Timeline 1841-1849

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1841        Jan 14, Berthe Morisot (d.1895) French impressionist painter, was born in Bourges.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.10)

1841        Jan 18, Alexis-Emmanuel Chabrier, French composer (Louise), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1841        Jan 20, The Convention of Chuenpi ceded the island of Hong Kong to Great Britain from China as part of the concessions from the Opium War. It became a capitalist bastion as opposed to the rest of China. The British won the first Opium War and forced China to open markets to foreign trade. Britain soon established a formal police force commanded mostly by British officers. Hong Kong returned to Chinese control in July 1997.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention_of_Chuenpee)(WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 11/10/96, Par p.14)(SFC, 3/11/97, p.A12)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)(AP,  1/20/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A12)

1841        Jan 26, Britain formally occupied Hong Kong, which the Chinese had ceded to the British.
    (AP, 1/26/98)

1841        Jan 28, Henry Morton Stanley was born and christened John Rowland to an unwed and impoverished mother in Wales. A leading explorer and colonizer of Africa, Stanley is best known for locating the missing British missionary and explorer David Livingstone in Central Africa in 1871. He was on assignment for the New York Herald and immortalized the moment he found Livingstone on November 11, 1871, with the words: "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Stanley, who was adopted as a youth by Louisiana cotton merchant Henry Hope Stanley, served in both the Union and Confederate armies during the Civil War and became an American citizen in the 1860s. Stanley resumed his British citizenship in 1892, served in Parliament from 1895-1900, was knighted in 1899 and died in London on May 10, 1904.
    (HNQ, 6/4/98)

1841        Feb 10, Upper Canada and Lower Canada were proclaimed united under an Act of Union passed by the British Parliament.
    (AP, 2/10/07)

1841        Feb 18, The 1st continuous filibuster in US Senate began and lasting until March 11.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1841        Feb 24, John Phillip Holland, inventor of the modern submarine, was born. [see Feb 29]
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1841        Feb 25, Pierre Auguste Renoir (d.1919), French painter, was born. He was an Impressionist painter, father of Jean Renoir, and founder of the French Impressionist movement. He was the son of a Paris tailor and began his career as a porcelain painter in the Sevres china factory. His paintings included "Luncheon of the Boating Party," "Self-portraits" (1875 & 1899) and "Sleeping Girl With a Cat" (1880). [see 1894, J. Renoir]
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A9)(DPCP 1984)(HN, 2/25/99)

1841        Feb 27, [Eleanor] Agnes Lee, daughter of US general Robert E. Lee, was born.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1841        Feb 29, John Philip Holland (b.1840), inventor of the modern submarine, was born in Liscannor, County Clare, into a family that had survived the Great Potato Famine. Following his immigration to America in 1873, Holland settled in Paterson, New Jersey where he taught school and, with financial backing from the Irish Fenian Society, began developing his first submarine. In 1881, Holland launched the Fenian Ram, a 31-foot-long submersible powered by a 15-horsepower internal combustion engine. With Holland at the controls, the Ram dived 64 feet beneath New York Harbor that summer, only to be seized by the Fenians when they lost interest in the project. In 1895, the J.P. Holland Torpedo Boat Company, won a contract from the U.S. Navy to build a submarine. After one discouraging failure, the second submarine, the Holland VI, passed her sea trials and was purchased by the U.S. Navy on April 11, 1900 for $150,000. [see Feb 24]
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1841         Mar 1, Blanche K. Bruce, senator of Mississippi 1875-1881, was born in Farmville, Va. 
    (HN, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)
1841        Mar 1, John Quincy Adams (74), former US president, concluded his defense of "the Mendi people," a group of Africans who had rebelled and killed the crew of the slave ship Amistad, while enroute from Cuba to Haiti. They faced mutiny charges upon landing on Long Island, but Adams won their acquittal before the Supreme Court. In thanks they bestowed to him an 1838 English Bible. In 1996 the Bible was stolen from the Adams National Historic Site in Quincy, Mass.
    (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/adamsarg.html)(WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A7)

1841        Mar 4, Dion Boucicault's "London Assurance" premiered in London.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1841        Mar 4, Longest presidential inauguration speech (8,443 words) to date was made by William Henry Harrison.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1841        Mar 8, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (d.1935), 59th Supreme Court Justice (1902-1932), the "Great Dissenter," was born in Boston. "To have doubted one's own first principles, is the mark of a civilized man."
    (AP, 3/8/98)(HN, 3/8/98)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)(AP, 3/6/00)

1841        Mar 9, The rebel slaves who seized a Spanish slave ship, the Amistad, two years earlier were freed by the US Supreme Court despite Spanish demands for extradition.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A7)(HN, 3/9/99)

1841        Mar 20, Edgar Allen Poe's The Murders in the Rue Morgue, considered the first detective story, was published. [see April 14, 20, 1841]
    (HN, 3/20/01)

1841        Mar 22, Cornstarch was patented by Orlando Jones.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1841        Mar 27, The first U.S. steam fire engine was tested in New York City.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1841        Mar 31, 1st performance of Robert Schumann's 1st Symphony in B.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1841        Apr 3, From Nassau, Bahamas, a British magistrate wrote that 193 shipwrecked African slaves from the ship Trouvadore were found naked on the shores of the East Caicos Island. The slaves were then quarantined in a jail and given food and clothing. The accident set free the slaves who became ancestors of many later residents of the islands. In 2004 the wreck was found and in 2008 marine archaeologists identified it as the remains of the slave ship.
    (AP, 8/21/04)(AP, 11/26/08)

1841        Apr 4, President William Henry Harrison (68), 9th President of the US, succumbed to pneumonia one month after his inaugural, becoming the first U.S. chief executive to die in office. VP. Tyler assumed office.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.59,96b)(AP, 4/4/97)

1841        Apr 6, Cornerstone was laid for 2nd Mormon temple at Nauvoo, Missouri.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1841        Apr 10, The NY Tribune began publishing under editor Horace Greeley (1811-1872). The abolitionist newspaper editor founded The New York Tribune with support from powerful political friends. Under Greeley's direction, The Tribune took a strong stand against slavery, the South and slave owners in the years leading up to the Civil War. The Tribune and Greeley also crusaded against liquor, gambling, prostitution and capital punishment. One of the founders of the Republican Party, Greeley was also an eccentric who dabbled in many of the fads of his day.
    (HNPD, 2/3/99)(WSJ, 10/26/00, p.W12)(AP, 7/21/98)(MC, 4/10/02)

1841        Apr 14, Edgar Allen Poe's "Murders in the Rue Morgue," published. [see Mar 20, Apr 20]
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1841        Apr 20, Edgar Allen Poe’s first detective story, "Murders in Rue Morgue," was published. Poe published in this year 2 secret messages, as the work of W.B. Tyler, that were not deciphered until 1992 and 2000. [see Mar 20, Apr 14 1841]
    (HN, 4/20/98)(SFC, 12/1/00, p.A3)(MC, 4/20/02)

1841        May 1, The 1st emigrant wagon train left Independence, Missouri, for California.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1841        Jun 14, The first Canadian parliament opened in Kingston.
    (AP, 6/14/97)

1841        Jun 28, The ballet "Giselle," also called Les Wilis, was premiered in Paris. It was the brain-child of Theophile Gautier, a leading voice of the Romantic Age. It told of a dance-loving peasant girl who dies of a broken heart when Albrecht, a philandering nobleman, betrays her.
    (SFEM, 3/28/99, p.12)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A20)

1841        Jul 5, Thomas Cook (1808-1892) opened the 1st travel agency as he arranged for the rail company to charge one shilling per person for rail tickets and food for a group of 540 temperance campaigners from Leicester Campbell Street station to a rally in Loughborough.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Cook)

1841        Jul 17, The British humor magazine Punch was first published.
    (AP, 7/17/97)

1841        Jul 27, Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (b.1814), poet, novelist, died.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1841        Aug 21, John Hampson of New Orleans patented the Venetian blind.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1842        Aug 29, Britain & China signed the Treaty of Nanking ending the Opium war. This opened the port of Shanghai to foreigners. The 1997 Chinese film "The Opium War" was directed by Xie Jin. It was about the events leading up to the Treaty of Nanking. The treaty of Nanking ceded Hong Kong Island to Britain in perpetuity.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Nanjing)(SFC, 5/20/98, p.E3)

1841        Aug 30, Robert Peel (1788-1850) became PM of Britain for a 2nd time. This was the 1st occasion in which Britain’s government was brought down by the votes of the electorate.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Peel)

1841        Fall, The 1st classes commenced at the Univ. of Michigan at Mason Hall, its only building. 30 students attended.
    (LSA, Spring/04, p.53)

1841        Sep 8, Antonin Dvorak (d.1904), Czech composer and violinist, was born in Nelahozeves. His work included the "New World Symphony."
    (WUD, 1994 p.444)(HN, 9/8/00)(MC, 9/8/01)

1841        Sep 9, The Great Lakes steamer "Erie" sank off Silver Creek, NY, and 300 people died.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1841        Sep 19, The first railway to span a frontier was completed between Stousbourg and Basle, in Europe.
    (HN, 9/19/98)

1841        Sep 28, Georges Clemenceau, premier of France during World War I, was born. He served as premier from 1906-09 and 1917-1920.
    (HN, 9/28/98)(MC, 9/28/01)

1841        Sep 30, Samuel Slocum patented the stapler.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1841          Nov 2, Following the British occupation of Kabul during the 1st Afghan War (1839-1842), Afghans revolted and murdered British envoy, Lt. Col. Sir Alexander Burnes (1805-1841) and some 23 others. By Jan 1842 the British army decided to withdraw with its 4,500 Anglo-Indian troops and 10,000 camp followers. The column was wiped out by Ghilzai tribesmen with their long-barreled rifles called jezails.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(HN, 11/2/98)(www.indhistory.com/afghan-war-1.html)

1841        Nov 4, The 1st wagon train arrived in California.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1841        Nov 9, Edward VII, King of England, was born. He succeeded his mother Victoria and served from 1901-1910.
    (HN, 11/9/00)

1841        Nov 16, Life preservers made of cork were patented by Napoleon Guerin in NYC.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1841        Nov 18, Georg Chistoph Grosheim (77), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1841        Nov, Nancy Kelsey was the first American woman to walk into California.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.16)
1841          Nov, The first overland party of settlers arrived at the Rancho Los Meganos in present day Brentwood, Contra Costa, California.  This makes the Rancho of Dr. John Marsh the first terminus of the California Trail. They were inspired to make this trip by letter from Dr. John Marsh the first American to settle in the San Joaquin Valley. His Stone House is now part of the newest State Park in the California system.
    (www.johnmarshhouse.com/marshnewsbio.htm)
1841        Nov, Freed African survivors of the slave ship Amistad returned to Sierra Leone, Africa. Abolitionists had raised money to help the freed slaves of the Amistad return home. When Cinque, the leader of the revolt, reached home, he found that his family had been captured and sold into slavery.
    (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/AMI_CHR.HTM)(SFEC,12/797, DB p.44)

1841        Dec 6, Robert Schumann's 4th Symphony in D, premiered.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1841        Dec 31, Alabama became the 1st state to license dental surgeons.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1841        Theodore Chasseriau (1819-1856), Dominican-born artist, created his portrait "Comtesse de LaTour-Mauberg."
    (WSJ, 11/26/02, p.D8)

1841        J.M.W. Turner painted his watercolor “The Blue Rigi: Lake of Lucerne, Sunrise" following a visit to Switzerland. In 1942 it sold for 1,500 guineas (about $94,000 in 2006 money). In 2006 it sold at auction for $11 million.
    (SFC, 6/6/06, p.D4)

1841        Catharine Beecher wrote her "Treatise on Domestic Economy."
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.30)

1841        John Lloyd Stephens published "Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan" with illustrations by Frederick Catherwood. He tells of his plans to purchase the ruins of the great Maya cities of Quirigua and Palenque and transporting them to New York.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.217, illustrations)(ON, 12/99, p.8)

1841        Barend Cornelis Koekkoek, Dutch artist, authored "Thoughts and Recollections of a Landscape Artist."
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W16)

1841        Charles Mackay published his work "Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds." The book described John Law’s early 18th century Mississippi Project, the South Sea Bubble, and the Tulip mania of the 17th century. It was republished in 1996 in paperback.
    (WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-12)

1841        J.L. Stephens wrote in his book: "There is but one side to politics in Guatemala, both sides have a beautiful way of producing unanimity of opinion, by driving out of the country all who do not agree with them."
    (NG, 6/1988, p.798)

1841        The comedy "London Assurance" was written by 19-year-old Dion Boucicoult of Ireland.
    (WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A16)

1841        At Yale Univ. the Scroll and Key society was founded.
    (USAT, 1/15/97, p.6D)

1841        The state of Arkansas, facing financial difficulties, stopped paying interest on a $500,000 investment that was dedicated to finance the Smithsonian Institute. Under pressure from congressman J.Q. Adams, Congress repealed the bill that authorized the Smithson bequest in state bonds and ordered the US Treasury to take over interest payments. The principal was lost, but the interest was enough to endow the institute. From 1841-1842 8 states and the territory of Florida defaulted. This led states to set up strong constitutional barriers to debt accumulation.
    (ON, 2/06, p.6)(Econ, 6/19/10, p.31)

1841        Joseph Smith Jr. and some of the Latter Day Saints settled as tenants of Mark Aldrich (1802-1873), a former Illinois state senator, in what would be called Warren, Illinois. Smith and Aldrich later had a falling out and in 1844 Aldrich was accused of ordering his men to kill Smith. Aldrich was acquitted and moved to California and then to Arizona where he became the first mayor of Tucson.
    (SFC, 6/14/14, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Aldrich)

1841        In Indiana Mother Theodore Guerin (1798-1856), a French nun, established St. Mary-of-the-Woods College for women. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI named her a saint.
    (SFC, 10/16/06, p.A2)

1841        In Philadelphia Volney B. Palmer began the first advertising agency. He sold newspaper space to out-of-town advertisers.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E3)

1841        Thomas Fitzpatrick and Joe Meek led a band of settlers out of Independence, Missouri, heading west to the Oregon Territory. It was the beginning of a flood of emigration west.
    (HT, 3/97, p.37)

1841        John Sutter built a fort on the Sacramento River.
    (HNQ, 11/18/00)
1841        Capt. William A. Richardson moved to Sausalito from SF after the Mexican government gave him a 19,571-acre land grant from the Marin headlands to Stinson Beach. There he established Rancho del Sausalito.
    (SFC, 3/27/99, p.A23)
1841        William A. Leidesdorff, originally from the Virgin Islands, arrived in San Francisco. He became a prominent businessman, built the city’s first hotel, became a member of the first SF City Council and served as the city’s first treasurer.
    (SFC, 2/16/09, p.B2)
1841        The Russian fur traders sold Fort Ross, Bodega and all their ranches and livestock in California to John Sutter. They had made a settlement at Fort Ross (an archaic form of Russia) in order to develop a source of provisions for themselves and their Sitka, Alaska settlement.
    (WCG, p.58)(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T15)
1841        The Bartleson-Bidwell Party made the trek to California. John Bidwell was on the 1st wagon train over the Sierra Nevada and later founded Chico. Also in the group was Paul Geddes, who had robbed a bank in Philadelphia, and renamed himself Talbot Green. His ID was exposed in 1851 as he was about to run formayor of SF.
    (SFC, 12/7/02, p.E4)(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.B3)(SFC, 6/14/14, p.C2)
1841        Princess Helena, wife of the governor-general of Siberia and the Russian colonies on the Pacific Coast, christened the highest mountain, an extinct volcano, on Dr. Bale’s Rancho "Mount Saint Helena," reportedly after her patron saint, mother of Constantine the Great.
    (Article on Calistoga by Sybbil McCabe, 7/95)
1841        Dr. Edward Turner Bale was granted the lands between Rutherford and Calistoga, Ca. which he named Rancho Carne Humana. He later built the Bale Grist Mill. [see 1846]
    (WCG, 7/95, p.21)
1841        The valley stretching north from Sonoma, Ca. was referred to as "Valle de la Luna."
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-3)

1841        William Whitfield, captain of the whaling ship John Howland, from Fairhaven, Mass., picked up 5 castaways from Japan’s Torishima Island, including a boy named Manjiro, who returned with Whitfield to Fairhaven. Manjiro later returned to Japan, and translated Nathaniel Bowditch’s “The New American Navigator," known to mariners as the “seaman’s bible." In 1854 Manjiro acted as interpreter with Commodore Perry and in 1860 joined the 1st Japanese embassy to America.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.66)

1841        In a letter to his cousin, William Darwin Fox, Charles Darwin wrote: "if your half-bred African Cat should die... I should be very much obliged for its carcase."
    (NH, 5/96, p.7)

1841        The compound dimethylmercury was first synthesized. It can pass through latex gloves and is deadly.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A9)

1841        Lord Elgin died in Paris at age 75. In 1966 Judith Grant authored "A Pillage of Art." In 1985 Epaminondas Vranopoulos authored "The Parthenon and the Elgin Marbles." In 1998 William St. Claire authored "Lord Elgin and the Marbles."
    (ON, 11/99, p.4)

1841        In Austria the Salzburg Cathedral’s Music Society founded the Mozarteum to preserve the memory of Mozart and to promote the instruction and performance of music.
    (StuAus, April ‘95, p.91)
1841        The Johann Maresch pottery company began operating in Aussig, Bohemia (later Usti nad Labem, Czech Rep.). At this time Bohemia was under Austrian rule and the firm used the mark “JM Austria."
    (SFC, 9/12/07, p.G7)

1841        In Metlach, Germany, the firm of Villeroy & Boch Pottery was founded. They made many types of wares, including the famous Mettlach steins and are still in business.
    (SFC, 5/22/96, Z1, p7)

1841        Italian revolutionary Garibaldi moved to Montevideo, Uruguay, with Anita Ribeiro.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1841        Aker ASA was founded. By 2007 the industrial holding company was Norway’s largest private employer with some 35,000 employees.
    (WSJ, 12/10/07, p.B1)

1841        Russia’s Tsar Nicholas I ordered the creation of private savings banks. Sberbank had its roots here and in the 20th century grew to resemble a Soviet public utility. As of 2012 57.6$ of its shares were held by Russia’s central bank.
    (Econ, 6/23/12, p.76)
1841        Alexander II (1818-1881) married Maria of Hessen-Darmstadt (Maria Alexandrovna). The marriage produced seven children. Alexander II succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father in 1855.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSalexander2.htm)

1841        Britisher Sir James Brooke was made the Raja of Sarawak (Borneo). His heirs continued to rule until 1946.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.133)(Econ, 2/15/14, p.35)

1841-1845    John Tyler, elected as Vice-President under Harrison, became the 10th President of the US upon Harrison’s unexpected death.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)

1841-1846    The Mormon Temple at Nauvoo, Ill., was built.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.T3)
1841-1846    Capt. Robert E. Lee, Army engineer, worked on strengthening the defenses of New York Harbor and Fort Hamilton.
    (AH, 2/06, p.20)

1841-1869    Approximately 400,000 settlers crossed the American West on the Oregon Trail during this period. The influx of settlers began after legendary mountain men Thomas Fitzpatrick and Joe Meek guided a small band of settlers out of Independence, Missouri, in 1841, heading west toward the Oregon Territory, 2,000 miles distant. The route they used, pieced together from Indian and trapper paths, would become known as the Oregon Trail. By the time the transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, some 400,000 settlers had traveled west on the Oregon Trail.
    (HNQ, 4/18/99)

1841-1870    Frederic Bazille, painter. He painted The Family Reunion.
    (AAP, 1964)

1841-1912    Gerard H. Hansen, Norwegian physician. He discovered the leprosy-causing Mycobacterium leprae (aka Hansen’s disease).
    (WUD, 1994, p.644)

1841-1921    Of the 11 U.S. presidents serving between 1841 and 1921, seven of them were born in Ohio. The presidents and their places of birth were: Ulysses S. Grant, Point Pleasant; Rutherford B. Hayes, Delaware; James A. Garfield, Orange; Benjamin Harrison, North Bend; William McKinley, Niles; William H. Taft, Cincinnati; Warren G. Harding, Morrow County. These were the only Ohio-born presidents. Three of them, Garfield, McKinley and Harding died in office. Four of the seven presidents hailing from Ohio died while in office. They were William Henry Harrison, the 9th president, who died one month after his inauguration in 1841; the 20th president, James Garfield, who was assassinated in 1881; William McKinley, the 25th president, who was assassinated in 1901; and Warren G.  Harding, who died suddenly in 1923.
    (HNQ, 5/9/98)(HNQ, 6/7/99)

1842        cJan 1, Maj. Gen. William G.K. Elphinstone ordered a 90-mile retreat from Kabul through the snowy passes to Jalalabad.
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)

1842        cJan 2-12, Akbar Khan, Afghan hero, was victorious against the British. Out of 4,500 (16,500) soldiers and 12,000 dependents only one survivor, of a mixed British-Indian garrison, reached the fort in Jalalabad, on a stumbling pony. The British retreated from Kabul to Jalalabad. The incident is the backdrop for George MacDonald Fraser’s novel "Flashman." [see Jan 13]
    (WSJ, 4/10/95, A-16)(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(WSJ, 9/20/01, p.A12)

1842        Jan 7, Gioacchino Rossini's "Stabat Mater" premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1842        Jan 13, Dr. William Brydon, badly wounded, reached Jalalabad as the only survivor of a 16,000 person retreat from Kabul. In the 1st British-Afghan War British troops retreating from Kabul were ambushed and nearly all slaughtered at the Khyber Pass, even though the Afghans had promised them safe passage during their withdrawal from the Afghan capital.  [see Jan 2-12]
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)(MC, 1/13/02)

1842        Feb 15, The 1st adhesive postage stamps in US were made available by a private delivery company in NYC.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1842        Feb 21, 1st known sewing machine was patented in US by John Greenough in Wash, DC. [see 1830,1833]
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1842        Feb 24, Arrigio Enrico Boito, composer (Mefistofele), was born.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1842        Feb 26, Camille Flammarion, Mars researcher and popularizer of astronomy, was born.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1842        Mar 3, 1st performance of Felix Mendelssohn's 3rd "Scottish" Symphony.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1842        Mar 3, 1st US child labor law regulating working hours was passed  in Massachusetts.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1842        Mar 9, Giuseppe Verdi's 3rd opera "Nabucco," premiered in Milan. It became his 1st big hit.
    (WSJ, 3/21/00, p.A20)(MC, 3/9/02)

1842        Mar 15, Maria Luigi Cherubini (81), Italian composer (Dies Irae), died.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1842        Mar 18, Stephane Mallarme (d.1898), French essayist and symbolist poet, was born. "Every soul is a melody which needs renewing."
    (AP, 7/17/98)(HN, 3/18/01)

1842        Mar 22, Mykola Vytal'yevich Lysenko, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1842        Mar 23, Stendhal [Marie-Henri Beyle], French author (b.1783), died at 59.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stendhal)

1842        Mar 30, Crawford Williamson Long (1815-1878) of Jefferson, Ga., utilized ether the first time to remove a tumor from the neck of his patient, Mr. James M. Venable.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(www.general-anaesthesia.com/images/crawford-long.html)

1842        Apr 3, Hermann Karl Vogel, German astronomer, was born.
    (HN, 4/3/01)

1842        Apr 29, Karl Millocker, conductor, composer (Beggar Student), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1842        May 5, Johann Nepomuk Fuchs, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1842        May 5, City-wide fire burned for over 100 hours in Hamburg, Germany. The medieval center of Hamburg was virtually leveled.
    (www.ksfhh.de/comenius/aufsatz.php?bid=1&l=e)(SSFC, 2/17/13, p.M2)

1842        May 12, Jules Massenet Montaud (d.1912), French composer, was born. His work included "Manon," "Thais" and "Le Cid."
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)

1842        May 13, Composer Sir Arthur Sullivan was born in London. He collaborated with Sir William Gilbert in writing 14 comic operas that included "HMS Pinafore."
    (AP, 5/13/99)(HN, 5/13/99)

1842        May 14, 1st edition of London Illustrated News.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1842        May 15, Emanuel ADMJ Count de las Cases (76), French historian (Napoleon), died.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1842        Jun 12, Dr Thomas Arnold (b.1795), British educator and historian, died. Arnold was an early supporter of the Broad Church Anglican movement. He was headmaster of Rugby School from 1828 to 1841, where he introduced a number of reforms. In 2012 Mihir Bose authored “The Spirit of the Game: How Sport Made the Modern World."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Arnold)(Econ, 3/3/12, p.95)

