Return to home1864 Jan 1, Alfred
Stieglitz (d.1946), American photographer, was born in New Jersey.
1864 Jan 3, John Joseph Hughes
(b.1797), Irish-born Archbishop of the Catholic diocese of NY, died.
1864 Jan 8, David O. Dodd (17),
an Arkansas teenage spy, was hanged by Union forces the grounds of
his former school. He reportedly chose to hang rather than betray
the Confederate cause.
1864 Jan 10, George Washington
Carver (d.1943), American botanist and a former slave who became a
scientist and inventor, gave the world peanut butter, was born.
"Ninety-nine percent of the failures come from people who have the
habit of making excuses."
(AP, 9/20/98)(HN, 1/10/99)
1864 Jan 11, H. George
Selfridge, founder of the British store Selfridge and Co., Ltd., was
born. He was the first to say "the customer is always right."
1864 Jan 11, Charing Cross
Station opened in London.
1864 Jan 13, Wilhelm K.W. Wien,
German physicist (Nobel 1911), was born.
1864 Jan 13, Composer Stephen
Foster (37), composer and American song writer, died in a New York
City hospital. Ken Emerson later authored his biography.
(HFA, '96, p.22)(AHD, p. 519)(AP, 1/13/98)(SFC,
1864 Jan 14, Confederate
President Jefferson Davis wrote to General Johnson, observing that
troops might need to be sent to Alabama or Mississippi.
1864 Jan 14, General Sherman
began his march to the South.
1864 Jan 16, A celebration was
held in San Jose for the completion of the San Francisco and San
(Ind, 4/20/02, 5A)
1864 Jan 24, Eliza Sinclair
(d.1892), a widow from New Zealand, paid the Hawaiian monarchy
$10,000 in gold for the 70-square-mile Hawaiian island of Niihau.
Her son-in-law, Valdemar Knudsen, later paid an additional 1,000
silver dollars for 50 acres that were not included in the original
1864 Feb 5, Federal forces
occupied Jackson, Miss.
1864 Feb 7, Federal troops
occupied Jacksonville, Florida.
1864 Feb 9, After a courtship
that began at a party on Thanksgiving Day 1862, Brevet General
George Armstrong Custer and Miss Elizabeth Bacon, both of Monroe,
Michigan, married. Until Custer died at the Battle of the Little
Bighorn a dozen years later, Libbie followed him to postings
throughout the West whenever possible. Libbie never remarried, even
though she outlived her husband by 50 years, preferring to keep his
memory alive by lecturing and writing books about their life
together on the Plains. Elizabeth Custer lived comfortably in New
York City until her death on April 8, 1933, at the age of 91.
1864 Feb 9, 109 Union prisoners
escaped through a tunnel from the Confederate Libby Prison in
Richmond, Va., including Lt. James M. Wells of Michigan. In 1904
Wells published an account of the escape in the Jan. issue of
(ON, 3/01, p.7)
1864 Feb 10, Konstanty
Kalinowski, the last Lithuanian provincial rebel leader, was
captured. He was hanged a month later.
1864 Feb 13, Miridian Campaign
fighting at Chunky Creek and Wyatt, Mississippi.
1864 Feb 16, Battle of Mobile,
Al., operations by Union Army.
1864 Feb 17, Andrew Barton
"Banjo" Paterson (d.1941), Australian poet and journalist, was born.
He is best known for his song “Waltzing Matilda."
(HN, 2/17/01)(NG, 8/04, p.29)
1864 Feb 17, Confederate
officer George Dixon used the submarine H.L. Hunley to sink the USS
Housatonic in Charleston Harbor, S.C. 5 Union soldiers died on the
Housatonic as did the 9-man crew of the Hunley as it soon sank. In
1995 the Hunley was found by Clive Cussler. The event was turned
into a TNT cable movie in 1999. On Aug 8, 2000, the Hunley was
raised and returned to Charleston.
(HN, 2/17/98)(SFC, 7/9/99, p.C1)(SFC, 8/9/00,
p.A3)(Econ, 4/10/04, p.25)
1864 Feb 20, Confederate troops
defeated a Union army sent to bring Florida into the union at the
Battle of Olustee, Fla.
1864 Feb 21, The 1st US
Catholic parish church for blacks was dedicated in Baltimore.
1864 Feb 21-22, Battle at
1864 Feb 22, Nathan Bedford
Forrest’s brother, Jeffrey, was killed at Okolona, Miss. Nathan
Bedford Forrest (1821-1877) was a Confederate cavalry general.
(HN, 2/22/98)(WUD, 1994, p.558)
1864 Feb 22-27, Battle at
1864 Feb 24-25, Battle of
Tunnel Hill, GA (Buzzard's Roost).
1864 Feb 27, The 6th and last
day of battle at Dalton, Georgia, (about 600 casualties).
1864 Feb 27, First Union
prisoners arrived at Camp Sumpter prison near Andersonville,
Georgia. It was designed for 6,000 prisoners but by summer’s end
held 33,000. After enduring the hardship of being held in the
South's Andersonville and Cahaba prison camps, A terrible disaster
befell hundreds of Union soldiers who were being shipped home on the
steamer Sultana at the end of the Civil War.
(HN, 2/27/98)(MC, 2/27/02)(AHHT, 10/02, p.20)
1864 Feb 28-Mar 3, A skirmish
took place at Albemarle County, Virginia (Burton's Ford).
1864 Feb 29, Union Brig. Gen.
Judson Kilpatrick split his forces at the Rapidan River ordering
Col. Ulric Dahlgren to lead 500 men his men to Goochland Court
House, while the remainder followed Kilpatrick in his raid on
1864 Feb 29, Lt. William B.
Cushing led a landing party from the USS Monticello to Smithville,
NC, in an attempt to capture Confederate Brig. Gen. Louis Hebert,
only to discover that Hebert and his men had already moved on
1864 Mar 1, Rebecca Lee
(1831-1895) became the first black woman to receive an American
medical degree, from the New England Female Medical College in
1864 Mar 1, Louis Ducos du
Hauron patented a movie machine that was never built.
1864 Mar 4, Thomas Starr King
(b.1824), Unitarian minister, died in SF. During the Civil War, he
spoke zealously in favor of the Union and was credited by Abraham
Lincoln with saving California from becoming a separate republic. In
addition, he organized the Pacific Branch of the United States
Sanitary Commission, which cared for wounded soldiers. He led many
rallies on behalf of the Union in SF, and the site of the rallies
was later renamed Union Square.
1864 Mar 9, 1864, President
Abraham Lincoln officially commissioned Ulysses S. Grant lieutenant
general in the U.S. Army. After leading Union victories in the West
in 1862-63, Lincoln gave Grant supreme command of the Union forces
with the revived rank of lieutenant general.
1864 Mar 10, Ulysses S. Grant
became commander of the Union armies in the Civil War.
1864 Mar 10, Red River campaign
took place in LA. [see Mar 15]
1864 Mar 12, Ulysses S. Grant
became commander in chief of the Union armies in the American Civil
1864 Mar 14, Casey Jones (John
Luther Jones), railroad engineer, was born.
(HFA, ‘96, p.26)(HN, 3/14/01)(MC, 3/14/02)
1864 Mar 14, Rossini's "Petite
Messe Solennelle," premiered in Paris.
1864 Mar 14, Samuel and
Florence Baker arrived at Lake Luta N’Zige and named it Lake Albert.
They soon found that the Nile entered the lake at a 130-foot
waterfall that they named Murchison Falls (Uganda) after the
president of the British Royal Geographical Society. In 2004 Pat
shipman authored “To the Heart of the Nile: Lady Florence Baker and
the Exploration of Central Africa."
(ON, 10/01, p.12)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.87)
1864 Mar 15, Red River Campaign
began as the Union forces reached Alexandria, La.
1864 Mar 18, The Dale Dike on
Humber River, England, crumbled drowning some 240.
1864 Mar 19, Montana vigilantes
lynched Jack Slade (33), a hell-raising freight hauler. Mark Twain
had encountered Slade in 1861 and included him in his book “Roughing
It" (1872). In 2008 Dan Rottenberg authored “Death of a Gunfighter:
The Quest for Jack Slade, the West’s Most Elusive Legend."
1864 Mar 19, Charles Gounod's
opera "Mireille" premiered in Paris.
1864 Mar 19, Alexandre Calame
(b.1810), Swiss painter, died in Menton, France.
1864 Mar 21, Battle at
Henderson's Hill (Bayou Rapids), Louisiana.
1864 Mar 23, Encounter at
1864 Mar 25, Battle of Paducah,
KY (Forrest's raid).
1864 Mar 26, British
metalworkers in Scunthorpe charged their first blast furnace. Iron
ore mining in the area had begun in July 1860.
1864 Mar 28, A group of
Copperheads attacked Federal soldiers in Charleston Ill. Five were
killed and twenty wounded.
1864 Mar 29, Union General
Steele's troops reached Arkadelphia, Arkansas.
1864 Mar 30, Skirmish at Mount
1864 Apr 1, The first travel
accident policy was issued to James Batterson by the Travelers
1864 Apr 2, Skirmish at Crump's
Hill (Piney Woods), Louisiana.
1864 Apr 2, Skirmish at
1864 Apr 8, In the Battle of
Mansfield, Louisiana, Federals were routed by Confederate Gen.
Richard Taylor. Keatchi girl’s school was taken over as a hospital
for the injured soldiers.
(HN, 4/8/98)(SSFC, 7/7/02, p.C5)
1864 Apr 9, The Battle of
Pleasant Hill, LA, left 2,870 casualties.
1864 Apr 10, Eugene Francis
Charles D'Albert, German pianist, composer (Golem), was born.
1864 Apr 10, The French crowned
Archduke Maximilian, the younger brother of Austria’s Franz Josef,
as ruler of Mexico.
(CLTIH, 4/10/96)(WSJ, 5/5/00, p.W17)
1864 Apr 12, Battle of Blair's
Landing in LA.
1864 Apr 12, Confederate forces
under Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest captured Fort Pillow, Tennessee,
and killed many black Union troops there. Charged with ruthless
killing, Forrest argued that the soldiers had been killed trying to
escape; however, racial animosity on the part of his troops was
undoubtedly a factor.
1864 Apr 15, General Steele's
Union troops occupied Camden, Arkansas.
1864 Apr 17, General Grant
banned the trading of prisoners.
1864 Apr 17, There was a bread
revolt in Savannah, Georgia.
1864 Apr 18, Richard Harding
Davis, journalist, was born.
1864 Apr 19, Naval Engagement
at Cherbourg, France: USS Kearsarge vs. CSS Alabama. [see Jun 19]
1864 Apr 21, Max Weber
(d.1920), German sociologist and political economist, was born.
Weber drew strong connection between Protestantism and the rise of
capitalism in "The Protestant and the Spirit of Capitalism" (1904).
"He was the first sociologist to grasp that the universe has no true
meaning." In 1996 "Max Weber: Politics and the Spirit of Tragedy" by
John Patrick Diggins was published.
(V.D.-H.K.p.167)(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A1)(HN, 4/21/01)
1864 Apr 22, Congress
authorized the use of the phrase "In God We Trust" on for the 1st
time on a 2 cent coin.
1864 Apr 23, Battle of Cane
River, LA (Red River Expedition, Monett's Ferry).
1864 Apr 25, Battle of Marks’
1864 Apr 25, After facing
defeat in the Red River Campaign, Union General Nathaniel Bank
returned to Alexandria, Louisiana.
1864 Apr 30, Work began on the
Dams along the Red River which would allow Union General Nathaniel
Banks’ troops to sail over the rapids above Alexandria, Louisiana.
1864 Apr 30, New York became
the 1st state to charge for a hunting license.
1864 Apr, At Fort Pillow,
Tenn., Confederate troops murdered at least 25 black Union soldiers
who had surrendered and begged for their lives. In 1996 "Don’t Know
Much About the Civil War: Everything You Need to Know About
America’s Greatest Conflict But Never Learned" by Kenneth C. Davis
(SFC, 6/19/96, p.E8)
1864 May 1-8, Battle at
Alexandria, Louisiana (Red River Campaign).
1864 May 1, Atlanta campaign,
1864 May 4, Ulysses S. Grant
crossed Rapidan and began his duel with Robert E. Lee’s Confederate
1864 May 5, Atlanta Campaign: 5
days fighting began at Rocky Face Ridge.
1864 May 5, The Battle of
Wilderness began as Robert E. Lee caught U.S. Grant's forces in the
Virginia woods. It was the first in a series of clashes fought as
Grant's army advanced on Richmond, Va. During the close range
fighting in the dense woods of Virginia, forest fires broke out,
killing many wounded soldiers. While the battle ended as a tactical
draw, Lee was unable to halt Grant's progress toward Richmond.
(HN, 5/5/98)(HNPD, 5/5/99)
1864 May 5, Battle between
Confederate & Union ships at mouth of Roanoke.
1864 May 6, In the second day
of the Battle of Wilderness between Union General Ulysses S. Grant
and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, Confederate Gen. James
Longstreet (d.1903) was wounded by his own men.
(HN, 5/6/99)(MC, 5/6/02)
1864 May 6, General Sherman
began to advance on Atlanta.
1864 May 7, In Virginia the
Battle of Wilderness ended, with heavy losses to both sides. Union
losses were 17,666; CSA-7,500. In 2002 the US federal government
bought the 465-acre tract of the battle site and incorporated it
into Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Military Park.
(HN, 5/7/98)(AARP, 7/05, p.12)
1864 May 8, Union troops
arrived at Spotsylvania Court House to find the Confederates waiting
1864 May 8, The Atlanta
Campaign saw severe fighting at Rocky Face Ridge.
1864 May 8-19 Grant and Lee‘s
armies suffered horrendous losses at the "Bloody Angle" during the
Battle of Spotsylvania. Shortly after the Battle of the Wilderness,
Grant‘s Union forces once again attempted to outflank or smash Lee‘s
Confederates. Defensive breastworks contributed to savage, close
combat that lasted about a week and a half, resulting in 17,000
Union and 8,000 casualties.
1864 May 9, Union General John
Sedgwick was shot and killed by a confederate sharpshooter during
fighting at Spotsylvania, Va. His last words before getting hit were
"They couldn't hit an elephant at this distance."
1864 May 9, Battle of Dalton,
1864 May 9, Battle of Cloyd's
Mt. and Swift Creek, VA (Drewry’s Bluff, Ft. Darling).
1864 May 9, Austria and Denmark
held a ship battle at Helgoland.
1864 May 10, Battles at
Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia. [see May 8]
1864 May 11, Confederate
General J.E.B. Stuart was mortally wounded at Yellow Tavern.
1864 May 12, The Battle of
Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia, was fought.
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)
1864 May 12, Battle of Todd's
Tavern, VA (Sheridan's Raid).
1864 May 12, Union General
Benjamin Butler attacked Drewry’s Bluff on the James River.
(SC, internet, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/99)
1864 May 12, J.E.B. Stuart
(31), Confederate Gen’l., died. [see May 11]
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(MC, 5/12/02)
1864 May 13, Battle of Resaca
commenced as Union General Sherman fought towards Atlanta.
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/98)
1864 May 13, Union soldier
William Christman became the first US soldier to be laid to rest at
Arlington National Cemetery. His death was due to measles.
(SFC, 5/14/14, p.A6)
1864 May 15, At Battle of New
Market, Virginia, Military Institute cadets repelled a Union attack.
1864 May 15, In mid-May about
daylight Major Downing succeeded in surprising the Cheyenne village
of Cedar Bluffs, in a small canon about 60 miles north of the South
Platte river. “We commenced shooting. I ordered the men to commence
killing them. They lost, as I am informed, some 26 killed and 30
wounded. My own loss was one killed and one wounded. I burnt up
their lodges and everything I could get hold of. I took no
prisoners. We got out of ammunition and could not pursue them."
1864 May 16, In the Atlanta
Campaign, the battle of Resaca, begun May 13, ended.
1864 May 17, The Battle of
Adairsville, Georgia, resulted in a Confederate retreat.
1864 May 18, Jan P. Veth
Bayern, Dutch painter, etcher, lithographer, art historian, was
1864 May 18, The fighting at
Spotsylvania in Virginia, reached its peak at the Bloody Angle.
1864 May 18, Battle of Yellow
Bayou, LA (Bayou de Glaize, Old Oaks).
1864 May 18, James Byron Gordon
(41) Confederate Brigadier-General, died.
1864 May 19, The last
engagement in a series of battles of Spotsylvania was fought.
Following the American Civil War Battle of Spotsylvania in 1864,
General Ulysses S. Grant said, "The world has never seen so bloody
and so protracted a battle as the one being fought and I hope never
(HN, 5/19/98)(HNQ, 2/12/99)
1864 May 19, Battle of Port
Walthall Junction, VA (Bermuda Hundred).
1864 May 19, Nathaniel
Hawthorne (b.1804), US writer (Scarlet Letter), died in Plymouth,
New Hampshire. Friend and former US Pres. Franklin Pierce was at his
bedside. In 2003 Brenda Wineapple authored "Hawthorne: A Life."
1864 May 20, Battle at Ware
Bottom Church, Virginia, killed or injured 1,400.
1864 May 20,
Spotsylvania-campaign ended after 10,920 were killed or injured
1864 May 21, Gen. David Hunter
took command of Dept. of West Virginia.
1864 May 22, Battle of North
Anna River, VA.
1864 May 23, Union General
Ulysses Grant attempted to outflank Lee in the Battle of North Anna,
1864 May 25, Battle of New Hope
Church, Ga. Joseph E. Johnston tried to halt Sherman’s advance on
Atlanta at the Hell Hole.
(SC, 5/25/02)(AM, 11/04, p.28)
1864 May 26, Congress created
the Montana Territory and Virginia City became the capital in 1865.
Helena was made capital of the territory in 1875. Montana
became the 41st state in 1889, with Helena the state capital.
(AP, 5/26/98)(HNQ, 2/9/00)
1864 May 26-30, There was a
skirmish along the Totopotomoy Creek, Virginia.
1864 May 29, A.H. Borgesius,
Dutch amateur astronomer, was born.
1864 May 29, Mexican Emperor
Maximilian arrived at Vera Cruz.
1864 May 30, Battle of Bethesda
1864 Jun 1, Battle of Cold
Harbor, Virginia, began as Lee tried to turn Grant’s flank.
