Timeline 1850-1854

Return to home

1850        Jan 6, Franz Xaver Scharwenka, German pianist and composer (Mataswintha), was born.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1850        Jan 27, Samuel Gompers (d.1924) was born in London. Gompers, labor leader and first president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), apprenticed as a cigar maker in, London. At the age of 13, Gompers arrived in America, joined the Cigarmakers' Union in 1864 and became the union's president in 1877. In 1881 Gompers was among the founders of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the U.S. and Canada, which was reorganized as the American Federation of Labor in 1886. He served as president of the AFL every year from its inception (except 1895) until his death. As the acknowledged leader of America‘s labor movement, Gompers stressed practical demands of hours and wages and opposed theorists and radicals.
    (HN, 1/27/99)(HNQ, 2/24/00)

1850        Jan 29, Lawrence Hargrave, inventor of the box kite, was born.
    (MC, 1/29/02)
1850        Jan 29, Ebenezer Howard, pioneer of garden cities, was born in London.
    (MC, 1/29/02)
1850        Jan 29, Henry Clay introduced in the Senate a compromise bill on slavery that included the admission of California into the Union as a free state.
    (AP, 1/29/98)
1850        Jan 29, Luigi Sabatelli (b.1772), Italian artist, died in Milan.

c1850    Jan 30, Charles Steingraff (50), a bachelor farmhand, was hanged in Ohio for the murder of a deaf and blind, 12-year-old girl. An estimated 25,000 spectators watched the execution.
    (ON, 10/02, p.3)

1850        Feb 12, Washington's original Farewell Address manuscript sold for $2,300.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1850        Feb 18, The California state legislature created the original 18 counties including the city of San Francisco.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, DB p.41)(www.sfgov.org/site/visitor_index.asp?id=8091)

1850        Feb 25, Doro Eldengge Huwangdi (b.1782), the Daoguang emperor, died. He was the 8th emperor of the Manchurian Qing dynasty and the 6th Qing (1820-1850) emperor to rule over China.

1850        Feb 27, Henry Edwards Huntington, US railroad exec, was born.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1850        Mar 7, Tomas Masaryk, Pres. of Czech (1918-35), was born to a Slovak father and Czech-German mother in the small town of Hodonin in South Moravia, very close to what is now the border with Slovakia.
1850        Mar 7, In a three-hour speech to the U.S. Senate, Daniel Webster endorsed the Compromise of 1850 as a means of preserving the Union.
    (AP, 3/7/98)

1850        Mar 9, Alexandre Luigini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1850        Mar 11, The Pennsylvania legislature passed an act to incorporate the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, the first regular medical school for women in America.

1850        Mar 16, Nathaniel Hawthorne’s "The Scarlet Letter" was first published.
    (AP, 3/16/97)

1850        Mar 18, Henry Wells & William Fargo formed American Express in Buffalo. [see Mar 18, 1852]
    (HN, 3/18/98)(MC, 3/18/02)

1850        Mar 26, Edward Bellamy (d.1898), writer, was born. His work included the utopian novel "Looking Backward, 2000-1887," which forecast what America might look like if people worked together for the common good.
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W17)(HN, 3/26/01)

1850        Mar 27, The party of Dr. Thadeus Hildreth found a 22-pound gold nugget in Tuolemne County, Ca. The place was initially named Hildreth’s Diggings, then changed to New Camp, then American Camp and finally Columbia. The population soon swelled to 15,000.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T6)(CVG, Vol 16, p.1)

1850        Mar 29, Ireland's SS Royal Adelaide sank in storm and 200 people died.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1850        Mar 30, Charles Dickens published the first issue of his magazine “Household Words."
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.95)(www.victorianweb.org/periodicals/hw.html)

1850        Mar 31, The US population hit 23,191,876, with the Black population at 3,638,808 (15.7%).
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1850        Mar 31, John Calhoun (b.1782), US vice-president (1825-1832), died while a senator from South Carolina. He was elected vice president under two presidents, John Quincy Adams in 1824 and Andrew Jackson in 1828.
    (WUD, 1994 p.210)(HNQ, 8/19/99)(MC, 3/31/02)

1850        Apr 1, The San Francisco County government was established.

1850        Apr 4, The city of Los Angeles was incorporated.
    (AP, 4/4/97)

1850        Apr 8, William Henry Welch, US pathologist (founded John Hopkins), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1850        Apr 15, The city of San Francisco was incorporated.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(www.sfgov.org/site/visitor_index.asp?id=8091)

1850        Apr 16, Thomas Sidney Gilchrist, British metallurgist and inventor, was born.
    (HN, 4/16/01)
1850        Apr 16, Marie [Gresholtz] Tussaud (89), Swiss-born maker of wax figures, died.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1850        Apr 20, Daniel Chester French (d.1931), sculptor of the Concord Minuteman, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire. He had his estate in Stockbridge, Mass. His work also included the Lincoln Memorial. His Chesterwood estate became a museum with an annual 6-month summer season. [Ph. 413-298-3579]
    (HN, 4/20/98)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1850        Apr 23, William Wordsworth (b.1770), English poet, died.

1850        Apr 24, Louis Alexandre Piccinni (70), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1850        Apr, During the debate on the Compromise of 1850, Senator Henry Foote, a unionist and supporter of the compromise, drew a pistol on Senator Thomas Hart Benton, an opponent of the deal. Other senators intervened before Foote could fire.
    (SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)
1850        Apr, The side-wheel steamship General Anthony Wayne sank  in 50 feet of water in lake Erie about eight miles north of Vermilion, Ohio. 38 of the 93 passengers and crew on board died. The wreckage was discovered in 2007.
    (AP, 6/21/07)

1850        May 10, Thomas Johnstone Lipton, yachtsman, tea magnate (Lipton Tea), was born in Glasgow.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1850        May 16, Johannes von Mikulica-Radecki, Polish surgical pioneer, was born.
    (HN, 5/16/01)

1850        May 18, Oliver Heaviside, physicist who predicted existence of ionosphere, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1850        Jun 4, A self deodorizing fertilizer was patented in England.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1850        Jun 11, Cardinal Franzoni told Rev. Joseph Sadoc Alemany, a Dominican missionary who had worked in the Midwest frontier, that he was appointed the new bishop of Monterey, Ca.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A22)

1850        Jan 16, The first real play in San Francisco, “The Wife," was staged at the modest Washington Hall theater. This was located on the 2n d floor of a building that later became the city’s swankiest brothel.
    (SFC, 5/24/14, p.C2)
1850        Jun 16, Pope Pius IX persuaded Rev. Joseph Sadoc Alemany to return to the US and to go to California.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A22)

1850        Summer, James Strang announced that he was divinely directed to become a king arranged for his coronation at St. James on Big Beaver Island in Lake Michigan.
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.86)

1850        Jun 27, Lafcadio Hearn, US journalist, author (Chita), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1850        Jun 27, Ivan Vazov, poet, novelist, playwright (Under the Yoke), was born in Bulgaria.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1850        Jul 2, Prussia agreed to pull out of Schleswig and Holstein, Germany.
    (HN, 7/2/98)
1850        Jul 2, Sir Robert Peel (b.1788), former British prime minister (1834-35 and 1841-46), died. He founded the Conservative Party and the London Police Force whose officers were called "bobbies." In 2007 Douglas Hurd authored “Robert Peel: A Biography."
    (HN, 2/5/99)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1850        Jul 4, President Zachary Taylor stood hatless in the sun for hours listening to long-winded speeches. He returned to the White House and attempted to cool off by eating cherries, cucumbers and drinking iced milk. Severe stomach cramps followed and it is likely that Taylor's own physicians inadvertently killed him with a whole series of debilitating treatments. [see Jul 9]
    (HN, 7/11/99)
1850        Jul 4, William Kirby (b.1759), English entomologist, died. He was an original member of the Linnean Society and a Fellow of the Royal Society, as well as a country priest. He had studied how the ichneumon insect devours the living body of the caterpillar upon which it preys.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kirby_%28entomologist%29)(SFC, 8/2/13, p.A10)

