas " This is the land that
became known as Indian Territory. Oklahoma was declared Indian
1834 Jul 4, NYC Mayor Cornelius
W. Lawrence presided over the laying of the cornerstone for the
Astor House hotel, designed by Isaiah Rogers. Construction took four
years and cost around $400,000.
1834 Jul 10, James Abbott
McNeil Whistler (d.1903), US expatriate painter famous for painting
his mother, was born.
(HN, 7/10/98)(WUD, 1994 p.1628)
1834 Jul 15, Lord Napier of
England arrived at Macao, China as the first chief superintendent of
1834 Jul 19, Hilaire Germain
Edgar Degas (d.1917), French impressionist painter. His mother was a
Creole and he journeyed to New Orleans in 1872. His work included
"The Millinery Shop," "Combing the Hair," "Nude Fixing Her Hair,"
"Two Dancers" (c1890-1898), "Frieze of Dancers" (1893-1898), "Self
Portrait" (c1863-1865 & c1895-1900) and "Blue Dancers" (1895).
He also collected art and by the time of his death had amassed more
than 500 paintings and 5,000 prints. The collection was auctioned
off in Paris from Mar 1918 to Jul 1919. His time in New Orleans is
covered in the 1997 book "Degas in New Orleans: Encounters in the
Creole World of Kate Chopin and George Washington Cable" by
(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994,
p.380)(WSJ, 10/2/96, p.B5)(SFC,
10/22/96,p.E8)(WSJ,10/21/97,p.A20)(SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)(HN,
1834 Jul 23, James Gibbons,
American religious leader and founder of Catholic University, was
1834 Jul 25, Samuel Taylor
Coleridge (b.1772), English poet, died. He and his friend William
Wordsworth were among the founders of the Romantic Movement in
England and later identified, along with Robert Southey, as the Lake
School of poets. Coleridges work included "The Rime of the Ancient
Mariner," "Frost at Midnight" and "Kubla Khan." In his later life he
authored the "Bibliographia Literaria," a work of literary theory.
In 1999 Richard Holmes published "Coleridge: Darker Reflections,
1804-1834," which focused on the poet's later life. His volume
"Coleridge: Early Visions" was published in 1989. In 2007 Adam
Sisman authored The Friendship: Wordsworth & Coleridge.
p.A20)(WSJ, 2/20/07, p.D8)
1834 Aug 1, The British
Emancipation Act went into effect abolishing slavery throughout the
British Empire. This ended slavery in Canada, in the West Indies and
in all Caribbean holdings. Some 35,000 slaves were freed in the Cape
Colony. The Minstrels Parada in Cape Town, SA, originated as a
spontaneous outpouring of marches, music and dancing to mark the
abolition of slavery.
(NH, 7/98, p.29)(HN, 8/1/98)(EWH, 4th ed,
1834 Aug 18, Mt. Vesuvius
1834 Aug 31, Amilcare
Ponchielli, composer (La Gioconda), was born in Paderno, Italy.
1834 Aug, The barque Charles
Eaton was wrecked on Australias Great Barrier Reef. 2 years later
the schooner Isabella arrived in Sydney with the cabin boy of the
lost ship, a 5-year old child and 17 skulls of passengers murdered
on Boydang Island. This event prompted an expedition to survey the
reef, the Torres Strait and the southern coast of new Guinea. In
2005 Jordan Goodman authored The Rattlesnake: A Voyage of Discovery
to the Coral Sea, an account of the survey expedition.
(Econ, 3/19/05, p.88)
1834 Sep 9, Parliament passed
the Municipal Corporations Act, reforming city and town governments
1834 Sep 16, The Bank of the US
abandoned its policy of loan curtailment as Nicholas Biddle moved to
secure a new charter from the state of Pennsylvania.
1834 Sep 27, Charles Darwin
returned to Valparaiso.
1834 Oct 8, Francois-Adrien
Boiledieu (58), composer (La Dame Blanche), died.
1834 Oct 16, In London the
Houses of Parliament caught fire and many historic documents were
burned. J.M.W. created two oil paintings of the burning of the
Houses of Parliament.
1834 Oct, Constantine Samuel
Rafinisque submitted an essay to the Royal Institute of France on
the language of the Delaware Indians.
(NH, 10/96, p.16)
1834 Nov 1, The 1st published
reference to poker was as Mississippi riverboat game.
1834 Nov 10, HMS Beagle with
Charles Darwin sailed from Valparaiso.
1834 Nov 14, William Thomson
entered Glasgow Univ. at 10 yrs 4 months.
1834 Nov 21, HMS Beagle
anchored at Bay of San Carlos, Chile.
1834 Nov 23, Hector Berlioz's
"Harold in Italy," premiered.
1834 Nov 25, Jean-Baptist
Colyns, composer, was born.
1834 Nov 25, Delmonico's, one
of NY's finest restaurants, provided a meal of soup, steak, coffee
& half a pie for 12 cents.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.6)
1834 Nov, John Heckewelder,
Moravian missionary, published a list of Lenape Indian names, a
Delaware Indian tribe.
(NH, 10/96, p.16)
1834 Dec 3, 1st US dental
society was organized in NY.
1834 Dec 10, Robert Peel
(1788-1850) became prime minister of Britain after launching the
first national election manifesto in British history.
1834 Dec 23, Joseph Hansom of
London received a patent for Hansom cabs.
1834 Dec 25, Charles Darwin
celebrated Christmas on Beagle at Tres Montes, Chile.
1834 Dec 27, Charles Lamb
(b.1775), English critic, poet, essayist, died. "No one ever
regarded the first of January with indifference. It is the nativity
of our common Adam."
1834 Dec 29, Thomas R. Malthus
(b.1766), English vicar, economist ("Essay On Population"), died.
1834 Dec, Constantine Samuel
Rafinisque submitted a supplement to the Royal Institute of France
to his essay on the language of the Delaware Indians.
(NH, 10/96, p.16)
1834 James McNeill Whistler
(d.1903), American painter and etcher, was born in Lowell Mass., the
son of a civil engineer. He grew up in St. Petersburg, Russia, where
his father was overseeing a railway line. He attended West Point and
was expelled. He left the US for good at age 21 and painted beside
Gustave Courbet. He worked in France and England after 1855. He
painted "The White Girl."
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1628)(WSJ, 5/31/95, p.
1834 Honore Daumier created his
lithograph "The Legislative Belly."
(WSJ, 5/9/00, p.A24)
1834 Frederick Marryat authored
the novel Jacob Faithfully. The term Shiver My Timbers!, an
expletive denoting surprise or disbelief, was first seen in this
book. It alluded to a ship's striking a rock or shoal so hard that
her timbers shiver. In 1881, Robert Louis Stevenson found the term
to be the perfect exclamation for the irascible Long John Silver:
"So! Shiver me timbers, here's Jim Hawkins!" This stereotypical
expletive became extremely popular with writers of sea yarns and
1834 "Turkey in the Straw"
became a popular tune in the US.
(SFEC, 5/31/98, Z1 p.8)
1834 Gaetano Donizetti had the
premier of his opera "Rosmonda dInghilterra," a story of Rosamond
Clifford, who was put in a tower by her lover King Henry II.
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)
1834 A new brass plaque was
forged in 1996 for the San Francisco Pioneer Monument that reads:
With their efforts over in 1934, the missionaries left behind about
56,000 converts- and 150,000 dead. Half the original native American
population had perished during this time from diseases, armed
attacks and mistreatment.
(SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-13)
1834 Pres. Jackson had special
1804 silver dollars minted for the sultan of Muscat (later Oman) and
the King of Siam (later Thailand) for trade treaties negotiated by
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A6)
1834 Roger Brooke Taney was
nominated to the US Supreme Court.
(WSJ, 11/21/06, p.D8)
1834 New York and New Jersey
made a compact over Ellis Island, then a 3-acre site that held that
the surrounding submerged land belonged to New Jersey. By 1998 the
island was 27.5 acres due to landfill and its ownership was under
(SFC, 1/13/98, p.A2)
1834 Californias 1st printing
press, an old wooden Ramage press, was off-loaded at Monterey, Ca.
It later produced the 1st issues of 5 California newspapers of the
gold rush. It was burned by ruffians in Columbia, Ca, on Nov 13,
(CVG, Vol 16, p.10)
1834 Orders to secularize the
California missions arrived from Mexico and ended mission ownership
by the Franciscans. General Mariano Vallejo also arrived to Mission
San Francisco Solano de Sonoma. General Vallejos job was to
establish a town and so Sonoma was designed around a central plaza.
(WCG, p.58)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)
1834 A crippled Hojun-maru
junk, blown off course with 3 Japanese castaways, washed ashore on
Cape Flattery in Washington state. Makah Indians seized the cargo,
enslaved the sailors and then sold them to the Hudsons Bay Company.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.64)
1834 William Russell Birch
(b.1755), English-born artist, died. He had settled in Philadelphia
with his son in 1794 and in 1800 published 28 drawn and engraved
hand-colored images of Philadelphia.
(SFC, 5/18/02, p.E6)
1834 Bolivias Penal Code
of 1834, Article 139, stated: "Anyone who conspires directly and in
fact to establish another religion in Bolivia or (promotes) that the
Republic cease to profess the Roman, Catholic, and Apostolic
Religion, is traitor and will be punished with the death penalty."
1834 Banco Economico SA was
founded in Brazil. In 1995 this 8th largest bank in Brazil and the
oldest bank in Latin America failed and was taken over by the
(WSJ, 8/15/95, p. A-6)
1834 After this time the
Tories, a political group in the British House of Commons, preferred
to use the term Conservative. The word Tories was originally used to
describe rural bandits in Ireland. In the 17th century it had become
a term applied to monarchists in the House of Commons. By the 18th
century the Tories were politicians who favored royal authority, the
established church and who sought to preserve the traditional
political structure and opposed parliamentary reform.
1834 Britains Parliament
passed the Poor Law Amendment Act. It ensured that the poor were
housed in workhouses, clothed and fed. The law was inspired by the
thinking of Thomas Malthus blamed the plight of the poor on their
p.54)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.63)
1834 Lord Sandys, English
governor of Bengal, took a sample of an Indian sauce to an
apothecary in Worcester, 100 miles northwest of London, and asked
the pharmacists John Wheeley Lea and William Perrins to make a
similar batch. The new batch tasted awful until it was allowed to
age for a while. They then put together what became known worldwide
as Worcestershire Sauce. [2nd source gave an 1835 date]
(WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A1)(SFC, 4/12/97, p.E3)
1834 Henry Fox Talbot, a
wealthy English gentleman, began experimenting with silver chloride
to produce photographic images.
(ON, 4/00, p.9)
1834 In London Joe Hansom put
his Hansom cabs onto the streets.
(SFEC, 5/31/98, Z1 p.8)
1834 Sardines were canned in
Europe for the first time.
(SFEC, 5/31/98, Z1 p.8)
1834 Eleuthere Irenee du Pont
de Nemours, founder of a large gun powder operation, died. The
company was re-charted as a partnership and then the French and
original stockholders were all bought out buy the family. General
Henry du Pont, the 2nd son of E.I. du Pont led the company till his
death in 1899.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)
1834 A Frenchman invented a
wire nail-making machine.
(SFEC, 5/31/98, Z1 p.8)
1834 Joseph-Marie Jacquard
(b.1752), French loom maker and inventor, died. In 2004 James
Essinger authored Jacquards Web, a biography that connects
Jacquards work to computer technology.
(WSJ, 11/12/04, p.W10)
1834 Carl Friedrich Uhlig of
Germany developed the German concertina.
(BAAC, 8/96, p.6)
1834 Slavery was abolished in
Guyana and people from India were brought in to work on sugar
(SFC, 3/19/01, p.A8)
1834 At the Shrine of the Holy
Sepulchre in Jerusalem the ceremony of the Holy Fire led to a
stampede in which many people were killed.
(Econ, 3/26/05, p.82)
1834 Mexico granted Don Salvio
Pacheco 18,000 acres in northern California known as Monte del
Diablo, which included what would later became Concord and Walnut
Creek. The family later donated land to the government for roads and
public buildings. The area was originally inhabited by the Bolbones
(SFC, 12/31/99, p.A22)(SFC, 5/26/01, p.A13)(SFC,
1834 In Madrid, Spain, a time
capsule with books, documents and mementos, was buried beneath a
statue of writer Miguel de Cervantes. The lead box was uncovered in
(SFC, 1/16/10, p.A2)
1834 The maharaja of Jammu was
able to annex Ladakh, a West Tibetan kingdom.
1834-1840 10-20,000 Afrikaners set out on the
Great Trek to get away from British rule. This was less than 20% of
the Afrikaners of the frontier districts.
(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)
1834-1842 Greeces King Otto led efforts for the
return of the Acropolis marbles from Britain. Talks involved the
return of architectural elements from the Parthenon and Athena Nike
temples dedicated to Athens' protecting goddess, which had been
removed some four decades earlier on the orders of British
ambassador Lord Elgin.
1834-1858 Imam Shamil (1797-1871) ruled over a
self-proclaimed imamat (Chechnya). He united part of the North
Caucasian highlanders in their struggle against tsarist Russia and
set up a theocratic sharia state known as imamat that resisted
Tsarist Russia for 27 years.
1834-1861 The Citizens Bank of Louisiana, a
predecessor of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., secured loans with
mortgages and thousands of slaves. Bernard de Marigny, plantation
owner and one of the richest men of the epoch, put 62 slaves into
the banks books as collateral for borrowed money to support his
(WSJ, 5/10/05, p.A1)
1834-1888 Currier and Ives lithographs,
manufactured in New York and form a sweeping pictorial record of
mid-19th century America. When he first opened his shop, Nathaniel
Currier had just finished an apprenticeship in lithography, an
18th-century printing process involving making images from inked
stones. When an 1835 fire destroyed much of old New Amsterdam,
Currier rushed a lithograph of the disaster into print. Ruins of the
Merchant's Exchange, NY (shown above) sold briskly and launched
Currier's career in pictorial journalism. In 1852, Currier hired
bookkeeper and lithographer James Ives, making him a business
partner in 1857. Together the two men built Currier and Ives into
the most successful lithography house of their time and left a
legacy of more than 7,000 prints that document the humor, political
climate, current events and sentiments of mid-19th-century American
1834-1894 Philip G. Hamerton, English artist and
essayist: "Have you ever observed that we pay much more attention to
a wise passage when it is quoted than when we read it in the
1834-1896 William Morris, founder of the Socialist
League and active in painting, designing, printing and literature.
He was born in Walthamstow (near London), England. His biography is
written by Fiona MacCarthy in 1995 and titled: William Morris: A
Life for Our Time. She describes Morris as wearing Nietzsches "mask
of the great man," i.e. one who embraces a gargantuan cause not out
of conviction but simply because he feels that this is what he is
supposed to do.
(WSJ, 9/15/95, p.A-14)
1834-1896 Heinrich von Treitschke, German
historian. Treitschke coined the word and concept of
"lebensraum"-German for "living space"-which was later embraced by
Hitler in his drive for domination of Europe. Von Treitschke
believed Prussia should be a world power and should seize whatever
land it needed. German geographer Karl Haushofer took the idea
to justify Germanys need for more territory for a growing
population, and that notion was subsequently taken up by Hitler and
the Nazis. Haushofer became one of Hitlers closest advisers
and his theories, known as "Weltpolitik" were among the cornerstones
of Nazi expansion.
(WUD, 1994, p.1509)(HNQ, 4/9/99)
1834-1902 Lord Acton, English historian: "Liberty
is not a means to a higher political end. It is itself the highest
1834-1902 John Wesley Powell, American scientist
and explorer. He explored the canyons of the Green and Colorado
Rivers. he was the first director of the Bureau of Ethnology and a
director of the Geological Survey (1881-1892).
(HFA, 96, p.127)
1834-1910 Leon Walras, French economist. He
founded the marginalist school of economic thought, which held that
prices depend on the level of customer demand. He developed a
mathematical formulation of the mechanics of the price system with
equations that tied together theories of production, exchange, money
and capital. His general equilibrium theory is called "Walrasion
general equilibrium" and is still part of modern economic theory.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)
1834-1919 Ernst Haeckel, German biologist,
morphologist and philosopher. He coined the terms ecology and
phylogeny and proposed the theory that "ontogeny recapitulates
(WUD, 1994, p.635)(NH, 12/98, p.4,56)
1835 Jan 17, Antanas
Baranauskas (d.1902), Lithuanian poet and bishop, was born in
(LC, 1998, p.8)(LHC, 1/17/03)
1835 Jan 18, Cesar A. Cui, fort
architect, composer, was born in Vilnius, Lithuania.
1835 Jan 31, Richard Lawrence
misfired at President Andrew Jackson (aka 'Old Hickory') at the
White House. Lawrence fired 2 pistols at Pres. Andrew Jackson during
funeral services for Rep. Warren Davis. Jackson wasnt hit and
Lawrence, who thought he was the king of England and that Jackson
owed him money, was found to be insane.
(SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)(HN, 1/31/99)(SFC, 2/5/00,
1835 Jan, Consiguina volcano in
Nicaragua erupted and threw ash as far away as Mexico and Jamaica.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)
1835 Feb 20, Concepcion, Chile,
was destroyed by earthquake and some 5,000 died.
1835 Feb 22, HMS Beagle with
Charles Darwin left Valdivia, Chile.
1835 Mar 3, Congress authorized
a US mint at New Orleans, LA.
1835 Mar 4, HMS Beagle moved
into Bay of Concepcion.
1835 Mar 6, Charles Ewing
(d.1883), Brig General (Union volunteers), was born.
1835 Mar 7, HMS Beagle returned
from Concepcion to Valparaiso.
1835 Mar 10, Charles Darwin in
a letter to Carolyn Darwin described a massive earthquake in
(NH, 5/96, p.7)
1835 Mar 12, Simon Newcomb, US
scientist, mathematician, astronomer, was born.
1835 Mar 13, Charles Darwin
departed Valparaiso for Andes crossing.
1835 Mar 18, Charles Darwin
departed Santiago, Chile, on his way to Portillo Pass.
1835 Mar 23, Charles Darwin
reached Los Arenales in the Andes.
1835 Mar 27, The Mexican army
massacred Texan rebels at Gohad.
1835 Mar 29, Elihu Thomson, the
English-born American inventor of electric welding and arc lighting,
1835 Apr 10, Charles Darwin
returned to Santiago, Chile.
1835 Apr 17, William Henry
Ireland (b.1775)), English forger of Shakespeares works, died. He
is less well-known as a poet, writer of gothic novels and histories.
1835 Apr 26, Frederic Chopins
"Grand Polonaise Brillante," premiered in Paris.
1835 Apr, Hans Christian
Andersen (1805-1875) published novel Improvisatore, an alternative
version of his own life based on his travel experiences in Italy.
(ON, 7/06, p.7)
1835 May 6, The 1st edition of
NY Herald was priced at 1 cent. The Herald specialized in crime with
an emphasis on murder. James Gordon Bennett was the Scottish-born
steward of the Herald. Within a few years of the 1936 Jewett murder
case, a coalition of clergymen, financiers and rival editors waged a
"Moral War" against Bennett and his newspaper
(SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)(SFEM, 8/6/00, p.45)(MC,
1835 May 12, Charles Darwin
visited the copper mines in North Chile.
1835 May 13, John Nash, British
town planner, architect (Regent's Park), died.
1835 May 14, Charles Darwin
reached Coquimbo in Northern Chile.
1835 May 26, Edward Porter
Alexander, brigadier general of artillery, was born.
1835 May 26, A resolution was
passed in the U.S. Congress stating that Congress has no authority
over state slavery laws.
1835 Jun 2, St. Pius X, 257th
Roman Catholic pope (1903-14), was born.
1835 Jun 2, P.T. Barnum and his
circus began 1st tour of US.
1835 Jul 1, German printer Carl
Bertelsmann (1791-1850) founded Bertelsmann Verlag in Gutersloh, as
a publisher and printer of religious books. In 2004 it was Europes
largest media company.
(Econ, 3/6/04, p.61)(Econ, 10/17/09,
1835 Jul 4, The Boston and
Worcester Railroad was inaugurated.
(WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)
1835 Jul 6, John Marshall, the
3rd chief justice of the US Supreme Court, died at the age of 79.
Two days later, while tolling in his honor in Philadelphia, the
Liberty Bell cracked. Marshall served on the court for 34 years.
(HN, 7/6/98)(SFC, 9/5/05, p.A8)
1835 Jul 8, The US Liberty Bell
in Philadelphia cracked while being tolled for Chief Justice John
Marshall. It was never rung again.
(HFA, 96, p.34)(HN, 7/6/98)(WSJ, 12/10/96,
1835 Jul 28, King Louis
Philippe of France survived an assassination attempt by Giuseppe
Maria Fieschi, who rigged 25 guns together and fired them all with
the pull of a single trigger.
1835 Aug 2, Elisha Grey,
inventor (Telephone), was born.
1835 Aug 10, Mob of whites and
oxen pulled a black school to a swamp outside of Canaan, NH.
1835 Aug 18, The last
Pottawatomie Indians left Chicago.
1835 Aug 25, Ann Rutledge (22),
said to be Lincoln's true love, died in Ill.
1835 Aug 31, Angry mob in
Charleston, South Carolina, seized U-S mail containing abolitionist
literature and burned it in public.
1835 Sep 13, Ladd & Co.
began the 1st sugar cane plantation in Hawaii.
1835 Sep 15, HMS Beagle and
Charles Darwin reached the Galapagos Islands, a scattering of 19
small islands and scores of islets.
(SFC, 12/4/94, p.
1835 Sep 17, Charles Darwin
landed on Chatham in the Galapagos-archipelago.
1835 Sep 23, HMS Beagle sailed
to Charles Island in the Galapagos archipelago.
1835 Sep 26, Gaetano
Donizetti's opera "Lucia di Lammermoor," premiered in Naples.
1835 Sep, Texans petitioned for
statehood separate from Coahuila. They wrote out their needs and
their complaints in The Declaration of Causes. This document was
designed to convince the Federalists that the Texans desired only to
preserve the 1824 Constitution, which guaranteed the rights of
everyone living on Mexican soil. But by this time, Santa Anna was in
power, having seized control in 1833, and he advocated the removal
of all foreigners. His answer was to send his crack troops,
commanded by his brother-in-law, General Martin Perfecto de Css, to
San Antonio to disarm the Texans.
1835 Oct 2, The first battle of
the Texas Revolution took place as American settlers fought Mexican
soldiers near the Guadalupe River; the Mexicans ended up
1835 Oct 6, The people of
Michigan approved an new state constitution by a vote of 6,299 to
1,359. The constitution repudiated slavery and safeguarded personal
1835 Oct 8, HMS Beagle and
Charles Darwin reached James Island, Galapagos archipelago.
1835 Oct 9, Camille
Saint-Saens, composer (Carnival of the Animals, Organ Symphony,
Samson et Dalilah), was born in Paris, France.
1835 Oct 20, HMS Beagle left
the Galapagos Archipelago and sailed to Tahiti.
1835 Oct 23, Adlai Ewing
Stevenson, (D) 23rd VP (1893-97), was born.
1835 Oct 29, In NYC Tammany
Hall radicals lit candles with the new self-igniting friction
matches, known as loco-focos, and continued to nominate their own
ticket and formulate their program. The radical urban wing of the
Democratic Party, which emerged in New York in opposition to Andrew
Jacksons banking policies, thus became known by the nickname
Loco-Focos. Also known as Equal Rights men, the Loco-Focos fought
those financial interests aided by the regular Democratic Party in
applying for bank and corporation charters from the
legislature. They also advocated hard money, elections by
direct popular vote, direct taxes, free trade, abolition of
monopolies and Jeffersonian strict construction. They got the name
Loco-Focos from an incident that occurred at a party primary meeting
in Tammany Hall. After party regulars pushed through a ticket over
the objections of the Equal Rights men, the radicals refused to
vacate the hall. To get them to leave, the party regulars turned out
the gas lights.
1835 Oct 31, Adelbert Ames
(d.1933), Bvt Major General (Union Army), was born.
1835 Oct 31, J.F.W. Adolf
Ritter von Baeyer, German chemist (Nobel 1905), was born.
1835 Oct, Before the Alamo,
Mexican General Css led troops against the small community of
Gonzales, since enshrined in history as the "Lexington of Texas."
San Antonio de Bixar went under military rule, with 1,200 Mexican
troops under General Css command. When Css ordered the small
community of Gonzales, about 50 miles east of San Antonio, to return
a cannon loaned to the town for defense against Indian
attack--rightfully fearing that the citizens might use the cannon
against his own troops--the Gonzales residents refused. "Come and
take it!" they taunted, setting off a charge of old chains and scrap
iron, shot from the mouth of the tiny cannon mounted on ox-cart
wheels. Although the only casualty was one Mexican soldier, Gonzales
became enshrined in history as the "Lexington of Texas." The Texas
Revolution was on.
1835 Nov 1, Godfrey Weitzel,
(Union volunteers Major general, died in 1884), was born.
1835 Nov 4, Lunsford Lindsay
Lomax (d.1913), Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
1835 Nov 13, Texans officially
proclaimed Independence from Mexico, and called itself the Lone Star
Republic, after its flag, until its admission to the Union in 1845.
In 2001 Randy Roberts and James S. Olson authored "A Line in the
Sand," a narrative of the Texas drive for independence.
(HN, 11/13/98)(WSJ, 2/9/00, p.W6)
1835 Nov 15, HMS Beagle and
Charles Darwin reached Tahiti.
1835 Nov 16, Charles Darwin's
voyage account was published in Cambridge Philosophical Society.
1835 Nov 19, Fitzhugh Lee
(d.1905), Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
1835 Nov 23, Henry Burden
invented the first machine for manufacturing horseshoes. He then
made most of the horseshoes for the Union Cavalry in the Civil War.
Burden patented a Horseshoe manufacturing machine in Troy, NY.
(SFC, 7/13/96, p.E3)(MC, 11/23/01)
1835 Nov 24, Texas Rangers, a
mounted police force, was authorized by the Texas Provisional
Government. The Mexicans called them Los Diablos Tejanos -The Texas
(MC, 11/24/01)(HNQ, 4/7/02)
1835 Nov 25, Andrew Carnegie
(d.1919), American industrialist, was born to a poor weaver in
Dunfermline, Scotland. He emigrated to the US in 1848 and worked as
a superintendent for the Pennsylvania Railroad. In invested in iron
manufacturing, railroad cars and oil and moved into the steel
business by 1873 where he improved quality and lowered costs. He
sold his interests at age 65 and retired to Scotland. He donated $5
million to a pension fund for his workers and gave away an estimated
$350 million over the next 2 decades for public libraries, church
organs and other causes: There is no idol more debasing than the
worship of money."
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(AP, 11/25/99)
1835 Nov 26, HMS Beagle left
Tahiti for NZ.
1835 Nov 30, Samuel Langhorne
Clemens (d.1910), author, -- better known under his penname as Mark
Twain -- was born in Florida, Mo. In 1999 Ron Powers published
"Dangerous Water: A Biography of the Boy Who Became Mark Twain."
"Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because fiction is
obliged to stick to possibilities; truth isn't." "Everybody's
private motto: It's better to be popular than right." "Let us be
thankful for the fools. But for them, the rest of us could not
succeed." "Why is it that we rejoice at a birth and grieve at a
funeral? It is because we are not the person involved."
(HFA, '96, p.18)(AHD, 1971, p.1385)(WUD, 1994,
p.276)(AP, 6/2/97)(AP, 10/17/97)(AP, 11/30/97)(AP, 4/1/98)(AP,
4/21/98)(SFEC, 8/8/99, BR p.3)
1835 Dec 1, Hans Christian
Andersen published his 1st book of fairy tales.
1835 Dec 3, 1st US mutual fire
insurance company issued 1st policy in RI.
1835 Dec 4, Samuel Butler
(d.1902), English writer and painter, was born. His work included
"Erewhon" and "The Way of All Flesh." "There are two great rules of
life, the one general and the other particular. The first is that
everyone can, in the end, get what he wants if he only tries. This
is the general rule. The particular rule is that every individual is
more or less an exception to the general rule." "A hen is only an
eggs way of making another egg." "Life is one long process of
(AP, 4/25/97)(SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.8)(AP,
1835 Dec 7, German railway
1835 Dec 13, Phillips Brooks,
the American Episcopal bishop, was born in Boston. He wrote the
words to "O Little Town of Bethlehem."
1835 Dec 16, A fire in New York
City destroyed property estimated to be worth $20,000,000. Beginning
in a store at Pearl and Merchant (Hanover) Streets, it lasted two
days, ravaged 17 blocks (52 acres), and destroyed 674 buildings
including the Stock Exchange, Merchants' Exchange, Post Office, and
the South Dutch Church. 13 acres were scorched. 23 of the citys 26
fire-insurance companies were forced into bankruptcy.
(HN, 12/16/98)(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 9/4/02,
1835 Dec 21, HMS Beagle sailed
into Bay of Islands, New Zealand.
1835 Dec 25, Charles Darwin
celebrated Christmas in Pahia, New Zealand.
1835 Dec 30, Cherokees were
forced to move across the Mississippi River after gold was
discovered in Georgia. A minority faction of Cherokee agreed to the
emigration of the whole tribe from their lands by signing the Treaty
of New Echota. The Treaty of New Echota resulted in the cession of
all Cherokee land to the U.S. and provided for the transportation of
the Cherokee Indians to land beyond the Mississippi. The removal of
the Cherokee was completed by 1838.
(NG, 5/95, p.86)(HNQ, 6/21/98)(MC, 12/30/01)
1835 Dec 30, HMS Beagle and
Charles Darwin sailed from NZ to Sydney.
1835 Karl Baedeker (1801-1859),
German publisher, published "Travel on the Rhine." It was later
widely considered as the 1st modern guidebook.
(SSFC, 11/30/02, p.C3)
1835 Hagop Melik-Agopian,
Armenian novelist known as "Raffi", helped develop a nationalist
(Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)
1835 John Lloyd Stephens
authored "Incidents of Travel in Arabia Petra."
(ON, 12/99, p.5)
1835 Frenchman Alexis de
Tocqueville (25) wrote "Democracy in America." He had been
dispatched by the French government to study Americas penal system.
His book predicted that henceforth equality would always increase
everywhere, and justice be thereby served in the life of mankind. He
also foresaw that democratic man, no longer protected by traditional
institutions, found himself in danger of being exposed to the
absolute tyranny of the state that he himself had created, i.e. a
case of totalitarianism. He also predicted that the extremes of
social diversity would be lost and that more human beings would tend
to cluster around a central norm. He stated that: "Americans of all
ages, all conditions and all dispositions constantly form
associations." In 1938 George Wilson Pierson wrote "Tocqueville in
(Smith., 4/1995, p.134)(SFEC, 6/14/98, Par
p.10)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.92)
1835 Frederic Chopin composed
his Waltz #2 in C# Minor. Chronologically this was his 5th published
(BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)
1835 The San Ysidro church was
built on the outskirts of Santa Fe, NM. It was named after the
patron saint of farmers.
(LP, Spring 2006, p.42)
1835 Pres. Andrew Jackson
succeeded in retiring the national debt largely through the sale of
(WSJ, 2/6/97, p.C18)(Panic, p.6)
1835 The 1825 Missouri abortion
law was rewritten to prohibit instrumental abortions as well as
those induced by poisons.
(SFEM, 2/1/98, p.13)
1835 There was a
workers walkout and strike in Lowell, Mass.
(SFEC, 9/29/96, BR p.10)
1835 The Paine Furniture Co.
began operations in Boston, Mass. It later moved to Cape Cod changed
its name to Paines Patio.
(SFC, 10/1/08, p.G6)
1835 The New York Sun hired
Richard Adams Locke, a Briton, as editor. He soon wrote an anonymous
series about a new telescope and observations of the moon that
included the mention of vast forests, fields of poppies and lunar
animals. Circulation soared to 19,360. In 840 he admitted to writing
the moon hoax series. In 2008 Matthew Goodman authored the Sun and
the Moon: The Remarkable True Account of Hoaxers, Showmen, Dueling
Journalists, and Lunar Man-Bats in Nineteenth-Century New York.
(WSJ, 11/7/08, p.A15)
1835 Solomon Laurent Juneau, a
fur trader, laid out the eastern part of Milwaukee and became the
first president of the village in 1837. Juneau was born in Montreal
and in 1818 settled on the site of Milwaukee and established a
trading business. Juneau, who became a U.S. citizen in 1831,
was elected the citys first mayor in 1846.
1835 William A. Richardson
built the first structure in SF and was named captain of the port of
(SFC, 3/27/99, p.A23)(SFC, 7/6/13, p.C2)
1835 George Calvert Yount chose
to settle in the heart of the Napa Valley at what is now called
(SFC, 6/9/96, DB p.69)
1835 Richard Henry Dana,
writer, arrived in SF aboard the brig Pilgrim.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)
1835 Alexander Forbes served as
the British vice-consul in Monterey, Ca.
(SFC, 12/5/03, p.D6)
1835 Ohio and Michigan engaged
in The Toledo War (18351836), also known as the Ohio-Michigan
War, a bloodless boundary dispute that was settled in 1836.
1835 Natural gas was used for
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1835 Orlando Reeves, a soldier,
was shot with an arrow by a Seminole Indian warrior during a fight.
The city of Orlando, Florida is named after Orlando Reeves.
(Hem, Mar. 95, p.27)
1835 The Ottoman Porte divided
Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra,
and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1835 The French government
prohibited political caricature.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.75)
1835 A foreign newspapers
translation agency, set up by Charles-Louis Havas, became the Agence
Havas, the first worldwide news agency.
