Timeline 1831-1840

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This period saw many changes occur and quite a bit of banking history. The financing of the foundation of Belgium by the Rothschild empire, the first recorded bank robbery, the death of banking magnate Stephen Girard, and the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United states all took place in this time period.   A knowledge of the past is a great way to truly understand the present.   Anyone who banking to someone involved in the money market could invest themselves in history as well.

1831        Jan 1, William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879), 24-year-old reformer of Massachusetts, began publishing his newspaper The Liberator, dedicated to the abolition of slavery. Garrison's stridency and uncompromising position on both the institution of slavery and slave owners offended many in the North and South, but he vowed to continue the fight until slavery was abolished. In the first issue of his newspaper, he wrote, "I am aware that many object to the severity of my language; but is there not cause for severity? I will be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising as justice. On this subject I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. No! No!" Garrison once burned a copy of the U.S. Constitution, condemning it as "a covenant with death and an agreement with hell" because it did not forbid slavery. The Liberator ceased publication in 1865 after the 13th Amendment was passed, outlawing slavery. [see 1830]
    (HNPD, 12/31/98)

1831        Jan 20, Protocols were signed in London that recognized Belgium as an independent nation. Belgium became a nation and combined French and Flemish-speaking lands. The Rothschild banking empire financed the founding of Belgium.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)(SSFC, 2/24/02, p.C5)(http://tinyurl.com/3335jt)

1831        Feb 7, The first Belgian Constitution was ratified.
    (http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~noemeetjesland/1830/1830.htm)

1831        Feb 13, John Aaron Rawlins (d.1969), Bvt. Major General (Union Army), was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1831        Feb 19, The 1st practical US coal-burning locomotive made its 1st trial run in Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1831        Feb 20, Polish revolutionaries defeated the Russians in the Battle of Grochow.
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1831        Feb 25, The Polish army halted the Russian advance into their country at the Battle of Grochow.
    (HN, 2/25/99)

1831        Mar 2, John Frazee becomes 1st US sculptor to receive a federal commission.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1831        Mar 3, George Pullman (inventor: railroad sleeping car; industrialist: Pullman Palace Car Company), was born.
    (HC, Internet, 3/3/98)

1831        Mar 4, Georg Michael Telemann (82), composer, died.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1831        Mar 6, Philip Henry Sheridan, Union Army General and hero of the Battle of Cedar Creek, was born.
    (HN, 3/6/99)

1831        Mar 6, Edgar Allan Poe failed out of West Point. He was discharged from West Point for "gross neglect of duty." His parade uniform was supposedly incorrect.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.4)(HN, 3/6/98)

1831        Mar 12, Clement Studebaker, auto maker, was born. John Studebaker mad a small fortune manufacturing wheelbarrows and pick axes for the miners in Placerville, Ca., that he used to found an automobile firm.
    (HN, 3/12/98)(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T7)

1831        Mar 19, The first recorded US bank robbery occurred at the City Bank, in New York. Some $245,000 is stolen.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1831        Mar 26, An interim government was set up in Raseiniai as a Lithuanian revolt against Russian rule began. There was a major uprising led by the Polish nobility in Warsaw against Russian rule. Russian forces began to march through Lithuania and this led many people of Lithuania to join in the rebellion against Russian rule. Serf uprisings also followed. The rebellion was eventually quelled by Russian force.
    (H of L, 1931, p.85-86)(LHC, 3/26/03)

1831        Mar 31, Archibald Scott, Scottish chemist, was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1831        Mar 31, Quebec and Montreal were incorporated.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1831        Apr 7, Pedro I of Brazil abdicated in favor of his 5-year-old son, Pedro de Alcantara, Pedro II.
    (EWH, 4th ed., p.855)

1831        Apr 12, Grenville Mellen Dodge, Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1831        May 16, David Edward Hughes, inventor (microphone, teleprinter), was born.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1831        May 26, Russians defeated the Poles at battle of Ostrolenska.
    (HN, 5/26/98)

1831        May 31, Captain John Ross, English explorer, identified the magnetic north pole on the west coast of the Boothia Peninsula, Netsilik territory.
    (www.south-pole.com/p0000081.htm)

1831        Jun 1, John B. Hood Confederate Civil War general, was born.
    (HN, 6/1/98)

1831        Jun 13, James Clerk Maxwell (d.1879), Scottish physicist, was born. He showed that electrical, magnetic and optical phenomena were all united in a single universal force, electromagnetism, and formulated electromagnetic theory,
    (V.D.-H.K.p.269)(HN, 6/13/98)

1831        Jun 28, Joseph Joachim, violinist (Hungarian Concerto), was born in Kittsee, Germany.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1831        Jul 4, "America (My Country 'Tis of Thee)" was 1st sung in Boston. [see Jul 4, 1832]
    (Maggio, 98)
1831        Jul 4, James Monroe, 5th President of the United States, died in New York City at age 73, making him the third ex-President to die on Independence Day.
    (AP, 7/4/97)(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1831        Jul 21, Belgium became independent as Leopold I was proclaimed King of the Belgians.
    (AP, 7/21/97)

1831        Jul 24, Maria Agata Szymanowska (41), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1831        Jul 30, Helene P. Blavatsky, founder (Theosophist Cooperation), was born.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1831        Aug 1, London Bridge opened to traffic.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1831        Aug 2, The Dutch army, headed by the Dutch princes, invaded Belgium, in the so-called "Ten Days Campaign", and defeated Belgian forces near Hasselt and Leuven. Only the appearance of a French army under Marchal Gerard caused the Dutch to stop their advance.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgian_Revolution)

1831        Aug 9, 1st US steam engine train run was from Albany to Schenectady, NY.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1831        Aug 10, William Driver of Salem, Massachusetts, was the first to use the term "Old Glory" in connection with the American flag, when he gave that name to a large flag aboard his ship, the Charles Daggett.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1831        Aug 21, Nat Turner led a rebellion in Southampton county, Va. This became known as "Nat Turner's Rebellion" or the "Southampton Slave Revolt." Turner and about seven followers murdered 55 white people, including the entire family of his owners, the Joseph Travis's. Turner had been taught to read by the Travis children and his studies of the bible led him to have visions of insurrection. Turner was later executed. A 1998 play by Robert Ou0092Hara "Insurrection: Holding History" centered on the event.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html)(SFC, 1/16/98, p.D1)(AP, 8/21/07)

1831        Aug 24, John Henslow asked Charles Darwin to travel with him on HMS Beagle.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1831        Aug 29, Michael Faraday, British physicist, demonstrated the 1st electric transformer. Faraday had discovered that a changing magnetic field produces an electric current in a wire, a phenomenon known as electromagnetic induction.
    (www.acmi.net.au/AIC/FARADAY_BIO.html)(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.R6)   

1831        Aug 30, Charles Darwin refused to travel with the HMS Beagle. On Dec 27 he was onboard.
    (MC, 8/30/01)(AP, 12/27/97)

1831        Sep 7, Victorien Sardou, French stage writer (Madame Sans-Gene, Tosca), was born.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1831        Sep 9, Eleven men, accused and convicted for participating in the revolt led by Nat Turner, were hanged. The death sentence for 7 others was commuted by the governor to "transportation," i.e. sale outside the state.
    (ON, 10/99, p.10)

1831        Sep 27, Joannis Capodistrias (55), Greek governor of Troezen, was murdered.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1831        Oct 17, Felix Mendelssohn's 1st Piano concert in G premiered.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1831        Oct 31, Daniel Butterfield (d.1901), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 10/31/01)
1831        Oct 31, Nat Turner, rebel slave, was caught by Mr. Benjamin Phipps and locked up in Jerusalem, Va. Thomas Gray, his court appointed attorney, spent 3 days talking to Turner and compiled his notes into "The Confessions of Nat Turner," which were published in 1969.
    (ON, 10/99, p.10)

1831        Nov 3, Ignatius Donnelly (d.1901), American social reformer, was born. Donnelly was an important scholar of the mythical continent of Atlantis. In 1882 he wrote "Atlantis: The Antediluvian World."
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, BR p.3)(HN, 11/3/99)

1831        Nov 5, Nat Turner, rebel slave, was tried in Southampton county, Va.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html)   

1831        Nov 8, Edward R.L. Bulwer-Lytton (d.1891), English writer, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Bulwer-Lytton,_1st_Earl_of_Lytton)

1831        Nov 11, Nat Turner was hanged and skinned in Southampton county, Va. Hysteria surrounded this rebellion and over 200 slaves, some as far away as North Carolina, were murdered by whites in fear of a generalized uprising. A martyr to the anti-slavery cause, Turner's actions had the adverse effect of virtually ending all abolitionist activities in the south before the Civil War.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html)(HN, 11/11/98)

1831        Nov 14, Ignaz Joseph Pleyel (74), Austrian composer and piano builder, died.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1831        Nov 16, Karl von Clausewitz (51), Prussian strategist (Campaign 1813), died.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1831        Nov 19, James A. Garfield (d.1881) the 20th Pres. of the US, was born in Orange Township, Ohio.
    (WUD, 1994, p.584)(AP, 11/19/08)

1831        Nov 22, Giacomo Meyerbeer's opera "Robert Le Diable" was produced (Paris).
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1831        Dec 5, Former President John Quincy Adams took his seat as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives.
    (AP, 12/5/01)

1831         Dec 23, Emilija Pliateryte (b.1831), Lithuanian rebel leader, died in Kapciamiestis while retreating to Prussia with the rebel army. She had organized a detachment in Dusetos with her cousin Cesar Pliateris (1810-1869) and both took an active part in the uprising. Together with the detachment of H. Horodeckij they defeated Zarasai. Emilija Pliateryte took part in many battles: at Maiu009aiagala, Kaunas, and u008aauksnai.
    (http://www.mmlab.ktu.lt/mmlab/ZarasaiE/zmo/za_pli.htm)

1831        Dec 26, Vincenzo Bellini's opera "Norma," premiered at La Scala in Milan.
    (www.musicabona.com/bellini_vincenzo/13853/cd/index.html.en)

1831        Dec 27, HMS Beagle departed from Plymouth. Naturalist Charles Darwin set out on a voyage to the Pacific aboard the HMS Beagle. Darwin's discoveries during the voyage helped formed the basis of his theories on evolution.
    (HN, 12/27/98)(AP, 12/27/97)

1831        Dec 28, Samuel Sharp (1801-1832) led a slave uprising that was put down at great cost by the British. The Rebellion lasted for eight days and resulted in the death of around 186 Africans and 14 white planters or overseers. The white vengeance convicted over 750 rebel slaves, of which 138 were sentenced to death.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.73)(http://tinyurl.com/3cu2ds)

1831        Dec 29, Adam Badeau (d.1895), Bvt Brig General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1831        Balzac wrote his story "The Unknown Masterpiece." It became a parable of modern art.
    (WSJ, 1/4/98, p.A8)

1831        The "Hunchback of Notre Dame" (Notre Dame de Paris) by Victor Hugo was published. Disney released an animated film based on the classic in 1996.
    (WSJ, 6/20/95, p.B-1)

1831        Frederic Chopin at 21 published his Waltz #1 in Eb Major and Waltz #3. These were his third and fourth published waltzes.
    (BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)

1831        The Sinking Spring Presbyterian Church was built in Abingdon, Virginia. It was later bought by the Sons of Temperance. In 1900 it was deeded to the city and in 1933 became the home of the Barter Theater.
    (HT, 3/97, p.14)

1831        Early followers of Joseph Smith merged with a communal Christian sect and relocated to Kirkland, Ohio. [see 1838]
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)

1831        The International Platform Association was founded by Daniel Webster and Josiah Holbrook. It is an organization for those on the lecture platform.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1831        At Yale the Skull and Bones society was founded. Boneswomen were not admitted until 1991.
    (USAT, 1/15/97, p.6D)

1831        The New York City Marble Cemetery on Manhattan's Lower East Side was established.
    (AP, 10/12/10)

1831        The American Railroad Journal was established.
    (Panic, p.7)

1831        US copyright protections were expanded to cover musical compositions.
    (SFC, 4/8/02, p.E1)

1831        The anti-Mason Party met in Baltimore for the first presidential nominating convention in the US. The 116 delegates selected William Wirt of Maryland.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.86)

1831        New York Senator William L. Marcy made the statement, "To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy," on the floor of the U.S. Senate in 1831. Marcy was responding to attacks on Secretary of State Martin van Buren made by Senator Henry Clay with regard to the use of patronage for party purposes, known as the "spoils system." Marcy, who retired from the senate in 1833, became known as the "champion of the spoils system." He went on to serve as secretary of war and secretary of state.
    (HNQ, 9/23/99)

1831        George Calvert Yount of North Carolina first arrived in the Napa Valley, Ca.
    (www.westsong.com/yountville/yountdo.html)

1831        In the US the first federally financed artwork was a $400 bust John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the US.
    (WSJ, 12/1/95, p.A-1)

1831        Robert A. Kinzie paid $127.68 for 102 acres of land that became much of Chicago.
    (SFC, 2/26/00, p.B3)

1831        In New Hampshire Joseph Foster began building reed organs and melodeons. In 1845 he moved from Winchester to Keene and was joined by his brother Ephraim. The firm became known as "J&E Foster." They worked together until Joseph died in 1875.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, Z1 p.3)

1831         The Ohio city of Cincinnati became known as "Porkopolis". Strategically located on the banks of the Ohio River, Cincinnati gained the nickname because it was then Americau0091s greatest meat packing center.
    (HNQ, 3/16/00)

1831        The lawn mower was invented in England.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1831        Stephen Girard (b.1750), shipping, real estate, banking and insurance magnate, died. His $7 million estate was the largest in the nation and he bequeathed it to create and sustain a school for orphan boys. His value in 1999 dollars totaled $56 billion.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)

1831        The original Zouaves, Zouaoua tribesmen from Algeria, formed their brightly dressed fighting force and later gained renown for their bravery during the Crimean and Franco-Austrian wars. American units imitated both the dress and battle courage of these fierce fighters.
    (HNQ, 10/12/01)

1831        James Busby, Scottish-born father of Australian viticulture, collected 680 different vines from botanical gardens in Montpellier, Paris and London and brought them to Australia. These included the syrah grape, called shiraz in Australia.
    (SFC, 5/5/05, p.F10)

1831        The Austro-Italian insurance company Assicurazioni Generali Austro-Italiche was established.
    (www.generali.ro/eng_despre_noi/istorie.htm)

1831        In London a 9-bedroom residence was built for a nobleman that in 1931 became the Abbey Road recording studio.
    (Sky, 9/97, p.53)
1831        The Garrick Club was founded in London for actors, writers and politicians.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A20)(NW, 4/24/03, p.55)
1831        A cholera epidemic broke out in London.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)

1831        Sayyid Ahmad of Rai Bareilly (b.1786), Islamic warrior, died in a battle against the Sikhs. Sayeed Ahmad Shaheed was slain in Balakot (later part of Pakistan) while failing to repel Sikh invaders.
    (WSJ, 4/4/08, p.W5)(www.turntoislam.com/forum/showthread.php?t=11151)(AP, 4/6/06)

1831        Slaves in Jamaica were emancipated.
    (SFC, 12/10/99, p.AA8)

1831        Takashsimaya was founded in Kyoto, Japan, as a kimono shop. It grew to become the nationu0092s largest department store chain.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)

1831        Patrick Matthew, a Scottish landowner, provided a description of natural selection in an appendix to a book about growing the best trees to make warships.
    (Econ, 2/7/09, p.73)

1831-1832    Animals from the Tower of London menagerie created the core of the London Zoo.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.71)

1831-1837    Abraham Lincoln lived in New Salem, Ill. During this time he enlisted in the Black Hawk War. [see 1832]
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T4)

1831-1870    Louis Remy Mignot, painter. He was a landscape artist of the Hudson River School and painted in North America, Europe and South America.
    (WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A20)

1831-1892    The 16 ˝ mile Savannah-Ogeechee Canal in Savannah, Georgia, was built by slaves and Irish workers to transport cotton and timber between the 2 rivers. Plans for restoration of the canal were made in 1998.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, p.T3)

1831-1899    Othniel Charles Marsh, born in Lockwood, New York, becomes Professor of Paleontology at Yale Univ. and vertebrate Paleontologist to the US Geological Survey. His expeditions unearthed 80 new species of dinosaur.
    (T.E.-J.B. p.24)

1831-1919    Amelia Edith Barr, American author and journalist "The fate of love is that it always seems too little or too much."
    (AP, 3/29/98)

1832        Jan 6, Gustave Dore, illustrator (Inferno, Ancient Mariner), was born in Strasbourg, France.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1832        Jan 13, Horatio Alger, Jr., the author of more than 100 inspirational books for young people from the Civil War to the turn of the 20th century, was born the son of a Unitarian minister. Rejected by the Union Army because of asthma, Horatio Alger was a poet, teacher and newspaper correspondent before he eventually followed in his father's footsteps and became a minister on Cape Cod. Alger is best-known, however, for his books with rags-to-riches themes. In Alger's world, everyone, no matter how poor or powerless, could succeed through hard work, honesty and high moral values. His "pluck and luck" books of hope in the face of adversity were always bestsellers and almost every home, school and church owned a large collection. More than 250 million copies of his books have been sold worldwide. His books included "Ragged Dick" and "Tattered Tom."
    (HNPD, 1/13/99)

1832        Jan 23, Edouard Manet (d.1883), French impressionist painter. His work was a major influence on the young artists who created the Impressionist movement. His style was influenced by the Spanish masters, particularly Velasquez. His work included the "Execution of Maximilian," "Luncheon on the Grass," the pastel "Portrait of Mademoiselle Lemaire," "In the Boat," "La Promenade" and "Le Journal Illustre" (ca. 1878-79).
    (WUD, 1994, p.871)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)(SFC, 8/21/96, p.A9)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.871)(WSJ, 2/13/97, p.A16)(DPCP 1984)

1832        Jan 27, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (d.1898), who wrote "Aliceu0092s Adventures in Wonderland" in 1865 under the pen name Lewis Carroll, was born in Cheshire, England. He was also know as a skilled photographer and did nude photography with an "intense focus on his subjectsu0092 personalities." Dodgson lectured on mathematics at Oxford from 1855 to 1881 and made up the stories about Alice in Wonderland for his daughter Alice and her sisters. He wrote "Through the Looking Glass" in 1872 and other childrenu0092s books. His most important mathematical work was the 1879 "Euclid and His Modern Rivals." "If you limit your actions in life to things that nobody can possibly find fault with, you will not do much." In 1995 Morton N. Cohen published an authoritative biography titled "Lewis Carroll: A Biography."
    (WSJ, 11/9/95, p.A-20)(AP, 1/14/98)(AP, 1/27/98)

1832        Feb 6, A US ship destroyed a Sumatran village in retaliation for piracy.
    (MC, 2/6/02)
1832        Feb 6, There was an appearance of cholera at Edinburgh, Scotland.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1832        Feb 13, Cholera appeared in London for the 1st time.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1832        Feb 20, Charles Darwin visited Fernando Noronha in Atlantic Ocean.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1832        Feb 22, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (b.1749), poet, (Faust, Egmont) died in Weimar, Germany. Goethe had served as minister of mines under Bismarck. He completed "Faust" just before his death: "When Ideas fail, words come in handy." In 1988 Kenneth Weisinger authored "The Classical Facade: A Non-Classical Reading of Goethe's Criticism." In 2006 John Armstrong authored u0093Love, Life, Goethe: How to Be Happy in an Imperfect World.u0094
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 8/7/03, p.A19)(SFC, 12/14/04, p.B1)(WSJ, 1/13/07, p.P10)

1832        Feb 26, Jo George Nicolay, private secretary to Abraham Lincoln and his biographer, was born. 
    (HN, 2/26/98)(SC, 2/26/02)
1832        Feb 26, The Polish constitution was abolished by Czar Nicholas I.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1832        Feb, A cholera epidemic ended in Great Britain. Some 800 people died of the disease in London. Dr. John Snow eventually traced the London epidemic to a water pump on Broad Street. [see 1849] In 2006 Steven Johnson authored u0093The Ghost Map,u0094 a history of Londonu0092s cholera outbreak.
    (www.mernick.co.uk/thhol/1832chol.html)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P8)

1832        Mar 4, Jean Francois Champollion (b.1790), French scholar, died. His work included the 2-volume book u0093Egypt Under the Pharaohsu0094 (1814) and a translation of the hieroglyphics of the Rosetta Stone, completed in 1822.
    (ON, 8/10, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Fran%C3%A7ois_Champollion)

1832        Mar 10, Muzio Clementi (79), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1832        Mar 11, Franz Melde, German physicist (Melde test), was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1832        Mar 12, Charles Boycott, estate manager who caused boycotts, was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1832        Mar 17, Daniel Conway Moncure, U.S. clergyman, author, abolitionist, was born.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1832        Mar 24, Mormon founder, martyr Joseph Smith was beaten, tarred and feathered in Ohio.
    (MC, 3/24/02)
1832        Mar 24, The British Reform Act passed the House of Commons under the Whig government. It introduced the first changes to electoral franchise legislation in almost one hundred and fifty years. On June 4 it passed the House of Lords and on June 7 received Royal Assent.
    (www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/refact/campaign.htm)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1832        Mar 26, Famed western artist George Catlin began his voyage up the Missouri River aboard the American Fur Company steamship Yellowstone. Painted Warriors.
    (HN, 3/26/99)

1832        Apr 4, Charles Darwin aboard HMS Beagle reached Rio de Janeiro.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1832        Apr 8, Charles Darwin began a trip through Rio de Janeiro.
    (MC, 4/8/02)
1832        Apr 8, Some 300 American troops of the 6th Infantry left Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, to confront the Sauk Indians in what would become known as the Black Hawk War.
    (HN, 4/8/99)

1832        Apr 13, James Wimshurst, British designer, inventor (electric static generator), was born.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1832        Apr 15, Wilhelm Busch, German artist, was born. He created the precursor to the cartoon strip.
    (HN, 4/15/02)

1832        Apr 19, Lucretia Rudolph, President Garfieldu0092s first lady, was born.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1832        Apr 21, Abraham Lincoln (23) assembled with his New Salem neighbors for the Black Hawk War on the Western frontier. Illinois Governor John Reynolds had called for volunteers to beat back a new Indian threat. Black Hawk, chief of the Sac and Fox Indians, had returned to his homeland at the head of a band of 450 warriors, intent on forcibly reversing the treaty he had signed 28 years earlier that ceded control of the tribeu0092s ancestral home in northwestern Illinois to the U.S.  government.
    (HNQ, 7/21/00)

1832        May 5, H.H. Bancroft, historian, publisher (History of Pacific States), was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1832        May 7, The Treaty of London protocol was signed between Bavaria and the protecting Powers. It basically dealt with the way in which the Regency of Bavaria was to be managed until Otto of Bavaria reached his majority. Greece was defined as an independent kingdom, with the Arta-Volos line as its northern frontier and Otto as king.
    (http://wiki.phantis.com/index.php/Treaty_of_London,_1832)

1832        May 12, Gaetano Donizetti's opera "L'elisir d'amore," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1832        May 14, Felix Mendelssohn's "Hebrides," premiered.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1832        May 18, Bonafacio Asioli, composer, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1832        May 21, The first Democratic National Convention got under way, in Baltimore and re-nominated Andrew Jackson.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.86)(AP, 5/21/97)

1832        May 23, Samuel Sharp was hanged in Jamaica for leading a slave rebellion. He is survived by his immortal declaration: "I would rather die upon yonder gallows than live in slavery."
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.73)(http://tinyurl.com/3cu2ds)

1832        May 31, Evariste Galois (b.1811), French mathematician who developed a general theory of equations, died from wounds suffered in a duel. In 2005 Mario Livio authored u0093The Equation That couldnu0092t Be Solved: How Mathematical Genius Discovered the Language of Symmetry.u0094
    (www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Galois.html)(Econ, 8/27/05, p.68)

1832        Jun 5, In Paris an insurrection took place during General Lamarque's funeral when insurgents got as far as the Rue Montorgueil and were then driven back.
    (SFC, 6/30/07, p.E2)(www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/07/01.htm)

1832        Jun 6, Jeremy Bentham (b.1748), English social reformer, died. He had his body preserved at the Univ. College, London. Bentham was later considered the father of utilitarianism. He thought that enlightened policymakers should seek the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people.
    (WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(www.britannica.com)(Econ, 11/27/10, p.84)

