Timeline 1867-1870

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1867        Jan 8, Legislation gave suffrage to DC blacks, despite Pres. Johnson's veto.
    (MC, 1/8/02)
1867        Jan 8, Japan~ez_rsquo~s Emperor Osahito died. The Tokugawa Shogunate gave up power as a revolutionary movement overthrew Shogun Iyesada. Rebels introduced a representative government under the name of Emperor Maiji (1852-1912).
    (www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/states/japan/japan.html)(ON, 11/04, p.12)

1867        Jan 14, Jean-August-Dominique Ingres, a French neo-classical painter, and one of the major portrait painters of the 19th century, died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/cheny)

1867        Feb 7, Laura Ingalls Wilder, author, was born. She wrote "Little House in the Big Woods" which was basis for television's "Little House on the Prairie."
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1867        Feb 11, August W. Messer, German philosopher, educator, psychologist, was born.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1867        Feb 12, A committee of students at the Univ. of Michigan presented the colors Azure blue and Maize as the emblematic colors for the school.
    (MT, Fall ~ez_lsquo~96, p.10)

1867        Feb 13, Johann Strauss' "Blue Danube" waltz premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1867        Feb 14, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Co. issued its 1st policy.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1867        Feb 15, Fyodor Dostoevsky married his stenographer Anna Snitkina in St. Petersburg.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.45)

1867        Feb 17, William Cadbury, chocolate manufacturer, was born.
    (HN, 2/17/98)
1867        Feb 17, The 1st ship passed through the Suez Canal.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1867        Feb 21, Otto Hermann Kahn (d.1934), banker who the organized Metropolitan Opera Co, was born.
    (MC, 2/21/02)(WSJ, 8/13/02, p.D4)

1867        Mar 1, Most of Nebraska became the 37th state. It was expanded later.
    (AP, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)
1867        Mar 2, The first Reconstruction Act was passed by Congress.
    (HN, 3/2/99)
1867        Mar 2, Congress abolished peonage in New Mexico.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1867        Mar 2, US Congress created the Department of Education.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1867        Mar 2, Howard University, Washington DC, was incorporated. General Oliver Otis Howard, Union Civil War commander, co-founded Howard Univ.
    (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/nov20.html)(ON, 4/07, p.8)
1867        Mar 2, Jesse James-gang robbed a bank in Savannah MO, 1 dead.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1867        Mar 5, An abortive Fenian uprising against English rule took place in Ireland. The unsuccessful rebellion by the Irish Republican Brotherhood, known as the Fenians, gave Australia it final generation of convicts. The 1999 book "The Great Shame and the Triumph of the Irish in the English-Speaking World" by Thomas Keneally tells the story of the Irish shipped to Australia.
    (AP, 3/5/98)(SFEC, 9/26/99, BR p.1,6)

1867        Mar 11, Great Mauna Loa volcano eruption in Hawaii.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1867        Mar 23, Congress passed a 2nd Reconstruction Act over President Johnson's veto.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1867        Mar 23, Charles Deas (b.1818), American painter, died in NYC. He was noted for his oil paintings of Native Americans and fur trappers of the mid-19th century. At age 29, he went insane and lived out the rest of his life in mental institutions.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Deas)(http://tinyurl.com/cmcbjjn)

1867        Mar 25, Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore, was born.
    (HN, 3/25/01)
1867        Mar 25, Arturo Toscanini (d.1957), Italian-US temperamental conductor (NBC), was born in Parma, Italy.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1867        Mar 29, Cy Young, major league baseball pitcher with the most wins (509 or 511 total) , was born.
    (HN, 3/29/02)
1867        Mar 29, Congress approved the Lincoln Memorial.
    (MC, 3/29/02)
1867        Mar 29, The British Parliament passed the North America Act (later known as the Constitution Act)  to create the Dominion of Canada.
    (HN, 3/29/98)(AP, 3/29/07)

1867        Mar 30, US Secretary of State William H. Seward signed an agreement with Russia~ez_rsquo~s Baron Edouard de Stoeckl to purchase the territory of Alaska for $7.2 million, two cents an acre, a deal roundly ridiculed as "Seward's Folly," "Seward's icebox," and President Andrew Johnson's "polar bear garden."
    (AP, 3/30/97)(HN, 3/30/01)(Reuters, 5/24/11)

1867        Apr 1, Blacks voted in the municipal election in Tuscumbia, Alabama.
    (OTD)
1867               Apr 1,  The International Exhibition, Exposition Universelle, opened in Paris.
    (OTD)(ON, 9/06, p.11)
1867        Apr 1, Singapore, Penang & Malacca became British crown colonies.
    (OTD)

1867        Apr 9, The treaty authorizing the purchase was ratified. Alaska became a state in 1959. The per-acre purchase price for Alaska paid by the U.S. to Russia in 1867 was two cents. Through the negotiations of Secretary of State William H. Seward the purchase of the 591,000 square miles (more than 375 million acres) of Russian America territory cost $7.2 million.
    (HNQ, 9//98)

1867        Apr 10, A.E. (George William Russell), Irish poet and mystic, was born.
    (HN, 4/10/01)

1867        Apr 16, Wilbur Wright, designer, builder and flyer of first airplane, was born.
    (HN, 4/16/98)

1867        Apr 24, Fannie Thomas, oldest known American (113 years, 273 days at death), was born.
    (HN, 4/24/98)
1867        Apr 24, Black demonstrators staged ride-ins on Richmond, Va., streetcars.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1867        Apr 25, Tokyo was opened for foreign trade.
    (HN, 4/25/98)

1867        Apr 27, Charles Gounod's Opera "Romeo et Juliette" was produced in Paris.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1867        Apr, George N. Jaquith was killed during an expedition against the Bannock Indians in the Steen Mountains of Oregon.
    (SFC, 8/27/98, p.A9)

1867        May 1, Reconstruction in the South began with black voter registration.
    (HN, 5/1/98)

1867        May 5, Nellie Bly, [Elizabeth Cochran Seaman], journalist, was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1867        May 5, At the Battle of Puebla, the Mexican Juarez forces under Mariano Escobedo defeated Maximilian's forces at Gueratero.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(PCh, 1992, p.505)

1867        May 13, Frank Brangwyn, painter, muralist, cartoonist (Willam Morris), was born in Wales.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1867        May 14, Kurt Eisner, German premier of revolutionary Bavaria (1918-19), was born.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1867        May 20, British parliament rejected John Stuart Mill~ez_rsquo~s law on women suffrage.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1867        May 21, Frances Densmore, ethnomusicologist, was born.
    (HN, 5/21/01)

1867        May 23, Jesse James gang robbed a bank in Richmond, Missouri, with 2 killed and $4,000 taken.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1867        May 26, Mary, queen of Great Britain-North Ireland, was born.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1867        May 27, Arnold Bennett (d.1931), English novelist, playwright and critic, was born. His books included ~ez_ldquo~Riceyman Steps~ez_rdquo~ (1923) in which he probes the unsettling and symbolic depths of a marriage that becomes too close.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_Bennett)

1867        May 30, Arthur Vining Davis, American industrialist, was born. His foundation later gave money to the arts.
    (HN, 5/30/99)

1867        Jun 4, Carl Gustaf Mannerheim, president of Finland, was born.
    (HN, 6/4/98)

1867        Jun 8, Frank Lloyd Wright (d.1959), American master architect and builder, was born. He created "organic architecture" which included the Guggenheim Museum in New York and the Robie House in Pennsylvania. WUD says 1869 for birthdate. "Give me the luxuries of life and I will willingly do without the necessities."
    (CFA, '96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.1647)(HN, 6/8/99)(AP, 5/6/01)

1867        Jun 11, Charles Fabry, found ozone layer in upper atmosphere, was born.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1867        Jun 17, John Robert Gregg, inventor (shorthand), was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1867        Jun 19, The first running of the Belmont Stakes horserace in the US. It later became part of the Triple Crown. Oldest of the three U.S. horse races that constitute the Triple Crown. The Belmont is named after August Belmont. The stakes is held in early June at Belmont Park, near Garden City, Long Island; the course is 1.5 mi (2,400 m).
    (HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.32)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.8)(YB)
1867        Jun 19, Mexican Emperor Maximillian (35) was executed on the orders of Benito Juarez by a firing squad in Queretaro. The event was immortalized in a painting by Manet.
    (HN, 6/19/98)(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T10)(PCh, 1992, p.505)(WSJ, 5/5/00, p.17)

1867        Jun 20, Pres. Andrew Johnson announced the purchase of Alaska.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1867        Jun 25, The 1st barbed wire was patented by Lucien B. Smith of Ohio. [see Illinois, Oct 27, 1873]
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1867        Jun 27, The Bank of California opened its doors.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1867         Jun 28, Luigi Pirandello, Italian playwright (Six Characters in Search of an Author), was born, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in 1934.
    (HN, 6/28/01)(MC, 6/28/02)

1867        Jun, 2,000 Chinese workers on the western railroad struck because they had not been paid in weeks. They also demanded that whippings stop and that hours spent in hot tunnels be limited to 8 hours per day. Central Pacific Railroad co-founder, Charles Crocker, who was in charge of construction, cut off the striker~ez_rsquo~s food supply and threatened to fire the workers. The strike collapsed after a week.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)

1867        Jul 1, Canada became a self-governing dominion of Great Britain as the British North America Act took effect. The Dominion of Canada included New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec. A dispute with Manitoba on territory in northwest Ontario was settled in 1889 on behalf of Ontario. John Alexander Macdonald became the 1st prime minister.
    (AP, 7/1/97)(www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/constitution/constitution13_e.html)

1867        Jul 2, The 1st US elevated railroad began service in NYC.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1867        Jul 5, Andrew Ellicott Douglass, astronomer and archaeologist, was born.
    (HN, 7/5/01)
1867        Jul 5, James M. Wayne (b.1770), US Supreme Court Justice, died after serving over 32 years.
    (AP, 7/24/98)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/23/)

1867        Jul 16, D.R. Averill patented a ready-mixed paint.
    (MC, 7/16/02)
1867        Jul 16, Joseph Monier patented reinforced concrete.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1867        Jul 19, The US enacted reconstruction.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1867        Jul 20, Imperial troops in Guise, China, killed 20,000 Mao rebels.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1867        Jul 25, President Andrew Johnson signed an act creating the territory of Wyoming. [see Jul 25, 1868]
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1867        Jul 27, Enrique Granados, composer (Maria del Carmen), was born in Lerida, Spain.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1867        Jul 31, S.S. Kresge, American businessman who owned five-and-ten stores across the country, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1867        Jul, In Fiji Rev. Thomas Baker was murdered and eaten by cannibals at Nubutatau, a remote community high in the hills of the South Pacific island of Viti Levu. Baker had made the mistake of touching a chief~ez_rsquo~s head. Residents later complained of bad luck and called in descendants to lift a curse.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Baker_%28missionary%29)(AP, 11/11/03)(SSFC, 8/14/11, p.N2)

1867        Aug 3, Stanley Earl Baldwin, (C) British Prime Minister  (1923-24, 1924-29, 1935-37), was born.
    (HN, 8/3/98)(SC, 8/3/02)

1867        Aug 12, Edith Hamilton, US writer (Mythology), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)
1867        Aug 12, President Andrew Johnson sparked a move to impeach him as he defied Congress by suspending Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton.
    (AP, 8/12/97)

1867        Aug 14, John Galsworthy (d.1933), English novelist and dramatist (Forsyth Saga, Nobel 1932), was born in England. He was reported to have thrown a brick through a glass window in order to be arrested so that he could have time to write. His play "Justice" was the result of this experience.
    (WUD, 1994, p.581)(SFC, 12/5/98, p.E4)(MC, 8/14/02)

1867        Aug 25, Michael Faraday (b.1791), discoverer of electromagnetic induction (1831), died. In 2004 James Hamilton authored ~ez_ldquo~A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution.~ez_rdquo~
    (www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/faraday_michael.shtml)(WSJ, 12/14/04, p.D10)

1867        Aug 28, The US occupied the Midway Islands in Pacific.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, Z1 p.8)(MC, 8/28/01)

1867        Aug 31, [Pierre-]Charles Baudelaire (46), French poet (Journaux Intimes), died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1867        Sep 5, The first shipment of cattle left Abilene, Kansas, on a Union Pacific train headed to Chicago.
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1867        Sep 7, President Andrew Johnson extended amnesty to all but a few of the leaders of the Confederacy.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1867        Sep 9, Luxembourg gained independence.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1867        Sep 13, Gen. E.R.S. Canby ordered South Carolina courts to impanel blacks as jurors.
    (MC, 9/13/01)( www.tsha.utexas.edu)

1867        Sep 14, Charles Dana Gibson, illustrator, was born. He was the creator of the ~ez_lsquo~Gibson Girl.~ez_rsquo~
    (HN, 9/14/00)

1867        Sep 25, Congress created the 1st all black university, Howard Univ. in Wash DC.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1867        Oct 3, Elias Howe, one of the inventors of the sewing machine, died. In 1968 Grace Rogers Cooper authored ""The Invention of the Sewing Machine."
    (ON, 11/00, p.9)(HNQ, 2/27/02)

1867        Oct 9, The Russians formally transferred Alaska to the US. The U.S. had bought Alaska for $7.2 million in gold.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1867        Oct 13, Pierre Bonnard (d.1947), French painter and illustrator, was born. He wrote that he wanted to "show what one sees when one enters a room all of a sudden." He married Marthe de Meligny in 1925 and during his life painted some 384 images of her. In 1998 John Elderfield  and Sarah Whitfield published "Bonnard."
    (WUD, 1994, p.169)(WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)(SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.9)(MC, 10/13/01)

1867        Oct 18, The rules for American football were formulated at meeting in New York among delegates from Columbia, Rutgers, Princeton and Yale universities.
    (HN, 10/18/00)
1867        Oct 18, The United States took formal possession of Alaska from Russia.
    (AP, 10/18/97)

1867        Oct 21, Many leaders of the Kiowa, Comanche and Kiowa-Apache signed a peace treaty at Medicine Lodge, Kan. Comanche Chief Quanah Parker refused to accept the treaty terms.
    (HN, 10/21/98)

1867        Oct 26, Benjamin Guggenheim (d.1912), one of the 7 sons of Swiss-born industrialist Meyer Guggenheim, was born in Philadelphia. Sometimes called the "Silver Prince," Benjamin earned his nickname from his interests in that precious metal. He died aboard the Titanic.
    (www.biography.com/people/benjamin-guggenheim-283816)

1867        Oct 27, Garibaldi marched on Rome.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1867            Oct 31, William Parson (b.1800), 3rd Earl of Rosse and maker of large telescopes, died. Parsons, an Irish astronomer, built the largest reflecting telescope of the 19th century. He learned to polish metal mirrors (1827) and spent the next few years building a 36-inch telescope. He later completed a giant 72-inch telescope (1845) which he named "Leviathan," It remained the largest ever built until decades after his death. He was the first to resolve the spiral shape of objects, previously seen as only clouds, which were much later identified as galaxies independent of our own Milky Way galaxy and millions of light-years away. His first such sighting was made in 1845, and by 1850 he had discovered 13 more. In 1848, he found and named the Crab Nebula (he thought it resembled a crab), by which name it is still known.
    (www.todayinsci.com)

1867        Oct, Karl Marx (1818-1883), London-based German philosopher, sociologist, economic historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist, published Volume 1 of ~ez_ldquo~Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Okonomie~ez_rdquo~ (Capital: Critique of Political Economy). The first English edition was published in 1887. It is a critical analysis of capitalism as political economy, meant to reveal the economic laws of the capitalist mode of production, and how it was the precursor of the socialist mode of production. Volumes II and III remained mere manuscripts upon which Marx continued to work for the rest of his life and were published posthumously by Engels.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Marx)

1867        Nov 1, "Harpers Bazaar" published.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1867        Nov 7, Marie Curie (d.1934), Polish-born French scientist, was born in Warsaw as Marya Salomee Sklodowska. Her discoveries included polonium, radium, which she isolated from pitchblende, and the radioactivity of thorium. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1903 with her husband, and in chemistry in 1911. "You cannot hope to build a better world without improving the individuals. To that end each of us must work for his own improvement, and at the same time share a general responsibility for all humanity."
    (AHD, 1971, p.323)(AP, 10/26/98)(HN, 11/7/98)

