Return to home This period
saw birth of the first professional baseball team, the patent of
Celluloid, the invention of margarine, and the foundation of Goldman Sachs. Today the
credit industry is beyond what Marcus Goldman could ever have
imagined with credit card processing for most any type of
service and online credit card processing. His business
has come a long way from the diamond and leather merchants of
1860s Wall street. Our foundations today can lead to the vast businesses
and great innovations of tomorrow.1867 Jan 8,
Legislation gave suffrage to DC blacks, despite Pres. Johnson's
1867 Jan 8, Japans Emperor
Osahito died. The Tokugawa Shogunate gave up power as a
revolutionary movement overthrew Shogun Iyesada. Rebels introduced a
representative government under the name of Emperor Maiji
(www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/states/japan/japan.html)(ON, 11/04, p.12)
1867 Jan 14,
Jean-August-Dominique Ingres, a French neo-classical painter, and
one of the major portrait painters of the 19th century, died.
1867 Feb 7, Laura Ingalls
Wilder, author, was born. She wrote "Little House in the Big Woods"
which was basis for television's "Little House on the Prairie."
1867 Feb 11, August W. Messer,
German philosopher, educator, psychologist, was born.
1867 Feb 12, A committee of
students at the Univ. of Michigan presented the colors Azure blue
and Maize as the emblematic colors for the school.
(MT, Fall 96, p.10)
1867 Feb 13, Johann Strauss'
"Blue Danube" waltz premiered in Vienna.
1867 Feb 14, Hartford Steam
Boiler Inspection & Insurance Co. issued its 1st policy.
1867 Feb 15, Fyodor Dostoevsky
married his stenographer Anna Snitkina in St. Petersburg.
(SFEM, 1/25/98, p.45)
1867 Feb 17, William Cadbury,
chocolate manufacturer, was born.
1867 Feb 17, The 1st ship
passed through the Suez Canal.
1867 Feb 21, Otto Hermann Kahn
(d.1934), banker who the organized Metropolitan Opera Co, was born.
(MC, 2/21/02)(WSJ, 8/13/02, p.D4)
1867 Mar 1, Most of Nebraska
became the 37th state. It was expanded later.
(AP, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)
1867 Mar 2, The first
Reconstruction Act was passed by Congress.
1867 Mar 2, Congress abolished
peonage in New Mexico.
1867 Mar 2, US Congress created
the Department of Education.
1867 Mar 2, Howard University,
Washington DC, was incorporated. General Oliver Otis Howard, Union
Civil War commander, co-founded Howard Univ.
(http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/nov20.html)(ON, 4/07, p.8)
1867 Mar 2, Jesse James-gang
robbed a bank in Savannah MO, 1 dead.
1867 Mar 5, An abortive Fenian
uprising against English rule took place in Ireland. The
unsuccessful rebellion by the Irish Republican Brotherhood, known as
the Fenians, gave Australia it final generation of convicts. The
1999 book "The Great Shame and the Triumph of the Irish in the
English-Speaking World" by Thomas Keneally tells the story of the
Irish shipped to Australia.
(AP, 3/5/98)(SFEC, 9/26/99, BR p.1,6)
1867 Mar 11, Great Mauna Loa
volcano eruption in Hawaii.
1867 Mar 23, Congress passed a
2nd Reconstruction Act over President Johnson's veto.
1867 Mar 23, Charles Deas
(b.1818), American painter, died in NYC. He was noted for his oil
paintings of Native Americans and fur trappers of the mid-19th
century. At age 29, he went insane and lived out the rest of his
life in mental institutions.
1867 Mar 25, Gutzon Borglum,
sculptor of Mount Rushmore, was born.
1867 Mar 25, Arturo Toscanini
(d.1957), Italian-US temperamental conductor (NBC), was born in
1867 Mar 29, Cy Young, major
league baseball pitcher with the most wins (509 or 511 total) , was
1867 Mar 29, Congress approved
the Lincoln Memorial.
1867 Mar 29, The British
Parliament passed the North America Act (later known as the
Constitution Act) to create the Dominion of Canada.
(HN, 3/29/98)(AP, 3/29/07)
1867 Mar 30, US Secretary of
State William H. Seward signed an agreement with Russias Baron
Edouard de Stoeckl to purchase the territory of Alaska for $7.2
million, two cents an acre, a deal roundly ridiculed as "Seward's
Folly," "Seward's icebox," and President Andrew Johnson's "polar
(AP, 3/30/97)(HN, 3/30/01)(Reuters, 5/24/11)
1867 Apr 1, Blacks voted in the
municipal election in Tuscumbia, Alabama.