1832        Jun 7, The British Reform Act received royal assent and became law. The act, pressed through by PM Earl Grey, forestalled a revolution by increasing the number of people who were eligible to vote. The bergamot-flavored Earl Grey tea was later named after the PM.
    (ON, 4/09, p.10)(AP, 2/1/13)

1832        Jul 1, The firm Jardine, Matheson & Co. was founded in Canton following a meeting between William Jardine and another Scots trader, James Matheson from Sutherland.
    (Econ, 6/30/07, SR p.13)

1832        Jul 4, The song "America" was sung publicly for the first time at a Fourth of July celebration by a group of children at Park Street Church in Boston. The words were written on a scrap of paper in half an hour by Dr. Samuel Francis Smith, a Baptist minister, and were set to the music of "God Save the King."
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1832        Jul 5, The German government began curtailing freedom of the press after German Democrats advocate a revolt against Austrian rule.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1832        Jul 10, President Andrew Jackson vetoed legislation to re-charter the Second Bank of the United States.
    (AP, 7/10/97)

1832        Jul 13, Henry Schoolcraft discovered the source of the Mississippi River in Minnesota. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft came upon the lake where the Mississippi starts and intended to call it Veritas Caput, the Latin for "true head." The name was too long and got shortened at both ends to Itasca.
    (SFC, 10/5/96, p.E3)(HN, 7/13/98)

1832        Jul 22, Napoleon FKJ Bonaparte (21), [l'Aiglon], king of Rome, died.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1832        Jul 25, The 1st US railroad accident was at Granite Railway, Quincy, Mass., and 1 died.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1832        Aug 2, Some 1,300 Illinois militia under General Henry Atkinson massacred Sauk Indian men, women and children who were followers of Black Hawk at the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin. Black Hawk himself finally surrendered three weeks later, bringing the Black Hawk War to an end.
    (HN, 8/2/98)(MC, 8/2/02)

1832        Aug 27, Black Hawk, leader of Sauk-Indians, gave himself up.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1832        Aug 31, Jean Nicolas Auguste Kreutzer, composer, died at 53.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1832        Aug, In Pennsylvania 57 Irish immigrants died of cholera after traveling there to build a railroad. In 2009 their bones were found at a woodsy site known as Duffy's Cut, named after Philip Duffy, who hired the immigrants from Donegal, Tyrone and Derry to help build the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad. In 2010 evidence indicated that at least some of the menu0092s remains showed signs of violence.
    (AP, 3/25/09)(AP, 8/16/10)

1832        Sep 21, Sir Walter Scott (b.1771), Scottish poet and novelist, died at Abbotsford near Melrose in the Scottish Borders. His novels included "Ivanhoe" and "Rob Roy." Scott was later credited with inventing the genre of historical fiction. In 2010 Stuart Kelley authored u0093Scott-land: The Man Who Invented a Nation.u0094
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Scott)(SSFC, 3/11/07, p.G3)(Econ, 7/31/10, p.67)

1832        Sep 25, William Le Baron Jenney, US, architect and "father of the skyscraper," was born.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1832        Oct 4, William Griggs, inventor (photo chromo lithography), was born.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1832        Oct 14, Blackfeet Indians attacked American Fur Company trappers near Montanau0092s Jefferson River, killing one.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1832        Oct 22, Leopold Damrosch, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1832        Nov 14, Charles Carroll (95), large landowner and signer Declaration of Independence, died.
    (MC, 11/14/01)
1832        Nov 14, The first streetcaru0097a horse-drawn vehicle called the John Masonu0097went into operation in New York City.
    (AP, 11/14/97)

1832        Nov 15, Felix Mendelssohn's Symphony # 5 ("Reformation") premiered.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
1832        Nov 15, Jean-Baptiste Say (b.1767), French economist, died. He is remembered for what came to be called Sayu0092s Law: u0093the supply (sale) of X creates the demand (purchase) of Y.u0094 This law can be shown by business-cycle statistics. When downturns start, production is always first to decline, ahead of demand. When the economy recovers, production recovers ahead of demand. A society canu0092t consume if it does not produce.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste_Say)(WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A25)

1832        Nov 24, South Carolina passed an Ordinance of Nullification. The US government had enacted a tariff. South Carolina nullified it and threatened to secede. Pres. Jackson threatened armed force on his home state but a compromise was devised by Henry Clay that ducked the central problem.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)(www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Nullification.html)
1832        Nov 24, The doctrine of nullification involved an argument concerning the nature of the union as defined by the writers of the Constitution and addressed the question: "Was the US a compact of sovereign states, each retaining ultimate authority, or was the US one nation formed by the people through the writing of the Constitution?" John C. Calhoun, supporter of the doctrine of nullification, was Pres. Jackson's principal opponent in the nullification crises.
    (www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/butowsky2/constitution4.htm#17)

1832        Nov 26, Public streetcar service began in New York City. The fare: 12 ˝ cents.
    (AP, 11/26/97)

1832        Nov 29, Louisa May Alcott (d.1888), American author who wrote "Little Women," was born in Germantown, Pa. Under the pen name A.M. Barnard she wrote stories of violence and revenge that included "Paulineu0092s Passion and Punishment." "It takes people a long time to learn the difference between talent and genius, especially ambitious young men and women."
    (WUD, 1994, p.35)(SFC, 6/17/97, p.E3)(AP, 7/12/98)(HN, 11/29/98)

1832        Dec 5, Andrew Jackson was re-elected US president and became the 1st president to win an election in which the turnout exceeded 50%. The US anti-Mason Party with William Wirt drew 8% of the vote against Henry Clay and the eventual winner, Andrew Jackson. Clay led the Whig Party which coalesced against the power of Andrew Jackson. The Whigs came from the conservative, nationalist wing of the Jeffersonian Republicans. The election served as a referendum on Jacksonu0092s position against the 2nd Bank of the US.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.86)(WSJ, 7/8/99, p.A16)(Panic, p.3)(AH, 6/07, p.45)

1832        Dec 15, Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel, designed named the tower in Paris, was born.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1832        Dec 22, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached Barnevelts Islands.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1832        Dec 25, Charles Darwin celebrated Christmas in St. Martin at Cape Receiver.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1832        Dec 28, John C. Calhoun became the first vice president of the United States to resign, stepping down over differences with President Jackson. Van Buren served as vice president under Andrew Jackson from 1833 to 1837.
    (SFC, 9/19/96, p.A18)(AP, 12/28/97)(HNQ, 9/19/99)

1832        Uriah Phillips Levy, a US naval lieutenant, commissioned a statue of Thomas Jefferson by Paris sculptor Piere-Jean David Du0092Anger. In 1847 Pres. Polk set the statue in front of the white House, where it stood for 27 years.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.D8)

1832        Delacroix painted the Moroccan scene "A Street in Meknes."
    (WSJ, 9/27/00, p.A24)

1832        Jean Ingres, French artist, painted the portrait of the self-made newspaperman "Louis-Francois Bertin."
    (WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W12)

1832        The Durham Steer was painted by Austin Neame for the Kent & Canterbury Show of livestock.
    (WSJ, 9/66/96, p.B8)

1832        Jean Giono wrote his 1954 novel: "The Horseman on the Roof." In 1996 it was made into a film directed by Jean-Paul Rappeneau and is set in plague-stricken Provence in 1832.
    (WSJ, 5/17/96,p.A-12)

1832        A lexicon of famous hand gestures was written by a canon of the Cathedral of Naples. In 2000 it was translated by to English by Andrea de Jorio.
    (SFCM, 3/11/01, p.32)

1832        Berlioz composed "Lelio."
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)

1832        The Hudson Bay Company founded its trading post of Fort Nisqually. 2nd source has it established in 1833, 15 miles south of Tacoma as the hub of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company.
    (AM, Vol. 48, No. 3)(HT, 3/97, p.8)

1832        Pres. Jackson dispatched the US Navy to South Carolina to quash an effort to nullify federal tariffs within the state.
    (WSJ, 5/19/05, p.D8)
1832        Pres. Jackson sent the frigate Potomac to bombard the pirate lair of Kuala Batu.
    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)

1832        The US Congress passed a law that required all US citizens to fast and pray one day a week. It was neither enforced nor observed.
    (SFC, 10/31/98, p.D4)

1832        Congress set aside the thermal springs at Hot Springs, Ark., as a federal reservation.
    (USAT, 2/4/04, p.9A)

1832        In Hampton, Conn., the Bevin Brothers Manufacturing Co. began making bells. A fire in 2012 destroyed the factory.
    (SFC, 5/28/12, p.A8)

1832        Phrenology, the "science" of reading the human personality from bumps on the skull, was brought to America by German physician Johann Spurzheim. It was founded on the theory that the brain had 35 to 45 sectors, each the site of a particular character trait such as appetite, combativeness and benevolence. Phrenology gained an enthusiastic following in America and spawned a whole industry producing phrenological paraphernalia. Cranial "maps" could be purchased to chart the topography of the skull and reveal the subject's true self. Although phrenology was ultimately rejected as having no basis in scientific fact, it reflected 19th-century scientists' growing interest in the workings of the human brain.
    (HNPD, 5/20/99)

1832        Alfred Mosher Butts, an architect in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., invented the game he called "Lexico." He made millions after the name was changed to "Scrabble." [see 1938]
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.6)

1832        A cholera epidemic hit Baltimore and at least 853 people were killed. Fundamentalist Christians blamed the deaths on the "judgement of God."
    (SFEC, 3/5/00, Z1 p.4)

1832        The Pittsburgh riverfront home of coal baron Abraham Hays flooded. Hays built a new mansion,  which later became a stop on the Underground Railroad, harboring slaves who traveled a tunnel from the Monongahela River to the vast brick-lined basement.
    (www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/s_640258.html)

1832        Charles Carroll, one of the signers of the US Declaration of Independence, died at age 95.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, Z1 p.7)

1832        Franz Sacher, a chef in the employ of Prince Metternich, invented the torte. Family documents at the Hotel Sacher in Vienna support the claim.
    (SFEM, 10/13/96, p.14)

1832        The United Kingdom passed the Anatomy Act, which allowed hospitals and workhouses to hand over for dissection bodies left unclaimed for two days.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.99)

1832        Honore Daumier, French artist, was imprisoned for 6 months for his barbs against King Louis-Philippe.
    (WSJ, 3/10/00, p.W16)
1832        Charles-Louis Havas sets up a foreign newspapers translation agency.
    (www.afp.com)

1832        The Garifuna (Garinagu) arrived in British Honduras (later Belize). They were descendants of the Black Caribbeans who were first deported from St Vincent in 1797. This is celebrated every year on Nov 19 as Garifuna Settlement Day. The holiday was created by Thomas Vincent Ramos, Belizean civil rights activist, in 1941 and was declared a national holiday in 1977.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mqm6euc)(SSFC, 11/3/13, p.P6)

1832        In Kazakhstan Akmolinsk was founded. It was later renamed Tselinograd and then Akmola. In 1998 it became the capital and was renamed Astana, which means capital.
    (SFC, 5/22/98, p.A14)

1832        In Sweden King Karl XIV Johan inaugurated the Göta Canal.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, p.T8)

1832-1889    Juan Montalvo, Ecuadorian essayist and political writer: "There is nothing harder than the softness of indifference."
    (AP, 7/23/99)

1832-1904    Luigi Palma di Cesnola was born in Italy and later served for the Union Army in the Civil War. He was appointed as American Consul to Cyprus in 1865, where he collected many artifacts. He later sold his collection to the NYC Metropolitan Museum.
    (AM, 7/00, p.60)

1832-1914    This period was covered by Robert Bickers in his 2011 book: u0093The Scramble For China: Foreign Devils in the Qing Empire, 1832-1914.u0094
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.92)

1833        Jan 3, Britain seized control of the Malvina Islands (Falkland Islands) in the South Atlantic. In 1982 Argentina seized the islands, but Britain took them back after a 74-day war.
    (AP, 1/3/98)(SFC, 4/3/02, p.A7)

1833        Jan 8, Boston Academy of Music, 1st US music school, was established.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1833        Jan 19, Louis J. Ferdinand Herold (41), French composer (Zampa), died.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1833        Jan 26, Gaetano Donizettiu0092s tragic opera "Lucrezia Borgia," premiered in Milan.
    (WSJ, 7/27/98, p.A12)(MC, 1/26/02)

1833        Jan 28, Charles George "Chinese" Gordon, general (China, Khartoum), was born in London.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1833        Feb 11, Melville Weston Fuller, 8th U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice was born.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1833        Feb 13, William Whedbee Kirkland (d.1915), Brig Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1833        Feb 17, Lt. George Back departed Liverpool, England, on the packet ship Hibernia with 4 men to search for missing Arctic explorer Captain John Ross. Ross had left England in 1829 to seek a Northwest Passage by way of the Arctic Ocean.
    (ON, 5/04, p.10)

1833        Mar 14, Lucy Hobbs Taylor, first woman dentist, was born.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1833        Mar 16 Susan Hayhurst became the first woman to graduate from a pharmacy college.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1833        Mar 20, The United States and Siam (now Thailand) concluded a commercial treaty in Bangkok.
    (AP, 3/20/97)

1833        Apr 9, The US first tax-supported public library was founded in Peterborough, N.H.
    (AP, 4/9/97)

1833        Apr 22, Richard Trevithick (b.1771), British engineer, died in Kent, England. In 1804 he built the first steam locomotive.
    (ON, 4/04, p.6)(WSJ, 4/11/09, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Trevithick)

1833        Apr 24, A patent was granted for the first soda fountain.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1833        May 2, Czar Nicholas banned the public sale of serfs.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1833        May 6, John Deere made his 1st steel plow.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1833        May 7, Composer Johannes Brahms was born in Hamburg, Germany, and died on Apr 3, 1897. His works number through Opus 122 and included: the "Hungarian Dances," the "Haydn Variations," the "Violin Concerto in D Major," "Lullaby" and compositions for the pianoforte, organ, chamber music, orchestral compositions, numerous songs, small and large choral works. A biography of his life and work was written by Karl Geiringer in 1934 titled: "Brahms: His Life and Work." In 1997 Jan Swafford published the biography: "Johannes Brahms." In 1998 Styra Avins published "Johannes Brahms: Life and Letters."
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed.)(AP, 5/7/97)(WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 5/4/98, p.A20)(HN, 5/7/99)

1833        May 15, Edmund Kean (46), English actor (Shylock), died.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1833        May 28, Johann Christian Friedrich Haeffner (74), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1833        May 29, William Marshall (84), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1833        Jun 16, Lucie (Ruthy) Blackburn (30), a fugitive slave, escaped from jail in Detroit and made her way to Canada. The next day a riot erupted, u0093The Blackburn Riots,u0094 as her husband, Thornton Blackburn (21), was escorted for return to slavery. Thornton escaped to Canada to join his wife. The first extradition case between the US and Canada over the issue of fugitive slaves soon followed. Canada ruled it could not extradite people to a jurisdiction that imposed harsher penalties then they would have received for the same offense in Canada and the Blackburns remained in Ontario.
    (AH, 4/07, p.43)

1833        Jun 27, Prudence Crandall, a white woman, was arrested for conducting an academy for black women in Canterbury, Conn. The academy was eventually closed.
    (HN, 6/27/99)

1833        Jul 5, Joseph Nicephore Niepce (b.1765), French inventor most noted as the inventor of photography, died. He is well-known for taking some of the earliest photographs, dating to the 1820s.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nic%C3%A9phore_Ni%C3%A9pce)

1833        Jul 27, Bartolommea Capitanio (26), Italian monastery founder, saint, died.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1833        Jul 29, William Wilberforce (b.1759), English abolitionist, died. He was best known for his efforts relating to the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. A politician and philanthropist, Wilberforce was prominent from 1787 in the struggle to abolish the slave trade and slavery itself in British overseas possessions. He was an ardent and eloquent sponsor of anti-slavery legislation in the House of Commons until his retirement in 1825. Wilberforce University in Ohio, an African Methodist Episcopal Church institution (f.1856), was named for William Wilberforce. In 2008 William Hague authored u0093William Wilberforce: The Life of the Great Anti-Slave Trade Campaigner.u0094
    (www.nndb.com/people/824/000049677/)(WSJ, 7/25/08, p.A13)

1833        Jul, In Australia the native warrior Yagan was shot dead by teenage bounty hunters. He had been a go-between for his people and European settlers in Western Australia and later an implacable foe. His head and the tribal tattoo on his back were hacked off and taken to Britain for study and display. The body parts were returned in Sep 1997. A statue was erected in his honor on an island park in Perth in 1983. It was repeatedly vandalized and its head was sawed off in 1997 shortly after the homecoming of Yaganu0092s real head. In 2010 his remains were laid to rest in a traditional ceremony after his skull was recovered from Britain.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A20)(AFP, 7/10/10)

1833        Aug 7, Powell Clayton, Brig. General (Union volunteers), (Gov-R-Ark), was born in Pa.
    (MC, 8/7/02)(Internet)

1833        Aug 8, Lt. George Back and his team reached Fort Resolution on Great Slave Lake on their expedition to find Arctic explorer Capt. John Ross.
    (ON, 5/04, p.10)

1833        Aug 9, Maximilian, German Prince of Wied, reached Fort McKenzie, the westernmost outpost of white settlement on the Missouri River. He was a student of natural history and planned to collect native plants and animals and to study the native people. He was accompanied by Swiss artist Karl Bodmer. Maximilianu0092s "Travels in the Interior of North America" was published between 1839 and 1843.
    (SFC, 2/6/01, p.10)

1833        Aug 11, Robert G. Ingersoll (d.1899), American lawyer and statesman and advocate of scientific realism and humanistic philosophy, was born. "Heresy is what the minority believe; it is the name given by the powerful to the doctrines of the weak." "The history of the world shows that when a mean thing was done, man did it; when a good thing was done, man did it." "Courage without conscience is a wild beast."
    (AP, 6/28/97)(AP, 6/7/98)(AP, 7/20/98)(HN, 8/10/98)

1833        Aug 12, Chicago incorporated as a village of about 350.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago)

1833        Aug 13, The Bank of the US under Nicholas Biddle began to contract its loans.
    (Panic, p.4)

1833        Aug 17, The first steam ship to cross the Atlantic entirely on its own power, the Canadian ship Royal William, began her journey from Nova Scotia to The Isle of Wight.
    (HN, 8/17/98)

1833        Aug 20, Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd president of the United States (1889-1893) and grandson of President William Henry Harrison, was born in North Bend, Ohio.
    (HN 8/20/97)(AP, 8/20/99)(MC, 8/20/02)

1833        Aug 23, The British Parliament ordered the abolition of slavery in its colonies by Aug 1, 1834. This would free some 700,000 slaves, including those in the West Indies. The Imperial Emancipation Act also allowed blacks to enjoy greater equality under the law in Canada as opposed to the US. Some 46,000 people were paid a total of 20 million pounds in compensation for freeing their slaves.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.276)(MT, 3/96, p.14)(PC, 1992, p.412)(AH, 10/02, p.54)(SFC, 2/28/13, p.A2)

1833        Aug 28, Edward Burne-Jones, British painter, was born.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1833        Sep 3, The first successful penny newspaper was published. Benjamin H. Day issued the first copy of "The New York Sun". By 1826, circulation was the largest in the country at 30,000. New Yorku0092s population was over 250,000, but its 11 daily newspapers had a combined circulation of only 26,500.
    (SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)(http://library.nyu.edu/research/news/historical/nyc.html)(WSJ, 11/7/08, p.A15)

1833        Sep 4, Barney Flaherty (10) answered an ad in "The New York Sun" and became the first newsboy, what we now call a paperboy.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1833        Sep 8, Charles Darwin departed to Buenos Aires.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1833        Sep 20, Petroleum V. Nasby (David Ross Locke), humorist, was born. His work was enjoyed by Abraham Lincoln.
    (HN, 9/20/00)
1833        Sep 20, Charles Darwin rode a horse to Buenos Aires.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1833        Sep 27, Charles Darwin rode a horse to Santa Fe.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1833        Sep 28, Lemuel Haynes, Revolutionary War veteran, died at 88.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1833        Sep 29, King Ferdinand of Spain died and his daughter Isabella was proclaimed as queen. A civil war broke out in Spain between Carlisists, who believed Don Carlos deserved the throne, and supporters of Queen Isabella.
    (HNQ, 8/20/98)(HN, 9/29/98)

1833        Oct 1, Charles Darwin reached Rio Tercero, Argentina.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1833        Oct 2, The NY Anti-Slavery Society was organized.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1833        Oct 12, Charles Darwin began his return trip to Buenos Aires.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1833        Oct 19, Adam Lindsay Gordon, Australian poet, was born.
    (HN, 10/19/00)

1833        Oct 20, Charles Darwin reached the river mouth of Parana.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1833        Oct 21, Alfred Bernhard Nobel (d.1896) was born in Sweden. The chemist, engineer and industrialist who invented dynamite, later established the prestigious Nobel prizes to honor the worldu0092s greatest scientists, writers and peacemakers. In 1859, after four years in the United States, Nobel returned to Sweden and built a factory to manufacture the explosive nitro-glycerine. In 1864 the factory accidentally blew up, killing Nobelu0092s youngest brother and four others. Two years later, Nobel invented dynamite, a safe and manageable form of nitro-glycerine. A pacifist by nature, Nobel hoped that the destructive power of his invention would bring an end to wars.  By the time of his death on December 10, 1897, Nobel had acquired a massive fortune. In his will, he left instructions that the bulk of his estate should endow the annual Nobel prizes for those who had most contributed to the areas of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace. In 1968, a sixth award for economics was established.
    (WUD, 1994, p.969)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.28)(HNPD, 10/21/98)(HNPD, 10/21/99)

1833        Oct, Capt. John Ross (1877-1856), Arctic explorer, returned to England.
    (www.collectionscanada.ca/explorers/h24-1810-e.html)

1833        Nov 12, Aleksandr Porfirievich Borodin (d.1887), physician, chemist, composer (Prince Igor), was born in Russia.  His work included the "Sunless" and the opera "Prince Igor,u0092 which was left incomplete.
    (SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T11)(WSJ, 2/6/00, p.A16)(MC, 11/12/01)(LGC, 1970, p.338)

1833        Nov 13, Edwin Thomas Booth, actor (Hamlet), was born.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1833        Nov 14, Charles Darwin departed by horse to Montevideo.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1833        Nov 20, Charles Darwin reached Punta Gorda and saw Rio Uruguay.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1833        Nov 28, Charles Darwin rode through Las Pietras while returning to Montevideo.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1833        Dec 3, Carlos Juan Finlay, Cuban epidemiologist, was born.
    (HN, 12/3/00)   
1833        Dec 3, Oberlin College in Ohio, the first truly coeducational school of higher learning in the United States, opened its doors.
    (AP, 12/3/98)

1833        Dec 4, American Anti-Slavery Society was formed by Arthur Tappan in Phila.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1833        Dec 6, John Singleton Mosby (d.1916), lawyer and Col. ("Grey Ghost" of Confederate Army), was born. He later gave riding lessons to young George Patton.
    (MC, 12/6/01)
1833        Dec 6, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin departed Rio de la Plata.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1833        Dec 12, Matthias Hohner (d.1902), German manufacturer (harmonica), was born.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1833        Dec 13, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin arrived in Port Deseado, Patagonia.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1833        Dec 25, Charles Darwin celebrated Christmas in Port Desire, Patagonia.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1833        Dec, William Beaumont (d.1853), a US Army assistant surgeon, published his new book: "Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. It was based on the digestive system of Alexis St. Martin, a fur trader who was accidentally shot in the abdomen at Fort Mackinac in 1822.
    (ON, 1/02, p.6)

1833        John Marshall Harlan (d.1911), later US Supreme Court Justice, was born.
    (WSJ, 5/28/02, p.D7)

1833        John Mohler Studebaker was born in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. In 1858 joined his two older brothers in a South Bend firm producing wagons. The company went on to become the worldu0092s largest producer of farm wagons and carriages, coining the slogan: "Always give more than you promise. From the 1920s until its closing, Studebaker was a leader in styling and engineering. Studebaker went out of business after its 1966 Avanti model.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)(HNQ, 1/21/02)

1833        J.M.W. Turner completed his 1st oil painting "Bridge of Sighs and the Ducal Palace," his 1st exhibited painting of Venice.
    (WSJ, 3/17/04, p.D4)