1850        Jul 9, Zachary Taylor (b.1784), the 12th president of the United States, died of cholera at the age of 65 after serving only 16 months. He was succeeded by Millard Fillmore. Taylor was a Southerner, a slaveholder and the hero of the Mexican War in 1848 when he was nominated by the Whig Party as a candidate for president of the United States. He was an inoffensive candidate in the anxious years leading up to the Civil War because he had never taken a position on a political issue or even cast a vote in his life. During his 16 months as president, Congress addressed the explosive issue of slavery's expansion to the west with the Compromise of 1850, but Taylor himself never had the opportunity to act on this issue.
    (WUD,1994,p.1679)(SFC, 9/26/96, p.E10)(AP, 7/9/97)(HN, 7/9/98)(HN, 7/11/99)
1850        Jul 9, Bb, Bahi prophet, was executed in Tabriz, Iran.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1850        Jul 10, Millard Fillmore (Whig) was sworn in as the 13th president following the death of Zachary Taylor.
    (SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)    (AP, 7/10/97)(HN, 7/10/98)

1850        Jul 14, The 1st public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration took place. James Harrison of Australia designed an ice-making machine. It was an improvement on one invented by Jacob Perkins in 1834.
    (MC, 7/14/02)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1850        Jul 15, Mother Francis Xavier Cabrini, the first American canonized saint, was born.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1850        Jul 17, Statesman Daniel Webster said: "I was born an American; I will live an American; I shall die an American."
    (HNQ, 2/15/02)
1850        Jul 17, Astronomer William Cranch Bond and photographer John Adams Whipple focused on Vega and produced the 1st photograph of a star.
    (NH, 7/00, p.16)

1850        Jul 19, Margaret Fuller (b.1810), America’s first foreign correspondent, died aboard the Elizabeth, along with her husband and child, as the ship slammed into a sandbar less than 100 yards from Fire Island, NY. In 2012 John Matteson authored “The Lives of Margaret Fuller."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Fuller)(SSFC, 1/29/12, p.F4)

1850        Jul 20, John Graves Shedd, president of Marshall Field and Company, was born. He was the first Chicago merchant to give his employees a half-day off on Saturdays.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1850        Jul 25, Gold was discovered in the Rogue River in Oregon, extending the quest for gold up the Pacific coast.
    (HN, 7/25/98)
1850        Jul 25, The clipper ship Frolic, enroute from Hong Kong to SF, wrecked on a reef at the north edge of what is now California’s Preserve off Point Cabrillo Light Station. It had run opium from India to China to trade for silver and merchandise. The crew escaped in small boats and though all trade goods were lost the area became recognized as ideal for a redwood sawmill.
    (SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G10)(www.pointcabrillo.org/frolic-history.htm)(WSJ, 12/15/07, p.W10)

1850        Jul 26, The final design for London’s Great Council Exhibition, the first-ever World’s Fair, was officially approved. The structure of the glass and iron building,  designed by Joseph Paxton, was essentially completed by Jan 1, 1851. The Exhibition opened May 1.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)(ON, 7/04, p.12)

1850        Aug 5, Guy de Maupassant, short story writer and author of "The Necklace," was born.
    (HN, 8/5/98)
1850        Aug 5, Herman Melville and Nathaniel Hawthorne met at a picnic with friends at Monument Mountain near Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Two days later, Melville visited Hawthorne at his little red farmhouse in Lenox. Hawthorne gave him two bottles of champagne and they took a walk to the lake. That same day, Hawthorne wrote to a friend, "I met Melville, the other day, and liked him so much that I have asked him to spend a few days with me before leaving these parts." For a year and a half, the two friends lived six miles apart during the most productive time in their writing lives. Their five greatest books - The Scarlet Letter, The House of the Seven Gables, Moby-Dick, The Blithedale Romance, and Pierre - were either being written or published. In fact, The Blithedale Romance and Pierre were written at the same time, and The Scarlet Letter and Moby-Dick were published only a year apart. In the fall of 1851, Melville dedicated Moby-Dick to Hawthorne.

1850        Aug 17, Jose Francisco de San Martin (b.1778), Argentine-born South American revolutionary hero, died in France.
    (SC, 8/17/02)(Internet)

1850        Aug 18, Honore de Balzac (b.1799), French novelist, died at age 51.
    (WUD, 1994, p.115)(MC, 8/18/02)

1850        Aug 22, Nikolaus Lenau (48) (pseudonym of Nikolaus Franz Niembsch), Hungarian-born poet and writer, died in Austria.
    (MC, 8/22/02)(Internet)

1850        Aug 23, The 1st national women's rights convention convened in Worcester, Mass.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1850        Aug 26, Charles Richet, French physiologist (anaphylaxis-Nobel 1913), was born.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1850        Aug 28, Richard Wagner's opera "Lohengrin'' was premiered at Weimar, Germany, under the direction of Franz Liszt.
    (WSJ, 3/16/98, p.A20)(RTH, 8/28/99)

1850        Sep 2, Eugene Field, author, poet and journalist, was born. His work included "Little Boy Blue."
    (HN, 9/2/00)(MC, 9/2/01)

1850        Sep 9, California was admitted as the 31st state of the US.
    (INV, 7/95, p.12)(SFC, 6/13/96, p.A17)(SFC, 1/25/97, p.A17)(AP, 9/9/97)
1850        Sep 9, Territories of New Mexico and Utah were created.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1850        Sep 11, Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale," gave her first  concert in the United States, at Castle Garden in New York.
    (AP, 9/11/00)

1850        Sep 18, Congress passed the second Fugitive Slave Bill into law (the first was enacted in 1793) as part of Compromise of 1850. It allowed slave owners to reclaim slaves who had escaped to other states. Dedicated Massachusetts abolitionist Silas Soule ironically gave his life for the red man, not the black. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 set fines up to $1,000 for facilitating a slave’s flight.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(HN, 9/18/98)(MC, 9/18/01)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)

1850        Sep 20, The slave trade in Washington, D.C., was abolished as a provision of Henry Clay’s Compromise of 1850. Because each state had its own slavery code when the District of Columbia was founded in 1800, Washington had adopted Maryland’s laws. Although the 1850 legislation made the slave trade illegal, slavery itself was still legal. Nevertheless, Washington became a haven for free blacks. By 1860, free blacks outnumbered slaves almost four-to-one. President Abraham Lincoln put an end to Washington’s slavery altogether in 1862, freeing about 2,989 African Americans who were then slaves according to the slavery code.
    (HNPD, 9/20/98)(HN, 9/20/98)

1850        Sep 22, An earthquake in Sichuan, China, killed some 300,000 people.

1850        Sep 28, Flogging was abolished as a form of punishment in the U.S. Navy.
    (AP, 9/28/97)

1850        Sep 29, Pres. Millard Fillmore named Mormon leader Brigham Young as the first governor of the Utah Territory.
    (HN, 9/29/98)(SFC, 10/23/02, p.H4)

1850        Oct 3, The Univ. of Mich. Medical School received its first students.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.3)

1850        Oct 12, The 1st women's medical school, the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, opened to students.

1850        Oct 19, Annie Smith Peck (d.1935), one of the world’s renowned mountain climbers, was born in Providence, Rhode Island.

1850        Nov 6, The San Francisco Bay Yerba Buena and Angel islands were reserved for military use.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1850        Nov 9, Lewis Lewin, German toxicologist and father of psycho-pharmacology, was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1850        Nov 13, Robert Lewis Stevenson (d.1894), novelist, was born in Scotland. His books included: "Treasure Island" and "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde." In 1996 R.C. Terry edited and published “Robert Louis Stevenson: Interviews and Recollections."
    (Smith., 8/95, p.54)(SFC, 9/1/96, Par. p.12)(HN, 11/13/98)

1850        Nov 19, Lord Tennyson became the British poet laureate.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1850        Dec 17, In California some 500 Indians in the Yosemite region attacked a store on the Fresno River owned by James Savage. A clerk and two other whites were killed and the $25,000 in cash and goods were taken. This marked the beginning of the Mariposa Indian War. Savage had employed some 500 Yokut Indians to pan for gold.
    (SFC, 5/16/15, p.C2)

1850        Dec 24, Frederic Bastiat (b.1801), French free-market economist, died in Rome of tuberculosis.
    (WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederic_Bastiat)

1850        Dec 28, Rangoon, Burma, was destroyed by fire.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1850        Dec, The Taiping rebellion began against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty and continued to 1864. It was led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ. About 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history. In 2012 Stephen R. Platt authored “Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom: China, the West, and the Epic Story of the Taiping Civil War."
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiping_Rebellion)(SSFC, 2/26/12, p.F5)