Apr 1, The International Exhibition, Exposition Universelle,
opened in Paris.
(OTD)(ON, 9/06, p.11)
1867 Apr 1, Singapore, Penang
& Malacca became British crown colonies.
1867 Apr 9, The treaty
authorizing the purchase was ratified. Alaska became a state in
1959. The per-acre purchase price for Alaska paid by the U.S. to
Russia in 1867 was two cents. Through the negotiations of Secretary
of State William H. Seward the purchase of the 591,000 square miles
(more than 375 million acres) of Russian America territory cost $7.2
1867 Apr 10, A.E. (George
William Russell), Irish poet and mystic, was born.
1867 Apr 16, Wilbur Wright,
designer, builder and flyer of first airplane, was born.
1867 Apr 24, Fannie Thomas,
oldest known American (113 years, 273 days at death), was born.
1867 Apr 24, Black
demonstrators staged ride-ins on Richmond, Va., streetcars.
1867 Apr 25, Tokyo was opened
for foreign trade.
1867 Apr 27, Charles Gounod's
Opera "Romeo et Juliette" was produced in Paris.
1867 Apr, George N. Jaquith was
killed during an expedition against the Bannock Indians in the Steen
Mountains of Oregon.
(SFC, 8/27/98, p.A9)
1867 May 1, Reconstruction in
the South began with black voter registration.
1867 May 5, Nellie Bly,
[Elizabeth Cochran Seaman], journalist, was born.
1867 May 5, At the Battle of
Puebla, the Mexican Juarez forces under Mariano Escobedo defeated
Maximilian's forces at Gueratero.
(HN, 5/5/98)(PCh, 1992, p.505)
1867 May 13, Frank Brangwyn,
painter, muralist, cartoonist (Willam Morris), was born in Wales.
1867 May 14, Kurt Eisner,
German premier of revolutionary Bavaria (1918-19), was born.
1867 May 20, British parliament
rejected John Stuart Mills law on women suffrage.
1867 May 21, Frances Densmore,
ethnomusicologist, was born.
1867 May 23, Jesse James gang
robbed a bank in Richmond, Missouri, with 2 killed and $4,000 taken.
1867 May 26, Mary, queen of
Great Britain-North Ireland, was born.
1867 May 27, Arnold Bennett
(d.1931), English novelist, playwright and critic, was born. His
books included Riceyman Steps (1923) in which he probes the
unsettling and symbolic depths of a marriage that becomes too close.
1867 May 30, Arthur Vining
Davis, American industrialist, was born. His foundation later gave
money to the arts.
1867 Jun 4, Carl Gustaf
Mannerheim, president of Finland, was born.
1867 Jun 8, Frank Lloyd Wright
(d.1959), American master architect and builder, was born. He
created "organic architecture" which included the Guggenheim Museum
in New York and the Robie House in Pennsylvania. WUD says 1869 for
birthdate. "Give me the luxuries of life and I will willingly do
without the necessities."
(CFA, '96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.1647)(HN,
1867 Jun 11, Charles Fabry,
found ozone layer in upper atmosphere, was born.
1867 Jun 17, John Robert Gregg,
inventor (shorthand), was born in Ireland.
1867 Jun 19, The first running
of the Belmont Stakes horserace in the US. It later became part of
the Triple Crown. Oldest of the three U.S. horse races that
constitute the Triple Crown. The Belmont is named after August
Belmont. The stakes is held in early June at Belmont Park, near
Garden City, Long Island; the course is 1.5 mi (2,400 m).
(HFA, 96, p.32)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.8)(YB)
1867 Jun 19, Mexican Emperor
Maximillian (35) was executed on the orders of Benito Juarez by a
firing squad in Queretaro. The event was immortalized in a painting
(HN, 6/19/98)(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T10)(PCh, 1992,
p.505)(WSJ, 5/5/00, p.17)
1867 Jun 20, Pres. Andrew
Johnson announced the purchase of Alaska.
1867 Jun 25, The 1st barbed
wire was patented by Lucien B. Smith of Ohio. [see Illinois, Oct 27,
1867 Jun 27, The Bank of
California opened its doors.
1867 Jun 28, Luigi Pirandello,
Italian playwright (Six Characters in Search of an Author), was
born, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in 1934.
(HN, 6/28/01)(MC, 6/28/02)
1867 Jun, 2,000 Chinese workers
on the western railroad struck because they had not been paid in
weeks. They also demanded that whippings stop and that hours spent
in hot tunnels be limited to 8 hours per day. Central Pacific
Railroad co-founder, Charles Crocker, who was in charge of
construction, cut off the strikers food supply and threatened to
fire the workers. The strike collapsed after a week.