1842        Jun 24, Ambrose Bierce (d.1914), American writer, satirist, was born in Meigs County, Ohio. He wrote "The Friend's Delight" and "The Devil's Dictionary."
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, BR p.3)(AP, 6/24/99)(HN, 6/24/99)

1842        Aug 9, The United States and Canada signed the y-Ashburton Treaty, resolving a border dispute between Maine and Canada's New Brunswick.
    (AP, 8/9/97)(HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 9/30/99)

1842        Aug 14, Seminole War ended and the Indians were moved from Florida to Oklahoma.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1842        Aug 29, Britain & China signed the Treaty of Nanking and ended the Opium war. The Treaty of Nanking opened the port of Shanghai to foreigners. The 1997 Chinese film "The Opium War" was directed by Xie Jin. It was about the events leading up to the Treaty of Nanking. The treaty of Nanking ceded Hong Kong Island to Britain in perpetuity.
    (AMNHDT, 5/98)(SFC, 5/20/98, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Nanjing)

1842        Aug 31, US Naval Observatory was authorized by an act of Congress.
    (MC, 8/31/01)
1842        Aug 31, Micah Rugg patented a nuts & bolts machine.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1842        Sep 2, A letter by Abraham Lincoln (31) in the Sangamon Journal satirized the Illinois State Auditor’s call for state taxes to be paid in silver or gold. This in part led auditor James Shields to challenge Lincoln to a duel.
    (ON, 11/02, p.11)

1842        Sep 4, Work on Cologne cathedral resumed after 284-year hiatus.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1842        Sep 5, Jesse James, legendary outlaw of the American West, was born. [see 1847]
    (HN, 9/5/00)

1842        Sep 20, Lord James Dewar, physician who invented the vacuum flask and cordite, the first smokeless powder, was born.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1842        Oct 15, Karl Marx became editor-in-chief of Rheinische Zeitung.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1842        Oct 18, US Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones sailed into Monterey, the Mexican  capital of California, on the mistaken belief that the US and Mexico had gone to war.
    (SFC, 1/9/04, p.D2)

1842        Oct 19, US Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones ordered the surrender of Mexican officials in Monterey, Ca., on the mistaken belief that the US and Mexico had gone to war. He soon learned of his error and returned Monterey to Mexican authority.
    (SFC, 1/9/04, p.D2)

1842        Nov 4, Abraham Lincoln married Mary Todd in Springfield, Ill.
    (AP, 11/4/97)(HN, 11/4/98)

1842        Nov 14, Walter Williams (d.1959), claimed to be last survivor of Civil War, was born.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1842        Nov 17, A grim abolitionist meeting was held in Marlboro Chapel, Boston, after the imprisonment under the Fugitive Slave Bill (1793) of a mulatto named George Latimer, one of the first fugitive slaves to be apprehended in Massachusetts. Four hundred dollars was collected to buy his freedom, and plans to storm the jail were prepared as an alternative to secure his release.
    (HN, 11/17/98)
1842        Nov 17, Gaetano Donizetti's Opera "Linda di Chamounix" was produced (London).
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1842        Nov 22, Mount St Helen's in Washington state erupted. Mount St. Helens began 15 years of intermittent eruptions and then became relatively quiet for 123 years.
    (MC, 11/22/01)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)

1842        Dec 1, Midshipman Philip Spencer (18) on the brig-of-war Somers, the 1st US naval officer condemned for mutiny, was hanged. Spencer was the son of John Canfield Spencer, the Sec. of War under Pres. John Tyler. In 2003 Buckner F. Melton Jr. authored "A Hanging Offense," an account of the "Somers affair."
    (MC, 12/1/01)(WSJ, 4/25/03, W6)

1842        Dec 7, The New York Philharmonic gave its first concert.
    (AP, 12/7/97)

1842        Dec 9, Mikail Glinka's his epic opera "Russlan & Ludmilla," premiered in Petersburg. It was based on Pushkin's Russianized version  of Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso."
    (WSJ, 9/21/95, p.A-20)(MC, 12/9/01)

1842        Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), English painter and printmaker, created his painting “Snow Storm."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)

1842        Sidney Lanier (d.1881), poet, was born in Macon, Georgia.
    (WSJ, 3/13/00, p.A24)

1842        Walt Whitman (23) published his poem "A Sketch" in The New York New World.
    (SFC, 3/3/99, p.E4)

1842        Charles Dickens published his description of the Five Points district of New York City in "American Notes for General Circulation."
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

1842        Nikolai V. Gogol (1809-1852), Ukrainian-born Russian writer, published his novel “Dead Souls." It appeared in Moscow under the title, imposed by the censorship, of “The Adventures of Chichikov."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Gogol)(WSJ, 4/14/09, p.D7)

1842        John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood returned to Mexico and later produced a 2nd book titled: Incidents of Travel in Yucatan," which described their discovery of 44 additional ruined cities in southeastern Mexico.
    (ON, 12/99, p.8)

1842        "Around the World in 80 Days" was written by Jules Verne. It featured the illustrious science-fiction adventurer Phileas Fogg. In 1956 it was made into a film.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.43)(TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1842        Verdi composed his 3rd opera, Nabucco, which became his 1st big hit.
    (WSJ, 3/21/00, p.A20)

1842        The governor’s mansion in Jackson, Miss., was built.
    (WSJ, 10/14/97, p.A22)

1842        The Maclay Bill in New York State barred all religious instruction from public schools and provided no state money to parochial schools.
    (WSJ, 3/17/97, p.A18)
1842        Hugh Hardman established the Hardman Piano Co. in NYC. Leopold Peck joined the company in 1880. The company’s name changed to Hardman, Peck & Co. when Peck became a partner in 1890.
    (SFC, 9/5/07, p.G5)

1842        Nantucket Capt. Gorham Nye sailed into Yerba Buena, later known as San Francisco, and sold several goats to traders. A local character named Jack Fuller proposed to businessman Nathan Spear to buy some of the goats and raise them on Yerba Buena Island, which became known as Goat Island.
    (SFC, 11/23/13, p.C3)

1842        The Wadsworth Athenium of Art was established in Hartford, Conn. It was America’s 1st public art museum.
    (WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 6/1/06, p.D7)

1842        Christian Johann Doppler, mathematician at Prague, proposed the Doppler effect whereby a sound passing by a stationary observer will appear to change in pitch as it approaches and passes.
    (JST-TMC,1983, p.10)

1842        In Indiana Rev. Edward Sorin inherited 3 log cabins and envisioned the future development of Notre Dame. In 2001 Marvin R. O’Connell authored the biography "Edward Sorin."
    (WSJ, 11/8/01, p.A22)

1842        Richard Owen, British Paleontologist, coined the name "Dinosauria," (terrible reptiles) to describe the large fossil reptiles.
    (T.E.-J.B. p.24)

1842        John C. Fremont met Kit Carson on a Mexican river steamboat.
    (WSJ, 1/10/00, p.A24)

1842        John C. Fremont, on a mission for the Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, scaled a 13,570 foot Wyoming peak, later named after him, and claimed it was the highest in the Rockies.
    (SFEC, 2/13/00, BR p.5)

1842        Gold was found near South Pass, Wyoming, but the prospector was killed by Indians and the location stayed secret.
    (SFC, 8/18/98, p.A8)

1842        Mount St. Helens began 15 years of intermittent eruptions and then became relatively quiet for 123 years.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)

1842        The steamboat Lexington burned off Long Island Sound and 150 people were killed. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow missed the boat and lived to tell. The incident was covered in the 1996 book "The Sea Hunters" by Clive Cussler and Craig Dirgo.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.E2)

1842        Francisco Morazan (b.1799), Central American statesman and soldier, died. He served as the president of the United Provinces of Central America.
    (ON, 12/99, p.5)

1842        The British forced their way through the Khyber Pass. They recaptured Kabul and burned down the Great Bazaar in retribution before marching back to India.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1842        Jardine, Matheson & Co., founded in Canton in 1832, built the first substantial house and established their head office on the recently acquired island of Hong Kong. This began an era of increased prosperity and expansion.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jardine_Matheson_Holdings)

1842        Italian revolutionary Garibaldi married Anita Ribeiro and joined the Uruguayan navy in a war against Argentina. They returned to Italy in 1848.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1842        France claimed the Marquesas Islands.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1842        The French declared a protectorate over the Wallis and Futuna Islands. They had been discovered by the Dutch and the British in the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1959, the inhabitants of the islands voted to become a French overseas territory.
    (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/wf.html)

1842-1843    John James Audubon made his last mammal-painting expedition up the Missouri River. He made sketches and collected specimens for his book: "The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America." The work was later completed by his 2 sons and Rev. John Bachman.
    (WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 8/28/01, p.A12)

1842-1910    William James, US psychologist and philosopher. He and Charles Saunders Pierce first developed the ideas of pragmatism, the principle that the meaning of an idea was to be found in the examination of its consequences in action. This was later developed by John Dewey. His work included "The Will To Believe." James’ brother, Henry, was a novelist and critic. "The art of being wise is the art of knowing what to overlook." "A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudice." In 1998 Linda Simon published "Genuine Reality: A Life of William James."
    (WUD, 1994, p.762)(AP, 5/10/97)(WSJ, 2/6/98, p.A20)(AP, 4/25/98)

1842-1912    Jules Massenet, French composer. He composed "Manon," "Herodiade" (1881), the oratorios "Marie Magdaleine" and "Eve," and a sequel to Mozart’s "Le Nozze di Figaro" entitled "Cherubin."
    (WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-12)

1842-1912    Karl May, German writer, specialized in stories about noble Indians struggling to survive against the advance of modern society.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, DB p.35)

1842-1914    Ambrose Bierce, writer and newspaper columnist in San Francisco, author of the Devil’s Dictionary. He was born in Horse Cave Creek, Ohio, and disappeared in revolution torn Mexico. He was one of the first Union volunteers and fought at Shiloh and Chickamauga, and won a battlefield commission for carrying a wounded officer to safety under fire.
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, A-15)(WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-16)

1842-1916    Clara Louise Kellogg, the first American prima donna of importance. She is discussed in the 1997 book "The American Opera Singer" by Peter G. Davis.
    (WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A20)

1842-1924    Alfred Marshall, English economist. He was the chief founder of the neoclassical school of economics. This school studies both human behavior and wealth to understand human choices. He introduced such concepts as consumer's surplus, quasi-rent, elasticity of demand and the representative firm.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1843        Jan 2, Wagner's opera "Der Fliegende Holländer" premiered in Dresden.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1843        Jan 4, Gaetano Donizetti's opera "Don Pasquale," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1843        Jan 11, Francis Scott Key (63), poet of "The Star-Spangled Banner," died in Baltimore.
    (HN, 1/11/99)(MC, 1/11/02)

1843        Jan 29, William McKinley, the 25th president of the United States (1897-1901), was born in Niles, Ohio. McKinley was the last Civil War veteran to serve as President of the United States. He had served with the 23rd Regiment, Ohio Volunteers, eventually rising to the rank of brevet major. He saw action at South Mountain, Antietam, Winchester and Cedar Creek. For a time he served on Rutherford B. Hayes' staff. McKinley was elected the 25th president in 1896. He led the country in the Spanish-American War. He died in Buffalo, New York, on September 14, 1901, after being shot by an anarchist assassin on September 6.
    (AP, 1/29/98)(HNQ, 11/13/98)

1843        Feb 11, Giuseppe Verdi's Opera "I Lombardi," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1843        Feb 19, Adelina Patti, opera soprano (Lucio), was born in Madrid, Spain.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1843        Mar 3, US Congress appropriated $30,000 "to test the practicability of establishing a system of electro-magnetic telegraphs."
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1843        Mar 21, Robert W. Southey (b.1774), British poet laureate and historian, died. In 2006 W. A. Speck authored the biography “Robert Southey."
    (WSJ, 8/12/06, p.P8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Southey)

1843        Mar 25, Seventeen Texans, who picked black beans from a jar otherwise filled with white beans, were executed by a Mexican firing squad. After months of raiding, captivity and escapes in Northern Mexico, Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna ordered the execution of one tenth of the 176 Texas freebooters of the Mier Expedition. The event was later depicted by artist Theodore Gentilz.
    (HNPD, 3/27/00)
1843        Mar 25, England’s Thames Tunnel opened 18 years after construction began. It was completed under engineer Isambard Brunel, the son of Marc Brunel, who began the project in 1824.
    (www.bris.ac.uk/is/services/specialcollections/brunelchronology.html)(ON, 4/06, p.9)

1843        Mar 29, Captain Richard Spratly (c.1806/1811-1866), master of the British whaler, the Cyrus, sighted what later became known in English as Spratly Island and Ladd Reef in the South China Sea.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Spratly)

1843        Apr 3, A comet in the night sky led William Miller and his 50,000 New York religious cult, the Millerites, to proclaim the end of the world. They put on white robes and prepared to go to heaven from their rooftops. When nothing happened Miller concluded that he had made a mistake.
    (SFC, 3/28/97, p.A12)

1843        Apr 4, Hans Richter, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1843        Apr 5, Queen Victoria proclaimed Hong Kong a British crown colony.
    (HN, 4/5/99)

1843        Apr 14, Joseph Franz Karl Lanner (42), Austria, composer, violist, died.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1843        Apr 15, Henry James (d.1916), US novelist, writer and critic, was born in England. His older brother was William James, the psychologist and philosopher. Henry James Sr. in the 1850s dragged his 4 sons and daughter across Europe in search a “sensual education." Henry’s first 40 years are documented by Sheldon M. Novick in "Henry James: The Young Master." There is also a 5-vol. biography by William Edel. His novels included "The Princess Casamassima," a work about the folly of radical politics. "It takes a great deal of history to produce a little literature." In 2008 Paul Fisher authored “House of Wits: An Intimate Portrait of the James Family."
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/24/97, p.A20)(HN, 4/15/98)(AP, 8/3/98)(WSJ, 6/17/08, p.A21)

1843        Apr, Eta Carinae, a star 120 times the size of the Sun and 8,000 light-years from Earth, briefly became the 2nd-brightest star in the night sky of the southern hemisphere.
    (NH, 10/1/04, p.72)

1843        May 9, Belle Boyd, Confederate spy, was born. She helped 'Stonewall' Jackson during his Valley campaign.
    (HN, 5/9/99)

1843        May 18, United Free Church of Scotland formed.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1843        May 22, The 1st wagon train with over 1000 people departed Independence, Missouri for Oregon. Known as the "Great Emigration," the expedition came two years after the first modest party of settlers made the long, overland journey to Oregon.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1843        May 28, Noah Webster (84), lexicographer (Webster's Dictionary), died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1843        May 29, Emile Pessard, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1843        Jun 1, Sojourner Truth left NY to beg in her career as antislavery activist. And dat’s the truth!
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)
1843         Jun 1, It snowed in Buffalo and Rochester N.Y., and also in Cleveland Ohio.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

1843        Jun 4, Charles C. Abbott, American naturalist, was born. He wrote "Days Out of Doors."
    (HN, 6/4/00)

1843        Jun 7, Susan Elizabeth Blow, US pioneer in kindergarten education, was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1843        Jun 15, Edvard Grieg (d.1907), Norwegian composer, was born. He was best known for his "Peer Gynt" suite. In 1999 over 40 unknown pieces from 1858-1862 were found in Bergen, Germany. Grieg studied at Leipzig during this period.
    (WUD, 1994, p.622)(SFC, 2/23/99, p.B3)(HT, 6/15/00)

1843        Jun 17, The monument at Bunker Hill had its final dedication. It was begun in 1825.
    (HT, 3/97, p.33)(SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)

1843        Jun 21, In Britain the Royal College of Surgeons was founded from the original Barber-Surgeons Company.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1843        Jun 26, Hong Kong was proclaimed a British Crown Colony. [see Apr 5]
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1843        Jul 2, Samuel Hahnemann (b.1755), German physician and founder of homeopathy, died in Paris.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Hahnemann)

1843        Jul 12, Mormon leader Joseph Smith said God encourages polygamy.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1843        July 18, Virgil Earp was born in Kentucky.
    (MesWP)

1843        Aug 1, Robert Todd Lincoln (d.1926), son of Abraham Lincoln, Capt (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1843        Aug 15, National black convention met in Buffalo, NY.
    (MC, 8/15/02)
1843        Aug 15, The Tivoli Gardens opened in Copenhagen.
    (SFEC, 2/20/00, p.T8)(MC, 8/15/02)

1843        Aug 26, Charles Thurber patented a typewriter.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1843        Sep 19, Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis (b.1792), French engineer and mathematician, died. He showed that the laws of motion could be used in a rotating frame of reference if an extra force called the Coriolis acceleration is added to the equations of motion.
    (www.gap-system.org/~history/Mathematicians/Coriolis.html)

1843        Sep, James Wilson (1805-1860), a Scottish hat maker, founded “The Economist" in London, England, a magazine devoted to free trade and laissez-faire principles from its very beginning.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Economist)(WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)(Econ, 6/28/03, p.13)

1843        Oct 13, The Jewish organization B’nai B’rith was founded in New York City.
    (AP, 10/13/97)

1843        Oct 30, A. G. Henri Regnault, French water colors painter, was born.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1843        Nov 13, Mt. Rainier in Washington State erupted.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1843        Nov 27, Balfe's opera "Bohemian Girl" was produced in London.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1843        Dec 4, Manila paper (made from sails, canvas & rope) was patented in Mass.
    (MC, 12/4/01)
1843        Dec 4, Robert Schumann's "Das Paradied und die Peri," premiered in Leipzig.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1843        Dec 11, Robert Koch (d.1910), German physician, bacteriologist, and medical researcher, was born. He won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1905.
    (http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1905/koch-bio.html)

1843        Dec 17, British author Charles Dickens published “A Christmas Carol" at his own expense. It was one of many public and private efforts by Dickens to bring about social reform: prison visits, charity drives, promotion of the so-called "Ragged Schools" for the poor, cash for a fired worker, or a child's education.
    (www.todayinliterature.com/stories.wk.asp?Event_Date=12/17/1847)

1843        Margaret Fuller (1810-1850), journalist and writer, authored a feminist tract titled: “Women in the Nineteenth Century."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Fuller)(SSFC, 1/29/12, p.F4)

1843        Thomas Haliburton of Windsor, Nova Scotia, published a novel that described local boys playing hurley, an early form of hockey, behind Kings Edgehill School.
    (WSJ, 1/23/02, p.A1)

1843        William Hickling Prescott (1796-1859), American Historian, authored "History of the Conquest of Mexico."
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)(WSJ, 8/16/08, p.W6)

1843        Isabella Van Wagenen, abolitionist, renamed herself Sojourner Truth. She dictated her autobiography "The Narrative of Sojourner Truth" to Olive Gilbert, a white abolitionist. In 1996 Neil Irvin Painter wrote her biography "Sojourner Truth A Life, A Symbol."
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.5)

1843        Alonzo Blanchard of Albany, NY, patented a stove design called “Washington." It featured a cast-iron statue of George Washington on top.
    (SFC, 7/9/08, p.G5)

1843        The J.E. Stevens Co. was founded in Cromwell, Conn., by John and Elisa Stevens. The company became famous for its line of cast-iron toys.
    (SFC, 8/24/05, p.G6)

1843        The Fruitlands utopia in rural Massachusetts was begun by Bronson Alcott, his wife Abby, Englishman Charles Lane and others. Members called themselves the Consociate Family. It was marked by anti-materialistic credos, anti-hierarchical family structures, home-schooling and a vegan diet. Louisa May Alcott later recalled her experiences there in "Little Women."
    (SFC, 12/7/99, p.C1)(ON, 7/03, p.11)

1843        The Univ. of Michigan enrolled its 1st international student. A Canadian joined the body of 43 students.
    (LSA, Fall/03, p.38)

1843        Norbert Rillieux (1806-1894) received US patent # 3,237 for a double-effect evaporator, while overseeing the building of the device for plantation owner Theodore Packwood.
    (www.answers.com/topic/norbert-rillieux)

1843        In California a land grant established Rancho El Tejon. The area was named El Tejon (the badger) after Spanish soldiers under Lt. Francisco Ruiz discovered the species during an 1805 expedition.
    (SFC, 5/9/08, p.A1)

1843        In NYC the population grew to 350,000 and 16 day policemen kept order.
    (WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)

1843        Belgian police were the 1st to take mug shots of criminals.
    (SFEC, 10/22/00, Z1 p.2)

1843        In Britain Punch coined the term “cartoon" to describe its satyrical sketches.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.129)

1843        In Canada James McDermott was convicted and hanged for the murder Dr. Thomas Kinnear and his lover, Nancy Montgomery. Kinnear’s servant, 16-year-old Grace Marks, was sentenced to life imprisonment for aiding and abetting her fellow servant, James McDermott, in the murder. In 1996 Margaret Atwood wrote a novel: "Alias Grace" based on the incident.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.1)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A14)

1843        In Santiago, Chile, Sen. Andres Bello, a Venezuela-born diplomat and educator, became the founding rector of the Univ. of Chile.
    (Econ, 2/1/14, p.28)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9s_Bello)

1843        Heinrich Schwabe, German amateur astronomer, published his results of a 17 year study on the number of sun spots. His results showed that sunspot activity varied over a period of eleven and a half years. Sunspot activity recorded since this time indicates the period to average 11.2 years and to vary from 7.5 to 16 years. This activity correlates to agricultural activity and the price of wheat.
    (SCTS, p.103)

1843        In Iceland a nationalist movement re-established the Althing.
    (HNQ, 4/28/00)

1843        Gaspard G. Coriolus, French civil engineer, died. He had discovered the effect whereby bodies in free motion appear to rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
    (PacDis, Fall/’96, p.10)(WUD, 1994, p.325)

1843        Charles Napier, the British conqueror of Sindh province (later part of Pakistan), marveled at the extent of the Bhutto holdings there.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, p.82)

1843        Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi returned to North Africa from Mecca, settling in Jabal Akhdar in Cyrenaica (Libya). In the mountainous fastness of the area he founded a center of operations at al-Beida with the organization of the al-Sanusi Sufi lodge and built the Zawiya al-Baida (White Monastery).
    (http://tinyurl.com/5tkfked)

1843        Alexander Bain, Scottish inventor, received a British patent for “improvements in producing and regulating electric currents and improvements in timepieces and in electric printing and signal telegraphs." His fax machine evolved from the telegraph technology.
    (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blfax.htm)

1843-1844    A prophecy of the Adventist movement known as Millerism, which was based on the preaching of William Miller, was the Second Coming of Christ between 1843-44.
    (HN, 9/29/99)

1843-1848    In France the Chateau de Boursault was built by the widow Clicquot. She contributed to the development of the champagne-making process.
    (Hem., 10/97, p.104)

1843-1901     President William McKinley: "I do not prize the word cheap. It is not a badge of honor ... it is a symbol of despair. Cheap prices make for cheap goods; cheap goods make for cheap men; and cheap men make for a cheap country!" Memorial platters were made with his final words: "It is God’s way, his will be done."
    (AP, 10/16/97)(SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.7)

1844        Jan 15, The University of Notre Dame received its charter from the state of Indiana.
    (AP, 1/15/98)

1844        Jan 30, Richard Theodore Greener became the first African American to graduate from Harvard University.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1844        Feb 17, Aaron Montgomery Ward, mail order business founder, was born.
    (HN, 2/17/98)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.8)

1844        Feb 21, Charles-Marie Widor, composer, professor (Paris Conservatory), was born in Lyons, France.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1844        Feb 27, Dominican Republic rebels, under the leadership of Francisco del Rosario Sanchez and Ramon Mella, launched their uprising and gained independence from Haiti (National Day). [see Nov 6]
    (www.onwar.com/aced/data/delta/dominican1844.htm)

1844        Feb 28, A 12-inch gun aboard the USS Princeton exploded, killing Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur, Navy Secretary Thomas W. Gilmer and several others. On the new warship, USS Princeton, the shipboard cannon called the "Peacemaker" exploded during a demonstration firing. Also aboard the ship was President John Tyler, additional cabinet members and hundreds of distinguished guests. The cannon weighed 27,000 pounds, had a 15-foot-long barrel and could hurl a 225-pound ball six miles.
    (AP, 2/28/98)(HNQ, 11/29/98)