1850        Gustave Courbet (1819-1877), French artist, painted "Burial at Ornans."
    (WSJ, 11/28/06, p.D8)

1850        Benson J. Lossing, journalist and engraver, published his 2-volume "Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution."
    (AH, 10/01, HT p.23)

1850        Donald Grant Mitchell wrote his best-selling novel "Reveries of a Bachelor," under the pen name Ik Marvel.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.30)

1850        Bayard Taylor authored "El Dorado," a reporter’s account of the California gold rush. In 2001 it was reprinted as "Eldorado: Adventures in the Path of Empire."
    (SSFC, 2/4/01, BR p.5)

1850        Books prior to this year were printed on alkaline paper and tended to survive. Books printed after this date were on acidic paper and began to crumble with age.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, Z1 p.8)

1850         Ivan Turgenev, Russian writer, produced his greatest play: "A Month in the Country."
    (WSJ, 4/26/95, p.A-14)

1850        A building census in Norfolk, Virginia indicated that there were 10,000 18th and early 19th century structures. Of these only a handful survive.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 69)

1850        Allan Pinkerton (1819-1884) partnered with Chicago attorney Edward Rucker in forming the North-Western Police Agency, later known as the Pinkerton Agency. "We never sleep" was their motto. The company’s emblem—a wide open eye—inspired the term "private eye. In 1999 the agency was sold to a Swedish company, Securitas AB.
    (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug25.html)(HNQ, 8/7/98)(SFC, 2/23/99, p.C4)

1850        US President Millard Fillmore issued an executive order that designated the southern point of the Marin Headlands a military reservation later called Lime Point Military Reservation. Fillmore also reserved Alcatraz Island for military use.
    (The Park, Summer 1995)(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.B4)(OAH, 2/05, p.A1)

1850        Pres. Fillmore signed and enforced the Fugitive Slave Act that authorized the return of slaves seeking sanctuary back to their masters.
    (SFC, 2/10/97, p.A1)

1850        Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky introduced the 8 provisions of the Great Compromise Bill. The provisions of the Great Compromise bill were reduced to 5 and passed one by one. They were in sum: 1) the admission of California as a free state; 2) slavery in the territories of Utah and New Mexico would be resolved by popular sovereignty; 3) slavery would be ended in the District of Columbia; 4) the federal government would assume a $10 million debt by Texas; 5) the federal government would be responsible for the return of runaway slaves. New York Sen. W.F. Seward stated: "The unity of our empire hangs on the decision of this day."
    (SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)

1850        The US Supreme Court opined that  an invention had to be something more than the work of a skilled mechanic to qualify for a patent.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.78)

1850        Laws in California were passed that allowed the enslavement of Indians.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1850        California passed anti-sodomy legislation in its “crime against nature" law.
    (SSFC, 5/11/08, Books p.4)
1850        Ygnacio, the grandson of Dona Juana Sanchez de Pacheco, built the first homestead in the Walnut Creek area of northern California.
    (SFC, 7/17/06, p.B5)
1850        Col. John Geary, the first mayor of San Francisco, donated land for a square to be held in perpetuity for park use. It later became Union Square. He owned the surrounding property and looked to increase its value.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.W27)(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)
1850        Nevada City, Ca., was named.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-3)
1850        In San Francisco Fred Lawson, a Norwegian sea captain, began sinking ships to lock in his underwater real estate. By 1953 he sank numerous ships including four in a block of water later bounded by Davis,  Drumm, Pacific and Jackson streets.
    (SFC, 1/25/14, p.C1)
1850        Ferry commuting began on the SF Bay.
    (SFC, 4/21/97, p.A11)
1850        Suisun City, Calif. was founded. Suisun means "West Wind" in the language of the Patwan Indians who lived in this area.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.91,95)
1850        Residents of the northern California town of Rough and Ready rebelled against taxes and began a secession movement from the US. It lasted just 3 months in part because nearby saloonkeepers refused to sell liquor to the “foreigners."
    (SSFC, 8/10/08, p.E8)
1850        The US Treasury contracted Moffat & Company, a private mint firm in San Francisco, to mint American government stamped coins.
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.18)

1850        The Arapaho Indians issued a $5 bill.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1850        Kentucky updated the state constitution. One provision was the ineligibility for public office of anyone who had participated in a duel since ratification.

1850        The Mormons applied unsuccessfully for Utah statehood. Debates with the federal government ensued over political issues and polygamy.
    (NW, 9/10/01, p.48)

1850        Erasmus Corning founded the New York Central Railroad. He later built a banking network along its route that nurtured the growth of new communities.
    (WSJ, 5/8/95, p.A-14)

1850        Marshall Field (16) started working a dry goods clerk in Pittsfield, Mass. In 1855 he moved to Chicago. In 1947 John Tebbel authored "The Marshall Fields: A Study in Wealth." In 2002 Axel Madsen authored "The Marshall Fields: The Evolution of an American Business Dynasty."
    (WSJ, 10/9/02, p.D8)

1850        The Willard family acquired a 4-story hotel in Washington DC and turned it into the 100-room Willard Hotel at 1401 Pennsylvania Ave. In 1901 it was replaced by an opulent 389-room Beaux-Arts building. In 1968 it was closed and scheduled for demolition. In 1986 it re-opened following a $73 million restoration.
    (SFC, 1/5/06, p.E4)

1850        Directors of the Brooklyn released 8 pair of sparrows imported from England. They did not thrive and director Nicolas Pike acquired 50 more pair and released them in Brooklyn’s Greenwood Cemetery 1853.
    (AH, 6/02, p.39)

1850        Woodsmen marched west from New York clearing forests of white pine, yellow birch, hemlock, maple, and oak.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.51)

1850        Heinrich Schliemann, German businessman, moved to California and made a fortune in banking.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.45)
1850        In California Gregorio Briones, a soldier of the Spanish and then Mexican army, claimed title to 13,320 acres of west Marin land.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A10)

1850        Cincinnati, the largest meat-packing center in the United States at that time, earned the name Porkopolis.
    (HNQ, 10/15/00)

1850        Brigham Young was appointed governor of the Utah territory.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)

1850        The Ansonia Clock Co. was founded in Derby, Conn., by Anson G. Phelps. After 2 fires and reorganizations the company moved to NY in 1880.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, Z1 p.6)

1850        James Folger (18), a native of Massachusetts, began roasting beans in SF. Folger’s Coffee established itself on the Barbary Coast and was the first major coffee company in SF. Jim Folger eventually traveled to the gold country to sell coffee to miners.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.D2)(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.A1)(SFC, 6/5/08, p.C2)

1850        George Jones of London built a hexagonal ended instrument using a diatonic German concertina fingering system to which he added another row of accidental notes making the instrument chromatic. It became known as the Anglo-chromatic or Anglo system concertina.
    (BAAC, 8/96, p.6)

1850        Baking Powder was invented.   
(SFC, 1/11/97, p.B7)

1850        The US census showed a black population of 3,639,000 people of whom 90% were born in America. The mulatto count was 406,000.
    (SFC, 5/3/96, p.A-25)
1850        An estimated 50,000 Irish prostitutes worked in New York City.
    (WSJ, 3/17/97, p.A18)
1850        The population of Chicago approached 30,000.
    (Econ, 3/18/06, Survey p.12)
1850        Only 2% of the American population lived past 65.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.40)

1850        Sally Thomas (b.1787), quasi-slave, died. She had grown up as a Virginia slave and was relocated to Tennessee. She had 3 mixed-race sons by 2 white men, one a Virginian plantation owner, the other John Catron, became a member of the US Supreme Court. In 2005 John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger authored “In Search of the Promised Land: A Slave Family in the Old South."
    (SSFC, 8/28/05, p.C2)

1850        Expeditions to the Arctic found evidence of the Franklin Expedition. Three graves dug into the permafrost were discovered in 1850, their headstones dated 1846. A written record was found in 1859, indicating that Franklin died on June 11, 1847, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews’ deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found.
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)

1850        Rabbits were introduced to Australia about this time and soon became pests.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.16)
1850        The Granny Smith apple originated about this time in Australia. According to Morgan and Richards The Book of Apples: A Mrs. Smith, born in England in 1800, emigrated to Australia in 1838. In 1860s she found some seedlings growing in a creek where she had tipped out some apples brought back from Sydney. Tree was propagated and later family increased their orchards and marketed fruit in Sydney.