(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)
1867 Jul 1, Canada became a
self-governing dominion of Great Britain as the British North
America Act took effect. The Dominion of Canada included New
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec. A dispute with Manitoba
on territory in northwest Ontario was settled in 1889 on behalf of
Ontario. John Alexander Macdonald became the 1st prime minister.
1867 Jul 2, The 1st US elevated
railroad began service in NYC.
1867 Jul 5, Andrew Ellicott
Douglass, astronomer and archaeologist, was born.
1867 Jul 5, James M. Wayne
(b.1770), US Supreme Court Justice, died after serving over 32
1867 Jul 19, The US enacted
1867 Jul 20, Imperial troops in
Guise, China, killed 20,000 Mao rebels.
1867 Jul 25, President Andrew
Johnson signed an act creating the territory of Wyoming. [see Jul
1867 Jul 27, Enrique Granados,
composer (Maria del Carmen), was born in Lerida, Spain.
1867 Jul 31, S.S. Kresge,
American businessman who owned five-and-ten stores across the
country, was born.
1867 Jul, In Fiji Rev. Thomas
Baker was murdered and eaten by cannibals at Nubutatau, a remote
community high in the hills of the South Pacific island of Viti
Levu. Baker had made the mistake of touching a chiefs head.
Residents later complained of bad luck and called in descendants to
lift a curse.
11/11/03)(SSFC, 8/14/11, p.N2)
1867 Aug 3, Stanley Earl
Baldwin, (C) British Prime Minister (1923-24, 1924-29,
1935-37), was born.
(HN, 8/3/98)(SC, 8/3/02)
1867 Aug 12, Edith Hamilton, US
writer (Mythology), was born.
1867 Aug 12, President Andrew
Johnson sparked a move to impeach him as he defied Congress by
suspending Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton.
1867 Aug 14, John Galsworthy
(d.1933), English novelist and dramatist (Forsyth Saga, Nobel 1932),
was born in England. He was reported to have thrown a brick through
a glass window in order to be arrested so that he could have time to
write. His play "Justice" was the result of this experience.
(WUD, 1994, p.581)(SFC, 12/5/98, p.E4)(MC,
1867 Aug 25, Michael Faraday
(b.1791), discoverer of electromagnetic induction (1831), died. In
2004 James Hamilton authored A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday,
Giant of the Scientific Revolution.
1867 Aug 28, The US occupied
the Midway Islands in Pacific.
(SFEC, 3/29/98, Z1 p.8)(MC, 8/28/01)
1867 Aug 31, [Pierre-]Charles
Baudelaire (46), French poet (Journaux Intimes), died.
1867 Sep 5, The first shipment
of cattle left Abilene, Kansas, on a Union Pacific train headed to
1867 Sep 7, President Andrew
Johnson extended amnesty to all but a few of the leaders of the
1867 Sep 13, Gen. E.R.S. Canby
ordered South Carolina courts to impanel blacks as jurors.
(MC, 9/13/01)( www.tsha.utexas.edu)
1867 Sep 14, Charles Dana
Gibson, illustrator, was born. He was the creator of the Gibson
1867 Sep 25, Congress created
the 1st all black university, Howard Univ. in Wash DC.
1867 Oct 3, Elias Howe, one of
the inventors of the sewing machine, died. In 1968 Grace Rogers
Cooper authored ""The Invention of the Sewing Machine."
(ON, 11/00, p.9)(HNQ, 2/27/02)
1867 Oct 9, The Russians
formally transferred Alaska to the US. The U.S. had bought Alaska
for $7.2 million in gold.
1867 Oct 13, Pierre Bonnard
(d.1947), French painter and illustrator, was born. He wrote that he
wanted to "show what one sees when one enters a room all of a
sudden." He married Marthe de Meligny in 1925 and during his life
painted some 384 images of her. In 1998 John Elderfield and
Sarah Whitfield published "Bonnard."
(WUD, 1994, p.169)(WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)(SFEC,
8/2/98, BR p.9)(MC, 10/13/01)
1867 Oct 18, The rules for
American football were formulated at meeting in New York among
delegates from Columbia, Rutgers, Princeton and Yale universities.
1867 Oct 18, The United States
took formal possession of Alaska from Russia.
1867 Oct 21, Many leaders of
the Kiowa, Comanche and Kiowa-Apache signed a peace treaty at
Medicine Lodge, Kan. Comanche Chief Quanah Parker refused to accept
the treaty terms.