1867        Nov 12, Mount Vesuvius erupted.
    (HN, 11/12/98)

1867        Nov 25, US Congress commission looked into impeachment of President Andrew Johnson.
    (MC, 11/25/01)
1867        Nov 25, Alfred Nobel patented dynamite.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1867        Nov 26, A refrigerated railroad car was patented by JB Sutherland of Detroit. [see Jan 16, 1868]
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1867        Dec 2, People waited in mile-long lines to hear Charles Dickens give his first reading in New York City.
    (HN, 12/2/00)

1867        Dec 4, The Order of Patrons of Husbandry, more commonly known as the National Grange, was founded by Oliver Kelley, a traveling clerk with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The original purpose of the Grange was to provide enrichment opportunities for isolated farm families, but its purpose quickly became economic and political. Farmers, particularly in the Midwest and South, were frequently victimized by railroad monopolies that charged exorbitant rates and storage fees. By 1872, 14 states had Grange chapters and membership had risen to about 800,000. Grangers took the lead in organizing farmers' cooperatives to successfully distribute their own produce and in just a few years, Grangers had won enough political support to influence national legislation regulating railroads. The Grange was succeeded by the Farmers' Alliances and in 1891, farmers and labor organizers formed the influential People's Party, or the Populist Party.
    (HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.44)(WUD, 1994, p.615)(HNPD, 12/4/98)

1867        Dec 6, Giovanni Pacini (71), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1867        Dec 9, The capital of Colorado Territory was moved from Golden to Denver.
    (HN, 12/9/98)

1867        Dec 13, The Clerkenwell bombing killed 12 people. It was an attempt to free Richard O~ez_rsquo~Sullivan-Burke, a senior Fenian arms agent, and was the most infamous action carried out by the Fenians in Britain.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Barrett_%28Fenian%29)

1867        Dec 23, Entrepreneur Madam C.J. Walker (d.1919), the first black American woman millionaire, was born Sarah Breedlove to former slaves on a Louisiana cotton plantation. In 1906 she married Charles Joseph Walker, who became her business partner. Madam Walker had developed her own line of hair care products for black women. Business boomed and Madam Walker became well known to black and white Americans as she traveled the country to market her products, speak at conventions and donate to organizations like the NAACP and the YMCA. Her company made economic independence a reality for the many black women she hired. When Madam C.J. Walker died she left thousands of dollars to schools, orphanages, the Tuskegee Institute, retirement homes and other organizations.
    (HNPD, 12/23/98)(SFEC, 2/7/99, Par p.7)

1867        Arturo Toscanini, conductor, was born in Parma.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T6)

1867        Denton True Young (Cy Young), baseball pitching star, was born near Gilmore, Ohio. Cy was short for cyclone.
    (AH, 10/01, p.20)

1867        Francesco Hayez (1791-1882), Italian Romantic artist, painted his conception of the 70AD sacking of the Temple in Jerusalem.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Hayez)

1867        Claude Monet painted "The Beach at Sainte Adresse" and "Road by Saint-Simeon Farm Winter" while living in Normandy.
    (DPCP 1984)(SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)(SFC, 6/17/06, p.E10)

1867        Walter Bagehot (1826-1877), British economist, authored ~ez_ldquo~The English Constitution.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 4/1/06, p.13)(http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Walter_Bagehot)

1867        Australian poet Adam Lindsay Gordon published his poem: "Ye Weary Wayfarer."
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, Par p.4)

1867        The household guidebook "Six Hundred Dollars a Year" was published. It allotted $10 for a white granite dinner set and $5 for a French China tea set.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.49)

1867        Henrik Ibsen, Norwegian writer, wrote his poetic drama "Peer Gynt." He took his main figure from a character in Norwegian folklore who flees from his difficult mother, Ase, gets swept up in a world of trolls, grows up, gets engaged in a variety of nefarious enterprises, and returns home where he is redeemed by a woman who always loved him.
    (WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A16)

1867        The book ~ez_ldquo~Progress of the Working Class: 1832-1867~ez_rdquo~ by J.M. Ludlow and Lloyd Jones was published in London.
    (https://archive.org/details/progressworking00jonegoog)

1867        Anthony Trollope authored ~ez_ldquo~Phineas Finn,~ez_rdquo~ the 2nd of his 6 Palliser novels, which chronicled political life in Victorian England.
    (WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P14)

1867        Mark Twain was commissioned to report on the voyage of the steamship Quaker City, which sailed for the Middle East. In 1869 he authored ~ez_ldquo~The Innocents Abroad,~ez_rdquo~ an account of his observations.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)

1867        Emile Zola (27) authored his novel "Theresa Raquin." It was produced as a Broadway musical in 2001 titled "Thou Shalt Not."
    (WSJ, 10/25/01, p.A18)

1867        The French opera comedy "La Grande~ez_rsquo~ tante," was composed by Jules Massenet.
    (WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)
1867        The opera ~ez_ldquo~The Fair Maid of Perth~ez_rdquo~ by Georges Bizet premiered in France.
    (ON, 5/06, p.11)
1867        The Paris Opera commissioned Verdi to write a five act French version of the opera Don Carlos for the Universal Exposition. It was based on the a play by Friedrich Schiller based on the succession of King Philip to the Spanish throne in 1556 when his father, Emp. Charles V, retired to a monastery.
    (WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-12)
1867        The facade of the new Paris Opera House, built to the glory of Emperor Napoleon III, was completed.
    (SFC, 6/21/00, p.E5)(ON, 9/06, p.11)

1867        The Tabernacle, home of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, was completed in Salt Lake City, Utah.
    (THM, 4/27/97, p.N2)

1867        The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, established by settlers in New York, became the Reformed Church of America.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Par p.18)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1867        In Washington state Croatian immigrants founded the area that came to be known as Gig Harbor after Captain Charles Wilkes brought in his small boat there for safety from a storm.
    (SSFC, 9/2/07, p.D8)

c1867    In NYC restaurateur and entrepreneur Charles Feltman, who owned a pie wagon at Coney, was looking for something simple he could prepare and serve in a confined space. He hit on the idea of putting a hot sausage in a hard roll. Another version puts Feltman in his German restaurant, Feldman's Ocean Pavilion, when at some point a sausage ended up between two slices of bread. Feltman called it a frankfurter, and cartoonists labeled it a "hot dog."
    (HNQ, 7/10/01)

1867        William Arthur Cummings (Candy Cummings) was credited to be the first baseball pitcher to throw a curve ball.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, Z1, p.6)(SFC, 4/15/00, p.D3)

1867         US Secret Service responsibilities were broadened to include "detecting persons perpetrating frauds against the government." This appropriation resulted in investigations into the Ku Klux Klan, non-conforming distillers, smugglers, mail robbers, land frauds, and a number of other infractions against the federal laws.
    (www.ustreas.gov/usss/history.shtml)

1867        Anton Burlingame resigned his diplomatic post as US ambassador to China and was named High Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary from the Court of Peking.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1867        Physician Samuel Merritt became the 13th mayor of Oakland, Ca., and served to 1869. He donated 155 acres of dammed tidal water from the headwaters of Indian Slough, which became known as "Merritt's Lake" and later as Lake Merritt.
    (SFC, 9/20/13, p.D2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Merritt)
1867        The St. Paulus Lutheran church in SF was founded. The original church building burned down in 1995. In 2007 it moved from Gough and Eddy to join quarters with the St. Coltrane African Orthodox Church on Fillmore.
    (SFC, 5/28/07, p.D1)
1867        There was anti-Chinese violence in SF and Chinese laborers were driven from work and their homes were destroyed by whites angry over the economic conditions.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1867        In the SF Bay Area the Menlo Park train station was completed. It was made over in 1890 with the opening of Stanford Univ.
    (SSFM, 4/29/01, p.47)

1867        The Cigar Makers Int'l. became the first union in the US to admit women.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1867        Trans-Pacific trade was pioneered when the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. dispatched the 300-foot steamship Colorado from SF to Yokohama and Hong Kong.
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, p.B1)

1867         James McCreery (1826-1903) opened a silk retailing operation in NYC. Within 3 years he bought a large building on Broadway and expanded with more departments. McCreery~ez_rsquo~s close in 1953.
    (SFC, 9/5/07, p.G5)

1867        Jacob Leinenkugel, an immigrant from Bavaria, founded Leinenkugel Beer to supply the lumberjack community of Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. In 1988 the family business agreed to be acquired by the Miller Brewing Co.
    (WSJ, 9/27/08, p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/4epavl)

1867        The US Playing Card Co. began business. In 2003 its brands included Bee, Hoyle, Aviator and Bicycle (b.1885).
    (WSJ, 4/29/03, B12)

1867        Edward Calahan of American Telegraph Company developed the first stock ticker.
    (WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)

1867        Ernest Michaux, a Parisian blacksmith, added pedals and brakes to an iron ~ez_ldquo~velocipede,~ez_rdquo~ a 2-wheeled machine that used wooded wheels and was nicknamed ~ez_ldquo~the boneshaker.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 10/22/04, p.A1)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.77)

1867        Adelia Waldron patented the washing machine.
    (SFC, 2/1/02, p.D13)

1867        J.G. McCoy shipped 35,000 cattle to Chicago to end up on American dinner tables.
    (HNPD, 1/4/99)

1867        Christopher Latham Sholes, Carlos Glidden and Samuel Soule invented the typewriter in the 1860s. Charles E. Weller coined the phrase "Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of the party" to check out the first typewriter built in Milwaukee.
    (SFC, 1/29/97, z-1 p.2)(SFEC, 3/22/98, Z1 p.8)

1867        There was a yellow-fever epidemic in the US.
    (SSFC, 2/25/01, BR p.5)

1867        British surgeon Joseph Lister, Professor of Surgery at Glasgow University, published the results of his antiseptic system in the Lancet medical journal.
    (ON, 7/00, p.8)
1867        Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell first imagined an atom-size device dubbed Maxwell's Demon.
    (Reuters, 1/31/07)

1867        Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet, astronomers at the Paris observatory, spotted a very unusual star. The star showed broad, bright emission lines superimposed on a somewhat fainter continuous background. They are now called Wolf-Rayet stars. It was later proposed that the bright emission lines are due to gasses being expelled at tremendous velocities of 3,000 km per second. It is estimated that the surface temp. of the central Wolf-Rayet star is 100,000°K as compared to 6,000°K for the Sun.
    (SCTS, p.176)

1867        There were 10,000 recorded divorces in the US.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.39)

1867        An American hunter claimed that the ruins of an ancient kingdom lay hundreds of miles in the interior of Africa.
    (ATC, p.145)

1867        The sailing ship Hellespont, a Welsh coal ship with passengers, wrecked near Pescadero, Ca.
    (SFC, 8/10/02, p.A13)

1867        The 2nd Earl of Pomfret died. The family property, the Easton Neston estate, built around 1700 by Nicholas Hawksmoor, in Northamptonshire, England, passed to Sir Thomas George Fermor-Hesketh.
    (SFC, 5/11/05, p.G6)

1867        Lacrosse was declared the national game of Canada.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1867        Harry Meiggs departed Chile, where he had built a railroad between Santiago and Valparaiso and moved to Peru, where he was awarded a contract to build the Arequipa Railway. The over hyped railroads he built helped drive the country into financial ruin.
    (SFC, 1/18/14, p.C2)

1867        Bismarck unified Germany.
    (WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A20)
1867        German businessman named Augusto R. Berns purchased land across from Machu Picchu, Peru, and an 1887 document showed he set up a company to plunder the site.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

1867        In Japan Ryoma Sakamoto, a samurai, helped topple the feudal government system. Ryoma means Dragon Horse.
    (WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1)

1867        The Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan gave up power.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1867        In South Africa diamonds were discovered. This and the later discovery of gold prompted the end of Boer isolation. [see 1866]
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 564)

1867-1871    In Mexico Benito Juarez served his 2ndt term as president.
    (WUD, 1994, p.772)(SFC, 4/5/01, p.A12)

1867-1873    Sir John A. MacDonald, Conservative Party, serves as the first Prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.81)

1867-1875    The Suez Canal Co. issued bonds for some hundred million francs to keep afloat. The Khedive went bankrupt and the British under Disraeli snapped up the Khedive's shares for £4 million.
    (WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)

1867-1912    Wilbur Wright, aeronautical inventor, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1647)

1867-1922    Nellie Bly, famed muckraking reporter for the New York World. She was sent on a trip around the world by Joseph Pulitzer~ez_rsquo~s New York World and completed the trip in 72 days in1889-90. At 30 she married a 70-year-old industrialist and gave up journalism. In 1997 a TV documentary "Around the World in 72 Days" aired on the "The American Experience."
    (WSJ,2/11/97, p.A20)(SFC, 4/28/97, p.B1)

1867-1931     Arnold Bennett, English poet, author and critic: "Good taste is better than bad taste, but bad taste is better than no taste at all."
    (AP, 11/5/97)
    "The price of justice is eternal publicity."
    (AP, 1/25/00)

1867-1936    Finley Peter Dunne, American humorist: "A fanatic is a man that does what he thinks th' Lord wud do if He knew th' facts in th' case."
    (AP, 1//99)

1867-1944    Amy Beach, American composer. She employed frequent modulations and liberal doses of chromaticism, which took her a few steps beyond Chopin and Brahms. Her output was immense and included 64 choral works (many for use in Episcopal Church worship), 131 songs and 40 piano pieces, and a chamber opera: Cabildo.
    (WSJ, 8/16/95, p. A-8)

1867-1944    American illustrator Charles Dana Gibson was born. He began contributing pen and ink drawings of tall, patrician women with spectacular upswept hair to the humorous weekly Life in the early 1890s. Gibson's illustrations took America by storm, creating an ideal of American womanhood--aloof, athletic, socially adept and forever being wooed by unworthy men. Above all, the Gibson Girl was beautiful and thousands of American women emulated her distinctive hairstyle. "You can always tell when a girl is taking the Gibson Cure," wrote one observer, "by the way she fixes her hair." So great was the popularity of Gibson's creation that lithographs of his work decorated parlors and adorned various products throughout the country. Until the outbreak of World War I Gibson was said to be America's highest paid illustrator, earning $55,000 per year.
    (HNPD, 11/27/98)

1867-1947    Irving Fisher, Yale professor of economics. He developed principles of monetary theory and the new field of econometrics, which used statistical methods. He developed the concept of the relationship between the quantity of money and changes in the general level of prices.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1867-1948    The American art of this period is covered in the 2001 book: "Painting American: The Rise of American Artists" by Annie Cohen-Solal.
    (WSJ, 1/3/02, p.A7)

1868        Jan 3, Emperor Meiji ascended the throne and assumed power. The Meiji Restoration re-established the authority of Japan~ez_rsquo~s emperor and heralded the fall of the military rulers known as shoguns. The feudal clan system was abolished and industrialism was started. Japan opened itself up to the West, thereby obtaining the benefits of western technology.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.243,286)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(AP, 1/3/98)

1868        Jan 7, A US Indian Peace Commission filed a report to the Pres. Johnson.
    (http://facweb.furman.edu/~benson/docs/peace.htm)

1868        Jan 8, Frank Dyson was born. He proved Einstein right that light is bent by gravity.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1868        Jan 16, The refrigerated railroad car was patented by William Davis, a fish dealer in Detroit. [see Nov 26, 1867]
    (MC, 1/16/02)

1868        Jan 31, Theodore William Richards (d.1928), chemist (atomic weights, Nobel-1914), was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1231)(MC, 1/31/02)

1868        Feb 11, Jean Bernard Leon Foucault (b.1819), French physicist, died. He discovered the 1st physical proof of Earth's rotation (1851) and invented the gyroscope.
    (WUD, 1994 p.560)(MC, 2/11/02)(WSJ, 8/28/03, p.D18)