1850        In Vienna, Austria, F. Walther re-arranged the reeds of a 3-row diatonic accordion to play a 46 note chromatic scale and created the chromatic button accordion.
    (BAAC, 8/96, p.6)

1850        The Wenlock Olympian Games were set up by Dr. William Penny Brookes in Much Wenlock, England. A typical program of events featured running and leaping competitions and throwing a cricket ball, as well as non-athletic pursuits such as choir singing and awards for reading, arithmetic, knitting and sewing.
    (AP, 7/1/11)
1850        England established its 1st public libraries.
    (Econ, 5/1/04, p.59)

1850        French priest Jean-Baptiste Lamy was dispatched by Rome to bring order and discipline to the New Mexican territory.
    (WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)

1850        A mob in Athens burned down the home of a British citizen. In response Viscount Palmerston, Britain’s foreign secretary, called for a blockade of Greece.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.56)

1850        In Hong Kong the Lane Crawford department store first opened.
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.65)

c1850    A Mongolian national consciousness emerged in the mid-19th century.

1850        In the Netherlands Zwarte Piet (Black Pete), a Dutch version of St. Nicholas, made his debut as an African servant in a book. By 2012 he was being described as a racist caricature of a black person.
    (AP, 12/4/12)

1850        Christchurch was settled in earnest with the arrival of the Canterbury Association, which had formed in England to found a colony in New Zealand.
    (SSFC, 2/12/12, p.H4)

1850        On the Orkney mainland Skara Brae was rediscovered by William Watt, the laird of Skaill, after a fierce storm stripped the grass from a high sand dune.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)

1850        Panama’s city of Colon was founded as the isthmus of Panama became a route for the California gold rush.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.47)

1850        Switzerland established a currency union to replace multiple cantonal currencies.
    (Econ, 7/19/14, p.49)

1850-1853    Millard Fillmore is the 13th President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)

1850-1854    Of the 1200 murders in San Francisco in this period, only one results in a legal execution.
    (SFC, 11/15/95, p.B-1)

1850-1859    The Lehigh Valley town of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, became an iron-making center in the 1850s thanks to discoveries of coal and iron ore nearby.
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A15)

1850s    In Cincinnati abolitionist Nicholas Longworth hired Robert Scott Duncanson to paint 8 large murals in his home. The murals were covered by wallpaper by 1869 and not uncovered until 1931. The house and a large art collection were given to the city by Charles and Anna Taft around 1928.
    (WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A20)
1850s    In New York City the African-American community of Seneca Village was razed to make way for Central Park. The village had 264 frame houses, 3 churches, 2 cemeteries and a school.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.62)

1850s    In San Francisco Washerwoman’s Lagoon was a large pond used as a laundry site at Gough and Greenwich. By 1882 it had become polluted and was filled in.
    (SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A15)(SFC, 6/14/14, p.C2)
1850s    In California John C. Fremont occupied Fremont’s Ranch in Bear Valley, north of Mariposa, a Mexican land-grant of 44,000 acres. He later became the state’s first US Senator and the first Republican candidate for president. He also became a Civil War general and a governor of the Arizona territory. In 2000 David Roberts authored "A Newer World: Kit Carson, John C. Fremont, and the Claiming of the American West.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T6)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A20)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/10/00, p.A24)

c1850s    Mormon settlers began moving to Lana’i, Hawaii, with the idea of establishing a "City of Joseph" under their leader William Gibson. Gibson placed title to all the community land under his own name and even under threat of excommunication refused to give up the deed. Gibson registered the land under his own name and refused to hand the deeds over to the Mormon Church. He went on to become a friend, advisor and cabinet minister to King Kalakaua.
    (SFEM, 10/13/96, p.24)(SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)

1850s    The political organization called the American Party, which flourished in the 1850s, is better known as the Know-Nothing Party. Originally a clandestine organization, members were instructed to say that they "know nothing" when asked about the party, hence the name. Primarily, the party was anti-immigrant and stood in opposition to whatever political power immigrant groups happened to have in Northern cities. In 1854 the American Party won significant elections in seven state governments. The party’s national platform in 1856 included anti-Catholic and anti-alien planks.
    (HNQ, 8/27/98)

1850s    John Augustus of Boston persuaded the courts to release young offenders into his custody instead of sending them to prison. This was the start of the practice of probation.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, Z1p.2)

1850s    Elizabeth Ware Packard led successful struggles in 13 states to obtain due process of law for women, who previously could be committed to mental institutions simply on the word of their husbands.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, p.A22)

1850s    Publishers switched to cheaper paper based on wood pulp instead of rags and linen. The new material contained an acid residue to ate the wood fibers and destroyed books in as little as 30 years.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A6)

1850s    English inventor Alexander Parkes is credited with being the first to make plastic in the 1850s. Parkes’ plastic was a cellulosic made by treating a mixture of cotton and nitric acid with camphor. In the United States, John and Isaiah Hyatt developed a similar plastic in 1869 as a substitute for ivory in the manufacture of billiard balls, which they called celluloid. The first completely synthetic plastic, Bakelite, was invented in 1907 and produced in 1909 by Dr. Leo H. Baekeland. Parkes mixed chloroform and castor oil to make the first plastic which he called Parkesine.
    (HNQ, 5/8/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)
c1850s    Staffordshire potters in England made many different Shakespeare figurines.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, z1 p.5)

1850-1854    About this time English adopted the form filibuster, from Spanish filibustero. It was applied to certain adventurers who committed unsanctioned activities in the West Indies and Central America. [See William Walker Sep 12, 1860]

1850-1870    A major wave of Italians immigrated to California. The majority came from Liguria and Tuscany. A 2nd wave began in 1880.
    (SSFC, 7/10/05, p.D5)

1850-1891    Sophia Kovalevsky, mathematician. In 1983 her biography by Don H. Kennedy was published: "Little Sparrow: A Portrait of Sophia Kovalevsky."
    (NH, 6/96, p.20)

1850-1900    The Hawaii of this period is described in the 1997 novel "A Map of Paradise" by Linda Ching Sledge.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.3)

1850-1910    This period is covered in the book Railroad Crossing: Californians and the Railroad 1850-1910 by William Deverall.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)
1850-1910    Margaret Collier Graham, American writer: "People need joy quite as much as clothing. Some of them need it far more."
    (AP, 6/16/99)

1850-1919     Ella Wheeler Wilcox, American poet: "The only folks who give us pain are those we love the best."
    (AP, 6/5/98)

1850-1925     Emma Carleton, American journalist: "Reputation is a bubble which a man bursts when he tries to blow it for himself."
    (AP, 6/4/97)

1850-1930    In 2005 Richard J. Orsi authored “Sunset Limited: The Southern Pacific Railroad and the Development of the American West."
    (SSFC, 5/8/05, p.B1)

1850-1933     Augustine Birrell, English author and statesman: "History is a pageant and not a philosopher."
    (AP, 9/10/97)

1850-1956     The Empire Mine in Grass Valley, Ca., produced over 5.8 million ounces of gold. It had 365 miles of tunnels and was later turned into a 784-acre state park.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T7)

1850-1990    The world human population tripled in this period.
    (NOHY, 3/1990, p.52)

1851        Jan 6, Leon Foucault (d.1868), French scientist, watched a pendulum swing and shift its plane of motion. This he realized was due to the rotation of the Earth. In 2003 Amir D. Aczel authored "Pendulum: Leon Foucault and the Triumph of Science."
    (WSJ, 8/28/03, p.D18)

1851        Jan 25, Sojourner Truth addressed the 1st Black Women's Rights Convention in Akron. [see May 28, 1851]
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1851        Jan 27, John James Audubon (b.1785), wildlife painter and conservationist (Audubon Society), died. He was buried in NYC. In 2004 Duff Hart-Davis authored "Audubon's Elephant," an account of his 12 year sojourn to Europe to oversee the production of "Birds of America." In 2004 William Souder authored “Under a Wild Sky: John James Audubon and the Making of the Birds of America." In 2004 Richard Rhodes authored “John James Audubon: The Making of an American."
    (WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)(SSFC, 6/20/04, p.M6)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M6)(AH, 10/04, p.75)