1844        Mar 6, Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov, orchestrator, composer, was born. His work included: Flight of the Bumble Bee, Sadko, Mlada, Capriccio Espagnol, The Tsar's Bride, Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevronia.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1844        Mar 7, Anthony Comstock, anti-vice "crusader," was born in New Canaan, Ct.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1844        Mar 9, Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Ernani," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1844        Mar 10, Pablo Martin M de Sarasate y Navascuez, composer (Spanish Dances), was born.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1844        Mar 28, Jose Zorilla's "Don Juan Tenorio," premiered in Madrid.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1844        Apr 4, Charles Bulfinch (80), 1st US professional architect (Mass State House), died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1844        Apr 6, Joseph Ludwig, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1844        Apr 8, Ignaz Franz von Mosel (72), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1844        Apr 12, Texas became a US territory.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1844        Apr 16, Anatole France (d.1924), French novelist and essayist, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1921. His love for Madame de Caillavet, whose salon helped make him famous, formed the backdrop for his novel "Le Lys Rouge," (The Red Lily). "All the historical books which contain no lies are extremely tedious."
    (WSJ, 2/20/96, p.A-14)(AP, 10/11/98)(HN, 4/16/01)

1844        May 1, Whig convention nominated Henry Clay as presidential candidate.
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1844        May 1, Samuel Morse (1791-1872) sent the 1st telegraphic message as a demonstration between Washington, DC, and Baltimore [see Jan 6, 1838]. The line officially opened on May 24, 1844.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Morse)

1844        May 2, Elijah McCoy, black inventor, held over 50 patents, was born.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1844        May 3, Richard D'Oyly Carte, opera impresario (Gilbert & Sullivan operas, Ivanhoe), was born in England.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1844        May 21, Henri Rousseau (d.1910), French painter (Dream), was born in Laval.
    (HN, 5/21/01)

1844        May 22, Mary Cassatt, impressionist painter, was born in Alleghany City (later Pittsburgh). [see May 22, 1845]
    (HFA, ‘96, p.30)(AHD, p.209)(HN, 5/22/98)(WSJ, 11/5/98, p.A20)

1844        May 24, Samuel F.B. Morse, before a crowd of dignitaries in the chambers of the Supreme Court, tapped out the message, "What hath God wrought?" to his partner in Baltimore, Alfred Vail. Congress had appropriated $30,000 for the experimental line built by Ezra Cornell between Washington and Baltimore. American portrait artist Samuel F.B. Morse developed the technology for electrical telegraphy in the 1830s, the first instantaneous form of communication. Using a key to hold open an electrical circuit for longer or shorter periods, an operator would tap out a message in a code composed of dots and dashes. Public demonstrations of the equipment were made in February 1838, but it was necessary for Morse to secure financial backing to build the first telegraph line to carry the signal over distance. In 1843, Congress appropriated the funds for a 37-mile line between Baltimore and Washington, D.C. After underground telegraph wires proved unsuccessful, Morse switched to pole wires.
    (AP, 5/24/97)(HN, 5/24/98)(HNPD, 2/6/99)(HNQ, 5/27/00)

1844        May 25, The first telegraphed news dispatch, sent from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, appeared in the Baltimore "Patriot."
    (AP, 5/25/97)

1844        Jul 29, Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (53), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1844        Jun 6,    The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) was founded in London by George Williams.
    (AP, 6/6/97)(www.ymca.int/index.php?id=15)

1844        Jun 15, Charles Goodyear (1800-1860) received patent #3633 for the vulcanization of rubber, his process to strengthen rubber. He had perfected the process in 1839 and never took out a European patent.
    (AP, 6/15/97)(www.patents4technologies.com/Historical.htm)(ON, 6/07, p.11)

1844        Jun 26, Julia Gardiner and President John Tyler were married in New York City.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1844        Jun 27, Mormon Joseph Smith (38) and his brother, Hyram, were again imprisoned. A mob stormed the Carthage, Ill. prison and the brothers were killed. [see 1846] James Strang laid claim to being his rightful successor but Brigham Young soon took control of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Strang then began evangelizing in the Midwest and East with some success. His followers were later called "Strangites."
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.86)(SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)(AP, 6/27/97)

1844        Jul 3, Dankmar Adler, architect and engineer, was born.
    (HN, 7/3/01)
1844        Jul 3, Ambassador Caleb Cushing successfully negotiated a commercial treaty with China that opened five Chinese ports to U.S. merchants and protected the rights of American citizens in China.
    (HN, 7/3/98)

1844        Jul 22, William Archibald Spooner, Anglican clergyman whose slips of the tongue caused words and syllables to be transposed and gave rise to the term "spoonerisms," was born in London.
    (AP, 7/22/02)

1844        Jul 25, Thomas Eakins (d.1916), American painter, was born.
    (SFC, 5/6/97, p.E4)(WUD, 1994, p.447)(HN, 7/25/02)
1844        Jul 25, Louis Napoleon (b.1779), French king of the Netherlands (1806-10), died.
    (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Louis-Napoleon-Bonaparte)

1844        Aug 8, Brigham Young was chosen to head the Mormon church following the killing of Joseph Smith in Illinois.
    (AP, 8/8/97)(HN, 8/8/98)

1844        cAug 17, Menelik II, King of Ethiopia (1896-1913), was born.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1844        Sep 5, Iron ore was discovered in Minnesota's Mesabi Range.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1844        Sep 23, Count Alexander von Benckendorff (b.1783), Russian Lieutenant General and statesman, died. He was Adjutant General of the Svita and a commander in Patriotic War of 1812 and is best remembered for having established the Gendarmes in Russia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_von_Benckendorff)

1844        Sep 25-1844 Sep 27, The first int’l. cricket match was played between the USA and Canada at the St George's Cricket Club, Bloomingdale Park, NY. Canada won by 23 runs.
    (Econ, 7/24/10, p.83)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_v_Canada_%281844%29)

1844        Oct 11, Henry Heinz, manufacturer, founder of H.J. Heinz Co., was born.
    (HN, 10/11/00)

1844        Oct 12, George Washington Cable, writer and reformer, was born.
    (HN, 10/12/00)

1844        Oct 15, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (d.1900), German philosopher, poet, and critic, was born. He wrote 13 books and was driven to madness by a number of factors, but one was the bland, dishonest complacency of his contemporaries, who ignored him while honoring writers who seem like comic book figures today... He shrilled against Christianity and its empty moral claims. In 1998 two biographies were published: "Nietzsche in Turin: An Intimate Biography" by Lesley Chamberlain;  and "The Good European: Nietzsche’s Work Sites in word and Image" by David Farell Krell and Donald L. Bates. In 2000 Robert C. Solomon and Kathleen M. Higgins authored "What Nietzsche Really Said." "No one is such a liar as the indignant man." "In individuals, insanity is rare; but in groups, parties, nations and epochs, it is the rule." "The time for me hasn't come yet. Some are born posthumously."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(SFEC, 2/8/98, BR p.9)(AP, 3/19/98)(HN,10/15/98)(AP, 12/3/98) (SFEC, 4/23/00, BR p.4)

1844        Oct 22, The resurrected Christ failed to show up as anticipated by evangelist William Miller and his followers. Hiram Edson resolved the dilemma by saying the great event had taken place in heaven and that Jesus had begun an “investigative judgement of the dead." Thus was born the Church of Seventh Day Adventists.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.34)

1844        Oct 23, Sarah Bernhardt, French actress, was born. [see Oct 22]
    (HN, 10/23/00)

1844        Nov 6, The first constitution of the new Dominican Republic was signed in San Cristobal. Pedro Santana, fearing political instability, controlled revisions to the newly written constitution that allowed him to stay in power, and declared himself president of the nation, a post he would hold from 1844-1848, 1853-1856, and 1858-1861. Spain granted independence to the Dominican Republic. The Dominican Republic won independence from next door Haiti after 2 occupations. [see Feb 27]
    (http://dr1.com/articles/history_1.shtml)(SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-9)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.35)

1844        Nov 23, Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were declared independent from Denmark.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1844        Nov 25, Carl Benz, pioneer of early motor cars, was born.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1844        Nov, Commandante General Mariano G. Vallejo dismissed his soldiers at the Sonoma garrison in California claiming that he could not afford to pay them any longer.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.24-28)

1844        Dec 4, James K. Polk was elected 11th president of US. His wife, Sarah, recognized that James was insufficiently impressive to draw attention on appearance and therefore began the tradition of having "Hail to the Chief" played when he made a public showing.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.46)(SFC, 7/14/96, Z  1 p.2)(MC, 12/4/01)

1844        Dec 11, The 1st dental use of nitrous oxide was at Hartford, Ct.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1844        Dec 18, Ludwig J. von Brentano, German economist, was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1844        Edward Hicks began his painting "The Peaceable Kingdom." It was completed in 1846, Hicks painted the same scene over 100 times with major and minor variations.
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)

1844        John Rubens Smith painted his watercolor: Southwest View of Sanderson’s Franklin House, Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. [see 1875-1844, Smith]
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.72)

1844        Robert Chambers, co-founder of the largest mass-circulation publishing house in Britain, anonymously authored "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation." It was a history of the cosmos from the formation of the solar system to the development of life on Earth. In 2001 James A. Secord authored "Victorian Sensation," an analysis of Vestiges and its era.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, BR p.5)

1844        Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) authored his novel “Coningsby." Disraeli used his young friend George Smythe as the model for the novel’s scrupulously upright hero.
    (WSJ, 9/2/06, p.P9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coningsby_%28novel%29)

1844        Philip Hone (63) wrote: “Railroads, steamers, packets, race against time and beat it hollow…Oh, for the good old days of heavy post coaches and speed at the rate of six miles and hour."
    (WSJ, 9/23/04, p.D10)

1844        Englishman Alexander Kinglake (25) authored his travel book “Eothen." The name was from the Greek for “from the east." It told of his adventures traveling across the Ottoman Empire from Belgrade to Cairo.
    (WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)(Econ, 9/14/13, p.90)

1844        John Middleton published a paper describing how a fluorine test could be used to determine the geologic age of fossil bones.
    (RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.30)

1844        William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863), English novelist, authored “The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq."
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.81)

1844        Henry David Thoreau translated the Lotus Sutra from French to English and published it in the Transcendentalist journal Dial..
    (SSFC, 7/8/01, p.B5)

1844        Robert Schumann published his Op. 48 which included Dichterliebe, a song of a poet’s love. Its original form dated back to 1840.
    (SFC, 5/9/96, p.E-1)

1844        The Cathedral of St. Michael the Archangel was built in Sitka, Alaska. It was destroyed by fire in 1966 and painstakingly rebuilt.
    (AH, 6/07, p.69)

1844        William Hinckley, alcalde of Yerba Buena (later San Francisco), erected a wooden footbridge over a creek that fed the Laguna Salada. This enabled residents to walk to the anchorage at Clark’s Point (near the intersection of Broadway and Battery). At this time Yerba Buena had under 50 inhabitants and and only a dozen buildings.
    (SFC, 7/6/13, p.C2)
1844        Juana Briones purchased a 4,400 acre rancho that later covered parts of Los Altos, Los Altos Hills and Palo Alto. She acquired her funds renting rooms and selling food in SF. In 1850 she began a 12-year legal battle to retain her property. She won title to her property in the US Supreme Court.
    (SFC, 11/14/03, p.I24)

1844        Edgar Allan Poe moved back to New York and took a job with the New York Evening Mirror.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T5)

1844        The Lincolns purchased a 1 1/2 story Greek Revival home at Eighth and Jackson in Springfield, Ill. Mary and Abraham Lincoln paid $1,200 in cash and land for the one-and-half-story, five-room, wood-clapboard structure. It was the only home the Lincolns ever owned. They spent the next 16 years enlarging and improving it.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T4)(HNQ, 5/6/01)

1844        John Fremont discovered Pyramid Lake in Nevada. For a number of reasons the lake’s native trout went extinct in the 1940s. Federal officials in 2006 began restocking the lake with the native Lahontan cutthroat found near Pilot Peak and the trout fluorished.
    (SFC, 5/1/13, p.E8)
   
1844        The great auk, aka "penguin of the north," was hunted to extinction.
    (NH, 9/96, p.8)

1844        Barbara Thompson (1831-1916), a Scottish girl, was possibly the sole survivor from the wreck of the cutter America, which ran onto Madjii Reef at Horn Island near Cape York Endeavour Strait off Queensland, Australia. She was taken in by one of the buwai gizumabaigalai (clan leaders) of the Kaurareg people, who believed that she was the returned spirit (markai) of his recently deceased daughter. She managed to retunr to Sidney in 1849.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbara_Thompson_%28castaway%29)

1844        The British co-operative movement started with the Rochdale Pioneers' shop in the northern English town of Rochdale. It was nominally owned by its customers rather than its employees.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_co-operative_movement)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.72)

1844        Bishop Dominique Lefevre, a Catholic missionary and French citizen, engaged in a plot with other priests to overthrow  Thieu Tri, the emperor of Cochin China (later Vietnam). Lefevre was imprisoned and condemned to death.
    (AH, 12/02, p.25)

1844        The maharaja of Jammu purchased Kashmir from the East India Company.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T4)

1844        In New Zealand beginning in this year the Ngai Tahu people lost 80% (86 million acres) of South Island.
    (SFC, 10/5/96, p.A10)

1844-1845    The marriage of Friedrich V of Germany to and English Princess Elizabeth in Heidelberg is the nominal subject of a Turner (1775-1851) oil painting.
    (WSJ, 1/15/96, p. A-10)

1844-1847    Britain experienced a “railway mania" as Parliament during this period approved 9,500 miles of new railway lines. About a third never materialized. By 1847 railways soaked up investments of almost 7% of GDP.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.116)

1844-1885    Louis Riel, Canadian Metis leader, was born in Manitoba.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)

1844-1906    Ludwig Boltzmann (d.1906), Austrian atomic physics engineer, was born. His Vienna tombstone read "Entropy is the logarithm of probability." [see 1838]
    (WUD, 1994, p.167)(WSJ, 7/28/98, p.A16)

1844-1913    August Bebel was an outstanding political figure in Western European Socialism and co-founder of the German Social Democratic Party. Bebel participated in the foundation of the Social Democratic Party in 1869 and was sentenced to prison for treason in 1872. As head of the Social Democrats he was chief opposition leader in the Reichstag in the 1890s and 1900s.
    (HNQ, 2/15/99)

1844-1914    Robert Jones Burdette, American clergyman and author: "There are two days in the week about which and upon which I never worry. Two carefree days, kept sacredly free from fear and apprehension. One of these days is Yesterday. ... And the other ... is Tomorrow."
    (AP, 12/20/00)

1844-1915    Anthony Comstock, self-appointed anti-vice crusader, devoted a lifetime to battling wickedness, to purify America and protect its youth from sin. [see 1870s]
    (HNPD, 2/5/99)

1844-1933    Celestine Chaumette from the French village of Chassignolles saved her personal letters. They were later found and published by British writer Gillian Tindall as "Voices from a French Village."
    (SFC, 6/16/96, BR p.4)

1845        Jan 23, US Congress decided all national elections would be held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The law was signed by Pres. John Tyler.
    (AP, 1/23/98)(WSJ, 3/13/00, p.A1)

1845        Jan 29, Edgar Allan Poe’s poem "The Raven" was first published, in the New York Evening Mirror.
    (AP, 1/29/98)

1845        Feb 14, Quinton Hogg, English philanthropist, was born. [see Feb 16]
    (HN, 2/14/01)

1845        Feb 15, William Parsons, Earl of Rosse, 1st used a 72" (183 cm) reflector.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1845        Feb 16, Quinton Hogg, English philanthropist, was born. [see Feb 14]
    (HN, 2/16/01)

1845        Feb 18, John Chapman, aka Johnny Appleseed, died in Allen County,  Indiana. In 1954 Robert Price authored Johnny Appleseed: Man and Myth."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnny_Appleseed)(ON, 4/09, p.12)

1845        Feb 26, Alexander III, Russian tsar (1881-94), was born in St Petersburg. [see Mar 10]
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1845        Mar 1, President Tyler signed a congressional resolution to annex the Republic of Texas. Texas was annexed as a state of the US on Dec 29.
    (SFC, 4/28/97, p.A3)(AP, 3/1/98)

1845        Mar 3, Georg Cantor (d.1918), mathematician, was born in St. Petersburg, Russia. He grew up in Germany and developed the field of  transfinite numbers.
    (http://encyclopedia.laborlawtalk.com/Georg_Cantor)
1845        Mar 3, For the first time, the U.S. Congress passed legislation on this day overriding a President's veto. President John Tyler was in office at the time.
    (HC, Internet, 3/3/98)
1845        Mar 3, Congress authorized ocean mail contracts for foreign mail delivery.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1845        Mar 3, Florida became the 27th state.
    (AP, 3/3/98)

1845        Mar 4, James K. Polk was inaugurated as 11th President.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1845        Mar 10, Hallie Quinn Brown, American educator, women's rights leader, was born.
    (HN, 3/10/01)
1845        Mar 10, Alexander III, Russian tsar, was born. [see Feb 26]
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1845        Mar 11, Seven hundred Maoris led by their chief, Hone-Heke, burned the small town of Kororareka in protest at the settlement of Maoriland by Europeans, in breach with the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1845        Mar 17, The rubber band was patented by Stephen Perry of London. [see May 17]
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1845        Mar 26, Joseph Francis patented a corrugated sheet-iron lifeboat in NYC.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1845        Mar 26, Patent was awarded for adhesive medicated plaster, precursor of band aid.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1845        Mar 27, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (d.1923), German scientist, was born. He discovered X-rays (Nobel-1901).
    (HN, 3/27/99)(MC, 3/27/02)

1845        Mar 28, Mexico dropped diplomatic relations with US.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1845        Apr 2, H.L. Fizeau and J. Leon Foucault took the 1st photo of Sun.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1845        Apr 10, Over 1,000 buildings were damaged by fire in Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1845        Apr 12, Henry M. Baron the Kock (65), officer, politician, died.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1845        Apr 18, Wilhelm Gericke, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1845        Apr, Elias Howe produced his 1st sewing machine.
    (ON, 11/00, p.8)

1845        May 8 - 1845 May 12, The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) was founded. The SBC became a separate denomination in Augusta, Georgia, following a regional split with northern Baptists over the issues of slavery.
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.36)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Baptist_Convention)

1845        May 10, During a celebrated round-the-world tour in 1844-46, the USS Constitution dropped anchor in the bay outside of Tourane, Cochin China (later part of Vietnam). While there, Bishop Dominique Lefevre, an imprisoned French missionary, requested the assistance of the ship's captain, "Mad Jack" Percival. The Americans attempted to negotiate with the Cochin Chinese, to no avail. Frustrated, they set sail from Cochin and continued on their course on May 26 without further word about or from the missionary, who was eventually retrieved by his own countrymen.
    (HNQ, 10/18/02)(AH, 12/02, p.25)

1845        May 12, Gabriel Urbain Faure, French composer, was born in Pamiers. His work included "Requiem" and "Ballade."
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(MC, 5/12/02)
1845        May 12, August Wilhelm Schlegel (77), German poet, interpreter, critic, died.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1845        May 17, The rubber band was patented. [see Mar 17]
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1845        May 22, Mary Cassatt (d.1926), American impressionist painter and printmaker, was born in Alleghany, Pa. Much of Cassatt’s early life was spent in Europe with her wealthy family. She attended the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1861 to 1865 and worked briefly with Charles Joshua Chaplin in Paris, but preferred working her own way and copying old masters. She was a close friend of and greatly influenced by Edgar Degas. He admired her entry in the Salon of 1874, and at his invitation she joined the Impressionists and afterward showed her works at their exhibits. Degas’ influence is apparent in Cassatt’s mastery of drawing and in her unposed, asymmetrical compositions. Initially, Cassatt was a figure painter whose subjects were groups of women drinking tea or on outings with friends. After the great exhibition of Japanese prints held in Paris in 1890, she brought out her series of 10 colored prints, such as "Woman Bathing," and "The Coiffure," in which the influence of the Japanese masters Utamaro and Toyokuni is apparent. Cassatt urged her wealthy American friends and relatives to buy Impressionist paintings, and in this way, more than through her own works, she exerted a lasting influence on American taste. She was largely responsible for selecting the works that make up the H.O. Havemeyer Collection in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.30)(AHD, p.209)(FAMSF, Mar, 98)

1845        May 28, A fire in Quebec Canada destroyed 1,500 houses.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1845        May 19, The HMS Erebus and Terror sailed from England under Sir John Franklin to navigate through the Arctic and find the elusive Northwest passage. Sir John Franklin and his 128-member crew all died on the journey and the ships vanished. By 1847 the British Admiralty had received no reports of Franklin. [see Franklin Jun 11, 1847]
    (WSJ, 2/10/95,  p.A-7)(www.coolantarctica.com)(Reuters, 8/23/12)

1845         Jun 1, A homing pigeon completed an 11,000 km trip (Namibia-London) in 55 days.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

1845        Jun 8, Andrew Jackson, 7th president of the US, died in Nashville, Tenn. His health had deteriorated over the last 30 years and in 1999 scientists cited lead poisoning from an 1813 wound as the primary cause of his health problems. In 1945 Arthur Schlesinger Jr. authored “The Age of Jackson," for which he won a Pulitzer Prize. Dr. Robert Remini later authored a 3-volume biography. In 2005 H.W. Brands authored “Andrew Jackson: A Life and Times." In 2008 Jon Meacham authored “American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the white House."
    (AP, 6/8/97)(SFC, 8/11/99, p.A2)(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.M3)(Econ, 3/10/07, p.85)(SSFC, 12/7/08, Books p.1)

1845        Jun 23, The congress of the Republic of Texas voted to accept annexation by the US after 10 years as an independent republic. [see Jul 4, 1845]
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1845        Jul 4, American writer Henry David Thoreau began his 26 month experiment in simple living at Walden Pond, near Concord, Mass. He chose this day to move to a rustic hut in the peace and quiet of Walden Pond. He doubted that there was a spot in Massachusetts where one could not hear a train whistle. The Fitchburg trains passed Walden Pond about a hundred rods south of his cabin. He lived there until September 6, 1947. His writings about his thoughts and experiences there are still read and remembered by millions around the world. "I went to the woods because I wished to see if I could not learn what it [life] had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.76)(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.53)(AP, 7/4/97)(IB, 12/7/98)
1845        Jul 4, Texas Congress voted for annexation to US. [see Jun 23, 1845]
    (Maggio, 98)

1845        Jul 14, Fire in NYC destroyed 1,000 homes and killed many.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1845        Jul 17, Earl Grey (b.1764), former British prime minister (1830-1834), died. A member of the Whig Party, he backed significant reform of the British government and was among the primary architects of the Reform Act of 1832. In addition to his political achievements, Earl Grey famously gives his name to an aromatic blend of tea.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Grey,_2nd_Earl_Grey)

1845        Jul 25, China granted Belgium equal trading rights with Britain, France and the United States.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1845        Aug 25, Ludwig II (d.1886), King of Bavaria (1864-86), was born at Nymphenburg. He was also called the "Mad King" for his extravagant castles.
    (HN, 1/7/99)(SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T4)(MC, 8/25/02)

1845        Aug 28, The first issue of Scientific American magazine was published as a 4-page weekly newspaper by inventor Rufus M. Porter (1792-1844).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_American)

1845        Aug, The Irish potato crop was attacked by the Phytophthora infestans fungus. It was first noticed in County Fermanagh. it blackened the potato leaves and caused the tubers in the ground to putrefy. In this year 40% of the crop was infected.
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A22)(USAT, 1/15/97, p.2D)

1845        Sep 7, Isabella Colbran, wife of Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini, died.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1845        Sep 8, A French column surrendered at Sidi Brahim in the Algerian War.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1845        Sep 10, Joseph Story (b.1779), US Supreme Court Justice, died after serving over 33 years.
    (AP, 7/24/98)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/18/)

1845        Sep, James Strang revealed his "Book of the Law of the Lord." He claimed to his followers to have unearthed three ancient-appearing brass plates of prophesy.
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.86)

1845        Oct 10, The U.S. Naval Academy opened in Annapolis, Md., with fifty midshipmen students and seven professors.
    (AP, 10/10/97)(HN, 10/10/98)(MC, 10/10/01)

1845        Oct 12, Elizabeth Fry (b.1780), English Quaker prisoner reform advocate, died. In 1827 she published a book called “Observations, on the visiting superintendence and government of female prisoners." Since 2002 she has been depicted on the Bank of England £5 note.
    (www.quakerinfo.com/fry.shtml)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Fry)

1845        Oct 13, Texas voters ratified a state constitution.
    (AP, 10/13/97)

1845        Oct 19, Richard Wagner's opera "Tannhauser," premiered in Dresden.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1845        Oct 22, Sarah Bernhardt (d.1923), legendary stage actress, was born in Paris. "Life begets life. Energy creates energy. It is by spending oneself that one becomes rich." [see Oct 23]
    (AP, 10/22/97)(AP, 2/20/00)(WUD, 1994 p.141)