1868        Feb 16, The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks (B.P.O.E.) was organized in New York City by members of the theatrical profession. Later, men in other professions were permitted to join the social organization. The letters E.L.K. are repeated in the titles of some of its officers, such as Esteemed Leading Knight and Esteemed Loyal Knight..
    (AP, 2/16/98)(HNQ, 10/15/99)

1868        Feb 21, Pres. Johnson told Gen. Lorenzo Thomas (63) to go the War Dept. with orders to remove Edwin Stanton from office and to assume the responsibilities of Sec. of War.
    (ON, 9/01, p.6)

1868        Feb 23, William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (DuBois, d.1963) was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. W.E.B. Du Bois was the first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University. As a sociologist, he focused on the problem of race for blacks in the United States. He became an influential leader of black Americans, presenting an alternative to Booker T. Washington, whose policies Du Bois considered too conservative and too accommodating to whites. Du Bois, believing that blacks could achieve progress only through protest, encouraged black nationalism and supported Pan-Africanism. He founded the National Negro Committee which eventually became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Du Bois also founded the Niagara Movement, served as the NAACP's director of research and editor of its magazine Crisis, and taught and published his philosophy at Atlanta University. W.E.B. Du Bois died at the age of 95 in 1963.
    (HNPD, 2/23/99)

1868        Feb 24, Impeachment proceedings against President Andrew Johnson began. The House of Representatives voted vote 126 to 47 to impeach President Andrew Johnson following his attempt to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton; the Senate later acquitted Johnson. Sen. Edmund G. Ross of Kansas cast the last deciding vote against impeachment. Democrats defended Johnson. 7 Republicans cast "no" votes.
    (HN, 2/24/98)(AP, 2/24/98)(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.A14)(SFC, 12/21/98, p.A3)(MC, 2/24/02)
1868        Feb 24, The 1st US parade with floats was at the Mardi Gras in Mobile,  Alabama.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1868        Feb 29, British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli formed his first cabinet.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1868        Mar 2, University of Illinois opened.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1868        Mar 5, Arrigo Boito's opera "Mefistofele," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 3/5/02)
1868        Mar 5, The Senate was organized into a court of impeachment to decide charges against President Andrew Johnson, who was later acquitted.
    (AP, 3/5/08)
1868        Mar 5, A stapler was patented in England by C.H. Gould.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1868        Mar 9, Ambrois Thomas' opera "Hamlet" premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1868        Mar 13, The impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson began in the U.S. Senate.
    (AP, 3/13/97)(ON, 9/01, p.7)

1868        Mar 16(OS), Maxim Gorkei (Aleksvey Maksimovich Pyeshkov [aka Gorky], d.1936], Russian dramatist, was born. "A good man can be stupid and still be good. But a bad man must have brains." [see Mar 28]
    (WUD, 1994 p.611)(HN, 3/16/98)(AP, 2/23/01)

1868        Mar 17, Postage stamp canceling machine patent was issued.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1868        Mar 20, The Jesse James Gang robbed a bank in Russellville, Kentucky, of $14,000.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1868        Mar 22, Robert A. Millikan, US physicist (photoelectric effect; Nobel 1923), was born.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1868        Mar 23, Gov. Henry Haight signed an act that created the Univ. of California and wed the insolvent College of California to the state with the promised backing of 150,000 acres of federal land. The line "Westward the course of empire takes its way" from a 1752 poem by Irish Bishop Berkeley had earlier inspired the founders of Berkeley, Ca., to name their city and university after Berkeley.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)
1868        Mar 23, University of California was founded in Oakland, CA. Legislator John W. Dwinelle helped establish the Univ. of California and Dwinelle Hall was named for him. The first chancellor was Clark Kerr, for whom the Clark Kerr campus was named. Its first president was Henry Durant for whom Durant Hall was named. Its 8th president was Benjamin Ide Wheeler and the 17th president was Robert Gordon Sproul, for whom Sproul Plaza was named. Later the Haas family of SF contributed $23.75 million on behalf of Walter A. Haas Sr., who ran Levi Strauss & Co. for several decades. The Doreen B. Townsend Center for the Humanities was started with a $5 million pledge from Ms. Townsend, a UC alumna.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.A15)(SS, 3/23/02)

1868        Mar 26, Fuad I, king of Egypt (1922-36), was born.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1868        Mar 27, John Muir (30) arrived by steamer in San Francisco and almost immediately set off on a 300-mile journey to Yosemite Valley along with Englishman Joseph Chilwell.
    (SSFC, 4/2/06, p.B1)(SSFC, 5/14/06, p.B3)

1868        Mar 28(NS), Maxim Gorki, Russian writer, was born. [see Mar 16]
    (HN, 3/28/98)

1868        Mar 30, The trial of President Johnson began with opening statements. Supreme Court Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase was the presiding judge in the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson. Chief Justice Chase insisted on the observance of legal procedure, attempting to maintain some semblance of non-partisanship.
    (HNQ, 1/6/99)

1868        Mar 31, Anson Burlingame, head of the Chinese Embassy, arrived in SF for a month-long stay.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1868        Apr 1, Edmond Rostand, French dramatist (Cyrano de Bergerac), was born.
    (HN, 4/1/01)
1868        Apr 1, The Hampton Institute was founded in Hampton, Va.
    (HN, 4/1/99)

1868        Apr 3, Franz Adolf Berwald (71), Swedish composer, died.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1868        Apr 6, Brigham Young married his 27th and final wife (I am done with wifery).
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1868        Apr 10, 1st performance of Johannes Brahms' "Ein Deutches Requiem."
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1868        Apr, The US government and the Sioux Indians signed another treaty that ended Red Cloud~ez_rsquo~s War, but did not last long. The treaty made the Black Hills part of the Great Sioux Reservation.
    (HT, 3/97, p.43)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.37)

1868        Apr 13, Tewodros II (1818-1868), also known as Theodore II, committed suicide at Magdala while under British siege. He was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1855-1868.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tewodros_II)

1868        Apr 26, Robert Herrick, US writer (Common lot), was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1868        May 5, Memorial Day was officially proclaimed by General John Logan, national commander of the Grand Army of the Republic, in his General Order No. 11, and was first observed on 30 May, 1868, when flowers were placed on the graves of Union and Confederate soldiers at Arlington National Cemetery. The preferred name for the holiday gradually changed from "Decoration Day" to "Memorial Day", which was first used in 1882. It was not declared the official name by Federal law until 1967.
    (http://www.usmemorialday.org/backgrnd.html)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memorial_Day)

1868        May 6, Gaston Leroux, French novelist (The Phantom of the Opera), was born.
    (HN, 5/6/01)

1868        May 9, Anton Bruckner's 1st Symphony in C premiered.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1868        May 13, Paolo Gallico, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1868        May 16, Bedrich Smetana's opera "Dalibor," premiered in Prague.
    (MC, 5/16/02)
1868         May 16, The U.S. Senate failed by one vote, cast by Edmund G. Ross, to convict President Andrew Johnson as it took its first ballot on one of 11 articles of impeachment against him. Johnson, who came to office on Abraham Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, was an honest but tactless man who made many enemies in the Radical Republican Congress. In response to Johnson's recurrent interference with Radical Reconstruction, the U.S. House of Representatives drew up 11 articles of impeachment against the chief executive in March 1868. Although the charges against him were weak, Johnson was tried by the Senate as the Constitution provides.
    (AP, 5/16/97)(HNPD, 5/16/99)

1868        May 18, Nicholas II, the last Russian czar (1894-1917), was born. He and his family, were assassinated by revolutionaries.
    (HN, 5/18/99)(SC, 5/18/02)

1868        May 20, The Republican National Convention met in Chicago and nominated Grant.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1868        May 22, The Great Train Robbery took place near Marshfield, Ind., as seven members of the Reno gang made off with $96,000 ($98k) in cash, gold and bonds.
    (AP, 5/22/97)(HN, 5/22/02)

1868        May 23, Kit Carson (b.1809), American scout and frontiersman, died at Fort Lyon, Colorado. In 1999 David Roberts authored "A Newer World: Kit Carson, John C. Freemont and the Claiming of the American West."
    (WUD, 1994, p.227)(SFEC, 2/13/00, BR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kit_Carson)

1868         May 26, The US Senate impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson ended with his acquittal as the Senate fell one vote short of the two-thirds majority required for conviction. Edward Ross of Kansas cast the deciding vote.
    (AP, 5/26/97)(SFC, 2/12/99, p.A12)
1868        May 26, Michael Barrett, Irish nationalist, was executed for his part in the 1867 Clerkenwell bombing. This was the last British public execution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Barrett_%28Fenian%29)

1868        May 29, Frederic baron d'Erlanger, French composer, banker, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1868        May 30, Memorial Day began when two women placed flowers on both Confederate and Union graves. Memorial Day, which began in 1868 as Decoration Day, was set aside to remember those who have died in the service of their country. Celebrated on May 30 for the first 100 years, Memorial Day was officially changed to the last Monday in May in 1968.
    (HN, 5/30/98)(HNPD, 5/31/99)
1868        May 31, The 1st Memorial Day parade was held in Ironton, Ohio.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1868         Jun 1, The Texas constitutional convention met in Austin.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)
1868        Jun 1, James Buchanan (b. Apr 23, 1791), the 15th president of the United States, died near Lancaster, Pa. He was the only US president to have never married. In 1961 Philip Shreiver Klein authored "President James Buchanan: A Biography."
    (AP, 6/1/97)(ON, 12/00, p.12)

1868        Jun 6, Robert F. Scott, British explorer, was born.
    (HN, 6/6/01)

1868        Jun 21, The first performance of Wagner~ez_rsquo~s opera Die Meistersinger took place in Munich.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1868        Jun 22, Arkansas was re-admitted to the Union.
    (AP, 6/22/97)

1868        Jun 23, Christopher Latham Sholes received a patent for an invention he called a "Type-Writer."
    (HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.32)(SFC, 1/29/97, z-1 p.2)(AP, 6/23/97)

1868        Jun 25, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were re-admitted to the Union.
    (AP, 6/25/97)

1868        Jun 25, Congress enacted legislation granting an eight-hour day to workers employed by the Federal government.
    (HN, 6/25/98)

1868        Jul 4, In Japan the last Tokugawa armies were defeated at the Battle at Ueno.
    (Maggio, 98)

1868        Jul 14, Alvin J. Fellows patented a tape measure.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1868        Jul 15, William Thomas Morton (b.1819), dentist, died in NYC. He was responsible for the first successful public demonstration of ether as an inhalation anesthetic. Morton's accomplishment was the key factor to the medical and scientific pursuit that we now refer to as anesthesiology.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Thomas_Green_Morton)
1868        Jul 15, The Torrent sank in Alaska~ez_rsquo~s Cook Inlet after tidal currents, among the world's most powerful, rammed it into a reef south of the Kenai Peninsula. About 130 Army soldiers had come north on the Torrent to build the first US military fort in south-central Alaska. About 20 sailors and 15 of the soldiers wives and children were also on board. All 155 people on board survived. Remnants of the wreckage were found in 2007.
    (AP, 10/8/07)(www.adn.com/life/story/9364436p-9278126c.html)

1868        Jul 20, The 1st use of tax stamps on cigarettes.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1868        Jul 23, The 14th Amendment was ratified, granting citizenship to African Americans. It gave freed slaves full citizenship and equal protection under the laws, however it did not spell out the extent of integration with white America.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1868        Jul 25, Congress passed an act creating the Wyoming Territory. [see Jul 25, 1867]
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1868        Jul 28, The 14th Amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing due process of law, was certified in effect by Secretary of State William H. Seward. The amendment was aimed primarily at assuring citizenship to blacks freed from slavery by the Civil War.
    (HN, 7/28/98)(AP, 7/28/08)
1868        Jul 28, Pres. Johnson signed the Burlingame Treaty. It was negotiated by Anson Burlingame, who represented the interests of China, and committed the US to a policy of noninterference in Chinese affairs. It also established commercial ties and provided unrestricted immigration of Chinese to the US.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1868        Aug 11, Thaddeus Stevens (76), architect of Radical Reconstruction, died.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1868        Aug 16, Bernard McFadden, publisher responsible for the magazine True Story, was born.
    (HN, 8/16/98)
1868        Aug 16, Charles Sanford Skilton (d.1941), composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1868        Aug 23, Edgar Lee Masters (d.1950), poet, novelist, was born in Garnett, Kansas.
    (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/3088)

1868        Sep 8, The NY Athletic Club formed.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1868        Sep 17, The Battle of Beecher~ez_rsquo~s Island began, in which Major George "Sandy" Forsyth and 50 volunteers held off 500 Sioux and Cheyenne in eastern Colorado.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1868        Sep 22, Race riots took place in New Orleans, La.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1868        Sep 23, Grito de Lares proclaimed Puerto Rico's independence. It was crushed by Spain.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1868        Sep 28, In the Opelousas Massacre at St. Landry Parish, Louisiana, 200 blacks were killed.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1868        Oct 1, Rama IV, [Phra Chomklao Chaoyuhua], died at 63. He served as king of Siam (Thailand) from 1851-68. His son Chulalongkorn, Rama V (d.1910), took over and encouraged the beginnings of a modern state.
    (MC, 10/1/01)(Econ, 1/10/04, p.76)

1868        Oct 6, Leon Charles Francois Kreutzer, composer, died at 51.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1868        Oct 7, Cornell University was inaugurated in Ithaca, N.Y.
    (AP, 10/7/97)

1868        Oct 10, Cuba revolted for independence against Spain. This was the first day of open rebellion for liberty, which was led by the man who is now known as the "Father of Cuba," Carlos Manuel de Cespedes.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycthzj)

1868        Oct 11, Thomas Edison patented his 1st invention, an electric voice machine.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1868        Oct 12, Charles Sumner Greene, architect, was born.
    (HN, 10/12/00)

1868        Oct 16, Denmark ended its involvement in India by selling the rights to the Nicobar Islands to the British.
    (SFC, 11/3/11, p.A2)

1868        Oct 21, A major earthquake, later estimated at magnitude 7, took place on the Hayward Fault in northern California. It destroyed the top of the San Mateo County Courthouse. At this time only 265,000 people lived in the Bay Area. The Marine Hospital at Rincon Point was badly damaged and forced to close.
    (SMMB)(SFC, 6/13/96, p.C3)(SFC, 10/18/07, p.A15)(SFC, 10/9/10, p.A10)
1868        Oct 21, The Hayward Earthquake in northern California created a sunken area in San Francisco that came to be called Pioche~ez_rsquo~s Lake.~ez_rdquo~ The area was filled in and rooming houses were built, all of which collapsed in the 1906 earthquake.
    (SFC, 6/8/13, p.C4)

1868        Oct 22, Jacques Offenbach's opera "Genevieve de Brabant," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1868        Oct 26, Whites killed several blacks in St. Bernard Parish, La.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1868        Nov 3, Republican Ulysses S. Grant was elected 18th president. He won the election over Democrat Horatio Seymour by 27,000 votes. He used the 1867 typewriter phrase "Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of the party" for his campaign.
    (AP, 11/3/97)(SFEC, 3/22/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 11/3/98)(WSJ, 2/17/99, p.A22)

1868        Nov 9, The Colorado, a Pacific Mail side-wheeler steamer, was snagged off the West coast at Montara, Ca. The shoal was later named Colorado Reef.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T3)(Ind, 3/31/01, 5A)

1868        Nov 13, Italian composer Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (b.1792) died in France. His work included 39 operas as well as sacred music, chamber music, songs, and some instrumental and piano pieces. His opera "La Donna del Lago" (1819) was based on the Walter Scott romance "The Lady of the Lake."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gioachino_Rossini)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)(AP, 2/29/00)

1868        Nov 19, William Sidney Mount (b.1807), American genre painter, died. His work included: ~ez_ldquo~Eel Spearing at Setauket~ez_rdquo~ (1845).
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9054008/William-Sidney-Mount)