1835 Madame Tussaud opened her
London Wax Museum.
(SFEC, 7/18/99, Par p.4)
1835 Lt. Henry Creswicke
Rawlinson (25) began examining the ancient inscriptions on the rock
of Behistun in the Kurdish foothills of the Zagros mountain range.
He soon found that they had been made to honor Darius the Great,
Persian ruler in the 5th century BCE.
(ON, 4/04, p.7)
1835 Madagascars Queen
Ranavalona I persecuted and expelled foreigners, including the
island's missionaries and extended her rule all over the island with
her 20,000-man army.
1835 Trinity Cathedral in St.
Petersburg, Russia, was consecrated. In 2006 a fire collapsed the
central dome and one of four smaller cupolas surrounding it.
1835 The wooden Neve Shalom
synagogue was built in Suriname.
(SSFC, 12/7/08, p.E5)
1835 James Hogg (b.1770),
Scottish writer, died. His novels included The Private Memoirs and
Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824).
1835 The Vatican removed On
the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) by Nicholas
Copernicus from its list of banned books.
1835-1853 The Lost Woman of San Nicolas. A report
by a Captain Hubbard, whose schooner carried away the Indians of
Ghalast-at, mentioned a girl who jumped into the sea and returned to
the Island of San Nicolas. Records of a Captain Nidever record that
18 years later, a young woman living alone was picked up from San
Nicolas. She was taken to the Santa Barbara Mission under the
protection of Father Gonzales and died there. Her skirt of green
cormorant feathers was sent to Rome. Her story is told by Scott
ODell in his novel: Island of the Blue Dolphins.
(IBD, 1960, p.183)
1835-1868 Adah Isaacs Menken, a Jewish poet and
actress, was born near New Orleans and learned French, German,
Spanish and Hebrew in school. She shocked American and European
audiences in the 1860s for her bold acting style and became
notorious for her role in the play Mazeppa, where she appeared on
stage barely clothed tied to the back of a running horse. Around
1856 she published her first book of poems and married Alexander
Isaacs Menken, whose name she kept through divorce and subsequent
remarriages and liaisons. Called the most perfectly developed woman
in the world, she moved between Europe and the United States as she
performed. Adah Isaacs Menken died of tuberculosis in Paris and was
buried there in the Montparnasse Cemetery.
1835-1868 Lesotho acted as a buffer between the
Afrikaners and British colonial interests and supplied seasonal
farm workers to both.
(WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A11)(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)
1835-1909 Augusta Jane Evans, American novelist:
"Life does not count by years. Some suffer a lifetime in a day, and
so grow old between the rising and the setting of the sun."
1835-1916 Hetty Green, investor, was known as the
"Witch of Wall street." She began investing in the financials
markets after inheriting some $10 million from her shi-owner father.
She married a wealthy trader, Edward Green, who went bankrupt, but
maintained her wealth with separate accounts. She refused to treat
her son for a knee injury and the leg was amputated. She left about
$100 million when she died.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)
1836 Jan 5, Davy Crockett
arrived in Texas just in time to die at the Alamo.
1836 Jan 18, Knife aficionado
Jim Bowie arrived at the Alamo to assist its Texas defenders.
1836 Jan 27, Leopold von
Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer (masochism), was born.
1836 Feb 7, The essays
"Sketches by Boz" were published by Charles Dickens.
1836 Feb 12, Mexican General
Santa Anna crossed the Rio Grande en route to the Alamo.
1836 Feb 17, HMS Beagle and
Charles Darwin left Tasmania.
1836 Feb 18, Swami Ramakrishna
[Gadadhar Chatterji], Indian mystic, Hindu leader, was born.
1836 Feb 21, Leo Delibes,
ballet composer (Coppelia), was born in Saint-Germain-du-Val,
1836 Feb 23, The Alamo was
besieged by Santa Anna. Thus began the siege of the Alamo, a 13-day
moment in history that turned a ruined Spanish mission in San
Antonio, Texas, into a shrine known and revered the world over. In
2012 James Donovan authored The Blood of Heroes: The 13-Day
Struggle for the Alamo and the Sacrifice That Forged a Nation.
(AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.99)
1836 Feb 24, Winslow Homer
(d.1910), American painter, was born. He began his career as an
illustrator for Harper's Weekly during America's Civil War. He is
believed to have died a virgin and took up a hermits life in his
mid 40s. He captured the look and spirit of 19th century American
(WSJ, 4/2/96, p.A-12)(HN, 2/24/99)(WSJ, 7/21/00,
1836 Feb 24, Some 3,000
Mexicans under Gen. Santa Ana launched an assault on the Alamo, with
its 182 Texan defenders. The siege lasted 13 days.
(HN, 2/24/98)(MC, 2/24/02)
1836 Feb 25, Samuel Colt
patented the first revolving barrel multi-shot firearm. This allowed
the shooter to fire 5 or 6 times before reloading.
(AP, 2/25/98)(AH, 2/06, p.15)
1836 Feb 27, Mexican forces
under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of
1836 Mar 2, Texas declared its
independence from Mexico on Sam Houston's 43rd birthday. The first
vice-president was Lorenzo de Zavala. Mexico refused to recognize
Texas but diplomatic relations were established with the US, Britain
and France. Texas was an independent republic until 1845.
(WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)(WP, 6/29/96, p.A15)(SFC,
4/28/97, p.A3)(AP, 3/2/98)(HN, 3/2/99)
1836 Mar 2, Mexican forces
under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of
1836 Mar 5, Samuel Colt
manufactured the 1st pistol, a 34-caliber "Texas" model.
1836 Mar 6, The Alamo fell
after fighting for 13 days. Angered by a new Mexican constitution
that removed much of their autonomy, Texans seized the Alamo in San
Antonio in December 1835. Mexican president General Antonio Lopez de
Santa Anna marched into Texas to put down the rebellion. By late
February, 1836, 182 Texans, led by Colonel William Travis, held the
former mission complex against Santa Annas [3,000] 6,000 troops. At
4 a.m. on March 6, after fighting for 13 days, Santa Annas troops
charged. In the battle that followed, all the Alamo defenders were
killed while the Mexicans suffered about 2,000 casualties. Santa
Anna dismissed the Alamo conquest as "a small affair," but the time
bought by the Alamo defenders lives permitted General Sam Houston
to forge an army that would win the Battle of San Jacinto and,
ultimately, Texas independence. Mexican Lt. Col. Pena later wrote a
memoir: "With Santa Anna in Texas: Diary of Jose Enrique de la
Pena," that described the capture and execution of Davy Crockett and
6 other Alamo defenders. In 1975 a translation of the diary by
Carmen Perry (d.1999) was published. Apparently, only one Texan
combatant survived Jose María Guerrero, who persuaded his captors he
had been forced to fight. Women, children, and a black slave, were
(AP, 3/6/98)(HN, 3/6/98)(HNPD, 3/6/99)(SFC,
1836 Mar 6, HMS Beagle and
Darwin reached King George's Sound, Australia.
1836 Mar 12, Mexican forces
under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of
1836 Mar 13, Refugees from the
Alamo arrived in Gonzales, Texas, and informed Gen. Sam Houston of
the March 6, fall of the Alamo. Houston immediately ordered a
(ON, 8/10, p.1)
1836 Mar 16, Andrew S.
Hallidie, inventor (cable car), was born.
1836 Mar 16, The Republic of
Texas approved a constitution.
1836 Mar 17, David G. Burnet
(1788-1870) became interim president of Texas and continued to Oct
22, 1836. he became the second Vice President of the Republic of
Texas (1839-41), and Secretary of State (1846) for the new state of
Texas after it was annexed to the United States of America.
1836 Mar 20, At Coleto Creek,
Texas, Colonel James Fannin after being surrounded by Mexican forces
under General Urrea, agreed to surrender to Colonel Juan Jose
Holzinger. Fannin was unaware that General Santa Anna had decreed
execution for all rebels. Urrea negotiated the surrender "at the
disposal of the Supreme Mexican Government," falsely stating that no
prisoner taken on those terms had lost his life.
1836 Mar 23, Coin Press was
invented by Franklin Beale.
1836 Mar 26, Mexican Colonel
Jose Nicolas de la Portilla received orders from Gen. Santa Anna in
triplicate to execute his Texan prisoners at Goliad.
1836 Mar 27, The first Mormon
temple was dedicated, in Kirtland, Ohio.
(AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)
1836 Mar 27, Mexican Colonel
Jose Nicolas de la Portilla executed his Texan prisoners at Goliad.
Colonel Portilla had the 342 Texians marched out of Fort Defiance
into three columns. The Texians were then fired on at point-blank
range. The wounded and dying were then clubbed and stabbed. Those
who survived the initial volley were run down by the Mexican
1836 Mar 31, The first monthly
installment of The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens was published
1836 Mar, George Yount became
the grantee of the Rancho Caymus (11,814 acres), the first US
citizen to be ceded a Spanish land grant in Napa Valley, Ca., in
exchange for making wooden shingles for Gen. Mariano Vallejo. In Oct
1843 he was deeded the Rancho de La Jota (4,053 acres).
1836 Mar, Thousands of English
speaking Texans abandoned their homes as the Mexican army advanced
following the fall of the Alamo. They fled toward Louisiana in what
came to be called the Runaway Scrape.
(ON, 8/10, p.2)
1836 Apr 9-10, Helen Jewett, a
prostitute in a Thomas St. bordello in Manhattan, was murdered. Her
boyfriend, Richard P. Robinson (17), a clerk for a local merchant
and engaged to a woman of good pedigree, was tried for the murder
but acquitted. In 1998 Patricia Cline Cohen published "The Murder of
Helen Jewett," an account of the story.
(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W6)(SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)
1836 Apr 20, The Territory of
Wisconsin was established by Congress.
(AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)
1836 Apr 20, Johan I Jozef
(75), monarch of Liechtenstein, field marshal, died.
1836 Apr 21, Some 910 Texians
led by Sam Houston, the former governor of Tennessee, defeated the
Mexican army under Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at San Jacinto.
The victory in the 18 minute battle sealed Texan independence from
Mexico. Houston counted 9 fatalities. 630 Mexicans were killed out
of some 1,250 troops. Some 700 were taken prisoner.
(AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)(AH, 2/03, p.22)(ON,
1836 May 6, Christian Ignatius
Latrobe (78), composer, died.
1836 May 9, HMS Beagle with
Charles Darwin departed Port Louis, Mauritius.
1836 May 16, Edgar Allan Poe
(27) married Virginia Clem (13) in Richmond, Virginia.
(SFEM, 1/25/98, p.67)
1836 May 17, Joseph Norman
Lockyer, discovered helium, was born. He founded Nature magazine.
(HN, 5/17/98)(MC, 5/17/02)
1836 May 18, Wilhelm Steinitz
was born. The Czech-born world chess champion (1866-94) later became
a naturalized American.
(HN, 5/18/99)(SC, 5/18/02)
1836 May 19, Comanche warriors
in Texas attacked Fort Parker and kidnapped Cynthia Ann Parker (9)
and several others. She was recaptured by whites in 1860 and was
forced to live among whites until her death in 1871. Her son Quanah
(d.1911) escaped capture and grew up to become leader of the
Quahadi, the most feared subset of the Comanche. In 2010 S.C. Gwynne
authored Empire of the Southern Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise of
the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.
1836 May 27, Jay Gould, US
railroad executive, financier, was born.
1836 May 31, HMS Beagle
anchored in Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope.
1836 Jun 1, In NYC the doors of
the luxurious Astor House hotel opened to the public. It was a near
copy on a grander scale of the earlier, fashionable Trement House in
Boston, also designed by Isaiah Rogers.
1836 Jun 10, Yamaoka Tesshu,
Japanese swordsman, was born.
1836 Jun 10, Andre M. Ampere,
French mathematician, physicist (Amp), died.
1836 Jun 15, Arkansas became
the 25th state.
1836 Jun 23, Congress approved
the Deposit Act, which contained a provision for turning over
surplus federal revenue to the states.
1836 Jun 26, Claude-Joseph
Rouget de Lisle, author, composer ("La Marseillaise"), died.
1836 Jun 28, James Madison
(85), the 4th president of the United States (1809-17), died in
Montpelier, Va. His writings included the 29 Federalist essays. In
1999 "James Madison: Writings," edited by Jack N. Rakove, was
published. In 2002 Garry Wills authored James Madison."
(AP, 6/28/97)(WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)(WSJ, 9/1/99,
p.A24)(WSJ, 3/26/02, p.A21) (MC, 6/28/02)
1836 Jun, In NYC Richard P.
Robinson was found not guilty of the murder of Helen Jewett by a
jury after 10 minutes of deliberation.
(SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)
1836 Jul 4, Jacob Leese, a
trader from Ohio, built a house in Yerba Buena (later San
Francisco). This was the towns first building and Leese threw a
3-day party over the 4th of July to celebrate.
(SFC, 7/6/13, p.C2)
1836 Jul 4, The territorial
government of Wisconsin was established.
(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1836 Jul 4, Narcissa Prentiss
Whitman and Eliza Hart Spaulding made a marker at South Pass Wyoming
as the first European women to cross the continent.
(SFC, 8/18/98, p.A8)
1836 Jul 6, French General
Thomas Bugeaud defeated Abd al-Kaders forces beside the Sikkak
River in Algeria.
1836 Jul 11, Pres. Jackson,
alarmed by the growing influx of state bank notes being used to pay
for public land purchases, issued the Specie Circular shortly before
leaving office. This order commanded the Treasury to no longer
accept paper notes as payment for such sales. This led to the
financial panic of 1837.
1836 Jul 15, William Winter,
drama critic and essayist for The New York Times, was born.
1836 Jul 20, Charles Darwin
climbed Green Hill on Ascension.
1836 Aug 7, Evander McIvor Law
(d.1920), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born in South
1836 Aug 14, Walter Besant
(d.1901), English writer, philanthropist (Rebel Queen), was born.
1836 Aug 22, Archibald M.
Willard, US, artist (Spirit of '76), was born.
1836 Aug 25, Bret Harte
(d.1902), American author and journalist (Outcasts of Poker Flat),
was born in Albany, NY. "The only sure thing about luck is that it
will change." [1839 also given as a birth date]
(WUD, 1994 p.648)(AP, 4/2/98)(SFEC, 9/3/00, BR
1836 Sep 1, Protestant
missionary Dr. Marcus Whitman led a party to Oregon. His wife,
Narcissa, was one of the first white women to travel the Oregon
1836 Sep 1, Reconstruction
began on Synagogue of Rabbi Judah Hasid in Jerusalem.
1836 Sep 5, Sam Houston was
elected president of the Republic of Texas.
1836 Sep 10, Joseph Wheeler II,
Maj Gen of the Confederacy, Cavalry, Army of Tennessee, was born.
1836 Sep 12, Mexican
authorities crushed the revolt which broke out on August 25.
1836 Sep 14, Aaron Burr, the
3rd US Vice President, died. He had served as vice-president under
Thomas Jefferson. Burr is alleged to have fathered a black
illegitimate son named John Pierre Burr. In 1999 Roger W. Kennedy
authored "Burr, Hamilton and Jefferson: A Study in Character." In
2007 Nancy Isenberg authored Fallen Founder: The Life of Aaron
(WSJ, 10/27/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/5/05, p.A1)(WSJ,
1836 Oct 2, Darwin returned to
England aboard HMS Beagle after 5 years abroad. He visited Brazil,
the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand. His studies were important
to his theory of evolution, which he put forth in his groundbreaking
scientific work of 1859, "The Origin of Species by Means of Natural
1836 Oct 22, Sam Houston was
inaugurated as the first constitutionally elected president of the
Republic of Texas.
(AP, 10/22/97)(HN, 10/22/98)
1836 Oct 24, A. Phillips
patented the match.
(HN, 10/24/98)(MC, 10/24/01)
1836 Oct, Don Juan Alvarado,
president of the 7-man legislature in the Mexican territory of
California, fled Monterey with his deputies to Mission San Juan
Bautista under threats from Lt. Col. Nicolas Gutierrez, the military
governor. There they formed plans for a coup.
(ON, 4/04, p.9)
1836 Nov 4, Don Juan Alvarado
and a group of followers forced the surrender of Lt. Col. Nicolas
Gutierrez, the military governor Monterey. The quickly drafted
a constitution and proclaimed California independent of Mexico.
Officials in southern California refused to recognize Alvarado's
government and he agreed to make California a territory of Mexico
with himself as governor.
(ON, 4/04, p.10)
1836 Nov 6, Charles X (79),
King of France (1824-30), died.
1836 Nov 10, Charles Louis
Napoleon (1808-1873), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, failed in an
attempted coup at Strasbourg and was exiled to the US by the
government of Louis Philippe.
1836 Nov 18, William S. Gilbert
(d.1911), English playwright, librettist and humorist, was born. He
was one half of Gilbert & Sullivan. "Life is a joke that's
1836 Nov 27, Carle [Antoine CH]
Vernet, French painter and lithographer, died.