1851        Jan 28, Northwestern University, near Chicago, was chartered.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1851        Jan 31, Gail Borden announced the invention of evaporated milk.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1851        Feb 1, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (53), novelist (Frankenstein), died.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1851        Feb 6, Robert Schumann's 3rd Symphony "Rhenish," premiered in Dusseldorf.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1851        Feb 8, Kate (Katherine O'Flaherty ) Chopin (d.1904), American novelist, short story writer, was born. Her work included "The Awakening." She wrote tales of love and passion that presented women testing the boundaries of social convention. "There are some people who leave impressions not so lasting as the imprint of an oar upon the water."
    (AP, 3/11/99)(SFEC, 11/14/99, BR p.5)(HN, 2/8/01)   

1851        Feb 15, Black abolitionists invaded a Boston courtroom to rescue a fugitive slave.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1851        Mar 3, Congress authorized the smallest US silver coin, a 3¢ piece. The trine obverse side depicted a shield over a six-pointed star.
    (SC, 3/3/02)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)

1851        Mar 21, Yosemite Valley was discovered (by non-natives) in California. The 58 men of the Mariposa Battalion under Major James D. Savage were the first whites to enter Yosemite Valley. Their first view of the valley was from the plateau later named Mount Beatitude. They expelled Chief Tenaya and his band of Ahwahneechee Indians. Dr. Bunnell, a physician in the battalion, named the valley Yosemite to honor the local Indians. He did not realize that the word "yohemeti" meant "some of them are killers" and was an insult against the valley people.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)(SFEC,12/28/97, Z1 p.1)(MC, 3/21/02)
1851        Mar 21, Emperor Tu Duc ordered that Christian priests be put to death.
    (HN, 3/21/99)

1851        Mar 27, Paul-Marie-Theodore-Vincent d'Indy, composer (Symphonie Cevenole), was born in Paris.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1851        Apr 12, Emil Liebling, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1851        Apr 14, Morgan Earp was born in Marian County, IA.

1851        Apr. 23, The first Canadian postage stamp was issued.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.44)

1851        May 1, The Great Council Exhibition, the first-ever World’s Fair, opened in London’s Hyde Park. Some 6 million people came to see the new glass and iron Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton (1823-1865). Paxton used roof ventilators and underground air-cooling chambers to regulate indoor temperature.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)(ON, 7/04, p.12)(Econ, 12/4/04, TQ p.17)

1851        May 4, The Sydney Ducks set fire to a store on San Francisco’s Portsmouth Square. Most of the dwellings on Telegraph Hill were destroyed. The heart SF was destroyed and some 2000 buildings burned down. This led to the formation of the secret Committee of Vigilance, which hung several criminals and drove others out of the city. Remnants from Hoff's store, built on a wharf over the bay, were found in 1986 during excavations for the Embarcadero West 33-story high-rise.
    (SFC, 12/24/99, p.A24)(SFC, 11/27/00, p.A18)
1851        May 4, The 1840-ship General Harrison burned to the water line. It was salvaged for parts, buried and not seen again until 2001 when construction at Battery and Clay revealed its remains. The whaling ship Niantic, already converted to a waterfront hotel, burned and sank into the bay. In 1977 new construction uncovered the Niantic’s burned remains.
    (SFC, 9/8/01, p.A11)(SFC, 2/4/05, p.E16)

1851        May 6, Dr. John Gorrie patented a "refrigeration machine."
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1851        May 6, Linus Yale patented his Yale lock.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1851        May 12, A treaty was signed on the south bank of the Kaweah River, the site of John Wood's grave. Woods was killed by Yokut Indians. The California Tule River War ended.
    (HN, 4/28/00)(WW, 6/99)(HN, 5/12/01)

1851        May 18, The Amsterdam-Nieuwediep telegraph connection linked.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1851        May 20, Emile Berliner, inventor of the flat phonograph record, was born in Germany.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
1851        May 20, Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, US nun, daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne, was born.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1851        May 25, Jose Justo de Urquiza of Argentina led a rebellion against his former ally, the absolute ruler Juan Manuel de Rosas.
    (HN, 5/25/99)

1851        May 28, Freed slave and abolitionist Sojourner Truth attended a national women's convention in Akron, Ohio, where the female delegates were heckled by men in the audience who claimed that men were superior to women. Frances Gage, president of the convention, recorded Sojourner Truth's words that day. "Dat man ober dar say dat women needs to be helped into carriages and lifted ober ditches, and to hab de best place everywhar. Nobody eber helps me into carriages, or ober mud-puddles, or gibs me any best place! And ain't I a woman! Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed, and planted and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man--when I could get it--and bear de lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen chilern, and seen 'em mos' all sold into slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?" Sojourner Truth's words, according to Gage, "turned the sneers and jeers of an excited crowd into notes of respect and admiration."
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1 p.6)(HN, 7/13/99)(MC, 5/28/02)

1851        May 29, Leon Bourgeois, French premier (1895-96, Nobel 1920), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1851        May, In San Francisco Sam Brannan and several other leaders formed the First Committee of Vigilance. They took it on themselves to purge the city of criminals. The group disbanded in September.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(SFC, 6/1/13, p.C2)

1851        Jun 2, Maine became the first state to enact a law prohibiting alcohol. By the Civil War 13 Northern states had bans on alcohol sales. In 1998 Thomas R. Pegram authored "Battling Demon Rum," a history of anti-alcohol movements in the US. Crusader and entrepreneur Neal Dow had led the push to ban alcohol.
    (AP, 6/2/97)(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A28)    (SSFC, 12/15/13, p.A19)

1851        Jun 5, Harriet Beecher Stow published the first installment of Uncle Tom’s Cabin in The National Era.
    (HN, 6/5/99)

1851        Jun 9, In San Francisco Father John McGinnis celebrated Mass in a hall at Fourth and Jessie and marked the founding of St. Patrick’s. St. Patrick’s Church was built on Market St. at the present site of the Sheraton-Palace Hotel. It was moved in 1872 to Eddy St. near Divisadero and served as the Parish Hall for Holy Cross. The wooden structure is thought to be the oldest in the city.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, z1 p.7)(SSFC, 6/10/01, p.A22)

1851        Jun 11, San Francisco vigilantes lynched John Jenkins (aka John Simpton) on Portsmouth Square for stealing a safe. He was part of contingent of ex-con Australians known as the Sidney Ducks.
    (SFC, 6/1/13, p.C1)

1851        Jun 15, Jacob Fussell, Baltimore dairyman, set up the 1st ice-cream factory.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1851        Jun 21, Daniel Carter Beard, organized the first [US] boy scout troop, was born.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1851        Jul 8, Sir Arthur John Evans, English archaeologist who excavated Knossos, Crete, was born.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1851        Jul 10, Louis-Jacques-Mand Daguerre, French painter (daguerreotype), died.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1851        Jul 23, Sioux Indians and US signed the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1851        Jul 28, A total solar eclipse was captured on a daguerreotype photograph.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1851        Aug 3, Lady Isabella Caroline Somerset, temperance leader, was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1851        Aug 12, Isaac Singer was granted a patent on his sewing machine.
    (AP, 8/12/97)

1851        Aug 13, John Lincoln Clem (d.1937), Drummer (last survivor of Union Volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1851        Aug 14, Doc Holliday was born in Griffin, GA.

1851        Aug 22, The Schooner America outraced the Aurora in the Solent, a stretch of sea separating the Isle of Wight from England proper, to win a trophy that became known as the America’s Cup. For 132 years the New York Yacht Club defeated all challengers to retain the prestigious America’s Cup, the record for the longest winning streak in sports history. The Liberty lost it to the Australia II in 1983.
    (AP, 8/22/97)(SFEC, 10/1/00, p.T4)(SSFC, 4/15/07, p.G4)

1851        Aug 31, The Yankee clipper ship Flying Cloud set a record for sailing from NY to San Francisco around South America in 89 days.