1845        Nov 4, The 1st US nationally observed uniform election day was held.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1845        Dec 2, Johannes Simon Mayr (82), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1845        Dec 27, Ether was 1st used in childbirth in US at Jefferson, Ga.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1845        Dec 29, Texas (comprised of the present State of Texas and part of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming) was admitted as the 28th state, with the provision that the area (389, 166 square miles) should be divided into no more than five states "of convenient size." Sam Houston insisted on maintaining control of offshore waters as a condition of joining the union.
    (HN, 12/29/98)(AP, 12/29/97)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.29)

1845        Dec, Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (b.1786), con artist known as the Prince of Poyais, died in Caracas.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.112)

1845        William Sidney Mount (1807-1868), American genre painter, created his work “Eel Spearing at Setauket."
    (WSJ, 1/13/06, p.P9)

1845        Benjamin Disraeli, future British prime minister, authored his novel “Sybil," a look at class through the lens of a romance between the daughter of a working class activist and the aristocratic hero.
    (WSJ, 1/10/08, p.W2)

1845        Frederick Douglass, African-American statesman, published “The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass." He then traveled to Ireland where he received a hero’s welcome. Irish nationalist Daniel O’Connell saw common cause between Ireland’s quest for self-rule and the plight of American slaves. British admirers raised money to buy his freedom and he was officially manumitted after Hugh Auld, his alleged owner, received a payment of $711.66.
    (WSJ, 3/13/09, p.W2)(ON, 12/09, p.12)

1845        Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), German social scientist, authored in German “The Condition of the Working Class in England." It was not published in English until 1892.
    (www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/condition-working-class/)

1845        Der Struwwelpeter, a popular German children's book, was published by Heinrich Hoffmann. It comprises ten illustrated and rhymed stories, mostly about children. Each has a clear moral that demonstrates the disastrous consequences of misbehavior in an exaggerated way. The title of the first story provides the title of the whole book. Literally translated, Struwwel-Peter means Shaggy-Peter.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Struwwelpeter)
1845        Alexander von Humboldt, German explorer, authored “Cosmos," his 5-volume overview of the universe.
    (WSJ, 7/29/06, p.P8)
1845        The "Handbook for Travellers in Spain" was first published. It described Valencians as: "perfidious, vindictive, sullen, mistrustful, fickle, treacherous, smooth, empty of all good, snarling and biting like hyenas, and smiling as they murder."
    (SSFC, 11/30/02, p.C3)
1845        "King Rene’s Daughter," a play by Danish playwright Henrik Hertz, was first performed. It was used as the basis for Tchaikovsky’s opera "Iolanthe."
    (WSJ, 7/16/96, p.A9)
1845        Prosper Merimee wrote his novella that later became the opera "Carmen" by Bizet.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)
1845        Construction began on Fort Jefferson on the Dry Tortugas and work continued until 1875. After the Civil War the fort served as a federal prison for deserters and political prisoners.
    (NH, 4/97, p.38)
1845        The moat of the Tower of London, built by Edward I, was drained and filled.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.71)
1845        In Boston the Eastern Hotel became the first building heated by steam. Radiators were used.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, Z1 p.2)
1845        Boston outlawed bathing unless it was done under a doctor’s orders.
    (WSJ, 12/11/02, p.B1)
1845        In NYC a real police department was established.
    (WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)
1845        Richard Fox, an Irish immigrant, founded his National Police Gazette.
    (MT, Sum. ‘98, p.10)
1845        John L. O’Sullivan, a New York newspaperman, first used the term "Manifest Destiny" to describe the US move to annex Texas. John L. O'Sullivan was the editor of the Democratic Review in 1845 when he wrote of "Our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions."
    (SFEM, 9/15/96, p.12)(SFEC, 10/20/96, Z  1 p.2)(HNQ, 4/3/01)

1845        Karl Marx, while working as a political journalist in Paris, was driven out and goes to Brussels, where he met Engels.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.258)

1845        The style of button-fly pants was introduced to the US "despite protests from the religious community, who saw the flap as a license to sin."
    (WSJ, 11/20/97, p.A20)

1845        The U.S. Naval Academy was founded at Fort Severn.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.391)

1845        New Braunfels, Texas, was founded by German settlers under the leadership of Prince Carl of Solm-Braunfels.
    (Sp., 5/96, p.56)

1845        Mosquito County in Florida changed its name to Orange County.
    (Hem, Mar. 95, p.27)

1845        Don Juan Forster, brother-in-law of the Mexican governor of California, bought the Mission of San Juan Capistrano for $710.
    (HT, 3/97, p.62)

1845        Henry Lehman, an immigrant from Germany, opened a dry goods store in Montgomery, Alabama. He was joined by his two brothers in 1850. The family often accepted raw cotton instead of cash for merchandise, which resulted in a successful cotton business on the side. In 1862, the brothers formed Lehman, Durr & Co. with cotton merchant John Durr, and in 1870, helped to form the New York Cotton Exchange.
    (www.publicbonds.org/major_players/lehman.htm)

1845        George Pray was a member of the first Univ. of Michigan graduating class. His diary was recently acquired.
    (MT, 3/96, p.14)

1845        Walter Potter, English taxidermist, opened his stuffed animal museum in Bramble, south of London. Admission was 2 cents.
    (SFC, 11/29/02, p.K8)

1845        Beriah Swift of Millbrook, N.Y., patented a coffee mill and built a factory to make the mills. He was joined by William and John Lane about 1880 and the company moved to Poughkeepsie.
    (SFC, 10/14/98, Z1 p.3)

1845        The first hypodermic syringe entered the market.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A6)

1845        John C. Fremont led his 3rd surveying expedition through the central Great Basin of Nevada. He was accompanied by Thomas E. Breckenridge, a Missouri fur trapper.
    (BLM, 2001)(ON, 12/06, p.5)

1845        Christoph Buys, Dutch scientist, used a group of perfect pitch musicians as stationary observers and arranged for a group of trumpeters to pass by on a railway car to prove the Doppler effect.
    (JST-TMC,1983, p.10)

1845        An account of the murder of Joseph Smith, Mormon leader, was published at Nauvoo, Ill., by an eye-witness named William M. Daniels.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.18)

1845         Albert Tirrell was accused of murder in the Tirell-Bickkford case of this year and got an acquittal by his lawyer with the argument that the crimes were committed while his client was walking in his sleep.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.21)

1845        Emigrants, led by trapper Stephen Meek, took a disastrous shortcut from the Oregon Trail. Stephen H. L. Meek, trapper, mountain man and younger brother of famed Oregon pioneer Joseph Meek, led a group heading out to the Oregon Territory. However, by the time they reached Fort Laramie, Meek was told his services were no longer needed. He rode on ahead, speaking to the groups he found along the way, telling of a new route to the settlements in the Willamette Valley. It was shorter, he told them, and easier. For five dollars per wagon, he would guide them. By the time he reached Fort Boise on the Snake River, he’d managed to persuade around 200 families to take his cutoff. In 1967 Keith Clark and Lowell Tiller authored: "Terrible Trail: The Meek Cutoff, 1845" (Caxton Printers, Caldwell, Idaho, 1967).
    (HNQ, 5/20/01)

1845        John Henry Newman (1801-1890) gave up a brilliant academic career at Oxford University and the pulpit of the university church to convert to Catholicism, convinced that the truth that he had been searching for could no longer be found in the Church of England. In 1847 he was ordained as a Catholic priest.
    (AP, 9/19/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Henry_Newman)
1845        The Economist Magazine began tabulating a food price index.
    (Econ, 12/8/07, p.11)
1845        The SS Great Britain, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, crossed the Atlantic in a record 14 days. Her protracted construction and high cost had left her owners in a difficult financial position, and they were forced out of business in 1846 after the ship was stranded by a navigational error.
    (Econ, 5/7/11, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Great_Britain)

1845        In Italy the Cantoni cotton mill opened in Castellanza. It closed in 1985.
    (Econ, 4/16/11, p.70)

1845        George Cato, the 1st mayor of Durban, South Africa, acquired almost 5,000 acres in an area that came to be called Cato Manor.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.10)

1845-1846    As Ireland’s potato crop was consumed by blight. The nation’s peasants, who relied on the potato as their primary food source, starved. The famine took as many as one million lives from hunger and disease and caused mass emigration. The British government responded to the calamity too late with too little aid, even though eyewitnesses reported the suffering in the press.
    (HNPD, 3/17/99)       
1845-1848    John James Audubon (d.1851) completed his folio set titled "Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America." It is now kept at the Audubon Museum in Henderson, Kentucky.
    (WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-1)

1845-1857    Mary E. Daly, Dublin, covered this period in her essay on Irish potato famine relief: "The Operations of Famine Relief."
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A22)

1845-1849    James Knox Polk became President of the US. He offered Mexico $25 million for California, but the offer was declined. Polk then ordered General Zachary Taylor, known as Old Rough and Ready, to Texas with troops and an eye on expansion.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(HFA, ‘96, p.46)

1845-1850    A fungus of the genus Phytophtora caused the Irish potato famine.
    (SFC, 8/1/00, p.A13)

1845-1855    Some 1.5 million people left Ireland and many of them made New York City their home. The 2003 film "Gangs of New York" depicted their struggle.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.49)

1845-1871    William Stanley Jevons gathers several long-time series of weekly data on securities, deposits and reserves from 1845-1871 into monthly cross-sections to show typical seasonal pattern. Oct. asset liquidations are coupled by Jevons to natural rhythms such as the desire to purchase the produce of the harvest.
    (WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-18)

1845-1879    W.K. Clifford, mathematician, investigated the idea of space.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.270)

1845-1932    Albert Goodwin, a brilliant watercolorist who traveled widely.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.94)

1845-1929    Wilhelm von Bode, German art historian. He supervised the construction of a museum that later bore his name.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

1845-1998    This period is covered in the 3-part TV series "The Irish in America: Long Journey Home" by Thomas Lennon.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)

1846        Jan 13, President James Polk dispatched General Zachary Taylor and 4,000 troops to the Texas Border as war with Mexico loomed. At the outset of the Mexican-American War, the Mexican army numbered 32,000 and the American army consisted of 7,200 men. The American army had, since 1815, only fought against a few Indian tribes. Forty-two percent of the army was made up of recent German or Irish immigrants. In the course of the war, the total U.S. force employed reached 104,000. In 2008 Martin Dugard authored “The Training Ground: Grant, Lee, Sherman, and Davis in the Mexican War, 1846-1848." In 2012 Amy S. Greenberg authored “A Wicked War: Polk, Clay, Lincoln and the 1846 US Invasion of Mexico.
    (HNQ, 2/28/99)(WSJ, 5/16/08, p.W8)(SSFC, 1/6/13, p.F6)

1846        Jan 21, 1st edition of Charles Dickens' "Daily News."
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1846        Jan 25, The dreaded Corn Laws, which taxed imported oats, wheat and barley, were repealed by the British Parliament.
    (HN, 1/25/99)

1846        Feb 4, Brigham Young, Joseph Smith’s successor, led the Mormons overland from Nauvoo, Ill., to the Great Salt Lake Valley. Mormon pioneer Sam Brannon gathered some 250 Mormons aboard the ship, Brooklyn, and sailed from New York to San Francisco. [see 1847]
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)(SFEC, 7/21/96, DB p.29)

1846        Feb 5, The first Pacific Coast newspaper, Oregon Spectator, was published.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1846        Feb 9, Wilhelm Maybach, German engineer, was born. He designed the first Mercedes automobile.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1846        Feb 10, Led by religious leader Brigham Young, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, the Mormons, began an exodus from Nauvoo, Il., to Utah.
    (AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/99)

1846        Feb 10, British General Sir Hugh Gough decisively routed Tej Singh’s Sikhs in the Battle of Sobraon.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1846        Feb 18, The US Dept. of the Navy ordered the US Navy to use the word “port" rather than “larboard" to refer to the left side of a ship.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1846        Feb 19, The Texas state government was formally installed in Austin, with J. Pinckney Henderson taking the oath of office as governor.
    (AP, 2/19/07)

1846        Feb 21, Sarah G. Bagley became the first female telegrapher, taking charge at the newly opened telegraph office in Lowell, Mass.
    (AP, 2/21/00)

1846        Feb 23, The Liberty Bell in Philadelphia tolled for the last time, to mark George Washington’s birthday. A hairline fracture had developed since 1817 and a failed attempt to repair it resulted in the crack. In 2010 Tristram Riley-Smith authored “"The Cracked Bell: American and the Afflictions of Liberty."
    (HN, 2/23/98)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T5)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.93)
1846        Feb 23, Polish revolutionaries marched on Cracow, but were defeated.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1846        Feb 24, Luigi Denza, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1846        Feb 26, William Frederick Cody, aka "Buffalo Bill," was born in LeClaire, Scott County, Iowa. He was a "Wild West" frontiersman-turned-showman. Three weeks after the disaster at the Little Bighorn, Buffalo Bill claimed he had taken ‘the first scalp for Custer!’
    (HN, 2/26/98)(AP, 2/26/98)(MesWP)

1846        Mar 13, Friedrich Hebbel's "Maria Magdalena," premiered in Konigsberg.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1846          Mar 16, Jurgis Bielinis, Lithuanian publisher and "king of the (underground) book carriers" was born in Purviskis. He died there Jan 18, 1918. This day was later declared "Book Carriers Day."
    (LHC, 3/16/03)

1846        Mar 17, Kate Greenway, painter and illustrator (Mother Goose), was born.
    (HN, 3/17/01)

1846        Mar 22, Randolph Caldecott, illustrator, was born.
    (HN, 3/22/01)

1846        Apr 15, The Donner family set out for California from Springfield, Ill.
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.C1)

1846        Apr 16, Domenico Dragonetti (83), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1846        May 4, Michigan ended its death penalty.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1846        May 5, Henryk Sienkiewicz (d.1916), author (Quo Vadis, Nobel 1905), was born  in Poland: "The greater the philosopher, the harder it is for him to answer the questions of common people."
    (AP, 2/5/97)(MC, 5/5/02)

1846        May 8, News reached Washington DC that Mexican troops had attacked a US reconnaissance patrol near the Rio Grande and killed or captured some 40 men. That same afternoon Polk and his cabinet had decided to ask Congress for a declaration of war against Mexico.
    (AH, 6/07, p.44)
1846        May 8, The first major battle of the Mexican-American War was fought at Palo Alto, Texas; US forces led by General Zachary Taylor were able to beat back the invading Mexican forces.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

1846        May 9, US forced Mexico back to Rio Grande in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma.
    (MC, 5/9/02)
1846        May 9, Gen. Mariano Arista crossed the Rio Grande and killed a number of US soldiers in a surprise attack. Mexico believed that France and Britain would support it in a war against the US.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A15)

1846        May 13, The US under Pres. Polk declared war against Mexico, 2 months after fighting began. This was in response to an incident where the Mexican cavalry surrounded a scouting party of American dragoons. $10 million was appropriated for war expenses by Congress. 50, 000 volunteers responded to the war effort and Gen. Taylor used his forces to capture the Mexican town of Monterey [in California] and then moved south to defeat Santa Anna’s armies at the Battle of Buena Vista.
    (WCG, p.59)(HFA, ‘96, p.48)(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)

1846        May 18, US troops attacked at the Rio Grande and occupied Matamoros.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1846        May 24, General Zachary Taylor captured Monterey in the Mexican War.
    (HN, 5/24/98)

1846        May 29, Albert Gyorgy, earl Apponyi, Hungarian minister of Education, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
   
1846        May 30, Peter Carl Faberge (d.1920), Russian master jeweler and goldsmith was born (May 18 OS) in St. Petersburg. His work includes the Imperial Coronation Easter Egg (1896-1908), an enameled, diamond-studded golden egg about 5 inches long that opens to reveal a 3-inch-long replica of the carriage that took the czarina to her coronation in 1896; the rococo Imperial Catherine the Great Easter Egg (1908-1917) and the Rectangular Box with a monogram of tiny diamonds (1896-1908).
    (SFC, 5/23/96, p.D1,10)(www.britannica.com/ebi/article?tocId=9274244)

1846        May, Sarah Borginnis was very big--a red-haired behemoth anywhere from 6 to 7 feet tall, depending on whose account you read. She first appeared in history at the beginning of the Mexican War as she traveled with Zachary Taylor's army as a cook, laundress and occasional nurse. But it was in May 1846 during the siege of Fort Brown, Texas, that Sarah distinguished herself by calmly making coffee and bean soup in an open courtyard as Mexican explosive shells burst around her. In spite of receiving a "bullet through her bonnet and another through her bread tray," Sarah, who became known as "The Heroine of Fort Brown," made her rounds nursing soldiers and feeding the men.
    (HNQ, 5/17/99)

1846        Jun 13, Jose Noe, owner of a 4,000-acre ranch in the center of SF, was the last chief magistrate under Mexican rule. He became a city official when the Americans took over and is buried in Mission Dolores.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1846        Jun 14, Americans in Northern California rebelled against Mexican authorities in what is called the Bear Flag Revolt and proclaimed the Republic of California. Wagon master William B. Ide, leader of the Bear Flag Party, was urged to loot the Mexican stronghold but said: "Choose ye this day what you will be! We are robbers or we must be conquerors." Although the US had declared war against Mexico in May, word did not reach California until July. Commodore John Sloat raised the Stars and Stripes over the American Customs House in Monterey, and three days later it flew over the Sonoma Plaza. Ide was installed as president of the new republic.
    (WCG, p.59)(SFEM, 6/9/96, p.32)(AP, 6/14/97)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W36)
1846        Jun 14, William L. Todd, nephew of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln designed a flag for the Bear Flag Revolt with the words California Republic. With rusty nails and blackberry juice he painted a grizzly and a star on white cloth. The lower red border was said to come from the flannel petticoat of Nancy Kelsey, who sewed the flag. The Bear Flag Revolt got its name from the presence of a grizzly bear on the standard proposed for the independent California.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.16)(HN, 6/14/99)

1846        Jun 15, The United States and Britain signed a treaty settling a boundary dispute between Canada and the United States in the Pacific Northwest at the 49th parallel. Great Britain and the U.S. agreed on a joint occupation of Oregon Territory. President Polk agreed to a compromise border along the 49th parallel. The debate over the northwestern border of the United States. The campaign slogan "54-40 or fight" referred to the debate over the northwestern border of the United States. The slogan "54-40 or fight" refers to the north latitude degree and minute where many Americans wanted to place the border between the U.S. and then Great Britain in the Pacific Northwest.
    (AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)(SFC, 1/25/99, p.A3)(HNQ, 3/28/00)
1846        Jun 15, Washington diplomats established a straight line border between the US and Canada in the northwest and thus established Point Roberts, Wa. as the westernmost corner of the US. The enclave is 4.9 sq. miles.
    (SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-6)

1846        Jun 19, The New York Knickerbocker Club played the New York Club in the first baseball game at the Elysian Field, Hoboken, New Jersey.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1846        Jun 27, New York City and Boston were linked by telegraph wires.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

1846        Jun 27, Charles Stewart Parnell (d.1891), Irish nationalist hero, was born.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.32)(AHD, 1971, p.954)(HN, 6/27/98)

1846        Jun 28, Near San Rafael, Ca., a US military detachment was approached by 3 unarmed Mexicans, Jose de los Reyes Berryessa, Francisco de Haro and his twin brother Ramon. Captain Fremont was asked by trapper Kit Carson whether he should take the men as prisoners. Fremont responded that he had no room for prisoners and Carson shot the men dead and left their bodies to rot.
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.E1)

1846        Jun, In the Mexican-American War during the first month of battle, Taylor sent Samuel Walker, commander of a regiment of rangers, to Baltimore on a recruiting mission. Walker looked up Sam Colt and together they worked out the design for a new pistol. With financial assistance from Eli Whitney, the first 1000 guns were ordered by Walker without government permission. The Walker-Colt was very effective in Mexico and was the ancestor to the late Colt peacemaker.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.48)

1846        Jul 1, In Yerba Buena (later SF) Kit Carson helped Capt. John Fremont scale the walls on the site of Fort Point to claim the Presidio for the US.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W30)

1846        Jul 7, U.S. annexation of California was proclaimed at Monterey after Commodore Sloat reached Monterey and claimed California for the US.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.48)(AP, 7/7/97)

1846        Jul 9, Captain J.B. Montgomery raised the American flag over San Francisco. Montgomery claimed Yerba Buena (SF) for the US.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W36)(www.bearflagmuseum.org/History.html)

1846        Jul 21, Mormons founded the 1st English settlement in the San Joaquin Valley of Calif.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1846        Jul 31, San Francisco, known as Yerba Buena, had only 459 residents, and with the arrival of Sam Brannon and 230 Mormons became known as a Mormon town. [see 1848] Printer Brannon later published the first SF newspaper, the California Star.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)(SFEC, 7/21/96, DB p.29)

1846        Aug 10, President James Polk signed a measure establishing the Smithsonian Institution. The US Congress chartered the Smithsonian Institution, named after English scientist James Smithson (1765-1836), whose bequest of $500,000 made it possible. The Smithsonian Institute was born and Joseph Henry became its first secretary.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)(AP, 8/10/07)

1846        Aug 13, The American flag was raised for the first time in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 8/13/97)

1846        Aug 14, Henry David Thoreau was jailed for tax resistance.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1846        Aug 15, The first California newspaper, the “Californian" of Monterey, was issued by Walter Colton and Robert Semple. It was written half in English and half in Spanish. It was printed on the state’s first press, an old Ramage model from Boston, that had arrived in 1834. The paper moved to San Francisco in 1847.
    (SFEC, 3/8/8, BR p.6)(SFC, 7/12/14, p.C1)

1846        Aug 16, Gioacchino Rossini married Olympe Pelissier in Paris and stopped composing operas.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1846        Aug 17, US took Los Angeles. [see Aug 13]
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1846        Aug 18, U.S. forces led by Gen. Stephen W. Kearney captured Santa Fe, N.M. As commander of the Army of the West during the Mexican War, Brig. Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny captured Santa Fe without a shot being fired. Kearny (1794-1848) then served as military governor of New Mexico for a month.
    (AP, 8/18/97)(HNQ, 4/23/00)

1846        Aug 22, Gen. Stephen W. Kearny proclaimed all of New Mexico a territory of the United States. The US pledged to honor the land grants in northern New Mexico that were awarded by the Spanish and Mexican governors of the territory.
    (WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A6)(AP, 8/22/07)

1846        Aug 26, Felix Mendelssohn's "Elijah," premiered.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1846        Aug, By the end of August the US Pacific Fleet with the help of General John C. Fremont, had occupied the entire state of California.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.48)

1846        Sep 4, Daniel Burnham, US architect, city planner and builder of skyscrapers, was born.
    (HN, 9/4/00)(MC, 9/4/01)

1846        Sep 10, Elias Howe (d.1867) of Spencer, Mass., received a U.S. patent for his first workable lockstitch sewing machine. Howe, a Massachusetts machinist, developed his sewing machine in 1843-45 and patented it in 1846. Although Howe’s machine sewed only short, straight lines, tailors and seamstresses saw it as a threat to their jobs. Unable to market his machine in America, Howe took it to Britain where he sold the rights to an English manufacturer in 1847. Upon his return to the United States, Howe discovered that his patent had been infringed upon by other sewing machine manufacturers, such as Isaac Singer. After a lengthy court battle, Howe’s patent was upheld and royalties from sewing machine sales made him a wealthy man.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.54)(AP, 9/10/97)(HNPD, 7/9/98)(HN, 9/10/98)

1846        Sep 19, Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning eloped.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(MC, 9/19/01)

1846        Sep 23, The planet Neptune was discovered by German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle. Neptune was discovered after John Couch Adams of England and Urbain Jean Leverrier of France independently figured out where it should be.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.38)(AP, 9/23/97)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Par p.13)(ON, 9/01, p.9)

1846        Sep 25, American General Zachary Taylor’s forces captured Monterey, Mexico.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1846        Sep 30, Dentist William Morton (1819-1868) used ether as an anesthetic for the first time on a dental patient in Boston, Massachusetts.
    (AP, 9/30/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_T._G._Morton)

1846        Oct 6, George Westinghouse (d.1914) was born. Inventor and manufacturer Westinghouse, a leader in the development of electric power, also developed a long-distance transmission system for natural gas. Westinghouse held more than 400 patents including shock absorbers, electric brakes for subway cars, air brakes and railroad signals. He promoted the development and construction of electric transformers, enabling the introduction of high-tension systems using single-phase alternating currents.
    (HNQ, 7/6/99)(HN, 10/6/00)

1846        Oct 10, Alexis the Tocqueville wrote about the "Algerian problem."
    (MC, 10/10/01)
1846        Oct 10, Neptune's moon Triton was discovered by William Lassell. [see Sep 23]
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1846        Oct 16, Sulphurous ether was first administered in public at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston by dentist Dr. William Thomas Green Morton during an operation performed by Dr. John Collins Warren. Morton was the 1st to take public credit for the use of ether in a medical procedure and applied for a patent on its use, which was later nullified. In 2001 Julie M. Fenster authored “Ether Day," an account of Dr. Morton and ether. [see Sep 30] Oliver Wendall Holmes son suggested that that the procedure be called “Anesthesia."
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)(ON, 10/20/11, p.10)