1836 Dec 7, Martin Van Buren
(d.1862) was elected the eighth president of the United States and
served one term. He was known as the "Little Magician" and the "Red
Fox of Kinderhook." The eighth president earned these monikers for
his political adroitness and skill at keeping his thoughts close to
(AP, 12/7/97)(HNQ, 9/19/99)
1836 Dec 28, Spain recognized
the independence of Mexico.
1836 Leopold von Sacher-Masoch
was born in Lemberg, Galicia. He was the author of "Venus in Furs."
He voluntarily enslaved himself to Fanny von Pister and later to his
bride Aurore Rumelin. The term masochism was derived from his name.
(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)
1836 Thomas Cole, Hudson River
School painter, painted "The Course of Empire," a series of 5
paintings chronicling the rise and fall of a great civilization.
(WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)
1836 Auguste Mayer painted
"Scene from the Battle of Trafalgar."
(WSJ, 5/7/02, p.D7)
1836 Edward Lane (1801-1876),
English orientalist, published Manners and Customs of the Modern
Egyptians, a classic account of Egyptian society.
(Econ, 7/17/10, SR p.14)
1836 Augustus Pugin
(1812-1852), English Gothic architect and designer, authored
Contrasts, the first ever architectural manifesto.
1836 Constantine Samuel
Rafinisque (1783-1840), naturalist, wrote "The American Nations,"
which contained what he claimed to be the deciphered ancient
document written by the Lenape (Delaware) Indians called the Walam
(NH, 10/96, p.14)
1836 King Kamehameha III formed
the Royal Hawaiian Band.
(WSJ, 3/10/05, p.A1)
1836 Meyerbeer composed his
opera "Les Huguenots" with a libretto by Scribe. It was set around
the 16th century Catholic and Protestant struggle that exploded with
the 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
(WSJ, 11/23/99, p.A21)
1836 In Boston a small group of
New England intellectuals began gathering at the home of minister
George Ripley to discuss issues of religious and philosophical
importance. The group, known as the Transcendental Club, disbanded
in 1840. In 2007 Philip F. Gura authored American
Transcendentalism: A History.
(SSFC, 12/2/07, p.M3)
1836 Father Veniaminov, later
canonized, as St. Innokenty of Alaska, spent 3 months at Fort Ross,
Ca., baptizing, burying and teaching.
(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T14)
1836 Pres. Jackson vetoed the
bill to renew the charter of the Second Bank of the United States in
1836. Not until the Federal Reserve Act of 1911 did the US
Government get back its monopoly on the creation of money. [see the
New York Free Banking Act of 1838]
1836 Pres. Jackson named Martin
Van Buren as his successor and Col. Richard Johnson as the vice
presidential candidate, despite Johnsons mulatto mistress and 2
(WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A26)
1836 The US Congress, led by
congressman and former president J.Q. Adams, voted to accept the
100,000 gold sovereign donation of Englishman James Smithson and
establish the Smithsonian Institution for the increase and diffusion
of knowledge among men. The actual Institution was not established
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)(ON, 2/06, p.5)
1836 Roger Brooke Taney was
confirmed as US Chief Justice.
(WSJ, 11/21/06, p.D8)
1836 The 4-wheeled steam
locomotive John Hancock was built with vertical boilers, cylinders
and driving rods that gave its class the nickname "grasshoppers."
(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T6)
1836 Isaac Wade Ross,
Revolutionary war hero, died in Mississippi. His will stipulated
that his slaves should be emancipated upon his death, but only if
they agreed to go to Liberia. The 1st of almost 200 were finally set
free in 1848. In 2004 Alan Huffman authored "Mississippi in Africa:
The Saga of the Slaves of Prospect Hill Plantation and Their Legacy
in Liberia Today."
(SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M1)
1836 Nathan Rothschild, son of
Mayer Amschel Rothschild, died in London. His younger brother James
took charge of the business.
(WSJ, 11/17/98, p.21)
1836 The London-based Anti
Slavery International human rights group was founded.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)
1836 Britains Peninsula and
Oriental Steam Navigation (P&O Line) was founded to carry mail
among Portugal, Spain and England and later expanded to passenger
service. In 2005 Dubais DP World purchased the company for $5.7
(www.theshipslist.com/ships/lines/pando.html)(SFC, 11/30/05, p.C2)
1836 The 107-foot-tall Egyptian
Obelisk reached Paris. [see 1829]
(SFC, 5/15/98, p.D3)
1836 The oldest shop in the
Galerie Vivienne, Paris, France, is Librarie Jousseaume (nos.
45,46,47), which opened in 1836 and has been owned for the past 100
years by the Jousseaume family. Books span the 18th century to the
(Hem., 10/95, p.109)
1836 In France the medieval
timber roof of the Chartres cathedral burned. Architect J.B. Lassus
replaced it with an innovative roof of iron.
(WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W9)
1836 La Fenice opera house in
Venice burned down for the 1st time.
(WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)
1836 Spains central government
revoked the Basques fiscal privileges. These were restored in 1979.
(Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1836 The Swedish Hunters
Association was founded with the aim of building up the moose
population, which had dropped to some 300.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.128)
1836 Seitnazar Seyidi (b.1775)
and Kurbandurdy Zelili (b.1780), Turkmenistan poets, died. Both are
considered to be successors of Makhtum Kuli.
1836 In Uruguay the Colorado
party and the National Party were formed.
(Econ, 10/24/09, p.44)
1836-1838 Sam Houston (1793-1863), US soldier and
political leader, was president of the Republic of Texas.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)
1836-1845 Texas was an independent republic.
(SFC, 4/28/97, p.A3)
1836-1922 In 2004 the US government said it would
digitize newspapers published over this period and make them
available to the public in 2006.
(SFC, 11/17/04, p.A8)
1836-1926 Joseph G. Cannon, Speaker of the U.S.
House of Representatives: "By descent, I am one-fourth German,
one-fourth Irish, one-fourth English, and another quarter French. My
God! If my ancestors are permitted to look down upon me, they might
perhaps upbraid me. But I am also an American!"
1837 Jan 2, Mily Alexeyevich
Balakirev (d.1910), composer (Tamara), was born in Nizhny-Novgorod,
1837 Jan 11, John Field (54),
Irish pianist, composer (Nocturnes), died.
1837 Jan 11, Francois Gerard
(66), French baron, painter, died.
1837 Jan 22, An earthquake in
southern Syria killed thousands.
1837 Jan, 26, Michigan became
the 26th state of the US.
(HFA, 96, p.22)(AP, 1/26/98)
1837 Feb 5, Dwight L. Moody
(d.1899), evangelist, was born. He founded the Moody Bible
Institute. "No man can resolve himself into Heaven."
(AP, 7/26/00)(HN, 2/5/01)
1837 Feb 7, Sir James Augustus
Henry Murray, Scottish lexicographer and editor, was born. He
created the Oxford Dictionary.
HN, 2/7/01)(MC, 2/7/02)
1837 Feb 8, The Senate selected
Richard Mentor Johnson as the vice president of the United States.
Johnson was nominated for vice president on the Democratic ticket
with Martin Van Buren in 1836. When Johnson failed to receive a
majority of the popular vote, the election was thrown into the
Senate for the first and only time. Johnson won the election in the
Senate by a vote of 33 to 16.
(AP, 2/8/99)(HNQ, 3/8/99)
1837 Feb 12, Thomas Moran
(d.1926), American painter, was born in Bolton, England. His
paintings of Yellowstone helped persuade Congress to designate it a
(WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)(SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)
1837 Feb 13, There was a riot
in NY over the high price of flour.
1837 Feb 25, Cheyney University
was established in Pennsylvania through the bequest of Richard
Humphreys, and became the oldest institution of higher learning for
African Americans. It was initially named the African Institute.
However, the name was changed several weeks later to the Institute
for Colored Youth (ICY). In subsequent years, the university was
renamed Cheyney Training School for Teachers (July 1914), Cheyney
State Teachers College (1951), Cheyney State College (1959), and
eventually Cheyney Univ. of Pennsylvania (1983).
1837 Mar 1, William Dean
Howells (d.1920), US author, critic and editor, was born. He edited
the work of William James at the Atlantic Monthly. "We are creatures
of the moment; we live from one little space to another; and only
one interest at a time fills these." "If we like a man's dream, we
call him a reformer; if we don't like his dream, we call him a
(WUD, 1994, p.689)(SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.10)(AP,
3/3/98)(AP, 11/13/98)(HN, 3/1/01)
1837 Mar 3, US President Andrew
Jackson and Congress recognized the Republic of Texas.
1837 Mar 3, Congress increased
Supreme Court membership from 7 to 9.
1837 Mar 4, Martin Van Buren
was inaugurated as 8th President.
1837 Mar 4, When Pres. Jackson
left office there followed a financial crash and a bitter depression
and the government was again forced to borrow money. Pres. Jackson
had returned surplus government funds to the state governments as
(WSJ, 2/6/97, p.C18)(WSJ, 6/26/00, p.A1)
1837 Mar 4, The Illinois state
legislature granted a city charter to Chicago.
1837 Mar 4, Weekly Advocate
changed its name to the Colored American.
1837 Mar 17, Upon his return to
his home in Tennessee, Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the
U.S., proclaimed that he left office "with barely $90 in my pocket."
The old soldier and war hero who had served as president for eight
years, spoke those words when he returned to his home in Tennessee.
1837 Mar 18, Stephen Grover
Cleveland was born in Caldwell, N.J. He was the 22nd (1885-1889) and
24th (1893-1897) president of the United States, the only President
elected for two nonconsecutive terms.
(AP, 3/18/97)(HN, 3/18/02)
1837 Mar 24, Canada gave blacks
the right to vote.
1837 Mar 28, Felix Mendelssohn
married Cecile Jeanrenaud.
1837 Mar 31, John Constable
(60), English painter, water colors painter, died. His work included
some 100 studies of the sky done between 1821-1822. In 2009 Martin
Gayford authored Constable in Love: Love, Landscape, Money and the
Making of a Great Painter.
(WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)(Econ, 3/21/09,
1837 Apr 3, John Burroughs
(d.1921), American author and naturalist, was born. "Time does not
become sacred to us until we have lived it, until it has passed over
us and taken with it a part of ourselves."
(HN, 4/3/01)(AP, 5/28/98)
1837 Apr 5, Algernon Charles
Swinburne (d.1909), English poet (Atalanta in Calydon), was born.
1837 Apr 17, J. Pierpont Morgan
(d.1913), American financier, was born in Hartford, Conn. J.P.
Morgan later owned U.S. Steel and International Harvester. In 1999
Jean Strouse published the biography "Morgan: American Financier."
(WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A24)(HN,
1837 Apr 15, Horace Porter
(d.1921), Bvt Brig General (Union Army), was born.
1837 May 2, Henry Martyn
Roberts, parliamentarian (Robert's Rules of Order).
1837 May 5, Niccolo Antonio
Zingarelli (85), Italian composer, bandmaster, died.
1837 May 9, "Sherrod" burned in
Mississippi River below Natchez, Miss., and 175 died.
1837 May 27, Legendary
gunfighter James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok was born in Troy Grove,
IL. As a youth, Hickok helped his father operate an Underground
Railroad stop for runaway slaves and during the Civil War became a
daring Union scout. After the war Hickok's fame as a skilled
marksman, Indian fighter and frontier marshal grew, leading to a
stint as a featured attraction with Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West
Show. On August 2, 1876, Hickok was shot from behind and killed
while playing poker in Saloon No. 10 in Deadwood, Dakota Territory.
Contrary to his custom, Hickok was sitting with his back to the
1837 May 29, Luca Fumagalli,
composer, was born.
1837 May 29, Alexander F. de
Savornin Lohmann, Dutch minister, party leader (CHU), was born.
1837 May 31, Astor Hotel opened
in NYC. It later became the Waldorf-Astoria. John Jacob Astor bought
up foreclosed properties during the financial bust. He later sold
them for a 10-fold profit.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)(MC, 5/31/02)
1837 Jun 17, Vincent Strong,
Civil War Union Colonel (killed in action at Gettysburg in 1863),
1837 Jun 20, Queen Victoria
(18) ascended the British throne following the death of her uncle,
King William IV (b.1765). She ruled for 63 years to 1901.
(AP, 6/20/97)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(HN, 6/20/01)
1837 Jul 31, William Clarke
Quantrill (d.1865), Confederate guerrilla leader, was born at Canal
1837 Aug 11, Marie Francois
Carnot, engineer, French pres (1887-94), was born.
1837 Aug 18, The Great Western,
a steamship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, was towed out of
the Bristol shipyard and proceeded under sail to London to be fitted
(ON, 8/07, p.6)
1837 Aug 28, Pharmacists John
Lea & William Perrins began to manufacture Worcester Sauce. [see
1837 Sep 6, The Oberlin
Collegiate Institute of Ohio went co-educational.
1837 Sep 21, Charles Lewis
Tiffany (1812-1902) founded his jewelry and china stores.
(MC, 9/21/01)(SSFC, 9/7/03, p.I4)
1837 Oct 1, Robert Gould
Shaw was born to a prominent abolitionist family. He became
commander of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, the first unit of
black soldiers in the Civil War. He was later asked by the governor
of Massachusetts to organize the first regiment of black troops in a
Northern state. Shaw recruited free blacks from all over New
England. On May 13, 1863, the 54th Massachusetts Regiment was
mustered into service in the Union Army with Shaw as its commanding
officer. After leading the regiment in a handful of smaller actions,
Shaw and the 54th joined two brigades of white troops in an assault
on Confederates holding Battery Wagner on the South Carolina coast.
Although the action was unsuccessful and Shaw himself died leading
the charge, the courage of black troops under fire was proven beyond
any doubt. This Kurz and Allison print honors Shaw and the 54th
Massachusetts at Fort Wagner.
(HNPD, 10/1/98)(HN, 10/1/98)
1837 Oct 1, A treaty was made
with the Winnebago Indians.
1837 Oct 9, Francis Parker,
educator and founder of progressive elementary schools, was born.
1837 Oct 11, Samuel Wesley,
composer (Exultate Deo), died at 71.
1837 Oct 17, Johann Nepomuk
Hummel, Austrian composer, died at 58.
1837 Oct 21, During the
Second Seminole War (1835-1842), under a flag of truce during peace
talks, U.S. troops under Gen. Thomas S. Jesup (1788-1860) sieged the
Indian Seminole Chief Osceola in Florida and sent to a jail in North
Carolina, where he later died. Jesup's trickery outraged the
(HN, 10/21/98)(DoW, 1999, p.435)
1837 Oct 31, The collision of
river boats Monmouth & Trement on Mississippi left 300 dead.
1837 Nov 7, A mob attack on the
Alton, Illinois, office newspaper editor Elijah P. Lovejoy and the
subsequent killing of Lovejoy was inspired by the editors
anti-slavery writings. Several persons were indicted in the killing,
but they were found not guilty. Lovejoy was killed while defending a
newly arrived printing press. People opposed to Lovejoys
mission had already destroyed three previous presses.
(HNQ, 3/18/99)(HNQ, 6/26/00)
1837 Nov 8, Mount Holyoke
Seminary, the 1st US college exclusively for women, opened in South
1837 Nov 15, Isaac Pitman
introduced his shorthand system for rapid writing. The stenographic
system was based on sounds and was rapidly adopted in India.
(MC, 11/15/01)(WSJ, 8/20/04, p.A1)
1837 Nov 21, Thomas Morris of
Australia skipped rope 22,806 times.
1837 Nov 28, John Wesley Hyatt
(d.1920), inventor (celluloid), was born.
(MC, 11/28/01)(ON, 11/03, p.4)
1837 Dec 2, Dr. Joseph Bell,
British physician, was born. He is believed to be the prototype of
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's detective 'Sherlock Holmes.'
1837 Dec 5, Hector Berlioz'
1837 Dec 9, Charles Emile
Waldteufel, waltz composer (Skaters), was born in Strasbourg,
1837 Dec 25, In the Battle of
Okeechobee US forces defeated the Seminole Indians.
1837 Dec 26, George Dewey,
Admiral of the Navy, was born: Spanish-American War: hero of Manila:
"You may fire when you are ready, Gridley."
1837 Dec 29, Canadian
militiamen, claiming self-defense, destroyed the Caroline, a US
steamboat docked at Buffalo, N.Y. It was being used to ferry
supplies to anti-British rebels in Canada.
(AP, 12/29/97)(Econ, 11/22/03, p.25)
1837 Dec 29, A threshing
machine powered by a single horse treadmill was patented in
Winthrop, Maine, by twins Hiram A. and John A. Pitts.
1837 Mary Harris (d.1931), aka
Mother Jones, was born in County Cork, Ireland. [see May 1, 1830]
(SSFC, 2/25/01, BR p.5)
1837 Artist Alfred Jacob Miller
(1810-1874) accompanied British Capt. William Drummond Stewart on a
hunting expedition to the Rocky Mountains. In October 1840 Miller
traveled with his paintings to Stewart's Murthly Castle in Scotland,
where a collection of his commissioned work was ultimately hung.