1867 Oct 26, Benjamin
Guggenheim (d.1912), one of the 7 sons of Swiss-born industrialist
Meyer Guggenheim, was born in Philadelphia. Sometimes called the
"Silver Prince," Benjamin earned his nickname from his interests in
that precious metal. He died aboard the Titanic.
1867 Oct 27, Garibaldi marched
Oct 31, William Parson (b.1800), 3rd Earl of Rosse and maker of
large telescopes, died. Parsons, an Irish astronomer, built the
largest reflecting telescope of the 19th century. He learned to
polish metal mirrors (1827) and spent the next few years building a
36-inch telescope. He later completed a giant 72-inch telescope
(1845) which he named "Leviathan," It remained the largest ever
built until decades after his death. He was the first to resolve the
spiral shape of objects, previously seen as only clouds, which were
much later identified as galaxies independent of our own Milky Way
galaxy and millions of light-years away. His first such sighting was
made in 1845, and by 1850 he had discovered 13 more. In 1848, he
found and named the Crab Nebula (he thought it resembled a crab), by
which name it is still known.
1867 Oct, Karl Marx
(1818-1883), London-based German philosopher, sociologist, economic
historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist, published Volume
1 of Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Okonomie (Capital:
Critique of Political Economy). The first English edition was
published in 1887. It is a critical analysis of capitalism as
political economy, meant to reveal the economic laws of the
capitalist mode of production, and how it was the precursor of the
socialist mode of production. Volumes II and III remained mere
manuscripts upon which Marx continued to work for the rest of his
life and were published posthumously by Engels.
1867 Nov 1, "Harpers Bazaar"
1867 Nov 7, Marie Curie
(d.1934), Polish-born French scientist, was born in Warsaw as Marya
Salomee Sklodowska. Her discoveries included polonium, radium, which
she isolated from pitchblende, and the radioactivity of thorium. She
was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1903 with her husband, and
in chemistry in 1911. "You cannot hope to build a better world
without improving the individuals. To that end each of us must work
for his own improvement, and at the same time share a general
responsibility for all humanity."
(AHD, 1971, p.323)(AP, 10/26/98)(HN, 11/7/98)
1867 Nov 12, Mount Vesuvius
1867 Nov 25, US Congress
commission looked into impeachment of President Andrew Johnson.
1867 Nov 25, Alfred Nobel
1867 Nov 26, A refrigerated
railroad car was patented by JB Sutherland of Detroit. [see Jan 16,
1867 Dec 2, People waited in
mile-long lines to hear Charles Dickens give his first reading in
New York City.
1867 Dec 4, The Order of
Patrons of Husbandry, more commonly known as the National Grange,
was founded by Oliver Kelley, a traveling clerk with the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. The original purpose of the Grange was to
provide enrichment opportunities for isolated farm families, but its
purpose quickly became economic and political. Farmers, particularly
in the Midwest and South, were frequently victimized by railroad
monopolies that charged exorbitant rates and storage fees. By 1872,
14 states had Grange chapters and membership had risen to about
800,000. Grangers took the lead in organizing farmers' cooperatives
to successfully distribute their own produce and in just a few
years, Grangers had won enough political support to influence
national legislation regulating railroads. The Grange was succeeded
by the Farmers' Alliances and in 1891, farmers and labor organizers
formed the influential People's Party, or the Populist Party.
(HFA, 96, p.44)(WUD, 1994, p.615)(HNPD, 12/4/98)
1867 Dec 6, Giovanni Pacini
(71), composer, died.
1867 Dec 9, The capital of
Colorado Territory was moved from Golden to Denver.
1867 Dec 13, The Clerkenwell
bombing killed 12 people. It was an attempt to free Richard
OSullivan-Burke, a senior Fenian arms agent, and was the most
infamous action carried out by the Fenians in Britain.
1867 Dec 23, Entrepreneur Madam
C.J. Walker (d.1919), the first black American woman millionaire,
was born Sarah Breedlove to former slaves on a Louisiana cotton
plantation. In 1906 she married Charles Joseph Walker, who became
her business partner. Madam Walker had developed her own line of
hair care products for black women. Business boomed and Madam Walker
became well known to black and white Americans as she traveled the
country to market her products, speak at conventions and donate to
organizations like the NAACP and the YMCA. Her company made economic
independence a reality for the many black women she hired. When
Madam C.J. Walker died she left thousands of dollars to schools,
orphanages, the Tuskegee Institute, retirement homes and other
(HNPD, 12/23/98)(SFEC, 2/7/99, Par p.7)
1867 Arturo Toscanini,
conductor, was born in Parma.
(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T6)
1867 Denton True Young (Cy
Young), baseball pitching star, was born near Gilmore, Ohio. Cy was
short for cyclone.