1864 Jun 1-Nov, Shenandoah
Valley campaign began. (MC, 6/1/02)
1864 Jun 1, Hong Xiuquan
(b.1814), leader of the Taiping Heavenly Army, died from poisoning.
At the time of his death his led over 100,000 troops and controlled
an area bigger than France. In 1996 Jonathan Spence authored “God’s
Chinese Son," a biography of Xiuquan, who believed himself to be
God’s second son.
1864 Jun 2, This was day 2 in
the US Civil War Battle of Cold Harbor.
1864 Jun 2, The
Circassian-Russian war, begun in 1763, ended. It left about a
million Circassians of the northwest Caucasus dead. Historians in
general agree on the figure of some 500,000 inhabitants of the
highland Caucasus being deported by Russia in the 1860s. A large
fraction of them died in transit from disease.
1864 Jun 3, Some 7,000 Union
troops were killed within 30 minutes during the Battle of Cold
Harbor in Virginia. General Lee won his last victory of the Civil
War at the Battle of Cold Harbor in Virginia
(HN, 6/3/98)(MC, 6/3/02)
1864 Jun 4, With Gen. Sherman
again flanking them, Confederates under General Joseph Johnston
retreated to the mountains before Marietta, Georgia. General Joseph
E. Johnston, the Confederacy’s second-ranking field general,
described the army led by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman as
the best "since the days of Julius Caesar."
(HN, 6/4/98)(HNQ, 9/4/98)
1864 Jun 5, Battle of Piedmont,
VA (Augusta City).
1864 Jun 8, Abraham Lincoln was
nominated for another term as president during the National Union
(Republican) Party's convention in Baltimore.
1864 Jun 9, Battle of Kenesaw
Mountain, GA (Pine Mt, Pine Knob, Golgotha).
1864 Jun 11, Gen. Wade Hampton
(1818-1902) led a company of Citadel cadets at the battle of
Trevilian Station in Virginia.
1864 Jun 11, Richard Strauss
(d.1949), German orchestra conductor and composer, was born. His
work included "Daphne" and "Ariadne auf Naxos," (1912).
(CFA, ‘96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.1405)
1864 Jun 12, Lee sent Early
into the Shenandoah Valley.
1864 Jun 14, Alois Alzheimer
(d.1915), German psychiatrist, pathologist (Alzheimer Disease), was
1864 Jun 14, At the Battle of
Pine Mountain, Georgia, Confederate General Leonidas Polk was killed
by a Union shell.
1864 Jun 15, Secretary of War
Edwin M. Stanton signed an order establishing a military burial
ground at Robert E. Lee's home estate at Arlington. This became
Arlington National Cemetery. It was founded by Union Quartermaster
Gen. Montgomery C. Meigs, who had lost a son in the war. The first
soldier buried at Arlington was on May 13, 1864.
(AP, 6/15/97)(SFC, 2/16/09, p.E6)(SFC, 5/14/14,
1864 Jun 15, Battle for
Petersburg, Virg., began as Union forces skirmished against the
1864 Jun 16, Siege of
Petersburg and Richmond began after a moonlight skirmish.
1864 Jun 16, Battle of
1864 Jun 17, A 640 meter long
pontoon bridge over the James River in Virginia was finished.
1864 Jun 17, General John B.
Hood replaced General Johnston as head of CSA troops around Atlanta.
1864 Jun 18, At Petersburg,
Union General Ulysses S. Grant realized the town could no longer be
taken by assault and settled into a siege.
1864 Jun 19, Skirmish at Pine
1864 Jun 19, The CSS "Alabama"
was sunk by the USS "Kearsarge" off Cherbourg, France. The Alabama
had captured, sank or burned 68 ships in 22 months.
(DT, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/98)(HNQ, 11/28/00)
1864 Jun 20, Battle of
Petersburg, VA, in trenches.
1864 Jun 22, Confederate
General A. P. Hill turned back a Federal flanking movement at the
Weldon Railroad near Petersburg, Virginia.
1864 Jun 22, Battle of Ream's
Station, VA (Wilson's Raid).
1864 Jun 25, Union troops
surrounding Petersburg, Virginia began building a mine tunnel
underneath the Confederate lines. With the Army of Northern Virginia
stubbornly clinging to Petersburg, Ulysses S. Grant decided to cut
its vital rail lines.
1864 Jun 27, General Sherman
was repulsed by Confederates at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain.
1864 Jun 29, In Canada the
St-Hilaire train disaster occurred near the town of
Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec. The train, which had been carrying many
German and Polish immigrants, failed to acknowledge a stop signal
and fell through an open swing bridge into the Richelieu River. The
widely accepted death toll was 99 persons.
1864 Jun 30, Pres. Lincoln
signed legislation creating America’s first national park. Congress
gave to California the lands known as Yosemite with the
understanding that the state would preserve them for public
(SFEC, 10/18/98, p.T4)(SSFC, 6/22/14, p.P6)
1864 Jul 1, Battle of
Petersburg, VA, began.
1864 Jul 2, Statuary Hall in US
Capitol was established.
1864 Jul 2, Gen. Early and
Confederate forces reached Winchester.
1864 Jul 3, Battle of
Chattahoochee River, GA, began and lasted until Jul 9.
1864 Jul 3, At Harpers Ferry,
WV, Federals evacuated in face of Early's advance.
1864 Jul 4-9, Battle at
Chattahoochee River, Georgia.
1864 Jul 5, William Ralston
founded the Bank of California with $2 million in capital.
(Ind, 11/2/02, 5A)(SFC, 4/7/06, SF Rising p.14)
1864 Jul 6, Battle of
Chattahoochee River, GA.
1864 Jul 8, Confederate General
Joseph E. Johnston retreated into Atlanta to prevent being flanked
by Union General William T. Sherman.
1864 Jul 9, An informal force
of Union troops was defeated by Jubal Early at Monacacy, Maryland.
Gen’l. Lew Wallace was able to detain Confederate Lt. Gen’l. Jubal
from an early advance on Washington. Federal casualties numbered
1959 vs. 400 Confederate.
(HT, 3/97, p.66)(AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/9/98)(MC,
1864 Jul 10, During the siege
of Petersburg, General Ulysses S. Grant established a huge supply
center, called City Point, at the confluence of the James and
Appomattox rivers. After nearly 10 months of trench warfare,
Confederate resistance at Petersburg, Va., suddenly collapsed.
Desperate to save his army, Robert E. Lee called on his soldiers for
one last miracle.
1864 Jul 11, Confederate
General Jubal Early's army arrived in Silver Spring, Maryland, on
the outskirts of Washington, D.C., and began to probe the Union
line. Confederate forces led by Gen. Jubal Early began an invasion
of Washington, D.C., turning back the next day.
(HT, 3/97, p.66)(AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)
1864 Jul 11(Jun 11), Battle of
Laurel Hill, WV.
1864 Jul 11(Jun 11), Battle of
Trevillian Station, VA (Central Railroad).
1864 Jul 12, President Abraham
Lincoln became the first standing president to witness a battle as
Union forces repelled Jubal Early’s army on the outskirts of
1864 Jul 13, Gen Jubal Early
retreated from the outskirts of Washington back to Shenandoah
1864 Jul 14, At Harrisburg,
Mississippi, Federal troops under General Andrew Jackson Smith
repulsed an attack by General Nathan Bedford Forrest, one of
Forrest’s only two defeats.
1864 Jul 14, Gold was
discovered in Helena, Mont. Four prospectors discovered gold in a
small stream they called "Last Chance." This marked the birth of
Helena, future capital of Montana. [see 1863]
(Visitor’s brochure, 9/11/97)(MC, 7/14/02)
1864 Jul 17, Confederate
President Jefferson Davis replaced General Joseph E. Johnston with
General John Bell Hood in hopes of defeating Union General William
T. Sherman outside Atlanta.
1864 Jul 18, President Lincoln
asked for 500,000 volunteers for military service.
1864 Jul 18-20, Battle of
Winchester, VA (Stephenson's Depot).
1864 Jul 20, Confederate
General John Bell Hood attacked Union forces under General William
T. Sherman outside Atlanta. Gen. Hood lashed out against the Union
right wing north of the city. Repulsed but undaunted, Hood turned to
strike the Federal left wing, Major General James B. McPherson’s
Army of the Tennessee, east of Atlanta. He deployed Major General
Benjamin F. Chatham’s corps northeast of the city and sent
Lieutenant General William J. Hardee's corps around McPherson’s left
flank with orders to crush the Army of the Tennessee on the morning
of July 22. Both corps were then to assail the rest of Sherman’s
host. Battle of Peachtree Creek was part of the Atlanta Campaign.
(HN, 7/20/98)(HNQ, 7/19/01)(MC, 7/20/02)
1864 Jul 22, The Battle of
Atlanta reached its peak when Confederate General John Bell Hood
launched an all-out attack on Union General William T. Sherman's
Army. Union General James McPherson was killed repulsing a
Confederate attack. The Federal officer who sent his men naked
against the enemy was Colonel James P. Brownlow of the 1st (Union)
Tennessee Cavalry. Confederate casualties numbered 8449, 3641 US. In
the mid-1880s a team of German artists in Milwaukee made a cyclorama
of the battle to celebrate northern heroism. The six-ton work was
then displayed in the south with its meaning reversed and uniforms
recolored before being donated to the city of Atlanta. In 2017 it
was leased from the city, restored and displayed in a bespoke
rotunda with explanations of its past and the battle.
(HN, 7/22/98)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.22)
1864 Jul 24, In the Battle of
Winchester, VA, casualties numbered US1200 and CS600.
1864 Jul 26-31, Riots took
place at McCook's to Lovejoy Station, and Stoneman's to Macon,
1864 Jul 26, Battle at Ezra
Chapel (Church), Georgia [Hood's Third Sortie].
1864 Jul 27, Battle of
Darbytown, VA (Deep Bottom, Newmarket Road) (Strawberry Plains).
1864 Jul 28, Atlanta
Campaign-Battle of Ezra Church.
1864 Jul 29, During the Civil
War, Union forces tried to take Petersburg, Va., by exploding a mine
under Confederate defense lines. The attack failed. [see Jul 30]
1864 Jul 29, 3rd and last day
of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Virginia.
1864 Jul 29, Battle of Macon,
GA (Stoneman's Raid).
1864 Jul 30, Gen Burnside
failed on an attack of Petersburg and in an effort to penetrate the
Confederate lines around Petersburg, Va., Union troops exploded some
8,000 pounds of gunpowder underneath the Confederate trenches. The
blast killed 100s of Confederates. Union forces could not capitalize
on the assault and ended up trapped in the bloody crater. The
ensuing action is known as the Battle of the Crater. 4,000 Union
soldiers were killed, wounded or captured in the Battle of the
Crater during the Siege of Petersburg. [see Jul 29]
(HN, 7/30/98)(HNQ, 8/23/00)(MC, 7/30/02)
1864 Jul 30, Gen. Jubal Early
ordered Confederate troops to attack Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. The
town was burned by Confederate forces under Gen. McCausland
1864 Jul 31, Ulysses S. Grant
was named General of Volunteers.
1864 Jul 31, Louis Hachette
(64), French publisher, died.
1864 Aug 1, Union General
Ulysses S. Grant gave general Philip H. Sheridan the mission of
clearing the Shenandoah Valley of Confederate forces.
1864 Aug 1, Battle of
1864 Aug 3, Federal gunboats
attacked but did not capture Fort Gains, at the mouth of Mobile Bay,
1864 Aug 4, Federal troops
failed to capture Fort Gaines on Dauphin Island, one of the
Confederate forts defending Mobile Bay.
1864 Aug 5, During the Civil
War, Union Adm. David G. Farragut is said to have given his famous
order, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" as he led his fleet
against Mobile Bay, Ala. The Union Navy captured Mobile Bay in
(AP, 8/5/97)(HN, 8/5/98)
1864 Aug 6, Rebels evacuated
Ft. Powell, Mobile Bay.
1864 Aug 7, Union Gen. Philip
Henry Sheridan took command of his 30,000-man army at Harper’s
Ferry, West Virginia. His orders from Gen. Grant were to march into
the Shenandoah Valley and destroy the army of Confederate Gen. Jubal
(ON, 10/20/11, p.11)
1864 Aug 7, Union troops
captured part of Confederate General Jubal Early's army at
Moorefield, West Virginia.
1864 Aug 8, Union troops and
fleet occupied Fort Gaines, Alabama.
1864 Aug 8, The 1st Geneva
Convention was issued on protecting the war wounded.
1864 Aug 10, Confederate
Commander John Bell Hood sent his cavalry north of Atlanta to cut
off Union General William Sherman’s supply lines.
1864 Aug 12, After a week of
heavy raiding, the Confederate cruiser Tallahassee claimed six Union
1864 Aug 13, Battle of Deep
Bottom, Va., (Strawberry Plains) and Fussell's Mill, Va.
1864 Aug 14-16, Confederate
General Joe Wheeler besieged Dalton, Georgia.
1864 Aug 14, A Federal assault
continued for a 2nd day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Virginia.
1864 Aug 15, The Confederate
raider Tallahassee captured six Federal ships off New England.
1864 Aug 16, Battle of Front
Royal, VA. (Guard Hill).
1864 Aug 18, Union General
William T. Sherman sent General Judson Kilpatrick to raid
Confederate lines of communication outside Atlanta. The raid was
unsuccessful. Union General William Sherman considered Judson
Kilpatrick, his cavalry chief, ‘a hell of a damn fool.’
1864 Aug 18, Day 1 of 3
day Petersburg Campaign-Battle of Weldon Railroad, Va.
1864 Aug 19, The 2nd day of
battle at Globe Tavern, Virginia.
1864 Aug 20, The 8th and last
day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Va., left about 3900 casualties.
1864 Aug 21, Confederate
General A.P. Hill attacked Union troops south of Petersburg, Va., at
the Weldon railroad. His attack was repulsed, resulting in heavy
1864 Aug 22, In Geneva,
Switzerland, representatives of 12 nations agreed to sign the First
Geneva Contention “for the Amelioration of the Condition of the
Wounded in Armies in the Field." By 1866 twenty countries had
signed. 194 states were signatories as of 2008.
(ON, 4/08, p.12)
1864 Aug 23, Union troops and
fleet occupied Fort Morgan, Alabama.
1864 Aug 25, Confederate
General A.P. Hill pushed back Union General Winfield Scott Hancock
from Reams Station where his army had spent several days destroying
railroad tracks. With Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia
stubbornly clinging to Petersburg, Ulysses S. Grant decided to cut
its vital rail lines. To perform the surgery, he selected one of the
North’s proven heroes—‘Hancock the Superb.’
1864 Aug 25, A combination rail
and ferry service became available from SF to Alameda, Ca.
1864 Aug 28, The Democratic
National Convention began in Chicago. General George B. McClellan's
campaign platform called the war in America a failure. [see Aug 31]
(WSJ, 9/25/03, p.A18)
1864 Aug 31, At the Democratic
convention in Chicago, General George B. McClellan was nominated for
president. [see Aug 28]
1864 Aug 31, Atlanta
Campaign-Battle of Jonesboro Georgia, 1900 casualties.
1864 Sep 1, Roger David
Casement, Irish nationalist (Easter uprising 1916), was born.
1864 Sep 1, Confederate forces
under General John Bell Hood evacuated Atlanta in anticipation of
the arrival of Union General William T. Sherman's troops.
1864 Sep 1, 2nd day of battle
at Jonesboro, Georgia, left some 3,000 casualties.
1864 Sep 1, Battle of
1864 Sep 1, The Charlottetown
Conference, convened in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was the
first of a series of meetings that ultimately led to the formation
of the Dominion of Canada.
1864 Sep 2, During the Civil
War, Union Gen. William T. Sherman’s forces occupied Atlanta.
1864 Sep 3, Battle of
1864 Sep 4, Bread riots took
place in Mobile, Alabama.
1864 Sep 5, In California
boilers on the steamer Washoe exploded on its voyage from San
Francisco to Sacramento. An estimated 175 people were onboard.
Reporter Mark Twain estimated as many as 100 people were killed and
75 wounded or missing.
1864 Sep 5, British, French
& Dutch fleets attacked Japan in Shimonoseki Straits.
1864 Sep 7, Union General Phil
Sheridan’s troops skirmished with the Confederates under Jubal Early
outside Winchester, Virginia.
1864 Sep 11, A 10-day truce was
declared between generals Sherman and Hood so civilians could leave
1864 Sep 14, Lord Robert Cecil,
one of the founders of the League of Nations and its president from
1923 to 1945, was born.
1864 Sep 16, Confederate
General Nathan Bedford Forrest led 4,500 men out of Verona, Miss. to
harass Union outposts in northern Alabama and Tennessee.
1864 Sep 17, Gen. Grant
approved Sheridan's plan for Shenandoah Valley Campaign. "I want it
so barren that a crow, flying down it, would need to pack rations."
1864 Sep 17, Walter Savage
Landor, author, died.
1864 Sep 18, Battle of
1864 Sep 19, Union forces under
Gen. Sheridan defeated Confederate forces under Gen. Jubal Early at
Winchester, Virginia. The Battle of Opequon is more commonly known
as the Third Battle of Winchester. Archibald Campbell Godwin
(b.1831), Confederate brig-general, died in the battle.
1864 Sep 22, Union General
Philip Sheridan defeated Confederate General Jubal Early's troops at
the Battle of Fisher's Hill, in Virginia. Gen Early retreated to
Brown's Gap. Sheridan set up camp in Harrisonburg, Va.
1864 Sep 23, Confederate and
Union forces clashed at Mount Jackson, Front Royal and Woodstock in
Virginia during the Valley campaign.
1864 Sep 23, Battle of Athens,
1864 Sep 26, General Nathan
Bedford Forrest and his men assaulted a Federal garrison near
1864 Sep 27, Confederate
guerrilla Bloody Bill Anderson and his henchmen, including a teenage
Jesse James, massacred 20 unarmed Union soldiers at Centralia, Mo.
1864 Sep 27, Battle at Pilot
Knob (Ft Davidson), Missouri. 1700 were killed or injured.
1864 Sep 28, Union General
William Rosecrans blamed his defeat at Chickamauga on two of his
subordinate generals. They were later exonerated by a court of
1864 Sep 28-30, The Battle of
Fort Harrison Va. (Chaffin's Farm New Market Heights).