Miller later settled in Baltimore, Md., painting portraits.
1837 Reverend George Bush
published The Life of Mohammed, founder of the religion of Islam
and of the Empire of the Saracens. It described the Prophet as an
"imposter" and Muslims as "locusts." In 2005 Egyptian newspapers
announced that the highest authority in Sunni Islam had approved
publication of the book. In 2005 the US administration said the
author was "a distant relative of the current president, five
1837 The Dickens novel "Great
Expectations" was set in this year. A 1998 version of the novel by
Australian writer Peter Carey was titled "Jack Maggs."
(WSJ, 2/4/98, p.A20)
1837 Nathaniel Hawthorne
(1804-1864) wrote "Twice Told Tales."
1837 Tennyson (1809-1892) wrote
his poem Locksley Hall. It included a vision of a tranquil world
lapt in universal law. It was published as part of a collection in
1842. The poem embodied the pain of lost love and looked forward to
a time when the nations of the world would abandon war and form a
parliament of man.
1837 The Mahavamsa ("Great
Chronicle"), a historical poem written in the Pali language of the
kings of Sri Lanka, was published by George Turnour, an historian
and officer of the Ceylon Civil Service. It covers the period from
the coming of King Vijaya of Kalinga (ancient Orissa) in 543 BCE to
the reign of King Mahasena (334361).
1837 Noah Websters Spelling
Book had an estimated printing of 15 million. First published in
1783 as "A Grammatical Institute of the English Language," the
Spelling Book was influential in standardizing and differentiating,
from the British forms, English spelling and pronunciation in
America. By 1890, more than 70 million copies of the book had been
1837 Oliver Wendell
Holmes referred to a speech given by Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1837 as
"our intellectual Declaration of Independence." Emerson, a
philosopher and author born in Boston on May 25, 1803, gave the
speech, entitled "The American Scholar," to the Phi Beta Kappa
Society of Harvard. It called for an indigenous national culture and
defined the functions of the intellectual in the light of
Transcendentalism. He urged the mottoes: "Know Thyself" and "Study
Nature." In 1838 Emersons address to the Harvard Divinity School
criticized orthodox Christianity and led to accusations that he was
an atheist. It was 30 years before he was invited again to speak at
Harvard. He died on April 27, 1882.
1837 Washington Irving wrote
"The Adventures of Captain Bonneville."
(HT, 3/97, p.38)
1837 In Maine the Edwards Dam
on the Kennebec River was constructed.
1837 Conflicts broke up the
Mormon communities in Missouri and Ohio.
(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)
1837 The Presbyterian Church
split into two denominations.
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)
1837 A US treaty with the
Chippewa Indians in Minnesota guaranteed their right to hunt and
fish and gather wild rice on territory relinquished to the federal
(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A8)
1837 US Chief Justice Taney
justified the government use of eminent domain in the Charles River
case and wrote: "the object and end of all government is to promote
the happiness and prosperity of the community by which it is
(Wired, 10/96, p.133)
1837 John Marsh (1799-1856),
Harvard graduate and Minnesota Indian agent, bought Rancho de Los
Meganos east of Mount Diablo and became the 1st American in the San
Joaquin Valley. He purchased the Rancho Los Meganos from Jose
Noriega for $300 in cowhides. The land stood where the hills of
Contra Costa met the San Joaquin Valley. He built a stone Gothic
mansion in 1856. In 2002 plans were made to restore the Marsh House.
(SFC, 12/7/02, p.E4)(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.B3)
1837 A Michigan Public Act
declared that the Univ. of Michigan would "provide the inhabitants
of the State with the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the
various branches of literature, science, and the arts... (and) be
open to all residents of this state."
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.11)
1847 City College, later known
as City Univ. of New York (CUNY) was founded in Harlem.
(Econ, 1/21/06, p.29)
1837 The Procter & Gamble
Company was formed in Cincinnati, Ohio. William Procter and James A.
Gamble built a business manufacturing soap and candles from the
tallow produced by the citys thriving meat packing industry. In
2004 Davis Dyer, Frederick Dalzell and Rowena Olegario authored
Rising Tide, a history of Procter and Gamble.
(WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 7/23/04, p.W12)(Econ,
1837 The B&O Railroad and
the C&O Canal both reached Harper's Ferry. At this point the
B&O built a bridge across the Potomac and began an inland route
up the mountains to Martinsburg.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T7)
1837 Samuel F.B. Morse
incorporated the discoveries of Sturgeon and Henry in the first
practical telegraph, separating the magnet from the switch by some
five hundred yards of wire. [see 1838, 1844]
(I&I, Penzias, p.96)
1837 In California Jose Maria
Amador led a "recapturing expedition." They found and murdered 200
(SFC, 12/31/00, BR p.12)
1837 In London construction
began on the new Palace of Westminster. Architect Charles Barry and
his assistant A.W.N. Pugin had won the open competition for the
(WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W14)
1837 Moses Montefiore
(1784-1885), Italy-born British financier, was elected Sheriff of
London and served until 1838. He was also knighted this same
year by Queen Victoria and received a baronetcy in 1846 in
recognition of his services to humanitarian causes on behalf of the
1837 A parliamentary
commissions report indicated that there were nearly 30,000
charitable endowments in Britain at this time.
1837 English plumber Thomas
Crapper came out with a flush model, valve controlled, water closet.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow installed one in his home in 1840 and
sparked public attention. Thomas Crapper, popularly credited with
inventing the water closet, held three patents, although he may
simply have bought the siphon discharge system patent from Albert
Giblin and marketed it himself. In 1969 Wallace Reyburn authored
Flushed with Pride: The Story of Thomas Crapper.
1837 Thierry Hermes
(1801-1878), French saddle maker, established the Hermes company as
a harness workshop. It grew to become a maker of high fashion
leather goods. The company went public in 1993.
1837 French explorer Dumont
dUrville (1790-1842) sailed along a coastal area of Antarctica that
he named the Adélie Coast in honor of his wife. He also named the
Adelie penguin after his wife.
1837 In St. Petersburg
Alexander Pushkin (b.1799), poet, was killed in a duel with his
wife's suitor, D'Anthes, a French nobleman. Pushkin's work included
"Eugene Onegin," a novel-in-verse, and "Boris Godunov," made famous
in the Mussorgsky opera. In 1993 an English translation of "Strolls
With Pushkin" by Abram Tertz (Andrei Sinyavsky) was published. In
1999 Elaine Feinstein published "Pushkin: A Biography."
(SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)(WSJ, 7/15/99, p.A16)(WSJ,
1837 Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali
as-Senussi (1787-1860), an Algeria-born mendicant founded the
Sanusi, a Sufi order, in Mecca. Beida, Libya, later became the seat
of the Sanusi.
1837 In Scotland Fife Pottery
in Kirkcaldy was purchased by Mary and Robert Heron. They developed
a new style of decoration for pottery and called the pieces Wemyss
Ware. the pottery was decorated on the clay before it was glazed.
the factory closed in 1920 and rights were purchased by a pottery in
(SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)
1837 Louis Agassiz (1807-1873),
Swiss paleontologist, proposed to the Helvetic Society that ancient
glaciers had not only flowed outward from the Alps, but that even
larger glaciers had simultaneously encroached southward on the
plains and mountains of Europe, Asia and North America, smothering
the entire northern hemisphere in a prolonged Ice Age.
(ON, 10/08, p.12)
1837-1841 Martin Van Buren became 8th President of
the US. His term was marred by depression and financial panic.
(A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(HFA, 96, p.46)
1837-1844 Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall
published their 3-volume work: The Indian Tribes of North
(WSJ, 3/15/06, p.D16)
1837-1863 More than 700 US banks could issue their
own notes during this period and as many as one-third of all bills
(Econ, 2/23/08, p.104)
1837-1901 The Victorian Era was covered by Peter
Gay in his 5-volume work: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to
Freud." The 5th volume "Pleasure Wars" came out in 1998. Other
volumes were titled: Education of the Sense," "The Tender Passion,"
and "The Cultivation of Hatred."
(SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.9)
1837-1899 The Countess de Castiglione, mistress to
Napoleon III, actively collaborated in the making of some 500 images
of herself in a wide variety of costume and pose mostly photographed
by Pierre-Louis Pierson. She advertised herself as "The Most
Beautiful Woman of the Century."
(SFEC, 9/19/99, p.C13)
1838 Jan 4, Charles Sherwood
Stratton (d.1883), later known as the dwarf Tom Thumb, was born in
Bridgeport, Conn. In 1842, P.T. Barnum discovered Charles, who
and weighed 15 pounds, only six pounds more than his birth weight.
1838 Jan 6, Max Bruch, composer
Scottish Fantasy), was born in Cologne, Germany.
1838 Jan 6, Samuel Morse
(1791-1872) first publicly demonstrated his telegraph, in
Morristown, N.J. In 2003 David Paul Nickles authored "Under the
Wire," a history of the telegraph and its impact on the world.
(AP, 1/6/98)(WSJ, 1/7/04, p.D10)
1838 Jan 7, John Joseph Hughes
(aka "Dagger John") was consecrated as bishop of New York. He
encouraged the formation of the Society for the Protection of
Destitute Catholic Children and helped form the Irish Emigrant
(WSJ, 3/17/97, p.A18)
1838 Jan 26, Tennessee became
the 1st state to prohibit alcohol.
1838 Feb 6, Having failed to
obtain land by trickery from the Zulus of South Africa, the Boar
leader Piet Retief was executed as a witch.
1838 Feb 16, Henry Adams
(d.1918), was born. He was the son and grandson of the presidents
who became a U.S. historian and wrote "The Education of Henry
(HN, 2/16/99)(SFEC, 4/23/00, BR p.6)
1838 Feb 20, Ludwig Boltzmann
(d.1906), Austrian atomic physics engineer, was born. [see 1844]
1838 Feb 21, Alexis De Rochon,
Spyglass Developer, was born.
1838 Feb 23, Gilbert Moxley
Sorrel (d.1901), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
1838 Feb 24, Thomas Benton
Smith, Brig. General (Confederate Army), was born in Mechanicsville,
Tennessee. He was wounded at Stones River/Murfreesboro and again at
Chickamauga. He was captured at the Battle of Nashville (1864) where
he was beaten over the head with a sword by Col. William Linn
McMillen of the 95th Ohio Infantry. His brain was exposed and it was
believed he would die. He recovered partially and spent the last 47
years of his life in the State Asylum in Nashville, Tennessee, where
he died on May 21, 1923. Hes buried in Mount Olivet Cemetery,
Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee.
1838 Mar 3, Rebellion at Pelee
Island, Ontario, Canada.
1838 Mar 7, Soprano Jenny Lind
("the Swedish Nightingale") made her debut in Weber's opera Der
1838 Mar 16, Nathaniel Bowditch
(b.1773), mathematician, astronomer, polyglot, author (Marine
Sextant), died. In 1802 he published "The New American Practical
(SS, 3/26/02)(AH, 12/02, p.22)
1838 Mar 18, Randal Cremer,
British trade unionist, pacifist (Nobel 1903), was born.
1838 Apr 3, Leon Michel
Gambetta, French attorney, premier (1881-82), was born.
1838 Apr 3, Francesco
Antommarchi (57), Napoleon's physician on St Helena, died.
1838 Apr 8, The British
steamship "Great Western" set out on its maiden voyage from
Bristol, England, to NYC.
(ON, 8/07, p.7)
1838 Apr 12, John Shaw
Billings, American librarian, army physician, was born.
1838 Apr 17, J. Schopenhauer
(71), writer, died.
1838 Apr 21, John Muir
(d.1914), naturalist, was born in Dunbar, Scotland. He discovered
glaciers in the High Sierras of California.
(HN, 4/21/98)(SFEC, 1/2/00, DB p.23)(SFC, 2/2/00,
1838 Apr 22, The English
steamship "Sirius" docked in NYC after a record Atlantic crossing.
1838 Apr 23, The British
steamship "Great Western" arrived in NYC on its maiden voyage
from Bristol, England, just hours after the retrofitted steamship
Sirius, which had departed Cork on April 4. The Great Western
crossed the Atlantic in a record 15 days and 12 hours.
(ON, 8/07, p.7)
1838 Apr 27, Fire destroyed
half of Charleston.
1838 May 10, John Wilkes Booth
(d.1865), assassin of Abraham Lincoln, was born near Bel Air,
1838 May 17, Pennsylvania Hall
in Philadelphia was burned following an abolitionist meeting.
(SFEC, 1/3/99, BR p.1)
1838 May 17, Charles-Maurice
duke of Talleyrand-Perigord (84), diplomat, revolutionary, bishop
and former PM of France (1815), died. In 2006 David Lawday authored
Napoleons Master: A Life of Prince Talleyrand.
1838 Jun 12, The Iowa Territory
1838 Jun 27, Bankim Chandra
Chatterjee, Bengali novelist (Anandamath), was born.
1838 Jun 28, Britain's Queen
Victoria was crowned in Westminster Abbey.
1838 Jul 1, Charles Darwin
presented a paper on his theory of evolution to the Linnaean Society
1838 Jul 8, Count Ferdinand von
Zeppelin (d.1917), German designer and manufacturer of airships, was
(HN, 7/8/98)(WUD, 1994, p.1660)
1838 Jul 11, John Wanamaker
(d.1922), US merchant who founded a chain of stores in Philadelphia,
(HN, 7/11/98)(ON, 12/05, p.6)
1838 Aug 1, Slavery was
abolished in Jamaica.
(HFA, 96, p.36)
1838 Aug 18, Six US Navy ships
departed Hampton Roads, Va., led by Lt. Charles Wilkes on a 3-year
mission called the US South Seas Exploring Expedition, the "U.S. Ex.
Ex." The mission proved Antarctica to be a continent. Wilkes was
tried in a military court for abuses of power, but was generally
acquitted. In 2003 Nathaniel Philbrick authored "Sea of Glory," an
account of the expedition.
(Econ, 11/8/03, p.80)(WSJ, 11/12/03,
1838 Aug 23, One of the first
colleges for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in South Hadley,
Mass., graduated its first students.
1838 Aug, Some 12,000 Cherokee
Indians in 13 ragtag parties followed the Trail of Tears on a
116-day journey west 800 miles to eastern Oklahoma. Estimates have
placed the death toll in camps and in transit as high as 4,000. They
followed the trail already set by the Choctaw out of Mississippi,
the Creek from Alabama, the Chickasaw from Arkansas and Mississippi,
and the Seminole from Florida.
1838 Sep 1, William Clark (68),
2nd lt. of Lewis and Clark Expedition, died.
1838 Sep 2, Lydia Kamekeha
Liliuokalani (d.1917), last sovereign before annexation of Hawaii by
the United States, was born. Liliuokalani, the last monarch of
Hawaii (1891-1893). She composed Hawaiis most famous song "Aloha
(WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)(HN, 9/2/98)
1838 Sep 3, Frederick Douglass,
American Negro abolitionist, escaped slavery disguised as a sailor.
He would later write "The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass," his
memoirs about slave life.
(HFA, 96, p.38)(HN, 9/3/98)
1838 Sep 4, Henrietta
d'Angeville (1794-1871) became the 1st woman to climb to the top of
Mt. Blanc, France. In 1808 mountain guides had carried Marie
Paradis, a local serving girl, to the top.
(ON, 4/04, p.1)
1838 Sep 6, The steamship
Foxfarshire with some 60 passengers and crew suffered engine failure
and drifted onto Big Harkar Rock near the Longstone Lighthouse on
the Farne Islands in northeast England. Over 40 people drowned.
Grace Darling (22) rowed with her father (54), light keeper, to
(ON, 10/00, p.9)
1838 Sep 10, The opera
"Benvenuto Cellini," by Hector Berlioz, premiered in Paris. It was
based on Cellini's autobiography.
(MC, 9/10/01)(WSJ, 12/16/03, p.D10)
1838 Sep 11, John Ireland, US
archbishop of St. Paul, was born in Ireland.
1838 Sep 16, James J. Hill,
railroad builder, was born.
1838 Sep 23, Victoria Chaflin
Woodhull (d.1927), American presidential candidate (1872), was born
into a family of charlatans in Ohio. Woodhull, a militant
suffragist, advocated free love and was Wall Street's first female
broker after attracting Cornelius Vanderbilt. She was the first
woman to address Congress. Her story is documented in The Woman Who
Ran for President: The Many Lives of Victoria Woodhull by Lois
Beachy Underhill. In 1998 Mary Gabriel published "Notorious
Victoria: The Life of Victoria Woodhull, Uncensored. In 1998 Barbara
Goldsmith published "Other Powers--The Age of Suffrage, Spiritualism
and the Scandalous Victoria Woodhull."
(WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR
p.5)(SFEC, 3/8/98, Par p.14)(HNPD, 4/28/00)
1838 Oct 1, Lord Auckland,
British governor general in India, issued the Simla Manifesto,
setting forth the necessary reasons for British intervention in
Afghanistan. This led to the 1st Anglo-Afghan War.