1868        Nov 23, Louis Ducos du Hauron patented trichrome color photo process.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1868        Nov 24, Scott Joplin was born in Texas. By the time he was a teenager, Joplin could play the banjo and the piano, and had begun to work as a saloon musician. In the late 1890s, he was performing and composing at the Maple Leaf Club in Sedalia, Missouri, and in 1899 his "Maple Leaf Rag" made ragtime popular. Ragtime was a mixture of classical European and African-American styles of music, and it influenced the later development of jazz. Joplin was not considered a serious composer until ragtime resurfaced in the 1970s, when his composition "The Entertainer" was the theme to the movie The Sting. The first grand opera composed by an African American was Joplin's Treemonisha (1911), which was not very successful at the time. In 1976, however, more than 50 years after Joplin died, Treemonisha won the Pulitzer Prize.
    (HNPD, 11/24/98)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)

1868        Nov 27, Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer~ez_rsquo~s 7th Cavalry killed Chief Black Kettle (b.1801) and about 100 Cheyenne (mostly women and children) on the Washita River near present day Cheyenne, Oklahoma.
    (www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/blackkettle.htm)

1868        Nov 28, Mt. Etna in Sicily erupted violently.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1868        Dec 1, John D. Rockefeller began anti oil war.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1868        Dec 5, 1st American bicycle college opened in NY.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1868        Dec 7, Jesse James gang robbed a bank in Gallatin, Missouri, and killed 1 person.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1868        Dec 12, In Indiana 56 hooded men entered New Albany jail. Frank Reno was the first to be dragged from his cell to be lynched. He was followed by his two brothers, William and Simeon. Another gang member, Charlie Anderson, was also hanged in the prison. [see May 22]
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/WWvigilantes.htm)

1868        Dec 20, Harvey Firestone, industrialist, was born.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1868        Dec 22, John Nance Garner, (VP-D-1933-41), was born in Texas.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1868        Dec 24, Emanuel Lasker, world chess champion (1894-21), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1868        Dec 25, President Andrew Johnson granted an unconditional pardon to all persons involved in the Southern rebellion that resulted in the Civil War.
    (AP, 12/25/97)

1868        Maud Humphrey, artist, was born in Rochester, N.Y. She worked as a watercolorist and specialized in portraits of children dressed in Victorian fashions. One of her children was movie star Humphrey Bogart.
    (SFC, 7/1/98, Z1 p.6)

1868        French painter Jean-Leon Gerome completed his work ~ez_ldquo~Bonaparte before the Sphinx.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.128)
1868        Martin Johnson Heade painted "Thunderstorm Over Narragansett Bay."
    (SFC, 9/20/97, p.E1)
1868        Jean-Francois Millet painted "Path Lined With Trees Near Vichy."
    (WSJ, 7/12/99, p.A26)
1868        Claude Monet painted "The River." It shows the water of the Seine and was an early attempt by the artist to depict shimmering light on water.
    (DPCP 1984)

1868        Louisa May Alcott (d.1888) authored "Little Women." In 1998 "Little Women" premiered in Houston as an opera by Mark Adomo.
    (WSJ, 8/29/01, p.A12)(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E2)

1868        Susan B. Anthony, the suffrage leader, put out the first issue of "The Revolution" in New York City.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1868        Darwin published "The Variation of Plants and Animals Under Domestication."
    (NH, 6/96, p.24)

1868        Dostoevsky wrote "The Idiot."
    (WSJ, 3/28/95, p.A-24)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)

1868        Tigran Tcukhatjian (Tchukhadjian) composed "Arshak II," a pseudo-European grand opera.
    (WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A18)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A20)

1868        Ambroise Thomas composed his opera "Hamlet."
    (WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)

1868        Frederick Law Olmsted began laying out the planned Riverside community outside Chicago over 1,600 acres of Illinois prairie.
    (WSJ, 5/25/99, p.A26)

1868        The Virginia and Truckee railroad line was built to serve Virginia City, Nv., site of the richest silver strike in history. Ted Wurm (d.2004) later co-authored with Harre W. Demoro "Silver Short Line," a history of the line.
    (SSFC, 2/29/04, p.A25)

1868        Alpheus Hardy, a Boston merchant enriched by his clipper ships, built the first cottage at Birch Point, Bar Harbor, Maine.
    (HT, 3/97, p.12)

1868        St. Peter~ez_rsquo~s Episcopal Church was built in Carson City, Nev.
    (SSFC, 11/19/06, p.F10)

1868        In Syracuse NY the Everson Museum of Art was founded.
    (WSJ, 6/20/97, p.A16)

1868        Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902), a social reformer and militant feminist, said, "The male element is a destructive force" in an address to the Women~ez_rsquo~s Suffrage Convention in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 11/12/97)(HNQ, 5/17/98)

1868        The first "chocolate box" was introduced by Richard Cadbury. It depicted his daughter holding a kitten.
    (SFC, 2/10/99, Z1 p.5)

1868        The first known bicycle race was held in Paris.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1868        The US established Memorial Day to honor Union soldiers killed in the Civil War. It was first called Decoration Day. It was later expanded to honor all the 2.8 million soldiers killed in the service of the country.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A18)    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A18)

1868        The word ~ez_ldquo~hoodlum~ez_rdquo~ reportedly first appeared in San Francisco newspapers and by 1877 became widespread across the US.
    (SFC, 9/27/14, p.C4)
1868        San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s first real ballpark, the Recreation Grounds, was built at 25th and Folsom. Some 4 thousand fans watched the SF Eagles beat the Oakland Wide Awakes.
    (SFC, 9/21/13, p.C3)
1868        Gen. John Bidwell built Bidwell mansion on his 26,000-acre ranch in Chico, Ca. Bidwell was the founder of Chico and had made his fortune working for John Sutter. He had been a New York farmer and crossed the continent penniless in 1841.
    (SFC, 3/9/01, p.WBb 7)(SFC, 4/21/07, p.B5)
1868        A tidal slough was dammed to form Lake Merritt and connected Oakland, Ca., to the lumber port of Brooklyn. After 2 years of incorporation Brooklyn residents voted themselves out of existence.
    (SFCM, 4/11/04, p.6)
1868        California decided to sell state-owned tidelands. In 1879 the state constitution was amended to prevent the sale of tidelands to private parties within 2 miles of a city.
    (SFC, 6/15/06, p.B4)
1868        In California Fort Bidwell in Modoc Ct. was established as a cavalry outpost to protect settlers from Indians.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T9)
1868        Balboa Park in San Diego was established as a 1,200-acre recreational area.
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.5R)

1868        Riggs National Bank supplied the $7.2 million in gold bullion for the purchase of Alaska.
    (WSJ, 4/7/04, p.A1)

1868        The "Ohio Idea," promulgated by Ohio congressman George Pendleton, called for payment of the national debt with greenbacks. This position was adopted by the Democrats at their 1868 convention. The "Ohio Idea" was in opposition to the "hard money" proponents who called for payments in gold. The 1869 Public Credit Act officially repudiated the "Ohio Idea" with its provision for the payment of government obligations in gold.
    (HNQ, 5/14/99)

1868        A treaty between the government and Native Americans was signed that was later interpreted by some Native Americans as an entitlement to surplus federal lands. [perhaps the April treaty with the Sioux]
    (G, Summer ~ez_lsquo~97, p.4)

1868        Navaho Indians living under confinement near Fort Sumner, New Mexico, were allowed to return to their homelands in Arizona following a visit by Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman. Some 7,100 survivors of the 1864 Long Walk had been released onto a New Mexico reservation of 5,500 acres. The Navajo returned to Hopi land where 3.5 million acres, 1/6th of their former homeland, was returned.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)

1868        Charlotte "Charley" Parkhurst was the first woman to vote for US president in California. The Santa Cruz female stagecoach driver impersonated a man. In 1998 Pam Munoz Ryan wrote her biography: "Riding Freedom."
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, BR p.8)

1868        In Nevada the Central Pacific Railroad came through Reno. The town had been founded on the banks of the Truckee River by Myron Lake and was named after a Civil War general. Lake's land was bought up by Charles Crocker, who had surveyors lay out streets and a town for which he sold lots. The Crocker land eventually came under the control of the Pacific Improvement Co., controlled by Crocker, Huntington, Hopkins and Stanford.
    (SFC, 2/16/00, p.A12)
1868        The SF-San Jose railroad line joined the Southern Pacific Railroad and became a part of the statewide system.
    (GTP, 1973, p.73)

1868        Gustav and Albert Goelitz, German emigrants, started the Goelitz candy business in Illinois. The company later moved to California and invented the all natural Jelly Belly jelly bean in 1976.
    (SFC, 8/11/99, Z1 p.3)

1868        Greenwood China was organized and by 1886 impressed its mark on ironstone or white granite. Its mark used the New Jersey coat of arms and the company produced dishes. It and Greenwood Pottery advertised together but went out of business in 1933.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, z-1 p.2)

1868        Edwards Sands Frost of Biddeford Maine made his first designs for hooked rugs. He devised a method of stenciling the designs on burlap and was credited as the first person to mass produce hooked rugs.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, z-1 p.5)

1868        Over 100,000 Texas longhorn cattle came up the Chisholm Trail to the Abilene, Ka., stockyards.
    (ON, 4/01, p.12)

1868        Helium was detected in the Sun~ez_rsquo~s spectrum during a total solar eclipse.
    (NH, 7/02, p.34)

1868        In 2008 scientists, using NASA~ez_rsquo~s Chandra X-Ray Observatory, reported that a supernova took place in the Milky Way about this time.
    (SFC, 5/15/08, p.A3)

1868        Emily and Elizabeth Blackwell opened the world~ez_rsquo~s 1st medical school for women, the Women~ez_rsquo~s Medical College of the New York Infirmary.~ez_rdquo~
    (ON, 4/03, p.3)

1868        Thomas Huxley delivered his lecture On a Piece of Chalk to the working men of Norwich during the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1868        Mrs. Thomas Smith of New South Wales, Australia, dumped a gin carton full of rotten Tasmanian apples into her backyard. The seeds of one spoiled apple took hold and Granny Smith was so impressed that she took some to a commercial grower.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.42)
1868        The cottony-cushion scale was accidentally introduced from Australia to California and began wreaking havoc on the citrus crops. The pest was not controlled until it was found that the lady bug beetle, Rodolia cardinalis, fed on the scale in the 1880s.
    (HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.102)

1868        Ludwig II (1845-1886) of Bavaria began the construction of his fairy-tale-style castle at Neuschwanstein.
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T5)

1868        In England a collection of photos by Gustave Le Gray was donated to the Victoria and Albert Museum.
    (WSJ, 3/24/98, p.A20)
1868        The St Pancras station opened in London. It was known as the ~ez_ldquo~Cathedral of the Railways~ez_rdquo~ and for a time was the largest enclosed space in the world.
    (Econ, 11/10/07, p.71)
1868        In England the Anglican church began to hold conferences for bishops. The conferences were then convened every ten years.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98, p.A23)
1868        Britain~ez_rsquo~s first fully diversified managed fund (mutual fund), appeared. Foreign & Colonial was established to invest in foreign bonds.
    (WSJ, 1/3/07, p.R6)(Econ, 3/17/12, p.85)
1868        A new meat market opened in London at the site of the old Smithfield livestock market. The original Metropolitan Railway passed underneath allowing the market to receive much of its meat by hydraulic lifts. The railways stopped carrying meat after 1950.
    (Econ, 1/26/13, p.16)

1868        Bulgaria~ez_rsquo~s Buzludzha peak area was the place of the final battle between rebels led by Hadji Dimitar and Stefan Karadzha and the Ottoman Empire.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzludzha)

1868        In Darjeeling, India, English tea planters formed the Darjeeling Planters Club.
    (SSFC, 7/15/07, p.G5)

1868        In Japan women were allowed to climb Mt. Fuji.
    (SFC, 9/12/13, p.A4)
1868        It was forbidden to be born or to die on Japan~ez_rsquo~s Miyajima Island until the Meiji Restoration.
    (SFEC, 3/26/00, p.T11)
1868        In Japan Ryoma Sakamoto, the rebel who helped topple the feudal government system in 1967, was assassinated. In 1966 Ryotaro Shiba authored the historical novel "Ryoma on the Move" in 8 paperback volumes. Between 1987 and 1996 a comic series on Ryoma ran in magazines and a 23-volume compilation was later made.
    (WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1,16)

1868        Lesotho in Southern Africa was annexed by the British.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A11)

1868        Edvard Hagerup Grieg (1843-1907), Norwegian composer, completed his ~ez_ldquo~Piano Concerto in A Minor.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.81)

1868-1870    Cathy Williams disguised herself as a man and served with distinction with the Buffalo Soldiers, black soldiers in Army units on the frontier.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.5)

1868-1871    Bret Harte edited the SF-based magazine "Overland Monthly."
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, BR p.6)

1868-1912     The Meiji Period of Japan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1868-1919    Henry "Marse" Watterson ran the Louisville Courier-Journal. He was known to have a good recipe for mint juleps.
    (WSJ, 5/3/96, p.A-8)

1868-1926    Gertrude Bell, adventurer, advisor to kings, ally of Lawrence of Arabia. She wrote "The Desert and the Sown" and spent much of her life in the Arab world whilst spying for Britain in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Her 1996 biography by Janet Wallach is: "Desert Queen, The Extraordinary Life of Gertrude Bell."
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, BR p.5)(Hem., 5/97, p.99)

1868-1930:     "Kin Hubbard" (Frank McKinney), American humorist: "There seems to be an excess of everything except parking space and religion."
    (AP, 9/26/97)

1868-1933    In Trenton, New Jersey, the Greenwood China Co. made ironstone and white granite pottery.
    (SFC,12/17/97, Z1 p.16)

1868-1934    Mary Hunter Austin, American novelist and playwright: "I am not sure that God always knows who are His great men; He is so very careless of what happens to them while they live."
    (AP, 11/29/00)

1868-1938     E.V. Lucas, English author and critic: "The art of life is to show your hand. There is no diplomacy like candor. You may lose by it now and then, but it will be a loss well gained if you do. Nothing is so boring as having to keep up a deception."
    (AP, 7/31/98)

1868-1841    Emile Bernard, French poet. He founded the Pont-Aven Group of Symbolists.
    (SFCM, 10/14/01, p.34)

1868-1944    William Allen White, American journalist: "Consistency is a paste jewel that only cheap men cherish."
    (AP, 2/8/99)

1868-1952    Norman Douglas, Scottish [British] author: Justice is too good for some people and not good enough for the rest. "You can tell the ideals of a nation by its advertisements."
    (AP, 11/3/97)(AP, 5/22/99)

1868-1955     Paul Claudel, French author: "Why must all the churches be closed at night? How often has the wanderer groaned in front of those closed doors?"
    (AP, 12/27/98)

1869        Jan-May, Chinese laborers on the Central Pacific set a one-day record when they laid ten miles of track in one day across the Utah desert. This beat the 4 mile record accomplished by Irish workers on the Union Pacific line.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)

1869        Feb 2, James Oliver invented the removable tempered steel plow blade.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1869        Feb 6, Harper's Weekly published the 1st picture of Uncle Sam with chin whiskers.
    (MC, 2/6/02)
1869        Feb 6, Carlo Cattaneo (b.1801), Italian politician, died in Switzerland. His writings significantly shaped the Italian Risorgimento. His journal, Il Politecnico (~ez_ldquo~The Polytechnic~ez_rdquo~), not only served as a vehicle for his political views but also was influential in introducing new scientific and technical improvements into Italy.
    (www.ohio.edu/chastain/ac/cattaneo.htm)

1869        Feb 15, Charges of treason against Jefferson Davis were dropped. Jefferson Davis~ez_rsquo~ Mexican War exploits had led him directly to the Confederate White House.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1869        Feb 20, Tenn. Gov. W.C. Brownlow declared martial law in Ku Klux Klan crisis.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1869        Feb 26, Nadezjda K. Krupskaja, Russian revolutionary, wife of Lenin, was born.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1869        Feb 26, 15th Amendment, guaranteeing right to vote, was sent to states.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1869        Mar 1, Postage stamps showing scenes were issued for 1st time.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1869        Mar 1, Alphonse MLP de Lamartine (78), French poet (History of Girondins), died.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1869        Mar 3, University of South Carolina opened to all races.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1869        Mar 4, Ulysses S. Grant was sworn in as the 18th president of the US.
    (ON, 9/01, p.7)