1833        James Boardman (1801-1855), English traveler and writer, authored u0093America and the Americans.u0094
    (http://tinyurl.com/2olhxh)

1833        Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet, wrote his poem "The Bronze Horseman" (Myedny Vsadnik).
    (SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T11)(WSJ, 8/5/06, p.P12)

1833        In NYC Benjamin Day founded the New York Sun newspaper. He appealed to a general readership and charged a penny a copy.
    (SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)

1833        The NY Mechanics Institute opened to encourage the mechanical arts.
    (Panic, p.8)

1833        American Navy pensioners moved into what was then called the Naval Asylum, a 180-room stone building on the bank of the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia. The name was later changed to the Naval Home. It closed in 1977.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_Naval_Asylum)

1833        Sylvester Graham, Presbyterian minister, preached against overindulging the appetites and warned that intemperance would lead to "diseased irritability and inflammation, painful sensibility, and finally, disorganization and death." His whole wheat Graham flour was the main ingredient in Graham crackers.
    (WSJ, 9/29/00, p.W17)

1833        George C. Yount built the first structure in Sonoma, Ca., and planted the first grape vines in Napa Valley, the coarse Mission variety.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, p.T4)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.T8)

1833        In New Orleans the Lafayette Cemetery No. 1 opened to take in the victims of yellow fever.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.65)
1833        John Anderson, a Kentucky-based slave trader, was one of 10 dealers who, during a cholera epidemic, petitioned to move the Natchez, Miss., slave market outside the city limits.
    (WSJ, 12/2/04, p.D12)

1833        The McKesson Corp. began as a drugstore in NYC.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B1)

1833        Charles Babbage abandoned his calculator project completely in favor of a programmable machine. It was to be controlled by punched cards adapted from the devices French weavers used to control thread sequences in their looms.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.95)

1833        An improved version of the typographer (typewriter) was made in France. The early versions were chiefly for the blind as they produced embossed writing.
    (SJSVB, 3/25/96, p.27)

1833        George Fibbleton invented the first shaving machine. It was an imperfect device that left numerous scars on his face.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97, z1 p.7)

1833        Walter Hunt of NY state invented a lock stitching sewing machine, but it was never patented.
    (ON, 11/00, p.9)

1833        M. Tournal published his paper General Consideration on the Phenomenon of Bone Caverns. His work is one of the first accounts which produced evidence of the contemporaneity of man and extinct animals.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.84)

1833        The British government removed the British East India Companyu0092s monopoly of trade with China and banned it from trading in India entirely.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)
1833        England passed stronger measures regulating child labor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)
1833        The first clearing house to exchange checks was built in London, England. Prior to this checks were exchanged informally in coffee houses.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

1833        John James Audubon visited Canadau0092s Grand Manan Island off the southeast coast of New Brunswick to see herring gulls nesting in trees.
    (NH, 9/96, p.58)

1833        In Paris the St. Vincent de Paul Society was founded to provide aid to the poor.
    (SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)

1833        The slave trade in Ghana ended.
    (AP, 7/11/09)

1833        Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian revolutionary, was forced to flee Italy following a failed uprising against Austrian rule in northern Italy. In 1939 he arrived in Brazil to aid the rebel cause.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1833        In Jamaica Annie Palmer, a "white witch," was murdered in her bed. She had reportedly murdered 3 husbands and various lovers and slaves. She was later said to haunt Rose Hall.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T7)

1833        Aoki Mokubei (b.1767), Japanese poet and potter, died.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.B35)

1833        Mexico took mission property from the Church and turned out the Acagchemem Indians at Mission San Juan Capistrano.
    (HT, 3/97, p.61)
1833        The people of Iztapalapa, Mexico, began re-enacting the Passion of Christ, to give thanks for divine protection during a cholera epidemic.
    (AP, 4/5/06)

1833        Sir Henry C. Rawlinson was sent to Persia as one of a group of British officers charged with reorganizing the Shahu0092s army.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.193)

1833-1841    Lawyer and poet Francis Scott Key was the U.S. attorney for the District of Columbia serving under three presidents. Key penned the verses to "The Star-Spangled Banner" after watching the British bombardment of Fort McHenry on the night of September 13, 1814, during the War of 1812. Keyu0092s four-stanza verse was later put to the tune of a British drinking song and became enormously popular. It officially became the American national anthem on March 3, 1931. These were the only lyrics Key ever composed.
    (HNQ, 8/3/99)

1833-1868    The Carlist Wars comprised the dynastic struggle in Spain between Isabelline liberalism and the reactionary rural traditionalism represented by Don Carlos. With the death of Ferdinand on September 29, 1833, and the proclamation of his daughter Isabella as queenu0097excluding Ferdinandu0092s brother Don Carlos from the successionu0097the First Carlist War was ignited.
    (HNQ, 8/20/98)

1833-1905    Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen, German geographer and geologist. He coined the expression "Silk Road" to describe the ancient trade routes between China and the West.
    (AM, 7/00, p.72)

1834        Jan 10, Lord Acton [John E.E. Dalberg], English historian and editor of The Rambler, a Roman Catholic monthly, was born.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1834        Jan 29, President Jackson ordered the 1st use of US troops to suppress a labor dispute. Jackson ordered the War Department to put down a "riotous assembly" near Willamsport, Maryland, among Irish laborers constructing the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.
    (HNQ, 1/23/99)(MC, 1/29/02)

1834        Jan, New of the failure of business houses and banks in Philadelphia, NY, and Washington heralded the newspapers.
    (Panic, p.4)

1834        Feb 8, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev (d.1907), Russian chemist, was born. He formulated the periodic table of elements.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.324)(HN, 2/8/01)

1834        Feb 9, Franz Xaver Witt, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1834        Feb 26, New York and New Jersey ratified the 1st US interstate crime compact.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1834        Mar 6, The city of York in Upper Canada was incorporated as Toronto.
    (AP, 3/6/98)

1834        Mar 22, Horace Greeley published "New Yorker," a weekly literary and news magazine and forerunner of Harold Ross' more successful "The New Yorker."
    (HN, 3/22/01)

1834        Mar 24, John Wesley Powell, US, geologist, explorer, ethnologist, was born.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(MC, 3/24/02)
1834        Mar 24, William Morris, English craftsman, poet, socialist, was born.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1834        Mar 28, The US Senate voted to censure Pres. Jackson for the removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the United States. The Senate declared that Pres. Andrew Jackson: "in the last executive proceedings in relation to the public revenue, has assumed upon himself authority and power not conferred by the constitution and laws, but in derogation of both."
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1834        Apr 1, Isidore Edouard Legouix, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1834        Apr 2, Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi, sculptor (Statue of  Liberty), was born in Colmar, France.
    (HN, 4/2/01)

1834        Apr 13, HMS Beagle anchored at river mouth of Rio Santa Cruz, Patagonia.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1834        Apr 15, The Honore Daumier painting "Rue Transnonain, le 15 Avril 1834" showed the ghastly aftermath of a civilian massacre by French government forces.
    (WSJ, 5/9/00, p.A24)

1834        Apr 18, William Lamb became the prime minister of England.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1834        Apr 26, Artemus Ward, (Charles Farrar Browne), humorist, was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1834        Apr 29, Charles Darwin's expedition saw the top of Andes from Patagonia.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1834        May 5, The first mainland railway line opened in Belgium.
    (HN, 5/5/98)
1834        May 5, Charles Darwin's expedition continued at Rio Santa Cruz.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1834        May 20, The Marquis de Lafayette (78), US Revolutionary War hero (Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roche Gilbert du Motier), died in Paris, France. He was the 1st foreigner to address Congress. In 2002 Congress moved to make him an honorary US citizen. In 1983 Olivier Bernier authored u0093Lafayette, Hero of Two Worlds.u0094 In 200 Harlow Giles Unger authored u0093Lafayette.u0094
    (WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)(SFC, 7/23/02, p.A2)(ON, 2/09, p.5)(www.marquisdelafayette.net/)

1834        Jun 2, The 5th national black convention met in NYC.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1834        Jun 21, Cyrus Hall McCormick received a patent for his reaping machine.
    (AP, 6/21/97)(HN, 6/21/98)

1834        Jun 30, Congress passed the final Indian Intercourse Act. In addition to regulating relations between Indians living on Indian land and non-Indians, this final act identified an area known as "Indian country". This land was described as being "u0085all that part of the United States west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansasu0085" This is the land that became known as Indian Territory. Oklahoma was declared Indian Territory.
    (SFCM, 3/9/08, p.20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Intercourse_Act)

1834        Jul 4, NYC Mayor Cornelius W. Lawrence presided over the laying of the cornerstone for the Astor House hotel, designed by Isaiah Rogers. Construction took four years and cost around $400,000.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lg8xuna)

1834        Jul 10, James Abbott McNeil Whistler (d.1903), US expatriate painter famous for painting his mother, was born.
    (HN, 7/10/98)(WUD, 1994 p.1628)

1834        Jul 15, Lord Napier of England arrived at Macao, China as the first chief superintendent of trade.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1834        Jul 19, Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas (d.1917), French impressionist painter. His mother was a Creole and he journeyed to New Orleans in 1872. His work included "The Millinery Shop," "Combing the Hair," "Nude Fixing Her Hair," "Two Dancers" (c1890-1898), "Frieze of Dancers" (1893-1898), "Self Portrait" (c1863-1865 & c1895-1900) and "Blue Dancers" (1895). He also collected art and by the time of his death had amassed more than 500 paintings and 5,000 prints. The collection was auctioned off in Paris from Mar 1918 to Jul 1919. His time in New Orleans is covered in the 1997 book "Degas in New Orleans: Encounters in the Creole World of Kate Chopin and George Washington Cable" by Christopher Benfey.
    (WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.380)(WSJ, 10/2/96, p.B5)(SFC, 10/22/96,p.E8)(WSJ,10/21/97,p.A20)(SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)(HN, 7/19/98)

1834        Jul 23, James Gibbons, American religious leader and founder of Catholic University, was born.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1834        Jul 25, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (b.1772), English poet, died. He and his friend William Wordsworth were among the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and later identified, along with Robert Southey, as the Lake School of poets. Coleridgeu0092s work included "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner," "Frost at Midnight" and "Kubla Khan." In his later life he authored the "Bibliographia Literaria," a work of literary theory. In 1999 Richard Holmes published "Coleridge: Darker Reflections, 1804-1834," which focused on the poet's later life. His volume "Coleridge: Early Visions" was published in 1989. In 2007 Adam Sisman authored u0093The Friendship: Wordsworth & Coleridge.u0094
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Coleridge-Taylor)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/20/07, p.D8)

1834        Aug 1, The British Emancipation Act went into effect abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire. This ended slavery in Canada, in the West Indies and in all Caribbean holdings. Some 35,000 slaves were freed in the Cape Colony. The Minstrels Parada in Cape Town, SA, originated as a spontaneous outpouring of marches, music and dancing to mark the abolition of slavery.
    (NH, 7/98, p.29)(HN, 8/1/98)(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)(AP, 1/2/06)

1834        Aug 18, Mt. Vesuvius erupted.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1834        Aug 31, Amilcare Ponchielli, composer (La Gioconda), was born in Paderno, Italy.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1834        Aug, The barque Charles Eaton was wrecked on Australiau0092s Great Barrier Reef. 2 years later the schooner Isabella arrived in Sydney with the cabin boy of the lost ship, a 5-year old child and 17 skulls of passengers murdered on Boydang Island. This event prompted an expedition to survey the reef, the Torres Strait and the southern coast of new Guinea. In 2005 Jordan Goodman authored u0093The Rattlesnake: A Voyage of Discovery to the Coral Sea,u0094 an account of the survey expedition.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.88)

1834        Sep 9, Parliament passed the Municipal Corporations Act, reforming city and town governments in England.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1834        Sep 16, The Bank of the US abandoned its policy of loan curtailment as Nicholas Biddle moved to secure a new charter from the state of Pennsylvania.
    (Panic, p.4)

1834        Sep 27, Charles Darwin returned to Valparaiso.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1834        Oct 8, Francois-Adrien Boiledieu (58), composer (La Dame Blanche), died.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1834        Oct 16, In London the Houses of Parliament caught fire and many historic documents were burned. J.M.W. created two oil paintings of the burning of the Houses of Parliament.
    (www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/england/london/parliament/barry.html)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.90)

1834        Oct, Constantine Samuel Rafinisque submitted an essay to the Royal Institute of France on the language of the Delaware Indians.
    (NH, 10/96, p.16)

1834        Nov 1, The 1st published reference to poker was as Mississippi riverboat game.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1834        Nov 10, HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin sailed from Valparaiso.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1834        Nov 14, William Thomson entered Glasgow Univ. at 10 yrs 4 months.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1834        Nov 21, HMS Beagle anchored at Bay of San Carlos, Chile.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1834        Nov 23, Hector Berlioz's "Harold in Italy," premiered.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1834        Nov 25, Jean-Baptist Colyns, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/25/01)
1834        Nov 25, Delmonico's, one of NY's finest restaurants, provided a meal of soup, steak, coffee & half a pie for 12 cents.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.6)

1834        Nov, John Heckewelder, Moravian missionary, published a list of Lenape Indian names, a Delaware Indian tribe.
    (NH, 10/96, p.16)

1834        Dec 3, 1st US dental society was organized in NY.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1834        Dec 10, Robert Peel (1788-1850) became prime minister of Britain after launching the first national election manifesto in British history.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Peel)

1834        Dec 23, Joseph Hansom of London received a patent for Hansom cabs.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1834        Dec 25, Charles Darwin celebrated Christmas on Beagle at Tres Montes, Chile.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1834        Dec 27, Charles Lamb (b.1775), English critic, poet, essayist, died. "No one ever regarded the first of January with indifference. It is the nativity of our common Adam."
    (AP, 12/31/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Lamb)

1834        Dec 29, Thomas R. Malthus (b.1766), English vicar, economist ("Essay On Population"), died.
    (Internet)

1834        Dec, Constantine Samuel Rafinisque submitted a supplement to the Royal Institute of France to his essay on the language of the Delaware Indians.
    (NH, 10/96, p.16)

1834        James McNeill Whistler (d.1903), American painter and etcher, was born in Lowell Mass., the son of a civil engineer. He grew up in St. Petersburg, Russia, where his father was overseeing a railway line. He attended West Point and was expelled. He left the US for good at age 21 and painted beside Gustave Courbet. He worked in France and England after 1855. He painted "The White Girl."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1628)(WSJ, 5/31/95, p. A-14)

1834        Honore Daumier created his lithograph "The Legislative Belly."
    (WSJ, 5/9/00, p.A24)

1834        Frederick Marryat authored the novel u0093Jacob Faithfully.u0094 The term Shiver My Timbers!, an expletive denoting surprise or disbelief, was first seen in this book. It alluded to a ship's striking a rock or shoal so hard that her timbers shiver. In 1881, Robert Louis Stevenson found the term to be the perfect exclamation for the irascible Long John Silver: "So! Shiver me timbers, here's Jim Hawkins!" This stereotypical expletive became extremely popular with writers of sea yarns and Hollywood swashbucklers.
    (www.answerbag.com/q_view.php/16871)

1834        "Turkey in the Straw" became a popular tune in the US.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, Z1 p.8)

1834        Gaetano Donizetti had the premier of his opera "Rosmonda du0092Inghilterra," a story of Rosamond Clifford, who was put in a tower by her lover King Henry II.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1834        A new brass plaque was forged in 1996 for the San Francisco Pioneer Monument that reads: With their efforts over in 1934, the missionaries left behind about 56,000 converts- and 150,000 dead. Half the original native American population had perished during this time from diseases, armed attacks and mistreatment.
    (SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-13)

1834        Pres. Jackson had special 1804 silver dollars minted for the sultan of Muscat (later Oman) and the King of Siam (later Thailand) for trade treaties negotiated by Edmund Roberts.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A6)

1834        Roger Brooke Taney was nominated to the US Supreme Court.
    (WSJ, 11/21/06, p.D8)

1834        New York and New Jersey made a compact over Ellis Island, then a 3-acre site that held that the surrounding submerged land belonged to New Jersey. By 1998 the island was 27.5 acres due to landfill and its ownership was under contention.
    (SFC, 1/13/98, p.A2)

1834        Californiau0092s 1st printing press, an old wooden Ramage press, was off-loaded at Monterey, Ca. It later produced the 1st issues of 5 California newspapers of the gold rush. It was burned by ruffians in Columbia, Ca, on Nov 13, 1861.
    (CVG, Vol 16, p.10)

1834        Orders to secularize the California missions arrived from Mexico and ended mission ownership by the Franciscans. General Mariano Vallejo also arrived to Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma. General Vallejou0092s job was to establish a town and so Sonoma was designed around a central plaza.
    (WCG, p.58)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)

1834        A crippled Hojun-maru junk, blown off course with 3 Japanese castaways, washed ashore on Cape Flattery in Washington state. Makah Indians seized the cargo, enslaved the sailors and then sold them to the Hudsonu0092s Bay Company.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.64)

1834        William Russell Birch (b.1755), English-born artist, died. He had settled in Philadelphia with his son in 1794 and in 1800 published 28 drawn and engraved hand-colored images of Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.E6)

1834         Boliviau0092s Penal Code of 1834, Article 139, stated: "Anyone who conspires directly and in fact to establish another religion in Bolivia or (promotes) that the Republic cease to profess the Roman, Catholic, and Apostolic Religion, is traitor and will be punished with the death penalty."
    (http://religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu/rihand/Bolivia.html)

1834        Banco Economico SA was founded in Brazil. In 1995 this 8th largest bank in Brazil and the oldest bank in Latin America failed and was taken over by the central bank.
    (WSJ, 8/15/95, p. A-6)

1834         After this time the Tories, a political group in the British House of Commons, preferred to use the term Conservative. The word Tories was originally used to describe rural bandits in Ireland. In the 17th century it had become a term applied to monarchists in the House of Commons. By the 18th century the Tories were politicians who favored royal authority, the established church and who sought to preserve the traditional political structure and opposed parliamentary reform.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Ptories.htm)
1834        Britainu0092s Parliament passed the Poor Law Amendment Act. It ensured that the poor were housed in workhouses, clothed and fed. The law was inspired by the thinking of Thomas Malthus blamed the plight of the poor on their own flaws.
    (www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/lesson08.htm)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.54)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.63)
1834        Lord Sandys, English governor of Bengal, took a sample of an Indian sauce to an apothecary in Worcester, 100 miles northwest of London, and asked the pharmacists John Wheeley Lea and William Perrins to make a similar batch. The new batch tasted awful until it was allowed to age for a while. They then put together what became known worldwide as Worcestershire Sauce. [2nd source gave an 1835 date]
    (WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A1)(SFC, 4/12/97, p.E3)
1834        Henry Fox Talbot, a wealthy English gentleman, began experimenting with silver chloride to produce photographic images.
    (ON, 4/00, p.9)
1834        In London Joe Hansom put his Hansom cabs onto the streets.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, Z1 p.8)

1834        Sardines were canned in Europe for the first time.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, Z1 p.8)

1834        Eleuthere Irenee du Pont de Nemours, founder of a large gun powder operation, died. The company was re-charted as a partnership and then the French and original stockholders were all bought out buy the family. General Henry du Pont, the 2nd son of E.I. du Pont led the company till his death in 1899.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)
1834        A Frenchman invented a wire nail-making machine.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, Z1 p.8)
1834        Joseph-Marie Jacquard (b.1752), French loom maker and inventor, died. In 2004 James Essinger authored u0093Jacquardu0092s Web,u0094 a biography that connects Jacquardu0092s work to computer technology.
    (WSJ, 11/12/04, p.W10)

1834        Carl Friedrich Uhlig of Germany developed the German concertina.
    (BAAC, 8/96, p.6)

1834        Slavery was abolished in Guyana and people from India were brought in to work on sugar plantations.
    (SFC, 3/19/01, p.A8)

1834        At the Shrine of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem the ceremony of the Holy Fire led to a stampede in which many people were killed.
    (Econ, 3/26/05, p.82)

1834        Mexico granted Don Salvio Pacheco 18,000 acres in northern California known as Monte del Diablo, which included what would later became Concord and Walnut Creek. The family later donated land to the government for roads and public buildings. The area was originally inhabited by the Bolbones Indians.
    (SFC, 12/31/99, p.A22)(SFC, 5/26/01, p.A13)(SFC, 7/17/06, p.B5)

1834        In Madrid, Spain, a time capsule with books, documents and mementos, was buried beneath a statue of writer Miguel de Cervantes. The lead box was uncovered in December, 2009.
    (SFC, 1/16/10, p.A2)

1834        The maharaja of Jammu was able to annex Ladakh, a West Tibetan kingdom.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T4)

1834-1840    10-20,000 Afrikaners set out on the Great Trek to get away from British rule. This was less than 20% of the Afrikaners of the frontier districts.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)

1834-1842    Greeceu0092s King Otto led efforts for the return of the Acropolis marbles from Britain. Talks involved the return of architectural elements from the Parthenon and Athena Nike temples dedicated to Athens' protecting goddess, which had been removed some four decades earlier on the orders of British ambassador Lord Elgin.
    (AFP, 3/20/12)

1834-1858    Imam Shamil (1797-1871) ruled over a self-proclaimed imamat (Chechnya). He united part of the North Caucasian highlanders in their struggle against tsarist Russia and set up a theocratic sharia state known as imamat that resisted Tsarist Russia for 27 years.
    (www.chechnyafree.ru)

1834-1861    The Citizens Bank of Louisiana, a predecessor of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., secured loans with mortgages and thousands of slaves. Bernard de Marigny, plantation owner and one of the richest men of the epoch, put 62 slaves into the banks books as collateral for borrowed money to support his gambling habit.
    (WSJ, 5/10/05, p.A1)

1834-1888    Currier and Ives lithographs, manufactured in New York and form a sweeping pictorial record of mid-19th century America. When he first opened his shop, Nathaniel Currier had just finished an apprenticeship in lithography, an 18th-century printing process involving making images from inked stones. When an 1835 fire destroyed much of old New Amsterdam, Currier rushed a lithograph of the disaster into print. Ruins of the Merchant's Exchange, NY (shown above) sold briskly and launched Currier's career in pictorial journalism. In 1852, Currier hired bookkeeper and lithographer James Ives, making him a business partner in 1857. Together the two men built Currier and Ives into the most successful lithography house of their time and left a legacy of more than 7,000 prints that document the humor, political climate, current events and sentiments of mid-19th-century American life.
    (HNPD, 11/15/98)

1834-1894    Philip G. Hamerton, English artist and essayist: "Have you ever observed that we pay much more attention to a wise passage when it is quoted than when we read it in the original author?"
    (AP, 5/2/99)

1834-1896    William Morris, founder of the Socialist League and active in painting, designing, printing and literature. He was born in Walthamstow (near London), England. His biography is written by Fiona MacCarthy in 1995 and titled: William Morris: A Life for Our Time. She describes Morris as wearing Nietzscheu0092s "mask of the great man," i.e. one who embraces a gargantuan cause not out of conviction but simply because he feels that this is what he is supposed to do.
    (WSJ, 9/15/95, p.A-14)

1834-1896    Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian. Treitschke coined the word and concept of "lebensraum"-German for "living space"-which was later embraced by Hitler in his drive for domination of Europe. Von Treitschke believed Prussia should be a world power and should seize whatever land it needed.  German geographer Karl Haushofer took the idea to justify Germanyu0092s need for more territory for a growing population, and that notion was subsequently taken up by Hitler and the Nazis.  Haushofer became one of Hitleru0092s closest advisers and his theories, known as "Weltpolitik" were among the cornerstones of Nazi expansion.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1509)(HNQ, 4/9/99)

1834-1902    Lord Acton, English historian: "Liberty is not a means to a higher political end. It is itself the highest political end."
    (AP, 10/4/99)
1834-1902    John Wesley Powell, American scientist and explorer. He explored the canyons of the Green and Colorado Rivers. he was the first director of the Bureau of Ethnology and a director of the Geological Survey (1881-1892).
    (HFA, u009196, p.127)

1834-1910    Leon Walras, French economist. He founded the marginalist school of economic thought, which held that prices depend on the level of customer demand. He developed a mathematical formulation of the mechanics of the price system with equations that tied together theories of production, exchange, money and capital. His general equilibrium theory is called "Walrasion general equilibrium" and is still part of modern economic theory.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1834-1919    Ernst Haeckel, German biologist, morphologist and philosopher. He coined the terms ecology and phylogeny and proposed the theory that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny."
    (WUD, 1994, p.635)(NH, 12/98, p.4,56)