1838 Oct 24, Joseph Lancaster
(b.1778), English educator, was fatally injured by a runaway
horsedrawn carriage in NYC.
1838 Oct 25, Georges
Alexandre-Cesar-Leopold Bizet, French composer (Carmen), was born.
(HN, 10/25/98)(MC, 10/25/01)
1838 Oct 31, A mob of about 200
attacked a Mormon camp in Missouri, killing 20 men, women and
children. In the massacre at Hauns Mill in western Missouri 17
Mormon settlers were killed. Joseph Smith was arrested and the
Mormons were driver from the state.
(HN, 10/31/98)(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)
1838 Nov 8, Victor Hugo's "Ruy
Blas," premiered in Paris.
1838 Nov 13, Joseph F. Smith,
6th president of Mormon church, was born.
1838 Nov 30, Mexico declared
war on France.
1838 Dec 13, Alexis Millardet,
botanist who developed the first successful fungicide, was born.
1838 Dec 16, Boers led by
Andreas Pretorius defeated the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River
and settled in Natal. The Afrikaners while escaping from British
rule encountered resistance from the native black peoples. In the
Battle of Blood River a few hundred Boers repelled an attack by more
than 10,000 warriors of the Zulu king Dingaan.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)
1838 Dec, Indias British
governor general dispatched to Kabul the Army of the Indus to
protect British interests from growing Russian influence.
1838 The Norwegian violinist
Ole Bull visited Memphis but the local whites preferred the fiddling
of the slave musicians.
(WSJ, 8/14/97, p.A16)
1838 Charles Babbage published
his paper on Time Reckoning by Tree Ring Counts.
(RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.53)
1838 A raunchy tale of anarchy
on the high seas was recorded by a junior officer, James Bell,
aboard "The Planter" which sailed to Adelaide from Deptford in east
London. In 2010 Bells 225-page diary went up for sale at auction in
London after being bought in a market stall for a pittance.
1838 Charlotte Bronte authored
her novella "Stancliffes Hotel." It was published for the 1st time
(SFC, 3/15/03, p.A2)
1838 Edgar Allan Poe became
assistant editor of Gentlemans Magazine in Philadelphia. In 1998
Ronald Weber published "Hired Pens: Professional Writers in
Americas Golden Age of Print," that covered professional writing in
the US from Edgar Allen Poe to the present.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 4/26/98, Par p.8)
1838 Gustav Schwab, German
historian, authored his compendium "Die Sagen des Klassischen
Altertums" (Stories from Classical Antiquity). The 1st English
version was published in 1946. It was republished in 2001 as "Gods
and Heroes of Ancient Greece."
(WSJ, 11/7/01, p.A20)
1838 The first Braille Bible
was published by the American Bible Society.
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)
1838 Mammoth Cave in Kentucky
was purchased by Franklin Gorin as a tourist attraction. Stephen L.
Bishop, a slave of Gorins, explored and mapped the caves over the
next two decades. His first comprehensive depiction was published in
1845. Bishop was freed in 1856 and using money earned in tips as
tour guide he bought some adjoining land. Bishop died a year later
and was buried near the caves original entrance.
1838 In New Harmony Indianas
oldest public lending library was founded. The town was founded by
the millennialist Harmonie Society and later bought by Robert Owen,
a social reformer and educator.
(WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A12)
1838 Frederick Augustus
Washington Bailey escaped from slavery in Maryland and traveled to
new England where he changed his name to Frederick Douglass.
(AHD, 1971, p.394)(ON, 7/02, p.6)
1838 New York passed the Free
Banking Act and the idea of state-chartered banks spread across the
country. Each bank issued its own bills in various shapes and sizes.
[see 1863, the National Bank Act]
1838 Amid rising debts and
rumors of polygamy, the Mormons moved from Ohio to Far West, Mo.,
where they clashed violently with other settlers. [see 1839]
(SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)
c1838 In North Atlanta the head of a buck was
mounted on a post near a settlers crossing. Now the intersection of
Peachtree, Roswell and Paces Ferry Roads marks the heart of the
Buckhead section of Atlanta.
(Hem., 7/96, p.55)
1838 Francis Drexel founded a
bank that later developed into Drexel Burnham Lambert Corp. His son,
Joseph Drexel, later partnered with J.P. Morgan and in 1876 went on
to serve as the director of the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.
(SFC, 3/24/00, p.W4)
1838 A law banning the carrying
of concealed weapons was passed in Tennessee and Virginia.
1838 In California Monterey
became the state capital under Juan Bautista Alvarado. He named
Mariano Vallejo commandante general.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)
1838 In California a major
earthquake opened a huge fissure from SF to Santa Clara.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)
1838 In California an
earthquake, estimated at magnitude 7.7 -7.9, hit two miles off the
coast of San Francisco.
(SFC, 1/27/14, p.C2)
1838 The Buckeye Brewing Co. of
Toledo, Ohio, began operations. Green Seal Select Beer was one of
their early brands. The company continued until 1972.
(SFC, 2/13/08, p.G8)
1838 The Curzon Street Station,
the terminus of the London and Birmingham Railway, opened in
Birmingham, England. After 55 years the neoclassical building closed
(Econ, 11/10/12, p.58)
1838 In London the National
Gallery opened on Trafalgar Square. It was designed by William
Wilkins. A 10-year renovation was completed in 1999.
(SFC, 9/22/99, p.E3)
1838 The London Prize Ring
Rules were instituted with bare-knuckle rounds of unspecified
length. Rounds ended when a fighter touched ground with a knee. The
rules were based on those drafted by Britain's Jack Broughton in
1743, and governed the conduct of prizefighting/bare-knuckle boxing
for over 100 years. They were later superseded by the Marquess of
Queensberry rules (1865), the origins of the modern sport of Boxing.
1838 In England William
Ridgway, Son & Co. began using the "Humphrey clock" mark on its
(SFC, 3/11/98, Z1 p.5)
1838 Gideon Barr of England
borrowed money to buy an oceangoing schooner and sailed to Borneo,
called Kalimantaan by the natives. He put down a rebellion against
the sultan of Brunei and became the rajah of the territory. The 1998
novel "Kalimantaan" by C.S. Godshalk was based on these events.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, BR p.6)
1838 France agreed to reduce
Haiti's 1825 "debt" to 60 million fold francs to be paid over 30
years. The final payment was made in 1883. Payments on loans made to
repay France continued to 1947.
(WSJ, 1/2/04, p.A6)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.47)
1838 Frederic Chopin
(1810-1849), Polish-born composer and pianist, began a volatile
affair with French novelist George Sand. The relationship continued
(Econ, 2/6/10, p.91)
1838 Louis Daguerre caught an
image of a man who appears to be getting his shoes or boots shined
at a street corner in Paris. This was the first ever photo of a
1838 Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel,
German astronomer and director of the Konigsberg Observatory, made
the first reliable parallax measurement for a star known as 61
Cygni. This gave a distance from the sun of 10.9 light-years. Thomas
Henderson, Scottish astronomer, measured the parallax of Alpha
Centauri whose distance is calculated to be 4.3 light-years from the
(NH, 4/1/04, p.45)(SCTS, p.137)
1838 In Ghana Asante King Nana
Badu Bonsu II had his head cut off by Maj. Gen. Jan Verveer in
retaliation for Bonsu's killing of two Dutch emissaries, whose heads
were then displayed as trophies. In 2008 Dutch author Arthur Japin
discovered Bonsus head in a jar of formaldehyde at Leiden Univ.
Medical Center. In 2009 the Dutch government returned the head of
(SFC, 3/21/09, p.A2)(SFC, 7/24/09, p.A2)
1838 Greece made an attempt to
restart the Olympics.
(WSJ, 7/19/96, p.R16)
1838 In Hong Kong obscure oil
paintings show a sophisticated irrigation system on the Island.
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.A18)
1838-1840 In Germany Architect Gottfried Semper,
designer of the Dresden Semper Opera House, designed the Dresden
Jewish synagogue that was built over this time.
(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A10)
1838-1916 Ernst Mach, Austrian physicist, proposed
that the inertia of every bit of matter resulted from the mutual
interaction of all matter in the universe. In other words, a mass
resists acceleration because of the influence on it of all the rest
of the masses everywhere. He is also associated with the
relationship of the velocity of aircraft with the velocity of sound.
(TNG, Klein, p.147)
1838-1918 Henry Brooks Adams, American Historian
and philosopher, son of Charles Francis Adams. "One friend in a
lifetime is much; two are many; three are hardly possible." "A
teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 3/21/97)(AP, 1/28/99)
1838-1923 John, Viscount Morley of Blackburn,
English journalist: "The great business of life is to be, to do, to
do without, and to depart."
1838-1995 The Tirschenreuth Porcelain Factory
operated in Tirschenreuth, Bavaria, during this period. In 1927 it
was acquired by the L. Hutschenreuther Co.
(SFC, 9/21/05, p.G3)
1839 Jan 2, French photographic
pioneer Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre took the first photograph of
the moon. Soon after his first photograph of people was a shoeshine
scene on a Paris boulevard.
(HN, 1/2/99)(SFEC, 1/16/00, Z1 p.2)(ON, 4/00,
1839 Jan 9, The Daguerreotype
photo process was announced at the French Academy of Science. Louis
Daguerre had the influential astronomer Dominique-Francois-Argo make
an announcement at the Academy of Sciences in Paris of the
daguerreotype, a photographic process using fumes of iodine to
sensitize a silver plate, vapor of mercury to bring out the image,
and common salt to fix the image. [See 1765-1833, Nicephore Niepce,
French lithographer, and 1816].
9/14/95, p.A-16)(ON, 10/08, p.9)
1839 Jan 19, Paul Cezanne
(d.1906), French painter, was born in Aix-en-Provence in southern
France. He was considered a founding figure in 20th century art. He
departed from the Impressionists in his desire to render perspective
through color. His work had a profound influence on the Cubists. A
catalogue of his work was made by John Rewald (1912-1994) and
published posthumously as: "The Paintings of Paul Cezanne: A
catalogue Raisonne." His work includes: "The Feast" (late 60s),
"Portrait of Achille Emperaire" (1869-70), "Self-Portrait" (c1875),
"Rocks at LEstaque" (1879-82), "Flowerpots" (c1885), "Chestnut
Trees at Jas de Bouffan" (1885-86), "The Kitchen Table" (1888-90),
"Madame Cezanne in a Yellow Chair" (1893-95), "The Lac dAnnecy"
(1896), "Pyramid of Skulls" (1898-1900), "Garden at Le Lauves"
(c1906), "Large Bathers" (1906), "Mont Ste.-Victoire Seen from Les
Lauves." He is best remembered for his works Card Players and
(SFC, 5/30/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 2/10/96, p.A16)(DPCP
1839 Jan 20, Chile defeated a
confederation of Peru and Bolivia in the Battle of Yungay.
1839 Jan 24, Charles Darwin was
elected member of Royal Society.
1839 Jan 28, William Henry Fox
Talbot (1800-1877), English inventor, presented his discoveries and
methods of photography to the Royal Society of London. His
callotype, a negative to positive process, allowed multiple
reproductions of a single image for the 1st time. Talbot suggested a
daguerreotype camera with extra parts to hold mercury.
(ON, 4/00, p.10)(SFC, 6/12/96, Z1 p.5)(SFC,
1839 Jan 29, Charles Darwin
married Emma Wedgwood.
1839 Feb 7, Henry Clay declared
in Senate "I had rather be right than president."
1839 Feb 12, Aroostook War took
place over a boundary dispute between Maine and New Brunswick.
1839 Feb 20, Congress
prohibited dueling in the District of Columbia.
1839 Feb 24, A steam shovel was
patented by William Otis, Philadelphia.
1839 Mar 8, James Mason Crafts,
US chemist (Friedel-Crafts-synthesis), was born.
1839 Mar 9, Felix Huston
Robertson (d.1928), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
1839 Mar 9, Modest Petrovich
Moussorgsky (Mussorgsky), Russian composer, was born (d.1881). His
work included "Boris Godunov" and "Songs and Dances of Death." His
work "Khovanshchina" was finished and orchestrated by Shostakovich.
[see Mar 21]
(WUD, 1994, p.936)(WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A25)(MC,
1839 Mar 9, Prussian government
limited the work week for children to 51 hours.
1839 Mar 21, Modest Mussorgsky,
composer (Boris Godunov, Night on Bald Mt), was born. [see Mar 9]
1839 Mar 23, 1st recorded use
of "OK" [oll korrect] was in Boston's Morning Post.
1839 Mar 25, William Bell Wait,
educator of the blind, was born.
1839 Spring, In Japan a craze
for costume dancing swept Kyoto for a few weeks.
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1839 Apr 5, Robert Smalls,
black congressman from South Carolina, 1875-87, was born.
1839 Apr 11, John Galt (59),
Scottish writer (Last of the Lairds), died.
1839 Apr 17, Guatemala formed a
1839 Apr 20, Giuseppe Rossini,
father of Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini, died.
1839 May 1, Louis-Maire-Hilaire
Bernigaud, French chemist, inventor of rayon, was born.
1839 May 18, Carolina [Maria A]
Bonaparte (57), countess of Lipona (anagram of Napoli), died and was
buried in Bologna.
1839 May 25, John Eliot,
English meteorologist, was born.
1839 Jun 7, Hawaiian
Declaration of Rights was signed.
1839 Jun 12, Baseball was said
to have been invented. According to legend Abner Doubleday chased
cows out of Elihu Phineys pasture and invented the game of baseball
at Cooperstown, New York, later home of the National Baseball Hall
of Fame and the Cooperstown Bat Company. In 1939 on the 100th
anniversary of the day Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the
sport, the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum was dedicated
in Cooperstown, N.Y. Americans began playing baseball in the 1840s.
It was derived from the British game called rounders.
(SFE, 10/1/95, p.T-11)(AP, 6/12/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99,
p.R34)(WSJ, 7/19/01, p.A20)
1839 Jun 27, The Spanish
coasting vessel La Amistad (The Friendship) set sail from Cuba to
Porta Prince with a load of African slaves. Cinque, originally
Senghbe, and over 50 other Africans had been kidnapped in Sierra
Leone and sold into slavery in Cuba. They were carried on a Spanish
ship, the Tecora, to Cuba. Cinque and 49 other slaves and 4 children
were placed on the ship La Amistad destined for Haiti. They
revolted, killed the captain, and ordered the crew back to Africa
but the ship sailed north and ran aground. It was captured by the US
Navy on August 26. A legal battle ensued in New London, Conn., that
went to the Supreme court where former Pres. John Quincy Adams
argued for their freedom and won. An 1855 novella by Herman
Melville, "Benito Cereno" looked at the rebellion through the eyes
of an American interloper. Barbara Chase-Ribaud later wrote "Echo of
Lions," a novel based on the Amistad. In 1996 Steven Spielberg
announced plans to direct a film based on the incident titled
"Amistad." The film was to be released in 1997. A 1997 opera
production, "Amistad," by Anthony Davis premiered in Chicago.
DB p.57)(USAT, 11/19/97, p.2D)(WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A16)(SFEC,12/797, DB
p.44)(SFC,12/26/97, p.C6)(HN, 6/28/99)
1839 Jul 2, African slaves, led
by Joseph Cinque, killed Ramon Ferrer, and took possession of his
ship, La Amistad. Cinque ordered the navigator to take them back to
Africa but after 63 days at sea the ship was intercepted by
Lieutenant Gedney, of the United States brig Washington, half a mile
from the shore of Long Island.
1839 Jul 2, Abdul Meçid, aka
Abdul Mejid I (1823-1861), succeeded his father, Mahmud II, in the
Ottoman House of Osman.
1839 Jul 5, British naval
forces bombarded Dingai on Zhoushan Island in China and occupy it.
1839 Jul 8, John D. Rockefeller
(d.1937), financier, philanthropist, founder of Standard Oil, was
born on a farm in Richford, New York. He moved into the refining end
of the oil business and gobbled up competitors. The 1890 Sherman
Anti-Trust Act forced the breakup of his Standard Oil Co. Ron
Chernow later published "Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller."
His philanthropy totaled over $500 million and included the founding
of the Univ. of Chicago and the Rockefeller Inst. For medical
Research, later Rockefeller Univ.
(HN, 7/8/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(AP, 7/8/99)
1839 Jul 27, Chartist riots
broke out in Birmingham, England.
1839 Aug 19, At a meeting of
the French Academy of Sciences in Paris a new photographic process
was unveiled by Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre. He "was able to
capture images directly onto small, silvered plates; and in England
where William Henry Fox invented what he called "photogenic
drawing." This process produced a negative image on paper from which
positive images could be made... but it took more than an hour to
take a picture and the fuzzy prints were difficult to see. The
daguerreotype enabled the photographer to create a highly detailed
image. The process consisted of polishing a copper plate, using
iodine to sensitize it, and developing it over mercury after
exposing it to light in a camera. Daguerreotypes became so popular
in the United States that New York City boasted more than 70
daguerreotype studios by 1850.