1846        Oct 28, Auguste Escoffier, king of chefs and chef of kings, was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1846        Oct 31, Heavy snows trapped the Donner party in the eastern Sierras near what is now Truckee.
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.C1)(www.utahcrossroads.org/DonnerParty/Chronology.htm)

1846        Nov 4, Benjamin F. Palmer of Meredith N.H. received a patent on an artificial human leg.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, Z1 p.8)(MC, 11/4/01)

1846        Nov 5, Robert Schumann's 2nd Symphony in C, premiered.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1846        Nov 16, General Zachary Taylor took Saltillo, Mexico. General, cried Brig. Gen. John Wool in despair, we are whipped! I know it, replied Maj. Gen. Zachary Taylor, but the volunteers don't know it. Let them alone; we'll see what they do.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1846        Nov 25, Carry Nation (d.1911) was born Carry Amelia Moore in Kentucky. After her first husband died a drunkard, she married David Nation and they moved to Medicine Lodge, Kansas. There, she was elected president of the local chapter of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Even though Kansas was technically a dry state, Medicine Lodge had seven saloons. When Carry Nation's appeals to close the saloons were ignored, she took matters into her own hands--she drove a buggy, full of bricks and stones she had wrapped in newspapers, up to a saloon, smashed its mirrors, glasses, bottles and windows, and said to the proprietor as she left, "I have finished. God be with you." Nation repeated her barroom attacks across the state and the country. One of her last actions was at Washington's Union Depot, where she used three hatchets that she called Faith, Hope and Charity. Nation was arrested about 30 times for her saloon rampages.
    (HNPD, 11/25/98)

1846        Dec 6, Hector Berlioz' opera "La Damnation de Faust" was produced in Paris.
    (MC, 12/6/01)(WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)

1846        Dec 10, Norbert Rillieux (1806-1894), African-American engineer, received a patent for the Rillieux Process for refining sugar. He won several patents for a way to refine sugar in a process that later came to be called multiple-effect distillation.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.24)(www.aalbc.com/books/black7.htm)

1846        Dec 11, A herd of wild cattle stampeded the rear companies of the Mormon Battalion near Tombstone, Arizona. As a result of what came to be known as the Battle of the Bulls, approximately 12 bulls were killed, two mules were gored, and three men were wounded, including future California governor, Lieutenant George Stoneman.
    (HNQ, 2/12/02)

1846        Dec 16, In desperation 10 men and 5 women of the Donner Party left on snowshoes to cross the Sierra Nevada. The 5 women and 2 men survived. All but one of the dead were eaten. Of the 89 members in the whole group 42 died.
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.C1)

1846        Dec 28, Iowa became the 29th state to be admitted to the Union.
    (AP, 12/28/97)

1846        Dec, In California the town of Francesca (now Benicia) planned to change its name to San Francisco. William A. Bartlett, the first American alcalde, or mayor of Yerba Buena, led the town council to beat Francesca and approve a name change to San Francisco.
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A15)

1846        Edward Hicks completed his painting "The Peaceable Kingdom." [see 1844] He also did the portrait of "James Cornell's Prize Bull."
    (SFEM, 10/18/98, p.15)(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)

1846        Barend Cornelis Koekkoek of Holland painted his "Portrait of a Young Lady."
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W16)

1846        Charles Dickens authored "Pictures from Italy."
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C8)

1846        "The History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds" by British anatomist Richard Owen was published.
    (NH, 8/96, p.20)

1846        The International Mission Board was created as part of the Southern Baptist Convention.
    (AP, 12/30/02)

1846        The Seventh-Day Adventists broke from the Adventist Church, stressing legalism and Sabbatarianism, with strong views on diet, health and medicine.
    (HNQ, 9/29/99)

1846        In Woodstock, Conn., Henry Chandler Bowen (d.1896) built a summertime retreat. He had made a fortune as a silk importer in Brooklyn. The 19-room cottage was designed by Joseph Collins Wells and furnished by Thomas Brooks, a New York cabinet maker.
    (HT, 4/97, p.36)

1846        Trinity Church, a Gothic Revival-style building, was constructed at Broadway and Wall St. in NYC.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.T4)

1846         Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of the influential Godey's Lady's Book, began a tireless campaign to establish a national Thanksgiving holiday in November. She was the editor and founder of the Ladies' Magazine in Boston. Her editorials in the magazine and letters to President Lincoln urging the formal establishment of a national holiday of Thanksgiving resulted in Lincoln’s proclamation in 1863, which designated the last Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day.
    (HNPD, 11/26/98)

1846        Robert Semple, a Kentucky-born printer, dentist, lawyer, physician and riverboat pilot, helped lead the Bear Flag Revolt. He helped take Gen’l. Vallejo prisoner and with financier Thomas O. Larkin paid Vallejo $100 to become co-owner of 5 sq. miles around Benicia. Larkin was the American ambassador to California and had been sent by Pres. Polk to encourage the Californios to defect to the US.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W26)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W36)(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.E1)

1846        Lt. Harry Lumsden in the heat of India’s Punjab dyed his PJs a tawny color. They were made of cotton and called khaki in Hindi.
    (NH, 6/96, p.7)

1846        A US Treaty was signed with the Cherokee Nation in which the tribe gave up resistance to forced relocation.
    (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)

1846        The pier at Monterey, California was built for trading vessels bringing goods around Cape Horn.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.71)
1846        US Army forces under the command of John C. Fremont conducted a murderous attack on Sacramento River Maidu Indian villages.
    (www.nativeamericancaucus.com/history.shtml)
c1846    General Winfield Scott called Robert E. Lee "the very best soldier I ever saw in the field" and suggested the U.S. government, in the event of war, insure his life for $5 million. Lee served on Scott’s staff in the Mexican War and inspired Scott’s praise with his reconnaissance skills and good judgement, which contributed significantly to his Mexican victories. In 1861 Scott offered Lee command of the Union army, but Lee declined, deciding to support the Confederacy.
    (HNPD, 8/15/99)
1846        Commander John Montgomery sent a 70-man detachment from the Portsmouth ashore at Yerba Buena, soon renamed San Francisco, and raised the American flag.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.A15)
1846        In California Gen’l. Vallejo married Dr. Edward Turner Bale’s niece, and bestowed upon him a land grant. Its last remnant in 1998 was the Old Bale Mill, south of Calistoga. [see 1841]
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, p.T5)(AP, 3/5/98)
1846        Cuthbert Burrel came to California and served under Gen’l. John C. Fremont. His grandson, lawyer Harry Haehl, served under Gen’l. Douglas MacArthur and assisted in the revival of the Japanese merchant marine after WW II.
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.B2)
1846        In Northern California Don Rafael Garcia gave a party for Joseph Revere, a newly arrived American military officer. The large ranch holders were called "Californios." The old families were named Peralta, Noe, Bernal, Castro, Berryessa, and all eventually lost their land.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A11)
1846        The sons of Francisco de Haro, the first chief magistrate of Yerba Buena (later renamed San Francisco), were murdered by Americans under the command of Kit Carson.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1846        The Applegate Trail across northwest Nevada and northeast California was blazed as a southern approach to Oregon's Willamette Valley.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, p.T7)
1846        Heinrich Lienhard, Swiss immigrant to the US, and four companions traveled from Independence, Missouri, to New Helvetia, also called Sutter's Fort, Ca., where he stayed and worked until 1849.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Lienhard)

1846        Texas was voluntarily annexed to the US.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A15)   

1846        Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearney commissioned a map of the New Mexico territory.
    (www.discoveryeditions.com/tpl)(LP, Spring 2006, p.44)

c1846    In Aroostook County, Maine, Scottish and Irish immigrants began planting potatoes.
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A1)

1846        New York newspapers collaborated to share costs for reporting on the Mexican war. This collaboration led to the formation of the Associated Press in 1848.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.143)
1846        Alexander Turney Stewart (d.1876), Irish-born entrepreneur, opened the 1st US dept store in lower Manhattan.
    (www.lowermanhattan.info/history)
1846        Moses Gunn (23), a graduate of the Geneva Medical School in Upstate New York, began a course of lectures in anatomy at the Univ. of Michigan. In 1867 he moved to Rush medical College in Chicago.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.4)
1846        NYC abandoned the Lancastrian school system in favor of direct teacher to student instruction in its tax supported schools.
    (ON, 3/06, p.10)

1846        Henry Inman (b.1801), American artist, died. He copied portraits of American Indian leaders made by Charles Bird King.
    (WSJ, 3/15/06, p.D16)

1846        A British parliamentary commission decided on a national railway standard with rails separated by less than 5 feet. This was a cheaper option than the 7-foot spacing used by Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859) for the Royal Albert railway bridge linking Cornwall and Devon.
    (Econ, 6/20/09, p.60)
1846        Britain passed the “Public Baths and Wash Houses Act," which gave local authorities the power to raise funds to keep the working classes clean and healthy.
    (Econ, 4/7/07, p.55)
1846        British firms began selling insurance policies in China.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.69)

1846        In Paris, France, the Hotel Chopin was built inside the Passage Jouffroy, a covered arcade.
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, p.M5)

1846        Carl Zeiss founded an optical business in Thuringia, Germany.
    (Econ, 11/8/14, p.64)

1846        In Ireland people began starving to death due to the potato famine.
    (USAT, 1/15/97, p.2D)

1846        In Korea Kim Tae-gon (25), the country’s first Catholic priest, was beheaded for attempting to help foreign missionaries enter the country. He was canonized in 1984.
    (SFC, 8/13/14, p.A7)

c1846    In Mexico Santa Anna was recalled to serve as president and to lead the army.
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W10)

1846        The Kot Massacre took place in Nepal. The Rana dynasty forced the Shah monarchy from power and then ruled until 1951.
    (SFC, 6/7/01, p.A12)(www.russojapanesewar.com/lewis-3.html)

1846        Scottish missionaries set up a school for Africans near Alice, South Africa. The Lovedale Bible College, a prep school for Blacks interested in going to seminary, soon followed.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.13)

1846        A major immigration of Swedes to the US began and by the 1920s brought in 1.2 million people.
    (FB, 9/12/96, p.A2)

1846        Ezequiel Zamora (1817-1860) spearheaded a peasant revolt in Venezuela. After a brief exile he returned to lead the Federal War (1859-1863) and founded the Venezuelan state of Barinas.
    (SSFC, 8/26/07, p.M2)

1846-1848    US troops invaded and captured Mexico City.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A12)

1846-1848    Ireland experiences the terrible potato famine. About 1,200,000 people leave Ireland, mostly for the US.
    (Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)

1846-1852    Lord John Russel was Prime Minister of England from 1846 to 1852 in his first term.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1846-1854    Darwin devoted himself to the study of barnacles.
    (NH, 8/96, p.56)

1846-1859    Ownership of the San Juan Islands was not settled in the 1846 Oregon Treaty. The Pig War of 1859 forced an arbitration under Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany. Six Royal Marines and 16 US soldiers died during the 13-year occupation from drownings, disease and suicides.
    (SFEC, 6/18/00, p.T8)

1846-1878    Pope Pius IX, Giovanni Mastai-Ferretti, allowed archeological excavations of the catacombs by G.B. de Rossi. Under Pius IX the child Edgardo Mortara was taken from the Jewish merchant, Momolo Mortara, in Bologna and raised as a foster son of the pope. The 6-year-old boy had been baptized by a Catholic servant and canonical law did not allow that he be raised by his Jewish parents. The story is told by David I. Kertzer in his 1997 book: "The Kidnapping of Edgardo Mortara."
    (ITV, 1/96, p.58)(SFEC, 8/31/97, BR p.9)(PTA, 1980, p.510)

1846-1911    Carry Nation, early leader of the American temperance movement, was famous for using a hatchet to destroy saloons in her home state of Kansas.
    (SFC, 1/7/98, Z1 p.6)

1846-1914    George Westinghouse, American inventor and manufacturer. He introduced the railroad airbrake in 1869. The device enabled the engineer to brake a train from the locomotive.
    ((WUD, 1994, p.1623)(THC, 12/2/97)

1847        Jan 7, The California Star in Yerba Buena was begun by 2 men a couple of months after the Monterey Californian on the 2nd floor of a mule-powered grist mill on what is now Clay St. It was started by Sam Brannan and was edited by Dr. Elbert P. Jones.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.6)(PI, 8/8/98, p.5)

1847        Jan 9, The first regular issue of The California Star newspaper appeared in San Francisco under editor Elbert P. Jones.
    (SFC, 7/12/14, p.C2)

1847        Jan 10, General Stephen Kearny and Commodore Robert Stockton retook Los Angeles in the last California battle of the Mexican War.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1847        Jan 16, US Navy commodore Robert Stockton appointed John C. Fremont (1830-1890), the famed "Pathfinder" of Western exploration, as governor of California. Fremont, explorer, soldier and politician, earned his nickname "The Pathfinder" because of his explorations of the Pacific Northwest, California, and Nevada during the 1840s.
    (HN, 1/16/99)(HNQ, 3/11/00)(SSFC, 7/1/07, p.M4)

1847        Jan 19, New Mexico Governor Charles Bent was slain by Pueblo Indians in Taos.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1847        Jan 24, 1,500 New Mexican Indians and Mexicans were defeated by US Col. Price.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1847        Jan 30, The California Star, founded by Sam Brannon, published the official name change of Yerba Buena to San Francisco on this day. Mayor Washington Bartlett had the town council approve the change. Lt. Bartlett's proclamation changing the name Yerba Buena to San Francisco took effect.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yerba_Buena,_California)(SFC, 1/25/02, p.G6)

1847        Jan 30, Virginia Poe, wife and cousin of Edgar Allan Poe, died at age 24.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T5)

1847        Feb 3, Marie Duplessis (b.1824), French courtesan, died. She was mistress to a number of prominent and wealthy men, the inspiration for Marguerite Gautier, and the main character of La Dame aux Camelias by Alexandre Dumas the younger, one of her lovers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Duplessis)

1847        Feb 11, American inventor Thomas Alva Edison was born in Milan, Ohio. He was the inventor of the first electric light bulb and pioneer of the motion picture industry. He also Invented at least 1,300 other items.
    (HN, 2/11/97)(AP, 2/11/97)

1847        Feb 14, Anna Howard Shaw, U.S. suffragette, was born.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1847        Feb 16, Ludwig Philipp Scharwenka, German composer (Album Polonaise), was born.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1847        Feb 19, The 1st rescuers finally reached the ill-fated Donner Party in the Sierras, where many resorted to cannibalism to survive.
    (HN, 2/19/99)(ON, SC, p.6)

1847        Feb 22, In the Battle of Buena Vista US troops beat Mexican army during the Mexican-American War. Mexican General Santa Anna (of Alamo infamy) surrounded the outnumbered forces of U.S. General Zachary Taylor ('Old Rough and Ready') at the Angostura Pass in Mexico and demanded an immediate surrender. Taylor refused, reported to reply, "Tell him to go to hell," and early the next morning Santa Anna dispatched some 15,000 troops to move against the 5,000 Americans. The superior US artillery was able to halt one of the two advancing Mexican divisions. By the afternoon Taylor had lived up to his word as the Mexicans began to withdraw.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1847        Feb 23, U.S. troops under Gen. Zachary Taylor defeated Mexican Gen. Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista in Mexico. The United States and Mexico had been at war over territorial disputes since May 1846.
    (AP, 2/23/98)(HN, 2/23/98)

1847        Feb 28, Colonel Alexander Doniphan and his ragtag Missouri Mounted Volunteers rode to victory at the Battle of Sacramento, during the Mexican War.
    (HN, 2/28/99)

1847        Mar 1, James Reed reached Donner Lake and found his two children alive along with 15 other survivors.
    (ON, SC, p.7)
1847        Mar 1, Michigan became the 1st English-speaking jurisdiction to abolish the death penalty (except for treason against the state).
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1847         Mar 3, The inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell (teacher of the deaf, inventor: telephone; founder of Bell Telephone Company), was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. For two generations the family of Alexander Graham Bell was recognized as leading authorities on elocution and speech correction. Graham's father, Alexander Melville Bell's Standard Elocutionist went through nearly 200 editions in English.
    (SFEM, 1/11/98, p.12)(AP, 3/3/98)(HC, Internet, 3/3/98)(HNQ, 12/20/98)
1847        Mar 3, Post Office Department was authorized to issue postage stamps.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
   
1847        Mar 7, U.S. General Scott occupied Veracruz, Mexico. Pres. Polk decided to attack the heart of Mexico. He sent Gen. Winfield Scott, who landed at Veracruz and with his troops hacked their way to Mexico City. [see Mar 9]
    (HFA, '96, p.48)(HN, 3/7/98)

1847        Mar 9, US forces under General Winfield Scott invaded Mexico (Mexican-American War) 3 miles south of Vera Cruz. Encountering almost no resistance from the Mexicans massed in the fortified city of Vera Cruz, by nightfall the last of Scott's 10,000 men came ashore without the loss of a single life. It was the largest amphibious landing in U.S. history until WW II. [see Mar 7]
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1847        Mar 29, Some 12,000 US forces led by General Winfield Scott occupied the city of Vera Cruz after Mexican defenders capitulated.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(AP, 3/29/97)(MC, 3/29/02)

1847        Mar 31, Jarolslaw Zielinski, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1847        Apr 10, American newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer (d.1911) was born in Mako, Hungary. "What is everybody’s business is nobody’s business—except the journalist’s."
    (CFA, ‘96, p.44)(AP, 4/10/97)(AP, 8/30/98)

1847        Apr 18, U.S. forces defeated the Mexicans at Cerro Gordo in one of the bloodiest battle of the war.
    (HN, 4/18/99)

1847        Apr, A census in San Francisco, Ca., counted 462 residents.
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A15)

1847        Apr, A cattle market began in Seville, Spain, that changed over the years to a week long celebration of Holy Week.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.51)

1847        May 1, The cornerstone of the Smithsonian Institute was laid in Washington, DC. The building was designed by James Renwick Jr.
    (ON, 2/06, p.6)

1847        May 6, The Californian newspaper of Monterey moved to San Francisco.
    (SFC, 7/12/14, p.C2)

1847        May 7, The American Medical Association was founded in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 5/7/97)(HN, 5/7/98)

1847        May 14, Fanny Cacilia Mendelssohn Hensel (41), German pianist, composer and sister of Felix Mendelssohn, died of a stroke.
    (ON, 6/07, p.8)

1847        May 20, Mary Lamb, writer, died.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1847        May 25, Alphonse Goovaerts, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1847        May 25, John Alexander Dowie [Elijah the Restorer], US evangelist, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1847        Jun 10, Chicago Tribune began publishing.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1847        Jun 11, Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett, leader of English women's movement, was born.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1847        Jun 11, A written record was found in 1859, indicating that Sir John Franklin died on this day, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews' deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found. After commissioning three unsuccessful search expeditions, the British Admiralty posted a reward for anyone who could ascertain the fate of the crewmen of the HMS Erebus and Terror, who had sailed from England in May 1845 to navigate through the Arctic and find the elusive Northwest passage. Success was anticipated with Franklin commanding well-equipped crews and ships, but by 1847, the British Admiralty had received no reports of Franklin. Subsequent expeditions found evidence of the Franklin Expedition. Three graves dug into the permafrost were discovered in 1850, their headstones dated 1846. [see May 1845 and Franklin expedition 1850]
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)(HN, 6/11/99)

1847        Jun 22, The 1st doughnut with a hole in it was created.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.E4)(YarraNet, 6/22/00)

1847        Jul 1, The faces of founding fathers Benjamin Franklin and George Washington were pictured on the first U.S. government-sponsored postage stamps. Following a Congressional directive, the Post Office issued a Franklin five-cent stamp and a Washington 10-cent stamp.
    (HNQ, 5/16/98)(HN, 7/1/98)

1847        Jul 20, Max Liebermann, German impressionist painter, was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1847        Jul 24, Mormon leader Brigham Young and his followers, the first members of Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons), arrived in the valley of the Great Salt Lake in present-day Utah.
    (AP, 7/24/97)(HN, 7/24/98)

1847        Jul 26, Liberia became the first African colony to become an independent state. A mutual agreement between the settlers and the society created the republic of Liberia. More than 10,000 free blacks had moved there. Joseph Jenkins Roberts, the Virginia-born son of free blacks, was elected the first president of Liberia, an African nation that grew out of the efforts of the American Colonization Society. Roberts made a state visit to the United States in 1851. The American Colonization Society supported setting up a colony for freed slaves in Africa as an alternative to American integration. The first group of colonists landed in Liberia in 1822, and founded Monrovia, the colony’s capital city, named in honor of President James Monroe. [see Aug 26]
    (HNPD, 7/26/98)(HN, 7/26/98)

1847        Aug 2, William A. Leidesdorff launched the first steam boat in San Francisco Bay.
    (HN, 8/2/98)

1847        Aug 8, Lt. Col. William M. Graham was killed in action at the head of the U.S. 11th Infantry at the Battle of Molino del Rey. On Mar 13, 1865, Graham was given a brevet brigadier generalcy.
    (HNQ, 4/1/01)

1847        Aug 20, General Winfield Scott won the battle of Churubusco on his drive to Mexico City. The Mexican War gave future civil war generals their first taste of combat.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1847        Aug 24, Charlotte Bronte, using the pseudonym Currer Bell, sent a manuscript of "Jane Eyre" to her publisher in London.
    (HN, 8/24/00)

1847        Aug 26, Liberia was proclaimed an independent republic. Freed American slaves founded Liberia. They modeled their constitution after that of the US, copied the US flag, and named their capital Monrovia, after James Monroe, who financed early settlers. Over the decades 16,400 former slaves made the voyage. They assumed that the 16 native tribes were there to be exploited.
    (AP, 8/26/97)(SFC, 4/10/96, p.A-4)(SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)

1847        Sep 5,    Jesse Woodson James (Jesse James, d.1882) was born in Kearney, Mo, the son of a clergyman. At seventeen, James left his native Missouri to fight as a Confederate guerrilla in the Civil War. After the war, he returned to his home state to establish one of history’s most notorious outlaw gangs. With his younger brother Frank and several other ex-Confederates, including Cole Younger and his brothers, James robbed his way across the Western frontier targeting banks, trains, stagecoaches, and stores from Iowa to Texas. Eluding even the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, the gang escaped with thousands of dollars.
    (WUD, 1994 p.762)(USLC, 9/5/99)(MesWP)

1847        Sep 6, Henry David Thoreau left Walden Pond and moved back into town, to Concord, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 9/6/00)

1847        Sep 8, The US under Gen. Scott defeated Mexicans at Battle of Molino del Rey.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1847        Sep 10, John Roy Lynch, first African-American to deliver the keynote address at a Republican National Convention, was born.
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1847        Sep 11, Stephen Foster’s "Oh! Susanna" was first performed in a saloon in Pittsburgh.
    (HN, 9/11/00)

1847        Sep 13, Milton Hershey, founder of the famous candy company, was born in central Pennsylvania. [see Sep 13, 1857]
    (HN, 9/13/00)
1847        Sep 13, US General Winfield Scott took Chapultepec, removing the last obstacle to his troops moving on Mexico City. Six teenage military cadets later became known as “Los Ninos Heroes" for their defense of Chapultepec Castle.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ni%C3%B1os_H%C3%A9roes)

1847        Sep 14, US forces under Gen. Winfield Scott took control of Mexico City (the "Halls of Montezuma"). The Mexican forces fled with their leader, Santa Anna.
    (HFA, '96, p.48)(AP, 9/14/97)

1847        Sep 25, Vinnie Ream, who sculpted President Abraham Lincoln from life shortly before he was assassinated, was born.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1847        Oct 1, Maria Mitchell (29), American astronomer living on Nantucket Island, discovered a new comet that was named after herself. In 1848 she was elected to the American Academy of Arts, the first woman to be so honored. Frederick VI, the King of Denmark awarded her a gold medal for her discovery.
    (HN, 10/1/98)(ON, 2/07, p.9)

1847        Oct 2, Paul von Hindenburg, German Field Marshall during World War I whose brilliant victories on the Eastern Front promoted him to become the second president of the Weimar Republic, was born.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1847        Oct 16, Charlotte Bronte's book "Jane Eyre" was published by Smith, Elder & Co. under the pen name Currer Bell.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Eyre)(http://tinyurl.com/84e3uwp)