1835        Jan 17, Antanas Baranauskas (d.1902), Lithuanian poet and bishop, was born in Anyksciai.
    (LC, 1998, p.8)(LHC, 1/17/03)

1835        Jan 18, Cesar A. Cui, fort architect, composer, was born in Vilnius, Lithuania.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1835        Jan 31, Richard Lawrence misfired at President Andrew Jackson (aka 'Old Hickory') at the White House. Lawrence fired 2 pistols at Pres. Andrew Jackson during funeral services for Rep. Warren Davis. Jackson wasnu0092t hit and Lawrence, who thought he was the king of England and that Jackson owed him money, was found to be insane.
    (SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)(HN, 1/31/99)(SFC, 2/5/00, p.B3)

1835        Jan, Consiguina volcano in Nicaragua erupted and threw ash as far away as Mexico and Jamaica.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)

1835        Feb 20, Concepcion, Chile, was destroyed by earthquake and some 5,000 died.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1835        Feb 22, HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin left Valdivia, Chile.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1835        Mar 3, Congress authorized a US mint at New Orleans, LA.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1835        Mar 4, HMS Beagle moved into Bay of Concepcion.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1835        Mar 6, Charles Ewing (d.1883), Brig General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1835        Mar 7, HMS Beagle returned from Concepcion to Valparaiso.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1835        Mar 10, Charles Darwin in a letter to Carolyn Darwin described a massive earthquake in Concepcion, Chile.
    (NH, 5/96, p.7)

1835        Mar 12, Simon Newcomb, US scientist, mathematician, astronomer, was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1835        Mar 13, Charles Darwin departed Valparaiso for Andes crossing.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1835        Mar 18, Charles Darwin departed Santiago, Chile, on his way to Portillo Pass.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1835        Mar 23, Charles Darwin reached Los Arenales in the Andes.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1835        Mar 27, The Mexican army massacred Texan rebels at Gohad.
    (HN, 3/27/99)

1835        Mar 29, Elihu Thomson, the English-born American inventor of electric welding and arc lighting, was born.
    (HN, 3/29/99)

1835        Apr 10, Charles Darwin returned to Santiago, Chile.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1835        Apr 17, William Henry Ireland (b.1775)), English forger of Shakespeareu0092s works, died. He is less well-known as a poet, writer of gothic novels and histories.
    (ON, 8/10, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Henry_Ireland)

1835        Apr 26, Frederic Chopinu0092s "Grand Polonaise Brillante," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1835        Apr, Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875) published novel u0093Improvisatore,u0094 an alternative version of his own life based on his travel experiences in Italy.
    (ON, 7/06, p.7)

1835        May 6, The 1st edition of NY Herald was priced at 1 cent. The Herald specialized in crime with an emphasis on murder. James Gordon Bennett was the Scottish-born steward of the Herald. Within a few years of the 1936 Jewett murder case, a coalition of clergymen, financiers and rival editors waged a "Moral War" against Bennett and his newspaper
    (SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)(SFEM, 8/6/00, p.45)(MC, 5/6/02)

1835        May 12, Charles Darwin visited the copper mines in North Chile.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1835        May 13, John Nash, British town planner, architect (Regent's Park), died.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1835        May 14, Charles Darwin reached Coquimbo in Northern Chile.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1835        May 26, Edward Porter Alexander, brigadier general of artillery, was born.
    (HN, 5/26/98)
1835        May 26, A resolution was passed in the U.S. Congress stating that Congress has no authority over state slavery laws.
    (HN, 5/26/99)

1835        Jun 2, St. Pius X, 257th Roman Catholic pope (1903-14), was born.
    (SC, 6/2/02)
1835        Jun 2, P.T. Barnum and his circus began 1st tour of US.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1835        Jul 1, German printer Carl Bertelsmann (1791-1850) founded Bertelsmann Verlag in Gutersloh, as a publisher and printer of religious books. In 2004 it was Europeu0092s largest media company.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.61)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.102)(http://tinyurl.com/y8odb47)

1835        Jul 4, The Boston and Worcester Railroad was inaugurated.
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)

1835        Jul 6, John Marshall, the 3rd chief justice of the US Supreme Court, died at the age of 79. Two days later, while tolling in his honor in Philadelphia, the Liberty Bell cracked. Marshall served on the court for 34 years.
    (HN, 7/6/98)(SFC, 9/5/05, p.A8)

1835        Jul 8, The US Liberty Bell in Philadelphia cracked while being tolled for Chief Justice John Marshall. It was never rung again.
    (HFA, u009196, p.34)(HN, 7/6/98)(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A20)

1835        Jul 28, King Louis Philippe of France survived an assassination attempt by Giuseppe Maria Fieschi, who rigged 25 guns together and fired them all with the pull of a single trigger.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9034220&query=July%20Revolution)

1835        Aug 2, Elisha Grey, inventor (Telephone), was born.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1835        Aug 10, Mob of whites and oxen pulled a black school to a swamp outside of Canaan, NH.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1835        Aug 18, The last Pottawatomie Indians left Chicago.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1835        Aug 25, Ann Rutledge (22), said to be Lincoln's true love, died in Ill.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1835        Aug 31, Angry mob in Charleston, South Carolina, seized U-S mail containing abolitionist literature and burned it in public.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1835        Sep 13, Ladd & Co. began the 1st sugar cane plantation in Hawaii.
    (www.laddfamily.com/Files/Hawaii.htm)

1835        Sep 15, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached the Galapagos Islands, a scattering of 19 small islands and scores of islets.
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p. T-5)(www.gct.org/darwinfact.html)

1835        Sep 17, Charles Darwin landed on Chatham in the Galapagos-archipelago.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1835        Sep 23, HMS Beagle sailed to Charles Island in the Galapagos archipelago.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1835        Sep 26, Gaetano Donizetti's opera "Lucia di Lammermoor," premiered in Naples.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1835        Sep, Texans petitioned for statehood separate from Coahuila. They wrote out their needs and their complaints in The Declaration of Causes. This document was designed to convince the Federalists that the Texans desired only to preserve the 1824 Constitution, which guaranteed the rights of everyone living on Mexican soil. But by this time, Santa Anna was in power, having seized control in 1833, and he advocated the removal of all foreigners. His answer was to send his crack troops, commanded by his brother-in-law, General Martin Perfecto de Css, to San Antonio to disarm the Texans.
    (HNQ, 3/24/01)

1835        Oct 2, The first battle of the Texas Revolution took place as American settlers fought Mexican soldiers near the Guadalupe River; the Mexicans ended up withdrawing.
    (AP, 10/2/08)

1835        Oct 6, The people of Michigan approved an new state constitution by a vote of 6,299 to 1,359. The constitution repudiated slavery and safeguarded personal liberty.
    (AH, 4/07, p.45)(www.michigan.gov/formergovernors/0,1607,7-212--56877--,00.html)

1835        Oct 8, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached James Island, Galapagos archipelago.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1835        Oct 9, Camille Saint-Saens, composer (Carnival of the Animals, Organ Symphony, Samson et Dalilah), was born in Paris, France.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1835        Oct 20, HMS Beagle left the Galapagos Archipelago and sailed to Tahiti.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1835        Oct 23, Adlai Ewing Stevenson, (D) 23rd VP (1893-97), was born.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1835        Oct 29, In NYC Tammany Hall radicals lit candles with the new self-igniting friction matches, known as loco-focos, and continued to nominate their own ticket and formulate their program. The radical urban wing of the Democratic Party, which emerged in New York in opposition to Andrew Jacksonu0091s banking policies, thus became known by the nickname Loco-Focos. Also known as Equal Rights men, the Loco-Focos fought those financial interests aided by the regular Democratic Party in applying for bank and corporation charters from the legislature.  They also advocated hard money, elections by direct popular vote, direct taxes, free trade, abolition of monopolies and Jeffersonian strict construction. They got the name Loco-Focos from an incident that occurred at a party primary meeting in Tammany Hall. After party regulars pushed through a ticket over the objections of the Equal Rights men, the radicals refused to vacate the hall. To get them to leave, the party regulars turned out the gas lights.
    (HNQ, 12/17/99)

1835        Oct 31, Adelbert Ames (d.1933), Bvt Major General (Union Army), was born.
    (MC, 10/31/01)
1835        Oct 31, J.F.W. Adolf Ritter von Baeyer, German chemist (Nobel 1905), was born.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1835        Oct, Before the Alamo, Mexican General Css led troops against the small community of Gonzales, since enshrined in history as the "Lexington of Texas." San Antonio de Bixar went under military rule, with 1,200 Mexican troops under General Cssu0092 command. When Css ordered the small community of Gonzales, about 50 miles east of San Antonio, to return a cannon loaned to the town for defense against Indian attack--rightfully fearing that the citizens might use the cannon against his own troops--the Gonzales residents refused. "Come and take it!" they taunted, setting off a charge of old chains and scrap iron, shot from the mouth of the tiny cannon mounted on ox-cart wheels. Although the only casualty was one Mexican soldier, Gonzales became enshrined in history as the "Lexington of Texas." The Texas Revolution was on.
    (HNQ, 3/24/01)

1835        Nov 1, Godfrey Weitzel, (Union volunteers Major general, died in 1884), was born.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1835        Nov 4, Lunsford Lindsay Lomax (d.1913), Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1835        Nov 13, Texans officially proclaimed Independence from Mexico, and called itself the Lone Star Republic, after its flag, until its admission to the Union in 1845. In 2001 Randy Roberts and James S. Olson authored "A Line in the Sand," a narrative of the Texas drive for independence.
    (HN, 11/13/98)(WSJ, 2/9/00, p.W6)

1835        Nov 15, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached Tahiti.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1835        Nov 16, Charles Darwin's voyage account was published in Cambridge Philosophical Society.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1835        Nov 19, Fitzhugh Lee (d.1905), Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1835        Nov 23, Henry Burden invented the first machine for manufacturing horseshoes. He then made most of the horseshoes for the Union Cavalry in the Civil War. Burden patented a Horseshoe manufacturing machine in Troy, NY.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.E3)(MC, 11/23/01)

1835        Nov 24, Texas Rangers, a mounted police force, was authorized by the Texas Provisional Government. The Mexicans called them Los Diablos Tejanos -The Texas Devils.
    (MC, 11/24/01)(HNQ, 4/7/02)

1835        Nov 25, Andrew Carnegie (d.1919), American industrialist, was born to a poor weaver in Dunfermline, Scotland. He emigrated to the US in 1848 and worked as a superintendent for the Pennsylvania Railroad. In invested in iron manufacturing, railroad cars and oil and moved into the steel business by 1873 where he improved quality and lowered costs. He sold his interests at age 65 and retired to Scotland. He donated $5 million to a pension fund for his workers and gave away an estimated $350 million over the next 2 decades for public libraries, church organs and other causes: There is no idol more debasing than the worship of money."
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(AP, 11/25/99)

1835        Nov 26, HMS Beagle left Tahiti for NZ.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1835        Nov 30, Samuel Langhorne Clemens (d.1910), author, -- better known under his penname as Mark Twain -- was born in Florida, Mo. In 1999 Ron Powers published "Dangerous Water: A Biography of the Boy Who Became Mark Twain." "Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; truth isn't." "Everybody's private motto: It's better to be popular than right." "Let us be thankful for the fools. But for them, the rest of us could not succeed." "Why is it that we rejoice at a birth and grieve at a funeral? It is because we are not the person involved."
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(AHD, 1971, p.1385)(WUD, 1994, p.276)(AP, 6/2/97)(AP, 10/17/97)(AP, 11/30/97)(AP, 4/1/98)(AP, 4/21/98)(SFEC, 8/8/99, BR p.3)

1835        Dec 1, Hans Christian Andersen published his 1st book of fairy tales.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1835        Dec 3, 1st US mutual fire insurance company issued 1st policy in RI.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1835        Dec 4, Samuel Butler (d.1902), English writer and painter, was born. His work included "Erewhon" and "The Way of All Flesh." "There are two great rules of life, the one general and the other particular. The first is that everyone can, in the end, get what he wants if he only tries. This is the general rule. The particular rule is that every individual is more or less an exception to the general rule." "A hen is only an eggu0092s way of making another egg." "Life is one long process of getting tired."
    (AP, 4/25/97)(SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 4/22/98)(HN, 12/4/00)

1835        Dec 7, German railway Nurnberg-Furth opened.
    (MC, 12/7/01)   

1835        Dec 13, Phillips Brooks, the American Episcopal bishop, was born in Boston. He wrote the words to "O Little Town of Bethlehem."
    (AP, 12/13/99)

1835        Dec 16, A fire in New York City destroyed property estimated to be worth $20,000,000. Beginning in a store at Pearl and Merchant (Hanover) Streets, it lasted two days, ravaged 17 blocks (52 acres), and destroyed 674 buildings including the Stock Exchange, Merchants' Exchange, Post Office, and the South Dutch Church. 13 acres were scorched. 23 of the cityu0092s 26 fire-insurance companies were forced into bankruptcy.
    (HN, 12/16/98)(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 9/4/02, p.B1)

1835        Dec 21, HMS Beagle sailed into Bay of Islands, New Zealand.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1835        Dec 25, Charles Darwin celebrated Christmas in Pahia, New Zealand.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1835        Dec 30, Cherokees were forced to move across the Mississippi River after gold was discovered in Georgia. A minority faction of Cherokee agreed to the emigration of the whole tribe from their lands by signing the Treaty of New Echota. The Treaty of New Echota resulted in the cession of all Cherokee land to the U.S. and provided for the transportation of the Cherokee Indians to land beyond the Mississippi. The removal of the Cherokee was completed by 1838.
    (NG, 5/95, p.86)(HNQ, 6/21/98)(MC, 12/30/01)
1835        Dec 30, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin sailed from NZ to Sydney.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1835        Karl Baedeker (1801-1859), German publisher, published "Travel on the Rhine." It was later widely considered as the 1st modern guidebook.
    (SSFC, 11/30/02, p.C3)

1835        Hagop Melik-Agopian, Armenian novelist known as "Raffi", helped develop a nationalist literature.
    (Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)

1835        John Lloyd Stephens authored "Incidents of Travel in Arabia Petra."
    (ON, 12/99, p.5)

1835        Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville (25) wrote "Democracy in America." He had been dispatched by the French government to study Americau0092s penal system. His book predicted that henceforth equality would always increase everywhere, and justice be thereby served in the life of mankind. He also foresaw that democratic man, no longer protected by traditional institutions, found himself in danger of being exposed to the absolute tyranny of the state that he himself had created, i.e. a case of totalitarianism. He also predicted that the extremes of social diversity would be lost and that more human beings would tend to cluster around a central norm. He stated that: "Americans of all ages, all conditions and all dispositions constantly form associations." In 1938 George Wilson Pierson wrote "Tocqueville in America."
    (Smith., 4/1995, p.134)(SFEC, 6/14/98, Par p.10)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.92)

1835        Frederic Chopin composed his Waltz #2 in C# Minor. Chronologically this was his 5th published waltz.
    (BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)

1835        The San Ysidro church was built on the outskirts of Santa Fe, NM. It was named after the patron saint of farmers.
    (LP, Spring 2006, p.42)

1835        Pres. Andrew Jackson succeeded in retiring the national debt largely through the sale of public land.
    (WSJ, 2/6/97, p.C18)(Panic, p.6)

1835        The 1825 Missouri abortion law was rewritten to prohibit instrumental abortions as well as those induced by poisons.
    (SFEM, 2/1/98, p.13)

1835        There was a workersu0092    walkout and strike in Lowell, Mass.
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, BR p.10)
1835        The Paine Furniture Co. began operations in Boston, Mass. It later moved to Cape Cod changed its name to Paineu0092s Patio.
    (SFC, 10/1/08, p.G6)

1835        The New York Sun hired Richard Adams Locke, a Briton, as editor. He soon wrote an anonymous series about a new telescope and observations of the moon that included the mention of vast forests, fields of poppies and lunar animals. Circulation soared to 19,360. In 840 he admitted to writing the moon hoax series. In 2008 Matthew Goodman authored u0093the Sun and the Moon: The Remarkable True Account of Hoaxers, Showmen, Dueling Journalists, and Lunar Man-Bats in Nineteenth-Century New York.u0094
    (WSJ, 11/7/08, p.A15)

1835        Solomon Laurent Juneau, a fur trader, laid out the eastern part of Milwaukee and became the first president of the village in 1837. Juneau was born in Montreal and in 1818 settled on the site of Milwaukee and established a trading business. Juneau, who became a U.S.  citizen in 1831, was elected the cityu0091s first mayor in 1846.
    (HNQ, 2/6/00)

1835        William A. Richardson built the first structure in SF and was named captain of the port of SF.
    (SFC, 3/27/99, p.A23)(SFC, 7/6/13, p.C2)
1835        George Calvert Yount chose to settle in the heart of the Napa Valley at what is now called Yountville.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, DB p.69)
1835        Richard Henry Dana, writer, arrived in SF aboard the brig Pilgrim.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)
1835        Alexander Forbes served as the British vice-consul in Monterey, Ca.
    (SFC, 12/5/03, p.D6)

1835        Ohio and Michigan engaged in u0093The Toledo Waru0094 (1835u00961836), also known as the Ohio-Michigan War, a bloodless boundary dispute that was settled in 1836.
    (WSJ, 5/31/08, p.W9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toledo_War)

1835        Natural gas was used for cooking.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1835        Riley Whiting (b.1785), Connecticut clock maker, died.
    (SFC, 5/17/06, p.G5)

1835        Orlando Reeves, a soldier, was shot with an arrow by a Seminole Indian warrior during a fight. The city of Orlando, Florida is named after Orlando Reeves.
    (Hem, Mar. 95, p.27)

1835         The Ottoman Porte divided Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1835        The French government prohibited political caricature.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.75)
1835        A foreign newspapers translation agency, set up by Charles-Louis Havas, became the Agence Havas, the first worldwide news agency.
    (www.afp.com)

1835        Madame Tussaud opened her London Wax Museum.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, Par p.4)

1835        Lt. Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (25) began examining the ancient inscriptions on the rock of Behistun in the Kurdish foothills of the Zagros mountain range. He soon found that they had been made to honor Darius the Great, Persian ruler in the 5th century BCE.
    (ON, 4/04, p.7)

1835        Madagascaru0092s Queen Ranavalona I persecuted and expelled foreigners, including the island's missionaries and extended her rule all over the island with her 20,000-man army.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranavalona_I_Rabodoandrianampoinimerina)

1835        Trinity Cathedral in St. Petersburg, Russia, was consecrated. In 2006 a fire collapsed the central dome and one of four smaller cupolas surrounding it.
    (AP, 8/26/06)

1835        The wooden Neve Shalom synagogue was built in Suriname.
    (SSFC, 12/7/08, p.E5)

1835        James Hogg (b.1770), Scottish writer, died. His novels included u0093The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinneru0094 (1824).
    (www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/arts/writingscotland/writers/james_hogg/)

1835        The Vatican removed u0093On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheresu0094 (1543) by Nicholas Copernicus from its list of banned books.
    (www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article7134341.ece)

1835-1853    The Lost Woman of San Nicolas. A report by a Captain Hubbard, whose schooner carried away the Indians of Ghalast-at, mentioned a girl who jumped into the sea and returned to the Island of San Nicolas. Records of a Captain Nidever record that 18 years later, a young woman living alone was picked up from San Nicolas. She was taken to the Santa Barbara Mission under the protection of Father Gonzales and died there. Her skirt of green cormorant feathers was sent to Rome. Her story is told by Scott Ou0092Dell in his novel: Island of the Blue Dolphins.
    (IBD, 1960, p.183)
   
1835-1868    Adah Isaacs Menken, a Jewish poet and actress, was born near New Orleans and learned French, German, Spanish and Hebrew in school. She shocked American and European audiences in the 1860s for her bold acting style and became notorious for her role in the play Mazeppa, where she appeared on stage barely clothed tied to the back of a running horse. Around 1856 she published her first book of poems and married Alexander Isaacs Menken, whose name she kept through divorce and subsequent remarriages and liaisons. Called the most perfectly developed woman in the world, she moved between Europe and the United States as she performed. Adah Isaacs Menken died of tuberculosis in Paris and was buried there in the Montparnasse Cemetery.
    (HNPD, 11/16/98)

1835-1868    Lesotho acted as a buffer between the Afrikaneru0092s and British colonial interests and supplied seasonal farm workers to both.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A11)(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)
 
1835-1909    Augusta Jane Evans, American novelist: "Life does not count by years. Some suffer a lifetime in a day, and so grow old between the rising and the setting of the sun."
    (AP, 2/11/99)

1835-1916    Hetty Green, investor, was known as the "Witch of Wall street." She began investing in the financials markets after inheriting some $10 million from her shi-owner father. She married a wealthy trader, Edward Green, who went bankrupt, but maintained her wealth with separate accounts. She refused to treat her son for a knee injury and the leg was amputated. She left about $100 million when she died.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1836        Jan 5, Davy Crockett arrived in Texas just in time to die at the Alamo.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1836        Jan 18, Knife aficionado Jim Bowie arrived at the Alamo to assist its Texas defenders.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1836        Jan 27, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer (masochism), was born.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1836        Feb 7, The essays "Sketches by Boz" were published by Charles Dickens.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1836        Feb 12, Mexican General Santa Anna crossed the Rio Grande en route to the Alamo.
    (HN, 2/12/99)

1836        Feb 17, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin left Tasmania.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1836        Feb 18, Swami Ramakrishna [Gadadhar Chatterji], Indian mystic, Hindu leader, was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1836        Feb 21, Leo Delibes, ballet composer (Coppelia), was born in Saint-Germain-du-Val, France.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1836        Feb 23, The Alamo was besieged by Santa Anna. Thus began the siege of the Alamo, a 13-day moment in history that turned a ruined Spanish mission in San Antonio, Texas, into a shrine known and revered the world over. In 2012 James Donovan authored u0093The Blood of Heroes: The 13-Day Struggle for the Alamo u0096 and the Sacrifice That Forged a Nation.
    (AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.99)

1836        Feb 24, Winslow Homer (d.1910), American painter, was born. He began his career as an illustrator for Harper's Weekly during America's Civil War. He is believed to have died a virgin and took up a hermitu0092s life in his mid 40s. He captured the look and spirit of 19th century American life.
    (WSJ, 4/2/96, p.A-12)(HN, 2/24/99)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W2)
1836        Feb 24, Some 3,000 Mexicans under Gen. Santa Ana launched an assault on the Alamo, with its 182 Texan defenders. The siege lasted 13 days.
    (HN, 2/24/98)(MC, 2/24/02)

1836        Feb 25, Samuel Colt patented the first revolving barrel multi-shot firearm. This allowed the shooter to fire 5 or 6 times before reloading.
    (AP, 2/25/98)(AH, 2/06, p.15)

1836        Feb 27, Mexican forces under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of San Patricio.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 2, Texas declared its independence from Mexico on Sam Houston's 43rd birthday. The first vice-president was Lorenzo de Zavala. Mexico refused to recognize Texas but diplomatic relations were established with the US, Britain and France. Texas was an independent republic until 1845.
    (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)(WP, 6/29/96, p.A15)(SFC, 4/28/97, p.A3)(AP, 3/2/98)(HN, 3/2/99)
1836        Mar 2, Mexican forces under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of Agua Dulce.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 5, Samuel Colt manufactured the 1st pistol, a 34-caliber "Texas" model.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1836        Mar 6, The Alamo fell after fighting for 13 days. Angered by a new Mexican constitution that removed much of their autonomy, Texans seized the Alamo in San Antonio in December 1835. Mexican president General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna marched into Texas to put down the rebellion. By late February, 1836, 182 Texans, led by Colonel William Travis, held the former mission complex against Santa Annau0092s [3,000] 6,000 troops. At 4 a.m. on March 6, after fighting for 13 days, Santa Annau0092s troops charged. In the battle that followed, all the Alamo defenders were killed while the Mexicans suffered about 2,000 casualties. Santa Anna dismissed the Alamo conquest as "a small affair," but the time bought by the Alamo defendersu0092 lives permitted General Sam Houston to forge an army that would win the Battle of San Jacinto and, ultimately, Texasu0092 independence. Mexican Lt. Col. Pena later wrote a memoir: "With Santa Anna in Texas: Diary of Jose Enrique de la Pena," that described the capture and execution of Davy Crockett and 6 other Alamo defenders. In 1975 a translation of the diary by Carmen Perry (d.1999) was published. Apparently, only one Texan combatant survived Jose María Guerrero, who persuaded his captors he had been forced to fight. Women, children, and a black slave, were spared.
    (AP, 3/6/98)(HN, 3/6/98)(HNPD, 3/6/99)(SFC, 6/15/99, p.C6)
1836        Mar 6, HMS Beagle and Darwin reached King George's Sound, Australia.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1836        Mar 12, Mexican forces under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of Refugio.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 13, Refugees from the Alamo arrived in Gonzales, Texas, and informed Gen. Sam Houston of the March 6, fall of the Alamo. Houston immediately ordered a retreat.
    (ON, 8/10, p.1)