(Smith., 5/95, p.72)(HNQ, 10/28/98)
1839 Aug 23, The British
captured Hong Kong from China.
1839 Aug 26, The slave ship La
Amistad was captured off Long Island. The USS Washington, an
American Navy brig, seized the Amistad, and escorted it to New
1839 Aug 28, William Smith,
British geologist, died. In 1815 he made the 1st geological map of
England and became impoverished in the process. In 2001 Simon
Winchester authored "The Map That Changed the World."
(RTH, 8/28/99)(WSJ, 8/17/01, p.W6)
1839 Sep 9, John Herschel
(1792-1871), English astronomer, took the 1st glass plate
1839 Sep 18, John Aitken,
physician and meteorologist, was born.
1839 Sep 28, Frances E.C.
Willard, founder of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, was born
1839 Oct 1, The British
government decided to send a punitive naval expedition to China.
1839 Oct 3, John Lloyd Stephens
and Frederick Catherwood departed NYC for Central America. They
arrived in Guatemala 3 weeks later.
(ON, 12/99, p.5)
1839 Oct 21, Georg von Siemens,
founder of Deutsche Bank, was born.
1839 Oct 30, Alfred Sisley
(d.1899), impressionist artist, was born in Paris of English
parents. He studied in London and then in Paris in the studio of
Charles Gleyre. He painted landscapes almost exclusively. His work
included "A Turn in the Road" (1873)..
(DPCP 1984)(HN, 10/30/00)
1839 Oct, The London Treaty, in
which all the European powers guaranteed Belgian neutrality, was
signed. The final Dutch-Belgian separation treaty divided Luxembourg
and Limburg between the Dutch and Belgian crowns, settled debt
arrangements and guaranteed the neutrality of Belgium.
1839 Nov 3, The first Opium War
between China and Britain broke out in and around Guangzhou and
continued to 1942. Lin Zexu, a Qing official, started the Opium War
when he ordered the dumping of 3 million pounds of Western-owned
opium into the sea. 2 British frigates engaged several Chinese
junks. In 2011 Julia Lovell authored The Opium War: Drugs, Dreams,
and the Making of China.
(SFC, 6/10/97, p.D4)(AP, 11/3/97)(SSFC, 8/30/09,
p.A21)(Econ, 10/29/11, p.99)
1839 Nov 16, Louis-Honore
Frechette, Canadian poet, was born.
1839 Nov 17, Catherwood and
Stephens arrived at Copan, Honduras, and proceeded to explore the
Mayan ruins in the area.
(ON, 12/99, p.7)
1839 Nov 27, The American
Statistical Association was founded in Boston.
1839 Nov 30, John Lloyd
Stephens left Copan for Guatemala City to locate the government of
the United Provinces of Central America.
(ON, 12/99, p.8)
1839 Nov, In Indias city
Coringa a gigantic 40-foot tidal wave caused by an enormous cyclone
wiped out the harbor city that was never entirely rebuilt; 20,000
vessels in the bay were destroyed and some 300,000 people died.
1839 Dec 4, The Whig Party
opened a national convention in Harrisburg, Pa., where delegates
nominated William Henry Harrison for president. Soon after the Whigs
constructed a 10-foot ball of twine, wood and tin, covered with Whig
slogans, and rolled it from Cleveland to Columbus, Ohio, and across
the country. This led to the expression "Keep the ball rolling."
(AP, 12/4/99)(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.D6)
1839 Dec 5, George Armstrong
Custer, Union cavalry leader who met his fate against Native
Americans at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, was born.
c1839 H. Biberstein created an
allegorical portrait of Marquis de Sade.
(SFEC, 7/25/99, BR p.3)
1839 J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851)
painted "The Fighting Temeraire," a portrait of the ship, which had
gained fame in the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), as it was towed for
(WSJ, 8/21/03, p.D8)
1839 The original printing of
John James Audubons Birds of America was completed in Europe.
Fewer than 200 subscribers ordered the complete set of 400 prints.
(ON, 12/05, p.10)
1839 Cesar Otway wrote "Tour of
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)
1839 Stendhal, Marie-Henri
Beyle, wrote his novel "Charterhouse of Parma" in 52 days. A 1st
edition from the library of Marie Louise, 2nd wife of Napoleon, sold
for $157,310 in 1999.
(WSJ, 1/2/96, p. A-7)(WSJ, 3/25/97, p.A16)
1839 Edward Bulwer-Lytton
(1803-1873), English novelist, authored his play Richelieu. It
included his line The pen is mightier than the sword.
1839 Cyrus Redding (1785-1870),
English wine merchant and author, published Every Man His Own
Butler. This included the statement: claret fro a bishop, port for
a rector, currant for a curate and gin for the clerk.
1839 Giuseppe Verdis 1st
opera, "Oberto, Conte de San Bonifaccio," was produced.
(SFEM, 9/10/00, p.20)
1839 Felix Mendelssohn
conducted the premier of the "C Major Symphony" by Franz Schubert
(SFEM, 9/10/00, p.20)
1839 A law banning the carrying
of concealed weapons was passed in Alabama.
1839 In Washington DC the
Genl. Post Office Building was constructed. In 1998 it was leased
by the Kimpton Hotel and Restaurant Group for conversion into a
172-room luxury hotel.
(SFC, 4/14/98, p.B2)
1839 Jean Vioget laid out the
1st plan of Yerba Buena (San Francisco) and showed the later Union
Square site as a future park.
(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)
1839 Richard Henry Dana,
author, obtained a grant of 37,887 acres near San Luis Obispo, Ca.,
built an adobe house, and raised a family of 21 children.
(SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.7)
1839 A Mexican land grant was
awarded to Francisco Guerrero y Palomares. He built an adobe next to
Denniston Creek. The area, originally called Rancho Coral de Tierra
Palomares, was near Moss Beach, Ca. and in 2011 federal officials
confirmed a transaction allowing the 3,939 acres of the 4,262-acre
rancho to be preserved as parkland.
(SFC, 5/21/11, p.A1)
1839 The Bernal Heights area of
SF, Ca., began to be developed as part of a Mexican land grant
belonging to Don Jose Cornelio Bernal.
(SFC, 6/29/06, 96 Hours p.41)
1839 Capt. John Sutter
(1803-1880), a Swiss who claimed to have been an officer in the
French army arrived in California. Sutter was born in present-day
Germany and lived much of his early years in Switzerland. He
convinced the Mexican governor to grant him lands on the Sacramento
River. He established a fort on a hill near the American River east
of Sacramento Ca. A biography of Sutter was later written by Richard
(SFEC, 7/6/97, p.T3)(SFC, 12/28/98, p.A13)(HNQ,
1839 A granite structure was
erected at Fort Trumbull in New London, Conn. The fort was later
turned into a submarine base.
(AH, 10/01, p.A10)(Econ, 2/19/05, p.31)
1839 Iowas Supreme Court ruled
(Econ, 4/11/09, p.31)
1839 William Knabe opened his
own piano company in Baltimore. It later became part of Samick
(SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)
1839 Joseph Smith escaped from
a Missouri prison and the Mormons left Far West, Mo., and started
buying land for a new settlement in Nauvoo, Ill. [see1844]
(SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)
1839 New York Gov. William
Seward (1801-1872) made his 1st inaugural address.
(WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A16)
1839 The Cherokee Nation moved
1839 The Republic of Texas
issued the so-called Texas "redbacks." It printed over two million
dollars in redbacks, which were initially worth about 37 cents to a
US dollar. By 1842, the redbacks had become virtually worthless and
had lost the power of legal tender. Once again Texans used bank
notes from other states and shinplasters instead of the Texas money.
1839 John Neely Byron started a
trading post on what later became known as the grassy knoll near
Dealy Plaza in Dallas, Tx., near the site of JFK's 1963
(SSFC, 11/16/03, p.C8)
1839 In the US the Virginia
Military Institute (VMI) for young men was founded in Lexington,
(WSJ, 6/27/96, p.B7)(SFEC, 7/20/97, p.A20)
1839 Charles Goodyear
(1800-1860) found the right formula for making rubber impervious to
temperature, a combination of chemicals and heat that became know as
(WSJ, 7/31/02, p.D10)(ON, 6/07, p.11)
1839 Photography first appeared
in 1839 as something of a miracle.
(SFE Mag., 2/12/95, p. 8)
1839 Erastus Bigelow invented
the 1st power loom. It doubled carpet production within a year.
(SFCM, 10/10/04, p.8)
1839 The photoelectric effect
was 1st discovered by French physicist Alexandre Becquerel. He
observed that light could generate an electric current between 2
metal electrodes immersed in a conductive fluid.
(Econ, 3/10/07, TQ p.23)
1839 The basic idea for
electrocombustion, the combination of oxygen and hydrogen to
generate electricity and water, was discovered. This later provided
the basis for fuel cell technology.
(Wired, 10/96, p.128)(SFC, 9/28/01, p.B9)
1839 The annual Miners
Circular, published by the USDI, listed the mining disasters of the
previous year. 50 gas explosions and mine fires caused 200 deaths in
(NOHY, 3/90, p.135)
1839 Italian revolutionary
Garibaldi arrived in Brazil to aid the rebels.
(ON, 10/06, p.5)
1839 A British army marched to
Kabul and replaced Dost Mohammad, the Amir of Afghanistan, with a
more docile ruler. Britain had decided that Persian and Russian
intrigues posed a threat to their control of India.
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)
1839 Britisher Sir James Brooke
arrived in an armed schooner to Sarawak, Malaysia, and helped the
Sultan of neighboring Brunei subdue rebel, headhunting Iban (Dayak)
tribes. As a reward he was made the Raja of Sarawak, and his heirs
continued to rule until 1946.
(Hem, 6/96, p.133)
1839 The British and Foreign
Anti-Slavery Society was founded.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.13)
1839 The British & North
America Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. formed. It later became Cunard
and then a unit of Carnival Corp.
(WSJ, 10/2/03, p.B4)
1839 The Elder Pottery in
Cobridge, Staffordshire, began operating and continued to 1846. John
and George Alcock created platters there.
(SFC, 10/10/07, p.G3)
1839 Joseph Bourne began making
salt glazed pottery at Denby, England. A line called Danesbury Ware
was begun in the 1920s. It later became known as the Denby Pottery
(SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)
1839 France began to mass
produce womens corsets about this time. See the discussion by
Marilyn Yalom in her 1997 book: "History of the Breast."
(SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.3)
1839 Parisian tailors revolted
and destroyed the new sewing machines.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1839 John Lloyd Stephens and
Frederick Catherwood explored Copan. John L. Stephens attempted to
purchase the Mayan city of Copan in Honduras.
(RFH-MDHP, p.217)(NG, 12/97, p.80)
1839 In India a Sikh kingdom
under Ranjit Singh ruled the Punjab until this time.
(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)
1839 Jews in Mashad, Iran, were
forcibly converted to Shiite Islam following a pogrom.
(SFC, 10/20/01, p.A10)
1839 In the Netherlands the
locomotive named "De Arend" was the first and pulled a train from
Amsterdam to Haarlem with a top speed of 23 mph.
(SFC, 6/18/99, p.D4)
1839 Mikhail Lermontov
(1814-1841), Russian writer, authored A Hero of Our Time. It is an
example of the superfluous man novel, noted for its compelling
Byronic hero (or anti-hero) Pechorin and for the beautiful
descriptions of the Caucasus.
1839 In Seville, Spain, the
Monasterio de Santa Maria de las Casas was purchased by a British
businessman and turned into a ceramic tile factory. It had been
badly run down during occupation by French troops (1808-1812).
(SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M5)
1839 Swiss scientist Louis
Agassiz described a fossil fish that had been found in Permian marl
slate near Durham, northern England. He named it coelacanthus. Over
the decades similar fossils were found dating from around 380
million to 70 million years ago.
(Econ, 12/14/13, IL p.10)
1839-1840 The Liberals of the United Provinces of
Central America under leader Francisco Morazan were defeated in a
civil war led by Rafael Carrera. The confederation dissolved into
its 4 component states: El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa
(EWH, 1968, p.857)
1839-1842 First Anglo-Afghan War. After some
resistance, Amir Dost Mohammad Khan surrendered to the British and
was deported to India. In 1990 John H. Waller (1923-2004) authored
Beyond the Khyber Pass: The Road to British Disaster in the First
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(SSFC, 11/7/04, p.A23)
1839-1842 Shah Shuja, a deposed king, was
installed as Afghan "puppet king" by the British. Shuja had been
living in exile in India for three decades. In 2013 William
Dalrymple authored The Return of a King: The Battle for
1839-1842 The Opium War between Britain and China
started when Beijing tried to stop Western imports of the narcotic.
The British won by steaming gunboats up the Yangtze River to the
Grand Canal an then cutting off grain and other supplies to Beijing.
(SFC, 6/10/97, p.D4)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)
1839-1843 The Erebus and Terror Expedition had
aboard the botanist-surgeon J.D. Hooker, who described the diatoms
of the sea.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.158)
1839-1897 Henry George, American economist.
1839-1902 Thomas B. Reed, American lawyer and
legislator: "One, with God, is always a majority, but many a martyr
has been burned at the stake while the votes were being counted."
1839-1908 Joaquin Maria Machado de Assis, mulatto
writer. His novels included "The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas,"
(1880) and "Dom Casmurro," (1899). The works were republished in
1998 by the Oxford Library of Latin America.
(WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)
1839-1908 Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramee),
English writer, "queen of the romantic potboiler." "A cruel story
runs on wheels, and every hand oils the wheels as they run."
(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A14)(AP, 2/7/01)
1839-1911 William Keith, American landscape
(SSFC, 2/4/01, DB p.65)
1839-1912 Frank Furness, American architect. His
students included Louis Sullivan and George Howe. His work included
the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Univ. of
Pennsylvania Library. In 2001 Michael J. Lewis authored "Frank
Furness: Architecture and the Violent Mind."
(WS, 6/26/01, p.A21)
1839-1925 Edward S. Morse, educator. He introduced
modern ideas in archaeology and zoology to Japan at Tokyo Univ.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.34)
1840 Jan 16, Officers Henry Eld
and William Reynolds sighted mountains on Antarctica from their
ship, the Peacock. Their captain, William Hudson, did not bother to
confirm the sighting.
(ON, 3/00, p.7)
1840 Jan 18, "Electro-Magnetic
Intelligencer", 1st US electrical journal, appeared.
1840 Jan 19, Charles B. Wilkes,
captain of the US flagship Vincennes, claimed the discovery of
Antarctica. Wilkes Land was later named in his honor. The American
explorer, born April 3, 1798, coasted along part of the Antarctic
barrier from about 150 degrees east to 108 degrees east, the areas
that were subsequently named Wilkes Land. Wilkes officers disputed
the Jan 19 sighting but acknowledged that land was sighted Jan 28
and Feb 15.
(HNQ, 1/12/99)(ON, 3/00, p.8)
1840 Feb 5, Hiram Stevens Maxim
(d.1916), inventor of the automatic single-barrel rifle, was born in
Sangerville, Maine. He invented the hair-curling iron, and patented
such items as a mousetrap, a locomotive headlight, a method of
manufacturing carbon filaments for lamps, and an automatic
1840 Feb 5, In Damascus, Syria,
Father Thomas, originally from Sardinia, and the superior of a
Franciscan convent at Damascus, disappeared with his servant. 13
prominent Jews were falsely accused of the ritual murder of the
Franciscan monk and his servant. The Damascus Affair inspired
international protests. In 2004 Ronald Florence authored Blood
Libel: The Damascus Affair of 1840.
1840 Feb 10, Britains Queen
Victoria married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
(HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)
1840 Feb 11, Gaetano
Donizetti's Opera "La Fille du Regiment," premiered in Paris.
1840 Mar 23, Draper took 1st
successful photo of the Moon (daguerreotype).
1840 Mar 30, "Beau" Brummell
(b.1778), English dandy and former favorite of the prince regent,
died of syphilis in a French lunatic asylum for paupers. In 2005 Ian
Kelly authored the biography Beau Brummel: The Ultimate Dandy.
1840 Mar 31, 1840, American
President Martin Van Buren issued an executive order extending the
"10-hour system" to all laborers and mechanics employed on federal
public works. The movement for the 10-hour workday grew after
Eastern city building trades workers and the municipal government of
Philadelphia instituted it in the early 1830s. The average daily
hours of factory workers in 1840 was estimated at 11.4. By 1860 the
10-hour day was standard among most skilled workers and laborers.
1840 Apr 2, The Association of
American Geologists held its first meeting in Philadelphia.
1840 Apr 2, Emile Zola
(d.1902), French novelist, reporter (Nana) , was born. He tried to
wake the consciousness of the fin de siecle.
(HN, 4/2/98)(SFC, 12/29/00, p.C6)(V.D.-H.K.p.279)
1840 Apr 7, John Lloyd Stephens
and Frederick Catherwood left Guatemala City and traveled north into
Mexico where they explored Palenque.