(AH, 10/01, p.20)
1867 Francesco Hayez
(1791-1882), Italian Romantic artist, painted his conception of the
70AD sacking of the Temple in Jerusalem.
1867 Claude Monet painted "The
Beach at Sainte Adresse" and "Road by Saint-Simeon Farm Winter"
while living in Normandy.
(DPCP 1984)(SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)(SFC, 6/17/06,
1867 Walter Bagehot
(1826-1877), British economist, authored The English Constitution.
1867 Australian poet Adam
Lindsay Gordon published his poem: "Ye Weary Wayfarer."
(SFEC, 11/24/96, Par p.4)
1867 The household guidebook
"Six Hundred Dollars a Year" was published. It allotted $10 for a
white granite dinner set and $5 for a French China tea set.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.49)
1867 Henrik Ibsen, Norwegian
writer, wrote his poetic drama "Peer Gynt." He took his main figure
from a character in Norwegian folklore who flees from his difficult
mother, Ase, gets swept up in a world of trolls, grows up, gets
engaged in a variety of nefarious enterprises, and returns home
where he is redeemed by a woman who always loved him.
(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A16)
1867 Anthony Trollope authored
Phineas Finn, the 2nd of his 6 Palliser novels, which chronicled
political life in Victorian England.
(WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P14)
1867 Mark Twain was
commissioned to report on the voyage of the steamship Quaker City,
which sailed for the Middle East. In 1869 he authored The Innocents
Abroad, an account of his observations.
(WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)
1867 Emile Zola (27) authored
his novel "Theresa Raquin." It was produced as a Broadway musical in
2001 titled "Thou Shalt Not."
(WSJ, 10/25/01, p.A18)
1867 The French opera comedy
"La Grande tante," was composed by Jules Massenet.
(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)
1867 The opera The Fair Maid
of Perth by Georges Bizet premiered in France.
(ON, 5/06, p.11)
1867 The Paris Opera
commissioned Verdi to write a five act French version of the opera
Don Carlos for the Universal Exposition. It was based on the a play
by Friedrich Schiller based on the succession of King Philip to the
Spanish throne in 1556 when his father, Emp. Charles V, retired to a
(WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-12)
1867 The facade of the new
Paris Opera House, built to the glory of Emperor Napoleon III, was
(SFC, 6/21/00, p.E5)(ON, 9/06, p.11)
1867 The Tabernacle, home of
the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, was completed in Salt Lake City, Utah.
(THM, 4/27/97, p.N2)
1867 The Reformed Protestant
Dutch Church, established by settlers in New York, became the
Reformed Church of America.
(SFEC, 4/20/97, Par p.18)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)
1867 In Washington state
Croatian immigrants founded the area that came to be known as Gig
Harbor after Captain Charles Wilkes brought in his small boat there
for safety from a storm.
(SSFC, 9/2/07, p.D8)
c1867 In NYC restaurateur and
entrepreneur Charles Feltman, who owned a pie wagon at Coney, was
looking for something simple he could prepare and serve in a
confined space. He hit on the idea of putting a hot sausage in a
hard roll. Another version puts Feltman in his German restaurant,
Feldman's Ocean Pavilion, when at some point a sausage ended up
between two slices of bread. Feltman called it a frankfurter, and
cartoonists labeled it a "hot dog."
1867 William Arthur Cummings
(Candy Cummings) was credited to be the first baseball pitcher to
throw a curve ball.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, Z1, p.6)(SFC, 4/15/00, p.D3)
1867 US Secret Service
responsibilities were broadened to include "detecting persons
perpetrating frauds against the government." This appropriation
resulted in investigations into the Ku Klux Klan, non-conforming
distillers, smugglers, mail robbers, land frauds, and a number of
other infractions against the federal laws.
1867 Anton Burlingame resigned
his diplomatic post as US ambassador to China and was named High
Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary from the Court of
(Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)
1867 Physician Samuel Merritt
became the 13th mayor of Oakland, Ca., and served to 1869. He
donated 155 acres of dammed tidal water from the headwaters of
Indian Slough, which became known as "Merritt's Lake" and later as
1867 The St. Paulus Lutheran
church in SF was founded. The original church building burned down
in 1995. In 2007 it moved from Gough and Eddy to join quarters with
the St. Coltrane African Orthodox Church on Fillmore.
(SFC, 5/28/07, p.D1)
1867 There was anti-Chinese
violence in SF and Chinese laborers were driven from work and their
homes were destroyed by whites angry over the economic conditions.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1867 In the SF Bay Area the
Menlo Park train station was completed. It was made over in 1890
with the opening of Stanford Univ.