1864 Sep 29, Union troops
captured the Confederate Fort Harrison, outside Petersburg,
Virginia. After nearly 10 months of trench warfare, Confederate
resistance at Petersburg, Va., suddenly collapsed.
1864 Sep 29-30, Christian A.
Fleetwood was one of 13 African-American soldiers who won the Medal
of Honor at the Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia.
1864 Sep 30, Black Soldiers
were given the Medal of Honor. [see Sep 29-30]
1864 Sep 30, Confederate troops
failed to retake Fort Harrison from the Union forces during the
siege of Petersburg.
1864 Sep 30, Battle of Preble's
Farm Va. (Poplar Springs Church).
1864 Sep, General William
Tecumseh Sherman held the opinion: "If forced to choose between the
penitentiary and the White House for four years . . .I would say the
penitentiary, thank you." William T. Sherman penned that thought in
a letter to General Henry W. Halleck in Sep, 1864. Twenty years
later he squashed a movement to name him the Republican presidential
candidate, saying, "I will not accept if nominated and will not
serve if elected."
1864 Oct 1, The Condor, a
British blockade-runner, was grounded near Fort Fisher, North
1864 Oct 5, At the Battle of
Allatoona, a small Union post was saved from Lt. Gen. John Bell
Hood's army. 1/3 of Union troops died repulsing Southern forces.
(HN, 10/5/98)(MC, 10/5/01)
1864 Oct 5, Calcutta, India,
was denuded by a cyclone and some 70,000 people were killed.
1864 Oct 7, General Phil
Sheridan wired General Ulysses Grant that he had destroyed so much
between Winchester and Staunton that the area "will have little in
it for man or beast."
1864 Oct 7, The USS Wachusett
captured the CSS Florida in a naval engagement fought at the neutral
harbor of Bahia, Brazil. Many of the Confederate crew were ashore at
(AH, 10/04, p.15)
1864 Oct 7-13, Battle of
Darbytown Road, Va.
1864 Oct 9, At the Battle of
Tom's Brook the Confederate cavalry that harassed Sheridan's
campaign was wiped by Custer and Merrit's cavalry divisions.
1864 Oct 11, Slavery was
abolished in Maryland. [see Oct 13]
1864 Oct 12, Roger B. Taney
(b.1777), US Supreme Court Chief Justice (1836-1864), died after
serving over 28 years. He favored state’s rights and voided laws
limiting the rights of slaveholders. In the 1857 Dred Scott case
Taney ruled that blacks as slaves could not become citizens of the
1864 Oct 13, Battle at
Darbytown Road Virginia resulted in 337 casualties.
1864 Oct 13, Battle of Harpers
Ferry, WV (Mosby's Raid).
1864 Oct 13, Maryland voters
adopted a new constitution, including abolition of slavery. [see Oct
1864 Oct 15, Confederate troops
occupied Glasgow, Missouri.
1864 Oct 17, Elinor Glyn,
British novelist (3 Weeks), was born.
1864 Oct 19, Philip Sheridan
and his gelding horse Rienzi made their most famous ride to repulse
an attack led by Lt. General Jubal A. Early at Cedar Creek,
Virginia. Sheridan had been on his way back from a strategy session
in Washington, D.C. when Early attacked. The Union scored a narrow
victory which helped it secure the Shenandoah Valley. Thomas
Buchanan Read later wrote a poem, "Sheridan‘s Ride," and created a
painting immortalizing the Union general and his steed.
(AP, 10/19/97)(HN, 10/19/98)(HNQ, 6/29/00)
1864 Oct 19, The northernmost
action of the American Civil War took place in the Vermont town of
St. Albans. Some 25 escaped Confederate POWs led by Kentuckian
Bennett Young (21) raided the town near the Canadian border with the
intent of robbing three banks and burning the town. While they
managed to leave town and hide out in Canada with more than
$200,000, their attempts to burn down the town failed. Most of the
raiders were captured and imprisoned in Canada and later released
after a court ruled the robberies in St. Albans were acts of war.
(HNQ, 12/9/98)(ON, 11/99, p.11)(MC, 10/19/01)
1864 Oct 20, Lincoln
established Thanksgiving as a national holiday. [see Oct 3, 1863]
1864 Oct 23, Forces led by
Union Gen. Samuel R. Curtis defeated Confederate Gen. Stirling
Price’s army in Missouri.
1864 Oct 25, Skirmishes took
place at Mine Creek, Ka., and Turkeytown, Al.
1864 Oct 27, Battle of Boydton
Plank Road, Va. (Burgess' Mill, Southside Railroad).
1864 Oct 27, Battle of Fair
1864 Oct 27, Siege of
1864 Oct 27, Battle of
1864 Oct 27, Confederate ship
Albemarle was torpedoed and sank.
1864 Oct 28, Battle at Fair
Oaks, Virginia, ended after 1554 casualties.
1864 Oct 31, Nevada became the
36th state under a proclamation signed by Pres. Lincoln.
(AP, 10/31/97)(LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.1B)(HN, 10/31/98)
1864 Oct, James Russel Lowell
and Charles Elliot Norton had resuscitated the North American Review
and in this issue published a book review, his first, by Henry
(WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)
1864 Oct, Financial pressures
exerted negative market influences as noted in a letter to the
Economist in 1865.
(WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A18)
1864 Oct, Lambdin P. Milligan
and two others were tried in an Indiana military court and found
guilty of conspiring with the South to set up a "Northwestern
Confederacy." All three conspirators were sentenced to hang the
following May. Milligan, maintaining his innocence, wrote this note
to his friend Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, pleading for his case
to be reconsidered. Milligan's case was based on the fact that he
had been tried in a military court in violation of his civil rights.
His execution was postponed and the Supreme Court then ruled in
favor of Milligan and the other conspirators, and on April 12, 1866,
the prisoners were released. Ex parte Milligan is considered an
extremely important Supreme Court decision, upholding the civil
rights of all Americans. One Supreme Court justice wrote, "No graver
question was ever considered by this court, nor one which more
clearly concerns the rights of the whole people; for it is the
birthright of every American citizen when charged with a crime, to
be tried and punished according to the law."
1864 Nov 4, There was a
Confederate assault on the Union depot and headquarters at
Reynoldsburg Island, near Johnsonville, Tennessee. Paddle-wheelers
USS Key West, Acting Lt. King; USS Tawah, Acting Lt. Goudy; and
small steamer U.S.S. Elfin, Acting Master Augustus F. Thompson; were
destroyed after an engagement with Confederate batteries off
Johnsonville, Ten., along with several transport steamers and a
large quantity of supplies.
1864 Nov 8, President Abraham
Lincoln was re-elected with Andrew Johnson as his vice-president.
Lincoln won with 55% of the popular vote.
(HN, 11/6/98)(SFC, 12/21/98, p.A3)(ON, 12/03,
1864 Nov 9, Sherman designed
his "March to the Sea."
Nov 10, Kingston, Ga., was burned as the first act of Sherman's
March to Sea. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman had made the city his
headquarters as he planned to lay waste the south over the next six
Nov 11, Sherman's troops destroyed Rome, Georgia. Gen. Sherman
(1820-1891) ordered Gen. John Murray Corse’s (1835-1893) troops to
destroy Rome, Georgia, and “everything that could be useful to an
1864 Nov 15, Union Major
General William T. Sherman’s troops set fires that destroyed much of
1864 Nov 15, 1st US mines
school opened in the basement of Columbia University, NY.
1864 Nov 16, Union Gen. William
T. Sherman and his troops departed Atlanta and began their "March to
the Sea" during the Civil War.
(AP, 11/1697)(HN, 11/16/98)
1864 Nov 21, Confederate
General John Bell Hood launched the Franklin-Nashville Campaign into
Tennessee from northern Alabama. Hood led the Confederate Army of
Tennessee in its offensive into Tennessee, which was decisively
broken in the battles of Franklin and Nashville. Hood, a graduate of
West Point, had been in the U.S. Cavalry until the Civil War broke
out. He was seriously wounded attacking Little Round Top during the
Battle of Gettysburg and later lost a leg at Chickamauga in
September of that year. In 1864, he was appointed a Lieutenant
General under Joseph E. Johnston‘s command in defense of Atlanta. In
July, Confederate president Jefferson Davis put Hood in command who
promptly attacked Sherman‘s Union army and was repulsed. Hood then
attempted a long march to the north and west to assault Sherman‘s
rear and ran into Union Army of the Cumberland. The November Battle
of Franklin and December Battle of Nashville decisively defeated
Hood‘s Army which was harassed and almost destroyed in its retreat.
Hood‘s own request to end his command was granted the following
month. After the war he lived in New Orleans.
1864 Nov 21-22, Battle at
1864 Nov 22, Union General O.
Howard ordered plunderers shot to death.
1864 Nov 22, Battle at
Griswoldville, Georgia, ended after 650 casualties.
1864 Nov 23-25, The Battle at
Ball's Ferry, Georgia, left 30 casualties.
1864 Nov 24, Henri
Toulouse-Lautrec (d.1901), French post-impressionist painter, was
1864 Nov 25, A Confederate plot
to burn NYC failed.
1864 Nov 25, Confederates
retreated at Sandersville, Georgia.
1864 Nov 25, David Roberts
(b.1796), Scottish painter, died. He toured Egypt and the Holy Land
from 1838-1840. His work there made him a prominent Orientalist
1864 Nov 26, Skirmish at Sylvan
Brutal and Waynesboro, Georgia.
1864 Nov 26, Colonel Kit
Carson led the attack in the first Battle of Adobe Walls. Carson,
leading a column of 335 officers and men of the 1st New Mexico
Volunteer Cavalry, surprised an encampment of Kiowa Indians on the
site of adobe buildings on the South Canadian River in Texas. After
routing the Kiowa, Carson’s forces were counterattacked by hundreds
of Comanches from nearby villages and forced to retreat.
1864 Nov 27, 2nd day of Battles
at Waynesboro, Georgia.
1864 Nov 28, 3rd day of Battles
at Waynesboro and Jones's Plantation, Georgia.
1864 Nov 28, Battle of New
Creek, WV, (Rosser's Raid, Ft. Kelly).
1864 Nov 29, 4th and last day
of skirmishes took place at Waynesboro, Georgia.
1864 Nov 29, Battle of Spring
Hill, Ten. (Thomason's Station).
1864 Nov 29, In retaliation for
an Indian attack on a party of immigrants near Denver, 750 members
of a Colorado militia unit, led by Colonel John M. Chivington,
attacked an unsuspecting village of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians
camped on Sand Creek in present-day Kiowa County. Some 300 
Indians were killed in the attack, including women and children,
many of whose bodies were mutilated. Ten soldiers died in the
attack. The Sand Creek Massacre, as this incident came to be called,
provoked a savage struggle between Indians and the white settlers.
It also generated two Congressional investigations into the actions
of Chivington and his men. The House Committee on the Conduct of the
War concluded that Chivington had "deliberately planned and executed
a foul and dastardly massacre which would have disgraced the varied
and savage among those who were the victims of his cruelty."
(HNPD, 11/29/98)(HN, 11/29/98)(SFC, 9/15/00,
p.A9)(SSFC, 2/1/04, p.C13)
1864 Nov 30, Battle of Honey
Hill, SC, (Broad River). 96 were killed and 665 wounded.
1864 Nov 30, The Union won the
Battle of Franklin, Tenn., where John B. Hood ordered a disastrous
assault on Union earthworks. There were 7,700 casualties. Maj.
Gen’l. Patrick R. Cleburne, division commander in the Army of
Tennessee, was killed at the battle of Franklin. In early 1864 he
had advocated the abolition of slavery and the formal opening of the
Confederate Army of the Freedmen. In 2005 Robert Hicks authored the
novel “The Widow of the South," set around the Battle of Franklin.
(HN, 11/30/98)(SFC, 11/29/02, p.A23)(AM, 11/04,
p.28)(SSFC, 9/4/05, p.F1)
1864 Dec 1, Skirmish at Millen
1864 Dec 1, Franklin-Nashville
1864 Dec 1, Raid at Stoneman:
Knoxville, Ten., to Saltville, Va.
1864 Dec 2, Major General
Grenville M. Dodge was named to replace General Rosecrans as
Commander of the Department of Missouri.
1864 Dec 2, Skirmish at Rocky
Creek Church, Georgia.
1864 Dec 3, Major General
William Tecumseh Sherman met up with some resistance from
Confederate troops at Thomas Station on his march to the sea.
1864 Dec 4, Battle of
Waynesborough (Brier Creek) Ga.
1864 Dec 4, Romanian Jews were
forbidden to practice law.
1864 Dec 5, Confederate General
Hood sent Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry and a division of
infantry towards Murfreesboro, Tenn.
1864 Dec 10, General Sherman's
armies reached Savannah and a 12 day siege began.
1864 Dec 13, Battle of Ft.
1864 Dec 15, The battle at
1864 Dec 16, Union forces under
General George H. Thomas won the battle at Nashville, Tenn. There
were 4,400 casualties.
(HFA, ‘96, p.20)(HN, 12/16/98)(MC, 12/16/01)
1864 Dec 20, Confederate forces
evacuated Savannah, Ga., as Union Gen. William T. Sherman continued
his "March to the Sea."
1864 Dec 20-27, Battle of Ft.
1864 Dec 22, During the Civil
War, Gen’l. Sherman telegraphed Pres. Lincoln from Georgia, saying:
"I beg to present to you, as a Christmas gift, the city of Savannah
with 150 guns and plenty of ammunition." In 2008 Noah Andre Trudeau
authored “Southern Storm: Sherman’s March to the
(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)(AP, 12/22/97)(WSJ, 8/4/08,
1864 Dec, In the 1864 Harper's
Weekly Christmas issue, Thomas Nast drew Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson
Davis and Robert E. Lee along with his traditional Santa Claus. The
Santa Claus created by Nast for the 1862 Christmas issue of Harper's
Weekly, played a prominent role in all the wartime holiday
centerfolds and annual Christmas issues except the 1864 illustration
"The Union Christmas Dinner." In that image Abraham Lincoln is
pictured welcoming Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee back into the
Union, with Santa Claus, his sleigh and reindeer appearing in
silhouette before a rising moon behind the word Christmas.
1864 Fitz Hugh Lane, American
landscape artist, painted "Brace’s Rock, Brace’s Cove."
(WSJ, 3/21/02, p.A20)
1864 Composer Eugen D'Albert
was born in Glasgow. He considered himself a German and set only
German text in his works, which included his Cello Concerto and the
operas "Tiefland" and the 1916 "Die Toten Augen" (The Dead Eyes).
(SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.33)
1864 Gustave Moreau, French
painter, created his work "Oedipus and the Sphinx." His students
included Georges Rouault, Albert Marqyet, and Henri Matisse.
(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A20)
1864 In 1994 Prof. Jenny
Franchot (d.1998 at 45) of UC Berkeley published "Road to Rome: The
Antebellum Protestant Encounter with Catholicism." Franchot
specialized in American literature before 1865.
(SFC, 10/17/98, p.C2)
1864 “The Maine Woods" by Henry
David Thoreau (1817-1862) was published posthumously, based on 3
previous visits to Maine in 1846, 1853 and 1857.
1864 Anthony Trollope’s novel
“Can You Forgive Her" began to appear in England in serial
form. It is the first of six novels in his "Palliser" series.
1864 Jules Verne wrote "Journey
to the Center of the Earth." It was made into a film in 1959.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, BR p.4)(WSJ, 9/10/99, p.W11C)
1864 The most popular song of
the year was "Tenting on the Old Camp Ground."
(NH, 10/98, p.16)
1864 Tchaikovsky composed the
overture "The Storm."
(WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A16)
1864 Frederick Olmsted designed
the Mountain View Cemetery in Oakland, Ca.
(SFC, 7/6/99, p.C1)
1864 The Clemens House was
built in Carson City, Nev., by Orion Clemens, brother of author
Samuel Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. Orion served as the
first and only Territorial Secretary (1861-1864), and at times,
acting governor of the Nevada Territory.
1864 Pope Pius IX issued the
encyclical "Quanta cura," which included a syllabus of 70 errors in
contemporary beliefs. The Syllabus of Errors included 80 negative
points condemning modern ideas such as freedom of speech and
religion and separation of church and state.
(PTA, 1980, p.510)(SFC, 9/1/00, p.D4)
1864 In Connecticut the West
Cornwall Bridge was built over the Housatonic River. The covered
bridge connected the 2 rural communities of Sharon and Cornwall.
(SSFC, 1/7/07, p.G10)
1864 The Knights of Pythias, a
secret fraternal order for philanthropic purposes, was founded in
(AHD, 1971, p.724)
1864 The National Bank Act of
this year superseded the National Currency Act of 1863.
1864 The US Congress authorized
the issuance of a series of fractional currency notes in
denominations of 3, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 50 cents, with Spencer Clark’s
office being given responsibility for production of the notes. A
firestorm ensued when it was discovered that Clark's image had been
put on the 5-cent note. There are different historical accounts of
how this occurred. Congress soon banned the portrayal of living
1864 Congress banned private
coinage but private paper currency was still allowed.
(SFEC, 7/5/98, Par p.17)
1864 Andersonville Confederate
prison held 32,000 Union prisoners in southwestern Georgia in a pen
designed for 8,000. The setting was made into a film for TV by John
Frankheimer in 1996 based on an original script by David Rintels. Of
the 45,000 Union prisoners of war that were brought to
Andersonville, 29% i.e. 12,914, died there.
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-10)
1864 The Confederate War Dept.
organized the Indian tribes of eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas
into the Indian Division. Cherokee Gen’l. Stand Watie commanded the
Cherokee Mounted Rifles.
(WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A19)
1864 Union General William
Tecumseh Sherman surrounded and burned Atlanta, Georgia. The city
was a Confederate supply depot with a population of around 10,000,
1/10 the size of New Orleans.
(WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A10)
1864 The Fugitive Slave Act of
1850 was repealed.
(SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)
1864 A federal law permitted
any woman to divorce her husband if he was in the military.
(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)
1864 The US Congress pushed
Idaho’s northeastern border back to the Bitterroot Mountains after
Sidney Edgerton of the Idaho Territory went to Washington with
$2,000 in gold. Edgerton wound up as the territorial governor of
newly created Montana.