1869        Mar 8, Louis Hector Berlioz (b.1803), French composer (Symphony Fantastic), died. He was later hailed as the most blazing musical innovator of the early 19th century. In 1969 David Cairns translated his memoirs ~ez_ldquo~The Memoirs of Hector Berlioz.~ez_rdquo~
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hector_Berlioz)(WSJ, 4/8/03, p.D4)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)

1869        Mar 11, Vladimir Odoevsky, Russian prince, senator, scientist writer and critic, died. A collection of his short stories was translated to English in 2012.
    (NYT, 9/27/12, p.7)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Odoevsky)

1869        Mar 13, Arkansas legislature passed anti-Klan law.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1869        Mar 15, Cincinnati Red Stockings became the 1st pro baseball team.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1869        Mar 18, Neville Chamberlin, British Prime Minister (1937-40), was born. He tried to make peace "in our time" with German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, but instead made it easier for Hitler to take over continental Europe.
    (HN, 3/18/99)

1869        Mar 21, Albert Kahn, the architect who originated modern factory design, was born.
    (HN, 3/21/98)
1869        Mar 21, Florenz Ziegfeld, creator of the Ziegfeld Follies, was born. In 1974 Randolph Carter (d.1998 at 90) authored "The World of Flo Ziegfeld."
    (HN, 3/21/98)(SFC, 10/24/98, p.A22)

1869        Apr 6, John and Isaiah Hyatt applied for a new patent using collodion to manufacture billiard balls. They later named their product celluloid. It was similar to that made by English inventor Alexander Parkes, who patented the process in England in 1855. The new plastic could be molded and mass produced, but was very flammable and exploded when struck with excessive force. [see Jun 15]
    (HNQ, 5/8/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(MC, 4/6/02)(PCh, 1992, p.467)(ON, 11/03, p.3)

1869        Apr 8, Harvey Cushing, US neurosurgeon (blood pressure studied), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)
1869        Apr 8, American Museum of Natural History opened in NYC.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1869        Apr 9, The Hudson Bay Company ceded its territory to Canada.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1869        Apr 10, The US Congress increased the number of Supreme Court judges from 7 to 9.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1869        Apr 12, The US Supreme Court in Texas v White established that secession is illegal. The case involved a claim by the Reconstruction government of Texas that United States bonds owned by Texas since 1850 had been illegally sold by the Confederate state legislature during the American Civil War.
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.34)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_v._White)
1869        Apr 12, Henri-Desire Landru (Bluebeard), French sex murderer, was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)
1869        Apr 12, North Carolina legislature passed an anti-Klan Law.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1869        Apr 13, Steam power brake was patented by George Westinghouse.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1869        Apr 20, Johann Carl Gottfried Loewe (72), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1869        Apr 30, Hawaiian YMCA was organized.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1869        Apr, France~ez_rsquo~s Emp. Louis Napoleon ordered the dissolution of the Public Works Fund.
    (ON, 9/06, p.12)

1869        May 1, Folies Bergere opened in Paris.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1869        May 6, A special Southern Pacific train left Sacramento bound for Utah to drive the final spike connecting the SP to the Union Pacific on May 8. The UP train did not arrive until May 10.
    (WSJ, 8/25/00, p.W10)

1869        May 10, In the desert near Promontory, Utah, railway official Leland Stanford, drove down a golden spike to unite the tracks from the east and the west. The first transcontinental railroad was completed when the Union Pacific Railroad--building west from Omaha, Nebraska--and the Central Pacific--building east from Sacramento, California--met at Promontory Point, Utah. Recognizing that transportation was essential to the economic development of the nation, the U.S. Congress passed legislation in 1862 that provided for the construction of a railroad linking the east and west coasts. A depression followed the completion of the railroad and the Chinese became a target of ill-will as unemployment soared. Engine 350 was the first one down the Union Pacific line and commemorative platters were made for the occasion. In 1999 David Howard Bain published "Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad." In 2000 Stephen E. Ambrose authored "Nothing Like It in the World, The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869." In 2007 Richard Rayner authored ~ez_ldquo~The Associates: Four Capitalists Who Created California.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)(SFC,1/22/97, Z1 p.7)(HN, 5/11/99)(WSJ, 11/4/99, p.A28)(WSJ, 8/25/00, p.W10)(SSFC, 12/17/00, BR p.10)(SSFC, 1/20/08, p.M1)

1869        May 24, John Wesley Powell departed Green River City, Wyoming, with 9 men on an expedition to explore the canyons of the Green and Colorado River. Over 3 years he led two expeditions to explore the Grand Canyon. Three members of the first expedition were killed, reportedly by Indians. His written account was suspected to be inflated if not fictitious. A 1997 novel by Oakley Hall, "Separations," depicted the events.
    (HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.127)(SFC, 4/23/97, p.D5)(ON, 5/02, p.1)

1869        May 29, Philippe Vandermaelen (73), Flemish cartographer, publisher, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1869         Jun 1, The Electric Voting Machine was patented by Thomas A. Edison.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

1869        Jun 6, Siegfried Wagner, German opera composer, conductor, son of Richard Wagner (who composed "Siegfried Idyll" to commemorate his birth), was born.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1869        Jun 8, Lloyd Wright (d.1959), American architect. He designed Taliesin West near Scottsdale, Arizona on 600 acres in the foothills of the McDowell Mountains. He also designed the beehive building of the Guggenheim Museum on 5th Ave in NYC. "Give me the luxuries of life and I will willingly do without the necessities." [see Jun 8,1867]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1647)(AAM, 3/96, p.43)(WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A7)
1869        Jun 8, Ives W. McGaffey of Chicago patented the 1st vacuum cleaner.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1869        Jun 9, Charles Elmer Hires sold his 1st root beer in Phila.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1869        Jun 15, Celluloid was patented in the USA. [see Apr 6]
    (HT, 6/15/00)

1869        Jun 24, Mary Ellen "Mammy" Pleasant officially became the Voodoo Queen in San Francisco, California.
    (HN, 6/24/99)

1869        Jun 27, Emma Goldman, Lithuanian born American anarchist, feminist and birth control advocate, was born. She was deported to the Soviet Union for inciting World War I draft riots in New York.
    (HN, 6/27/99)

1869        Jul 4, Frederick Marriott flew his unmanned Aviator Hermes Jr. over a field near Millbrae and Burlingame. The machine was a gasbag filled with hydrogen, and a steam engine turning rotors with attached delta wings guided by men on the ground with ropes.
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.A23)(SFC, 10/11/14, p.C2)

1869        Jul 8, William Vaughan Moody, poet and playwright (The Great Divide), was born.
    (HN, 7/8/01)

1869        Jul 15, Margarine was patented by Hippolye Mega-Mouriss for use by French Navy.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1869        Jul 29, Booth Tarkington (d.1946), US dramatist and novelist (17, Magnificent Ambersons), was born. "Mystics always hope that science will some day overtake them."
    (AP, 1/31/00)(MC, 7/29/02)

1869        Jul, John Augustus Roebling, inventor of the steel wire cable and designer of the Brooklyn Bridge, was killed in a construction accident at the outset of construction of the Brooklyn Bridge. Roebling died of a tetanus infection from a foot injury. He had earlier completed the first suspension bridge over the Niagara gorge linking the US and Canada. His son and partner, Washington A. Roebling, supervised the Brooklyn Bridge to its completion in spite of a debilitating illness.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(AP, 5/24/97)(HNPD, 5/23/99)(WSJ, 6/10/99, p.A24)(ON, 4/01, p.9)

1869        Aug 10, O.B. Brown patented a moving picture projector.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1869        Aug 12,  In Piribebuy, Paraguay, 1,600 poorly armed men, many of them mere children, spent 5 hours resisting the assault of 20,000 allied Brazilian, Argentine and Uruguayan forces intent on conquest, before finally being overwhelmed. At the end of the battle, in which the Hospital de Sangre was burnt down, along with all the wounded inside, many prisoners were decapitated.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piribebuy)

1869        Aug 17, Oxford beat Harvard on the Thames River in the 1st international boat race.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1869        Aug 24, Cornelius Swarthout of Troy, New York, patented the waffle iron.
    (HN, 8/24/00)

1869        Aug 27, Karl Haushofer, soldier, geographer, was born.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1869        Aug 29, John Wesley Powell and his men successfully navigated the last rapid in the Grand Canyon and reached the mouth of the Virgin River in Nevada.
    (ON, 8/12, p.8)

1869        Sep 6, 110 miners, a number of them young boys, were killed in coal mine disaster which occurred early in the morning in Avondale, Pennsylvania, when a fire broke out in a mineshaft, cutting off the miners' escape route and their only source of air.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1869        Sep 10, A Baptist minister invented the rickshaw in Yokohama, Japan. The jinrikisha, or rickshaw, was developed as a cheap alternative to horse power in 1870. In 1998 Tony wheeler wrote "Chasing Rickshaws" with photographs by Richard I~ez_rsquo~Anson.
    (SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T9)(MC, 9/10/01)

1869        Sep 12, Peter M. Roget, English physician and lexographer, died. In 2008 Joshua Kendall authored ~ez_ldquo~The Man Who Made Lists: Love, Death, Madness, and the Creation of Roget~ez_rsquo~s Thesaurus~ez_rdquo~ (1852).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Roget)(WSJ, 3/22/08, p.W10)

1869        Sep 13, Jay Gould and James Fisk attempted to control the US gold market.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1869        Sep 22, Richard Wagner's opera "Das Rheingold" premiered in Munich.
    (MC, 9/22/01)
1869        Sep 22, The Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first professional baseball team, arrived in San Francisco after a rollicking, barnstorming tour of the West.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1869        Sep 23, Edgar Lee Masters, poet and novelist (Spoon River Anthology), was born.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1869        Sep 24, Black Friday. Thousands of businessmen were ruined in a Wall Street panic after financiers Jay Gould and James Fisk attempted to corner the gold market.
    (AP, 9/24/97)(MC, 9/24/01)

1869        Sep 27, Wild Bill Hickok, sheriff of Hays City, Kan., shot down Samuel Strawhim, a drunken teamster causing trouble.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1869        Oct 1, Austria issued the world's first postal card, the Correspondenz Karte, a plain-line card printed with a 2-kreuzer stamp.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.97)(http://shilohpostcards.com/webdoc2.htm)

1869        Oct 2, Mohandas Karamchad Gandhi (d.1948), called Mahatma, Hindu nationalist, political and spiritual leader was born in Porbandar, India. His nonviolent actions helped to eradicate British rule in India. He was assassinated in 1948. "Love is the strongest force the world possesses, and yet it is the humblest imaginable." "To enjoy life one should give up the lure of life." [see Oct 3]   
    (AHD, 1971, p.542)(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.40)(SFC, 1/31/97, p.A13)(AP, 10/2/97)(AP, 1/12/98)(HN, 10/2/98)(AP, 1/12/98)(AP, 1/20/99)

1869        Oct 3, Mohandas Karamchad Gandhi (d.1948), called Mahatma, Hindu nationalist and spiritual leader was born. He was later assassinated. [see Oct 2]
    (AHD, 1971, p.542)(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.40)(SFC, 1/31/97, p.A13)

1869        Oct 6, Johannes Brahms' "Liebeslieder Walzes," premiered.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1869        Oct 8, Franklin Pierce (64), the 14th president (1853-1857) of the United States, died in Concord, N.H.
    (AP, 10/8/97)(MC, 10/8/01)

1869        Oct 13, Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve, French writer (Tableau Historique), died.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1869        Oct 16, A hotel in Boston became the 1st to have indoor plumbing.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1869        Oct 21, The 1st shipment of fresh oysters came West overland from Baltimore.
    (MC, 10/21/01)
   
1869        Oct 23, John Heisman, American college football coach from 1892 to 1927, was born. He had a trophy for best college player named after him.
    (HN, 10/23/98)

1869        Oct 25, August Otto Halm, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1869        Nov 1, Louis Riel seized Fort Garry, Winnipeg, during the Red River Rebellion. Louis Riel, Metis leader, helped stage an uprising against the influx of white settlers in Manitoba that resulted in a provisional government that he led. Manitoba was admitted as Canada~ez_rsquo~s 5th province and the Metis were allocated 1.4 million acres of land, but Riel fled charged with failing to stop the execution of Thomas Scott, an English Protestant captured during the fighting.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)(HN, 11/1/98)(Reuters, 11/22/02)

1869        Nov 2, Sheriff Wild Bill Hickok lost his reelection bid in Ellis County, Kan.
    (HN, 11/2/98)

1869        Nov 8, The transcontinental railway arrived in Oakland, Ca., with a stop at Suisun City. The Mariposa pulled 6 coaches into Oakland at 7th and Broadway.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W27)(SFC, 9/3/99, p.A4)(SFC, 5/3/02, p.A20)

1869        Nov 11, Victor Emmanuel III, king of Italy (1900-46) and Ethiopia, was born.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1869        Nov 17, The Suez Canal was opened in Egypt, linking the Mediterranean and the Red seas. The 100 mile canal eliminated a 4000-mile trip around Africa. Empress Eugenie, the wife of Napoleon III, together with Ferdinand de Lesseps, chief architect of the canal, led the first file of ships from on board the French imperial yacht Aigle. It was financed by the Rothschild banking empire. In 2003 Zacharay Karabell authored "Parting the Desert: The Creation of the Suez Canal."
    (I&WWI, p.1041)(SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)(AP, 11/17/97)(MC, 11/17/01)(WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)

1869        Nov 22, Andre Gide (d1951), French novelist and critic (Lafcadio's Adventures- Nobel 1947), was born. "There are very few monsters who warrant the fear we have of them." "Believe those who are seeking the truth; doubt those who find it." "The color of truth is gray."
    (AP, 10/31/97)(AP, 3/24/98)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(MC, 11/22/01)

1869        Dec 10, Governor John Campbell signed a bill that granted women in the Wyoming Territory the right to vote as well as hold public office. Esther Morris had pressed state senator William Bright to sponsor the suffrage bill. Wyoming became the 1st US state to enfranchise women.
    (AP, 12/10/97)(HN, 12/10/98)(USAW, 5/19/02, p.8)

1869        Dec 14, Nathan Meeker, agricultural editor of the New York Tribune, wrote a column appealing to readers of high moral character to join him in building a utopian community by the South Platte River near the foot of the Rocky Mountains. He selected 700 of some 3000 applicants and founded Greeley, Colo., named after his publisher Horace Greeley.
    (Sm, 2/06, p.99)

1869        Dec 18, Louis Moreau Gottschalk (b.1829), American composer, died in Brazil.
    (http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/gottschalk.html)

1869         Dec 22, Edwin Arlington Robinson (d.1935), American poet, was born. "Christmas has come and gone, and I~ez_mdash~to speak selfishly~ez_mdash~am glad of it. The season always gives me the blues in spite of myself, though I manage to get a good deal of pleasure from thinking of the multitudes of happy kids in various parts of the world."
    (AP, 12/26/97)(SFEC, 4/23/00, BR p.6)

1869        Dec 24, Edwin M[cMasters] Stanton (55), US Secretary of War (1861-65), died.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1869        Dec 28, William Finley Semple of Mount Vernon, Ohio, patented chewing gum.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1869        Dec 31, Henri Matisse (d.1954), French artist best known for his paintings "Woman with a Hat" and "The Red Studio," was born. His work included the "Dance II," now at the Hermitage in Moscow. In 1998 Hilary Spurling authored "The Unknown Matisse: A Life of Henri Matisse, Vol 1: 1869-1908."
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A5)(SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.9)(HN, 12/31/98)

1869        Johann Friedrich Overbeck (b.1789), German Nazarene artist, was born.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1869        Gustave Courbet painted "The Rock of Hautepierre."
    (DPCP 1984)

1869        Edgar Degas painted "Madame Camus at the Piano."
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.E6)

1869        Jules-Elie Delaunay created his painting "The Plague in Rome."
    (WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)