1836        Mar 16, Andrew S. Hallidie, inventor (cable car), was born.
    (MC, 3/16/02)
1836        Mar 16, The Republic of Texas approved a constitution.
    (AP, 3/16/97)

1836        Mar 17, David G. Burnet (1788-1870) became interim president of Texas and continued to Oct 22, 1836. he became the second Vice President of the Republic of Texas (1839-41), and Secretary of State (1846) for the new state of Texas after it was annexed to the United States of America.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_G._Burnet)

1836        Mar 20, At Coleto Creek, Texas, Colonel James Fannin after being surrounded by Mexican forces under General Urrea, agreed to surrender to Colonel Juan Jose Holzinger. Fannin was unaware that General Santa Anna had decreed execution for all rebels. Urrea negotiated the surrender "at the disposal of the Supreme Mexican Government," falsely stating that no prisoner taken on those terms had lost his life.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 23, Coin Press was invented by Franklin Beale.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1836        Mar 26, Mexican Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla received orders from Gen. Santa Anna in triplicate to execute his Texan prisoners at Goliad.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 27, The first Mormon temple was dedicated, in Kirtland, Ohio.
    (AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)
1836        Mar 27, Mexican Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla executed his Texan prisoners at Goliad. Colonel Portilla had the 342 Texians marched out of Fort Defiance into three columns. The Texians were then fired on at point-blank range. The wounded and dying were then clubbed and stabbed. Those who survived the initial volley were run down by the Mexican cavalry.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 31, The first monthly installment of The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens was published in London.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1836        Mar, George Yount became the grantee of the Rancho Caymus (11,814 acres), the first US citizen to be ceded a Spanish land grant in Napa Valley, Ca., in exchange for making wooden shingles for Gen. Mariano Vallejo. In Oct 1843 he was deeded the Rancho de La Jota (4,053 acres).
    (WCG, 7/95, p.21)(www.noehill.com/napa/cal03.asp)(www.sfmuseum.org/hist1/vets.html)
1836        Mar, Thousands of English speaking Texans abandoned their homes as the Mexican army advanced following the fall of the Alamo. They fled toward Louisiana in what came to be called the u0093Runaway Scrape.u0094
    (ON, 8/10, p.2)

1836        Apr 9-10, Helen Jewett, a prostitute in a Thomas St. bordello in Manhattan, was murdered. Her boyfriend, Richard P. Robinson (17), a clerk for a local merchant and engaged to a woman of good pedigree, was tried for the murder but acquitted. In 1998 Patricia Cline Cohen published "The Murder of Helen Jewett," an account of the story.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W6)(SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)

1836        Apr 20, The Territory of Wisconsin was established by Congress.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)
1836        Apr 20, Johan I Jozef (75), monarch of Liechtenstein, field marshal, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1836        Apr 21, Some 910 Texians led by Sam Houston, the former governor of Tennessee, defeated the Mexican army under Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at San Jacinto. The victory in the 18 minute battle sealed Texan independence from Mexico. Houston counted 9 fatalities. 630 Mexicans were killed out of some 1,250 troops. Some 700 were taken prisoner.
    (AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)(AH, 2/03, p.22)(ON, 8/10, p.3)

1836        May 6, Christian Ignatius Latrobe (78), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1836        May 9, HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin departed Port Louis, Mauritius.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1836        May 16, Edgar Allan Poe (27) married Virginia Clem (13) in Richmond, Virginia.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.67)

1836        May 17, Joseph Norman Lockyer, discovered helium, was born. He founded Nature magazine.
    (HN, 5/17/98)(MC, 5/17/02)

1836        May 18, Wilhelm Steinitz was born. The Czech-born world chess champion (1866-94) later became a naturalized American.
    (HN, 5/18/99)(SC, 5/18/02)

1836        May 19, Comanche warriors in Texas attacked Fort Parker and kidnapped Cynthia Ann Parker (9) and several others. She was recaptured by whites in 1860 and was forced to live among whites until her death in 1871. Her son Quanah (d.1911) escaped capture and grew up to become leader of the Quahadi, the most feared subset of the Comanche. In 2010 S.C. Gwynne authored u0093Empire of the Southern Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise of the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.u0094
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.85)(www.lone-star.net/mall/texasinfo/CynthiaAnnParker.htm)

1836        May 27, Jay Gould, US railroad executive, financier, was born.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1836        May 31, HMS Beagle anchored in Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1836        Jun 1, In NYC the doors of the luxurious Astor House hotel opened to the public. It was a near copy on a grander scale of the earlier, fashionable Trement House in Boston, also designed by Isaiah Rogers.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lg8xuna)

1836        Jun 10, Yamaoka Tesshu, Japanese swordsman, was born.
    (HN, 6/10/98)
1836        Jun 10, Andre M. Ampere, French mathematician, physicist (Amp), died.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1836        Jun 15, Arkansas became the 25th state.
    (AP, 6/15/97)

1836        Jun 23, Congress approved the Deposit Act, which contained a provision for turning over surplus federal revenue to the states.
    (AP, 6/23/97)

1836        Jun 26, Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle, author, composer ("La Marseillaise"), died.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1836        Jun 28, James Madison (85), the 4th president of the United States (1809-17), died in Montpelier, Va. His writings included the 29 Federalist essays. In 1999 "James Madison: Writings," edited by Jack N. Rakove, was published. In 2002 Garry Wills authored James Madison."
    (AP, 6/28/97)(WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)(WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 3/26/02, p.A21) (MC, 6/28/02)

1836        Jun, In NYC Richard P. Robinson was found not guilty of the murder of Helen Jewett by a jury after 10 minutes of deliberation.
    (SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)

1836        Jul 4, Jacob Leese, a trader from Ohio, built a house in Yerba Buena (later San Francisco). This was the townu0092s first building and Leese threw a 3-day party over the 4th of July to celebrate.
    (SFC, 7/6/13, p.C2)
1836        Jul 4, The territorial government of Wisconsin was established.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1836        Jul 4, Narcissa Prentiss Whitman and Eliza Hart Spaulding made a marker at South Pass Wyoming as the first European women to cross the continent.
    (SFC, 8/18/98, p.A8)

1836        Jul 6, French General Thomas Bugeaud defeated Abd al-Kaderu0092s forces beside the Sikkak River in Algeria.
    (HN, 7/6/98)

1836        Jul 11, Pres. Jackson, alarmed by the growing influx of state bank notes being used to pay for public land purchases, issued the Specie Circular shortly before leaving office. This order commanded the Treasury to no longer accept paper notes as payment for such sales. This led to the financial panic of 1837.
    (www.u-s-history.com/pages/h967.html)(Panic, p.6)

1836        Jul 15, William Winter, drama critic and essayist for The New York Times, was born.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1836        Jul 20, Charles Darwin climbed Green Hill on Ascension.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1836        Aug 7, Evander McIvor Law (d.1920), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born in South Carolina.
    (MC, 8/7/02)(Internet)

1836        Aug 14, Walter Besant (d.1901), English writer, philanthropist (Rebel Queen), was born.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1836        Aug 22, Archibald M. Willard, US, artist (Spirit of '76), was born.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1836         Aug 25, Bret Harte (d.1902), American author and journalist (Outcasts of Poker Flat), was born in Albany, NY. "The only sure thing about luck is that it will change." [1839 also given as a birth date]
    (WUD, 1994 p.648)(AP, 4/2/98)(SFEC, 9/3/00, BR p.6)

1836        Sep 1, Protestant missionary Dr. Marcus Whitman led a party to Oregon. His wife, Narcissa, was one of the first white women to travel the Oregon Trail.
    (HN, 9/1/99)
1836        Sep 1, Reconstruction began on Synagogue of Rabbi Judah Hasid in Jerusalem.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1836        Sep 5, Sam Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas.
    (AP, 9/5/97)

1836        Sep 10, Joseph Wheeler II, Maj Gen of the Confederacy, Cavalry, Army of Tennessee, was born.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1836        Sep 12, Mexican authorities crushed the revolt which broke out on August 25.
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1836        Sep 14, Aaron Burr, the 3rd US Vice President, died. He had served as vice-president under Thomas Jefferson. Burr is alleged to have fathered a black illegitimate son named John Pierre Burr. In 1999 Roger W. Kennedy authored "Burr, Hamilton and Jefferson: A Study in Character." In 2007 Nancy Isenberg authored u0093Fallen Founder: The Life of Aaron Burr.u0094
    (WSJ, 10/27/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/5/05, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/24/07, p.D7)

1836        Oct 2, Darwin returned to England aboard HMS Beagle after 5 years abroad. He visited Brazil, the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand. His studies were important to his theory of evolution, which he put forth in his groundbreaking scientific work of 1859, "The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection."
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1836        Oct 22, Sam Houston was inaugurated as the first constitutionally elected president of the Republic of Texas.
    (AP, 10/22/97)(HN, 10/22/98)

1836        Oct 24, A. Phillips patented the match.
    (HN, 10/24/98)(MC, 10/24/01)

1836        Oct, Don Juan Alvarado, president of the 7-man legislature in the Mexican territory of California, fled Monterey with his deputies to Mission San Juan Bautista under threats from Lt. Col. Nicolas Gutierrez, the military governor. There they formed plans for a coup.
    (ON, 4/04, p.9)

1836        Nov 4, Don Juan Alvarado and a group of followers forced the surrender of Lt. Col. Nicolas Gutierrez, the military governor  Monterey. The quickly drafted a constitution and proclaimed California independent of Mexico. Officials in southern California refused to recognize Alvarado's government and he agreed to make California a territory of Mexico with himself as governor.
    (ON, 4/04, p.10)

1836        Nov 6, Charles X (79), King of France (1824-30), died.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1836        Nov 10, Charles Louis Napoleon (1808-1873), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, failed in an attempted coup at Strasbourg and was exiled to the US by the government of Louis Philippe.
    (www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0859871.html)

1836        Nov 18, William S. Gilbert (d.1911), English playwright, librettist and humorist, was born. He was one half of Gilbert & Sullivan.  "Life is a joke that's just begun."
    (HN, 11/18/00)

1836        Nov 27, Carle [Antoine CH] Vernet, French painter and lithographer, died.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1836        Dec 7, Martin Van Buren (d.1862) was elected the eighth president of the United States and served one term. He was known as the "Little Magician" and the "Red Fox of Kinderhook." The eighth president earned these monikers for his political adroitness and skill at keeping his thoughts close to the vest.
    (AP, 12/7/97)(HNQ, 9/19/99)

1836        Dec 28, Spain recognized the independence of Mexico.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1836        Leopold von Sacher-Masoch was born in Lemberg, Galicia. He was the author of "Venus in Furs." He voluntarily enslaved himself to Fanny von Pister and later to his bride Aurore Rumelin. The term masochism was derived from his name.
    (WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)

1836        Thomas Cole, Hudson River School painter, painted "The Course of Empire," a series of 5 paintings chronicling the rise and fall of a great civilization.
    (WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1836        Auguste Mayer painted "Scene from the Battle of Trafalgar."
    (WSJ, 5/7/02, p.D7)

1836        Edward Lane (1801-1876), English orientalist, published u0093Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians,u0094 a classic account of Egyptian society.
    (Econ, 7/17/10, SR p.14)

1836        Augustus Pugin (1812-1852), English Gothic architect and designer, authored u0093Contrasts,u0094 the first ever architectural manifesto.
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Pugin)

1836        Constantine Samuel Rafinisque (1783-1840), naturalist, wrote "The American Nations," which contained what he claimed to be the deciphered ancient document written by the Lenape (Delaware) Indians called the Walam Olum.
    (NH, 10/96, p.14)

1836        King Kamehameha III formed the Royal Hawaiian Band.
    (WSJ, 3/10/05, p.A1)

1836        Meyerbeer composed his opera "Les Huguenots" with a libretto by Scribe. It was set around the 16th century Catholic and Protestant struggle that exploded with the 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
    (WSJ, 11/23/99, p.A21)

1836        In Boston a small group of New England intellectuals began gathering at the home of minister George Ripley to discuss issues of religious and philosophical importance. The group, known as the Transcendental Club, disbanded in 1840. In 2007 Philip F. Gura authored u0093American Transcendentalism: A History.u0094
    (SSFC, 12/2/07, p.M3)

1836        Father Veniaminov, later canonized, as St. Innokenty of Alaska, spent 3 months at Fort Ross, Ca., baptizing, burying and teaching.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T14)

1836        Pres. Jackson vetoed the bill to renew the charter of the Second Bank of the United States in 1836. Not until the Federal Reserve Act of 1911 did the US Government get back its monopoly on the creation of money. [see the New York Free Banking Act of 1838]
    (WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-8)

1836        Pres. Jackson named Martin Van Buren as his successor and Col. Richard Johnson as the vice presidential candidate, despite Johnsonu0092s mulatto mistress and 2 illegitimate children.
    (WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A26)

1836        The US Congress, led by congressman and former president J.Q. Adams, voted to accept the 100,000 gold sovereign donation of Englishman James Smithson and establish the Smithsonian Institution for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. The actual Institution was not established until 1846.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)(ON, 2/06, p.5)

1836        Roger Brooke Taney was confirmed as US Chief Justice.
    (WSJ, 11/21/06, p.D8)

1836        The 4-wheeled steam locomotive John Hancock was built with vertical boilers, cylinders and driving rods that gave its class the nickname "grasshoppers."
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T6)

1836        Isaac Wade Ross, Revolutionary war hero, died in Mississippi. His will stipulated that his slaves should be emancipated upon his death, but only if they agreed to go to Liberia. The 1st of almost 200 were finally set free in 1848. In 2004 Alan Huffman authored "Mississippi in Africa: The Saga of the Slaves of Prospect Hill Plantation and Their Legacy in Liberia Today."
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M1)

1836        Nathan Rothschild, son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, died in London. His younger brother James took charge of the business.
    (WSJ, 11/17/98, p.21)

1836        The London-based Anti Slavery International human rights group was founded.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)
1836        Britainu0092s Peninsula and Oriental Steam Navigation (P&O Line) was founded to carry mail among Portugal, Spain and England and later expanded to passenger service. In 2005 Dubaiu0092s DP World purchased the company for $5.7 billion.
    (www.theshipslist.com/ships/lines/pando.html)(SFC, 11/30/05, p.C2)

1836        The 107-foot-tall Egyptian Obelisk reached Paris. [see 1829]
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D3)
1836        The oldest shop in the Galerie Vivienne, Paris, France, is Librarie Jousseaume (nos. 45,46,47), which opened in 1836 and has been owned for the past 100 years by the Jousseaume family. Books span the 18th century to the present.
    (Hem., 10/u009295, p.109)
1836        In France the medieval timber roof of the Chartres cathedral burned. Architect J.B. Lassus replaced it with an innovative roof of iron.
    (WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W9)

1836        La Fenice opera house in Venice burned down for the 1st time.
    (WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)

1836        Spainu0092s central government revoked the Basqueu0092s fiscal privileges. These were restored in 1979.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)

1836        The Swedish Hunteru0092s Association was founded with the aim of building up the moose population, which had dropped to some 300.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.128)

1836        Seitnazar Seyidi (b.1775) and Kurbandurdy Zelili (b.1780), Turkmenistan poets, died. Both are considered to be successors of Makhtum Kuli.
    (www.advantour.com/turkmenistan/culture.htm)

1836        In Uruguay the Colorado party and the National Party were formed.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.44)   

1836-1838    Sam Houston (1793-1863), US soldier and political leader, was president of the Republic of Texas.
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)

1836-1845    Texas was an independent republic.
    (SFC, 4/28/97, p.A3)

1836-1922    In 2004 the US government said it would digitize newspapers published over this period and make them available to the public in 2006.
    (SFC, 11/17/04, p.A8)

1836-1926    Joseph G. Cannon, Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives: "By descent, I am one-fourth German, one-fourth Irish, one-fourth English, and another quarter French. My God! If my ancestors are permitted to look down upon me, they might perhaps upbraid me. But I am also an American!"
    (AP, 2/19/00)

1837        Jan 2, Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev (d.1910), composer (Tamara), was born in Nizhny-Novgorod, Russia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mily_Balakirev)

1837        Jan 11, John Field (54), Irish pianist, composer (Nocturnes), died.
    (MC, 1/11/02)
1837        Jan 11, Francois Gerard (66), French baron, painter, died.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1837        Jan 22, An earthquake in southern Syria killed thousands.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1837        Jan, 26, Michigan became the 26th state of the US.
    (HFA, u009196, p.22)(AP, 1/26/98)

1837        Feb 5, Dwight L. Moody (d.1899), evangelist, was born. He founded the Moody Bible Institute. "No man can resolve himself into Heaven."
    (AP, 7/26/00)(HN, 2/5/01)

1837        Feb 7, Sir James Augustus Henry Murray, Scottish lexicographer and editor, was born. He created the Oxford Dictionary.
    HN, 2/7/01)(MC, 2/7/02)

1837        Feb 8, The Senate selected Richard Mentor Johnson as the vice president of the United States. Johnson was nominated for vice president on the Democratic ticket with Martin Van Buren in 1836. When Johnson failed to receive a majority of the popular vote, the election was thrown into the Senate for the first and only time. Johnson won the election in the Senate by a vote of 33 to 16.
    (AP, 2/8/99)(HNQ, 3/8/99)

1837        Feb 12, Thomas Moran (d.1926), American painter, was born in Bolton, England. His paintings of Yellowstone helped persuade Congress to designate it a national park.
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)(SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)

1837        Feb 13, There was a riot in NY over the high price of flour.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1837        Feb 25, Cheyney University was established in Pennsylvania through the bequest of Richard Humphreys, and became the oldest institution of higher learning for African Americans. It was initially named the African Institute. However, the name was changed several weeks later to the Institute for Colored Youth (ICY). In subsequent years, the university was renamed Cheyney Training School for Teachers (July 1914), Cheyney State Teacheru0092s College (1951), Cheyney State College (1959), and eventually Cheyney Univ. of Pennsylvania (1983).
    (www.cheyney.edu/pages/index.asp?p=428)

1837        Mar 1, William Dean Howells (d.1920), US author, critic and editor, was born. He edited the work of William James at the Atlantic Monthly. "We are creatures of the moment; we live from one little space to another; and only one interest at a time fills these." "If we like a man's dream, we call him a reformer; if we don't like his dream, we call him a crank."
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)(SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.10)(AP, 3/3/98)(AP, 11/13/98)(HN, 3/1/01)

1837        Mar 3, US President Andrew Jackson and Congress recognized the Republic of Texas.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1837        Mar 3, Congress increased Supreme Court membership from 7 to 9.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
                   
1837        Mar 4, Martin Van Buren was inaugurated as 8th President.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1837        Mar 4, When Pres. Jackson left office there followed a financial crash and a bitter depression and the government was again forced to borrow money. Pres. Jackson had returned surplus government funds to the state governments as bonuses.
    (WSJ, 2/6/97, p.C18)(WSJ, 6/26/00, p.A1)
1837        Mar 4, The Illinois state legislature granted a city charter to Chicago.
    (AP, 3/4/99)
1837        Mar 4, Weekly Advocate changed its name to the Colored American.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1837        Mar 17, Upon his return to his home in Tennessee, Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the U.S., proclaimed that he left office "with barely $90 in my pocket." The old soldier and war hero who had served as president for eight years, spoke those words when he returned to his home in Tennessee.
    (HNQ, 8/6/98)

1837        Mar 18, Stephen Grover Cleveland was born in Caldwell, N.J. He was the 22nd (1885-1889) and 24th (1893-1897) president of the United States, the only President elected for two nonconsecutive terms.
    (AP, 3/18/97)(HN, 3/18/02)

1837        Mar 24, Canada gave blacks the right to vote.
    (http://www.bccns.com/d250/history.html)

1837        Mar 28, Felix Mendelssohn married Cecile Jeanrenaud.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1837        Mar 31, John Constable (60), English painter, water colors painter, died. His work included some 100 studies of the sky done between 1821-1822. In 2009 Martin Gayford authored u0093Constable in Love: Love, Landscape, Money and the Making of a Great Painter.u0094
    (WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Constable)

1837        Apr 3, John Burroughs (d.1921), American author and naturalist, was born. "Time does not become sacred to us until we have lived it, until it has passed over us and taken with it a part of ourselves."
    (HN, 4/3/01)(AP, 5/28/98)

1837        Apr 5, Algernon Charles Swinburne (d.1909), English poet (Atalanta in Calydon), was born.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1837        Apr 17, J. Pierpont Morgan (d.1913), American financier, was born in Hartford, Conn. J.P. Morgan later owned U.S. Steel and International Harvester. In 1999 Jean Strouse published the biography "Morgan: American Financier."
    (WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A24)(HN, 4/7/99)(www.netstate.com/states/peop/people/ct_jpm.htm)

1837        Apr 15, Horace Porter (d.1921), Bvt Brig General (Union Army), was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1837        May 2, Henry Martyn Roberts, parliamentarian (Robert's Rules of Order).
    (HN, 5/2/02)

1837        May 5, Niccolo Antonio Zingarelli (85), Italian composer, bandmaster, died.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1837        May 9, "Sherrod" burned in Mississippi River below Natchez, Miss., and 175 died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1837        May 27, Legendary gunfighter James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok was born in Troy Grove, IL. As a youth, Hickok helped his father operate an Underground Railroad stop for runaway slaves and during the Civil War became a daring Union scout. After the war Hickok's fame as a skilled marksman, Indian fighter and frontier marshal grew, leading to a stint as a featured attraction with Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show. On August 2, 1876, Hickok was shot from behind and killed while playing poker in Saloon No. 10 in Deadwood, Dakota Territory. Contrary to his custom, Hickok was sitting with his back to the door.
    (HNPD, 5/28/99)(MesWP)

1837        May 29, Luca Fumagalli, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1837        May 29, Alexander F. de Savornin Lohmann, Dutch minister, party leader (CHU), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1837        May 31, Astor Hotel opened in NYC. It later became the Waldorf-Astoria. John Jacob Astor bought up foreclosed properties during the financial bust. He later sold them for a 10-fold profit.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)(MC, 5/31/02)

1837        Jun 17, Vincent Strong, Civil War Union Colonel (killed in action at Gettysburg in 1863), was born.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1837        Jun 20, Queen Victoria (18) ascended the British throne following the death of her uncle, King William IV (b.1765). She ruled for 63 years to 1901.
    (AP, 6/20/97)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(HN, 6/20/01)

1837        Jul 31, William Clarke Quantrill (d.1865), Confederate guerrilla leader, was born at Canal Dover, Ohio.
            (www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/QQ/fqu3.html)

1837        Aug 11, Marie Francois Carnot, engineer, French pres (1887-94), was born.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1837        Aug 18, The Great Western, a steamship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, was towed out of the Bristol shipyard and proceeded under sail to London to be fitted with engines.
    (ON, 8/07, p.6)

1837        Aug 28, Pharmacists John Lea & William Perrins began to manufacture Worcester Sauce. [see 1834]
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1837        Sep 6, The Oberlin Collegiate Institute of Ohio went co-educational.
    (AP, 9/6/97)(http://tinyurl.com/lcgnj)

1837        Sep 21, Charles Lewis Tiffany (1812-1902) founded his jewelry and china stores.
    (MC, 9/21/01)(SSFC, 9/7/03, p.I4)