(WSJ, 5/31/08, p.W9)
1864 Ruel C. Gridley (d.1870),
owner of the Gridley Store in Austin, Nevada, lost an election bet
and had to carry a 50 lb. sack of flour the length of Austin to the
tune of “John Brown’s Body." The sack was auctioned and the proceeds
went to the Sanitary Fund, a forerunner to the Red Cross, to help
relieve suffering created by the Civil War. The sack was resold many
times and soon other towns called for a similar auction. The last
auction was at the St. Louis World’s Fair.
1864 Oregon adopted its first
(SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)
1864 Grover Cleveland, a lawyer
and politician in Buffalo, New York, dodged the draft by provided a
substitute when he was drafted. Andrew Johnson was a brigadier
general of volunteers before becoming a military governor and then
vice president. James Garfield began as a lieutenant colonel and
rose to become a major general before resigning upon being elected
to Congress in 1863. Benjamin Harrison started as a second
lieutenant in the 70th Indiana eventually mustering out as a brevet
brigadier general in 1865. William McKinley enlisted as a private in
1861 and was mustered out a brevet major four years later.
1864 Hertwig and Co. of
Thuringia, Germany, introduced ceramic figurines called Snow Babies
made from bisque (unglazed clay) covered with crushed bisque
“snowflakes." The first Snow Babies had been made of sugar candy and
used as Christmas decorations.
(SFC, 9/12/07, p.G7)
1864 California's Alpine County
was cobbled together from pieces of Amador, El Dorado and Calaveras
(SSFC, 2/1/20, p.S2)
1864 In San Francisco Rudolph
Herman opened the Harbor View Baths on Strawberry Island, a
sand beach located between Fort Point and Aquatic Park. The area was
razed in 1915 for the Panama-Pacific Int’l. Expo.
(SFC, 5/4/19, p.C2)
1864 In San Francisco the
Masonic Cemetery was established.
(SFC, 3/31/18, p.C2)
1864 The SF Mechanics
Institute, founded in 1854, paid $10,000 to build a grandiose
pavilion for its fourth industrial fair on the southwest corner of
Geary and Stockton.
(SFC, 1/2/16, p.C2)
1864 In San Francisco a woolen
mill was built on the block bounded by Beach, Polk, Larkin and North
Point streets. In the 1890s it was taken over by the Ghirardelli
Chocolate Company. In the 1960’s Ghirardelli transferred operations
to San Leandro and the square was converted to a restaurant and
(SSFC, 10/28/12, p.D4)
1864 UC Medical Center was
founded as Toland Medical College. It was named after founder Dr.
Hugh H. Toland, who arrived with the gold rush from South Carolina.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-10)
1864 The restaurant known as
Jack’s opened on Sacramento St. From 1903 to 1996 it was owned by
(SFC, 12/31/96, p.B1)
1864 William Sharon (44) was
sent to Virginia City as manager of the Nevada branch of the Bank of
1864 Herbert Liebes opened a
fur salon which grew to become H. Liebes & Company. Liebes ran
sailing schooners from Alaska to SF with cargoes of furs.
(SFC, 6/29/04, p.B6)
1864 John Swett, California
schools superintendent, revised the state’s school law to require
the establishment of separate schools for Chinese under certain
circumstances, but the new law had little practical effect.
(SFC, 4/15/17, p.C2)
1864 Adolphus Busch
(1839-1913), German immigrant married to Eberhard Anheuser’s
daughter (1861), began working at his father-in-law’s brewery in St.
1864 G.J. Bourdin patented the
first successful instant camera called the Dubroni.
(SFC, 6/12/96, Z1 p.5)
1864 The Enterprise
Manufacturing Co. was founded. They made many kinds of coffee
grinders, meat choppers, irons and other products.
(SFC, 3/3/99, Z1 p.4)
1864 Surveyors thought they
found the US Continental Divide and marked the boundary between
Montana and Idaho at the Bitterroot Range.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, zone 1 p.4)
1864 A meteorite was found near
Orgueil, France, that was later believed to be a fragment of a
comet. It was later found to show traces of amino acids.
(SFC, 12/19/01, p.A8)
1864 Henry Plummer, sheriff,
was hanged by vigilantes in Bannock, Montana. In 1920 Frank Bird
Linderman authored the novel, "Henry Plummer."
(HND, 7/21/98)(SFEC, 7/23/00, Par p.16)
1864 George Boole, Irish
mathematician and inventor of Boolean algebra, died.
(SFC, 12/2/97, p.C3)
1864 The Imperial State
Manufactory Vienna, a maker of porcelains since 1744, closed. The
royalty owned firm used the beehive or shield mark.
(SFC, 10/17/07, p.G2)
1864 In Britain Scottish
servant John Brown began to attend to Queen Victoria and drew the
widowed queen out of a severe depression. He remained with her until
his death in 1883. The 1997 film "Mrs. Brown" suggested an affair
between the two.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.2)
1864 Brazil under Emperor Pedro
II invaded Uruguay. In response Paraguay’s Pres. Francisco Solano
Lopez attacked Brazil’s province of Matto Grosso.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.46)
1864 Elie Abel Carriere wrote
an account in the French journal Revue Horticole of a journey to the
beech forest at Verzy, southeast of Reims, to see the monster beech,
Fagus sylvatica Tortuosa.
(NH, 6/96, p.45)
1864 Phylloxera was 1st noted
on grapevines in Roquemaure, France. It ravaged the vineyards there
for nearly 20 years. In 1872 it reached Austria and Portugal. In
1875 it appeared in Australia and in 1886 in South Africa. In 1987
George Ordish authored “The Great Wine Blight." In 2004 Christy
Campbell authored “Phylloxera: How Wine was Saved for the World." In
2011 George Gale authored “Dying on the Vine: How Phylloxera
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E3)(Econ, 7/23/11, p.81)
1864 In southern India a flood
surge wrecked the British naval fleet at the mouth of the Krishna
(Econ, 12/12/15, p.40)
1864 Jamaican law banned sex
relations between men.
(SFC, 8/30/14, p.A2)
1864 In the Netherlands Gerard
Adriaan Heineken founded a beer brewery. In 2002 it was the world’s
3rd largest brewery.
(SFC, 1/5/02, p.A22)
1864 Prussia and Austria
snatched Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark. The border was redrawn by
plebiscite in 1920. After 1945 Germany and Denmark agreed to
recognize the rights of minorities on both sides.
(Econ, 6/2/12, p.66)
1864 Circassian fighters in
Sochi surrendered to the czarist forces. Circassians were widely
dispersed following Russian expulsions.
1864 In Sweden the Alfred Nobel
factory for the manufacture of nitroglycerin accidentally blew up,
killing Nobel’s youngest brother and four others.
1864 The Geneva Convention
initially met to improve the lot of the wounded and sick of Armies
in the field and later added revisions. It established a code of
conduct for the treatment in wartime of the sick and wounded and
prisoners of war. It also said that an occupying power must
guarantee the protection of civilians in the area it occupies.
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 4/11/97, p.A12)
1864 Missionaries settled in
Zanzibar following a call by David Livingstone for volunteers to
fight the slave trade and help spread Christianity across Africa.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C13)
1864-1865 Army Col. Kit Carson, directed by Brig.
Gen. James Carleton, forced the move of some 9,000 Dineh Navajo from
Canyon de Chelly in Arizona to the Bosque Redondo reservation near
Fort Sumner, New Mexico. About half the people survived in what came
to be known as the Long Walk. In 2006 Hampton sides authored “Blood
and Thunder: An epic of the American West," an account of the Navaho
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)(SSFC,
1/7/01, p.T9)(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)
c1864-1865 Following newspaper editor Horace
Greeley’s attempt to broker an end to the Civil War, President
Lincoln’s Secretary of Navy, Gideon Welles, said he had "found
himself involved in the meshes of his own frail net." Greeley
attempted to act as a go-between between the Lincoln administration
and some Confederate representatives waiting at Niagara Falls just
over the Canadian border. "I just thought I would let him go up and
crack that nut for himself," Lincoln later reportedly said of the
1864-1900 Richard Hovey, US poet.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)
1864-1903 Martha Jane Canary (aka Calamity Jane)
skilled horsewoman and rifle shot. Calamity was a scout during the
Sioux campaign of 1876 and was known for getting into fights, heavy
drinking and prostitution. She and James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok
apparently worked together as outriders for a wagon train of
prostitutes on its way to the gold-mining town of Deadwood, South
1864-1903 Napa County was one of California’s
leading producers of cinnabar.
(WCG, 7/95, p.22)
1864-1910 Jules Renard, French educator and
author: "Talent is like money; you don’t have to have some to talk
1864-1926 Israel Zangwill, English dramatist:
"Take from me the hope that I can change the future, and you will
send me mad."
1864-1933 Fred Holland Day, photographer,
publisher and book-collector. He was a leading representative of the
New School of American Photography. He did a photo documentation of
all the places that Keats had inhabited or visited in his life. He
was a member of an amateur society of Orientalist called the
Visionists and helped produce the group’s weekly art journal, The
Mahogany Tree. He published works by William Butler Yeats, Walter
Pater and Stephen Crane in his firm Copeland & Day. Also
published were John Lane’s anthology The Yellow Book, the bible for
decadents, and Oscar Wilde’s Salome with illustrations by Aubrey
(Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)
1864-1936 Miguel de Unamuno, Spanish philosopher:
"La vida es duda, y la fe sin la duda es solo muerte." (Life is
doubt, and faith without doubt is nothing but death.)
1865 Jan 4, The New York Stock
Exchange opened its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad
Street near Wall Street in NYC. The Corinthian-style structure would
serve the Exchange until 1903 when more spacious quarters opened at
18 Broad Street.
1865 Jan 7, Cheyenne and Sioux
warriors attacked Julesburg, Colo., in retaliation for the Sand
1865 Jan 10, Sinclair Lewis
(d.1951), American author of 23 novels and 3 plays, was born in Sauk
(HNQ, 5/18/98)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.W8)
1865 Jan 11, Battle of Beverly,
1865 Jan 13-14, Union fleet
bombed Fort Fisher, NC.
(AH, 2/05, p.16)
1865 Jan 15, Union troops
captured Fort Fisher at Wilmington, North Carolina. It was the last
major Confederate port open to blockade runners.
(AH, 2/05, p.16)
1865 Jan 16, General Sherman
began a march through the Carolinas. During the march Sherman issued
Field Order No. 15 that set aside land, "40 acres and a mule," in
Georgia and South Carolina for freed slaves.
(HN, 1/16/99)(SFC, 6/20/00, p.A6)(SFC, 4/5/02,
1865 Jan 16, Charles (19) and
Michael de Young (17) started a free theater-program sheet in SF
called The Daily Dramatic Chronicle. Early quarters were at 417
Clay. They borrowed a $20 gold piece from Capt. William Hinkley, who
owned the building where they lived, to start the paper.
(SFC, 7/18/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.1)(SFC,
8/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 1/16/09, Extra p.1)(SFC, 12/8/18, p.C3)
1865 Jan 17, The 170-foot
sailing ship Sir John Franklin, a clipper out of Baltimore with 16
people aboard, wrecked near Pescadero, Ca. Capt. Desperaux and 11
crew members were lost.
(SFC, 8/10/02, p.A13)(Ind, 8/10/02, 5A)
1865 Jan 18, Battle of Ft.
1865 Jan 19, Pierre-Joseph
Proudhon (b.1809), French economist and a socialist, died. “Property
is theft." He was the founder of Mutualist philosophy and was the
first person to declare himself an anarchist.
1865 Jan 23-25, Battle of City
Point, VA (James River, Trent's Reach).
1865 Jan 31, House of
Representatives approved a constitutional amendment (121-24)
abolishing slavery. It was the 13th amendment to the US
(HN, 1/31/99)(WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)(MC,
1865 Jan 31, Gen. Robert E. Lee
was named general-in-chief of the Confederate armies.
1865 Jan, In Chicago Marshall
Field and a partner, Levi Leiter, accepted an offer to become senior
partners at the dry goods establishment of Potter Palmer. The new
firm became known as "Field, Palmer, Leiter & Co. The building
at Washington and State Street was destroyed in the great fire of
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Field)(WSJ, 9/21/05, p.A16)
1865 Feb 1, Lincoln's home
state of Illinois became the first to ratify the Thirteenth
Amendment abolishing slavery throughout the United States. President
Abraham Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation two years
earlier, but it had not effectively abolished slavery in all of the
states--it did not apply to slave-holding border states that had
remained with the Union during the Civil War. After the war, the
sentiment about blacks was mixed even among anti-slavery Americans:
some considered Lincoln's address too conservative and pushed for
black suffrage, arguing that blacks would remain oppressed by their
former owners if they did not have the power to vote. After the
amendment was passed, the Freedmen's Bureau was created to help
blacks with the problems they would encounter while trying to
acquire jobs, education and land of their own.
1865 Feb 2, Confederate raider
William Quantrill and his bushwackers robbed citizens, burned a
railroad depot and stole horses from Midway, Kentucky.
1865 Feb 3, The Hampton Roads
Conference was attended by President Abraham Lincoln and the Vice
President of the Confederacy, Alexander H. Stephens, in an attempt
to end the American Civil War. The four-hour meeting aboard the
Union steamboat River Queen anchored in Hampton Roads in Virginia,
also included Lincoln's Secretary of State, William H. Seward,
Confederate Assistant Secretary of War John Campbell and Senator
R.M.T. Hunter. Lincoln‘s peace offer required rebel states to return
to the Union, accept the freedom of their slaves and to disband
their army. Even though military defeat was imminent, the
Confederate representatives did not have the authority to accept any
peace offer without a guarantee of independence for the Confederacy,
therefore, no agreement was reached.
(HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AP, 2/3/97)(HNQ, 2/5/00)
1865 Feb 4, Robert E. Lee was
named commander-in-chief of Confederate Army.
1865 Feb 5, Three-day Battle of
Hatcher's Run, Va., began.
1865 Feb 7, John Henry
Winder (b.1800), US Confederate brig-gen and provost marshal, died.
He was in charge of all Union prisoners east of the Mississippi
1865 Feb 8, Confederate raider
William Quantrill and men attacked a group of Federal wagons at New
1865 Feb 8, Martin Robinson
Delany became the 1st black major in US army.
1865 Feb 9, Wilson Bentley
(d.1931) was born on a farm near Jericho, Vermont. His interest in
snow flakes led him to make the 1st photographs of snow crystals on
Jan 15, 1885.
(ON, 11/04, p.4)
1865 Feb 9, Mrs. [Beatrice]
Patrick Campbell, actress (Pygmalion), was born in England.
1865 Feb 12, Henry Highland
Garnet, became the 1st black to speak in US House of Reps.
1865 Feb 13, The Confederacy
approved the recruitment of slaves as soldiers, as long as the
approval of their owners was gained.
1865 Feb 16, Columbia, S.C.,
surrendered to Federal troops.
1865 Feb 17, The South Carolina
capital city, Columbia, was half destroyed by fire as the
Confederates evacuated and Union forces under Major General William
Tecumseh Sherman marched through. It's not known which side set the
blaze. Sherman had made a swift and steady advance through Georgia
and South Carolina, and by late February 1865, his army was
approaching Charlotte, North Carolina.
(HN, 2/17/98)(AP, 2/17/98)
1865 Feb 17, Union forces
regained Fort Sumter.
(HFA, ‘96, p.22)
1865 Feb 17-18, Battle of
1865 Feb 18, Union troops
forced the Confederates to abandon Fort Anderson, N.C.
1865 Feb 18, Battle of Ft.
1865 Feb 18, Columbia, SC, was
evacuated and Sherman's troops burned the city.
1865 Feb 20, MIT was formed as
the 1st US collegiate architectural school.
1865 Feb 22, Federal troops
captured Wilmington, N.C. (Fort Anderson).
(HN, 2/22/98)(MC, 2/22/02)
1865 Feb 22, Tennessee adopted
a new constitution abolishing slavery.
(HN, 2/22/98)(AP, 2/22/99)
1865 Feb 23, England’s Reform
League was established to concentrate solely on manhood suffrage.
The Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious
Classes became defunct.
1865 Feb 25, General Joseph E.
Johnston replaced John Bell Hood as Commander of the Confederate
Army of Tennessee. Arthur Fremantle made a breathtaking tour of the
Confederacy. Within three months he had met most of the top
Confederate leaders, including Robert E. Lee, James Longstreet,
Joseph Johnston and Jefferson Davis.
1865 Feb 27, Confederate raider
William Quantrill and his bushwhackers attacked Hickman, Kentucky,
shooting women and children.
1865 Feb 27, A Civil War
skirmish took place near Sturgeon, Missouri.
1865 Feb, Major General William
Tecumseh Sherman had made a swift and steady advance through Georgia
and South Carolina, and by late February 1865, his army was
approaching Charlotte, North Carolina.
1865 Mar 1, Anna Paulowna
Romanova (70), great monarch of Russia, died.
1865 Mar 2, Freedman's Bureau
was founded for Black Education.
1865 Mar 2, General Lee
proposed peace to Grant. President Abraham Lincoln rejected
Confederate General Robert E. Lee's plea for peace talks, demanding
(HFA, ‘96, p.22)(HN, 3/2/99)
1865 Mar 2, General Early's
army was defeated at Waynesborough, Va.
1865 Mar 2, British newspaper
"Morning Chronicle" began publishing.
1865 Mar 3, US Bureau of
Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established to help
destitute free blacks.
1865 Mar 4, President Lincoln
was inaugurated for his 2nd term as President. It was held at the
Patent Office, the site of a military hospital. Four companies of
African-American troops and lodges of African-American Masons and
African-American Odd-Fellows joined the procession to the Capitol.
(WSJ, 2/12/04, p.D12)(SSFC, 1/20/13, Par p.4)
1865 Mar 4, Confederate
congress approved the final design of "official flag."
1865 Mar 6, President Lincoln's
2nd Inaugural Ball was held.
1865 Mar 6, The last
Confederate victory of the Civil War occurred at Natural Bridge
crossing near Tallahassee, Fla., when the forces of Union Gen’l.
John Newton were routed by entrenched southerners.
(HT, 3/97, p.10)(HN, 3/6/98)
1865 Mar 7-10, Battles were
fought around Kingston, NC.
1865 Mar 8, Frederick William
Goudy, US printer, type designer, was born.
1865 Mar 8, Battle of Kingston,
NC (Wilcox's ridge, Wise's Forks).