(ON, 12/99, p.8)
1840 Apr 25, Peter Ilyich
Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (1812 Overture), was born. [see May 7]
1840 Apr 27, Edward Whymper,
first to climb the Matterhorn on the border of Switzerland and
Italy, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.885)(HN, 4/27/98)
1840 May 1, The 1st adhesive
postage stamps, the" Penny Blacks" from England, were issued.
1840 May 5, Matthaus Fischer
(76), composer, died.
1840 May 6, Frederick William
Stowe, was born He was the son of the famous Harriet Beecher Stowe
and fighter in the Civil War for the Union.
1840 May 7, Peter Ilyich
Tchaikovsky (d. Nov 6,1893) was born in Kamsko-Votinsk, the Ural
region of Russia (d.1893). His family moved to St. Petersburg in
1850 and there he studied until he graduated from the school of
Jurisprudence where he entered the Ministry of Justice as a clerk,
first-class in 1859. He didn't start to study music seriously until
he was 21 under Nicolai Zaremba, and enrolled into the St.
Petersburg Conservatory when it opened in 1862. His work included
the 1812 Overture. In 1985 Roland John Wiley wrote "Tchaikovskys
Ballets." [see Apr 25]
(LGC-HCS, p.354-355)(AP, 5/5/97)(WSJ, 11/18/97,
1840 May 7, A tornado struck
Natchez, Miss., killing 317 people and causing over a million
dollars in damage.
(SFC, 5/7/09, p.D8)
1840 May 8, Alexander Wolcott
patented a photographic process.
1840 May 10, Mormon leader
Joseph Smith moved his band of followers to Illinois to escape the
hostilities they experienced in Missouri.
1840 May 13, Alphonse Daudet,
writer, was born.
1840 May 14, English Lt.
Richmond Shakespear left Herat (later Afghanistan) on a 700-mile
mission to Khiva (later Uzbekistan) to persuade the ruling Khan to
free all his Russian slaves. The Khan continued to hold a large
number of Persian slaves.
(ON, 4/00, p.7)
1840 May 21, The Treaty of
Waitangi was signed by Maori chiefs of New Zealand and
representatives of Queen Victoria. It granted sovereignty over all
New Zealand to Queen Victoria, but only guaranteed the Maoris the
land they wished to retain. The treaty remained a source of friction
to the present day.
(NG, Aug, 1974, p.197)(AP, 5/21/97)(SSFC,
1840 May 27, Nicolo Paganini
(57), Italian legendary violinist, died in Nice. The local bishop
refused to bury him in consecrated ground due to his scandal-ridden
past. His remains were transferred to Parma in 1876. His 1742
violin, "the Canon," was put to rest in a museum in Genoa and later
played annually by the winner of the Int'l. Paganini Competition. In
1980 John Sugden authored the biography "Nicolo Paganini: Supreme
Violinist or Devils Fiddler"
(SFC, 8/15/96, p.D5)(SFC, 11/12/98, p.E1)(SFC,
4/26/99, p.E2)(ON, 3/02, p.7)
1840 May 29, Hans Makart,
Austrian painter (Plague in Florenz), was born.
1840 Jun 2, Thomas Hardy,
English novelist and poet, was born in Higher Bockhampton and almost
given up for dead until an observant midwife noticed he was
breathing. He was driven by a sense of somber doom by the failure of
his readers to wake up to the dreary fraud of their beliefs, and he
devoted the last half of his long life to writing poems that
expressed his haunted vision. When Hardy died (1928) his heart was
removed and buried in the churchyard of St. Michaels in Stinsford
in the grave of his first wife, Emma, and his second wife, Florence.
His ashes were buried in the Poets Corner of Westminster Abbey in
London. His work included "Tess of D'Ubervilles" and "Jude the
(SFC, 12/4/94, p. T-4)(V.D.-H.K.p.279)(HN,
1840 Jun 20, Samuel F.B. Morse,
a popular artist, patented his telegraph.
1840 Jun 29, Lucien Bonaparte
(65), prince of Canino, Musignano, died.
1840 Jul 4, The Cunard Line
took just over 14 days to make its first Atlantic crossing with the
paddle steamer "Britannia", which embarked from Liverpool.
(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1840 Jul 25, Flora Adams
Darling, founded Daughters of American Revolution, was born.
1840 Aug 13, Giovanni Verga,
Italian writer (Eros), was born.
1840 Aug 14, Baron Richard
Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing (d.1902), German psychiatrist, was born.
He was the author of the seminal work Psychopathia Sexualis
1840 Aug 15, English Lt.
Richmond Shakespeare began a 500-mile trek with 416 freed Russian
slaves from Khiva (Uzbekistan) to the Russian Fort Alexandrovsk on
the Caspian Sea.
(ON, 4/00, p.8)
1840 Aug 17, Wilfrid Scawen,
writer (Irish Land League), was born in Blunt, England.
1840 Sep 3, Jacob Fabricius,
composer, was born.
1840 Sep 12, Composer Robert
Schumann married Clara Wieck.
1840 Sep 27, Alfred T. Mahan,
navy admiral who wrote "The Influence of Seapower on History" and
other books that encouraged world leaders to build larger navies,
was born. Although a brilliant naval historian and noted theorist on
the importance of sea power to national defense, Alfred Thayer Mahan
hated the sea and dreaded his duties as a ships captain.
1840 Sep 27, Thomas Nast,
caricaturist, was born. He created the Democratic donkey and the
1840 Oct 8, King William I of
1840 Nov 3, English Lt.
Richmond Shakespeare reached St. Petersburg, Russia, where Czar
Nicholas thanked him for freeing Russian slaves from the Khan of
(ON, 4/00, p.8)
1840 Nov 5, Afghanistan
surrendered to the British.
1840 Nov 12, Auguste Rodin,
French sculptor who created "The Kiss," was born.
1840 Nov 14, Claude Monet
(d.1926), French Impressionist painter, best known for his late work
done at Giverney, northwest of Paris after 1890. He came up with the
idea of series pictures, which feature a single subject shown again
and again under varying conditions of light and weather. He studied
in Paris with Charles Gleyre, a Swiss academic painter, and there
met Frederic Bazille, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley.
Together they developed open-air painting which came to be known as
(WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)(HN, 11/14/98)
1840 Dec 2, William Henry
Harrison was elected president of US. Whig candidate William Henry
Harrison, Old Buckeye, and his running mate John Tyler ran and won
in a landslide against Democrat Pres. Martin Van Buren. Depression
and financial panic had marked Van Burens term. Fans of the
Harrison Party rolled huge balls of paper, rope and tin through
Midwestern towns and into the Pennsylvania convention. "Hard cider"
Whigs disrupted the Democratic gathering in Baltimore.
(HFA, 96, p.46)(Hem, 8/96, p.84)(WSJ, 8/15/00,
1840 Dec 2, Gaetano Donizetti's
opera "La Favorita," premiered in Paris.
1840 Dec 7, Hermann Goetz,
composer, was born.
1840 Francis William Edmonds
painted "The City and the Country Beaux."
(WSJ, 2/2/00, p.W2)
1840 John Martin (1789-1854),
British artist, painted "Assuaging of the Waters."
(SFEM, 5/11/97, p.6)
1840 J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851)
painted "Rockets and Blue Lights (Close at Hand) to Warn Steamboats
of Shoal Water."
(WSJ, 8/21/03, p.D8)
1840 Richard Dana published his
novel "Two Years Before the Mast." It was based on his voyage from
Boston to California around Cape Horn.
(WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)
1840 William Whewell wrote his
treatise "The Philosophy of Inductive Sciences."
(SFEC, 3/22/98, BR p.4)
1840 Niels Gade, Dutch
composer, wrote the overture "Echoes of Ossian."
(SFC, 3/24/00, p.B1)
c1840 The Boston rocker
appeared about this time in New England. They had a rolled seat
front, arms and rockers that extended in the back. The backs had 7-9
spindles often decorated with stencil designs.
(SFC, 12/23/96, z-1 p.5)
1840 A US no-bail-out policy
forced some state into default. Several US states had loaded up on
unsustainable debt following an extended period of easy credit.
These states consequently found payments on their existing bonds
increasingly unaffordable. Between 1841 and 1843 Arkansas, Illinois,
Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Pennsylvania
and one territory a proto-state called Florida defaulted.
(Econ, 2/11/12, p.57)(http://tinyurl.com/6pgf4wq)
1840 John Janey was chairman of
the Whig Party Convention in Virginia that nominated W.H. Harrison
for president. Janey and John Tyler were the nominees for the vice
presidency. The convention vote was a tie and Janey voted for John
Tyler, who became president when William Henry Harrison died in
(SFC, 12/17/96, p.E8)
1840 In his re-election
campaign Van Buren was attacked for "wallowing lasciviously in
(WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)
1840 William Wilson Corcoran
and George Washington Riggs formed Corcoran Riggs, the predecessor
to Riggs National Bank. Riggs supplied the gold for the 1868
purchase of Alaska.
(WSJ, 4/7/04, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/16/04, p.A4)
1840 The 6th US Census was the
first to include statistics on agriculture.
1840 The US census categorized
the population as "Free White persons, free Colored persons, and
1840 The US state of Georgia by
this time had over 280,000 slaves with many working as field hands.
By the start of Civil War slaves made up over 40% of the
(SFC, 1/4/11, p.E2)
1840 In South Carolina land was
taken from the Catawba Indians. In 1993 they received a $50 million
(SFC, 7/4/97, p.A10)
c1840 Railroads in the US began
bringing milk to inland towns.
(SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)
1840 More than 2,000 ships were
engaged full-time carrying timber from North America to the British
Isles. Human cargo fills the ships on their return journey.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.51)
c1840 The word "tuberculosis"
appeared in print for the first time.
(WP, 1951, p.5)
1840 Louis Agassiz (1807-1873),
Swiss naturalist, author and educator, advanced his theory that
Earth had experienced an ice age.
(DD-EVTT, p.129)(AHD,1971, p.24)(SFC, 1/22/00,
1840 Wilhelm Beer of Germany
drew the first full map of Mars. It included dark "seas" and light
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)
1840 An earthquake hit the
island of Nevis and destroyed the birthplace of Alexander Hamilton.
(Hem., 12/96, p.30)
1840 Fanny Burney (b.1752),
English writer, died. Her books included "Evelina." In 1911 she
underwent a mastectomy without anesthesia. In 2001 Claire Harman
authored the biography: "Fanny Burney."
(SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)
1840 In Paris, France, there
were some 200 brothels.
(Econ, 7/14/12, p.47)
1840 Caspar David Friedrich
(b.1774), German Romantic painter, died.
(WSJ, 9/21/01, p.W2)(WSJ, 10/17/01, p.A24)
1840 Polish explorer Paul
Strzelecki named Australias highest peak in honor of the Polish
national hero Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Early surveyors messed up the
transcription and the peak was named Mt. Kosciusko. Decades later it
was discovered that the mountain was a few feet lower than a
neighboring peak. The New South Wales Lands Dept. swapped their
names to resolve the issue. In 1996 there was a move to restore the
missing z to the name.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)(SSFC, 12/25/11, p.N6)
1840 In London the World
Anti-Slavery Convention was held. Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady
Stanton were denied seats because of their sex.
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.30)
1840 Britain issued the world's
first postage stamp, "penny black," with a picture of Queen
Victoria. Up to this time postage was collected from the recipient.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1840 William Hislop established
himself as a clockmaker in Biggar, England.
(SFC, 3/16/05, p.G4)
1840 Zulu king Dingaan was
defeated by his rival Umpanda, who accepted the rule of the Boers.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)
1840 Zanzibar became the
capital of Oman and the sultan ruled from Stone Town.
(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)
1840s Oct 31-Nov 2, The Celts
of Ireland, Great Britain and northern France celebrated Oct. 31 to
Nov 2 as their New Year from around 1000-500BC. The pagan harvest
event incorporated masks to ward off evil ones, as dead relatives
were believed to visit families on the first evening. The Catholic
holiday of All Saints' Day, set for Nov. 1, was instituted around
700 AD to supplant the Druid holiday. Halloween was transplanted to
the US in the 1840s.
(WSJ, 10/28/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 10/29/99, p.W17)
1840s Stereographs were first
developed as parlor entertainment, but did not enjoy widespread
appeal until the 1860s. A stereograph is a pair of photographic
images taken with lenses at slightly different angles. When viewed
separately through a device called a stereoscopeone image for each
eyestereographs, like the one shown above, provide the illusion of
normal depth perception and three-dimensional viewing. By the late
19th century, stereoscopes were common in middle-class drawing
rooms, with educational, travel-oriented scenes being the most
1840s Painters from the Hudson
River School such as Frederic Church and Thomas Cole arrived on the
Maine coastline at what is now Acadia Natl. Park.
(SFC, 7/21/96, p.T6)
1840s Julia Ward Howe wrote her
Laurence Manuscript. In 2004 it was edited by Gary Williams and
published for the 1st time as The Hermaphrodite.
(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M4)
1840s A Spaniard shipped the
first grapefruit trees to Florida.
(SFC, 5/27/00, p.B3)
1840s A New York merchant
brought the first red bananas to the US from Cuba.
(SFC, 5/27/00, p.B3)
1840s Leprosy began to appear
(SFEC, 9/8/96, T3)
1840s A native rebellion called
the Caste War broke out in southern Mexico against the ruling
hacienda class. The 22,000 square-foot palacio of Hacienda Tabi in
the Yucatan was sacked.
(Arch, 1/05, p.45)
1840s In Portugal the National
Theater was built in Lisbon.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T7)
1840-1860 The Fourierist system was a phenomena of
the mid 19th century which called for the establishment of small
communities-called phalanxes-of about 1,500 persons devoted to an
agrarian-handicraft economy based on voluntarism. While private
property and inheritance were not abolished, goods produced were the
property of the phalanx. Inspired by French reformer Charles
Fourier and promoted in the U.S. by Albert Brisbane, the Fourierist
system was the most notable example of the Association movement.
Some 40 phalanxes were established in America, beginning in the
1840s. All had disbanded by 1860.
1840-1860 Slavery existed on the territory of
present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities
of Wallachia and Moldavia in 13th14th century, until it was
abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s. Most of the slaves
were of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity.
1840-1870 In 2005 Liza Picard authored Victorian
London: The Life of a City 1840-1870.
(Econ, 10/1/05, p.79)
1840-1876 Myles Keogh was born in County Carlow,
Ireland. He was killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn and
fought in papal armies before joining the U.S. Army in 1862. He left
Ireland for Italy in 1860 at the age of 20 to fight in the defense
of Pope Pius IX as part of the Saint Patrick Battalion. He
distinguished himself at the siege of Ancona, earning an appointment
in the Papal Army. On St. Patricks Day, 1862, Keogh booked passage
to the U.S. after being recruited into the Union Army. "Myles Keogh:
The Life and Legend of an Irish Dragoon in the Seventh Cavalry,"
edited by Langellier, Cox and Pohanka, published by Upton &
Sons, El Segundo, CA,1991.
1840-1889 Father Demien, a Belgian priest, worked
with lepers on Molokai, Hawaii.
(SFEC, 7/6/97, Par p.2)
1840-1897 Edward Drinker Cope, born in
Philadelphia, competed with Dr. Marsh in search of fossils. He is
best know for his work on Permian reptiles and Cenozoic mammals. He
also discovered 56 new species of dinosaur.
1840-1900 The dense forests that covered most of
New Zealands Banks Peninsula, east of Christchurch on the countrys
east coast, were cut for timber and burned to make way for sheep
(PacDis, Spring 94, p.3)
1840-1902 German-born illustrator Thomas Nast,
widely recognized as the father of political cartooning, is also
responsible for our modern-day concept of Santa Claus. Nast, who
came to the United States from Germany at age 6, received his art
education at New York's National Academy of Design. At 15, he began
working for Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper for $4 a week.
During his long career, Nast illustrated major news stories for many
periodicals, but he is perhaps best remembered for his imaginative
Christmas drawings that first appeared in Harper's Weekly in 1862
and continued for 30 years. Inspired by Clement Moore's poem "Twas
the Night Before Christmas," Nast pictured Santa Claus as a jolly,
white-bearded elf who lived at the North Pole and brought gifts only
to good children. His drawings also portrayed many modern symbols we
associate with Christmas--holly, toys under the Christmas tree and
the reindeer-drawn sleigh on a snowy roof.
(WUD, 1994, p.951)(HNPD, 12/25/98)
1840-1910 William Graham Sumner, American
sociologist and economist: "All history is only one long story to
this effect: men have struggled for power over their fellow men in
order that they might win the joys of earth at the expense of
others, and might shift the burdens of life from their own shoulders
upon those of others."
1840-1911 Henry Broadhurst, English politician:
"Praise undeserved is satire in disguise."
1840-1916 Odilon Redon, French painter and etcher.
(WUD, 1994, p.1203)