1851        Sep 11, African Americans skirmished with a band of slave bounty hunters intent on capturing any fugitive slaves hidden in the abolitionist town, Christiana, Pennsylvania. This was one year after the second fugitive slave law (first law was on February 12, 1793) was passed by Congress, requiring the return of all escaped slaves to their owners in the South. One bounty hunter was killed and 1 wounded during the skirmish.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1851        Sep 13, Walter Reed (d.1902), U.S. Army doctor, was born in Gloucester County, Va. In 1900 he went to Cuba and verified that yellow fever was caused by a mosquito.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.B1)(AP, 9/13/02)

1851        Sep 14, James Fenimore Cooper (b.1789), writer, died at Cooperstown, NY.

1851        Sep 18, The first edition of The New York Times was published as the New-York Daily Times. It was founded by Henry J. Raymond, Republican Speaker of the NY State Assembly, and banker George Jones as a conservative counterpoint to Horace Greeley's Tribune.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(SFEM, 1/16/00, p.17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Times)

1851        Oct 2, Ferdinand Foch, French Allied commander in WW I, was born.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1851        Oct 4, In San Francisco the third Jenny Lind Theater opened on Portsmouth Square on the same site as the two preceding it, which were destroyed by the fires of 1851. In 1852 the city of San Francisco purchased the theater for $200,000 for use as the city hall. In 1949 the site was named state landmark No. 192.
    (SFC, 5/24/14, p.C1)(www.noehill.com/sf/landmarks/cal0192.asp)

1851        Oct 19, Marie-Therese-Charlotte (72), daughter of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette died.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1851      Nov 2, Louis Napoleon staged a coup and took power in France as Napoleon III of the Second Empire.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)(DoW, 1999, p182)

1851        Nov 6, Charles Henry Dow, American financial journalist, was born. He (with Edward D. Jones) inaugurated the 'Dow-Jones' averages.
    (HN, 11/6/99)

1851            Nov 11, Alvan Clark of Cambridge, Massachusetts, patented a telescope. Clark, a portrait painter interested in astronomy, had made several small lenses and mirrors as a hobby. The fact that he could detect the small residual errors in one of the best lenses Europe could offer convinced him that he could make them as well. After he gained a reputation in Europe the American orders started to come in. The Alvin Clark Company became one of the foremost producers of some of the largest lenses for telescopes in the 1800's.

1851        Nov 13, The London-to-Paris telegraph opened.
    (HN, 11/13/98)

1851        Nov 14, Herman Melville’s novel "Moby Dick" was published in the US. The 1st publication was in London on October 18.
    (AP, 11/14/97)(www.mobylives.com/Happy_Birthday_Moby.html)

1851        Nov 16, In France officials drew the winning numbers for the Lottery of the Golden Ingots. Some 7 million tickets had been sold for one franc each to finance the shipment of hand-picked French emigrants to California. From October 1851 to January 1853 a lottery ship sailed every month from Le Havre. 3,293 passengers of 4,016 arrived in San Francisco. The rest disembarked en route.
    (SFC, 9/5/15, p.C2)

1851        Dec 4, Pres. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte forces crushed a coup d'etat in France.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1851        Dec 10, Melvil Dewey, creator of the Dewey Decimal System, was born.
    (HN, 12/10/98)

1851        Dec 19, Joseph Mallord William Turner, English painter and printmaker, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)(SFC, 6/20/15, p.E3)

1851        Dec 24, Fire devastated the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., destroying about 35,000 volumes.
    (AP, 12/24/97)

1851        Dec 29, The first American Young Men’s Christian Assn. was organized, in Boston.
    (AP, 12/29/97)

1851        Dec 30, Asa Griggs Candler, developer of Coca-Cola, was born.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1851        Thomas Wilmer Dewing (d.1938), American artist, was born.
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.E1)

1851        Cabanel created his painting "The Death of Moses."
    (WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)

1851        Matthew Coates Wyatt created his dog sculpture of the Earl of Dudley’s Newfoundland Bashaw. It was a star exhibit at the British Great Exhibition.
    (WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)

1851        Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (b.1816) painted "Washington Crossing the Delaware." It was later acquired by the NY Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A7)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1851        John Everett Millais began to paint his work "Ophelia," completed in 1852.
    (WSJ, 2/19/97, p.A15)

1851        Eugene Scribe, French playwright, wrote "When Ladies Battle" (Bataille de Dames) with Ernest Legouve. Scribe is known for writing the "well made play." The setting is Lyon, France in Oct. 1817.
    (WSJ, 1/2/96, p. A-7)

1851        A lighthouse was built at Point Loma near San Diego, Ca.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.46)
1851        Mormon pioneers founded San Bernadino in southern California.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)
1851        California Governor Peter Burnett said that unless the Indians were sent east of the Sierras, "a war of extermination would continue to be waged until the Indian race should become extinct."
    (HN, 4/29/00)(WW, 6/99)
1851        Fewer than 100,000 Indians remained in California.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)

1851        Books Inc. first opened as an independent bookseller in San Francisco.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.134)
1851        In San Francisco the St. Francis Church was rebuilt in adobe and blessed by Joseph S. Alemany, the new Bishop of Monterey. St. Francis served as his cathedral until Old St. Mary's was built in 1854.
    (SFC, 10/4/99, p.A21)
1851        In San Francisco the congregation of the First Presbyterian Church moved into its first building in Chinatown, which burned down after 6 months.
    (SFC, 5/20/99, p.A19)
1851        Jacob Gundlach arrived in SF and soon established a brewery. In 1858 he bought a winery in Sonoma.
    (SFC, 12/19/02, p.D4)
1851        The Hitchcock family transferred to SF and were welcomed into the Chivalry, a polite fraternity of transplanted Southerners.
    (SFEM, 4/2/00, p.46)
1851        The first SF omnibus line began operating between Portsmouth square and Mission Dolores.
    (SFC, 10/6/99, p.A4)
1851        Henry Casebolt (1816-1892) of Virginia came to California and established himself as a builder and inventor in San Francisco.
1851        Harry Meiggs, founder of Fisherman’s Wharf in SF, sailed to Mendocino with a full sawmill and made Mendocino the primary source for the Bay Area’s lumber.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, Par p.20)
1851        Haas Bros. began operation in San Francisco as a grocery wholesaler. The company later switched to liquor wholesales.
    (SSFC, 4/3/06, p.G5)
1851        In San Francisco six prominent businessmen obtained a franchise for a water project to deliver water from Mountain Lake through a tunnel to the Presidio and then to downtown SF. The Mountain Lake Water Co. raised $300,000 and in 1853 broke ground on the tunnel. The project went bust after they failed to get an additional $500,000 to complete the project.
    (SFC, 10/11/10, p.A9)
1851        In San Francisco 6 men sailed to the Farallon Islands and declared themselves owners by right of possession. They began gathering eggs and selling them to the city.
    (SFC, 5/25/13, p.C3)
1851        About 775 abandoned ships sat in the SF Bay. Some began to be used as offices and public buildings. The ship Euphemia became the city’s 1st jail and insane asylum. An enterprising barkeep cut a hole in the beached sailing vessel Arkansas and began selling what he called “Gud, Bad and Ind’ifferent Spirits" at 25 cents each. The Old Ship Saloon at Pacific Avenue and Battery Street was built in 1907 and remodeled in 1999.
    (Ind, 9/2/00,5A)(SSFC, 11/15/09, p.A2)
1851        Francisco Guerrero, Mexican official in Alta California, was struck in the back of the head by a slingshot and died. His murder was believed to have kept him from testifying in a murder trial.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1851        In northern California gold was found in Plumas County and the mining town of Seneca was born. It later became pretty much a ghost town with a bar called the Gin Mill, which was sold to a pair of hunters in the 1970s. In 2013 the Gin Mill and surrounding 10 acres were put up for sale for $225,000.
    (SSFC, 12/8/13, p.C12)

1851        The New-York Times was founded by Henry J. Raymond, Republican Speaker of the NY State Assembly, and banker George Jones as a conservative counterpoint to Horace Greeley's Tribune.
    (SFEM, 1/16/00, p.17)

1851        La Vielle Russie was opened in Manhattan by the family of Peter Schaffer and featured Russian antiquities.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.20)

1851        John Kiehl opened an apothecary at Third Ave. and 13th Street in Manhattan to sell potions, lotions and remedies such as to cure baldness and enhance virility. He also sold a get-rich essence called Money Drawing Oil. In 1999 the firm did some $40 million in business with just freebies and word of mouth advertising.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.76)(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.B1)