1865 Mar 10, Battle of Monroe's
1865 Mar 11, General Sherman
and his forces occupied Fayetteville, N.C. Union General William
Sherman considered Judson Kilpatrick, his cavalry chief, "a hell of
a damn fool." At Monroe’s Cross Roads, N.C., his carelessness and
disobedience of orders proved Sherman’s point.
1865 Mar 13, Confederate Pres.
Jefferson Davis signed a measure allowing black slaves to enlist in
the Confederate States Army with the promise they would be set free.
(BG, 3/13/16, p.B6)
1865 Mar 13, Lt. Col. William
M. Graham was given a brevet brigadier generalcy. Unfortunately,
Graham had been killed in action some days before--6,396 days to be
precise--at the head of the old U.S. 11th Infantry at the Battle of
Molino del Rey on August 8, 1847.
1865 Mar 15, Lincoln delivered
his Second Inaugural Address. In 2002 Ronald C. White Jr. authored
"Lincoln’s Greatest Speech: The Second Inaugural."
(HFA, ‘96, p.28)(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.W9)
1865 Mar 16, Union troops
pushed past Confederate blockers at the Battle of Averasborough,
N.C., and left 1,500 causalities.
(HN, 3/16/99)(MC, 3/16/02)
1865 Mar 18, The Congress of
the Confederate States of America adjourned for the last time.
1865 Mar 18, Battle of Wilson's
raid to Selma, AL.
1865 Mar 19, Battle of
Bentonville: Confederates retreated from Greenville, NC. [see Mar
1865 Mar 20, Battle of
1865 Mar 20, Michigan
authorized workers' cooperatives.
1865 Mar 21, The Battle of
Bentonville, N.C. ended, marking the last Confederate attempt to
stop. Union General William Sherman considered Judson Kilpatrick,
his cavalry chief, ‘a hell of a damn fool.’ At Monroe’s Cross Roads,
N.C., his carelessness and disobedience of orders proved Sherman’s
1865 Mar 22, Theophile Ysaye,
composer, was born.
1865 Mar 22, Raid at Wilson's:
Chickasaw, AL, to Macon, GA.
1865 Mar 23, General Sherman
and Cox's troops reached Goldsboro, NC.
1865 Mar 25, Battle of Mobile,
AL (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely).
1865 Mar 25, Battle of Bluff
1865 Mar 25, Confederate forces
captured Fort Stedman during the siege of Petersburg, Va., but were
forced to withdraw by counterattacking Union troops.
(AP, 3/25/97)(HN, 3/24/01)
1865 Mar 27, Siege of Spanish
Fort, AL. It was captured by Federals.
1865 Mar 29, Battle of Quaker
1865 Mar 29-Apr 9, The
Appomattox campaign in Virginia left 7582 killed.
1865 Mar 31, Battle of Boydton,
VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie Court House).
1865 Mar 31, Gen. Pickett moved
to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Petersburg.
1865 Mar, Thomas Sutherland of
Scotland founded the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
(HSBC) to finance trade in the Far East. It established the Shanghai
branch on April 3, 1865.
1865 Apr 1, At the Battle of
Five Forks in Petersburg, Va., Gen. Robert E. Lee began his final
1865 Apr 1-9, Battle at Blakely
1865 Apr 2, Confederate
President Davis and most of his Cabinet fled the Confederate capital
of Richmond, Va. Grant broke Lee’s line at Petersburg. President
Jefferson Davis moved his government headquarters to Danville, Va.,
when its previous capital, Richmond, became engulfed in flames.
Though it would have been safer to secure a location further south,
Danville was naturally protected by the Dan and Staunton rivers, and
it was in close proximity to Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army to the north
and Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s army to the south. The Piedmont
Railroad connected Danville and Greensboro, N.C. and offered easy
access to supplies.
(AP, 4/2/97)(HN, 4/2/98)(HNQ, 11/1/01)
1865 Apr 2, Battle of
Petersburg, Va. (Ft Gregg, Sutherland's Station).
1865 Apr 2, Battle of Ft.
Blakely, AL. and Selma, AL.
1865 Apr 2, Ambrose Powell Hill
(39), Confederate general, was killed in action.
1865 Apr 2, Richard Cobden
(b.1804), English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman,
died. He had advocated for free trade and led the campaign against
Corn Laws, which were repealed in 1846.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Cobden)(Econ, 10/1/16, SR
1865 Apr 3, Union forces
captured the Confederate capital of Richmond, Va.
(HFA, ‘96, p.28)(AP, 4/3/97)(HN, 4/3/98)
1865 Apr 3, Battle at Namozine
Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign).
1865 Apr 4, Lee's army arrived
at the Amelia Courthouse.
1865 Apr 5, As the Confederate
army approached Appomattox, it skirmished with Union army at Amelia
Springs and Paine's Cross Road.
1865 Apr 6, At the Battle of
Sayler's Creek, a third of Lee's army was cut off by Union troops
pursuing him to Appomattox. Skirmish at High Bridge, VA,
(HN, 4/6/99)(MC, 4/6/02)
1865 Apr 6, Reuben B. Boston,
US and Confederate cavalry colonel, died in battle.
1865 Apr 7, Battle of
1865 Apr 8, General Robert E.
Lee's retreat was cut off near Appomattox Court House. Lee requested
to meet with Gen Ulysses Grant to discuss possible surrender.
(HN, 4/8/98)(MC, 4/8/02)
1865 Apr 9, Erich Ludendorff,
German general during World War I, was born.
1865 Apr 9, Confederate Gen.
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox
Court House, Virginia, and ended the Civil War. A lifelong friend
and trusted aide of Ulysses S. Grant, Seneca Indian Ely Parker was
at his general’s side at the surrender at Appomattox. The Union 20th
Maine Infantry Unit was designated as one of the regiments to
receive the surrender of Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. One in
four Southern men of military age died vs. one in ten for the
Yankees. In 1998 Bevin Alexander published "Robert E. Lee’s Civil
War." In 2001 Jay Winik authored "April 1865: the Month That Saved
(A&IP, p.92)(AP, 4/9/97)(WSJ, 4/2/98,
p.A20)(HN, 4/9/98)(WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 4/2/01, p.A20)
1865 Apr 9, Federals captured
Ft. Blakely, Alabama.
1865 Apr 10, At Appomattox
Court, Va, General Robert E. Lee issued Gen Order #9, his last
orders to the Army of Northern Virginia. Seneca Indian Ely Parker
was at his general's side at Appomattox. In 2001 William C. Davis
authored "An Honorable Defeat."
(HN, 4/10/99)(WSJ, 6/13/01, p.A18)(MC, 4/10/02)
1865 Apr 11, Lincoln urged a
spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction.
1865 Apr 11, Battle of Mobile,
AL., evacuated by Confederates.
1865 Apr 13, Union forces under
Gen. Sherman began their devastating march through Georgia.
Sherman's troops took Raleigh, NC.
(HN, 4/13/98)(MC, 4/13/02)
1865 Apr 14, On the evening of
Good Friday, just after 10 p.m., Pres. Lincoln was shot and
mortally wounded by John Wilkes Booth while attending the comedy
"Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater in Washington DC. Southern
sympathizer John Wilkes Booth burst into the presidential box and
shot Lincoln behind the ear. Booth shouted out “sic semper tyrannis"
(thus always to tyrants), Virginia’s state motto, after shooting
Pres. Lincoln. He leaped to the stage, breaking his left leg on
impact, and escaped through a side door. Lincoln was carried to a
nearby house where he remained unconscious until his death at 7:22
the following morning. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, who had
kept vigil at Lincoln's bedside, said, "Now he belongs to the ages."
As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This
expresses my idea of democracy."
(V.D.-H.K.p.277)(AP, 4/14/97)(AP, 4/14/98)(HNPD,
4/14/00)(WSJ, 10/13/06, p.W13)
1865 Apr 14, A 2nd assassin
stabbed the Sec. of State 5 times. George Atzerodt, a 3rd assassin
for the vice president, got cold feet.
(SSFC, 4/8/01, Par p.12)(WSJ, 2/2/05, p.B1)
1865 Apr 14, Mobile, Alabama,
1865 Apr 15, President Lincoln
died, several hours after he was shot at Ford’s Theater in
Washington by John Wilkes Booth. Andrew Johnson, Vice-President
under Lincoln, became the 17th President (1865-1869) of the US upon
the assassination. The first Mourning Stamp was issued after his
assassination, a 15-cent black commemorative. In 1999 Allen C.
Guelzo authored "Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President," an
intellectual biography. In 2002 William Lee Miller authored
"Lincoln’s Virtues: An Ethical Biography." In 2004 Ronald C. White
Jr. authored “The Eloquent President." In 2005 Doris Kearns Goodwin
authored “Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln."
In 2006 Douglas L. Wilson authored “Lincoln’s Sword: The Presidency
and the Power of Woods."
12/29/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.W9)(WSJ, 1/20/05, p.D9) (SSFC,
11/27/05, p.M3)(SFC, 11/27/06, p.C2)
1865 Apr 15, Otto von Bismarck
was elevated to earl.
1865 Apr 17, Mary Surratt was
arrested as a conspirator in the Lincoln assassination.
1865 Apr 18, Dr. Samuel A. Mudd
originally claimed to have never met Booth during his initial
interview with investigating detectives. Presidential assassin John
Wilkes Booth, injured and fleeing Ford's Theatre, had knocked on the
door of Dr. Mudd for help.
1865 Apr 18, Confederate Gen
Joseph Johnston surrendered to Gen W.T. Sherman in North Carolina.
1865 Apr 20, Chicago's Crosby
Opera House opened.
1865 Apr 21, Abraham Lincoln’s
funeral train left Washington.
1865 Apr 23, Union cavalry
units continued to skirmish with Confederate forces in Henderson,
North Carolina and Munsford Station, Alabama.
1865 Apr 26, Battle of Ft.
1865 Apr 26, Confederate Gen.
Joseph E. Johnston surrendered the Army of Tennessee at Durham, NC,
to Union Gen. W.T. Sherman. Sherman considered Judson Kilpatrick,
his cavalry chief, ‘a hell of a damn fool.’ At Monroe’s Cross Roads,
N.C., his carelessness and disobedience of orders proved Sherman’s
(HN, 4/26/98)(MC, 4/26/02)
1865 Apr 26, John Wilkes Booth
(27) was tracked to a Virginia farm near Bowling Green, and shot in
the neck by federal troops when he tried to escape from a burning
barn. At some time prior to this Booth’s leg was operated on by Dr.
Samuel Mudd, ancestor of news commentator Roger Mudd, who obtained a
presidential pardon for Dr. Mudd’s financial ruin. Dr. Mudd served
time at the Fort Jefferson Prison in the Dry Tortugas. [see Apr 27]
(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A8)(WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(AP,
1865 Apr 27, John Wilkes Booth
was killed by Federal Cavalry in Virginia. In 2004 Michael W.
Kauffman authored “American Brutus." In 2006 James L. Swanson
authored “Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln’s Killer. [see Apr
(HN, 4/27/98)(WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P10)(WSJ, 1/28/07,
1865 Apr 27, The steamer
Sultana caught fire and burned after one of its boilers exploded on
the Mississippi River near Memphis, Tenn., killing more than 1,400
paroled Union prisoners on their way home. One account reported
1,547 people dead. At least 1,238 of the 2,031 passengers, mostly
former Union POWs, were killed.
(AP, 4/27/97)(SFC, 3/13/99, p.E6)(HN,
1865 Apr 28, Giacomo
Meyerbeer's opera "L'Africaine," premiered in Paris.
1865 Apr 30-May 1, Gen
Sherman's "Haines's Bluff" at Snyder's Mill, Virginia.
1865 Apr, Henry James
(1843-1916), reportedly had a love relationship with Oliver Wendall
Holmes, the future US Supreme Court Justice.
(SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.1)
1865 May 1, In Charleston, SC,
some 10,000 people paraded to a mass grave site of Union soldiers at
a former race track. This was likely the 1st large-scale US Memorial
Day event. [see May 5, 1866, 1868]
(SFC, 5/26/03, p.A1)
1865 May 2, President Johnson
offered a $100,000 reward for the capture of Confederate President
1865 May 3,
President Lincoln’s funeral train arrived in Springfield, Illinois.
1865 May 4, Abraham Lincoln was
buried in a temporary tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield,
1865 May 4, Battle of Mobile,
AL. [see Apr 11,14]
1865 May 5, The Thirteenth
Amendment was ratified, abolishing slavery, except for "duly
(HN, 5/5/98)(WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)
1865 May 9, William Smith
(1797-1887) was forced out of office as governor of Virginia
following the Confederate surrender.
(http://tinyurl.com/lnq3flb)(Econ, 8/17/13, p.28)
1865 May 9, August de Boeck
(d.1937), Flemish composer, was born.
1865 May 10, Confederate Pres.
Jefferson Davis was captured by Union troops in Irwinville, Georgia.
(HN, 5/10/98)(AP, 5/10/08)
1865 May 12, The last land
action of the Civil War was fought at Palmito Ranch in Texas. It was
a Confederate victory.
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/02)
1865 May 17, The International
Telegraph Convention was signed in Paris. The International
Telecommunication Union later became a specialized agency of the
United Nations that is responsible for issues that concern
information and communication technologies. By 2019 ITU's global
membership included 193 Member States as well as some 900 companies,
universities, and international and regional organizations.
1865 May 21, C.J. Thomsen,
archaeologist who named the Stone, Iron and Bronze Ages, was born in
1865 May 23, The American flag
was flown at full staff over White House for the 1st time since
Lincoln was shot. Union Army's Grand Review began in Washington DC.
1865 May 25, Frederick Augustus
III, King of Saxon (1904-18), was born.
1865 May 25, John Raleigh Mott,
organizer (YMCA, Nobel 1946), was born.
1865 May 25, Pieter Zeeman,
Dutch physicist (Zeeman effect, Nobel 1902), was born.
1865 May 26, Arrangements were
made in New Orleans for the surrender of Confederate forces west of
the Mississippi. The last Confederate Army surrendered in
(AP, 5/26/97)(HN, 5/26/99)
1865 May 26, At the Battle of
Galveston, TX., Edmund Kirby Smith surrendered.
1865 May 29, Amnesty for the
Confederates was granted.
(HFA, ‘96, p.30)
1865 May, E.L. Godkin announced
the start of a new magazine called The Nation and asked William
James to be a contributor.
(WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)
1865 Jun 2, At Galveston,
Confederate General Kirby-Smith surrendered the Trans-Mississippi
Department to Northern Forces.
1865 Jun 3, George V,
Saksen-Coburg [Windsor], King of Great Britain, was born.
1865 Jun 6, Confederate raider
William Quantrill (b.1837) died in Louisville, Ky., from a shot in
the spine he received escaping a Union patrol near Taylorsville,
1865 Jun 9, Carl Nielsen,
Danish composer, was born.
1865 Jun 10, The opera "Tristan
und Isolde" by Richard Wagner premiered in Munich, Germany. Wagner
had begun the work in 1857.
(AP, 6/10/97)(WSJ, 3/12/99, p.W2)
1865 Jun 13, William Butler
Yeats (d.1939), Irish poet and playwright, was born to an
Anglo-Irish family in a Dublin suburb. He is best remembered for his
poems "Byzantium" and "Easter 1916." He won the Nobel Prize in 1923.
The first volume of his autobiography was "Reveries Over Childhood
and Youth" (1915). Richard Ellman published a biography in 1948. The
book "W.B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. 1: The Apprentice Mage 1865-1914," by
R.F. Foster covered this period of Yeats’ life. "The Lake Isle of
Innisfree" is his best known poem. "Too long a sacrifice / Can make
a stone of the heart. / O when may it suffice?"
(V.D.-H.K.p.365)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A1)(AP,
4/29/98)(HN, 6/13/98)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T6)(MC, 6/13/02)
1865 Jun 17, Edmund Ruffin
(b.1794), Virginia-born secessionist, writer, committed suicide
after Confederacy defeat. For most of his life, Ruffin was a farmer
and a renowned agricultural reformer. Increasingly, however, he
turned his attention in the 1850s to politics, especially the
defense of slavery and secession. Plagued by ill health, family
misfortunes, and the rapid collapse of Confederate forces in 1865,
Ruffin proclaimed "unmitigated hatred to Yankee rule," and on June
17, 1865, at his estate of Redmoor, in Amelia county, Virginia, he
pulled the trigger on his silver-mounted gun and joined other fallen
Confederate soldiers, the casualty of what some call the “last shot
of the Civil War." . His act, sometimes considered the "last shot"
of the Civil War, become identified with the Confederacy's defeat
and a symbol of the lost cause.
1865 Jun 19, Emancipation Day,
also known as Juneteenth, was the day that Union General Granger
informed Texas slaves that they were free. Blacks came to celebrate
the day as Juneteenth Freedom Day.
(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.D3)(SFC, 6/18/04, p.B2)
1865 Jun 23, Confederate
General Stand Watie, who was also a Cherokee chief, surrendered the
last sizable Confederate army at Fort Towson, in the Oklahoma
(WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A19)(HN, 6/23/98)
1865 Jun 26, Bernard Berenson,
art critic (Italian Painters of the Renaissance), was born.
1865 Jun 29, William E. Borah,
Republican senator from Idaho, proponent of the League of Nations,
1865 Jun 30, Eight alleged
conspirators in assassination of Lincoln were found guilty after
kangaroo court-martial and brutal treatment by military officers.
1865 Jun, The Confederate ship
Shenandoah under Capt. James Waddell attacked Yankee whalers off the
coast of Alaska firing the last shots of the US Civil War. From 1864
to 1865 the Shenandoah captured, sank or ransomed 38 Union ships,
mostly whalers, in the Indian, Pacific and Arctic oceans.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSS_Shenandoah)(SFC, 8/4/18, p.C4)
1865 Jul 2, Lili Braun,
feminist, socialist writer (Im Schatten Titanen), was born in
1865 Jul 2, William Booth
(1829-1912), British Methodist preacher, held his first meeting for
the Salvation Army in London.
1865 Jul 4, 1st edition of
"Alice in Wonderland" was published. English mathematician Charles
Lutwidge Dodgson is best known for writing the children’s book
Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland under the pen name Lewis Carroll.
Born in 1832, Also a skilled portrait photographer, Dodgson
pioneered in the art of photographing children.
(SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(HNQ, 6/12/98)(Maggio,
1865 Jul 5, The US Secret
Service began operating under the Treasury Department. The Secret
Service Division began in Washington, D.C., to suppress counterfeit
currency. Chief William P. Wood was sworn in by Secretary of the
Treasury Hugh McCulloch.
1865 Jul 5, Great Britain
imposed world’s 1st maximum speed laws.
1865 Jul 7, The trap doors of
the scaffold in the yard of Washington’s Old Penitentiary were
sprung, and Mary Surratt, Lewis Paine, David Herold and George
Atzerodt dropped to their deaths. The four had been convicted of
"treasonable conspiracy" in the assassination of President Abraham
Lincoln, and had learned that they were to be hanged only a day
before their execution. Shortly after 1 p.m. the prisoners were led
onto the scaffold and prepared for execution. The props supporting
the platform were knocked away at about 2 p.m. Assassin John Wilkes
Booth had been killed on April 26, 12 days after Lincoln’s
assassination. Other convicted conspirators—Edman Spangler, Dr.
Samuel Mudd, Samuel Arnold and Michael O’Laughlin—were imprisoned.
(AP, 7/7/97)(HNPD, 7/7/98)
1865 Jul 8, C.E. Barnes of
Lowell, MA, patented the machine gun.
1865 Jul 13, Horace Greeley
advised his readers to "Go west young man."
1865 Jul 14, The Chickasaw
Indian Nation under Winchester Colbert was the last military force
to surrender in the Civil War.
(WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A19)
1865 Jul 14, Edward Whymper,
Charles Hudson, Michel Croz, and Douglas Hadow became the 1st to
climb the Matterhorn, on the border of Switzerland and Italy. Only
Edward Whymper survived the descent.
1865 Jul 19, Charles Horance
Mayo (d.1939), American surgeon and co-founder of the Mayo Clinic
Foundation for Medical Education and Research, was born. "I have
never known a man who died from overwork, but many who died from
(HN, 7/19/98)(AP, 12/11/00)
1865 Jul 21, Wild Bill Hickok
killed gunman Dave Tutt in Springfield, Illinois, in the first
formal quick-draw duel.
1865 Jul 25, Dr. James Barry
(b.1795), British military medical officer and senior inspector
general, died. It was soon revealed that Dr. Barry was likely a
female. In 2003 Rachel Holmes authored “Scanty Particulars: the
Scandalous Life and Astonishing Secret of Queen Victoria’s Most
Eminent Military Doctor."
1865 Jul 30, The worst US
steamship disaster occurred. The Brother Jonathon, a paddle wheel
steamer, sank off the coast of Northern California near Crescent
City. 221  people died after the ship hit a rock near Crescent
City. There were 19 survivors. The 220-foot, side-wheeled steamer
was onroute to Puget Sound and reportedly carried as much as $2
million in gold. In the 1990s Deep Sea Research found and salvaged
1,207 gold coins from the ship. California received 20% of the
treasure and the rest was put up for auction in 1999.
(HFA, '96, p.28)(SFC, 7/18/96, p.A18)(SFC,
6/10/97, p.A4)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A6)(SFC, 5/28/99, p.D7)(SSFC,
1865 Aug 2, Irving Babbitt,
founder of modern humanistic movement, was born.
1865 Aug 2, Capt. James Waddell
(1824-1886) of the Confederate ship Shenandoah learned of the end of
the US Civil War when he encountered the Liverpool barque Barracouta
as it sailed from San Francisco.
1865 Aug 2, A trans Atlantic
Cable being laid by SS Great Eastern snapped and was lost.
1865 Aug 4, Blacks celebrate
this date as the day "on which Nicodemus’ master laid aside his
whip." The year is called the "Year of Jubilee."
(NH, 7/98, p.31)
1865 Aug 10, Alexander K.
Glazunov, composer (Chopiniana), was born in St. Petersburg, Russia.
1865 Aug 15, Sir Joseph Lister
discovered the antiseptic process. [see Sep 1]
1865 Aug 20, Pres. Johnson
proclaimed an end to the "insurrection" in Texas.
1865 Aug 31, The US Federal
government estimated the American Civil War had cost about
eight-billion dollars. Human costs have been estimated at more than
one-million killed or wounded.
1865 Aug, A national military
cemetery was dedicated at Andersonville, Georgia, by Clara Barton
and the Red Cross for the 13,000 men who died at Camp Sumter.
Dorance Atwater (d.1912), a Union soldier, had secretly copied the
roll of Union dead at the prison. After the war Atwater was
appointed Consul at Papeete, Tahiti. He died in San Francisco in
1865 Sep 1, Joseph Lister
performed his 1st antiseptic surgery.
1865 Sep 2, William Rowan
Hamilton, Ireland's greatest man of science who made contributions
in the study of optics and applications of algebra to geometry,
1865 Sep 3, Army commander in
SC ordered Freedmen's Bureau to stop seizing land.
1865 Sep 6, Russia forbade the
use of Latin letters in the Lithuanian language. Following the
1863 uprising the Czarist authorities prohibited the publication of
Lithuanian books in Roman letters. Books in Cyrillic were allowed
but not accepted by the people. Secret book couriers smuggled in
Latin lettered books until 1904.
(DrEE, 9/14/96, p.4)(LC, 1998, p.24)
1865 Sep 17, In San Francisco
Mark Twain and ‘Mousetrap Man’ (Tremenheere Lanyon Johns) were seen
walking up Clay street under the influence of hashish. At this time
concentrated cannabis was commonly available in tincture or solid
form in drug stores.
(SSFC, 10/2/11, p.E9)
1865 Sep 23, Emmuska Orczy
(d.1947), baroness and writer, was born in Tarnaors, Hungary. Her
family moved to London in 1880. Her books included "The Scarlet
1865 Sep 24, James Cooke walked
a tightrope from the San Francisco Cliff House to Seal Rocks.
1865 Oct 1, Paul Abraham Dukas,
composer (Sorcerer's Apprentice), was born in Paris, France.
1865 Oct 2, Former Confederate
General Robert E. Lee became president of Washington and Lee
University in Virginia.
1865 Oct 5, George Calvert
Yount (b.1794), founder of Yountville, died in Napa Valley, Ca.
1865 Oct 8, Heinrich Wilhelm
Ernst, composer, died at 51.
1865 Oct 10, Raffaele Merry del
Val, Spanish cardinal, was born.
1865 Oct 10, John Wesley Hyatt
patented a new method for manufacturing billiard balls. He used
melted glue and cloth as an alternative to the ivory balls in use,
but his 1st products did not work well. [see Apr 6, 1869]
(MC, 10/10/01)(ON, 11/03, p.3)
1865 Oct 11, President Johnson
paroled CSA VP Alexander Stephens.
1865 Oct 25, The S.S. Republic
was carrying 59 passengers and 20,000 $20 gold coins from New York
to New Orleans when it sank in a hurricane off Savannah, Ga. All the
passengers boarded life boats and got off alive. In 2003 Odyssey
Marine Exploration found the ship. The company recovered some 52,000
silver and gold coins.
(AP, 8/17/03)(AP, 11/29/03)(SFC, 6/11/12, p.E2)
1865 Oct, financial pressures
exerted negative market influences as noted in a letter to the
(WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-18)
1865 Nov 2, Warren Gamaliel
Harding, the 29th president of the United States (1921-29), was born
near Corsica, Ohio. Harding was owner and publisher of the Marion
(SFEC, 1/12/97, Z3 p.4)(AP, 11/2/97)(HNQ,
1865 Nov 5, The Union Pacific
started construction on its western railroad from Omaha, Nebraska.
The city was originally Fort Atkinson.
(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)(SFC, 9/7/96, p.B4)
1865 Nov 6, The Confederate
ship Shenandoah under Capt. James Waddell surrendered in Liverpool,
England, after attacking Yankee commercial shipping off the coast of
Alaska. It had sunk of captured 38 vessels, mostly New Bedford
whaleships. The surrender of the Shenandoah was the last act of the
US Civil War.
Nov 10, Captain Henry Wirz (b.1822), commandment of Camp Sumter,
Ga., (known as “Andersonville" by the North) was hanged outside
Washington, D.C., after being found guilty of war crimes.
(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USACWwirz.htm)(AHHT, 10/02, p.22)
Nov 11, Dr. Mary Edward Walker, 1st Army female surgeon, was awarded
the Medal of Honor by Pres. Andrew Johnson for her work as a field
doctor, for outstanding service at the Battle of Bull Run, the
Battle of Chickamauga, the Battle of Atlanta, and as a Confederate
prisoner of war in Richmond, Va. Her medal was rescinded 1917 along
with 910 others, but restored by President Carter June 10, 1977.
(SFC, 7/17/96, p.E10)(HNQ,
1865 Nov 13, PT Barnum's New
American museum opened in Bridgeport, Conn.
1865 Nov 18, Mark Twain's first
story "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" was
published in the New York Saturday Press. Biologists later thought
that the frog named Dan’l Webster by Twain was a California
red-legged frog and currently endangered.
(SFC, 5/18/96, p.A-6)(HN, 11/18/00)
1865 Nov 26, "Alice in
Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll was published in US.
1865 Dec 6, 13th Amendment was
ratified, abolishing slavery. [see Dec 18]
1865 Dec 8, Jean Sibelius
(d.1957), composer (Valse Triste, Finlandia), was born as Johan
Julius Christian in Tavastehus, Finland: "Pay no attention to what
critics say. There has never been set up a statue in honor of a
p.1323)(SFEC,11/16/97, Z1 p.5)(MC, 12/8/01)
1865 Dec 18 The Thirteenth
Amendment to the US Constitution, abolishing slavery, was declared
1865 Dec 20, Maude Gonne, Irish
nationalist (Irish Joan of Arc), was born.
1865 Dec 24, Several veterans
of the Confederate Army formed a private social club in Pulaski,
Tenn., called the Ku Klux Klan. In three short years the
organization had members in every former Confederate state and was
responsible for terrorist acts against Reconstruction.
(AP, 12/24/97)(HNQ, 8/4/99)
1865 Dec 25, Evangeline Cory
Booth, Salvation Army general (1904-34), was born.
1865 Dec 26, James H. Nason
(Mason) of Franklin, Mass., received a patent for a coffee
(AP, 12/26/97)(MC, 12/26/01)
1865 Dec 30, Rudyard Kipling
(d.1936), British author and poet, best known for "Jungle Book" and
"Soldiers Three," was born in Bombay, India. "There are only two
classes of mankind in the world -- doctors and patients." He won the
Nobel prize for literature in 1907.
(AP, 12/30/97)(HN, 12/30/98)(AP, 2/7/00)(MC,
Baroness Emmuska Orczy (d.1947), Hungarian-British author (“Scarlet
Pimpernel" 1905), was born in Tarna-Ors, Hungary.
1865 Frederic Bazille painted
"Beach at Sainte-Adresse."
(WSJ, 3/9/99, p.A20)
1865-1867 Honore Daumier created his painting "The
Strong Man" during this period.
(SFC, 3/24/00, p.B1)
1865 Edgar Degas painted the
portrait of his sister and brother-in-law: "Monsieur and Madame
(SFC, 10/13/97, p.E1)
1865 Edward Burne-Jones,
painter, began his "St. George and the Dragon" series.
(WSJ, 6/11/98, p.A20)
1865 Monet painted "A Cart on
the Snowy Road at Honfleur."
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)
1865-1866 Edouard Manet painted "The Tragic Actor
(Rouviere as Hamlet)" about this time.
(WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)
1865 Bret Harte edited the 1st
collection of California poetry from newspaper clippings of poems
compiled by Mary Tingley of San Francisco.
(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M1)
1865 Union Brig. Gen. August
Kautz authored "The 1865 Customs of Service: A Handbook for the Rank
and File of the Army.
(AH, 10/01, HT p.9)
1865 The Dante Club formed in
Boston to help Henry Wadsworth Longfellow complete the 1st top-notch
English translation of Dante’s "Inferno."
(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M6)
1865 Jules Verne published his
book: "From the Earth to the Moon." In the book a rocket is launched
from Florida to the moon and safely returns to Earth by landing in
the ocean. Verne, the father of science fiction, uncannily predicted
through his 19th-century writing many of the scientific and
technological accomplishments of the 20th century.
(SFEC, 4/19/98, Par p.10)(HNQ, 2/6/99)
c1865 The late 20th century
book "Been in the Storm So Long" by Leon F. Litwack focused on the
aftermath of slavery in the mid 1860s and won a Pulitzer Prize.
(SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.4)
1865 The McKendrick-Breaux
House at 1474 Magazine St., a 3-story, masonry home, was built in
(Hem., Dec. ‘95, p.145)
1865 William Butterfield’s
auction business was founded in SF. In 1970 Butterfield &
Butterfield was sold to Bernard Osher. In 1999 the operation was
acquired by EBay, a San Jose-based online auction house.
(SFC, 4/27/99, p.B1)(SFC, 3/8/08, p.F6)
1865 Charles and Michael de
Young started a free theater-program sheet in SF called the Dramatic
(SFC, 7/18/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.1)
1865 The first known baseball
card depicts the Brooklyn Atlantics in a team portrait.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, Par p.2)
1865 Pres. Lincoln dispatched
Gen’l. Lew Wallace to the Mexican border to stop the flow of
contraband. Wallace was appointed vice-president of the trial over
those accused of conspiring to assassinate Lincoln. He then presided
over the trials of Confederate Capt. Henry Wirz, commander of the
Andersonville prison camp. He served as governor of New Mexico for 4
years and then served as US minister to Turkey.
(HT, 3/97, p.66)
1865 Pres. Lincoln authorized
Clara Barton to organize a volunteer group to locate Union soldiers
who had gone missing in action. The team of unpaid assistants
managed to discover the fates of over 20,000 missing men, many who
had died as prisoners of war.
(ON, 8/12, p.10)
1865 In Kansas Fort Dodge was
set up to protect the Santa Fe Trail. No liquor was allowed within 5
(SFC, 6/13/98, p.E4)
1865 William Brown opened the
Boston Saloon in Virginia City, Nevada, for black patrons. It burned
down in an 1876 fire.
(AM, 11/00, p.23)
1865 In Nevada the town of St.
Thomas was settled as an agricultural center and way station on the
Arrowhead Trail between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. In 1936 the
town was submerged under Lake Mead following the completion of the
(SSFC, 5/6/18, p.F7)
1865 At Fort Wagner in South
Carolina the first Civil War regiment of emancipated black slaves,
led by Robert Gould Shaw, was destroyed. The event was later
memorialized by Augustus Saint-Gaudens in a bronze relief on display
in Boston Commons. The 1989 film "Glory" also portrayed the events.
1865 Newly freed slaves founded
a community called Freedom Hill or Liberty Hill on the south side of
the Tar River in North Carolina. It was chartered in 1885 as
(SFC, 2/3/97, p.A8)
c1865 The term scalawag
referred to Southerners who cooperated with carpetbaggers-a
pejorative term given to Northerners who, after the American Civil
War, went into the Southern states to participate in political and
civic affairs. During Reconstruction in the former
Confederacy, a scalawag—a scamp or rascal—was a white Southerner who
cooperated with the so-called carpetbaggers or supported the
Republican policies. The name carpetbagger was intended to portray
these Northerners as roaming opportunists who carried all of their
belongings in cheap satchels constructed of
carpet—carpetbags—seeking to take advantage of the situation. During
Reconstruction, the South was under military rule and the former
governing class disqualified from holding official positions.
1865 Machine-made left and
right shoes replaced the "straights" that fit on either foot. [see
1818, and May 19, 1885]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)
c1865 Silverware makers began
making silver-plated holders and lids for glass and pottery biscuit
jars, and some were covered entirely by silver plate.
(SFC, 2/11/98, Z1 p.6)
1865 The Howe Machine Co. of
Bridgeport, Conn., was established and its sewing machine won a gold
medal at the 1867 Paris Exhibition. [see Elias Howe 1819-1867]
1865 The Cargill company was
founded in Iowa by William W. Cargill when he bought a grain flat
house in Conover. In 1898, John H. MacMillan, Sr., and his brother,
Daniel, began working for W. W. Cargill. The Cargill and MacMillan
families built the regional grain trader into a global giant.
1865 Benjamin Altman founded B.
Altman & Co., a big department store at Fifth Avenue and 34th
Street in NYC. It expanded to a chain of stores but filed for
bankruptcy in 1989.
(SFC, 6/11/08, p.G3)
1865 Daniel C. Ripley founded a
lamp manufacturing firm in Pittsburgh, Pa. the following year he
joined with 5 partners to form Ripley & Co. Ripley was granted a
patent in 1868 for a glass oil lamp. The company merged with others
in 1891 to form the U.S. Glass Co. of Pittsburgh.
(SFC, 12/14/05, p.G4)(SFC, 4/4/07, p.G2)
1865 Swiss furniture craftsmen
formed the Chair Makers Union of Tell City, Indiana. This later
became the Tell City Chair Co.
(SFC, 11/23/05, p.G2)
1865 Spiegel began as a Chicago
home-furnishing store. It branched into mail order for rural
customers in 1905 and abandoned its retail outlets in 1954. In 1982
it was purchased by the German Otto family.
(WSJ, 3/2/04, p.A6)
1865 Cornell Univ., the
youngest member of the Ivy League, was founded by Ezra Cornell and
Andrew Dickson White as a coeducational, non-sectarian institution
where admission was offered irrespective of religion or race.
1865 The Univ. of Michigan
celebrated its 25th birthday with 1,205 students and 32 faculty
members. It surpassed Harvard as the largest university in the US.
(LSA, Fall/04, p.53)
1865 The Matterhorn was climbed
by a team of 7 climbers led by Whymper, an obsessive English
illustrator. Four of the climbers fell to their death on the
(SFEM, 10/13/96, p.38)
1865 The SF Elevator, a weekly
black newspaper edited by Philip Bell, was established.
(SFC, 7/2/07, p.B2)
1865 An earthquake hit SF.
(SFC, 4/14/96, p.Z1, p.3)
1865 In northern California a
surprise attack by settlers wiped out nearly all the Indians of the
Yahi tribe, south of Mt. Lassen. Rancher Norman Kingsley and three
others shot 30 Yahi, including babies and young children, on Mill
Creek. Remnants hid in the mountains for 40 years until there
was but one survivor, Ishi, who emerged in 1911.