1869        Claude Monet painted "The Seine at Bougival, Evening."
    (SFC, 7/11/01, p.D1)

1869        Renoir and Monet sat side by side and painted views of the bathing house, La Grenouillleres and its patrons.
    (WSJ, 9/10/96, p.A16)(SFC, 10/30/96, p.E2)

1869        Camille Pissarro painted "The Versailles Road at Louveciennes."
    (SFEM, 1/31/99, p.18)

1869        Francis Galton, British psychologist, authored ~ez_ldquo~Hereditary Genius,~ez_rdquo~ in which he argued that natural abilities are derived by inheritance.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.32)(www.thoemmes.com/psych/galton.htm)

1869        John Stuart Mill authored his essay ~ez_ldquo~On Liberty~ez_rdquo~ in which he argued that the state should repress man~ez_rsquo~s acts only if they harm others.
    (Econ, 4/8/06, p.67)

1869        Rangawarsita, a Javanese royal courtier, compiled the "Books of Kings," which mentioned an event from the middle of the first millennium that sounded like a major eruption. In about 535 there was some evidence that the Krakatoa volcano had a major eruption.
    (WSJ, 5/15/00, p.A46)

1869        Catherine Esther Beecher and sister Harriet Beecher Stowe authored ~ez_ldquo~American Woman~ez_rsquo~s Home,~ez_rdquo~ in which they recommended a scientific approach to household management.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.125)

1869        Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), British field biologist, authored ~ez_ldquo~The Malay Archipelago.~ez_rdquo~ He had gone to Indonesia in 1852 looking for the origin of species.
    (WSJ, 3/29/08, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Russel_Wallace)

1869        Johannes Brahms composed his "German Requiem."
    (WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)

1869        Thomas Henry Huxley, English biologist, naturalist and writer, coined the term "agnostic" after he got tired of being called an atheist. [2nd source says 1870]
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, Z1 p.8)(SFEC, 9/3/00, Z1 p.2)

1869        Railroad companies built the first bridge across the Missouri River at Kansas City.
    (SSFC, 11/12/06, p.G6)

1869        The US federal government took 7,500 acres within the Cheyenne-Arapaho reservation of Oklahoma for a military fort, Fort Reno. In 1997 the closed fort was under control of the Agriculture Dept. and used for a small research project.
    (SFC, 3/10/97, p.A2)

1869        Daniel E. Sickles was appointed minister to Spain. A newspaper summed up his career: "mail robber, spy, murderer, confidence man, general, satrap, politician." In 2002 Thomas Keneally authored "American Scoundrel," a biography of Sickles.
    (WSJ, 3/29/02, p.W10)

1869        In San Francisco the Catholic Sisters of Charity opened an orphanage on the top of Mount St. Joseph.
    (SFC, 7/24/13, p.D6)
1869        The transcontinental railway arrived in Oakland, Ca.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W27)
1869        Wells Fargo allowed Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, Henry Huntington and mark Hopkins (the Big Four) to gain controlling interest in exchange for the exclusive rights to carry express over the Transcontinental Railroad.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)
1869        The Pacific Lumber Company was founded. It was headquartered in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A4)

1869        In Connecticut the Meriden Silver Plate Co. was founded.
    (SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.9)

1869        About this time Edmund McIlhenny, banker, traveled to New Orleans and acquired some pepper seeds from a man on the street, which he grew and used to develop a  hot sauce that he called Tabasco, after peppers from Mexico~ez_rsquo~s state of Tabasco. In 2007 Jeffrey Rothfeder authored McIlhenny~ez_rsquo~s Gold: How a Louisiana Family Built the Tabasco Empire.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFC, 4/5/99, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D11)

1869        Gambling in Nevada was legalized.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, DB p.64)

1869        John Brown - of the banking firm of Brown Brothers & Co. - put all of his bank~ez_rsquo~s capital on the line to block a cornering of the gold market by Jay Gould and Jim Fisk.
    (WSJ, 5/8/95, p.A-14)
1869        100,000 young evergreens were sold at Christmas in New York City.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.53)
1869        In NYC Hart Island became the city~ez_rsquo~s graveyard. The island had also been used as a Union training camp, a Confederate prison, a yellow-fever quarantine, a lunatic asylum, a workhouse for aged inmates, a prison for WW II German soldiers, an antiaircraft missile base, a rehab center for the homeless and drug addicts, and a driving school for chronic traffic offenders.
    (WSJ, 8/26/98, p.10)
1869        Marcus Goldman, son of a German peasant, began to broker credit to diamond and leather merchants near Wall Street. He later offered a partnership to his son-in-law Sam Sachs. In 1999 Lisa Endlich published "Goldman Sachs: The Culture of Success." In 2008 Charles D. Ellis authored ~ez_rdquo~The Partnership: The Making of Goldman Sachs.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 10/1/08, p.A23)

1869        Alexander Turney Stewart (d.1860), Irish-born entrepreneur, founded Garden City, NJ.
    (www.lowermanhattan.info/history)

1869        Dr. Thomas Bramwell Welsh, a wine steward at a church in Vineland, pasteurized Concord grape juice to produce an unfermented sacramental wine. He later came to be known as the father of the fruit juice industry.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, Z1 p.8)

1869        Henry John Heinz partnered with L. Clarence Noble to form Heinz & Noble in Sharpsburg, Pa. Their first product was grated horseradish. Their first ketchup was introduced in 1876. They produced tomato and walnut ketchup for 24 cents per gallon and sold them from whiskey barrels. In 2013 Warren Buffett~ez_rsquo~s Berkshire Hathaway and 3G Capital acquired Heinz in a $23.3 billion deal.
    (SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)(www.hfp.heinz.org/aboutus/heinzhistory.html)(SFC, 2/15/13, p.C4)

1869        Pillsbury was founded as a US flour milling company.
    (WSJ, 5/5/99, p.B1)

1869        Western Union formed Western Electric to make apparatus for the telegraph. It was later subsumed into AT&A and then spun off as Lucent.
    (WSJ, 10/5/04, p.D8)

1869        George Westinghouse (1846-1914) introduced the railroad airbrake. The device enabled the engineer to brake a train from the locomotive. Westinghouse secured a patent for the first air brake, an invention that had a revolutionary impact on railroad transportation, making high-speed travel safe. Westinghouse already held patents for a rotary steam engine and other railroad equipment when he incorporated the Westinghouse Air Brake Co. in 1869. He later invented an automatic air brake for long freight trains. Westinghouse, who eventually held more than 400 patents, turned his interest to electricity in 1885 and later formed the Westinghouse Electric.
    (THC, 12/2/97)(HNQ, 5/28/00)

1869        Margarine was invented.
    (NW, 9/16/02, p.34D)

1869        Carbon paper was first patented.
    (SFC, 6/3/00, p.D4)

1869        John Boyle O~ez_rsquo~Reilly, Irish nationalist, spy, convict, and poet, escaped by sea from an Australian prison camp and settled in Boston.
    (Smith., 4/1995, p.146)

1869        The first Univ. of Mich. University Hospital opened in Ann Arbor. It was the only university owned teaching hospital in the US.
    (MT, Sum. ~ez_lsquo~98, p.15)

1869        The petrified man hoax known as the "Cardiff Giant" was promoted in New York, Boston, Albany and Syracuse. A 10 foot 4 ½ inch limestone statue of a man was claimed to have been dug up in Cardiff, N.Y.
    (SFC, 11/18/00, p.B3)

1869        Ludwig Karl Kahlbaum in Innsbruck, Austria, described for the 1st time the medical condition of catatonia. He compiled a list of almost 40 signs involving unusual movements. For decades it was thought to be a type of schizophrenia. By 2006 it was still not well understood.
    (SSFC, 12/24/06, p.B6)

1869        Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (1827-1895), French artist, amateur entomologist and immigrant to the US, imported gypsy-moth eggs to set up a silk production project in the backyard of his Medford, Mass., home. The moth became a national pest.
    (WSJ, 5/1/01, p.A24)(SSFC, 5/22/05, Par p.4)

1869        Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1834-1907), Russian chemist, formulated the periodic table of elements [see 1871]. In 2001 Paul Strathern authored "Mendeleyev~ez_rsquo~s Dream," a history of chemistry.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.324)(HN, 2/8/01)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)

1869        New York Herald reporter Henry Morton Stanley was instructed to travel to Africa for the opening of the Suez Canal and to locate David Livingstone, the British missionary doctor who had been missing since 1866. Livingstone's final expedition to central Africa had been undertaken to bring Christianity to the natives, to help eradicate the slave trade and to locate the source of the Nile.
    (HNPD, 11/10/98)

1869        A fire at Yellow Jacket Mine near Virginia City, Nevada, killed 45 people.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T7)

1869        Roger Fenton (b.1819), British photographer, died. In 2004 Gordon Baldwin, Malcolm Daniel and Sarah Greenough authored ~ez_ldquo~All the Mighty World: The Photographs of Roger Fenton 1852-1860.~ez_rdquo~
    (SSFC, 11/14/04, p.E1)

1869        Henri Jomini, military theorist, died. He had used the campaigns of Napoleon to formulate theories of warfare that influenced military commanders through much of the 19th century. Jomini began his military career in 1798, volunteering his services to the French Army. With the peace of Amiens, he left the army and wrote his "Treatise of Grand Military Operations." The book impressed Napoleon enough to have Jomini appointed a staff colonel in 1805, Jomini having volunteered again in 1804. Jomini rose to become chief of staff under Marshall Ney, but left the French army to fight for Russia in 1813 as a general and aide-de-camp of Alexander I. By the time of his death in 1869, he had written several other works, organized the Russian military academy and advised kings on tactics for their various military campaigns.
    (HNQ, 9/1/00)

1869        Henry J. Raymond, founder of the New-York Daily Times, died of a heart attack in the apartment of his lover, actress Rose Eytinge.
    (SFEM, 1/16/00, p.17)

1869        The Austrian government introduced the first postcard, the Correspondenz Karte, a plain-line card printed with a 2-kreuzer stamp.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.97)

1869        The Giant Panda of China was first made known to the West by the French missionary Armand David.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant_Panda)

1869        The Benedictine monastery on the Croatian island of Sveta Marija was abandoned.
    (SSFC, 6/20/04, p.D8)

1869        In England the grandparents of Alan Sainsbury (1902-1998) founded a family grocery in London that grew to become a supermarket empire.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.B6)

1869        In France Pierre and Ernest Michaux built the first motorcycle. It was powered by a steam engine.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, Z1 p.7)
1869        In Paris the Bon Marche department store, founded by Aristide and Marguerite Boucicaut, began displaying its wares for customers to inspect and introduced price tags.
    (Econ, 10/2/04, p.18)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.15)

1869        In Hungary Mark Pick founded a sausage company in Szeged.
    (SFC, 3/21/97, p.D2)

1869        Iceland made it illegal to sell or distribute pornography.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.64)

1869        Japan~ez_rsquo~s Yasukuni shrine was dedicated to the Japanese who died in wars since 1853. The name, which means ~ez_ldquo~peaceful country,~ez_rdquo~ was bestowed by Emperor Meiji in 1879.
    (Econ, 10/8/05, Survey p.15)
1869        In Yokohama, Japan, Baptist missionary Jonathan Scobie put together the first jinriksha to cart around his invalid wife.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)

1869        Paraguay~ez_rsquo~s army surrendered to the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Pres. Lopez refused to surrender.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.46)

1869        In Scotland the tea clipper Cutty Sark was launched. The name referred to the Scottish word for short shift or dress.
    (SSFC, 6/19/05, p.E6)

1869-1870    The first Vatican Council. The doctrine of papal infallibility was declared. The council was interrupted by the Franco-Prussian war.
    (CU, 6/87)

1869-1876    In Britain the Midland Railway Company built the 70-mile Settle-Carlisle railway.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.114)

1869-1877    Ulysses S. Grant served as the 18th President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b)
1869-1877    Elihu Washburne (1816-1887) served as America~ez_rsquo~s minister to France and was influential in negotiating the armistice for the Franco-Prussian War. During the 2 months of the Paris Commune (1870) he arranged passports for Americans to escape the siege.
    (Econ, 6/4/11, p.95)

1869-1886    St. Francis Cathedral was built in Santa Fe, New Mexico, under the direction of French priest (later bishop) Jean-Baptiste Lamy.
    (SSFC, 6/10/01, p.T8)

1869-1921    Of the 11 U.S. presidents serving between 1869 and 1921, seven of them were born in Ohio. The presidents and their places of birth were: Ulysses S. Grant, Point Pleasant; Rutherford B. Hayes, Delaware; James A. Garfield, Orange; Benjamin Harrison, North Bend; William McKinley, Niles; William H. Taft, Cincinnati; Warren G. Harding, Morrow County. These were the only Ohio-born presidents. Three of them, Garfield, McKinley and Harding died in office.
    (HNQ, 5/9/98)

1869-1934    Marie Dressler, Canadian actress: "Never one thing and seldom one person can make for a success. It takes a number of them merging into one perfect whole."
    (AP, 4/19/99)

1869-1940     Emma Goldman, American anarchist: "Show me the country in which there are no strikes and I~ez_rsquo~ll show you that country in which there is no liberty."
    (AP, 9/7/98)

1869-1944     Stephen Leacock, Canadian humorist-educator: "If youth only had a chance or old age any brains."
    (AP, 4/28/98)

1869-1949    Hans Erich Pfitzner, German composer and conductor. He became a Nazi sympathizer and an enthusiastic anti-Semite.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1078)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1869-1951     Andre Gide, French author and critic: "There are very few monsters who warrant the fear we have of them." "Believe those who are seeking the truth; doubt those who find it." "The color of truth is gray."
    (AP, 10/31/97)(AP, 3/24/98)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)

1869-1955    Calouste Gulbenkian, Armenian oil merchant. By 1907 he combined Royal Dutch Oil and Shell Oil and emerged with a large block of stock in the combined company. He later brokered all the oil sold in Iran to the West for a 5% commission and earned the nickname Mr. Five percent. He collected old master paintings, Turkish carpets, illuminated manuscripts and left a fortune valued at $1 billion.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1869-1984    Paul Mayewski and Willi Dansgaard analyze ice-core from south Greenland covering this time period and found that the sulfate concentration had tripled since around 1900. the nitrate concentration showed to double.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.65)

1870        Jan 3, Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge began.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brooklyn_Bridge)

1870        Jan 9, Alexander Herzen (b.1812), Russian author, died in France. In 1961 US Prof. Martin Malia (1924-2004) authored ~ez_ldquo~Alexander Herzen and the Birth of Russian Socialism (1812-1855).
    (www.bookrags.com/biography/aleksandr-ivanovich-herzen/)(SFC, 11/24/04, p.B6)

1870        Jan 10, John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) and his brother William incorporated the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. The original Standard Oil Company, founded by John D. Rockefeller and three partners in 1870, was incorporated in the state of Ohio.
    (WSJ, 7/15/97, p.A16)(AP, 1/10/98)(HN, 1/10/99)(HNQ, 1/23/00)
1870        Jan 10, Victor Noir (22), French journalist, was killed by Prince Pierre Bonaparte. Noir "had called on him with a companion to present his editor's challenge to a duel because of a journalistic dispute concerning Corsican politics.~ez_rdquo~ Public sentiment over Noir's death forces Napoleon III to abdicate. A statue of Noir~ez_rsquo~s prostrate figure became a magnet for infertile women rubbing themselves against him as a sexual charm.
    (SSFC, 10/31/04, p.F9)(www.alsirat.com/silence/cemtime/time4.html)

1870        Jan 15, The Democratic party was represented as a donkey in a cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper~ez_rsquo~s Weekly.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.84)(AP, 1/15/98)

1870        Jan 19, Nathaniel Langford, agent of the Northern Pacific Railroad Co., presented a lecture in Wash. DC on the challenges of building a RR through the northern Rockies and reported that Yellowstone Valley contained dozens of geysers. This prodded Ferdinand Hayden to seek Congressional support for a scientific expedition to the valley.
    (ON, 11/02, p.2)

1870        Jan 23, American army forces, looking for Mountain Chief's band of hostile Blackfoot Indians, fell instead upon Heavy Runner's peaceable Piegan band in Montana and killed 173, many of them women and children.
    (www.legendsofamerica.com/NA-Blackfoot.html)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.M2)