1837        Oct 1,  Robert Gould Shaw was born to a prominent abolitionist family. He became commander of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, the first unit of black soldiers in the Civil War. He was later asked by the governor of Massachusetts to organize the first regiment of black troops in a Northern state. Shaw recruited free blacks from all over New England. On May 13, 1863, the 54th Massachusetts Regiment was mustered into service in the Union Army with Shaw as its commanding officer. After leading the regiment in a handful of smaller actions, Shaw and the 54th joined two brigades of white troops in an assault on Confederates holding Battery Wagner on the South Carolina coast. Although the action was unsuccessful and Shaw himself died leading the charge, the courage of black troops under fire was proven beyond any doubt. This Kurz and Allison print honors Shaw and the 54th Massachusetts at Fort Wagner.
    (HNPD, 10/1/98)(HN, 10/1/98)
1837        Oct 1, A treaty was made with the Winnebago Indians.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1837        Oct 9, Francis Parker, educator and founder of progressive elementary schools, was born.
    (HN, 10/9/00)

1837        Oct 11, Samuel Wesley, composer (Exultate Deo), died at 71.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1837        Oct 17, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Austrian composer, died at 58.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1837          Oct 21, During the Second Seminole War (1835-1842), under a flag of truce during peace talks, U.S. troops under Gen. Thomas S. Jesup (1788-1860) sieged the Indian Seminole Chief Osceola in Florida and sent to a jail in North Carolina, where he later died. Jesup's trickery outraged the American public.
    (HN, 10/21/98)(DoW, 1999, p.435)

1837        Oct 31, The collision of river boats Monmouth & Trement on Mississippi left 300 dead.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1837        Nov 7, A mob attack on the Alton, Illinois, office newspaper editor Elijah P. Lovejoy and the subsequent killing of Lovejoy was inspired by the editoru0092s anti-slavery writings. Several persons were indicted in the killing, but they were found not guilty. Lovejoy was killed while defending a newly arrived printing press.  People opposed to Lovejoyu0091s mission had already destroyed three previous presses.
    (HNQ, 3/18/99)(HNQ, 6/26/00)

1837        Nov 8, Mount Holyoke Seminary, the 1st US college exclusively for women, opened in South Hadley, Massachusetts.
    (AP, 11/8/00)

1837        Nov 15, Isaac Pitman introduced his shorthand system for rapid writing. The stenographic system was based on sounds and was rapidly adopted in India.
    (MC, 11/15/01)(WSJ, 8/20/04, p.A1)

1837        Nov 21, Thomas Morris of Australia skipped rope 22,806 times.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1837        Nov 28, John Wesley Hyatt (d.1920), inventor (celluloid), was born.
    (MC, 11/28/01)(ON, 11/03, p.4)

1837        Dec 2, Dr. Joseph Bell, British physician, was born. He is believed to be the prototype of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's detective 'Sherlock Holmes.'
    (HN, 12/2/99)

1837        Dec 5, Hector Berlioz' "Requiem," premiered.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1837        Dec 9, Charles Emile Waldteufel, waltz composer (Skaters), was born in Strasbourg, France.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1837        Dec 25, In the Battle of Okeechobee US forces defeated the Seminole Indians.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1837        Dec 26, George Dewey, Admiral of the Navy, was born: Spanish-American War: hero of Manila: "You may fire when you are ready, Gridley."
    (440.com)

1837        Dec 29, Canadian militiamen, claiming self-defense, destroyed the Caroline, a US steamboat docked at Buffalo, N.Y. It was being used to ferry supplies to anti-British rebels in Canada.
    (AP, 12/29/97)(Econ, 11/22/03, p.25)
1837          Dec 29, A threshing machine powered by a single horse treadmill was patented in Winthrop, Maine, by twins Hiram A. and John A. Pitts.
    (DM, 8/5/03)

1837        Mary Harris (d.1931), aka Mother Jones, was born in County Cork, Ireland. [see May 1, 1830]
    (SSFC, 2/25/01, BR p.5)

1837        Artist Alfred Jacob Miller (1810-1874) accompanied British Capt. William Drummond Stewart on a hunting expedition to the Rocky Mountains. In October 1840 Miller traveled with his paintings to Stewart's Murthly Castle in Scotland, where a collection of his commissioned work was ultimately hung. Miller later settled in Baltimore, Md., painting portraits.
    (ON, 4/2011, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Jacob_Miller)

1837        Reverend George Bush published u0093The Life of Mohammed, founder of the religion of Islam and of the Empire of the Saracens.u0094 It described the Prophet as an "imposter" and Muslims as "locusts." In 2005 Egyptian newspapers announced that the highest authority in Sunni Islam had approved publication of the book. In 2005 the US administration said the author was "a distant relative of the current president, five generations removed.
    (AP, 6/25/05)(www.muhammadanism.org/bush/bush_mohammed.pdf)

1837        The Dickens novel "Great Expectations" was set in this year. A 1998 version of the novel by Australian writer Peter Carey was titled "Jack Maggs."
    (WSJ, 2/4/98, p.A20)

1837        Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) wrote "Twice Told Tales."
    (www.novelguide.com)

1837        Tennyson (1809-1892) wrote his poem u0093Locksley Hall.u0094 It included a vision of a tranquil world u0093lapt in universal law.u0094 It was published as part of a collection in 1842. The poem embodied the pain of lost love and looked forward to a time when the nations of the world would abandon war and form a u0093parliament of man.u0094
    (WSJ, 6/28/06, p.D10)(www.firstscience.com/site/POEMS/tennyson4.asp)

1837        The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle"), a historical poem written in the Pali language of the kings of Sri Lanka, was published by George Turnour, an historian and officer of the Ceylon Civil Service. It covers the period from the coming of King Vijaya of Kalinga (ancient Orissa) in 543 BCE to the reign of King Mahasena (334u0096361).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahavamsa)

1837        Noah Websteru0092s Spelling Book had an estimated printing of 15 million. First published in 1783 as "A Grammatical Institute of the English Language," the Spelling Book was influential in standardizing and differentiating, from the British forms, English spelling and pronunciation in America. By 1890, more than 70 million copies of the book had been printed.
    (HNQ, 8/9/98)

1837         Oliver Wendell Holmes referred to a speech given by Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1837 as "our intellectual Declaration of Independence." Emerson, a philosopher and author born in Boston on May 25, 1803, gave the speech, entitled "The American Scholar," to the Phi Beta Kappa Society of Harvard. It called for an indigenous national culture and defined the functions of the intellectual in the light of Transcendentalism. He urged the mottoes: "Know Thyself" and "Study Nature." In 1838 Emersonu0092s address to the Harvard Divinity School criticized orthodox Christianity and led to accusations that he was an atheist. It was 30 years before he was invited again to speak at Harvard. He died on April 27, 1882.
    (HNQ, 6/14/98)

1837        Washington Irving wrote "The Adventures of Captain Bonneville."
    (HT, 3/97, p.38)

1837        In Maine the Edwards Dam on the Kennebec River was constructed.
    (SFC,11/26/97, p.A7)

1837        Conflicts broke up the Mormon communities in Missouri and Ohio.
    (NW, 9/10/01, p.48)

1837        The Presbyterian Church split into two denominations.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1837        A US treaty with the Chippewa Indians in Minnesota guaranteed their right to hunt and fish and gather wild rice on territory relinquished to the federal government.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A8)

1837        US Chief Justice Taney justified the government use of eminent domain in the Charles River case and wrote: "the object and end of all government is to promote the happiness and prosperity of the community by which it is established."
    (Wired, 10/96, p.133)

1837        John Marsh (1799-1856), Harvard graduate and Minnesota Indian agent, bought Rancho de Los Meganos east of Mount Diablo and became the 1st American in the San Joaquin Valley. He purchased the Rancho Los Meganos from Jose Noriega for $300 in cowhides. The land stood where the hills of Contra Costa met the San Joaquin Valley. He built a stone Gothic mansion in 1856. In 2002 plans were made to restore the Marsh House.
    (SFC, 12/7/02, p.E4)(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.B3)

1837        A Michigan Public Act declared that the Univ. of Michigan would "provide the inhabitants of the State with the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various branches of literature, science, and the arts... (and) be open to all residents of this state."
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.11)

1847        City College, later known as City Univ. of New York (CUNY) was founded in Harlem.
    (Econ, 1/21/06, p.29)

1837        The Procter & Gamble Company was formed in Cincinnati, Ohio. William Procter and James A. Gamble built a business manufacturing soap and candles from the tallow produced by the cityu0092s thriving meat packing industry. In 2004 Davis Dyer, Frederick Dalzell and Rowena Olegario authored u0093Rising Tide,u0094 a history of Procter and Gamble.
    (WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 7/23/04, p.W12)(Econ, 8/11/07, p.61)

1837        The B&O Railroad and the C&O Canal both reached Harper's Ferry. At this point the B&O built a bridge across the Potomac and began an inland route up the mountains to Martinsburg.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T7)

1837        Samuel F.B. Morse incorporated the discoveries of Sturgeon and Henry in the first practical telegraph, separating the magnet from the switch by some five hundred yards of wire. [see 1838, 1844]
    (I&I, Penzias, p.96)

1837        In California Jose Maria Amador led a "recapturing expedition." They found and murdered 200 Indians.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, BR p.12)

1837        In London construction began on the new Palace of Westminster. Architect Charles Barry and his assistant A.W.N. Pugin had won the open competition for the design.
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W14)
1837        Moses Montefiore (1784-1885), Italy-born British financier, was elected Sheriff of London and served until 1838. He was also knighted  this same year by Queen Victoria and received a baronetcy in 1846 in recognition of his services to humanitarian causes on behalf of the Jewish people.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_Montefiore)
1837        A parliamentary commissionu0092s report indicated that there were nearly 30,000 charitable endowments in Britain at this time.
    (WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-8)
1837        English plumber Thomas Crapper came out with a flush model, valve controlled, water closet. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow installed one in his home in 1840 and sparked public attention. Thomas Crapper, popularly credited with inventing the water closet, held three patents, although he may simply have bought the siphon discharge system patent from Albert Giblin and marketed it himself. In 1969 Wallace Reyburn authored u0093Flushed with Pride: The Story of Thomas Crapper.u0094
    (HNQ, 11/25/00)(http://tinyurl.com/2ws5w)

1837        Thierry Hermes (1801-1878), French saddle maker, established the Hermes company as a harness workshop. It grew to become a maker of high fashion leather goods. The company went public in 1993.
    (Econ, 1/1/11, p.56)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herm%C3%A8s)
1837        French explorer Dumont du0092Urville (1790-1842) sailed along a coastal area of Antarctica that he named the Adélie Coast in honor of his wife. He also named the Adelie penguin after his wife.
    (WSJ, 7/1/97, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumont_D'Urville)

1837        In St. Petersburg Alexander Pushkin (b.1799), poet, was killed in a duel with his wife's suitor, D'Anthes, a French nobleman. Pushkin's work included "Eugene Onegin," a novel-in-verse, and "Boris Godunov," made famous in the Mussorgsky opera. In 1993 an English translation of "Strolls With Pushkin" by Abram Tertz (Andrei Sinyavsky) was published. In 1999 Elaine Feinstein published "Pushkin: A Biography."
    (SFC, 6/3/99, p.C2)(WSJ, 7/15/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 8/3/99, p.A23)

1837        Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787-1860), an Algeria-born mendicant  founded the Sanusi, a Sufi order, in Mecca. Beida, Libya, later became the seat of the Sanusi.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.27)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senussi)

1837        In Scotland Fife Pottery in Kirkcaldy was purchased by Mary and Robert Heron. They developed a new style of decoration for pottery and called the pieces Wemyss Ware. the pottery was decorated on the clay before it was glazed. the factory closed in 1920 and rights were purchased by a pottery in Devon.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)

1837        Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), Swiss paleontologist, proposed to the Helvetic Society that ancient glaciers had not only flowed outward from the Alps, but that even larger glaciers had simultaneously encroached southward on the plains and mountains of Europe, Asia and North America, smothering the entire northern hemisphere in a prolonged Ice Age. 
    (ON, 10/08, p.12)

1837-1841    Martin Van Buren became 8th President of the US. His term was marred by depression and financial panic.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(HFA, u009196, p.46)

1837-1844    Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall published their 3-volume work: u0093The Indian Tribes of North American.u0094
    (WSJ, 3/15/06, p.D16)

1837-1863    More than 700 US banks could issue their own notes during this period and as many as one-third of all bills were fake.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.104)

1837-1901    The Victorian Era was covered by Peter Gay in his 5-volume work: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud." The 5th volume "Pleasure Wars" came out in 1998. Other volumes were titled: Education of the Sense," "The Tender Passion," and "The Cultivation of Hatred."
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.9)

1837-1899    The Countess de Castiglione, mistress to Napoleon III, actively collaborated in the making of some 500 images of herself in a wide variety of costume and pose mostly photographed by Pierre-Louis Pierson. She advertised herself as "The Most Beautiful Woman of the Century."
    (SFEC, 9/19/99, p.C13)

1838        Jan 4, Charles Sherwood Stratton (d.1883), later known as the dwarf Tom Thumb, was born in Bridgeport, Conn. In 1842, P.T. Barnum discovered Charles, who measured 25 inches              and weighed 15 pounds, only six pounds more than his birth weight.
    (www.barnum-museum.org)

1838        Jan 6, Max Bruch, composer Scottish Fantasy), was born in Cologne, Germany.
    (MC, 1/6/02)
1838        Jan 6, Samuel Morse (1791-1872) first publicly demonstrated his telegraph, in Morristown, N.J. In 2003 David Paul Nickles authored "Under the Wire," a history of the telegraph and its impact on the world.
    (AP, 1/6/98)(WSJ, 1/7/04, p.D10)

1838        Jan 7, John Joseph Hughes (aka "Dagger John") was consecrated as bishop of New York. He encouraged the formation of the Society for the Protection of Destitute Catholic Children and helped form the Irish Emigrant Society.
    (WSJ, 3/17/97, p.A18)

1838        Jan 26, Tennessee became the 1st state to prohibit alcohol.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1838        Feb 6, Having failed to obtain land by trickery from the Zulus of South Africa, the Boar leader Piet Retief was executed as a witch.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1838        Feb 16, Henry Adams (d.1918), was born. He was the son and grandson of the presidents who became a U.S. historian and wrote "The Education of Henry Adams."
    (HN, 2/16/99)(SFEC, 4/23/00, BR p.6)

1838        Feb 20, Ludwig Boltzmann (d.1906), Austrian atomic physics engineer, was born. [see 1844]
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1838        Feb 21, Alexis De Rochon, Spyglass Developer, was born.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1838        Feb 23, Gilbert Moxley Sorrel (d.1901), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1838        Feb 24, Thomas Benton Smith, Brig. General (Confederate Army), was born in Mechanicsville, Tennessee. He was wounded at Stoneu0092s River/Murfreesboro and again at Chickamauga. He was captured at the Battle of Nashville (1864) where he was beaten over the head with a sword by Col. William Linn McMillen of the 95th Ohio Infantry. His brain was exposed and it was believed he would die. He recovered partially and spent the last 47 years of his life in the State Asylum in Nashville, Tennessee, where he died on May 21, 1923. Heu0092s buried in Mount Olivet Cemetery, Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee.
    (MC, 2/24/02)(Internet)

1838        Mar 3, Rebellion at Pelee Island, Ontario, Canada.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1838        Mar 7, Soprano Jenny Lind ("the Swedish Nightingale") made her debut in Weber's opera Der Freischultz.
    (HN, 3/7/01)

1838        Mar 16, Nathaniel Bowditch (b.1773), mathematician, astronomer, polyglot, author (Marine Sextant), died. In 1802 he published "The New American Practical Navigator."
    (SS, 3/26/02)(AH, 12/02, p.22)

1838        Mar 18, Randal Cremer, British trade unionist, pacifist (Nobel 1903), was born.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1838        Apr 3, Leon Michel Gambetta, French attorney, premier (1881-82), was born.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1838        Apr 3, Francesco Antommarchi (57), Napoleon's physician on St Helena, died.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1838        Apr 8, The British steamship "Great Western" set out on its maiden voyage  from Bristol, England, to NYC.
    (ON, 8/07, p.7)

1838        Apr 12, John Shaw Billings, American librarian, army physician, was born.
    (HN, 4/12/98)

1838        Apr 17, J. Schopenhauer (71), writer, died.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1838        Apr 21, John Muir (d.1914), naturalist, was born in Dunbar, Scotland. He discovered glaciers in the High Sierras of California.
    (HN, 4/21/98)(SFEC, 1/2/00, DB p.23)(SFC, 2/2/00, p.A21)

1838        Apr 22, The English steamship "Sirius" docked in NYC after a record Atlantic crossing.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Riband)

1838        Apr 23, The British steamship "Great Western" arrived in NYC on its maiden voyage  from Bristol, England, just hours after the retrofitted steamship Sirius, which had departed Cork on April 4. The Great Western crossed the Atlantic in a record 15 days and 12 hours.
    (ON, 8/07, p.7)

1838        Apr 27, Fire destroyed half of Charleston.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1838        May 10, John Wilkes Booth (d.1865), assassin of Abraham Lincoln, was born near Bel Air, Maryland.
    (HN, 5/10/98)

1838        May 17, Pennsylvania Hall in Philadelphia was burned following an abolitionist meeting.
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, BR p.1)
1838        May 17, Charles-Maurice duke of Talleyrand-Perigord (84), diplomat, revolutionary, bishop and former PM of France (1815), died. In 2006 David Lawday authored u0093Napoleonu0092s Master: A Life of Prince Talleyrand.u0094
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Maurice_de_Talleyrand)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.93)

1838        Jun 12, The Iowa Territory was organized.
    (AP, 6/12/97)

1838        Jun 27, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Bengali novelist (Anandamath), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1838        Jun 28, Britain's Queen Victoria was crowned in Westminster Abbey.
    (AP, 6/28/98)(http://tinyurl.com/zezjg)

1838         Jul 1, Charles Darwin presented a paper on his theory of evolution to the Linnaean Society in London.
    (HN, 7/1/01)

1838        Jul 8, Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin (d.1917), German designer and manufacturer of airships, was born.
    (HN, 7/8/98)(WUD, 1994, p.1660)

1838        Jul 11, John Wanamaker (d.1922), US merchant who founded a chain of stores in Philadelphia, was born.
    (HN, 7/11/98)(ON, 12/05, p.6)

1838        Aug 1, Slavery was abolished in Jamaica.
    (HFA, u009196, p.36)

1838        Aug 18, Six US Navy ships departed Hampton Roads, Va., led by Lt. Charles Wilkes on a 3-year mission called the US South Seas Exploring Expedition, the "U.S. Ex. Ex." The mission proved Antarctica to be a continent. Wilkes was tried in a military court for abuses of power, but was generally acquitted. In 2003 Nathaniel Philbrick authored "Sea of Glory," an account of the expedition.
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.80)(WSJ, 11/12/03, p.D12)(www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollections/usexex/)

1838        Aug 23, One of the first colleges for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in South Hadley, Mass., graduated its first students.
    (AP, 8/23/97)

1838        Aug, Some 12,000 Cherokee Indians in 13 ragtag parties followed the Trail of Tears on a 116-day journey west 800 miles to eastern Oklahoma. Estimates have placed the death toll in camps and in transit as high as 4,000. They followed the trail already set by the Choctaw out of Mississippi, the Creek from Alabama, the Chickasaw from Arkansas and Mississippi, and the Seminole from Florida.
    (NG, 5/95, p.82)(www.crystalinks.com/cherokee2.html)

1838        Sep 1, William Clark (68), 2nd lt. of Lewis and Clark Expedition, died.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1838        Sep 2, Lydia Kamekeha Liliuokalani (d.1917), last sovereign before annexation of Hawaii by the United States, was born. Liliu0092uokalani, the last monarch of Hawaii (1891-1893). She composed Hawaiiu0092s most famous song "Aloha Oe."
    (WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)(HN, 9/2/98)

1838        Sep 3, Frederick Douglass, American Negro abolitionist, escaped slavery disguised as a sailor. He would later write "The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass," his memoirs about slave life.
    (HFA, u009196, p.38)(HN, 9/3/98)

1838        Sep 4, Henrietta d'Angeville (1794-1871) became the 1st woman to climb to the top of Mt. Blanc, France. In 1808 mountain guides had carried Marie Paradis, a local serving girl, to the top.
    (ON, 4/04, p.1)

1838        Sep 6, The steamship Foxfarshire with some 60 passengers and crew suffered engine failure and drifted onto Big Harkar Rock near the Longstone Lighthouse on the Farne Islands in northeast England. Over 40 people drowned. Grace Darling (22) rowed with her father (54), light keeper, to rescue survivors.
    (ON, 10/00, p.9)

1838        Sep 10, The opera "Benvenuto Cellini," by Hector Berlioz, premiered in Paris. It was based on Cellini's autobiography.
    (MC, 9/10/01)(WSJ, 12/16/03, p.D10)

1838        Sep 11, John Ireland, US archbishop of St. Paul, was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1838        Sep 16, James J. Hill, railroad builder, was born.
    (HN, 9/16/00)

1838        Sep 23, Victoria Chaflin Woodhull (d.1927), American presidential candidate (1872), was born into a family of charlatans in Ohio. Woodhull, a militant suffragist, advocated free love and was Wall Street's first female broker after attracting Cornelius Vanderbilt. She was the first woman to address Congress. Her story is documented in u0093The Woman Who Ran for President: The Many Lives of Victoria Woodhullu0094 by Lois Beachy Underhill. In 1998 Mary Gabriel published "Notorious Victoria: The Life of Victoria Woodhull, Uncensored. In 1998 Barbara Goldsmith published "Other Powers--The Age of Suffrage, Spiritualism and the Scandalous Victoria Woodhull."
    (WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.5)(SFEC, 3/8/98, Par p.14)(HNPD, 4/28/00)

1838        Oct 1, Lord Auckland, British governor general in India, issued the Simla Manifesto, setting forth the necessary reasons for British intervention in Afghanistan. This led to the 1st Anglo-Afghan War.
    (Econ, 10/7/06, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Anglo-Afghan_War)

1838        Oct 24, Joseph Lancaster (b.1778), English educator, was fatally injured by a runaway horsedrawn carriage in NYC.
    (http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/KRO_LAP/LANCASTER_JOSEPH_1778_1838_.html)

1838        Oct 25, Georges Alexandre-Cesar-Leopold Bizet, French composer (Carmen), was born.
    (HN, 10/25/98)(MC, 10/25/01)

1838        Oct 31, A mob of about 200 attacked a Mormon camp in Missouri, killing 20 men, women and children. In the massacre at Haunu0092s Mill in western Missouri 17 Mormon settlers were killed. Joseph Smith was arrested and the Mormons were driver from the state.
    (HN, 10/31/98)(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)

1838        Nov 8, Victor Hugo's "Ruy Blas," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1838        Nov 13, Joseph F. Smith, 6th president of Mormon church, was born.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1838        Nov 30, Mexico declared war on France.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1838        Dec 13, Alexis Millardet, botanist who developed the first successful fungicide, was born.
    (HN, 12/13/00)

1838        Dec 16, Boers led by Andreas Pretorius defeated the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River and settled in Natal. The Afrikaners while escaping from British rule encountered resistance from the native black peoples. In the Battle of Blood River a few hundred Boers repelled an attack by more than 10,000 warriors of the Zulu king Dingaan.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.885)(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)

1838        Dec, Indiau0092s British governor general dispatched to Kabul the Army of the Indus to protect British interests from growing Russian influence.
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Anglo-Afghan_War)

1838        The Norwegian violinist Ole Bull visited Memphis but the local whites preferred the fiddling of the slave musicians.
    (WSJ, 8/14/97, p.A16)

1838        Charles Babbage published his paper on Time Reckoning by Tree Ring Counts.
    (RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.53)

1838        A raunchy tale of anarchy on the high seas was recorded by a junior officer, James Bell, aboard "The Planter" which sailed to Adelaide from Deptford in east London. In 2010 Bellu0092s 225-page diary went up for sale at auction in London after being bought in a market stall for a pittance.
    (Reuters, 2/24/10)

1838        Charlotte Bronte authored her novella "Stancliffeu0092s Hotel." It was published for the 1st time in 2003.
    (SFC, 3/15/03, p.A2)

1838        Edgar Allan Poe became assistant editor of Gentlemanu0092s Magazine in Philadelphia. In 1998 Ronald Weber published "Hired Pens: Professional Writers in Americau0092s Golden Age of Print," that covered professional writing in the US from Edgar Allen Poe to the present.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 4/26/98, Par p.8)