(SFC, 2/19/99, p.A1)(SFC, 9/6/14, p.C1)
1865 Samuel Cunard (b.1787),
founder of the 1st regular Atlantic steamship line, died. In 2003
Stephen Fox authored "Transatlantic," a chronicle of Cunard.
(MC, 11/21/01)(WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)
1865 Matthew Dowdy Shiell, a
sea-trader, landed on an uninhabited part of Redonda Island, part of
Antigua and Barbuda, and declared it his kingdom. Title passed out
of the Shiell family in 1947.
1865 In Argentina 153 settlers
from Wales arrived on the ship Mimosa and founded the coastal city
of Puerto Madryn, named after Sir Parry Madryn, a nobleman who
(SFEC, 5/9/99, Z1 p.6)
1865 In Argentina Leonardo
Villa made the first attempt at oil exploration and production.
Since the subsurface resources were owned by the government he had
to seek a permit and was denied.
(WSJ, 10/4/96, p.A9)
1865 In Belgium King Leopold II
ascended to the throne.
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)
1865 James Clerk Maxwell,
British physicist, unified the partial theories for electricity and
(BHT, Hawking, p.19)
1865 The East London Railway
Company bought the Thames Tunnel. It later became part of the London
Underground subway system.
(ON, 4/06, p.9)
1865 Henry Bessemer, English
mechanical engineer, filed a patent to cast strips of steel
directly, rather than as large ingots to be reheated and shaped.
(Econ, 3/11/17, p.65)
1865 Robert Fitzroy (b.1805),
British sea captain, died. He commanded the H.M.S. Beagle and
co-authored a 4-volume account of the ship’s 1831-1836
circumnavigation. In 2004 John and Mary Gribbin authored the
(WSJ, 10/8/04, p.W8)
1865 Viscount Palmerston (80),
Britain's prime minister, died.
(PC, 1992, p.273)
1865 A commercial treaty was
established between Britain and the German zollverein.
(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A20)
1865 BASF was founded in
Germany as Badische Anilin & Soda Fabrik. Anilin was important
in making dyes and soda was used in glass, soaps and textiles.
(Econ, 11/4/06, p.80)
1865 In Finland the Nokia Co.
began making wood and paper products. Later it diversified to
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 12/6/08, p.85)
1865 Emile Zola wrote a
diatribe against the annual French state-sponsored art show called
the Salon. He mocked the jurors who had rebuffed Edouard Manet
(WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A13)
1865 Eduard Rene Lefebvre de
Laboulaye, a French scholar, proposed a monument for America's
centennial and strengthen the democratic cause in France. The
monument took form as the Statue of Liberty.
(SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)
1865 The St. Anne Prison was
built in Avignon, France, atop the ruins of a 13th century insane
asylum. The prison was closed in 2003 and in 2007 the government
offered to sell it for transformation to a luxury hotel.
(SFC, 12/28/07, p.A18)
1865 A Latin Monetary Union was
established amongst France, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland and Greece,
but quickly weakened as members pursued their own economic policies.
(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)
1865 During the Orissa famine
in India the British political secretariat of the Bengal government
refused to import rice to the stricken areas because it was “a
breach of the laws of political economy."
(WSJ, 2/23/06, p.D8)
1865 In Milan, Italy, the
Galleria, one of the world’s first shopping malls, was constructed.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T12)
1865 Russia took
Bukhara, Tashkent, and Samerkand (Uzbekistan).
1865 In Saudi Arabia a cholera
outbreak killed 15,000 pilgrims and then spread worldwide.
1865-1866 Gustave Courbet, French painter, painted
his "Reclining Woman." It features a plump, red-haired nude
slumbering by herself in a forest.
(WSJ, 4/6/95, p.A-12)
1865-1866 Lord John Russel served as Prime
Minister of England for a 2nd time.
1865-1867 Thomas Bard and Josiah Stanford found
oil in California’s Ojai Valley. Drilling produced the first gusher.
(SSFC, 10/29/06, p.F6)
1865-1868 Oppressive taxes levied on cotton
drained some $70 million from the US southern economy.
(WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A15)
1865-1869 Some 12,000 Chinese workers were brought
to the US to help complete the transcontinental railroad. 15,000
Chinese worked on the transcontinental railroad.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(SFEC, 2/6/00, Rp.10)
1865-1870 South America’s War of the Triple
Alliance saw Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay aligned against Paraguay.
The Triple Alliance believed Paraguay was undermining the region’s
political stability. The war ended in crushing defeat of Paraguay
with as much as 90% of its adult male population killed.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A1)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.45)
1865-1871 Dostoevsky wrote three of his greatest
novels. The era was documented by Joseph Frank in his work
"Dostoevsky: The Miraculous Years." This book was the fourth volume
of Frank’s biographical project. From a review by James H.
Billington, librarian of Congress.
(WSJ, 3/28/95, p.A-24)
1865-1875 Texas, like other Confederate states,
was subjected to a federal army of occupation for a decade.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.A15)
1865-1875 After the American Civil War some
southerners moved to Brazil where the government offered land grants
and slavery was still permitted.
(NH, 7/96, p.74,75)(SFC, 4/28/15, p.A2)
1865-1876 Gen. Luigi Palma di Cesnola served as
the American Consul in Lanarca, Cyprus. He collected antiquities and
later sold them to the NY Metropolitan Museum of Art. In 1879 he
became the director of the museum.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)
1865-1877 This was the US period of
“Reconstruction" following the Civil War, when the South was
occupied by northern troops.
(Econ, 3/3/07, SR p.4)
1865-1877 In eastern Pennsylvania the Molly
McGuires, a secret society of Irish miners, waged a war with arson,
murders and beatings, on coal-mine owners.
(WSJ, 10/7/97, p.A20)
1865-1900 In 2007 Jack Beatty authored “Age of
Betrayal: The Triumph of Money in America, 1865-1900," a look at the
failures of American government during the Gilded Age.
(SFC, 5/8/07, p.E2)
1865-1929 Robert Henri, American artist: "The
individual says, 'My crowd doesn't run that way.' I say, don't run
1865-1939 William Butler Yeats, Irish poet and
playwright. The first volume of his autobiography was "Reveries Over
Childhood and Youth" (1915). Richard Ellman published a biography in
1948. "Too long a sacrifice / Can make a stone of the heart. / O
when may it suffice?"
(V.D.-H.K.p.365)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A1)(AP, 4/29/98)
1865-1943 William Lyon Phelps, American educator
and journalist: "The fear of life is the favorite disease of the
1865-1946 Logan Pearsall Smith, Anglo-American
author: If you are losing your leisure, look out; you may be losing
your soul. "How awful to reflect that what people say of us is
(AP, 9/19/97)(AP, 1/27/99)
1865-1959 Bernard Berenson, Lithuanian-American
art critic and author: "Life has taught me that it is not for our
faults that we are disliked and even hated, but for our qualities."
1866 Jan 2, Gilbert Murray,
Australian born scholar who became the chairman of the League of
Nations, 1923 through 1928, was born.
1866 Jan 11, Steamship London
sank in storm off Land's End England and 220 people died.
1866 Feb 4, Mary Baker Eddy
"cured" her injuries by opening a bible.
1866 Feb 13, Jesse James took
part in his 1st bank holdup. At least a dozen former Southern
guerrilla soldiers, including Frank James and Cole Younger, held up
the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri, of
$15,000. Jesse James was recovering from wounds suffered as a
Confederate guerrilla and probably wasn’t able to help brother Frank
and Cole, but the Liberty bank job is considered the James-Younger
Gang’s first robbery. Another outlaw legend, Charles "Black Bart"
Boles baffled Wells Fargo detectives during an eight year stint of
27 stagecoach robberies.
(HN, 2/13/98)(HN, 7/18/00)(MC, 2/13/02)
1866 Feb 21, Lucy B. Hobbs
became the first woman to graduate from a dental school, the Ohio
College of Dental Surgery in Cincinnati.
1866 Feb 26, Herbert Henry Dow,
pioneer in US chemical industry (Dow Chemical), was born.
1866 Feb 26, New York
Legislature established the NYC Metropolitan Board of Health.
1866 Mar 1, Paraguayan canoes
sank 2 Brazilian ironclads on Rio Parana.
1866 Mar 2, Excelsior Needle
Company of Wolcottville, Connecticut, began making sewing machine
needles, the 1st US company to make sewing needles.
(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(SC, 3/2/02)
1866 Mar 10, Antonio Francesco
Gaetano S. Pacini (87), composer, died.
1866 Mar 19, The immigrant ship
Monarch of the Seas sank in Liverpool; 738 died.
1866 Mar 21, The US Congress
authorized national soldiers' homes.
1866 Mar 27, President Andrew
Johnson vetoed the civil rights bill, which later became the 14th
1866 Mar 27, Andrew Rankin
patented the urinal.
1866 Mar 31, Fred. Law Olmsted,
New York City landscape architect, wrote a long piece on city
planning for parks with special reference to San Francisco.
(SFEM, 7/27/97, p.30)
1866 Apr 1, Ferruccio D.M.B.
Busoni, pianist, composer, conductor (Arlecchino), was born in
1866 Apr 1, US Congress
rejected presidential veto and gave all equal rights.
1866 Apr 2, Pres. Johnson ended
war in Ala, Ark, Fla, Ga, Miss, La, NC, SC, Ten and Va.
1866 Apr 6, Butch Cassidy,
[Robert Parker], US desperado (Wild Bunch Passage), was born. [see
(HN, 4/6/98)(MC, 4/6/02)
1866 Apr 6, Joseph Lincoln
Steffens (d.1936), American political philosopher, investigative
reporter and muckraker journalist (Shame of the Cities), was born in
San Francisco: "Nothing is done. Everything in the world remains to
be done or done over." "Never practice what you preach. If you’re
going to practice it, why preach it?"
(AP, 5/16/97)(HN, 4/6/98)(AP, 4/24/98)(HNQ,
1866 Apr 6, G.A.R. was formed
(Grand Army of the Republic). It was composed of men who served in
the US Army and Navy during the Civil War. The last member died in
(WUD, 1994 p.614)(MC, 4/6/02)
1866 Apr 9, A Civil Rights Bill
passed over Pres Andrew Johnson's veto to secure for former slaves
all the rights of citizenship intended by the 13th Amendment. The
president was empowered to use the Army to enforce the law. This
formed the basis for the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
(MC, 4/9/02)(PC, 1992, p.502)
1866 Apr 10, The American
Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) was
1866 Apr 13, Butch Cassidy
[Robert LeRoy Parker], American western outlaw and leader of the
Wild Bunch, was born in Beaver, Utah. [see Apr 6,15]
1866 Apr 14, Anne Mansfield
Sullivan, teacher who educated Helen Keller, was born.
1866 Apr 15, Robert LeRoy
Parker, a.k.a. "Butch Cassidy," was born in Beaver, Utah. [see Apr
1866 Apr 15, William Jackson
(51), composer, died.
1866 Apr 16, Karakozov
attempted to assassinate Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
1866 Apr 17, Ernest Henry
Starling, British physiologist, was born.
1866 Apr 21, Jane Walsh Carlyle
(b.1801), the wife of Scottish essayist Thomas Carlyle, died.
1866 May 1, In San Francisco
Robert B. Woodward (d.1879) opened his Woodward’s Gardens amusement
park with a 25-cent admission. He had bought property and a stately
mansion of US Sen. John C. Fremont located between Mission and
Valencia to the east and west and 13th and 15th streets to the north
and south. In 1873 the park added the nation’s first aquarium.
(SFC, 10/30/12, p.E6)(SSFC, 7/19/15, p.F3)(SFC,
1866 May 2, Jesse Lazear,
American physician and researcher of yellow fever.
1866 May 3, The first submarine
in the Americas, a 39-foot vessel designed in the 1860s by German
immigrant Karl Flach, sank in the Bay of Valparaiso off the coast of
Chile. The crew, two Chileans, two Frenchmen and seven Germans,
including Flach and his 15-year-old son, all died. In 2007 a search
team found the vessel.
1866 May 5, Villagers in
Waterloo, NY, held their 1st Memorial Day service. In 1966 Pres.
Johnson gave Waterloo, NY, the distinction of holding the 1st
Memorial Day. On Apr 13, 1862, volunteers led by Sarah J. Evans had
paid homage to the graves of Civil War soldiers in the Washington
(SFC, 5/26/03, p.A2)
1866 Mar 6, Rev Dr William
Whewell (b.1794), an English polymath, died in Cambridge. He was
also a scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian,
historian of science and was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge.
One of Whewell's greatest gifts to science was his wordsmithing. He
often corresponded with many in his field and helped them come up
with new terms for their discoveries. Whewell contributed the terms
scientist, physicist, linguistics, consilience, catastrophism,
uniformitarianism, and astigmatism amongst others; Whewell suggested
the terms electrode, ion, dielectric, anode, and cathode to Michael
1866 May 7, German premier Otto
von Bismarck was seriously wounded in an assassination attempt.
1866 May 11, Confederate
President Jefferson Davis became a free man after spending two years
in prison for his role in the American Civil War.
1866 May 11, The Overend
Gurney, known as the 'bankers bank,' suspended payments and went
into liquidation owing £11 million to shareholders and the public.
Overend Gurney began collapsing in the early months of 1866. The
bank run on Overend Gurney was the last in the UK until 2007. The
Bank of England’s role as a lender of last resort helped to
establish sterling as an international currency.
9/22/07, p.16)(Econ, 1/31/15, p.62)
1886 Mar 14, The SS Oregon
collided with an unidentified schooner and sank eight hours later
only a few hours from her scheduled arrival in New York City. One
person was drowned during evacuation efforts. It had sailed from
Liverpool on 6 March 1886 with 852 people on board, 647 passengers
and a crew of 205, along with 1,835 tons of cargo and 598 bags of
mail, under the command of Captain Phillip Cottier. In 2019 a bottle
of ale from the ship was used to develop a new brew.
1866 May 16, US Congress
authorized the minting of the first five-cent piece, also known as
the "Shield nickel." The Shield nickel was quite effective in
replacing the half dime, as its base metal composition discouraged
hoarding and caused it to circulate very widely.
1866 May 16, Charles Elmer
Hires invented root beer.
1866 May 17, Erik Alfred Leslie
Satie, French composer, was born.
1866 May 18, French Government
of De Putte resigned.
1866 May 24, Founders of UC
Berkeley named their town after Bishop George Berkeley due to a line
Berkeley’s poem: On the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in
America: "Westward the course of empire takes its way."
(SFC, 3/28/03, p.A3)
1866 May 29, US Gen'l. Winfield
Scott (79) died at West Point, New York. Union General Winfield
Scott was the originator of the military strategy known as the
"Anaconda Plan." Scott's plan for defeating the Confederacy featured
a naval blockade of the South designed to slowly "strangle" the
fledgling country. The Union did impose such a blockade, but by 1861
Scott was considered too old to lead the federal armies and he
retired that November. Although a Virginian born on June 13, 1786,
Scott-popularly called "Old Fuss and Feathers"-remained loyal to the
Union and its army he commanded when war broke out.
1866 May 30, Bederich Smetana's
Opera "The Bartered Bride" premiered in Prague.
1866 Jun 2, Renegade Irish
Fenians surrendered to US forces.
1866 Jun 7, Irish Fenians
raided Pigeon Hill, Quebec.
1866 Jun 8, Prussia annexed the
region of Holstein.
1866 Jun 15, Prussia attacked
1866 Jun 18, Both Houses of the
US Congress passed the 14th Amendment. The Radical Republicans were
satisfied that they had secured civil rights for blacks, but were
disappointed that the amendment would not also secure political
rights for blacks; in particular, the right to vote. Secretary of
State William H. Seward issued an unconditional certificate of
ratification, dated July 28, 1868, declaring the Fourteenth
Amendment to have been duly ratified by the requisite three-fourths
of the states.
1866 Jun 20, Lord George ESMH
Carnarvon, Egyptologist (Tutankhamen), was born in England.
1866 Jun 27, The Battle of
Langensalza was fought near Bad Langensalza in what is now modern
Germany, between the Kingdom of Hanover (Hanoverians) and the
Prussians. The Hanoverians won the battle but were then surrounded
by a larger and reinforced Prussian army, and, unable to link up
with their Bavarian allies to the south, they surrendered. Hanover
was annexed after losing a war with Prussia.
1866 Jun 29, England’s Reform
League, organized a demonstration in Trafalgar Square. Its size and
violence surprised everyone. A second meeting on 2 July was even
more heated. The Trafalgar Square meetings were followed by a giant
meeting held at Hyde Park on 23 July.
1866 Jul 4, Firecracker thrown
in wood started a fire that destroyed Portland, Me.
1866 Jul 10, The Indelible
pencil was patented by Edson P. Clark of Northampton, Mass.
1866 Jul 13, Great Eastern
began a two week voyage to complete a 12-year effort to lay
telegraph cable across the Atlantic between Britain and the United
States. Massachusetts merchant and financier Cyrus West Field first
proposed laying a 2,000-mile copper cable along the ocean bottom
from Newfoundland to Ireland in 1854, but the first three attempts
ended in broken cables and failure. Field’s persistence finally paid
off in July 1866, when Great Eastern, the largest ship then afloat,
successfully laid the cable along the level, sandy bottom of the
North Atlantic. As messages traveled between Europe and America in
hours rather than weeks, Cyrus Field was showered with honors. Among
the honors was this commemorative print referring to the cable as
the Eighth Wonder of the World.
(HN, 7/13/98)(HNPD, 7/29/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)
1866 Jul 21, A cholera-epidemic
killed hundreds in London.
1866 Jul 23, Francesco Cilea,
composer, was born.
1866 Jul 24, Tennessee became
the first state to be readmitted to the Union after the Civil War.
1866 Jul 25, Ulysses S. Grant
was named General of the Army, the first officer to hold the rank.
1866 Jul 27, Cyrus W. Field
finished laying out the first successful underwater telegraph cable
between North America and Europe. A previous cable in 1858 burned
out after only a few weeks of use.
1866 Jul 28, Beatrix Potter
(d.1943), English author of children's stories (The Tale of Peter
Rabbit), was born.
1866 Jul 28, Metric system
became a legal measurement system in US. It defined the meter as
exactly 39.37 inches and was later superceded.
(SC, 7/28/02)(SFC, 10/13/03, p.E2)
1866 Jul 29, Barbe-Nicole
Clicquot (b.1777), head of the Clicquot champagne business, died.