1870        Jan 26, Virginia rejoined the Union.
    (AP, 1/26/98)

1870        Feb 2, Samuel Clemens, Mark Twain, married Olivia Langdon in Elmira, New York. He fell in love with her photograph during an 1867 trip to the Holy Land with her brother Charles.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.31)
1870        Feb 2, The press agencies Havas, Reuter and Wolff signed an agreement whereby between them they would cover the whole world.
    (HN, 2/2/99)
1870        Feb 2, The "Cardiff Giant," supposedly the petrified remains of a human discovered in Cardiff, N.Y., was revealed to be nothing more than carved gypsum.
    (AP, 2/2/97)

1870        Feb 3, 15th Amendment on Black suffrage was passed. [see Mar 30]
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1870        Feb 5, The 1st motion picture was shown to a theater audience in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1870        Feb 7, Alfred Adler, psychiatrist (Inferiority Complex), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1870        Feb 9, The U.S. Army established the US National Weather Service. Congress under continued petition from Smithsonian secretary Joseph Henry and colleagues, passed a military appropriation enabling the US Army Signal Service to make standardized weather observations.
    (AP, 2/9/99)(ON, 2/06, p.7)

1870        Feb 12, Women in the Utah Territory gained the right to vote. However, that right was taken away in 1887.
    (AP, 2/12/07)
1870        Feb 12, An official proclamation set April 15 as last day of grace for US silver coins to circulate in Canada.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1870        Feb 13, Leopold Godowsky, virtuoso pianist, composer, was born in Lithuania.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1870        Feb 14, Esther Morris became the world~ez_rsquo~s first female justice of the peace.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1870        Feb 15, Ground was broken for Northern Pacific Railway near Duluth, Minn.
    (440 Int~ez_rsquo~l., 2/15/99)

1870        Feb 16, The clipper ship Cutty Sark left London on its first voyage, proceeding around Cape Hope to Shanghai 3 1/2 months later. The ship made only eight voyages to China in the tea trade, as steam ships replaced sail on the high seas.
    (AP, 5/21/07)

1870        Feb 17, Mississippi became the 9th state readmitted to US after Civil War. [see Feb 23]
    (MC, 2/17/02)
1870        Feb 17, Nebraska, the last state needed to secure ratification, approved the 15th Amendment to the US Constitution, guaranteeing the right to vote regardless of race.
    (AH, 2/05, p.17)

1870        Feb 23, Mississippi was readmitted to the Union. [see Feb 17]
    (AP, 2/23/98)
1870        Feb 23, Anton Burlingame, former Mass., legislator, former US ambassador to China and current Chinese diplomat, died in Russia. He was returned to Boston for burial.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1870        Feb 25, Hiram Revels (Sen-R-MS) was sworn in as the 1st black member of Congress.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1870        Feb 26, New York City's first pneumatic-powered subway line was opened to the public. The tunnel was only a block long, and the line had only one car.
    (AP, 2/26/07)
1870        Feb 26, Wyatt Outlaw, black leader of Union League in North Carolina, was lynched.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1870        Mar 1, Francisco S. Lopez (43), President of Paraguay (1862-70), was killed in the War of the Triple alliance. The Brazilian army had cornered him at Cerro Cora. A rough post-war census counted just 29,000 males over the age of 15 left in Paraguay.
    (http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/L/Lopez-Fr.html)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.46)

1870        Mar 5, Frank Norris, novelist (McTeague, The Octopus), was born.
    (HN, 3/5/01)

1870        Mar 6, Oscar Strauss, composer (Ein Walzertraum), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1870        Mar 17, the Massachusetts Legislature authorized the incorporation of Wellesley Female Seminary. It later became Wellesley College.
    (AP, 3/17/97)

1870        Mar 18, The 1st US National Wildlife Preserve was Lake Merritt in Oakland, Calif. Lake Merritt, actually a tidal lagoon, was named after Samuel Merritt, a physician and one of the 1st mayors of Oakland.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W31)(SFC, 1/5/01, WBb p.8)(SFCM, 8/17/03, p.3)

1870        Mar 19, The opera "Guarany," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1870        Mar 30, The 15th Amendment to the US Constitution, guaranteeing the right to vote regardless of race, was declared in effect by Secretary of State Hamilton Fish.
    (HN, 3/30/98)(AP, 3/30/08)
1870        Mar 30, Texas was the last Confederate state readmitted to the Union.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(HN, 3/30/98)

1870        Apr 2, Victoria Claflin Woodhull (1838-1927) became the first woman to run for president of the United States when she announced her candidacy for the 1872 election, but she spent Election Day in jail for sending obscene literature through the mail. Woodhull challenged convention in Victorian-era America. Victoria and her sister, Tennessee Claflin, got their start as spiritual advisors to financier Cornelius Vanderbilt. With his backing, the sisters became the first women to open their own successful brokerage firm.
    (HNPD, 4/28/99)

1870        Apr 9, The American Anti-Slavery Society dissolved.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1870        Apr 9, Heinrich Schliemann, German archeologist, with neither a permit nor the consent of the Turkish landowners, had his hired men sink trenches on the summit of the mound of Hissarlik, the spur of a limestone plateau on the northwest coast, where he suspected that the ancient ruins of Troy lay buried. Schliemann was hired by Frank Calvert (1828-1908), US Consular Agent at the Dardanelles, to excavate at Thymbra. In 1999 Susan Heuck Allen authored ~ez_ldquo~Finding the Wall of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik.~ez_rdquo~
    (www.lib.duke.edu/lilly/artlibry/dah/schliemannh.htm)(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.44)(Arch, 11/04, p.8)

1870        Apr 13, The Metropolitan Museum of Art was incorporated in New York. The museum opened in 1872.
    (AP, 4/13/08)

1870        Apr 22, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (d.1924), also known as Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, Russian revolutionary leader and first communist leader of USSR, was born. It was later learned that he was a hereditary noble and that he had a French mistress named Inessa Armand. In 1996 Richard Pipes edited "The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.260)(WSJ, 10/23/96, p.A19)(SFC, 3/27/97, p.A15)(HN, 4/22/98)

1870        Apr 27, Heinrich Schliemann discovered Troy.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1870        Apr 30, Franz Lehár, operetta composer, was born. He is best known for "The Marry Widow" and "The Land of Smiles."
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1870        May 7, Marcus Loew, film executive, was born. He consolidated studios to create MGM.
    (HN, 5/7/02)

1870        May 8, In France a national plebiscite voted confidence in the Empire with about 84% of votes in favor. On the eve of the plebiscite members of the Paris Federation were arrested on a charge of conspiring against Napoleon III. This pretext was further used by the government to launch a campaign of persecution of the members of the International throughout France.
    (www.marxists.org/history/france/paris-commune/timeline.htm)

1870        May 12, An act creating the Canadian province of Manitoba was given royal assent, to take effect in July.
    (AP, 5/12/08)

1870        May 25, Irish Fenians raided Eccles Hill, Quebec.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1870        Jun 5, A fire in Constantinople killed some 900 people.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1870        Jun 9, Washington: Pres Grant met with Sioux chief Red Cloud.
    (MC, 6/9/02)
1870        Jun 9, Charles Dickens (58), writer, died in Gad~ez_rsquo~s Hill, England. His work included the "Pictures from Italy" and ~ez_ldquo~Oliver Twist.~ez_rdquo~ In 2009 Michael Slater authored ~ez_ldquo~Charles Dickens.~ez_rdquo~ In 2011 Claire Tomalin authored ~ez_ldquo~Charles Dickens: A Life.~ez_rdquo~
    (www.lang.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~matsuoka/CD-Chro.html)(AP, 6/9/07)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.92)(SSFC, 11/27/11, p.F5)

1870        Jun 11, William Gilmore Simms (b.1806), American Southern writer, died. His books included ~ez_ldquo~Guy Rivers~ez_rdquo~ (1834) and ~ez_ldquo~The Yemassee~ez_rdquo~ (1835).
    (WSJ, 6/5/06, p.D8)(http://famousamericans.net/williamgilmoresimms/)

1870        Jun 17, George Cormack, cereal inventor (Wheaties), was born.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1870        Jun 21, A Chinese mob in Tianjin set upon the French consul and tore him limb from limb for firing his pistol at a Chinese official, wounding one of his retinue. The mob slaughtered about 20 foreigners including 2 priests and 10 nuns. Nearly 20 Chinese were later executed by the Qing to appease the French and avoid war. Diplomat Wanyan Chonghou soon sailed to France to issue a formal apology.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.71)

1870        Jun 22, The US Congress created the Department of Justice.
    (AP, 6/22/97)

1870        Jun 25, Richard Wagner's opera "Die Walkure" was produced in Munich.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1870        Jun 26, Christmas was made a federal holiday in the US.
    (www.thehistoryofchristmas.com/ch/in_america.htm)(Econ, 12/15/12, p.34) 
1870        Jun 26, The first section of the famous boardwalk in Atlantic City, N.J., was opened to the public.
    (AP, 6/26/97)
   
1870        Jun 30, Ada H. Kepley of Effingham, Ill., became America~ez_rsquo~s first female law school graduate.
    (AP, 6/30/97)

1870        Jul 11(Jun 11), 1st-stone Amstel Brewery opened in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1870        Jul 15, Georgia became the last of the Confederate states to be admitted to the Union.
    (AP, 7/15/97)
1870        Jul 15, Manitoba entered confederation as the fifth Canadian province.
    (AP, 7/15/07)

1870        Jul 18, Pontifical infallibility was proclaimed at the Vatican Council. It proclaimed as dogma that the Pope when speaking ex cathedra can make no mistake in solemn declarations of what must be believed in matters of faith and morals. The 20th ecumenical council, soon adjourned due to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War.
    (PTA, 1980, p.510)(MC, 7/18/02)

1870        Jul 19, The Franco-Prussian War began. Napoleon declared war on Bismarck. Emperor Napoleon III of France declared war on Germany under Otto von Bismarck. Napoleon was defeated in three months and abdicated.
    (WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)(V.D.-H.K.p.260)(AP, 7/19/07)

1870        Jul 20, Vladimir D. Nabokov, Russian jurist, minister of Justice (1918-19), was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1870        Jul 21, Josef Strauss (42), Austrian composer (Dynamids), died.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1870        Jul 23, In France Marx completed what will become known as his "First Address."
    (www.marxists.org/history/france/paris-commune/timeline.htm)

1870        Jul 24, The 1st trans-US rail service began.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1870        Jul 27, Hilaire Belloc, French writer (Cautionary Tales), was born.
    (HN, 7/27/01)

1870        Jul 30, Clara Barton departed for field with the Red Cross following the French declaration of war against Prussia. In Basle Antoinette Margot (27) joined her as an aide and interpreter.
    (ON, 8/12, p.11)

1870        Aug 6, White conservatives suppressed the black vote and captured Tenn. Legislature.
    (MC, 8/6/02)
1870        Aug 6, Battle at Spicheren: Prussia beat France.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1870        Aug 14, David [James] Glasgow Farragut, admiral, died.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1870        Aug 17, Frederick Russell, developer of the 1st successful typhoid fever vaccine, was born.
    (SC, 8/17/02)
1870        Aug 17, The 1st ascent of Mt. Rainier in Washington state.
    (SC, 8/17/02)
1870        Aug 17, Esther Morris was named a justice of the peace in South Pass City, the first woman to hold public office in the US.
    (SFC, 8/18/98, p.A8)(SC, 8/17/02)

1870        Aug 18, Prussian forces defeated the French at the Battle of Gravelotte during the Franco-Prussian War.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1870        Aug 19, Bernard Baruch, U.S. representative to the U.N. Atomic Energy Commission, was born.  "Let us not deceive ourselves: we must elect world peace  or world destruction."
    (HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1870        Aug 25, Richard Wagner married Cosima von Bulow. Cosima was the illegitimate daughter of Franz Liszt and had married Hans von Bulow. She and Wagner already had 3 children by the time they married.
    (LGC, 1970, p.266)
1870        Aug 25, Richard Seymour-Conway (b.1800), the Fourth Marquees of Hertford, died in Paris. Richard Wallace (1818-1890), his illegitimate son, learned that the nobleman was his father and inherited a priceless collection of paintings, sculptures, furniture and decorative objects. Much of the collection was bequeathed to Britain following the 1897 death of Wallace~ez_rsquo~s French wife.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lpesbym)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.80)

1870        Aug 31, Maria Montessori (d.1952), educator and physician, was born in Chiaravalle, Italy. She opened her 1st Montessori school in San Lorenzo, Italy in 1907.
    (HN, 8/31/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Montessori)

1870        Sep 1, The Prussian army crushed the French under Marshal MacMahon at Sedan, the last battle of the Franco-Prussian War.
    (HN, 9/1/99)(PCh, 1992, p.516)

1870        Sep 2, Samuel Augustus Maverick (b.1803), Texas lawyer, politician, land baron and signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, died. His name is the source of the term "maverick", first cited in 1867, which means independent minded. Maverick was considered independent minded by his fellow ranchers because he refused to brand his cattle.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Augustus_Maverick)
1870        Sep 2, Napoleon III with 80,000 men capitulated to the Prussians at Sedan, France.
    (PCh, 1992, p.516)(WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)(HN, 9/2/98)

1870        Sep 4, At news of Sedan, Paris workers invaded the Palais Bourbon and forced the Legislative Assembly to proclaim the fall of the Empire. Emperor Louis Napoleon III was overthrown in a bloodless coup. The 3rd French Republic was proclaimed in Paris and a government of national defense was formed.
    (HN, 9/4/98)(ON, 9/06, p.12)(www.marxists.org/history/france/paris-commune/timeline.htm)

1870        Sep 5, Author Victor Hugo returned to Paris from the Isle of Guernsey where he had lived in exile for almost 20 years.
    (HN, 9/5/00)

1870        Sep 6, The last British troops to serve in Austria were withdrawn.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1870        Sep 19, Two Prussian armies began a 135-day siege of Paris as the 2nd Empire collapsed. This forced the people of the city to eat Castor and Pollux, the 2 elephants in the zoo.
    (PCh, 1992, p.516)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.B3)

1870        Sep 20, Mayor William Tweed was accused of robbing the NY treasury.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1870        Sep 20, Italian troops under Victor Emmanuel II took control of the Papal States from France, leading to the unification of Italy. Pope Pius IX surrendered.
    (WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A6)(SFEM, 1/19/96, p.10)(AP, 9/20/97)(MC 9/20/01)

1870        Sep 23, Prosper Merimee (66), French playwright (Carmen), died.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/merimee.htm)

1870        Sep 24, George Claude, French engineer, was born. He invented the neon light.
    (HN, 9/24/00)

1870        Sep 27, Henry T.P. Comstock (50), Canadian silver prospector, died.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1870        Oct 2, The papal states voted in favor of union with Italy. The capital was moved from Florence to Rome.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1870        Oct 7, French Minister of the Interior Leon Gambetta escaped besieged Paris by balloon, hoping to reach the French provisional government in Tours. Gambetta was slightly wounded when his balloon drops dangerously low over Prussian held territory, only rising to safety after the pilot jettisons the ballast.
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1870        Oct 8, Louis Vierne, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1870        Oct 12, Gen. Robert E. Lee (63) died in Lexington, Va. In 1998 David J. Eicher published "Robert E. Lee: A Life Portrait." In 2001 Michael Fellman authored "The Making of Robert E. Lee." In 2007 Elizabeth Brown Pryor authored ~ez_ldquo~Reading the Man: A Portrait of Robert E. Lee Through His Private Letters.~ez_ldquo~
    (AP, 10/12/97)(SFEC, 4/19/98, Par p.20)(SSFC, 1/28/01, Par p.12)(WSJ, 5/15/07, p.D6)