(SSFM, 4/29/01, p.47)
1867 The Cigar Makers Int'l.
became the first union in the US to admit women.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1867 Trans-Pacific trade was
pioneered when the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. dispatched the
300-foot steamship Colorado from SF to Yokohama and Hong Kong.
(SFEC, 11/22/98, p.B1)
1867 James McCreery
(1826-1903) opened a silk retailing operation in NYC. Within 3 years
he bought a large building on Broadway and expanded with more
departments. McCreerys close in 1953.
(SFC, 9/5/07, p.G5)
1867 Jacob Leinenkugel, an
immigrant from Bavaria, founded Leinenkugel Beer to supply the
lumberjack community of Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. In 1988 the
family business agreed to be acquired by the Miller Brewing Co.
(WSJ, 9/27/08, p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/4epavl)
1867 The US Playing Card Co.
began business. In 2003 its brands included Bee, Hoyle, Aviator and
(WSJ, 4/29/03, B12)
1867 Edward Calahan of American
Telegraph Company developed the first stock ticker.
(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)
1867 Ernest Michaux, a Parisian
blacksmith, added pedals and brakes to an iron velocipede, a
2-wheeled machine that used wooded wheels and was nicknamed the
(WSJ, 10/22/04, p.A1)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.77)
1867 Adelia Waldron patented
the washing machine.
(SFC, 2/1/02, p.D13)
1867 J.G. McCoy shipped 35,000
cattle to Chicago to end up on American dinner tables.
1867 Christopher Latham Sholes,
Carlos Glidden and Samuel Soule invented the typewriter in the
1860s. Charles E. Weller coined the phrase "Now is the time for all
good men to come to the aid of the party" to check out the first
typewriter built in Milwaukee.
(SFC, 1/29/97, z-1 p.2)(SFEC, 3/22/98, Z1 p.8)
1867 There was a yellow-fever
epidemic in the US.
(SSFC, 2/25/01, BR p.5)
1867 British surgeon Joseph
Lister, Professor of Surgery at Glasgow University, published the
results of his antiseptic system in the Lancet medical journal.
(ON, 7/00, p.8)
1867 Scottish physicist James
Clerk Maxwell first imagined an atom-size device dubbed Maxwell's
1867 Charles Wolf and Georges
Rayet, astronomers at the Paris observatory, spotted a very unusual
star. The star showed broad, bright emission lines superimposed on a
somewhat fainter continuous background. They are now called
Wolf-Rayet stars. It was later proposed that the bright emission
lines are due to gasses being expelled at tremendous velocities of
3,000 km per second. It is estimated that the surface temp. of the
central Wolf-Rayet star is 100,000°K as compared to 6,000°K for the
1867 There were 10,000 recorded
divorces in the US.
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.39)
1867 An American hunter claimed
that the ruins of an ancient kingdom lay hundreds of miles in the
interior of Africa.
1867 The sailing ship
Hellespont, a Welsh coal ship with passengers, wrecked near
(SFC, 8/10/02, p.A13)
1867 The 2nd Earl of Pomfret
died. The family property, the Easton Neston estate, built around
1700 by Nicholas Hawksmoor, in Northamptonshire, England, passed to
Sir Thomas George Fermor-Hesketh.
(SFC, 5/11/05, p.G6)
1867 Lacrosse was declared the
national game of Canada.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1867 Bismarck unified Germany.
(WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A20)
1867 German businessman named
Augusto R. Berns purchased land across from Machu Picchu, Peru, and
an 1887 document showed he set up a company to plunder the site.
1867 In Japan Ryoma Sakamoto, a
samurai, helped topple the feudal government system. Ryoma means
(WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1)
1867 The Tokugawa Shogunate of
Japan gave up power.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1867 In South Africa diamonds
were discovered. This and the later discovery of gold prompted the
end of Boer isolation. [see 1866]
(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 564)
1867-1871 In Mexico Benito Juarez served his 2ndt
term as president.
(WUD, 1994, p.772)(SFC, 4/5/01, p.A12)
1867-1873 Sir John A. MacDonald, Conservative
Party, serves as the first Prime Minister of Canada.
(CFA, 96, p.81)
1867-1875 The Suez Canal Co. issued bonds for some
hundred million francs to keep afloat. The Khedive went bankrupt and
the British under Disraeli snapped up the Khedive's shares for £4
(WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)
1867-1912 Wilbur Wright, aeronautical inventor,
(WUD, 1994, p.1647)
1867-1922 Nellie Bly, famed muckraking reporter
for the New York World. She was sent on a trip around the world by
Joseph Pulitzers New York World and completed the trip in 72 days
in1889-90. At 30 she married a 70-year-old industrialist and gave up
journalism. In 1997 a TV documentary "Around the World in 72 Days"
aired on the "The American Experience."