She was widowed at age 27 and transformed her husbands struggling
business into one of the great champagne houses of France. In 2008
Tilar J. Mazzeo authored “The Widow Clicquot."
1866 Jul, The Sioux war on the
Powder river commenced. When it commenced General St. George Cook,
in command at Omaha, forbade within the limits of his command the
sale of arms and ammunition to Indians.
1866 Aug 8, African-American
Matthew Alexander Henson was born in Maryland. He and four Inuits
accompanied U.S. Naval Commander Robert E. Peary when he planted the
U.S. flag at the North Pole on April 6, 1909. Henson became an
Arctic expert during Peary's first two failed expeditions. By the
third attempt, which began in July 1908, Henson's strength,
knowledge of the Eskimo language and dog driving skills made him an
essential member of the team. Whether Peary's party actually reached
the North Pole or missed it by as much as 60 miles due to a
navigational miscalculation remains controversial to this day.
1866 Aug 11, The world's 1st
roller rink opened at Newport, RI.
1866 Aug 12, Jacinto Benavente
y Martinez, Spanish dramatist (Nobel 1922), was born.
1866 Aug 20, President Andrew
Johnson formally declared the Civil War over, even though the
fighting had stopped months earlier. After the Civil War Congress
voted to give freed slaves 40 acres and a mule but Pres. Johnson
killed the plan with a veto.
(AP, 8/20/97)(SFC, 6/29/99, p.A7)
1866 Aug 23, Treaty of Prague
ended the Austro-Prussian war.
1866 Sep 1, James J. Corbett,
"Gentleman Jim," heavyweight champion boxer (1892-97), was born. He
was the boxer who beat the legendary John L. Sullivan. After his
boxing career he became an actor and lecturer.
(MC, 9/1/02)(SC, 9/1/02)
1866 Sep 1, Manuelito, the last
Navaho chief, turned himself in at Fort Wingate, New Mexico.
1866 Sep 6, Frederick Douglass
became the 1st US black delegate to a national convention.
1866 Sep 8, Siegfried Sassoon,
British author and poet famous for his anti-war writing about World
War I, was born. His work included "Counterattack."
(HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)
1866 Sep 12, The first
burlesque show opened in New York City (NYC). The show was a four
act performance called "The Black Crow", running for 475
performances and made a reported $1.3 million for its producers.
1866 Sep 21, Charles Jean Henri
Nicolle, bacteriologist, was born. He discovered that typhus fever
is transmitted by body louse and was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1928.
(HN, 9/21/98)(MC, 9/21/01)
1866 Sep 21, H.G. Wells
(d.1946), English novelist and historian was born as Herbert George
Wells in Bromley, Kent, England. His work included the novel
"Marriage" and "The Time Machine" (1895). The science fiction writer
is best known for "The Time Machine" (1895), "The Invisible Man" and
"The War of the Worlds."
1866 Sep 25, (Leonard W) Jerome
Park opened in Bronx for horse racing.
1866 Oct 2, J. Osterhoudt
patented a tin can with key opener.
1866 Oct 6, The Reno
brothers—Frank, John, Simeon and William—committed the country’s
first train robbery near Seymore, In., netting $10,000.
1866 Oct 15, A great fire in
Quebec destroyed 2,500 houses.
1866 Oct 30, Jesse James gang
robbed a bank in Lexington, Missouri, of $2000.
1866 Nov 1, Belle Starr
[née Myra Maybelle Shirley], “Bandit Queen" and wild woman of the
west, married James C. Reed (d.1874) in Collins County, Texas.
1866 Nov 1, 1st Civil Rights
1866 Nov 12, Sun Yat-Sen
(d.1925), Chinese statesman and revolutionary leader, was born
(trad). Born to a Christian peasant near Macao, he attended an
Anglican grammar school in Hawaii, and went on to graduate from Hong
Kong School of Medicine in 1892. While there he became involved in
revolutionary activities and was forced to leave China in 1895. He
organized a revolutionary secret society in 1905. In 1911 he
returned to China after a successful revolution in the south and
became provisional president of a republican government there before
stepping aside for Yuan Shih-k’ai. Sun formed the nationalist
Kuomintang party in 1912. "To understand is hard. Once one
understands, action is easy."
(HFA, ‘96, p.18)(AP, 6/22/97)(HNQ, 6/3/98)
1866 Nov 17, Ambroise Thomas'
opera "Mignon" was produced (Paris).
1866 Nov 19, The sailing ship
Coya, a Welsh coal ship out of Sidney with passengers bound for SF,
wrecked near Pigeon Point, Ca. 26 people perished and 3 survived.
(SFC, 8/10/02, p.A13)
1866 Nov 20, Pierre Lalemont
patented a rotary crank bicycle.
1866 Nov 28, Henry Bacon,
architect (Lincoln Memorial), was born.
1866 Nov 30, Work in
Chicago began on 1st US underwater highway tunnel.
1866 Dec 4, Wassily Kandinsky
(d.1944), Russian artist, was born. He is credited with the
invention of abstract art.
(WUD, 1994, p.778)(WSJ, 8/13/99, p.W10)(HN,
1866 Dec 6, Chicago’s water
supply tunnel into Lake Michigan was completed.
1866 Dec 14, Roger Fry, English
art critic, was born.
1866- Dec 20-21, The Lakota
Sioux Indians called this night "The moon when the Deer shed their
horns." A bright full moon occurred due to a confluence of 3
celestial events. The moon reached perigee with Earth on the
solstice with the sun at its closest point. The event occurred again
on Dec 22, 1999.
(WSJ, 12/16/99, p.A1)
1866 Dec 21, Indians led by Red
Cloud and Crazy Horse killed Captain William J. Fetterman and 79
other men who had ventured out from Fort Phil Kearny to cut wood.
U.S. Army Captain William J. Fetterman once boasted, "Give me 80 men
and I'll march through the whole Sioux nation!" When Lakota warriors
under the overall leadership of Chief Red Cloud gathered around Fort
Phil Kearny (in what is now Wyoming), Fetterman got command of his
80 men. Disobeying the orders of his commander, Colonel Henry B
Carrington, not to proceed beyond the Lodge Trail Ridge, Fetterman
pursued a band of retreating Indians--and rode right into a waiting
trap, allegedly laid by the Ogallala warrior Crazy Horse. Fetterman,
his executive officer and 78 troopers were wiped out.
(HNPD, 12/21/98)(HN, 12/21/98)
1866 Dec 26, In San Francisco
Lazarus Moses was fined $300 for selling goods stolen by the Hoodlum
1866 Dec 26, Brig. Gen. Philip
St. George Cooke, head of the Department of the Platte receives word
of the Dec 21 Fetterman Fight in Powder River County in the Dakota
1866 Albert Bierstadt created
his painting "Storm in the Rocky Mountains: Mt. Rosalie."
(WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)
1866 Gustave Courbet, French
artist, painted "The Waterspout" and “Origin of the World."
(WSJ, 11/28/06, p.D8)
1866 Edouard Manet painted
"Young Lady in 1866." The painting helped pave the way for
(WSJ, 8/3/01, p.W2)
1866 Jean-Francois Millet
painted "Flight of Crows."
(WSJ, 7/12/99, p.A26)
1866 Louisa May Alcott wrote
her novel "A Long Fatal Love Chase." It was then deemed too
sensational for publication.
(SFC, 4/30/96, p. B-3)
1866 Samuel Baker authored "The
Albert N’yanza, Great Basin of the Nile, and Explorations of the
(ON, 10/01, p.12)
1866 Dostoevsky wrote his
"Crime and Punishment."
(WSJ, 3/28/95, p.A-24)
1866 Edouard Seguin
(1812-1880), French physician, authored “Idiocy and Its Treatment."
He had established schools in France and the US for the
intellectually handicapped, which stressed the importance of
developing self-reliance and independence.
1866 Bedrich Smetana wrote his
opera "The Bartered Bride."
1866 William Hammond Hall began
to design San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park.
(OAH, 2/05, p.A10)
1866 San Francisco established
The Almshouse on the grounds of what later became Laguna Honda
Hospital, providing shelter for the city’s unemployed and homeless
(SFC, 8/26/08, p.B5)
1866 In San Francisco the
Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur opened Notre Dame school across the
street from the Mission Dolores.
(SFC, 3/18/05, p.F2)
1866 Swiss-born Antoine Borel
(1840-1915) took over his brother’s SF mercantile firm, Alfred Borel
& Co., when Alfred returned to Europe. Antoine later became
director of the Bank of California (1882-1909), held directorships
in the SF Dry Dock Co., the Golden Gate Milk Co. and the Spring
Valley Water Co. He assumed the position of Swiss consul in 1885.
(Ind, 4/5/03, 5A)
1866 In San Francisco Levi
Strauss established his dry goods company headquarters at 14-16
(SSFC, 3/24/19, p.D4)
1866 In San Francisco by this
time Lawrence & Houseworth, opticians, had established their
firm as the most prominent publisher on the West Coast. Their
catalog included some 1200 images.
(SFEC, 5/23/99, DB p.42)
1866 Henry Casebolt, San
Francisco transit tycoon, built a house at 2727 Pierce St.
(SFC, 5/5/07, p.B3)
1866 Mary Ellen Pleasant was
kicked off a streetcar in San Francisco and began arguing against
laws prohibiting black people from riding them.
(SFC, 2/16/09, p.B2)
1866 The word "ecology" was
coined by German zoologist Ernst Haeckel from the Greek oikos, for
house, and logos, for discourse. It meant the study of the relations
between living organisms and their environment.
(NH, 2/97, p.4)
1866 The Boston Yacht Club was
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T7)
1866 The New York Yacht Club
hosted the 1st-ever transatlantic race.
(Econ, 5/28/05, p.35)
1866 A group of NY sportsmen
purchased some 4,000 acres on Long Island centered around Snedecor’s
Tavern and established the Southside Sportsmen’s Club. Around 1963
the land was turned into a state preserve.
(WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D6)
1866 The veteran organization
Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was formed in Springfield,
Illinois, in 1866. The patriotic organization of U.S. Civil War
veterans who served in Federal forces was formed to protect the
interests of the veterans. The GAR had a peak membership of more
than 400,000 in 1890 and was a powerful political influence. The
organization was dissolved in 1956.
1866 The Ku Klux Klan is
generally acknowledged to have started in Pulaski, Tenn., in this
year. [see Dec 24, 1865]
(WSJ, 7/15/96, p.A1)
1866 Pres. Andrew Johnson
signed an executive order that removed the Shoalwater Bay Indians in
Washington state from their villages and onto a 1-sq. mile
reservation. By 2000 erosion took away over half the tribal land and
miscarriages stood at 4 times the expected rate.
(SFEC, 3/26/00, p.A8)
1866 America abrogated a trade
agreement with Britain. Lord Elgin had negotiated a reciprocity
agreement with the British North American colonies in 1854.
(Econ, 11/26/16, p.18)
1866 The US coined some silver
dollars without the inscription "In God We Trust." Only 2 coins were
known to exist in 2004. In Oct 1867, one was stolen along with some
7,000 other rare coins from the Florida collection of Willis H. du
Pont. It turned up in 2004.
(ST, 3/2/04, p.A8)
1866 The US government bought
land around northern California’s Golden Gate for harbor defense.
The area was turned into the Old Lime Point military reservation.
(SFC, 6/13/08, p.A22)
1866 Freed Cherokee slaves were
adopted into the tribe under a treaty with the US government. In
2007 the Cherokee Nation voted to revoke citizenship to descendants
of the slaves. In 2017 a US district judge ruled that Cherokee
Freedmen have a right to tribal citizenship under the 1866 treaty.
(SFC, 3/5/07, p.A2)(SFC, 9/1/17, p.A6)
1866 In Mississippi a fifth of
the state’s revenues were spent on artificial arms and legs for
(SFEC, 7/6/97, Z1 p.6)
1866 A white mob rushed a
courthouse in Carroll County, Miss., after 2 black men filed a
lawsuit against a white man. Over 20 blacks were murdered.
(WSJ, 10/17/08, p.A14)
1866 Western Union introduced
the ticker system to supply New York Stock Exchange prices to
brokers around the country.
(SFC, 2/2/06, p.A13)
1866 The Hopland, Ca., hops
industry began. The damp soils of the Russian River floodplains were
suitable for the cultivation of hops, whose flowers determine the
bitterness and aromatic properties of beer.
(WCG, 7/95, p.91)
1866 Oliver F. Winchester, a
Connecticut shirt maker, began making Winchester rifles in New
Haven, spearheading the development of rifles for multiple shots.
(WSJ, 6/15/06, p.B2)
1866 The Moretti and Respini
families settled coastal property north of Santa Cruz, Ca., and
developed their Coast Dairies.
(SFC, 7/28/06, p.A1)
1866 Pacific Rolling Mills
opened the first big iron and steel mill in the West at what became
known as Pier 70 in SF.
(SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A11)
1866 The railroad land grant
corporations in Montana, led by J.P. Morgan and James Hill, grabbed
off 40 million acres.
(SFC, 4/28/96, B-9)
1866 When the transcontinental
railroad reached Abilene, Kansas, Chicago livestock buyer J.G. McCoy
saw the possibilities of linking the unwanted herds of Texas
longhorns with the meat-packing centers of Chicago. McCoy built a
series of holding pens in Abilene and convinced south Texas ranchers
to drive the cattle north along the Chisholm Trail to the railhead.
1866 Jasper Daniel (Jack
Daniel) started distilling whiskey in Lynchburg, Tenn.
(SFC, 2/04/04, p.D2)
1866 James Vernor, a Detroit
pharmacist, began marketing a new soft drink.
(SFEC, 2/21/99, Z1 p.8)
1866 Mendel published two
mathematical papers wherein he established that the offspring of a
pair of different plants would evince the working of simple
1866 Richard Owen published his
monograph on the Dodo bird: "Memoir on the Dodo (Didus ineptus)."
(NH, 11/96, p.23,28)
1866 Weather records began to
be officially kept.
(SFC, 1/23/99, p.E4)
1866 The first 124 leprosy
patients were dropped off on the Kalaupapa peninsula of the Hawaiian
island of Molokai.
(SFEC, 9/8/96, T3)
1866 The Calaveras skull, from
a mining shaft in Altaville near Angels Camp in Calaveras County,
Ca., was one of the most notorious archaeological hoaxes perpetrated
in the nineteenth century.
1866 Colonel John O'Neill of
the Fenian Brotherhood--formerly of the U.S. cavalry--led a force of
Irish-Americans against this British-ruled Canada. A year after
America's Civil War ended, scores of Irish Americans who had once
fought for the Union or the Confederacy joined forces against a new
1866 The West Pier at Brighton,
England, was built by Eugenius Birch. It was closed in 1975.
1866 In England Hyde Park was
trashed by citizens who were outraged that it could no longer be
used for public demonstrations or speech. The government relaxed
restrictions against free speech and orators began preaching at
Speakers Corner near the Marble Arch in Hyde Park. [see 1872]
(BS, 5/3/98, p.1R)(SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)
1866 Henry Wickham (1846-1928)
ventured from Britain to South America hoping to shoot exotic birds
and ship home feathers for lady’s hats. This venture failed as the
birds exploded from the rifle shots. He returned to the Amazon
region and in 1876 gathered seeds of the Hevea brasiliensis tree,
which produced latex. Less than 4% of some 70,000 seeds germinated,
but this was enough to ship seedlings to Ceylon, India, Malaya and
Singapore and begin a global rubber plantation boom.
(WSJ, 2/27/08, p.D10)
1866 Denmark passed a law
(SFC, 2/24/17, p.A2)
1866 French colonial officials
sent an expedition to explore the Mekong River and check its
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)
1866 The American University of
Beirut (AUB) was founded and centered its teaching on the American
liberal arts tradition.
1866 Diamonds were discovered
in South Africa. [see 1867]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1866 In Sweden Alfred Nobel
invented dynamite, a safe and manageable form of nitroglycerin. A
pacifist by nature, Nobel hoped that the destructive power of his
invention would bring an end to wars.
1866 Venice joined the Kingdom
(WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)
1866-1867 Mohammad Afzal occupied Kabul,
Afghanistan, and proclaimed himself Amir.
1866-1868 When the US government tried to force
the Sioux back to Fort Laramie, the Indians responded with attacks
that culminated in Red Cloud’s War of this period. Red Cloud’s War
of 1866-‘68 was waged in opposition to the development by the U.S.
government of a trail through Wyoming and Montana to the Montana
gold camps. The two-year war was waged between the Lakota Sioux, led
by Ogallala chief Red Cloud, and the U.S. Army. On December 21,
1866, the Sioux won a major victory, wiping out the entire command
of 80 men under Capt. William J. Fetterman. The war ended with the
signing of the Laramie Treaty, which included the closure of the
Bozeman Trail and U.S. abandonment of three forts.
(HT, 3/97, p.43)(HNQ, 8/22/98)
1866-1886 Dr. John Kirk, a Scottish botanist,
served as the British representative on the island of Zanzibar. He
made great effort to abolish the local slave trade. In 2011 Alastair
Hazell authored “The Last Slave Market: Dr John Kirk and the
Struggle to End the African slave Trade.
(Econ, 8/6/11, p.72)
1866-1890 During the Indian Wars, the black
Buffalo Soldiers of the 9th Cavalry represented 20% of Army
(SFEC, 4/5/98, p.C14)
1866-1926 Aby Warburg, a wealthy independent
scholar. He later authored "The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity."
(SFEC, 12/12/99, BR p.10)
1866-1939 Philander Chase Johnson, American
author: "Cheer up! The worst is yet to come!"
1866-1944 George Ade, American humorist.
(AHD, 1971, p.15)
1866-1944 Vasily Kandinsky, Russian born painter.
He is considered the originator of abstract art. He lived with
painter Gabriele Munter in Munich from 1903 until the outbreak of WW
I when he was forced to leave Germany. His work includes
"Composition VII" (1913).
(WUD, 1994, p.778)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.9)
1866-1947 Richard Le Gallienne, English poet and
essayist: "It is only on paper that one moralizes—just where one
1866-1954 Ernest Dimnet, French priest, lecturer
and author: "The happiness of most people we know is not ruined by
great catastrophes or fatal errors, but by the repetition of slowly
destructive little things."
1866-1959 Abraham Flexner, American educator and
author: "Comfort, opportunity, number and size are not synonymous