1838        Gustav Schwab, German historian, authored his compendium "Die Sagen des Klassischen Altertums" (Stories from Classical Antiquity). The 1st English version was published in 1946. It was republished in 2001 as "Gods and Heroes of Ancient Greece."
    (WSJ, 11/7/01, p.A20)

1838        The first Braille Bible was published by the American Bible Society.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1838        Mammoth Cave in Kentucky was purchased by Franklin Gorin as a tourist attraction. Stephen L. Bishop, a slave of Gorinu0092s, explored and mapped the caves over the next two decades. His first comprehensive depiction was published in 1845. Bishop was freed in 1856 and using money earned in tips as tour guide he bought some adjoining land. Bishop died a year later and was buried near the caveu0092s original entrance.
    (NG, 5/95,Geographica)

1838        In New Harmony Indianau0092s oldest public lending library was founded. The town was founded by the millennialist Harmonie Society and later bought by Robert Owen, a social reformer and educator.
    (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A12)

1838        Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey escaped from slavery in Maryland and traveled to new England where he changed his name to Frederick Douglass.
    (AHD, 1971, p.394)(ON, 7/02, p.6)

1838        New York passed the Free Banking Act and the idea of state-chartered banks spread across the country. Each bank issued its own bills in various shapes and sizes. [see 1863, the National Bank Act]
    (WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-8)

1838        Amid rising debts and rumors of polygamy, the Mormons moved from Ohio to Far West, Mo., where they clashed violently with other settlers. [see 1839]
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)

c1838    In North Atlanta the head of a buck was mounted on a post near a settleru0092s crossing. Now the intersection of Peachtree, Roswell and Paces Ferry Roads marks the heart of the Buckhead section of Atlanta.
    (Hem., 7/96, p.55)

1838        Francis Drexel founded a bank that later developed into Drexel Burnham Lambert Corp. His son, Joseph Drexel, later partnered with J.P. Morgan and in 1876 went on to serve as the director of the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.W4)

1838        A law banning the carrying of concealed weapons was passed in Tennessee and Virginia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/d337x96)

1838        In California Monterey became the state capital under Juan Bautista Alvarado. He named Mariano Vallejo commandante general.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)
1838        In California a major earthquake opened a huge fissure from SF to Santa Clara.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)
1838        In  California an earthquake, estimated at magnitude 7.7 -7.9, hit two miles off the coast of San Francisco.
    (SFC, 1/27/14, p.C2)

1838        The Buckeye Brewing Co. of Toledo, Ohio, began operations. Green Seal Select Beer was one of their early brands. The company continued until 1972.
    (SFC, 2/13/08, p.G8)

1838        The Curzon Street Station, the terminus of the London and Birmingham Railway, opened in Birmingham, England. After 55 years the neoclassical building closed to passengers.
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.58)
1838        In London the National Gallery opened on Trafalgar Square. It was designed by William Wilkins. A 10-year renovation was completed in 1999.
    (SFC, 9/22/99, p.E3)
1838        The London Prize Ring Rules were instituted with bare-knuckle rounds of unspecified length. Rounds ended when a fighter touched ground with a knee. The rules were based on those drafted by Britain's Jack Broughton in 1743, and governed the conduct of prizefighting/bare-knuckle boxing for over 100 years. They were later superseded by the Marquess of Queensberry rules (1865), the origins of the modern sport of Boxing.
    (AH, 2/06, p.32)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Prize_Ring_rules)
1838        In England William Ridgway, Son & Co. began using the "Humphrey clock" mark on its dishware.
    (SFC, 3/11/98, Z1 p.5)
1838        Gideon Barr of England borrowed money to buy an oceangoing schooner and sailed to Borneo, called Kalimantaan by the natives. He put down a rebellion against the sultan of Brunei and became the rajah of the territory. The 1998 novel "Kalimantaan" by C.S. Godshalk was based on these events.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, BR p.6)

1838        France agreed to reduce Haiti's 1825 "debt" to 60 million fold francs to be paid over 30 years. The final payment was made in 1883. Payments on loans made to repay France continued to 1947.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.A6)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.47)
1838        Frederic Chopin (1810-1849), Polish-born composer and pianist, began a volatile affair with French novelist George Sand. The relationship continued to 1847.
    (Econ, 2/6/10, p.91)
1838        Louis Daguerre caught an image of a man who appears to be getting his shoes or boots shined at a street corner in Paris. This was the first ever photo of a person.
    (http://tinyurl.com/37jtw74)

1838        Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, German astronomer and director of the Konigsberg Observatory, made the first reliable parallax measurement for a star known as 61 Cygni. This gave a distance from the sun of 10.9 light-years. Thomas Henderson, Scottish astronomer, measured the parallax of Alpha Centauri whose distance is calculated to be 4.3 light-years from the Sun.
    (NH, 4/1/04, p.45)(SCTS, p.137)

1838        In Ghana Asante King Nana Badu Bonsu II had his head cut off by Maj. Gen. Jan Verveer in retaliation for Bonsu's killing of two Dutch emissaries, whose heads were then displayed as trophies. In 2008 Dutch author Arthur Japin discovered Bonsuu0092s head in a jar of formaldehyde at Leiden Univ. Medical Center. In 2009 the Dutch government returned the head of Bonsuu0092s descendants.
    (SFC, 3/21/09, p.A2)(SFC, 7/24/09, p.A2)

1838        Greece made an attempt to restart the Olympics.
    (WSJ, 7/19/96, p.R16)

1838        In Hong Kong obscure oil paintings show a sophisticated irrigation system on the Island.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.A18)

1838-1840    In Germany Architect Gottfried Semper, designer of the Dresden Semper Opera House, designed the Dresden Jewish synagogue that was built over this time.
    (SFC, 1/6/97, p.A10)

1838-1916    Ernst Mach, Austrian physicist, proposed that the inertia of every bit of matter resulted from the mutual interaction of all matter in the universe. In other words, a mass resists acceleration because of the influence on it of all the rest of the masses everywhere. He is also associated with the relationship of the velocity of aircraft with the velocity of sound.
    (TNG, Klein, p.147)

1838-1918    Henry Brooks Adams, American Historian and philosopher, son of Charles Francis Adams. "One friend in a lifetime is much; two are many; three are hardly possible." "A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops."
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 3/21/97)(AP, 1/28/99)

1838-1923     John, Viscount Morley of Blackburn, English journalist: "The great business of life is to be, to do, to do without, and to depart."
    (AP, 8/13/98)

1838-1995    The Tirschenreuth Porcelain Factory operated in Tirschenreuth, Bavaria, during this period. In 1927 it was acquired by the L. Hutschenreuther Co.
    (SFC, 9/21/05, p.G3)

1839        Jan 2, French photographic pioneer Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre took the first photograph of the moon. Soon after his first photograph of people was a shoeshine scene on a Paris boulevard.
    (HN, 1/2/99)(SFEC, 1/16/00, Z1 p.2)(ON, 4/00, p.10)

1839        Jan 9, The Daguerreotype photo process was announced at the French Academy of Science. Louis Daguerre had the influential astronomer Dominique-Francois-Argo make an announcement at the Academy of Sciences in Paris of the daguerreotype, a photographic process using fumes of iodine to sensitize a silver plate, vapor of mercury to bring out the image, and common salt to fix the image. [See 1765-1833, Nicephore Niepce, French lithographer, and 1816].
    (http://www.articleworld.org/index.php/Louis_Daguerre)(http://tinyurl.com/arl5k5)(WSJ, 9/14/95, p.A-16)(ON, 10/08, p.9)
   
1839        Jan 19, Paul Cezanne (d.1906), French painter, was born in Aix-en-Provence in southern France. He was considered a founding figure in 20th century art. He departed from the Impressionists in his desire to render perspective through color. His work had a profound influence on the Cubists. A catalogue of his work was made by John Rewald (1912-1994) and published posthumously as: "The Paintings of Paul Cezanne: A catalogue Raisonne." His work includes: "The Feast" (late 60s), "Portrait of Achille Emperaire" (1869-70), "Self-Portrait" (c1875), "Rocks at Lu0092Estaque" (1879-82), "Flowerpots" (c1885), "Chestnut Trees at Jas de Bouffan" (1885-86), "The Kitchen Table" (1888-90), "Madame Cezanne in a Yellow Chair" (1893-95), "The Lac du0092Annecy" (1896), "Pyramid of Skulls" (1898-1900), "Garden at Le Lauves" (c1906), "Large Bathers" (1906), "Mont Ste.-Victoire Seen from Les Lauves." He is best remembered for his works Card Players and L'Oeuvre.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 2/10/96, p.A16)(DPCP 1984)(HN, 1/19/99)

1839        Jan 20, Chile defeated a confederation of Peru and Bolivia in the Battle of Yungay.
    (AP, 1/20/98)

1839        Jan 24, Charles Darwin was elected member of Royal Society.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1839        Jan 28, William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877), English inventor, presented his discoveries and methods of photography to the Royal Society of London. His callotype, a negative to positive process, allowed multiple reproductions of a single image for the 1st time. Talbot suggested a daguerreotype camera with extra parts to hold mercury.
    (ON, 4/00, p.10)(SFC, 6/12/96, Z1 p.5)(SFC, 12/26/02, p.E9)

1839        Jan 29, Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1839        Feb 7, Henry Clay declared in Senate "I had rather be right than president."
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1839        Feb 12, Aroostook War took place over a boundary dispute between Maine and New Brunswick.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1839        Feb 20, Congress prohibited dueling in the District of Columbia.
    (AP, 2/20/98)

1839        Feb 24, A steam shovel was patented by William Otis, Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1839        Mar 8, James Mason Crafts, US chemist (Friedel-Crafts-synthesis), was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1839        Mar 9, Felix Huston Robertson (d.1928), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1839        Mar 9, Modest Petrovich Moussorgsky (Mussorgsky), Russian composer, was born (d.1881). His work included "Boris Godunov" and "Songs and Dances of Death." His work "Khovanshchina" was finished and orchestrated by Shostakovich. [see Mar 21]
    (WUD, 1994, p.936)(WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A25)(MC, 3/9/02)
1839        Mar 9, Prussian government limited the work week for children to 51 hours.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1839        Mar 21, Modest Mussorgsky, composer (Boris Godunov, Night on Bald Mt), was born. [see Mar 9]
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1839        Mar 23, 1st recorded use of "OK" [oll korrect] was in Boston's Morning Post.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1839        Mar 25, William Bell Wait, educator of the blind, was born.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1839        Spring, In Japan a craze for costume dancing swept Kyoto for a few weeks.
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1839        Apr 5, Robert Smalls, black congressman from South Carolina, 1875-87, was born.
    (HN, 5/5/97)

1839        Apr 11, John Galt (59), Scottish writer (Last of the Lairds), died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1839        Apr 17, Guatemala formed a republic.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1839        Apr 20, Giuseppe Rossini, father of Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1839        May 1, Louis-Maire-Hilaire Bernigaud, French chemist, inventor of rayon, was born.
    (HN, 5/1/01)

1839        May 18, Carolina [Maria A] Bonaparte (57), countess of Lipona (anagram of Napoli), died and was buried in Bologna.
    (SC, 5/18/02)(http://gutenberg.net)

1839        May 25, John Eliot, English meteorologist, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1839        Jun 7, Hawaiian Declaration of Rights was signed.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1839        Jun 12, Baseball was said to have been invented. According to legend Abner Doubleday chased cows out of Elihu Phineyu0092s pasture and invented the game of baseball at Cooperstown, New York, later home of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and the Cooperstown Bat Company. In 1939 on the 100th anniversary of the day Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the sport, the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum was dedicated in Cooperstown, N.Y. Americans began playing baseball in the 1840s. It was derived from the British game called rounders.
    (SFE, 10/1/95, p.T-11)(AP, 6/12/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(WSJ, 7/19/01, p.A20)

1839        Jun 27, The Spanish coasting vessel La Amistad (The Friendship) set sail from Cuba to Porta Prince with a load of African slaves. Cinque, originally Senghbe, and over 50 other Africans had been kidnapped in Sierra Leone and sold into slavery in Cuba. They were carried on a Spanish ship, the Tecora, to Cuba. Cinque and 49 other slaves and 4 children were placed on the ship La Amistad destined for Haiti. They revolted, killed the captain, and ordered the crew back to Africa but the ship sailed north and ran aground. It was captured by the US Navy on August 26. A legal battle ensued in New London, Conn., that went to the Supreme court where former Pres. John Quincy Adams argued for their freedom and won. An 1855 novella by Herman Melville, "Benito Cereno" looked at the rebellion through the eyes of an American interloper. Barbara Chase-Ribaud later wrote "Echo of Lions," a novel based on the Amistad. In 1996 Steven Spielberg announced plans to direct a film based on the incident titled "Amistad." The film was to be released in 1997. A 1997 opera production, "Amistad," by Anthony Davis premiered in Chicago.
    (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/AMI_BCIN.HTM)(SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.57)(USAT, 11/19/97, p.2D)(WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A16)(SFEC,12/797, DB p.44)(SFC,12/26/97, p.C6)(HN, 6/28/99)

1839        Jul 2, African slaves, led by Joseph Cinque, killed Ramon Ferrer, and took possession of his ship, La Amistad. Cinque ordered the navigator to take them back to Africa but after 63 days at sea the ship was intercepted by Lieutenant Gedney, of the United States brig Washington, half a mile from the shore of Long Island.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Scinque.htm)
1839        Jul 2, Abdul Meçid, aka Abdul Mejid I (1823-1861), succeeded his father, Mahmud II, in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abd%C3%BClmecid_II)

1839        Jul 5, British naval forces bombarded Dingai on Zhoushan Island in China and occupy it.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1839        Jul 8, John D. Rockefeller (d.1937), financier, philanthropist, founder of Standard Oil, was born on a farm in Richford, New York. He moved into the refining end of the oil business and gobbled up competitors. The 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act forced the breakup of his Standard Oil Co. Ron Chernow later published "Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller." His philanthropy totaled over $500 million and included the founding of the Univ. of Chicago and the Rockefeller Inst. For medical Research, later Rockefeller Univ.
    (HN, 7/8/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(AP, 7/8/99)

1839        Jul 27, Chartist riots broke out in Birmingham, England.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1839        Aug 19, At a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris a new photographic process was unveiled by Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre. He "was able to capture images directly onto small, silvered plates; and in England where William Henry Fox invented what he called "photogenic drawing." This process produced a negative image on paper from which positive images could be made... but it took more than an hour to take a picture and the fuzzy prints were difficult to see. The daguerreotype enabled the photographer to create a highly detailed image. The process consisted of polishing a copper plate, using iodine to sensitize it, and developing it over mercury after exposing it to light in a camera. Daguerreotypes became so popular in the United States that New York City boasted more than 70 daguerreotype studios by 1850.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.72)(HNQ, 10/28/98)

1839        Aug 23, The British captured Hong Kong from China.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1839        Aug 26, The slave ship La Amistad was captured off Long Island. The USS Washington, an American Navy brig, seized the Amistad, and escorted it to New London, Connecticut.
    (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/AMI_BCIN.HTM)

1839        Aug 28, William Smith, British geologist, died. In 1815 he made the 1st geological map of England and became impoverished in the process. In 2001 Simon Winchester authored "The Map That Changed the World."
    (RTH, 8/28/99)(WSJ, 8/17/01, p.W6)

1839        Sep 9, John Herschel (1792-1871), English astronomer, took the 1st glass plate photograph.
    (www.getty.edu)

1839        Sep 18, John Aitken, physician and meteorologist, was born.
    (HN, 9/18/00)

1839        Sep 28, Frances E.C. Willard, founder of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, was born in NY.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1839        Oct 1, The British government decided to send a punitive naval expedition to China.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1839        Oct 3, John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood departed NYC for Central America. They arrived in Guatemala 3 weeks later.
    (ON, 12/99, p.5)

1839        Oct 21, Georg von Siemens, founder of Deutsche Bank, was born.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1839        Oct 30, Alfred Sisley (d.1899), impressionist artist, was born in Paris of English parents. He studied in London and then in Paris in the studio of Charles Gleyre. He painted landscapes almost exclusively. His work included "A Turn in the Road" (1873)..
    (DPCP 1984)(HN, 10/30/00)   

1839        Oct, The London Treaty, in which all the European powers guaranteed Belgian neutrality, was signed. The final Dutch-Belgian separation treaty divided Luxembourg and Limburg between the Dutch and Belgian crowns, settled debt arrangements and guaranteed the neutrality of Belgium.
    (HNQ, 7/24/98)(http://tinyurl.com/3335jt)

1839        Nov 3, The first Opium War between China and Britain broke out in and around Guangzhou and continued to 1942. Lin Zexu, a Qing official, started the Opium War when he ordered the dumping of 3 million pounds of Western-owned opium into the sea. 2 British frigates engaged several Chinese junks. In 2011 Julia Lovell authored u0093The Opium War: Drugs, Dreams, and the Making of China.u0094
    (SFC, 6/10/97, p.D4)(AP, 11/3/97)(SSFC, 8/30/09, p.A21)(Econ, 10/29/11, p.99)

1839        Nov 16, Louis-Honore Frechette, Canadian poet, was born.
    (HN, 11/16/00)

1839        Nov 17, Catherwood and Stephens arrived at Copan, Honduras, and proceeded to explore the Mayan ruins in the area.
    (ON, 12/99, p.7)

1839        Nov 27, The American Statistical Association was founded in Boston.
    (AP, 11/27/97)

1839        Nov 30, John Lloyd Stephens left Copan for Guatemala City to locate the government of the United Provinces of Central America.
    (ON, 12/99, p.8)

1839        Nov, In Indiau0092s city Coringa a gigantic 40-foot tidal wave caused by an enormous cyclone wiped out the harbor city that was never entirely rebuilt; 20,000 vessels in the bay were destroyed and some 300,000 people died.
    (www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)

1839        Dec 4, The Whig Party opened a national convention in Harrisburg, Pa., where delegates nominated William Henry Harrison for president. Soon after the Whigs constructed a 10-foot ball of twine, wood and tin, covered with Whig slogans, and rolled it from Cleveland to Columbus, Ohio, and across the country. This led to the expression "Keep the ball rolling."
    (AP, 12/4/99)(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.D6)

1839        Dec 5, George Armstrong Custer, Union cavalry leader who met his fate against Native Americans at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, was born.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

c1839        H. Biberstein created an allegorical portrait of Marquis de Sade.
    (SFEC, 7/25/99, BR p.3)

1839        J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851) painted "The Fighting Temeraire," a portrait of the ship, which had gained fame in the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), as it was towed for demolition.
    (WSJ, 8/21/03, p.D8)

1839        The original printing of John James Audubonu0092s u0093Birds of Americau0094 was completed in Europe. Fewer than 200 subscribers ordered the complete set of 400 prints.
    (ON, 12/05, p.10)

1839        Cesar Otway wrote "Tour of Connacht."
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)

1839        Stendhal, Marie-Henri Beyle, wrote his novel "Charterhouse of Parma" in 52 days. A 1st edition from the library of Marie Louise, 2nd wife of Napoleon, sold for $157,310 in 1999.
    (WSJ, 1/2/96, p. A-7)(WSJ, 3/25/97, p.A16)

1839        Edward Bulwer-Lytton (1803-1873), English novelist, authored his play u0093Richelieu.u0094 It included his line u0093The pen is mightier than the sword.u0094
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Bulwer-Lytton,_1st_Baron_Lytton)

1839        Cyrus Redding (1785-1870), English wine merchant and author, published u0093Every Man His Own Butler.u0094 This included the statement: u0093claret fro a bishop, port for a rector, currant for a curate and gin for the clerk.u0094
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.132)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrus_Redding)

1839        Giuseppe Verdiu0092s 1st opera, "Oberto, Conte de San Bonifaccio," was produced.
    (SFEM, 9/10/00, p.20)

1839        Felix Mendelssohn conducted the premier of the "C Major Symphony" by Franz Schubert (d.1828).
    (SFEM, 9/10/00, p.20)

1839        A law banning the carrying of concealed weapons was passed in Alabama.
    (http://tinyurl.com/d337x96)

1839        In Washington DC the Genu0092l. Post Office Building was constructed. In 1998 it was leased by the Kimpton Hotel and Restaurant Group for conversion into a 172-room luxury hotel.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.B2)

1839        Jean Vioget laid out the 1st plan of Yerba Buena (San Francisco) and showed the later Union Square site as a future park.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)
1839        Richard Henry Dana, author, obtained a grant of 37,887 acres near San Luis Obispo, Ca., built an adobe house, and raised a family of 21 children.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.7)
1839        A Mexican land grant was awarded to Francisco Guerrero y Palomares. He built an adobe next to Denniston Creek. The area, originally called Rancho Coral de Tierra Palomares, was near Moss Beach, Ca. and in 2011 federal officials confirmed a transaction allowing the 3,939 acres of the 4,262-acre rancho to be preserved as parkland.
    (SFC, 5/21/11, p.A1)
1839        The Bernal Heights area of SF, Ca., began to be developed as part of a Mexican land grant belonging to Don Jose Cornelio Bernal.
    (SFC, 6/29/06, 96 Hours p.41)
1839        Capt. John Sutter (1803-1880), a Swiss who claimed to have been an officer in the French army arrived in California. Sutter was born in present-day Germany and lived much of his early years in Switzerland. He convinced the Mexican governor to grant him lands on the Sacramento River. He established a fort on a hill near the American River east of Sacramento Ca. A biography of Sutter was later written by Richard Dillon.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, p.T3)(SFC, 12/28/98, p.A13)(HNQ, 11/18/00)

1839        A granite structure was erected at Fort Trumbull in New London, Conn. The fort was later turned into a submarine base.
    (AH, 10/01, p.A10)(Econ, 2/19/05, p.31)

1839        Iowau0092s Supreme Court ruled against slavery.
    (Econ, 4/11/09, p.31)

1839        William Knabe opened his own piano company in Baltimore. It later became part of Samick Musical Instruments.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)

1839        Joseph Smith escaped from a Missouri prison and the Mormons left Far West, Mo., and started buying land for a new settlement in Nauvoo, Ill. [see1844]
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)

1839        New York Gov. William Seward (1801-1872) made his 1st inaugural address. 
    (WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A16)

1839        The Cherokee Nation moved to Oklahoma.
    (www.crystalinks.com/cherokee2.html)

1839        The Republic of Texas issued the so-called Texas "redbacks." It printed over two million dollars in redbacks, which were initially worth about 37 cents to a US dollar. By 1842, the redbacks had become virtually worthless and had lost the power of legal tender. Once again Texans used bank notes from other states and shinplasters instead of the Texas money.
    (www.tsl.state.tx.us/treasures/republic/currency-01.html)
1839        John Neely Byron started a trading post on what later became known as the grassy knoll near Dealy Plaza in Dallas, Tx., near the site of JFK's 1963 assassination.
    (SSFC, 11/16/03, p.C8)

1839        In the US the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) for young men was founded in Lexington, Virginia.
    (WSJ, 6/27/96, p.B7)(SFEC, 7/20/97, p.A20)

1839        Charles Goodyear (1800-1860) found the right formula for making rubber impervious to temperature, a combination of chemicals and heat that became know as vulcanization.
    (WSJ, 7/31/02, p.D10)(ON, 6/07, p.11)

1839        Photography first appeared in 1839 as something of a miracle.
    (SFE Mag., 2/12/95, p. 8)

1839        Erastus Bigelow invented the 1st power loom. It doubled carpet production within a year.
    (SFCM, 10/10/04, p.8)

1839        The photoelectric effect was 1st discovered by French physicist Alexandre Becquerel. He observed that light could generate an electric current between 2 metal electrodes immersed in a conductive fluid.
    (Econ, 3/10/07, TQ p.23)

1839        The basic idea for electrocombustion, the combination of oxygen and hydrogen to generate electricity and water, was discovered. This later provided the basis for fuel cell technology.
    (Wired, 10/96, p.128)(SFC, 9/28/01, p.B9)

1839        The annual Mineru0092s Circular, published by the USDI, listed the mining disasters of the previous year. 50 gas explosions and mine fires caused 200 deaths in the US.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.135)