1847        Oct 21, Giuseppe Giacosa (d.1906), Italian songwriter (libretti opera Puccini), was born.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1847        Oct, financial pressures exert negative market influences as noted in a letter to the Economist in 1865.
    (WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-18)
1847        Oct, The German company Siemens was founded. Johann Georg Halske and Werner von Siemens formed their own company, Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske to develop a new design for the Wheatstone telegraph.
    (WSJ, 1/31/07, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/26xq4a)

1847        Nov 4, Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (b.1809), German pianist and composer, died at age 38. His work included: "Overture to a Midsummer Night's Dream."
    (WUD, 1994 p.895)(LGC, 1970, p.201)(ON, 6/07, p.8)

1847        Nov 8, Bram Stoker, author, was born. His novels included "Dracula" (1897). [see Nov 24]
    (WUD, 1994 p.432)(HN, 11/8/00)

1847        Nov 21, Steamer "Phoenix" was lost on Lake Michigan. 200 people were killed.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1847        Nov 22, In New York, the Astor Place Opera House, the city's first operatic theater, was opened.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1847        Nov 24, Bram Stoker, Irish theater manager and author (Dracula), was born. [see Nov 8]
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1847        Nov 25, Friederich von Flotow's opera "Martha" was produced in Vienna.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1847        Nov 26, Alfred de Musset's "Un Caprice," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1847        Nov 28, In Bologna the church San Francisco dei Minori Conventuali opened with the premier of Rossini's "Tantum Ergo."
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1847        Nov 29, A small group of Cayuse Indians assaulted the Whitman Mission, Walla Walla, Washington, at the time sheltering 74 people, most of them emigrants. The attackers killed 13 people, including Marcus and Narcissa Whitman. It temporarily ended Protestant missionary efforts in the Oregon country. The Whitman Creek massacre set off the Cayuse War (1848).
    (www.legendsofamerica.com/wa-whitmanmassacre.html)

1847        Nov, In Ireland Dennis Mahon, mayor of Strokestown, was shot dead in an ambush. He had thrown thousands of poor farmers off the land during the famine and had paid to have some 1000 small farmers shipped to North America so he could establish larger farms. He was killed after it was learned that half of the shipped people died enroute.
    (USAT, 1/15/97, p.2D)

1847        Dec 1, Julia Moore, poet, was born.
    (HN, 12/1/00)

1847        Dec 3, Frederick Douglass and Martin R. Delaney established the North Star, an anti-slavery paper.
    (HN, 12/3/98)

1847         Dec 16, Mary Catherwood (d.1901), American novelist, was born in Luray, Ohio. "Next to the slanderer, we detest the bearer of the slander to our ears."
    (http://ntweb1.cpl.org/ocb/index.php?q=node/11&id=149)(AP, 6/9/97)

1847        Dec 30, John Peter Altgeld, US Gov-Ill, was born in Germany. He pardoned some of the Haymarket anarchists.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1847        Nemesia Valle (d.1916) was born in Italy. She became a nun of the Congregation of the Sisters of Charity of Saint Giovanna Antida Thouret and was beatified in 2004.
    (AP, 4/25/04)

1847        Felix-Joseph Barrias created his painting "Gallic Soldier and his Daughter Imprisoned in Rome."
    (WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)

1847        Thomas Cole created his painting "Prometheus Unbound."
    (SFC, 1/1/01, p.A1)

1847        George Bush, a professor of Hebrew at New York Univ., authored “The Valley of Vision," in which he called on the US government to militarily wrench Palestine from the Turks and return it to the Jews.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)

1847        In the US the cookbook "The Carolina Housewife" by Sarah Rutledge was published.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, zz-1 p.1)

1847        "Jane Eyre" by Charlotte Bronte was published.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.C21)

1847        Anthony Trollope (1815-1882), British writer, published his first novel.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)

1847        The Mormon Tabernacle Choir was founded in Utah. In 2003 the 360-member group received a National Medal for the Humanities.
    (SFC, 11/14/03, p.I10)

1847        Fratelli d’Italia, a song written to commemorate the bloody unification of Italy. It was chosen as the Italian National Anthem in 1946.
    (WSJ, 11/1/94, p. B1)

1847        The Verdi opera "Jerusalem" premiered at the Paris Opera.
    (WSJ, 1/27/98, p.A20)

1847        Swedish-born Jenny Lind (1820-1887), the greatest operatic and concert soprano of her age, was already the toast of Europe when she was approached by American showman P.T. Barnum in 1847. Even before hearing her voice, Barnum signed the "Swedish Nightingale" for 150 American concerts at the enormous sum of $150,000. With the help of Barnum's matchless marketing, Jenny Lind mania swept America, with crowds of the rich and famous and ordinary music lovers alike falling at her feet.
    (HN, 5/9/99)

1847        Miners of Don Miguel Peralta discovered gold about this time in the Superstition Mountains of Arizona. His family abandoned the claim after their mining party was massacred by Apache Indians.
    (www.ghostradiox.com/qfg/legend_peralta.asp)(AHHT, 10/02, p.16)(AH, 10/02, p.16)

1847        Portsmouth Square was built in San Francisco and was later recognized as the city’s oldest park.
    (SFC, 6/3/14, p.C2)
1847        San Francisco’s Stern Grove was first settled by the Greene family. Because of many property disputes, the family built a fort surrounded by eucalyptus trees over the land. Charlotte Green was the original owner. Her great-granddaughter, Roberta Hewson Graves (d.1992), was later hailed as “the most beautiful girl in the world." The original owners of Stern Grove were cattle baron Jefferson James and Countess Muysson-Van Vliet
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.6)(SFC, 2/18/98, p.A18)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A22)(SFL)
1847        Jasper O’Farrell (26), surveyor-general of Northern California, laid out the streets of San Francisco. He forged Market Street to run from the SF Bay to Twin Peaks. He also designated the sand dune called O’Farrel’s Mountain as a public square (later Union Square).
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)(SFL)(SSFC, 4/21/13, p.G1)
1847        The non-Indian population of California grew to some 15,000.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1847        In Palo Alto (tall tree) a tamped-earth adobe home was built on the 4,400 acre Rancho Purisima Concepcion of the Briones family. In 1954 California declared the site a historic landmark. In 1987 Palo Alto declared the home on Old Adobe Road a historic landmark. In 2011 the California Supreme Court cleared the way for demolition of the home.
    (SFC, 3/22/99, p.A18)(SFC, 2/25/11, p.C3)

1847        The population of Chicago numbered about 20,000 people.
    (Econ, 3/18/06, Survey p.4)

1847        In New Hampshire the North Conway railroad depot was established.
    (SFEC,11/16/97, p.T7)

1847        The Smith brothers reportedly invented the cough drop in a restaurant in Poughkeepsie, NY. Their cough drop brand was revived in 2013, three years after it was brought out of bankruptcy.   
    (SSFC, 12/14/14, p.D2)

1847        Richard Mitchell (1811-1899) and Frederick Rammelsberg (1814-1863) founded Mitchell & Rammelsberg to manufacture furniture in Cincinnati, Ohio.
    (SFC, 12/19/07, p.G5)(http://witherells.com/inventory/popup/hatrack1.htm)

1847        The American Medical Association was started.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.E4)

1847        Sweet chocolate made its debut.
    (NH, 6/03, p.74)

1847        Dr. Thomas Savage, American doctor and missionary, brought back to the US partial skeletons of gorillas, and gave them the scientific name Troglodytes gorilla.
    (ON, 11/04, p.11)

1847        In Belgium Europe's oldest shopping center, the St. Hubertus Royal Galleries, opened in Brussels.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, p.T14)

1847        In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a mansion was donated by a wealthy Brazilian to the government to serve as a center for the study of indigenous traditions. The Indian Museum was abandoned in 1977. Indigenous people built hjomes on the site and in 2013 faced eviction under plans to refurbish the area to host the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2016 Olympics and the final match of the 2014 World Cup.
    (AP, 1/13/13)

1847        John Edwards began operating a pottery in Longton and later Fenton, Staffordshire, England. Operations continued to 1900.
    (SFC, 12/5/07, p.G2)
1847        Britain passed a Vagrancy Act to combat begging as famine swept Ireland.
    (AP, 11/25/08)

1847        Marx and Engels founded the Communist League in Brussels. An archive of international worker’s organizations from this year on is located at the link. 
    (HNQ, 1/26/00)(http://marxists.architexturez.net/history/index.htm)

1847        In France Cartier jewelers opened in Paris.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1847        Hungarian doctor Ignac (Ignaz) Semmelweis (1818-1865) told his fellow doctors to start washing their hands.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, Z  1 p.2)(Econ, 3/13/10, p.57)

1847        In Ireland the potato harvest was only 10% of normal and some 3 million people (40% of the populace) lined up for free food and soup.
    (USAT, 1/15/97, p.2D)
1847        In Ireland a new British Poor Law dumped the cost of relief on the already strapped Irish landlords.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A1)

1847        Mauritius, a British ruled island nation, issued the two-pence “Post Office" Blue Mauritius postage stamp along with a similar one penny orange stamp. They became very rare and in 1904 Britain’s King George V acquired a Blue Mauritius for £1,450. In 2008 Helen Morgan authored “Blue Mauritius: The Hunt for the World’s Most Valuable Stamps."
    (WSJ, 8/9/08, p.W9)

1847        The Dutchy of Parma was governed until this year by Marie-Louise of Hapsburg.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T6)

1847        The town of Jacobabad in Sindh (later part of Pakistan) was founded by British Gen. John Jacob.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.63)

1847        A religious quarrel led to a short Swiss civil war.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.6)

1847-1852    Durfee’s Knickerbocker root beer was bottled in Rochester, New York, during this period. Durfee used a 12-sided bottle in Ohio and New York. In 2008 the bottles were valued at about $125.
    (SFC, 3/26/08, p.G3)

1847-1901    The Caste War of Yucatan extended over this period. it began with the revolt of the native Maya people against the population of European descent (called Yucatecos) in political and economic control.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caste_War_of_Yucat%C3%A1n)

1847-1911    In Portugal Queen Maria Pia lived.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1847-1919    Ralph Blakelock, artist. He suffered a breakdown and created a set of miniatures in watercolors on cardboard and paper while hospitalized in Middletown, N.Y.
    (WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)

1847-1931    Thomas Edison, American inventor, was born in Milan, Ohio. He obtained 1,100 [actually 1,093] patents in such fields as telegraphy, phonography, electric lighting, and photography. The Edison National Historic Site is located in west Orange, N.J.
    (AHD, 1971, p.414)(WSJ, 10/25/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 1/17/97, p.A1)

1847-1935    Max Lieberman, a Berlin artist, was influenced but not smothered by the Impressionists.
    (WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A16)

1848        Jan 12, Sicilians in Palermo proclaimed a Provisional Government. The People proclaimed a constitution and elected a parliament. The Sicilian Republic survived for only 16 months.
    (http://tinyurl.com/l8u42fx)(Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.4)

1848        Jan 24, Gold was discovered by carpenter James Wilson Marshall at his partner Johann August Sutter's sawmill on the South Fork of the American River, near Coloma, California. John [James Wilson] Marshall, while inspecting the construction of a mill on the American River, being built for Capt. John Sutter, spotted a gold nugget. Marshall, Sutter and their workers tried to keep the discovery quiet but gold-seekers quickly began pouring into California, raising the state's non-Indian population to about 20,000 in 1848, 100,000 in 1849 and twice that amount by 1852.
    (HFA,'96,p.22)(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.71)(SFC, 1/25/97, p.A17)(SFEC, 7/6/97, p.T3)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.4)(HN, 1/24/99)(HNPD, 1/24/99)

1848        Jan 26, Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) of Massachusetts presented an essay at the Concord Lyceum that explained his motives for refusing to pay taxes. In 1849 it was published as “Resistance to Civil Government."
    (ON, 10/09, p.12)

1848        Jan, John Sutter got a "lease" for the land around the gold site from the Culumah Indians in exchange for "some shirts, hats, handkerchiefs, flour and other articles of no great value." He then tried to get the lease recorded with General Mason, the American military governor of California at Monterey. His messenger, Charles Bennett, stopped in Benicia on the way and displayed the gold after scoffing at talk of coal discoveries in Contra Costa County. No title was available because a treaty with Mexico was not yet signed.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.1)

1848        Feb 2, US and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico ceded one-third of its territory to the US including California, agreed to the Rio Grande as the boundary between Texas and Mexico and was awarded $15 million. 25,000 Mexicans and 12,000 Americans lost their lives in the 17-month old conflict.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.48)(SFC, 6/13/96, p.A17)(HN, 2/2/99)
1848        Feb 2, The 1st ship load of Chinese arrived in SF.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1848        Feb 5, Belle Starr, Western outlaw, was born.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1848        Feb 14, James Polk became the first U.S. President to be photographed in office by Matthew Brady.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1848        Feb 15, Sarah Roberts was barred from a white school in Boston.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1848        Feb 18, Louis Comfort Tiffany (d.1933), American painter, stained-glass artist, and glass manufacturer, was born. He was the son of Charles Lewis Tiffany (1812-1902), founder of the Tiffany & Co. jewelry business (1837).
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AHD, p.1344)(HN, 2/18/98)(WSJ, 8/4/98, p.A13)

1848        Feb 23, John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States (1825-1829), died of a stroke at age 80.  Samuel Flagg Bemis wrote a biography. In 1997 Paul C. Nagel published a biography.
    (AP, 2/23/98)(WSJ, 10/22/97, p.A20)(MC, 2/23/02)

1848        Feb 24, King Louis-Philippe abdicated and the 2nd French republic was declared. [see Feb 26]
    (MC, 2/24/02)   

1848        Feb 26, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published "The Communist Manifesto".
    (HN, 2/26/98)
1848        Feb 26, The Second French Republic was proclaimed.
    (AP, 2/26/98)

1848        Feb 27, Charles Hubert H. Parry, musicologist, composer (Jerusalem), was born in England.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1848        Mar 1, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, US sculptor and designer of the 1907 $20 gold piece, was born.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1848        Mar 4, Sardinia-Piemonte got a new Constitution.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1848        Mar 9, Martin Pierre Joseph Marsick, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1848        Mar 10, The US Senate ratified the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ending the war with Mexico.
    (AP, 3/10/98)(HN, 3/10/98)

1848        Mar 15, In San Francisco the Californian newsspaper ran a filler on Page 3 about a horse race at Mission Dolores. Below it appeared another filler: “Gold Mine Found," which described a gold find at Sutter’s Mill on the American Fork.
    (SFC, 7/12/14, p.C2)
1848        Mar 15, In Hungary an uprising against Habsburg rule began in front of the national museum in Budapest. This was later remembered as a national holiday.
    (Reuters, 3/15/07)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.52)

1848        Mar 19, Wyatt Earp (Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp), later U.S. Marshal, was born the son of a Sheriff in Monmouth, Illinois. He fought at the Gunfight at the OK Corral and Paula Mitchell Marks later wrote "And Die in the West," an account of the incident.
    (HN, 3/19/98)(SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.7)(CHA, 1/2001)
1848        Mar 19, The Prussian king promised many reforms in the face of an armed uprising, including an unfulfilled voting right for women.
    (http://tinyurl.com/qc3544w)

1848        Mar 20, King Ludwig I of Bavaria abdicated to marry dancer Lola Montez.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1848        Mar 23, Hungary proclaimed its independence of Austria.
    (HN, 3/23/99)

1848        Mar 24, The First Schleswig War began. It was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question and contested the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The 3-year war lasted from 1848–1851.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Schleswig_War)

1848        Mar 29, Aleksei Kuropatkin, Russian general, minister of War, was born (March 17 in the old style calendar).
    (www.russojapanesewar.com/kuro.html)
1848        Mar 29-1848 Mar 31, Niagara Falls slowed to a trickle for about 30 hours due to an ice jam from Lake Erie in the Niagara River.
    (ON, 12/05, p.10)(SSFC, 3/29/09, p.C10)
1848        Mar 29, John Jacob Astor (b.1763), America’s richest man, died. The fur and real estate magnate had a value in 1999 dollars totaled $78 billion. In 2001 Axel Madsen authored "John Jacob Astor: America’s First Multimillionaire.
    (HN, 7/17/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Par p.7)(WSJ, 3/2/00, p.W10)(MC, 3/29/02)

1848        Mar, Italian nationalists celebrated as Austrian forces fled Milan.
    (WSJ, 3/13/09, p.A9)

1848        Apr 1, The SF-based California Star reported the discovery of a rich silver vein in San Jose valley. The discovery of rich beds of copper were also reported near Clear Lake.
    (SFC, 12/10/04, p.E4)

1848        Apr 6, Jews of Prussia were granted equality.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1848        Apr 8, Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (50), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1848        Apr 22, The SF-based California Star reported the discovery of a rich gold mine towards the head of the American Fork in the Sacramento Valley.
    (SFC, 12/10/04, p.E4)

1848        Apr 25, A. Graham discovered asteroid #9: Metis.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1848        Apr 27, Slave trade was abolished in the French colonies.
    (AFP, 3/24/10)

1848        Apr 28, The last slaves in French colonies were freed.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1848        Apr, The British ships Erebus and Terror of the Franklin Expedition to the Arctic were abandoned [see Franklin expedition 1850]. Wreckage of one of the vessels was found in 2014.
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)(SFC, 9/9/14, p.A5)

1848        May 5, Adalbert von Goldschmidt, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1848        May 12, Sam Brannon, an elder of the Mormon Church in SF, announced the discovery of gold on the American River. He had just opened a store near the goldfields stocked with shovels and mining tools. He and members of the Mormon battalion were the first to profit in San Francisco from the Gold Rush.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.4)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.4)

1848        Mar 19, Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was born in Monmouth, IL.
    (MesWP)
1848        May 19, Texas was awarded to the U.S.A. by Mexico thus ending the war.
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)

1848        May 20, The California Star reported that a fleet of launches had left the SF bound up the Sacramento River due to “Gold Fever."
    (SFC, 12/10/04, p.E4)

1848        May 23, Helmuth J.L. von Moltke, German general, chief of staff (WW I), was born.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1848        May 27, The SF-based California Star complained that everybody in the state was under the spell of gold fever.
    (SFC, 12/10/04, p.E4)

1848        May 29, The Californian newspaper complained that everybody in the state was under the spell of gold fever and announced suspension of publication because the staff was heading out to participate. The Californian and the California Star were based in SF.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, DB p.40)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.1)(PI, 8/8/98, p.5)

1848        May 29, Wisconsin became the 30th state of the union.
    (AP, 5/29/97)(HN, 5/29/98)
1848        May 29, Battle at Curtazone: Austrians beat Sardinia-Piemonte.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1848        May 30, William Young patented the ice cream freezer.
    (HN, 5/30/98)
1848        May 30, Mexico ratified the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo giving US: New Mexico, California and parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona & Colorado in return for $15 million.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1848        May, A Frenchman found gold in a ravine north of Coloma, Ca., and in a week the town of Rich Dry Diggings was founded. It later was renamed Auburn.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.4)
1848        May, The Associated Press was formed in NYC.
    (www.historybuff.com/library/refap.html)

1848        Jun 5, Army officer John C. Fremont submitted his "Geographical Memoir" to the US Senate where the SF Bay entrance was called Chrysopylae (Golden Gate). He had in mind the Chrysoceras (Golden Horn) of Constantinople, and suggested that the SF Bay would be advantageous for commerce.
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.A20)

1848        Jun 7, Paul Gauguin, French post-impressionist painter, was born in Paris. He abandoned his family to focus on his work.
    (AP, 6/7/97)(HN, 6/7/99)

1848        Jun 10, The 1st telegraph link between NYC & Chicago was established.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1848        Jun 17, Austrian General Alfred Windischgratz crushed a Czech uprising in Prague.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1848        Jun 14, The California Star newspaper in SF locked its doors due to the gold strike and lack of working men.
    (PI, 8/8/98, p.5)(SFC, 12/17/04, p.E6)

1848        Jun 23, A bloody insurrection of workers in Paris erupted to protest inflation, unemployment and corruption. The insurrection was ruthlessly suppressed by Gen. Cavaignac.
    (HN, 6/23/98)(SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T9)(WSJ, 3/13/09, p.A9)

1848        Jun 24, Brooks Adams, American historian and son of Charles Francis Adams, was born. He wrote "The Law of Civilization and Decay."
    (HN, 6/24/99)

1848        Jul 1, Ranald MacDonald (1824-1894), a Chinook-Scottish sailor, separated from an American whaling ship and arrived at Rishiri Island off Hokkaido, Japan. He was imprisoned for virtually his whole 10-month stay. In 2003 Frederik L. Schodt authored "Native American in the Land of the Shogun: Ranald MacDonald and the Opening of Japan."
    (SSFC, 7/12/03, p.M3)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.63)

1848        Jul 3, Gen. Peter Von Scholten, faced with the likely destruction of towns and plantations by a slave revolt, declared the slaves of the Danish West Indies (later US Virgin Islands) to be freed.
    (SSFC, 7/5/09, p.A3)

1848        Jul 4, The Communist Manifesto was published. Marx and Engels predicted that capitalism would lead to revolution where the workers would take over the means of production and develop an ideal classless society. "Workers of the world, unite. You have nothing to lose but your chains."
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)
1848        Jul 4, The Cornerstone of the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. was laid by President Polk. Each state of the union was invited to donate a memorial stone. The white marble obelisk, which is 555 feet tall and 55 fee square at the base, was not completed until 1884. The public was admitted to the monument on October 9, 1888. Architect Robert Mills (1781-1855) designed the monument.
    (ON, 3/00, p.9)(WSJ, 2/16/08, p.W18)
1848        Jul 4,    Vicomte Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (b.1768), French writer and statesman, 79, died in Paris. 
    (WUD, 1994, p.250)

1848        Jul 18, W.G. Grace (d.1915), British cricket player, was born in Bristol. He has been widely acknowledged as the greatest cricket player of all time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._G._Grace)

1848        Jul 19, The first women’s rights convention convened in Seneca Falls, New York. Organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the two-day convention discussed such topics as voting, property rights and divorce. It launched the women’s suffrage movement. The convention issued a "Declaration of Sentiments" based on the Declaration of Independence. "The ideal newspaper woman has the keen zest for life of a child, the cool courage of a man and the subtlety of a woman." Elizabeth Cady Stanton made her first public speech at the Woman's Rights Convention. After Cady Stanton was denied participation in an anti-slavery convention and was told that women were "constitutionally unfit for public and business meetings," she and four other women, including abolitionist Lucretia Coffin Mott, planned a convention to challenge that notion. They drafted a "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions," 11 resolutions calling for equal rights for women, including the right to vote. After lengthy debate, the document was amended and signed by 68 women and 32 men of the approximately 300 attendees, setting the American women's rights movement in motion. Susan B. Anthony joined the movement in 1852.
    (HNPD, 7/19/98)(SFEC, 7/20/97, Par p.8)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.30)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.D8)

1848        Jul 25, Arthur James Balfour (d.1930), the First Earl of Balfour and prime Minister of Great Britain (1902-1905), was born: "A religion that is small enough for our understanding would not be large enough for our needs."
    (AP, 11/14/97)(HN, 7/25/98)

1848        Jul 26, Charles Ellet Jr., engineer, completed a light suspension bridge over the Niagara River. A boy’s kite was used to transfer the 1st line across.
    (ON, 7/02, p.8)
1848        Jul 26, The French army suppressed the Paris uprising.
    (HN, 7/26/98)

1848        Jul 27, In Ohio the foundation stone for the Burnet House hotel was laid in Cincinnati. Before 1802 the site was occupied by an Indian mound. From 1802-1825 it was occupied by the estate of Judge Jacob Burnet (1770-1853). Jacob’s half-brother David G. Burnet was the first president of the Republic of Texas.
    (http://tinyurl.com/kr55wul)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Burnet)

1848        Jul 29, An Irish rebellion against British rule was put down in a cabbage patch in Tipperary, Ireland. Irish Nationalists under William Smith O'Brien were overcome and arrested.
    (HN, 7/29/98)(MC, 7/29/02)

1848        Jul, By this time 4,000 people were out hunting gold in California.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.4)

1848        Aug 9, The Barnburners (anti-slavery) party merged with the Free Soil Party and nominated Martin Van Buren for president at its convention in Buffalo, N.Y. The Hunkers and the Barnburners were two factions within the Democratic Party of New York split over the slavery issue in 1848. They injected the issue into the Democratic National Convention held in Baltimore in 1848 when they both sent delegations. The Barnburners (who were also known as the "Softs" while the Hunkers were called the "Hards") were firm supporters of the Wilmot Proviso of 1846 that sought to restrict the spread of slavery to newly acquired territory.
    (AP, 8/9/97)(HNQ, 11/28/98)(MC, 8/9/02)