1870        Oct 13, Gustav Mahler (10) gave his 1st public piano concert.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1870        Oct 19, The 1st blacks (4) were elected to House of Reps.
    (MC, 10/19/01)
1870        Oct 19, The British SS Cambria left for the North Sea coast. 196 were killed.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1870        Oct 20, The Summer Palace in Beijing, China, was burnt to the ground by a Franco-British expeditionary force.
    (HN, 10/20/98)
1870        Oct 20, Michael William Balfe (62), composer (Bohemian Girl), died.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1870        Oct 25, Postcards were 1st used in US.
    (MC, 10/25/01)
1870        Oct 25, The Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Md., opened and a horse named Preakness won the first stakes race on the program. 3 years later Pimlico honored that horse by naming a race for him.
    (www.hickoksports.com/history/preaknes.shtml)

1870        Oct 27, The French fortress of Metz surrendered to the Prussian Army.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1870        Oct 30, French National Guard was defeated at Le Bourget.
    (www.marxists.org/history/france/paris-commune/timeline.htm)

1870        Nov 1, The U.S. Weather Bureau made its first meteorological observations, using reports gathered by telegraph from 24 locations.
    (AP, 11/1/97)

1870        Nov 3, Laura Fair (33) shot and killed Alexander Parker Crittenden (47) as he was about to depart an Oakland, Ca., ferry with his wife and son. They had been carrying a long-term adulterous affair in which Crittenden had lied from the start Fair (d.1919) was initially found guilty and sentenced to death, but was freed on appeal by reason of temporary insanity. In 2013 Carole Haber authored ~ez_ldquo~The Trials of Laura Fair: Sex Murder and Insanity in the Victorian West.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFC, 6/28/14, p.C1)

1870        Nov 18, Dorthea Dix, pseudonym for Elizabeth Gilman, who wrote syndicated advice, was born.
    (HN, 11/18/98)

1870        Nov 27, Joe Mack was born. He became a builder of gasoline-powered delivery wagons, which eventually evolved into the Mack Truck Company.
    (HN, 11/27/00)

1870        Nov 29, Compulsory education was proclaimed in England.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1870        Dec 12, Joseph H. Rainey became the first black lawmaker sworn into the U.S. House of Representatives. Rainey, a Republican from South Carolina, filled the seat made vacant by the expulsion of Representative Benjamin F. Whittemore. Rainey served for 10 years.
    (AP, 12/12/97)(MC, 12/12/01)

1870        Dec 18, Saki, [Hector Hugo Munro], author (Reginald, When William Came), was born in Burma.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1870        Dec 25, Rosa Luxemburg (d.1919), Polish-German revolutionary and founder of the German Communist Party, was born: "Freedom is always and exclusively freedom for the one who thinks differently."
    (HN, 12/25/98)(AP, 7/6/99)
1870        Dec 25, The Tiber broke its banks in a terrible flood in Rome.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.72)

1870        Dec 28, Alexey Fyodorovich L'vov (72), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1870        Harry  Longabaugh (aka "the Sundance Kid") was born in Lancaster County, PA.
    (MesWP)

1870        Cecil Charles Windsor Aldin, popular British artist, was born in London. His "Fallowfield Hunt" scenes were published in 1900 for home decoration. The Buffalo Pottery Co. of NY used the prints on dishes from 1908-1909.
    (SFC, 1/8/97, z-1 p.6)

1870        Edward Burne-Jones, artist, painted his "Phyllis and Demophoon."
    (WSJ, 6/11/98, p.A20)

c1870        Adolphe Braun made his carbon print of the landscape photograph: "Glacier de Morteratch."
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, DB p.22)

1870        Frederic Edwin Church painted "Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives."
    (WSJ, 8/11/00, p.W6)

1870        Renoir painted the portrait "Rapha Maitre."
    (SFC, 8/29/01, p.E1)

1870        The Rev. Ebenezer Cobham Brewer published his "Dictionary of Phrase and Fable."
    (WSJ, 10/10/96, p.A20)

1870        William Robinson (1838-1935), Irish gardener and journalist, authored ~ez_ldquo~The Wild Garden.~ez_rdquo~ His most famous contribution to gardening was his book The English Flower Garden, (1883).
    (www.theearthlyparadise.com/2008/02/william-robinson-and-wild-garden.html)(SFC, 11/19/08, p.G8)

1870        Leo Delibe wrote his ballet "Coppelia." It was based on a tale by E.T.A. Hoffman and was first produced this year in Paris.
    (WSJ, 7/16/96, p.A9)(WSJ, 6/10/97, p.A16)

1870         The opera "Il Guarany" by Carlos Gomes had its premiere at La Scala. It was based on the book "O Guarani" by Jose de Alencar.
    (WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/14/96, p.A20)

c1870        The ukulele, invented by Manuel Nunez of Portugal, turned up in the Hawaiian islands.
    (SFC, 9/2/00, p.B3)

1870        The first road was built to Stinson Beach from Sausalito, Ca. The area then became known as Willow Camp after a tent settlement sprang up among the willow trees.
    (SFC, 11/27/07, p.A13)

1870        On the Oregon coast the Blanco Lighthouse was constructed at Cape Blanco.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T3)

1870        Harold Robinson, an ex-slave from Missouri, founded the Hotel Robinson in Julian, Ca., a former gold-mining town near Anza Borrego Desert State Park. It was later renamed the Julian Hotel.
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C5)

1870         US Secret Service headquarters relocated to New York City.
    (http://www.ustreas.gov/usss/history.shtml)

1870        A US Mint began operations in Carson City, Nev., and continued to 1893, after which it was turned into the Nevada State Museum.
    (SSFC, 11/19/06, p.F10)

1870        The pottery firm Knowles, Taylor and Knowles began operations in East Liverpool, Ohio, and continued to 1931. They were best known for their Lotus Ware (1891-1898).
    (SFC, 3/14/07, p.G2)

1870        A Rhode Island company began making the Howell torpedo, the first to follow a track without leaving a wake. It made 50 by 1889 when a rival company copied and surpassed the design.
    (SSFC, 5/19/13, p.A7)

1870        Alta, Utah, couched in a glacial-cut schism in the Wasatch Range, boomed with silver mining and counted 5,000 inhabitants, 26 saloons, five breweries, and one murder a night.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.78)

1870        George Grant (d.1910) became the 1st black graduate from Harvard Dental School. He got the 1st patent for a golf tee in 1899.
    (ST, 2/20/04, p.C1)

1870        By this time San Francisco was the 10th largest US city.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)

1870        George Dickel (d.1894), purchased a site in Cascade Hollow, Tenn., and soon began producing Cascade Tennessee Whisky.
    (SFC, 2/04/04, p.D2)

1870        E.H. Harriman (22) bought a seat on the new York Stock Exchange.
    (WSJ, 3/21/00, p.A24)

1870        Frederick August Otto Schwartz (FAO Schwartz) opened up his 1st NYC store on Broadway called Schwartz Toy Bazaar.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1870        Two-thirds of all teachers in public and private schools were women.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)

1870        Charles Adams of New York began manufacturing his chewing gum "Charles Adams Gum No 1" in a Manhattan warehouse.
    (SFC, 1/13/98, p.A19)

c1870        The first whistle was pealess and made of solid brass.
    (WSJ, 3/30/00, p.A1)

1870        William Lyman of the US invented the home can opener, with a cutting wheel that rolls around the rim.
    (www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/story080.htm)

1870        Woodsmen marched west to Michigan clearing forests of white pine, yellow birch, hemlock, maple, and oak.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.51)

1870        The US census categorized the population as "White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese and Indian." The census counted employed women for the first time with four-fifths tallied as working on farms or in domestic service.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A21)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)
1870        Federal census data of the southern end of Mulberry St. in New York City showed 39 Italian men employed as organ grinders.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.49)
1870        The population of Chicago reached 300,000.
    (Econ, 3/18/06, Survey p.12)
1870        The Chinese population in California grew to 50,000.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)

1870        There was an earthquake in Lone Pine, Ca., and some people died.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T3)

1870        Frederic Bazille (29), artist and friend of Claude Monet, died.
    (WSJ, 3/9/99, p.A20)

1870        Alexandre Dumas (b.1802), French novelist and dramatist who wrote "The Count of Monte Cristo" and "The Three Musketeers," died. In 1851 he wrote "A Gil Blas in California" (A Year Along the Banks of the San Joaquin and Sacramento"). "I need several mistresses. If I only had one, she~ez_rsquo~d be dead inside of  eight days."
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.D3)

1870        In Queensland, Australia Henry Redford rustled a thousand head of cattle from near Fairfield and drove them over a thousand miles across uncharted desert to market in South Australia.
    (NG, 12/97, p.56)

1870        By this time the British government had begun attempts to regulate firearms.
    (WSJ, 8/6/02, p.D6)

1870        The Vanemuine Theater was founded in Tartu, Estonia.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.23)

1870        In France the Hotel du Cap on the French Riviera was commercially opened as the Villa Soleil. This is the hotel described in F. Scott Fitzgerald~ez_rsquo~s opening of "Tender is the Night."
    (CNT, Nov.,1994, p.218)
1870        In France Madame Pomeroy introduced the first brut champagne. Until this time champagne was sweet.
    (Hem., 10/97, p.104)
1870        Sophus Lie (1842-1899), Norwegian mathematician, became a media sensation after he was found outside Paris with a backpack filled with undecipherable mathematical notes and arrested as a spy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophus_Lie)

1870        In Japan Yataro Iwasaki began Mitsubishi as a steamship company.
    (WSJ, 7/15/97, p.A16)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.67)
1870        Baseball was brought to Japan by American missionaries.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6xjluk)(Econ, 3/29/08, p.83)

1870        In Mexico Tequila Herradura began producing tequila at the Hacienda San Jose del Refugio in the highlands of Jalisco state. Their tequila was made from 100% blue-agave juice.
    (WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A1)

1870        Sweden produced the Brunsviga mechanical calculator.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.F1)

1870        The abolition of the Papal States freed the Jews from restrictions in Rome~ez_rsquo~s ghetto.
    (SFC, 9/1/00, p.D4)

1870        Antonio Guzman Blanco (1830-1899) became president of Venezuela.
    (www.famousamericans.net/antonioguzmanblanco/)

1870s        The California Point Reyes Lighthouse was built on the foggiest point of the entire Pacific coast.
    (SFEC, 8/22/98, p.T7)

1870s        Anthony Comstock (1844-1915), self-appointed anti-vice crusader, devoted a lifetime to battling wickedness, to purify America and protect its youth from sin. Armed with exhibits showing young lives wrecked by pornography, Comstock shepherded through the U.S. Congress with little opposition a stringent anti-obscenity law known as the "Comstock Law." Pornography was outlawed, but so was anything that could be described as "lewd, obscene, lascivious, or filthy"--terms even modern courts find difficult to define. Over the years, targets of Comstock's rigid definition of obscene have been abortionists, sellers of contraceptive devices and even those merely disseminating information about contraception, including medical doctors. After his appointment as special postal agent in 1873, Comstock boasted that he had seized thousands of pounds of obscene materials. By the time of his death in 1915, Victorian ideals of propriety were changing and Comstock had become a parody of himself, but the Comstock Law and its impact on American culture outlived him.
    (HNPD, 2/5/99)

1870s        The CP railroad advertised for farmers to come west to the Central Valley of California. They promised land for $2.50 to $5 per acre, and not more than $10. Furthermore settlers would not have to pay until the railroad conveyed title.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)

1870s        A depression hit the US following the Civil War.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1870s        George Hearst (d.1891) built the Charcoal Kilns in Death Valley.
    (CHA, 1/2001)

1870s        The technology for thin steel cable allowed the creation of wire objects such as fencing, outdoor furniture and other small objects.
    (SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)

1870s        Some 400 Hutterites, a sect of Anabaptists, migrated from Europe to the US. They settled on three communal farms in South Dakota.
    (NH, 9/98, p.14)
1870s        Anti-Semitism flourished in France among men of the left who held Jewishness to be synonymous with capitalism.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A13)

1870s        Edgar Degas, French painter journeyed to New Orleans. His time in New Orleans is covered in the 1997 book "Degas in New Orleans: Encounters in the Creole World of Kate Chopin and George Washington Cable" by Christopher Benfey.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)

1870s        The Russian explorer, Colonel Nicholas Prjevalski, traveled through Mongolia. The wild horses of the Mongolian steppes are named after him. [see 1880]
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-1)

1870-1871    "The best book on this period is Emile Zola~ez_rsquo~s historical novel The Debacle." In reference to the days of the Paris Commune.
    (WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)

1870-1871    Brahms composed his "Triumphlied" to celebrate Germany~ez_rsquo~s victory over France and the foundation of the German Empire. It is dedicated to the German Emperor but is really written for Prince Bismarck.
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed., p.107,318)

1870-1871    During the Franco-Prussian War there was a shortage of beef and horse meat began to be used. Germany annexed Alsace after the war.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T4)

1870-1880    Golfers discovered that nicked gutta percha balls flew farther and ball manufacturers began to pound the ball covers in an even pattern.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)

1870s-1880s    Clarence E. Dutton, Army engineer, surveyed the Colorado Plateau and wrote his "Tertiary History of the Grand Canyon District."
    (SFEC, 10/4/98, BR p.12)

1870-1882    Alexander Conrad was a stoneware manufacturer in southwestern Pennsylvania during this time.
    (SFC, 4/15/98, Z1 p.6)

1870-1893    New mines sharply boosted silver supplies and caused severe inflation around the globe.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1870-1910    Some 60 million Europeans, mostly young males with few job skills, emigrated to the US, Canada, Australia and Argentina.
    (WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A8)

1870-1913    Hannah Barlow, artist, worked for the Doulton Co., now known as the maker of Royal Doulton wares. She was the first female artist to work for the company and her designs featured animals in motion. She lost the use of her right hand in 1876 but learned to use her left hand and continued working.
    (SFC, 6/25/97, Z1 p.6)
1870-1913    During this period the world GDP per head increased an average of 1.3% a year.
    (Econ, 9/16/06, Survey p.4)

1870-1920s    The heyday of news boards lasted from 1870 through the 1920s, when they were supplanted by the advent of radio transmission of breaking news directly into American homes. In large cities around the turn of the 20th century, people learned the latest news by reading the day~ez_rsquo~s headlines posted on large slates in front of the newspaper building.
    (HNPD, 6/18/99)

1870-1937     Alfred Adler, Austrian psychoanalyst: "There is a Law that man should love his neighbor as himself. In a few hundred years it should be as natural to mankind as breathing or the upright gait; but if he does not learn it he must perish." "It is the individual who is not interested in his fellow men who has the greatest difficulties in life and provides the greatest injury to others. It is from among such individuals that all human failures spring."
    (AP, 4/19/97)(AP, 2/24/98)

1870-1938    Benjamin Cardozo, US Supreme Court Justice. He was an early proponent of the school of jurisprudence called Legal Realism. In 1998 Andrew L. Kaufman published his biography: "Cardozo."
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1870-1942    Alice Caldwell Rice, American humorist: "Life is made up of desires that seem big and vital one minute, and little and absurd the next. I guess we get what's best for us in the end."
    (AP, 4/20/99)

1870-1948    Franz Lehar, Hungarian composer of operettas. His work included "The Merry Widow."
    (WUD, 1994, p.819)(WSJ, 6/10/97, p.A16)

1870-1949    "Studies in the Economic History of Late Imperial China" and "The Chinese Economy" by Albert Feuerwerker was published in 2 volumes in 1996.
    (MT, Fall ~ez_lsquo~96, p.14)

1870-1963    Herbert Samuel, English political leader: "The world is like a mirror; frown at it, and it frowns at you. Smile, and it smiles, too."
    (AP, 1/5/00)

1870-1965    Bernard M. Baruch, American businessman and statesman: "During my eighty-seven years I have witnessed a whole succession of technological revolutions. But none of them has done away with the need for character in the individual or the ability to think."
    (AP, 6/17/00)

1870-1966    Maxfield Parrish, American artist. He achieved fame for his murals, advertisements, and book and magazine illustrations.
    (WSJ, 3/27/00, p.A46)

1870-1996    In Canada an estimated 150,000 indigenous children were wrenched from their homes over this period and sent to Christian boarding schools, where many were sexually and physically abused. In 2008 PM Stephen Harper delivered an unqualified public apology.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.50)

Go to 1871-1874