1851        President Fillmore sent the USS Michigan, the Navy’s first iron-hulled warship, to Beaver Island to arrest James Strang. Strang was put on trial in Detroit and was declared innocent of all charges. Strang then effectively detached his kingdom from the US but maintained voting rights.
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.88)

1851        The Fort Laramie Treaty was signed between the US government and the Sioux Indians. The Sioux pledged not to harass the wagon trains traveling the Oregon Trail in exchange for a $50,000 annuity. The treaty did not last long. Some 12,000 American Indians gathered at Fort Laramie for a peace council with the US. The government agreed that 12 million acres of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Indians would remain free of settlement (eastern Montana, northeastern Wyoming and western North Dakota). In 1949 Congress authorized a forced relocation to build the Garrison Dam in North Dakota. In 1986 Martin Cross won a settlement of $149.2 million for the unjust taking of reservation land. In 2004 Paul VanDevelder authored “Coyote Warrior: One Man, Three Tribes, and the Trial that Forged a Nation."
    (HT, 3/97, p.43)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

1851        In Minnesota Chief Shakopee and the Dakota Indians were pressured into selling 24 million acres for pennies an acre. Food and money from the federal government was to be distributed to the Indians as part of the treaty.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A1,6)

1851        Amory Houghton, a Boston entrepreneur, bought an interest in a predecessor of Union Glass in Somerville. The operation became Corning Inc. and by 2000 transformed itself into a major player in the fiber optic business.
    (SFC, 6/19/00, p.G7)

1851        A Mormon trading post in Carson Valley, later called Genoa, became the 1st permanent white settlement of Nevada.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)(SSFC, 6/22/14, p.N22)

1851        Andrew Jackson Pope and Frederic Talbot of Maine built their 1st sawmill on Puget Sound, Wa. Pope & Talbot were soon shipping lumber around the world.
    (Ind, 6/7/03, p.5A)

1851        The US state of Virginia switched to a voter-elected chief executive.
    (Econ, 8/10/13, p.26)

1851        Western Union was founded as the New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Co.
    (SFC, 2/2/06, p.A13)

1851        Simon Lazarus, a rabbinical scholar from Germany, opened a dry-goods store in Columbus, Ohio. The operation grew to become F&R Lazarus, after the names of his sons, who in 1929 created the Federated Dept. Store chain. The downtown Columbus store closed in 2004.
    (WSJ, 5/19/07, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_Lazarus)

1851        Dr. John Gorrie (1803-1855) patented an ice-making machine to cool hospital rooms.

1851        Photography had a major breakthrough with the development of a new emulsion called collodion, which caused photosensitive salts to adhere to a sheet of glass.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.75)

1851        The Beckwourth Trail, discovered by James P. Beckwourth (1798-1866), an African American explorer, opened to pioneers. It is the lowest pass (5,221 ft) over the Sierras. Beckwourth was a freed slave and mountain man.
    (SSFC, 4/29/01, p.T9)

1851        Rawlinson unlocked the Persian cuneiform script. The key to unlocking these scripts was found in the names of great rulers.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.193)

1851        Australia’s first gold rush began.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T9)

1851        Francisco Guerrero, Mexican official in Alta California, was struck in the back of the head by a slingshot and died. His murder was believed to have kept him from testifying in a murder trial.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1851        By this year more than half the population of Great Britain was living in towns, and country-house owners found it increasingly hard to dominate politics or protect their own positions.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, p.689)
1851        Big Ben, the tower clock of the House of Parliament in London, was designed by Edmund Beckett Denison. He was assisted by clockmaker Edward John Dent and Sir George Airy, the royal astronomer. Originally the name "Big Ben" referred only to the clock’s huge bell.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)
1851        Victor Hugo sought refuge on the Channel island of Guernsey where he wrote "Les Miserables" and other works.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)
1851        Paul Julius Reuter (1816-1899), a German-born immigrant, began transmitting stock-market quotes between London and Paris over the new Dover-Calais submarine telegraph cable.

1851        German traveler Heinrich Barth discovered the Royal Chronicle or Girgam, which described the history Kanem-Bornu Empire. It existed in Chad and Nigeria from the 9th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900.

1851        The Chateau Pichon-Longueville was built in the Bordeaux region of France.
    (USAT, 5/9/03, p.2D)

1851        Mt. Pelee volcano on the French Island of Martinique erupted. It left the city of St. Pierre unscathed.
    (NH, 10/02, p.76)

1851        Rama IV (d.1868) began his rule over Siam and played off European powers against each other.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.76)

1851-1920    Mrs. Humphrey Ward, an erudite anti-suffragist, wrote novels on major issues of her day.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A14)

1851-1962    In California the Benicia Arsenal was active. It was the 1st ordnance supply depot in the West.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A14)

1851-1873    The US minted a 3-cent piece called a trine.
    (SFC, 4/8/00, p.B4)

1852        Jan 3, The 1st Chinese arrive in Hawaii.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1852        Jan 6, Louis Braille (43) died of tuberculosis in France. He had been blinded by an accident during childhood and spent years developing a system to read by touch. In 1997 Russell Freedman wrote "Out of Darkness: The Story of Louis Braille."
    (http://www.brailler.com/braillehx.htm)(SFEC, 7/6/97, BR p.10)(ON, 10/04, p.9)

1852        Jan 17, At the Sand River Convention, the British recognized the independence of the Transvaal Board.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1852        Feb 2, Alexandre Dumas Jr.’s "Le Dame aux Camelias," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1852        Feb 11, The 1st British public female toilet opened at Bedford Street in London.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1852        Feb 16, Charles Taze Russell (d.1916) was born. He founded the International Bible Students Association. In the 1870’s Russell abandoned the Adventist movement and formed his own, which was later named Jehovah’s Witnesses.
    (HN, 2/16/02)

1852        Feb 17, The Imperial Museum, the 5th and last building of what became known as the New Hermitage, opened to the public (Feb 2 OS) in St. Petersburg, Russia. It was commissioned by Nicholas I and designed by Leo van Klenze of Germany.
    (www.photofora.com/eugene/centralsquares/newhermitage.htm)(MT, Winter/03, p.13)

1852        Feb 21, Nikolai Gogol, Russian playwright (Dead Souls), died. [see Mar 4]
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1852        Feb 26, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (d.1943) was born. He was 24 years old when he became staff physician at the Battle Creek Sanitarium--a position he held for 62 years. Dr. Kellogg, a respected abdominal surgeon, ran "the San" as a health institute where the wealthy could rejuvenate themselves with Kellogg's offbeat cures. Illness was caused, Kellogg believed, by poor eating habits that left poisons in the intestinal tract. Among Kellogg's solutions to the dietary dilemma were "fletcherizing," or chewing food hundreds of times before swallowing, and a vegetarian diet high in bran. It was the bowels, however, that received Kellogg's undivided attention. Patients at the San were subjected to regimens of "cleansing enemas" that cured "ulcers, diabetes, schizophrenia, acne...and premature old age." In 1895, Kellogg's search for the perfect food led to the development of breakfast food flakes made of wheat called Granose. Will Keith Kellogg, John's brother, improved on the Granose idea and founded the W.K. Kellogg Company. http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/9840/kellogg.html
    (HNPD, 2/26/99)
1852        Feb 26, The British frigate Birkenhead sank off South Africa and 458 died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1852        Feb 28, The French ship arrived in San Francisco from Le Havre with some 200 lottery emigrants. They included criminals, political prisoners, honest workers, common thugs and others considered undesirable. France had organized a national lottery for a gold bar and used the proceeds to ship people to California.
    (SF, 8/29/15, p.C1)

1852        Mar 4, Lady (Isabella Augusta) Gregory, Irish playwright, was born. She helped found the Abbey Theatre.
    (HN, 3/4/01)
1852        Mar 4, Nikolai Gogol, Russian writer (43), died. [see Feb 21]
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1852        Mar 13, A familiar symbol of the United States, Uncle Sam, made his debut as a cartoon character in the New York Lantern.
    (AP, 3/13/97)

1852        Mar 18, Henry C. Wells founded Wells, Fargo & Co. with William C. Fargo in San Francisco as a Western equivalent to their east coast American Express. It evolved into Wells Fargo Bank, headquartered in San Francisco and now one of the largest financial institutions in the U.S. In 2002 Philip L. Fradkin authored "Stagecoach: Wells Fargo and the American West" for the company’s 150th anniversary. [see Mar 18, 1850]
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.4)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)(HNQ, 11/20/98)(SFC, 2/6/02, p.D1)    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.B1,4)

1852        Mar 20, Harriet Beecher Stowe's (1811-1896) "Uncle Tom's Cabin" was first published in book form after being serialized. It was based on the theme that slavery is incompatible with Christianity. In 2011 David S. Reynolds authored “Mightier Than the Sword: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Battle for America."
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(AP, 3/20/08)(SSFC, 7/3/11, p.G4)

1852        Mar 29, Ohio made it illegal for children under 18 and women to work more than 10 hours a day.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1852        Mar, Hubert Bancroft (1832-1918) was sent to San Francisco from New York to established a regional office of his family’s book selling business. In 1868 he abandoned business to devote himself entirely to writing and publishing history.
    (SFC, 5/27/14, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubert_Howe_Bancroft)

1852        Apr 1, Edward Austin Abbey, US, painter (Quest of the Holy Grail), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1852        Apr 12, Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann (d.1939), German mathematician, was born.