1839        Italian revolutionary Garibaldi arrived in Brazil to aid the rebels.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1839        A British army marched to Kabul and replaced Dost Mohammad, the Amir of Afghanistan, with a more docile ruler. Britain had decided that Persian and Russian intrigues posed a threat to their control of India.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)
1839        Britisher Sir James Brooke arrived in an armed schooner to Sarawak, Malaysia, and helped the Sultan of neighboring Brunei subdue rebel, headhunting Iban (Dayak) tribes. As a reward he was made the Raja of Sarawak, and his heirs continued to rule until 1946.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.133)
1839        The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society was founded.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.13)
1839        The British & North America Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. formed. It later became Cunard and then a unit of Carnival Corp.
    (WSJ, 10/2/03, p.B4)
1839        The Elder Pottery in Cobridge, Staffordshire, began operating and continued to 1846. John and George Alcock created platters there.
    (SFC, 10/10/07, p.G3)
1839        Joseph Bourne began making salt glazed pottery at Denby, England. A line called Danesbury Ware was begun in the 1920s. It later became known as the Denby Pottery Co.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)

1839        France began to mass produce womenu0092s corsets about this time. See the discussion by Marilyn Yalom in her 1997 book: "History of the Breast."
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.3)

1839        Parisian tailors revolted and destroyed the new sewing machines.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1839        John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood explored Copan. John L. Stephens attempted to purchase the Mayan city of Copan in Honduras.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.217)(NG, 12/97, p.80)

1839        In India a Sikh kingdom under Ranjit Singh ruled the Punjab until this time.
    (WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1839        Jews in Mashad, Iran, were forcibly converted to Shiite Islam following a pogrom.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A10)

1839        In the Netherlands the locomotive named "De Arend" was the first and pulled a train from Amsterdam to Haarlem with a top speed of 23 mph.
    (SFC, 6/18/99, p.D4)

1839        Mikhail Lermontov (1814-1841), Russian writer, authored u0093A Hero of Our Time.u0094 It is an example of the superfluous man novel, noted for its compelling Byronic hero (or anti-hero) Pechorin and for the beautiful descriptions of the Caucasus.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.35)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Hero_of_Our_Time)

1839        In Seville, Spain, the Monasterio de Santa Maria de las Casas was purchased by a British businessman and turned into a ceramic tile factory. It had been badly run down during occupation by French troops (1808-1812).
    (SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M5)

1839        Swiss scientist Louis Agassiz described a fossil fish that had been found in Permian marl slate near Durham, northern England. He named it coelacanthus. Over the decades similar fossils were found dating from around 380 million to 70 million years ago.
    (Econ, 12/14/13, IL p.10)

1839-1840    The Liberals of the United Provinces of Central America under leader Francisco Morazan were defeated in a civil war led by Rafael Carrera. The confederation dissolved into its 4 component states: El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
    (EWH, 1968, p.857)

1839-1842     First Anglo-Afghan War. After some resistance, Amir Dost Mohammad Khan surrendered to the British and was deported to India. In 1990 John H. Waller (1923-2004) authored u0093Beyond the Khyber Pass: The Road to British Disaster in the First Afghan War.u0094
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)(SSFC, 11/7/04, p.A23)
1839-1842    Shah Shuja, a deposed king, was installed as Afghan "puppet king" by the British. Shuja had been living in exile in India for three decades. In 2013 William Dalrymple authored u0093The Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan, 1839-42.u0094
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(Econ, 1/26/12, p.73)
1839-1842    The Opium War between Britain and China started when Beijing tried to stop Western imports of the narcotic. The British won by steaming gunboats up the Yangtze River to the Grand Canal an then cutting off grain and other supplies to Beijing.
    (SFC, 6/10/97, p.D4)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1839-1843    The Erebus and Terror Expedition had aboard the botanist-surgeon J.D. Hooker, who described the diatoms of the sea.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.158)

1839-1897    Henry George, American economist.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)

1839-1902    Thomas B. Reed, American lawyer and legislator: "One, with God, is always a majority, but many a martyr has been burned at the stake while the votes were being counted."
    (AP, 7/27/99)

1839-1908    Joaquin Maria Machado de Assis, mulatto writer. His novels included "The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas," (1880) and "Dom Casmurro," (1899). The works were republished in 1998 by the Oxford Library of Latin America.
    (WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)

1839-1908    Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramee), English writer, "queen of the romantic potboiler." "A cruel story runs on wheels, and every hand oils the wheels as they run."
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A14)(AP, 2/7/01)

1839-1911    William Keith, American landscape painter.
    (SSFC, 2/4/01, DB p.65)

1839-1912    Frank Furness, American architect. His students included Louis Sullivan and George Howe. His work included the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Univ. of Pennsylvania Library. In 2001 Michael J. Lewis authored "Frank Furness: Architecture and the Violent Mind."
    (WS, 6/26/01, p.A21)

1839-1925    Edward S. Morse, educator. He introduced modern ideas in archaeology and zoology to Japan at Tokyo Univ.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.34)

1840        Jan 16, Officers Henry Eld and William Reynolds sighted mountains on Antarctica from their ship, the Peacock. Their captain, William Hudson, did not bother to confirm the sighting.
    (ON, 3/00, p.7)

1840        Jan 18, "Electro-Magnetic Intelligencer", 1st US electrical journal, appeared.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1840        Jan 19, Charles B. Wilkes, captain of the US flagship Vincennes, claimed the discovery of Antarctica. Wilkes Land was later named in his honor. The American explorer, born April 3, 1798, coasted along part of the Antarctic barrier from about 150 degrees east to 108 degrees east, the areas that were subsequently named Wilkes Land. Wilkesu0092 officers disputed the Jan 19 sighting but acknowledged that land was sighted Jan 28 and Feb 15.
    (HNQ, 1/12/99)(ON, 3/00, p.8)

1840        Feb 5, Hiram Stevens Maxim (d.1916), inventor of the automatic single-barrel rifle, was born in Sangerville, Maine. He invented the hair-curling iron, and patented such items as a mousetrap, a locomotive headlight, a method of manufacturing carbon filaments for lamps, and an automatic sprinkling system.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.267)(MC, 2/5/02)
1840        Feb 5, In Damascus, Syria, Father Thomas, originally from Sardinia, and the superior of a Franciscan convent at Damascus, disappeared with his servant. 13 prominent Jews were falsely accused of the ritual murder of the Franciscan monk and his servant. The u0093Damascus Affairu0094 inspired international protests. In 2004 Ronald Florence authored u0093Blood Libel: The Damascus Affair of 1840.u0094
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damascus_affair)

1840        Feb 10, Britainu0092s Queen Victoria married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
    (HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)

1840        Feb 11, Gaetano Donizetti's Opera "La Fille du Regiment," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1840        Mar 23, Draper took 1st successful photo of the Moon (daguerreotype).
    (SS, 3/23/02)   

1840        Mar 30, "Beau" Brummell (b.1778), English dandy and former favorite of the prince regent, died of syphilis in a French lunatic asylum for paupers. In 2005 Ian Kelly authored the biography u0093Beau Brummel: The Ultimate Dandy.u0094
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beau_Brummell)(WSJ, 5/7/06, p.P9)

1840        Mar 31, 1840, American President Martin Van Buren issued an executive order extending the "10-hour system" to all laborers and mechanics employed on federal public works. The movement for the 10-hour workday grew after Eastern city building trades workers and the municipal government of Philadelphia instituted it in the early 1830s. The average daily hours of factory workers in 1840 was estimated at 11.4. By 1860 the 10-hour day was standard among most skilled workers and laborers.
    (HNQ, 3/15/99)

1840        Apr 2, The Association of American Geologists held its first meeting in Philadelphia.
    (www.lib.uwaterloo.ca/society/history/1840aagn.html)
1840        Apr 2, Emile Zola (d.1902), French novelist, reporter (Nana) , was born. He tried to wake the consciousness of the fin de siecle.
    (HN, 4/2/98)(SFC, 12/29/00, p.C6)(V.D.-H.K.p.279)

1840        Apr 7, John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood left Guatemala City and traveled north into Mexico where they explored Palenque.
    (ON, 12/99, p.8)

1840        Apr 25, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (1812 Overture), was born. [see May 7]
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1840        Apr 27, Edward Whymper, first to climb the Matterhorn on the border of Switzerland and Italy, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.885)(HN, 4/27/98)

1840        May 1, The 1st adhesive postage stamps, the" Penny Blacks" from England, were issued.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1840        May 5, Matthaus Fischer (76), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1840        May 6, Frederick William Stowe, was born He was the son of the famous Harriet Beecher Stowe and fighter in the Civil War for the Union.
    (HN, 5/6/99)

1840        May 7, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (d. Nov 6,1893) was born in Kamsko-Votinsk, the Ural region of Russia (d.1893). His family moved to St. Petersburg in 1850 and there he studied until he graduated from the school of Jurisprudence where he entered the Ministry of Justice as a clerk, first-class in 1859. He didn't start to study music seriously until he was 21 under Nicolai Zaremba, and enrolled into the St. Petersburg Conservatory when it opened in 1862. His work included the 1812 Overture. In 1985 Roland John Wiley wrote "Tchaikovskyu0092s Ballets." [see Apr 25]
    (LGC-HCS, p.354-355)(AP, 5/5/97)(WSJ, 11/18/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/7/99)
1840        May 7, A tornado struck Natchez, Miss., killing 317 people and causing over a million dollars in damage.
    (SFC, 5/7/09, p.D8)

1840        May 8, Alexander Wolcott patented a photographic process.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1840        May 10, Mormon leader Joseph Smith moved his band of followers to Illinois to escape the hostilities they experienced in Missouri.
    (HN, 5/10/99)

1840        May 13, Alphonse Daudet, writer, was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1840        May 14, English Lt. Richmond Shakespear left Herat (later Afghanistan) on a 700-mile mission to Khiva (later Uzbekistan) to persuade the ruling Khan to free all his Russian slaves. The Khan continued to hold a large number of Persian slaves.
    (ON, 4/00, p.7)

1840        May 21, The Treaty of Waitangi was signed by Maori chiefs of New Zealand and representatives of Queen Victoria. It granted sovereignty over all New Zealand to Queen Victoria, but only guaranteed the Maoris the land they wished to retain. The treaty remained a source of friction to the present day.
    (NG, Aug, 1974, p.197)(AP, 5/21/97)(SSFC, 11/14/04, p.F11)

1840        May 27, Nicolo Paganini (57), Italian legendary violinist, died in Nice. The local bishop refused to bury him in consecrated ground due to his scandal-ridden past. His remains were transferred to Parma in 1876. His 1742 violin, "the Canon," was put to rest in a museum in Genoa and later played annually by the winner of the Int'l. Paganini Competition. In 1980 John Sugden authored the biography "Nicolo Paganini: Supreme Violinist or Devilu0092s Fiddler"
    (SFC, 8/15/96, p.D5)(SFC, 11/12/98, p.E1)(SFC, 4/26/99, p.E2)(ON, 3/02, p.7)

1840        May 29, Hans Makart, Austrian painter (Plague in Florenz), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1840        Jun 2, Thomas Hardy, English novelist and poet, was born in Higher Bockhampton and almost given up for dead until an observant midwife noticed he was breathing. He was driven by a sense of somber doom by the failure of his readers to wake up to the dreary fraud of their beliefs, and he devoted the last half of his long life to writing poems that expressed his haunted vision. When Hardy died (1928) his heart was removed and buried in the churchyard of St. Michaelu0092s in Stinsford in the grave of his first wife, Emma, and his second wife, Florence. His ashes were buried in the Poetu0092s Corner of Westminster Abbey in London. His work included "Tess of D'Ubervilles" and "Jude the Obscure."
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p. T-4)(V.D.-H.K.p.279)(HN, 6/2/99)

1840        Jun 20, Samuel F.B. Morse, a popular artist, patented his telegraph.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1840        Jun 29, Lucien Bonaparte (65), prince of Canino, Musignano, died.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1840        Jul 4, The Cunard Line took just over 14 days to make its first Atlantic crossing with the paddle steamer "Britannia", which embarked from Liverpool.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1840        Jul 25, Flora Adams Darling, founded Daughters of American Revolution, was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1840        Aug 13, Giovanni Verga, Italian writer (Eros), was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1840        Aug 14, Baron Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing (d.1902), German psychiatrist, was born. He was the author of the seminal work u0093Psychopathia Sexualisu0094 (1886).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_von_Krafft-Ebing)

1840        Aug 15, English Lt. Richmond Shakespeare began a 500-mile trek with 416 freed Russian slaves from Khiva (Uzbekistan) to the Russian Fort Alexandrovsk on the Caspian Sea.
    (ON, 4/00, p.8)

1840        Aug 17, Wilfrid Scawen, writer (Irish Land League), was born in Blunt, England.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1840        Sep 3, Jacob Fabricius, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1840        Sep 12, Composer Robert Schumann married Clara Wieck.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1840        Sep 27, Alfred T. Mahan, navy admiral who wrote "The Influence of Seapower on History" and other books that encouraged world leaders to build larger navies, was born. Although a brilliant naval historian and noted theorist on the importance of sea power to national defense, Alfred Thayer Mahan hated the sea and dreaded his duties as a shipu0092s captain.
    (HN, 9/27/98)
1840        Sep 27, Thomas Nast, caricaturist, was born. He created the Democratic donkey and the Republican elephant.
    (HN, 9/27/00)

1840        Oct 8, King William I of Holland abdicated.
    (HN, 10/8/98)

1840        Nov 3, English Lt. Richmond Shakespeare reached St. Petersburg, Russia, where Czar Nicholas thanked him for freeing Russian slaves from the Khan of Kiva.
    (ON, 4/00, p.8)

1840        Nov 5, Afghanistan surrendered to the British.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1840        Nov 12, Auguste Rodin, French sculptor who created "The Kiss," was born.
    (HN, 11/12/98)

1840        Nov 14, Claude Monet (d.1926), French Impressionist painter, best known for his late work done at Giverney, northwest of Paris after 1890. He came up with the idea of series pictures, which feature a single subject shown again and again under varying conditions of light and weather. He studied in Paris with Charles Gleyre, a Swiss academic painter, and there met Frederic Bazille, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley. Together they developed open-air painting which came to be known as Impressionism.
    (WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)(HN, 11/14/98)

1840        Dec 2, William Henry Harrison was elected president of US. Whig candidate William Henry Harrison, Old Buckeye, and his running mate John Tyler ran and won in a landslide against Democrat Pres. Martin Van Buren. Depression and financial panic had marked Van Burenu0092s term. Fans of the Harrison Party rolled huge balls of paper, rope and tin through Midwestern towns and into the Pennsylvania convention. "Hard cider" Whigs disrupted the Democratic gathering in Baltimore.
    (HFA, u009196, p.46)(Hem, 8/96, p.84)(WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A26)(MC, 12/2/01)
1840        Dec 2, Gaetano Donizetti's opera "La Favorita," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1840        Dec 7, Hermann Goetz, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1840        Francis William Edmonds painted "The City and the Country Beaux."
    (WSJ, 2/2/00, p.W2)

1840        John Martin (1789-1854), British artist, painted "Assuaging of the Waters."
    (SFEM, 5/11/97, p.6)

1840        J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851) painted "Rockets and Blue Lights (Close at Hand) to Warn Steamboats of Shoal Water."
    (WSJ, 8/21/03, p.D8)

1840        Richard Dana published his novel "Two Years Before the Mast." It was based on his voyage from Boston to California around Cape Horn.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1840        William Whewell wrote his treatise "The Philosophy of Inductive Sciences."
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, BR p.4)

1840        Niels Gade, Dutch composer, wrote the overture "Echoes of Ossian."
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.B1)

c1840        The Boston rocker appeared about this time in New England. They had a rolled seat front, arms and rockers that extended in the back. The backs had 7-9 spindles often decorated with stencil designs.
    (SFC, 12/23/96, z-1 p.5)

1840        A US no-bail-out policy forced some state into default. Several US states had loaded up on unsustainable debt following an extended period of easy credit. These states consequently found payments on their existing bonds increasingly unaffordable. Between 1841 and 1843 Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Pennsylvania and one territory u0096 a proto-state called Florida u0096 defaulted.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.57)(http://tinyurl.com/6pgf4wq)

1840        John Janey was chairman of the Whig Party Convention in Virginia that nominated W.H. Harrison for president. Janey and John Tyler were the nominees for the vice presidency. The convention vote was a tie and Janey voted for John Tyler, who became president when William Henry Harrison died in 1841.
    (SFC, 12/17/96, p.E8)
1840        In his re-election campaign Van Buren was attacked for "wallowing lasciviously in raspberries."
    (WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)

1840        William Wilson Corcoran and George Washington Riggs formed Corcoran Riggs, the predecessor to Riggs National Bank. Riggs supplied the gold for the 1868 purchase of Alaska.
    (WSJ, 4/7/04, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/16/04, p.A4)

1840        The 6th US Census was the first to include statistics on agriculture.
    (www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/Historical_Publications/index.asp)
1840        The US census categorized the population as "Free White persons, free Colored persons, and slaves."
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A21)

1840        The US state of Georgia by this time had over 280,000 slaves with many working as field hands. By the start of  Civil War slaves made up over 40% of the stateu0092s population.
    (SFC, 1/4/11, p.E2)

1840        In South Carolina land was taken from the Catawba Indians. In 1993 they received a $50 million settlement.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.A10)

c1840        Railroads in the US began bringing milk to inland towns.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)

1840        More than 2,000 ships were engaged full-time carrying timber from North America to the British Isles. Human cargo fills the ships on their return journey.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.51)

c1840        The word "tuberculosis" appeared in print for the first time.
    (WP, 1951, p.5)

1840        Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), Swiss naturalist, author and educator, advanced his theory that Earth had experienced an ice age.
    (DD-EVTT, p.129)(AHD,1971, p.24)(SFC, 1/22/00, p.B3)

1840        Wilhelm Beer of Germany drew the first full map of Mars. It included dark "seas" and light "continents."
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1840        An earthquake hit the island of Nevis and destroyed the birthplace of Alexander Hamilton.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.30)

1840        Fanny Burney (b.1752), English writer, died. Her books included "Evelina." In 1911 she underwent a mastectomy without anesthesia. In 2001 Claire Harman authored the biography: "Fanny Burney."
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)

1840        In Paris, France, there were some 200 brothels.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.47)

1840        Caspar David Friedrich (b.1774), German Romantic painter, died.
    (WSJ, 9/21/01, p.W2)(WSJ, 10/17/01, p.A24)

1840        Polish explorer Paul Strzelecki named Australiau0092s highest peak in honor of the Polish national hero Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Early surveyors messed up the transcription and the peak was named Mt. Kosciusko. Decades later it was discovered that the mountain was a few feet lower than a neighboring peak. The New South Wales Lands Dept. swapped their names to resolve the issue. In 1996 there was a move to restore the missing z to the name.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)(SSFC, 12/25/11, p.N6)

1840        In London the World Anti-Slavery Convention was held. Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were denied seats because of their sex.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.30)
1840        Britain issued the world's first postage stamp, "penny black," with a picture of Queen Victoria. Up to this time postage was collected from the recipient.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1840        William Hislop established himself as a clockmaker in Biggar, England.
    (SFC, 3/16/05, p.G4)

1840        Zulu king Dingaan was defeated by his rival Umpanda, who accepted the rule of the Boers.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.885)

1840        Zanzibar became the capital of Oman and the sultan ruled from Stone Town.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)

1840s        Oct 31-Nov 2, The Celts of Ireland, Great Britain and northern France celebrated Oct. 31 to Nov 2 as their New Year from around 1000-500BC. The pagan harvest event incorporated masks to ward off evil ones, as dead relatives were believed to visit families on the first evening. The Catholic holiday of All Saints' Day, set for Nov. 1, was instituted around 700 AD to supplant the Druid holiday. Halloween was transplanted to the US in  the 1840s.
    (WSJ, 10/28/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 10/29/99, p.W17)

1840s        Stereographs were first developed as parlor entertainment, but did not enjoy widespread appeal until the 1860s. A stereograph is a pair of photographic images taken with lenses at slightly different angles. When viewed separately through a device called a stereoscopeu0097one image for each eyeu0097stereographs, like the one shown above, provide the illusion of normal depth perception and three-dimensional viewing. By the late 19th century, stereoscopes were common in middle-class drawing rooms, with educational, travel-oriented scenes being the most popular.
    (HNPD, 8/10/98)

1840s        Painters from the Hudson River School such as Frederic Church and Thomas Cole arrived on the Maine coastline at what is now Acadia Natu0092l. Park.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.T6)

1840s        Julia Ward Howe wrote her u0093Laurence Manuscript.u0094 In 2004 it was edited by Gary Williams and published for the 1st time as u0093The Hermaphrodite.u0094
    (SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M4)

1840s         A Spaniard shipped the first grapefruit trees to Florida.
    (SFC, 5/27/00, p.B3)

1840s        A New York merchant brought the first red bananas to the US from Cuba.
    (SFC, 5/27/00, p.B3)

1840s        Leprosy began to appear in Hawaii.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, T3)

1840s        A native rebellion called the Caste War broke out in southern Mexico against the ruling hacienda class. The 22,000 square-foot palacio of Hacienda Tabi in the Yucatan was sacked.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.45)

1840s        In Portugal the National Theater was built in Lisbon.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T7)

1840-1860    The Fourierist system was a phenomena of the mid 19th century which called for the establishment of small communities-called phalanxes-of about 1,500 persons devoted to an agrarian-handicraft economy based on voluntarism. While private property and inheritance were not abolished, goods produced were the property of the phalanx.  Inspired by French reformer Charles Fourier and promoted in the U.S. by Albert Brisbane, the Fourierist system was the most notable example of the Association movement. Some 40 phalanxes were established in America, beginning in the 1840s. All had disbanded by 1860.
    (HNQ, 9/9/99)
1840-1860    Slavery existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia in 13thu009614th century, until it was abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s. Most of the slaves were of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Romania)

1840-1870    In 2005 Liza Picard authored u0093Victorian London: The Life of a City 1840-1870.u0094
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.79)

1840-1876    Myles Keogh was born in County Carlow, Ireland. He was killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn and fought in papal armies before joining the U.S. Army in 1862. He left Ireland for Italy in 1860 at the age of 20 to fight in the defense of Pope Pius IX as part of the Saint Patrick Battalion. He distinguished himself at the siege of Ancona, earning an appointment in the Papal Army. On St. Patricku0092s Day, 1862, Keogh booked passage to the U.S. after being recruited into the Union Army. "Myles Keogh: The Life and Legend of an u0091Irish Dragoonu0092 in the Seventh Cavalry," edited by Langellier, Cox and Pohanka, published by Upton & Sons, El Segundo, CA,1991.
    (HNQ, 8/5/99)

1840-1889    Father Demien, a Belgian priest, worked with lepers on Molokai, Hawaii.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, Par p.2)

1840-1897    Edward Drinker Cope, born in Philadelphia, competed with Dr. Marsh in search of fossils. He is best know for his work on Permian reptiles and Cenozoic mammals. He also discovered 56 new species of dinosaur.
    (T.E.-J.B. p.25)

1840-1900     The dense forests that covered most of New Zealandu0092s Banks Peninsula, east of Christchurch on the countryu0092s east coast, were cut for timber and burned to make way for sheep grazing.
    (PacDis, Spring u009194, p.3)

1840-1902    German-born illustrator Thomas Nast, widely recognized as the father of political cartooning, is also responsible for our modern-day concept of Santa Claus. Nast, who came to the United States from Germany at age 6, received his art education at New York's National Academy of Design. At 15, he began working for Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper for $4 a week. During his long career, Nast illustrated major news stories for many periodicals, but he is perhaps best remembered for his imaginative Christmas drawings that first appeared in Harper's Weekly in 1862 and continued for 30 years. Inspired by Clement Moore's poem "Twas the Night Before Christmas," Nast pictured Santa Claus as a jolly, white-bearded elf who lived at the North Pole and brought gifts only to good children. His drawings also portrayed many modern symbols we associate with Christmas--holly, toys under the Christmas tree and the reindeer-drawn sleigh on a snowy roof.
    (WUD, 1994, p.951)(HNPD, 12/25/98)

1840-1910    William Graham Sumner, American sociologist and economist: "All history is only one long story to this effect: men have struggled for power over their fellow men in order that they might win the joys of earth at the expense of others, and might shift the burdens of life from their own shoulders upon those of others."
    (AP, 8/31/98)

1840-1911    Henry Broadhurst, English politician: "Praise undeserved is satire in disguise."
    (AP, 1/22/00)

1840-1916    Odilon Redon, French painter and etcher.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1203)

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