1848        Aug 12, George Stephenson, locomotive engineer, died.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1848        Aug 14, The Oregon Territory was established.
    (AP, 8/14/97)

1848        Aug 15, M. Waldo Hanchett patented a dental chair.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1848        Aug 19, The New York Herald reported the discovery of gold in California.
    (AP, 8/19/97)

1848        Aug, Henry Walter Bates, British naturalist, traveled the rain forest of the Amazon estuary.
    (NH, 6/97, p.30)

1848        Aug, Julia Dent married Ulysses S. Grant: "Never shall I forget... that hot August night."
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.29)

1848        Sep 11, Henri-Philippe Gerard, composer, died at 87.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1848        Sep 13, Dr. John Martyn Harlow treated Phinneas Gage in Vermont for a head injury from a tamping iron that had pierced the man’s skull during a blasting accident. Gage survived until 1860, but with definite personality changes that Dr. Harlow tracked.
    (ON, 10/02, p.9)(Econ, 12/23/06, Survey p.3)

1848        Sep 19, Hyperion, a moon of Saturn, was discovered by Bond (US) & Lassell (England).
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1848        Sep 20, The American Association for the Advancement of Science was founded to replace the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists. The Association of American Geologists had been founded in 1840 and in 1842 it became the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.57)(www.lib.uwaterloo.ca/society/history/1848aaas.html)

1848        Sep 24, Branwell Bronte, brother of the Bronte sisters and the model for Hindley Earnshaw in Emily's novel "Wuthering Heights," died of tuberculosis.
    (www.bronte.info/brontes/Patrick_Branwell_Bronte.asp)

1848        Oct 16, The 1st US homeopathic medical college opened in Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1848        Oct 19, John "The Pathfinder" Fremont moved out from near Westport, Missouri, on his fourth Western expedition with 33 volunteers. The goal was to find a railroad route across the Rocky Mountains. His failed attempt to open a trail across the Rocky Mountains along the 38th parallel ended with some of his men cannibalizing their comrades.
    (HN, 10/19/98)(SFEC, 2/13/00, BR p.6)(ON, 12/06, p.5)

1848        Nov 7, General Zachary Taylor was elected  president of US. Millard Fillmore was vice-president. With the exception of South Carolina, who left the selection of electors to its legislature, the election of 1848 marked the first time in which every state in the union voted for President and Vice President on the same day: Taylor won election over Cass, capturing 163 of the 290 electoral votes cast. Zachary Taylor, a Southerner, a slaveholder and the hero of the Mexican War, had been nominated by the Party as a candidate for president of the US. He was an inoffensive candidate in the anxious years leading up to the Civil War because he had never taken a position on a political issue or even cast a vote in his life. During his 16 months as president, Congress addressed the explosive issue of slavery’s expansion to the west with the Compromise of 1850, but Taylor himself never had the opportunity to act on this issue.
    (http://encyclopedia.laborlawtalk.com/U.S._presidential_election,_1848)(HNPD, 7/11/98)

1848        Nov 9, The first U.S. Post Office in California opened in San Francisco at Clay and Pike streets. At that time there were only about 15,000 European settlers living in the state.
    (HN, 11/9/98)

1848        Nov 18, In San Francisco the Californian and the California Star newspapers merged and began publishing under Edward Kemble (19) as The Star and Californian.
    (PI, 8/8/98, p.5)(SFC, 7/19/14, p.C1)

1848        Nov 21, The John C. Fremont expedition, in search of a railraod route across the Rocky Mountains, reached Pueblo, Colorado. There Fremont hired Bill Williams (61), a mountaineer with 40 years experience.
    (ON, 12/06, p.5)
1848        Nov 21, Alfred de Musset's "Andre del Sarto," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1848        Nov 23, The Female Medical Educational Society was established in Boston, Mass., the same year the all-male American Medical Association formed.
    (AP, 11/23/02)
1848        Nov 23, Alfred Julius Becher (45), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1848        Nov 24, Lilli Lehmann, opera singer, was born.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1848        Dec 2, Austria’s Emperor Ferdinand I (1793-1875) abdicated in favor of Franz Joseph (1830-1916).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_Austria)

1848        Dec 5, President Polk triggered the Gold Rush of '49 by confirming that gold had been discovered in California. Paula Mitchell Marks later wrote "Precious Dust," an account of the gold rush. In 2002 H.W. Brands authored "The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream."
    (AP, 12/5/97)(SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.7)(SSFC, 8/18/02, p.M1)

1848        Dec 9, Joel Chandler Harris, writer, was born. He created the Uncle Remus tales.
    (HN, 12/9/00)

1848        Dec 10, Napoleon III, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte), was elected president of France. In 1852 he dismantled the Republic and replaced it with the Second Empire of France, with himself as emperor.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.446)(WUD, 1994, p.950)

1848        Dec 21, William Craft and his wife Ellen, slaves to separate masters, escaped under disguise from Macon, Georgia, and made there way to Philadelphia. In 1860 Craft authored “Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom."
    (ON, 10/04, p.10)

1848        Dec 26, The 1st California-bound gold seekers arrived in Panama enroute to SF.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1848        Dec 28, A 4-man emergency relief party from the Fremont expedition reached the valley of the Rio Grande. On Jan 17 three remaining men met with 4 horsemen including John Fremont, who had found help from Ute Indians.
    (ON, 12/06, p.7)

1848        Dec 29, Gas lights were 1st installed at White House during Polk's administration.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1848        Hugh Bolton Jones (d1927), American artist, was born.
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.E8)

c1848        Ellen Terry (d.1928), one of the great English actresses of the 19th century, was born. Her parents, Ben and Sarah Terry, lived on the edge of poverty, earning meager wages as strolling theatrical players who traveled from town to town. Ellen was their second child; six more children survived. All the Terry children expected to follow their parents on to the stage and by the age of nine, Ellen appeared on the London stage as Mamillius, the son of King Leontes in Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1466)(HNQ, 8/31/01)

1848        Alexandre Cabanel painted his erotic portrait “Albayde."
    (SFC, 1/22/05, p.E1)

1848        Delacroix painted “Women of Algiers in Their Apartment."
    (SFC, 1/22/05, p.E1)

1848        Charles B. Gillespie (~1821-1907) traveled to California from Pennsylvania during the gold rush and made a number of sketches, including depictions of Sutter’s Mill, some of which he turned into paintings upon returning to Freeport in 1851. In 2008 119 pen-and-ink sketches and 5 oil paintings were put up for auction.
    (SSFC, 11/23/08, p.B9)

1848        Edouard Manet (1832-1883) at age 16 failed the French naval exam and after 3 months at sea became convinced that he would rather be a painter.
    (WSJ, 12/3/03, p.D12)

1848        The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded. A group of artists led by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, and Dante Gabriel Rosetti, fought against corrupt academic art based on the work of the Renaissance.
    (WSJ, 2/19/97, p.A15)(Econ, 9/20/03, p.82)

1848        Edward Hicks (b.1780) painted "An Indian Summer View of the Farm & Stock of James C. Cornell."
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)

1848        Anne Bronte wrote her novel "The Tenant of Wildfell Hall."
    (WSJ, 10/16/97, p.A20)

1848        Charles Dickens (1812-1870, English author, published his novel “Dombey and Son."
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.28)

1848        Titian Ramsey Peale published "Mammalia and Ornithology." It was based on his collections and observations from a South Seas expedition. It was suppressed by Charles Wilkes, leader of the expedition, due to adverse criticism by government authorities.
    (NH, 5/96, p.75)

1848        Elizabeth Ellet authored her 2-volume work: "Women of the American Revolution."
    (ON, 11/01, p.9)

1848        Turgenev authored his comedy "A Poor Gentleman." A 2002 Broadway production of the play was called "Fortune’s Fool."
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A20)

1848        "The Brilliant Future of Cuzco" was published.
    (NH, 11/96, p.94)

1848        Fort Kearny was built in Nebraska. It was named after Stephen Watts Kearny, a US Army hero of the Mexican War.
    (SFC, 8/11/98, p.A7)

1848        In Savannah, Ga., the Andrew Low House was built on Abercorn St. of stuccoed brick, elaborate iron-caste railings and shuttered piazzas.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.T5)

1848        Spiritualism dates from the strange rappings that the Fox sisters heard in Hydesville, N.Y.
    (WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)

1848        John Humphrey Noyes (b.1811) founded the Oneida Community in upstate New York. The Perfectionists were organized around communal property and a complex marriage that wed all members to each other. In 1993 Spencer Klaw (d.2004) authored “Without Sin: The Life and Death of the Oneida Community."
    (MC, 9/3/01)(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.A6)(SFC, 6/21/04, p.B5)

1848        The Associated Press (AP) was founded.
    (SFC, 7/25/98, p.B5)

1848        Henry Chandler Bowen, New York silk merchant, founded the New York Independent, a Congregationalist journal that became one of the most influential anti-slavery newspapers in the country.
    (HT, 4/97, p.38)

1848        George Caleb Bingham (1811-1879), artist, won a seat as a Missouri legislator and served a single term.
    (WSJ, 11/3/07, p.W16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Caleb_Bingham)

1848        The Lazard brothers, Alexandre Lazard, Simon Lazard, and Elie Lazard, moved to the United States from Lorraine, France, and formed Lazard Freres & Co. as a dry goods business in New Orleans, Louisiana, with a combined contribution of $ 9,000. They moved to SF a year later with their cousin, Alexander Weill.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazard)(SFC, 12/11/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 6/7/99, p.C1)

1848        In Brooklyn NY Antoine Zegera set up the 1st macaroni factory in the US.
    (SFC, 7/31/99, p.C3)

1848        The W.C. Davis Co. was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio, to manufacture cast-iron stoves and cookware. In 1880 the factory was enlarged and the name was changed to Favorite Stove Works. A new owner, William King Boal, moved the firm to Piqua in 1889. In 1934 the company went out of business and sold the Favorite cookware line to Chicago Hardware Foundry Co.
    (SFC, 1/10/07, p.G3)

1848        Andrew Carnegie came to America from Scotland as a teenager. He worked in a variety of jobs that paid modestly, but prepared him well for future ventures. A few years after being hired by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1852, he began to invest in railroads, receiving huge dividends. When a new steel-making process made cheap steel possible, Carnegie built his own plant.
    (HNPD, 8/11/98)

1848        John Curtis produced the first commercial chewing gum in his home kitchen in Maine. In 1850 he established the world’s first chewing gum factory in Portland.
    (Econ, 10/29/11, p.100)
1848        Up to this time golfers used balls that were leather lumps packed with feathers. In this year the solid center ball molded from white gum of the Malayan gutta-percha tree was introduced.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.E4)
 
1848        In Florida a female slave was executed for killing her owner.
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A6)

1848        The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) began trading grain futures. [see Jun 10,1848]
    (Econ, 9/20/03, p.68)
1848        A canal was completed that linked the Chicago River to the Illinois River.
    (Econ, 3/18/06, Survey p.4)

1848        Pacific Mail Steamship Co. was incorporated. It carried people, goods and mail from San Francisco to Asia and South America. It was taken over by the US government in 1932 so as to continue doing government work. The government renamed it American President Lines and held it until 1952.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R46)(SFC, 4/8/03, p.B5)
1848        Henry P. Angel set up shop on the banks of the what is today Angel’s Creek, Ca. This site was the focus for the growth of Angels Camp.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-11)
1848        Pierson B. Reading discovered gold in northern California’s Trinity River.
    (SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D5)
1848        The San Francisco City Council passed a resolution regarding gambling and heavy fines were assessed on parties arrested for gambling. The resolution was soon repealed.
    (GTP, 1973, p.53)
1848        William Alexander Leidesdorff, ship captain, merchant and the first treasurer of SF, died. He was half  Dutch and half black and was buried inside Mission Dolores. He started the City Hotel, the 1st hotel in SF at Kearny and Clay.
    (SFC, 5/19/98, p.B8)(SFC, 1/31/02, p.D1)(SFL)
1848        Of the 165,000 people in California, only 15,000 were of European descent, and half of these were Mexican citizens who called themselves Californios.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.1)
1848        The population of San Francisco numbered about 850.
    (SFC, 10/11/10, p.A9)

1848        One third of the 10,000 Americans in Oregon left by the fall to find gold in California. This included Peter Burnett who became the first governor of Ca. (1849-1851).
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.4)

1848        Joseph Hall founded Hall’s Safe & Lock Co. in Cincinnati, Ohio.
    (SFC, 8/16/06, p.G7)

1848        The Memnon locomotive was built with a long horizontal boiler resting on 4 pairs of wheels. It was built to haul coal and was one of the first locomotives to use coal.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T6)
1848        A new rail line linked Greenwich, Connecticut, to Manhattan.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A6)

1848        The Smithsonian’s Board of Regents granted director Joseph Henry a budget of $1000 to establish “a system of extended meteorological observations for solving the problem of American storms."
    (ON, 2/06, p.6)

1848        H.E. Strickland was the senior author of the classic monograph on the dodo bird.
    (NH, 11/96, p.26)

1848        Samuel Gregory, a pioneer in medical education for women, founded the Boston Female Medical School. The school opened with an enrolment of 12 students. The establishment merged 26 years later with the Boston University School of Medicine, to form one of the first coed medical schools in the world.
    (HNQ, 12/27/02)
1848        The Girard College (a secondary school) was opened with funds from philanthropist Stephen Girard. In 1984 girls were admitted. Since its founding more than 20,000 indigent boys and hundreds of girls have passed through.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)

1848        It was discovered that palm oil, a native of West Africa, grew well in the Far East. By 2010 Indonesia and Malaysia produced 90% of the world’s palm oil.
    (Econ, 6/26/10, p.71)

1848        Dolly Madison, wife of former Pres. James Madison, died.
    (ON, 9/02, p.4)

1848        The Austro-Italian insurance company Assicurazioni Generali Austro-Italiche began placing a picture of the winged lion of St. Mark on policies.
    (www.generali.ro/eng_despre_noi/istorie.htm)

1848        Britain adopted Section three of the Treason Felony Act 1848. It was not used to prosecute anyone after 1879. Britain's law lords concluded in 2001 that the law was "a relic of a bygone age" that did not fit into the modern legal system -- but officially it remained a crime.
    (AFP, 12/13/13)
1848        Britain introduced khaki uniforms for British colonial troops in India.
    (WSJ, 5/28/02, p.B1)
1848        England passed a Public Health Act to improve the lot of the working classes.
    (Econ, 5/1/04, p.59)
1848        A new cholera epidemic struck in London.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)

1848        France abolished slavery. Victor Schoelcher was a major force in the abolition of slavery in France.
    (WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)

1848        In Germany a major revolt occurred. The revolution prompted Marx to write the "Communist Manifesto."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.257,260)
1848        The painter-poet Josef Victor von Scheffel published cynical poems with titles as 'Biedermann's Evening socializing' and 'Bummelmaier's Complaint' in the Viennese satirical magazine 'Fliegende Blätter' (Flying Leaves). These names were combined into the pseudonym 'Gottlieb Biedermaier' by Ludwig Eichrodt, who together with Adolf Kussmaul published poems by the schoolmaster Samuel Friedrich Sauter under this name. The spelling finally changed into 'Biedermeier' in 1869 when Eichrodt published 'Biedermeier's Liederlust'.
    (www.rupertcavendish.co.uk/Biedermeier/WhatisBiedermeier/whatisbiedermeier.htm)

1848        Hawaii’s King Kamehameha III instituted Western-style land ownership. Of 13 land divisions 5 were awarded to chiefs who had supported the king’s father in unifying the Hawaiian island group. 8 were retained by the government or king.
    (SFC, 6/27/12, p.D6)

1848        In Ireland a group of writers, poets and orators, collectively known as Young Ireland, attempted to spark the Irish people into rebelling against Britain. They included Thomas D’Arcy McGee (1825-1868), who had returned to Ireland from the US to support the cause. A warrant for his arrest forced him to return to the US.
    (WSJ, 5/15/08, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_D'Arcy_McGee)

1848        Mexico was forced to sell most of the territory that is now Arizona to the United States following its defeat in the Mexican-American war.
    (AP, 5/20/10)

1848        A railroad line was built along the coast of Barcelona, Spain that separates the city from its waterfront. It is finally relocated underground.
    (Hem., Oct. ‘95, p.17)

1848        A Swiss constitution was enacted that included a mandate for neutrality. It copied almost wholesale the American constitution. It was revised in 1874. A new one was adopted in 1999.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.C6)(SFC, 7/18/02, p.A15)(Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.7)(Econ, 4/23/11, SR p.6)

1848-1849    In 2009 Mike Rapport authored “1848 Year of Revolution."
    (WSJ, 3/13/09, p.A9)

1848-1853    The California gold rush of this period was covered by Edward Dolnick in his 2014 book “The Rush: America’s Fevered Quest for Fortune, 1848-1853."
    (SSFC, 9/7/14, p.N7)

1848-1854    The non-Indian population of California exploded from an estimated 13,000 to 300,000.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.6)

1848-1870    The native American population in California dropped from 175,000 to fewer than 30,000, mostly due to diseases that they had no immunity to.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.6)

1848-1887    Richard Jefferies, English author: "The very idea that there is another idea is something gained."
    (AP, 9/21/98)   
1848-1892    William Michael Harnett, American painter. He painted "After the Hunt."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.647)   
1848-1894    Gustave Caillebotte, French impressionist painter, he was a Jewish lawyer turned painter with a crisp, almost photographic style. He is best know for "Paris Street: Rainy Day" done in 1877.
    (WSJ, 2/23/95, p.A-10)

1848-1903    Paul Gauguin, French painter. He painted "Still Life."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.587)

1848-1924    Kate Claxton, American actress. She was famous for her portrayal of Louise, a blind girl, in the 1874 play: "The Two Orphans."
    (SFC, 4/21/99, Z1 p.6)

1848-1933    Richard R. Bowker, American publisher: "It's all right to have a train of thoughts, if you have a terminal."
    (AP, 11/12/98)

1849        Jan 4, San Francisco’s The Star and Californian newspaper under Edward Kemble changed its name to the Alta California.
    (PI, 8/8/98, p.5)(SFC, 7/19/14, p.C1)

1849        Jan 23, English-born Elizabeth Blackwell, the 1st woman to receive medical degree, graduated at the top of her class from the medical school of Hobart College in Geneva, N.Y.
    (http://campus.hws.edu/his/blackwell/biography.html)(ON, 4/03, p.2)

1849        Jan, In Placerville, Ca., the town of Old Dry Diggings was unofficially renamed Hangtown when a mob ran down 3 men who reportedly tried to rob a local gambler. The men were flogged and hanged on Main St. Later the Placerville tavern, The Hangman’s Tree, was built over the site of the hanging tree.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A20)(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T6)
1849        Jan, A relief party from Taos, New Mexico, rescued the remaining members of the John C. Fremont expedition in the Colorado Mountains. Ten men died from cold and starvation before the rescue.
    (ON, 12/06, p.7)

1849        Feb 13, Lord Randolph Churchill, was born. He was an English politician, Winston Churchill's father and member of Parliament.
    (HN, 2/13/99)

1849        Feb 21, In the Second Sikh War, Sir Hugh Gough’s well placed guns won a victory over a Sikh force twice the size of his at Gujerat on the Chenab River, assuring British control of the Punjab for years to come.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1849        Feb 28,  The steamer California, sounding the first steamship whistle on the SF Bay, arrived in SF with San Francisco postmaster John W. Geary on board carrying mail for the Pacific coast. Steamboat service began from Panama City to SF. Pacific Mail Steamship Co. sent the side-wheel steamship California to SF with American gold-seekers and 50 Peruvian miners. Also onboard were preacher Osgood C. Wheeler (32) and his wife Elizabeth.
    (www.maritimeheritage.org/PassLists/ca022849.htm)(SSFC, 3/1/09, DB p.50)(AP, 2/28/98)(SFEC, 1/11/98, DB p.40)

1849        Feb, Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), Scottish essayist, anonymously authored the article: "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question," in which he 1st used the phrase "the dismal science" to describe political economics: It is “not a gay science… no, a dreary, desolate, and indeed quite abject and distressing one; what we might call, by way of eminence, the dismal science." Carlyle himself argued in this essay for the reintroduction of slavery into the West Indies. In 2001 David M. Levy authored "How the Dismal Science Got Its Name."
    (http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/texts/carlyle/carlodnq.htm)(WSJ, 12/10/01, p.A15)

1849        Mar 3, The US Home Department, forerunner of the Interior Department, was established.
    (AP, 3/3/98)
1849        Mar 3, US Congress created the Minnesota Territory.
    (AP, 3/3/99)
1849        Mar 3, The US Gold Coinage Act authorized the $20 Double Eagle gold coin.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1849        Mar 4, The US had no President. Pres. James K. Polk officially stepped down as the 11th US president and President Zachary Taylor refused to be sworn-in on a Sunday. US Sen. Some say David Rice Atchison (1807-1886) of Missouri then technically held office as president until Zachary Taylor took his oath the next day. However Atchison’s term as president pro tempore of the Senate had also expired, and his new term did not begin until March 5.
    (AH, 2/03, p.18)

1849        Mar 5, Zachary Taylor took the oath of office at his presidential inauguration.
    (AP, 3/5/99)

1849        Mar 7, Luther Burbank (d.1926) American Horticulturist was born in Lancaster, Mass. "For those who do not think, it is best at least to rearrange their prejudices once in a while."
    (AP, 3/7/98)(AP, 4/26/98)
1849        Mar 7, The Austrian Reichstag was dissolved.
    (HN, 3/7/99)

1849        Mar 19, Alfred von Tirpitz, Prussian admiral, was born. He commanded the German fleet in early World War I.
    (HN, 3/19/99)

1849        Mar 23, Battle of Novara (King Charles Albert of Sardinia vs. Italian republic). Austria’s Gen. Radetzky (83) crushed the Piedmontese forces. Charles Albert abdicated and was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel II, who reigned until 1861.
    (PCh, 1992, p.449)(SS, 3/23/02)

1849        Mar 24, Johann Dobereiner (b.1780), German chemist, died. He is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements.
    (Econ, 5/12/12, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Wolfgang_D%C3%B6bereiner)

1849        Mar 27, Joseph Couch patented a steam-powered percussion rock drill.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1849        Apr 6, Giacomo Meyerbeer's opera "Le Prophete," premiered in Paris. [see Apr 16]
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1849        Apr 10, Walter Hunt, a mechanic, patented the safety pin in NYC. He sold rights for $100. Hunt’s other inventions included a new stove, paper collar, ice-breaking boat, fountain pen and nail-making machine.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)(SFC, 4/1/00, p.B4)(MC, 4/10/02)

1849        Apr 16, Giacomo Meyerbeer's Opera "Le Prophete," premiered in Paris. [see Apr 6]
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1849        Apr 21, Oskar Hertwig, embryologist, discovered fertilization, was born.
    (HN, 4/21/98)

1849        Apr 27, Italian revolutionary Garibaldi took control of the defenses of Rome. He and his family had returned to Italy from Uruguay in 1848 to fight on behalf of the newly declared Republic of Rome, which had taken control of Rome and expelled Pope Pius IX, who opposed the goals of Italian nationalism.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1849        Apr 30, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian republican patriot and guerrilla leader, repulsed a French attack on Rome.
    (HN, 4/30/98)(ON, 10/06, p.5)

1849        May 3, Jacob Riis (d.1914), American reporter and reformer (How the Other Half Lives), was born in Denmark.
    (HN, 5/3/01)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAriis.htm)

1849        May 6, Wyatt Eaton, artist, was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1849        May 10, A mob destroyed Astor Place opera house in NYC and 22 people were killed. Edward Z.C. Judson (Ned Buntline) was convicted of leading the riot and was sentenced to a year in prison. In 2007 Nigel Cliff authored “The Shakespeare Riots: Revenge, Drama, and Death in Nineteenth-Century America."
    (PCh, 1992, p.450)(WSJ, 4/28/07, p.P8)

1849        May 15, Neapolitan troops entered Palermo, and were in possession of all of Sicily.
    (HN, 5/15/98)

1849        May 17, A fire in St. Louis, Mo., destroyed more than 400 buildings and two dozen steamships.
    (AP, 5/17/99)

1849        May 25, Andreas Michiels (52), Dutch Military Governor of West Sumatra, died in battle.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1849        May 28, Anne Bronte, novelist, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1849        May 29, A patent for lifting vessels was granted to Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln said: "You can fool some of the people all of the time, & some of the people some of time, but you can't fool all of the people all of time"
    (HN, 5/29/98)(SC, 5/29/02)