(WSJ,2/11/97, p.A20)(SFC, 4/28/97, p.B1)
1867-1931 Arnold Bennett, English poet, author
and critic: "Good taste is better than bad taste, but bad taste is
better than no taste at all."
"The price of justice is eternal publicity."
1867-1936 Finley Peter Dunne, American humorist:
"A fanatic is a man that does what he thinks th' Lord wud do if He
knew th' facts in th' case."
1867-1944 Amy Beach, American composer. She
employed frequent modulations and liberal doses of chromaticism,
which took her a few steps beyond Chopin and Brahms. Her output was
immense and included 64 choral works (many for use in Episcopal
Church worship), 131 songs and 40 piano pieces, and a chamber opera:
(WSJ, 8/16/95, p. A-8)
1867-1944 American illustrator Charles Dana Gibson
was born. He began contributing pen and ink drawings of tall,
patrician women with spectacular upswept hair to the humorous weekly
Life in the early 1890s. Gibson's illustrations took America by
storm, creating an ideal of American womanhood--aloof, athletic,
socially adept and forever being wooed by unworthy men. Above all,
the Gibson Girl was beautiful and thousands of American women
emulated her distinctive hairstyle. "You can always tell when a girl
is taking the Gibson Cure," wrote one observer, "by the way she
fixes her hair." So great was the popularity of Gibson's creation
that lithographs of his work decorated parlors and adorned various
products throughout the country. Until the outbreak of World War I
Gibson was said to be America's highest paid illustrator, earning
$55,000 per year.
1867-1947 Irving Fisher, Yale professor of
economics. He developed principles of monetary theory and the new
field of econometrics, which used statistical methods. He developed
the concept of the relationship between the quantity of money and
changes in the general level of prices.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)
1867-1948 The American art of this period is
covered in the 2001 book: "Painting American: The Rise of American
Artists" by Annie Cohen-Solal.
(WSJ, 1/3/02, p.A7)
1868 Jan 3, Emperor Meiji
ascended the throne and assumed power. The Meiji Restoration
re-established the authority of Japans emperor and heralded the
fall of the military rulers known as shoguns. The feudal clan system
was abolished and industrialism was started. Japan opened itself up
to the West, thereby obtaining the benefits of western technology.
(V.D.-H.K.p.243,286)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(AP,
1868 Jan 7, A US Indian Peace
Commission filed a report to the Pres. Johnson.
1868 Jan 8, Frank Dyson was
born. He proved Einstein right that light is bent by gravity.
1868 Jan 16, The refrigerated
railroad car was patented by William Davis, a fish dealer in
Detroit. [see Nov 26, 1867]
1868 Jan 31, Theodore William
Richards (d.1928), chemist (atomic weights, Nobel-1914), was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.1231)(MC, 1/31/02)
1868 Feb 11, Jean Bernard Leon
Foucault (b.1819), French physicist, died. He discovered the 1st
physical proof of Earth's rotation (1851) and invented the
(WUD, 1994 p.560)(MC, 2/11/02)(WSJ, 8/28/03,
1868 Feb 16, The Benevolent and
Protective Order of Elks (B.P.O.E.) was organized in New York City
by members of the theatrical profession. Later, men in other
professions were permitted to join the social organization. The
letters E.L.K. are repeated in the titles of some of its officers,
such as Esteemed Leading Knight and Esteemed Loyal Knight..
(AP, 2/16/98)(HNQ, 10/15/99)
1868 Feb 21, Pres. Johnson told
Gen. Lorenzo Thomas (63) to go the War Dept. with orders to remove
Edwin Stanton from office and to assume the responsibilities of Sec.
(ON, 9/01, p.6)
1868 Feb 23, William Edward
Burghardt Du Bois (DuBois, d.1963) was born in Great Barrington,
Massachusetts. W.E.B. Du Bois was the first African American to earn
a doctorate from Harvard University. As a sociologist, he focused on
the problem of race for blacks in the United States. He became an
influential leader of black Americans, presenting an alternative to
Booker T. Washington, whose policies Du Bois considered too
conservative and too accommodating to whites. Du Bois, believing
that blacks could achieve progress only through protest, encouraged
black nationalism and supported Pan-Africanism. He founded the
National Negro Committee which eventually became the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Du Bois also
founded the Niagara Movement, served as the NAACP's director of
research and editor of its magazine Crisis, and taught and published
his philosophy at Atlanta University. W.E.B. Du Bois died at the age
of 95 in 1963.