1852        Apr 13, Frank W. Woolworth (d.1919), founder of the retail chain of 5&10 cent stores, was born on a farm near Watertown New York.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.B2)(HN, 4/13/98)

1852        Apr 23, Edwin Markham, US poet and 1st winner of Amer Acad of Poets Award in 1937, ("Man with a Hoe"), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1852        Apr 29, The first edition of Peter Mark Roget’s Thesaurus was published. Roget (1779-1869) was a London physician of French-Swiss ancestry who began to collect and organize English words to improve his public speaking.
    (HN, 4/29/98)(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.B1)

1852        Apr 30, Anton Rubinstein’s opera "Dmitri Donskoi," premiered in St Petersburg.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1852        May 1, Calamity [Martha] Jane [Burke], frontier adventurer, Indian fighter, was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1852        May 8, A war between Denmark and Prussia lasted three years (1848–50) and ended only when the Great Powers pressured Prussia into accepting the London Protocol of 1852. This was the revision of an earlier protocol, which had been ratified on August 2, 1850, by the major Germanic powers of Austria and Prussia. The 1852 London Protocol confirmed that the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein should remain undivided.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Protocol)(Econ, 6/23/12, p.20)

1852        May 18, Massachusetts ruled that all school-age children must attend school.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1852        May 25, Louis Franchet d'Espèrey [Desperate Frankey], French marshal (WWI), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1852        May 29, Jindrich z Albestu Kaan, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1852        May 30, George Chinnery (b.1774), painter of Asian scenes, died in Macau. The English painter spent most of his life in Asia, especially India and southern China.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.91)

1852        Jun 9, Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff, German-Russian naturalist, physician and explorer, died of typhus in Germany. He first participated as naturalist and physician in the great Russian scientific circumnavigation expedition commanded by Ivan Fedorovich Kruzenshtern, from 1803 to 1805. He returned from San Francisco by ship to Siberia and thence to Saint Petersburg by land, arriving in 1808.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigory_Langsdorff)

1852        Jun 21, Friedrich Frobel (b.1782), founder of the Play and Activity Institute (1837) in Germany, died. In 1840 he created the word kindergarten to describe the institute.

1852        Jun 25, Antoni Gaudi (d.1926), Spanish modernist architect (Sagrada Familia, Barcelona), was born.
    (MC, 6/25/02)(SFEM, 10/8/00, p.61)

1852        Jun 26, Tzu Hsi (17), aka Orchid or Lady Yehonala, married Ch'ing Emperor Hsien Feng. She had competed to become one of his 7 official wives or 3,000 concubines.
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M6)

1852        Jun 29, Statesman Henry Clay (75) of Kentucky died. He was a master politician in the era preceding the Civil War. Born in 1777, Clay was a lawyer by trade. He began his lengthy political career in the Kentucky legislature and made three unsuccessful bids as the Whig Party's presidential candidate. By the time of his death, Clay had served his country as secretary of state under John Quincy Adams, U.S. Senator and Speaker of the House of Representatives. Clay was the chief architect of the Compromise of 1850, a contribution that earned him the nickname "The Great Compromiser."
    (HNPD, 6/29/99)(MC, 6/29/02)

1852        Jul 4, Frederick Douglass delivered the keynote speech for the Independence Day celebration in Rochester, NY. In 2006 James A. Colaiaco authored Frederick Douglass and the Fourth of July."
    (WSJ, 7/1/06, p.P6)

1852        Jul 5, Johann Baptist Weigl (69), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1852        Jul 12, Dr. John Hudson Wayman camped at the City of Rocks in Idaho and called it “one of the finest places of its kind in the world." US Congress named the area a national reserve in 1988.
    (SFC, 7/6/06, p.E2)

1852        Jul 27, George Foster Peabody, philanthropist and namesake of the Peabody awards for excellence in broadcasting, was born.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1852        Jul, San Quentin State Prison opened in Marin County, California.
1852        Jul, In California a group of squatters led by a Major Harvey illegally encroached on Indian reservation lands on the Kings River. A number of “old squaws" were killed.
    (SFC, 5/23/15, p.C2)

1852        Aug 2, State Sen. James W. Denver, from Klamath and Trinity counties, challenged Edward Gilbert, editor of the SF Alta California newspaper, to a duel due to an inflammatory editorial. The pair met at Fair Oaks, near Sacramento, and when Gilbert forced a 2nd round of shots, Denver put a fatal shot through his chest. Denver’s 2nd shot hit Gilbert above the left hip. C.A. Washburn succeeded Gilbert at the Alta.
    (PI, 6/13/98, p.5A)(PI, 8/8/98, p.5)(SFC, 7/19/14, p.C2)

1852        Aug 3, In the 1st intercollegiate rowing race, Harvard beats Yale by 4 lengths.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1852        Aug 16, In northern California trader James Savage entered the Kings River Indian reservation and encountered Major Harvey, who had led an attack there on local Indians. A fight ensued and Harvey shot and killed Savage.
    (SFC, 5/23/15, p.C2)

1852        Sep 14, Augustus Pugin (b.1812), English Gothic architect and designer, died. In 2007 Rosemary Hill authored “God’s Architect: Pugin and the Building of Romantic Britain.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Pugin)

1852        Aug 20, The steamer "Atlantic" collided on Lake Erie with the fishing boat Ogdensburg, and sank. An estimated 150-250 people were drowned.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(Internet)

1852        Sep 3, Anti Jewish riots broke out in Stockholm.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1852        Sep 14, Arthur Wellesley (b.1769), General and Duke of Wellington, died at 83.
1852        Sep 14, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (b.1812), English artist and architect, died.

1852        Sep 23, William Stewart Halsted, was born. He established the 1st US surgical school.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1852        Sep 24, Henri Giffard, a French engineer, flew over Paris in the 1st dirigible flight.

1852        Sep 27, "Uncle Tom's Cabin," premiered in Troy, NY.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1852        Sep 30, Charles Villiers Stanford, Irish organist and composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1852        Oct 24, Daniel Webster (70), lawyer, speaker and senator from Massachusetts, died. In 1997 Robert V. Remini wrote his biography: "Daniel Webster."
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A20)(MC, 10/24/01)

1852        Nov 2, Franklin Pierce was elected US president over Gen’l. Winfield Scott, who ran as a Whig. In 1852, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution giving Scott the pay and rank of a lieutenant general. Scott, not Ulysses S. Grant, was the first to hold this rank since George Washington. William R. King was elected vice-president.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.E8)(http://tinyurl.com/8ku7j)

1852        Nov 10, Dr. Gideon Mantell (b.1790), obstetrician and English fossil hunter, died from an overdose of opium.
    (ON, 7/06, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gideon_Mantell)

1852        Nov 21, Duke Univ., founded in 1838 as Union Institute in NC, was chartered as Normal College.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1852        Nov 27, Ada Lovelace (b.1815), Lord Byron’s daughter and the inventor of computer language, was bled to death by physicians at age 36. She had helped Charles Babbage develop his "Analytical Engine," that performed mathematical calculations through the use of punched cards. Her last years were spent in a netherworld of addiction
, gambling and adultery and she died of cancer. In 2001 Benjamin Wooley authored her biography: "The Bride of Science."
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.D7)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E1)(WSJ, 1/19/00, p.W9)