1849        Jun 12, The gas mask was patented by L. P. Haslett.
    (HN, 6/12/98)

1849        Jun 15, James Polk, the 11th president of the United States, died of cholera in Nashville, Tenn. Following a visit to New Orleans. In 2008 Walter R. Borneman authored “Polk: The Man Who Transformed the Presidency and America."
    (AP, 6/15/97)(WSJ, 5/16/08, p.W8)(Econ, 7/30/11, p.55)

1849        Jun 17, In San Francisco Rev. John Brouillet, vicar general of the diocese of Walla Walla, and Rev. Anthony Langlois, also from the Oregon territory, opened St. Francis Church with a Mass.
    (SFC, 10/4/99, p.A21)
1849        Jun 17, Russian troops invaded Hungary.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.448)

1849        Jun 22, San Francisco experienced its first theatrical performance with a one-man show in Portsmouth Square by Stephen C. Massett, an itinerant Brit.
    (SFC, 5/24/14, p.C1)

1849        Jul 5, The sailing ship Niantic arrived in SF, Ca, and anchored in Yerba Buena Cove. The ship’s owners soon converted her to a storage and auction house for imported goods and built a hotel on her deck.
    (SFC, 5/9/03, p.E5)(SFC, 2/4/05, p.E16)

1849        Jul 12, William Osler (d.1919), physician, author (circulatory system), was born in Canada. "The philosophies of one age have become the absurdities of the next, and the foolishness of yesterday has become the wisdom of tomorrow."
    (AP, 10/15/98)(MC, 7/12/02)

1849        Jul 15, A Chilean tent community at the foot of Telegraph Hill, composed of some 700 miners, was assaulted by the lawless Society of Hounds street gang. Sam Roberts led the rampage and violent raid on the Little Chile tent community. The Hounds had specialized in “patriotic" assaults on Chileans. In response Sam Brannan call on volunteers to drive the Hounds out of town. A vigilante force of some 230 men rounded up 20 Hounds and imprisoned them on a warship. Popular justice brought 9 Hound members to court and sentenced them to a decade of hard labor. The Chilecito community stayed vibrant throughout the 1860s.
    (SSFC, 1/5/03, p.A24)(SFC, 6/1/13, p.C2)(SFC, 12/28/13, p.C2)

1849        Jul 19, F.A. Alphonse Aulard, French historian, was born.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1849        Jul 22, Emma Lazarus, American poet, was born of Sephardic Jewish parents in NYC. Her poem, "The New Colossus," is inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty.
    (HN, 7/22/98)(SFEC, 4/30/00, BR p.2)

1849        Jul 23, German rebels in Baden capitulated to the Prussians.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1849        Jul 28, Memmon became the 1st clipper to reach SF after 120 days out of NY.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1849        Jul 31, Benjamin Chambers patented a breech loading cannon.
    (MC, 7/31/02)
1849        Jul 31, Garibaldi asked San Marino for asylum from Austrian forces. San Marino brokered for Garibaldi’s surrender to Austrian forces. Garibaldi and his wife escaped, and made their way to Ravenna. Anita Garibaldi died enroute. Garibaldi managed to reach safety in the Kingdom of Sardinia.
    (ON, 10/06, p.7)

1849        Aug 11, Lajos Kossuth, president of Hungary, abdicated in favor of Gen. Gorgey as Russia intervened in the Hungarian revolution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lajos_Kossuth)

1849        Aug 13, Hungary’s Gen. Gorgey surrendered to the Russian forces. Russia gave Hungary back to Austria.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.448)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lajos_Kossuth)

1849        Aug 18, Benjamin Louis Paul Godard, composer, was born in Paris.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1849        Aug 28, Venice, under Daniele Manin, surrendered to Austrians under Count Radetsky, following a siege since July 20 after proclaiming independence.
    (HTNet, 8/28/99)(MC, 8/28/01)

1849        Aug, In San Francisco the triweekly Pacific News appeared as the first rival to The Star and Californian newspaper. By 1853 there were 12 dailies in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 7/19/14, p.C2)

1849        Sep 1, Elizabeth Harrison, US educator (Natal Congress of Parents and Teachers), was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)
1849        Sep 1, California Constitutional Convention was held in Monterey.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1849        Sep 3, Sarah Orne Jewett, author of "Tales of New England," was born.
    (HN, 9/3/98)

1849        Sep 10, US actor Edwin Booth (b.1833), brother of Lincoln Assassinator John Wilkes Booth, made his 1st performance in Richard III.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1849        Sep 14(OS), Ivan Pavlov (d.1936), Russian physiologist who studied dogs' responses to food suggestions, was born. He won a Nobel Prize in 1904.
    (HN, 9/14/98)(www.crystalinks.com/pavlov1.html)
1849        Sep 14, La Meuse, the first ship to sail from France to California, arrived in San Francisco with 41 all male passengers.
    (SF, 8/29/15, p.C2)

1849        Sep 17-18, Lt. J.H. Simpson and R.H. Kern, Philadelphia artist, visited El Morro in New Mexico during an exploration trip of new US territory. They copied many of the inscription there.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F9)

1849        Sep 19, The 1st commercial laundry was established, in Oakland, California.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1849        Sep 23, Mikhail Mikhaylovich Ivanov, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1849        Sep 25, Johann Baptist Strauss, elder, composer (Radetzky March), died at 45.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1849        Oct 7, James Whitcomb Riley, poet, was born.
    (HN, 10/7/00)
1849        Oct 7, Author Edgar Allan Poe died in Baltimore, Md., at age 40. Never able to overcome his drinking habits, he was found in a delirious condition outside a saloon that was used as a voting place. The artist James Carling later illustrated his poem "The Raven." In 1996 a case was made in the Sept. issue of the Maryland Med. Journal that his symptoms indicated that he died of encephalitic rabies. In 1999 John Evangelist Walsh published "Midnight Dreary: The Mysterious Death of Edgar Allan Poe."
    (FB, 9/12/96, p.A7)(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T5)(AP, 10/7/97)(HN, 10/7/98)(SFEC, 1/31/99, Par p.15)

1849        Oct 13, The California state constitution, which prohibited slavery, was signed in Monterey.
    (HN, 10/13/98)

1849        Oct 16, George Washington Williams, historian, clergyman and politician, was born.
    (HN, 10/16/00)

1849        Oct 17, Frederic Chopin (b.1810), Polish-born composer and pianist, died in Paris of tuberculosis at the age of 39. The 1945 film "A Song to Remember" was about Chopin." In 2010 Adam Zamoyski authored “Chopin: Prince of the Romantics."
    (HN, 10/17/00)(SFC, 11/25/02, p.A15)(Econ, 2/6/10, p.91)

1849        Nov 8, Edward Julius Biedermann, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1849        Nov 13, Voters approved the California state constitution 12,061 to 811. The original Constitution was drafted and signed on 19 hand-written pages of an animal-skin document. At the constitutional convention 48 delegates met in San Jose. This was criticized by the state’s first daily newspaper, the Alta California, as a location among the coyotes. The "Legislature of a thousand drinks" established a code of laws and a judicial system, elected 2 senators and voted to relocate to Vallejo. The constitution abolished slavery but barred blacks from voting, holding public office and testifying in court against whites. John Bidwell was elected to the state Senate.
    (WSJ, 6/11/97, p.CA1)(SFEC, 1/11/98, DB p.41)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W26)(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 10/14/99, p.A27)(SFC, 4/21/07, p.B5)

1849        Nov 23, Harvard chemistry Prof. John Webster murdered Dr. George Parkman. In 1991 Simon Schama authored “Dead Certainties," which chronicled the murder and trial, in which Webster was convicted and sentenced to hanging. Dental identification played a key role in the trial.
    (WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W8)(http://jimfisher.edinboro.edu/forensics/webster1.html)

1849        Nov 24, Frances Hodgson Burnett, author, was born. Her work includes "Little Lord Fauntleroy" and "The Secret Garden."
    (HN, 11/24/00)

1849        Nov 29, Ambrose Fleming, inventor of the diode, was born.
    (MC, 11/29/01)   

1849        Dec 3, California asked to be admitted into the Union as a free state.
    (SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)
1849        Dec 3, Jesuit Fr. John Nobili and Fr. Michael Accolti (1807-1878) arrived in San Francisco.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)

1849        Dec 6, Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery in Maryland.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1849        Dec 8, Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Luisa Miller," premiered in Naples.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1849        Dec 12, Marc Brunel (b.1769), the initiating engineer of England’s Thames Tunnel, died.
    (ON, 4/06, p.9)(www.bris.ac.uk/is/services/specialcollections/brunelchronology.html)

1849        Dec 15, California's first legislature convened in San Jose.
    (SFC, 9/2/99, p.A12)(SFC, 1/16/04, p.A23)

1849        Dec 19, Henry Clay Frick (d.1919), coal and steel magnate, was born in West Overton, Penn.
    (www.netstate.com/states/peop/people/pa_hcf.htm)

1849        Dec 20, Peter Burnett (1807-1895), the 1st governor of California, gave his inaugural address. Burnett was elected governor of California before it had even become a state. He abruptly resigned from office in 1851. Burnett, who wrote a book about his passionate conversion to Catholicism, is honored with a memorial in the church at Mission Santa Clara. While in office Burnett, a native of Tennessee, proposed that blacks, whether slave or free, be banned from the state by statute. He also saw the necessity for exterminating the state’s Indians if California were to grow.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Hardeman_Burnett)(SFC, 4/14/98, p.E5)(SFC, 5/19/11, p.C1)

1849        Dec 28, M. Jolly-Bellin discovered dry-cleaning. He accidentally upset a lamp containing turpentine and oil on his filthy clothing and saw a cleaning effect.
    (MC, 12/28/01)   

1849        Dec 29, Gas light was installed in the White House.
    (HN, 12/29/98)

1849        Johan August Strindberg (d.1912), novelist, dramatist, essayist and photographer, was born. In 1985 Michael Meyer authored a Strindberg biography.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1407)(SFC, 8/10/00, p.D2)(WSJ, 12/11/01, p.A17)

1849        Gustave Boulanger (1824-1888), French artist, painted “Ulysses Recognized by Eeurycleia."
    (WSJ, 12/28/05, p.D8)

1849        Asher B. Durand of the Hudson River School created his painting “Kindred Spirits." In 2005 Alice B. Walton, Wal-Mart heiress, purchased it from the NY Public Library for $35 million.
    (WSJ, 12/26/06, p.D8)
   
1849        Louisa May Alcott at the age of 18 wrote her first novel "The Inheritance."
    (SFC, 4/30/96, p. B-3)

1849        In Canada Josiah Henson (b.1789), former Maryland slave, authored his autobiography. It became the model for Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin."
    (SSFC, 12/18/05, p.A31)

1849        Alphonse Karr authored the novel “Les Guepes." It included the classic line: “The more things change, the more they stay the same."
    (SSFC, 2/20/05, p.C1)

1849        John Snow (1813-1858), English obstetrician, authored his 39-page pamphlet “On the Mode of Communication of Cholera." He presented evidence that the disease was spread through contaminated water.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)(www.johnsnowsociety.org/johnsnow/facts.html)

1849        Henry David Thoreau published “A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers." It described a camping trip made with his brother in 1839.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Week_on_the_Concord_and_Merrimack_Rivers)

1849        "El Dorado," 24 panels depicting the native vegetation and architecture of Africa, Asia, Europe and America, was printed.
    (WSJ, 8/28/01, p.A12)

1849        In New Orleans the Baroness Micaela Pontalba began the construction of the Pontalba apartment buildings.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.64)
1849        By this time Maunsel White, a New Orleans plantation owner, was growing peppers that had originated in Mexico’s state of Tabasco. He devised a sauce using the pepper.
    (WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D11)

1849        The High Bridge was built as an aqueduct to carry water to Manhattan.
    (USAT, 1/16/04, p.10A)

1849        In Nevada the first white settlement was by Mormons at Genoa near Carson City, then called Mormon Station.
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.1B)

1849        Elizabeth Farnham, a matron of New York’s Sing Sing prison, formed the California Association of American Women to bring young women west to civilize the frontier. The plan failed but Farnham did emigrate to the Santa Cruz area and later oversaw the Stockton Insane Asylum. In 2004 JoAnn Levy authored “Unsettling the West: Eliza Farnham and Georgiana Bruce Kirby in Frontier California.
    (SSFC, 5/16/04, p.M4)

1849        A US Swamp Land Act authorized Louisiana to create a system of levee districts. The sale of donated federal land financed levee construction and land reclamation.
    (NH, 2/05, p.45)

1849        In Missouri Henry Shaw, a British immigrant, established the St. Louis Botanical Garden.
    (SSFC, 7/5/09, p.M5)

1849        Fort Worth, Texas, was founded in honor of Major Gen’l. William Jenkins Worth, who never saw the place. It sat on the bluffs overlooking the Trinity River.
    (HT, 4/97, p.45)

1849        In an address before the American Peace Society in 1849 Charles Sumner urged for the creation of a "Congress of Nations."
    (HNQ, 11/17/98)

1849        The original California Constitution was drafted and signed on 19 hand-written pages of an animal-skin document.
    (WSJ, 6/11/97, p.CA1)
1849        Irishman Thomas H. Dowling settled on Goat island in the SF Bay about this time and built a house, a dock and started a quarry. The USD Army, citing a claim that the government owned all the islands in the SF Bay, ejected Dowling and his family from the island in 1867.
    (SFC, 11/23/13, p.C3)
1849        The first church at the site of St. Francis of Assisi in North Beach, SF, was built by Catholics who disliked the 3.5 mile walk to Mission Dolores.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, z1 p.6)(SFL)
1849        The Jewish Congregation Sherith Israel was founded in SF.
    (SFC, 3/12/05, p.E1)
1849        By this time the San Francisco Board of Supervisors (ayuntamiento) had grown to 16 members from 8 districts.
    (SSFC, 2/28/10, p.E2)
1849        The Tadich Grill opened in SF. It began as the new World Coffee Stand on the edge of what is now Commercial St.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.24)(SFC, 10/8/97, Z1 p.7)
1849        The James Clair Flood, a former saloon keeper from NY arrived in SF and made a fortune in the  1859 Nevada Comstock silver mine.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.B12)(SFC, 7/4/03, p.E1)
1849        Lazard Freres with a brother and cousin moved their New Orleans dry goods company to San Francisco. They opened a Paris office in 1852, a London office in 1877 and operations in New York in 1880.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 6/7/99, p.C1)
1849        Englishman George Gordon arrived in SF. He pursued ventures as a lumber dealer, builder of wharves, head of an iron foundry and a sugar refinery.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.WBb3)
1849        Joshua Norton, a financier from the Cape of Good Hope, arrived in San Francisco with $40,000 from trade deals in Africa and South America. Within five years he amassed $250,000 and invested it all in rice with the hope of cornering the market. His scheme failed when three ships arrived from the Orient loaded with rice.
    (HFA, '96, p.64)
1849        Oscar Backus (19) arrived in SF aboard the steamer California, believed to be the first steam powered ship to pass through the Golden Gate. He brought 750 copies of a New York newspaper that he’d bought for $5 and sold them for $1 apiece. He then began a successful career in mining and plumbing.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.A24)
1849        William Walker (1824-1860) of Tennessee journeyed to San Francisco and soon became editor of the Bulletin.
    (SFC, 8/1/15, p.C2)
1849        The first stage coach line from SF to San Jose was begun by John Whistman. The 9-hour trip in an old French omnibus driven by Henry Ward cost $32 each way.
    (Ind, 10/31/98, p.5A)
1849        A Peruvian consulate was established in SF with Carlos Varea as the first consul.
    (Ind, 8/3/99, p.3A)
1849        A Market Street doctor funded the 1st "city physician" practice with gambling winnings. This was later considered as the beginning of SF General Hospital. In 2000 F. William Blaisdell and Moses Grossman published "Catastrophes, Epidemics, and Neglected Diseases" San Francisco General Hospital and the Evolution of Public Health.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.6)(SFL)
1849        August Helbing, a SF Jewish pioneer, rescued an ailing Jewish man who had just arrive by boat. Helbing went on to help others and created the Eureka Benevolent Society (1850), which later transformed to the Jewish Family and Children’s Services organization.
    (SFC, 12/30/00, p.A15)(SFL)
1849        A ship called the Arkansas ran aground on Alcatraz and was towed to San Francisco’s Pacific Ave. wharf. It was soon converted into the Old Ship Saloon, which featured a hole cut in the bow “to admit the thirsty," and became a major shanghaiing haunt. In 1867 it was moved to another building a few feet away and continued operations at 298 Pacific.
    (SFC, 11/9/13, p.C2)
1849        Some 23,000 people arrive in SF by land and 62,000 by sea as the population grew to some 30,000. First Street was at the edge of the Bay and the area was called Happy Valley.
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, Z1 p.6)(SSFC, 4/24/11, DB p.46)

1849        Peter Lassen pioneered a new route to California that bypassed the 40 Mile Desert in Nevada. The trail led from Nevada to Oregon and was combined with another trail that led past his ranch and trading post near Chico. The trail however led across more desert and came to be called "The Death Route."
    (SFC, 8/22/98, p.A13)(SFC, 8/25/98, p.A1,9)
1849        Josiah Gregg and a band of gold miners explored the north coast of California and settled around Humboldt Bay.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.127)
1849        The Dunham, Carrigan and Hayden company supplied picks and shovels to the miners of the Gold Rush.
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A21)
1849        A mass meeting of miners working the California Yuba River passed a resolution stating that "no slave or negro should own claims or even work in the mines."   
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, DB p.40)

1849        James Strang settled with 250 followers on Big Beaver Island in northern Lake Michigan.
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.86)

1849        A party from Kansas, headed for the California Gold Rush, called themselves the Jayhawkers. Another party from Missouri named themselves the Bugsmashers. Both groups left Salt Lake to late to cross the Sierra and took the southern route. The stumbled into the Death Valley region around Christmas. Historian Leroy Johnson later wrote of their experiences in "Escape From Death Valley."
    (SFC, 1/28/99, p.A15)

1849        Rufus Porter, founder and first editor of Scientific American, proposed an aerial locomotive to carry up to 100 passengers from New York to California in three days. He built a 700-foot model but a rowdy crowd destroyed its hydrogen gas bag before it could be launched.
    (SFC, 10/11/14, p.C1)

1849        William Slusher, a farmer from the East Coast, built a cabin on Nuts Creek (later Walnut Creek, Ca.) and became the first American settler in the area.
    (SFC, 7/17/06, p.B5)

c1849    Numerous Tennesseans went to California for the gold rush. In 1998 Tennessee historian Walter T. Durham wrote "Volunteer Forty-Niners," an account of the Tennesseans experiences in California.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.E5)

1849        A party of 10 African Americans, an American Indian, a Cook Island native and a Scotsman named William Downie struck gold in the California Sierra.
    (SSFC, 4/29/01, p.T9)
1849        Downieville in Sierra County was renamed from The Forks, after the 2 rivers that converge there. Early settlers called the area "Tin Cup Diggings" from legends that a man could capture a tin cup full of gold from the Yuba River. Many of the first minors arrived with "Major" William Downie. Within a few years it became the 5th largest town in California.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, p.T5)(SFEC, 5/30/99, p.T6)(SSFC, 9/1/02, p.C1)
1849        Miners from Sonora, Mexico, found gold at Woods Hole Creek, Ca. The mining camp of Sonora was soon assembled and grew into the town of Sonora.
    (SSFC, 9/19/10, p.M6)

1849        Prospectors William Manly and John Rogers stumbled into Death Valley seeking a shortcut to the gold fields.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, C1)

1849        Some 23,000 people arrive in SF by land and 62,000 by sea.
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, Z1 p.6)

1849        The Pfizer drug company was founded by Charles Pfizer and cousin Charles Erhart in Brooklyn.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.B4)

1849        Paul Julius von Reuter (1816-1899) invested in carrier pigeons to close the gap in the telegraph system between Brussels and Aachen.
    (Econ, 11/1/03, p.81)

1849        A Frenchman built a successful concrete rowboat.
    (Ind, 11/25/00, 5A)

1849        Victor Hugo addressed an appeal for European unity to Germany, France and Russia.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, p.50)

1849        Edward Hicks (b.1780), American Quaker painter, died.
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)

1849        Katsushika Hokusai (b.1760), Japanese printmaker, died. His work included a 66-foot high portrait in ink of Daruma, the founder of Zen Buddhism.
    (SFC, 9/24/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)(Econ, 6/6/15, p.77)

1849        Water-borne cholera killed some 14,000 people in London.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.127)

1849        In Vienna, Austria, balloonists dropped bombs to break up a revolt.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, Z1 p.8)

1849        Britain annexed the Punjab, the vast territories of what later became known as eastern Pakistan and northern western India. This put them on the edge of the tribal territories, mostly claimed by Afghanistan, and forced them to launch military campaigns almost every year for the next half century to keep the tribes at bay.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.18)

1849        The church at Arorangi, Rarotonga, in the Cook Islands was built. It has the graveyard of Papeiha, the Christianized Tahitian missionary who first preached the Gospel to the islanders.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T7)

1849        In Egypt the reign of Ottoman viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha ended.
    (PCh, 1992, p.373)

1849        Joseph Naudet, director France’s L’Enfer library, which started in the 1830s, described the library as a hiding place to lock up books that were very bad. The collection hid books and other documents from the public that were deemed dangerous for public morality.
    (SFC, 12/7/07, p.E9)
1849        French brothers Adolphe and Edouard-Jean Cointreau created a brand of liqueur called Cointreau and soon founded their own distillery in Angers. The liqueur was a secret blend of orange peels and pure sugar-beet alcohol.
    (SFC, 11/1/06, p.G2)
1849        French officer Claude-Etienne Minie invented a bullet that changed the face of warfare. The Minie ball was shot from a grooved bore, i.e. a rifle, and expanded when shot to clean out the grooves of the bore. The bullet was adopted by most of the European armies—as well as both sides during the American Civil War. Minié went on to serve as a military instructor and also a manager for the Remington Arms Company in the U.S.
    (WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W10)(HNQ, 12/23/00)

1849        Auguste Comte of France proposed to discontinue the calendar of months in favor of a seven day calendar.
    (K.I.-365D, p.110)

1849        Hungary proclaimed independence from the Great Church in Debrecen, temporarily ending 150 years of Hapsburg rule.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.125)

1849        The Anglican Church of Christ was built in Jerusalem by the British.
    (SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T7)

1849-1850    Zacharay Taylor was the12th President of the US but died of a stroke after 16 months in office. He was considered the 5th worst president by a rating cited in the Congressional Quarterly’s Guide to the Presidency.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.71,96b, photo)(SFC, 9/26/96, p.E10)

1849-1853    Fort Worth, Texas, served as an Army post.
    (SFC,11/8/97, p.E4)

1849-1869    In 1997 Ida Rae Egli edited the book: "No Room of Their Own: Women Writers of Early California."
    (SFEC,11/9/97, BR p.9)

1849-1875    Some 100,000 Chinese coolies arrived as laborers in Peru during this period.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.21)

1849-1878    Buenaventura Baez served five terms as president of the Dominican Republic. He sought to have his country annexed by the United States twice, in 1850 and 1868. In 1878 he was forced out of office and into permanent exile in Puerto Rico. Baez helped lead the revolt that established the republic's independence from Haiti in 1843. Baez is remembered as a thoroughly corrupt tyrant, having no regard for his people or their property.
    (HNQ, 2/1/99)

1849-1891    George Washington Williams was born. He was the son of a Pennsylvania laborer, and worked as a preacher, lawyer and Civil War soldier, but is best known for his work on African-American history. At age 14, he enlisted in the U.S. Army in time to fight in the Civil War. In 1868, he left he army and trained at the Newton Theological Institution, becoming an ordained minister in 1874. While a pastor at several different churches, he became interested in history. In 1882, after a brief stint in the Ohio state legislature (1879-1881), he published his History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880. His following work, A History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion (1888) was the result of years of research collecting oral histories from black troops as well as gathering numerous newspaper clippings of the events. During the 1880s, Washington’s interests turned more towards his books, lecturing on related topics and practicing law. He died in 1891 in England while publicizing human rights abuses in the Belgian Congo.
    (HNQ, 2/9/01)

1849-1909     Sarah Orne Jewett, American author: "Tact is, after all, a kind of mind-reading." "A lean sorrow is hardest to bear."
    (AP, 5/22/98)(AP, 1/18/99)

1849-1917    William Meritt Chase, American painter.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.24)

1849-1922    Frederick Langbridge, English clergyman and author: "Some seek bread; and some seek wealth and ease; and some seek fame, but all are seeking rest."
    (AP, 6/7/00)

1849-1999    In 1999 Niall Ferguson published his 2nd volume on "The House of Rothschild: The World's Banker 1849-1999."
    (WSJ, 11/9/99, p.A24)

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