1868 Feb 24, Impeachment
proceedings against President Andrew Johnson began. The House of
Representatives voted vote 126 to 47 to impeach President Andrew
Johnson following his attempt to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin M.
Stanton; the Senate later acquitted Johnson. Sen. Edmund G. Ross of
Kansas cast the last deciding vote against impeachment. Democrats
defended Johnson. 7 Republicans cast "no" votes.
(HN, 2/24/98)(AP, 2/24/98)(WSJ, 12/11/98,
p.A14)(SFC, 12/21/98, p.A3)(MC, 2/24/02)
1868 Feb 24, The 1st US parade
with floats was at the Mardi Gras in Mobile, Alabama.
1868 Feb 29, British Prime
Minister Benjamin Disraeli formed his first cabinet.
1868 Mar 2, University of
1868 Mar 5, Arrigo Boito's
opera "Mefistofele," premiered in Milan.
1868 Mar 5, The Senate was
organized into a court of impeachment to decide charges against
President Andrew Johnson, who was later acquitted.
1868 Mar 5, A stapler was
patented in England by C.H. Gould.
1868 Mar 9, Ambrois Thomas'
opera "Hamlet" premiered in Paris.
1868 Mar 13, The impeachment
trial of President Andrew Johnson began in the U.S. Senate.
(AP, 3/13/97)(ON, 9/01, p.7)
1868 Mar 16(OS), Maxim Gorkei
(Aleksvey Maksimovich Pyeshkov [aka Gorky], d.1936], Russian
dramatist, was born. "A good man can be stupid and still be good.
But a bad man must have brains." [see Mar 28]
(WUD, 1994 p.611)(HN, 3/16/98)(AP, 2/23/01)
1868 Mar 17, Postage stamp
canceling machine patent was issued.
1868 Mar 20, The Jesse James
Gang robbed a bank in Russellville, Kentucky, of $14,000.
1868 Mar 22, Robert A.
Millikan, US physicist (photoelectric effect; Nobel 1923), was born.
1868 Mar 23, Gov. Henry Haight
signed an act that created the Univ. of California and wed the
insolvent College of California to the state with the promised
backing of 150,000 acres of federal land. The line "Westward the
course of empire takes its way" from a 1752 poem by Irish Bishop
Berkeley had earlier inspired the founders of Berkeley, Ca., to name
their city and university after Berkeley.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)
1868 Mar 23, University of
California was founded in Oakland, CA. Legislator John W. Dwinelle
helped establish the Univ. of California and Dwinelle Hall was named
for him. The first chancellor was Clark Kerr, for whom the Clark
Kerr campus was named. Its first president was Henry Durant for whom
Durant Hall was named. Its 8th president was Benjamin Ide Wheeler
and the 17th president was Robert Gordon Sproul, for whom Sproul
Plaza was named. Later the Haas family of SF contributed $23.75
million on behalf of Walter A. Haas Sr., who ran Levi Strauss &
Co. for several decades. The Doreen B. Townsend Center for the
Humanities was started with a $5 million pledge from Ms. Townsend, a
(SFC, 12/30/96, p.A15)(SS, 3/23/02)
1868 Mar 26, Fuad I, king of
Egypt (1922-36), was born.
1868 Mar 27, John Muir (30)
arrived by steamer in San Francisco and almost immediately set off
on a 300-mile journey to Yosemite Valley along with Englishman
(SSFC, 4/2/06, p.B1)(SSFC, 5/14/06, p.B3)
1868 Mar 28(NS), Maxim Gorki,
Russian writer, was born. [see Mar 16]
1868 Mar 30, The trial of
President Johnson began with opening statements. Supreme Court Chief
Justice Salmon P. Chase was the presiding judge in the impeachment
trial of President Andrew Johnson. Chief Justice Chase insisted on
the observance of legal procedure, attempting to maintain some
semblance of non-partisanship.
1868 Mar 31, Anson Burlingame,
head of the Chinese Embassy, arrived in SF for a month-long stay.
(Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)
1868 Apr 1, Edmond Rostand,
French dramatist (Cyrano de Bergerac), was born.
1868 Apr 1, The Hampton
Institute was founded in Hampton, Va.
1868 Apr 3, Franz Adolf Berwald
(71), Swedish composer, died.
1868 Apr 6, Brigham Young
married his 27th and final wife (I am done with wifery).
1868 Apr 10, 1st performance of
Johannes Brahms' "Ein Deutches Requiem."
1868 Apr, The US government and
the Sioux Indians signed another treaty that ended Red Clouds War,
but did not last long. The treaty made the Black Hills part of the
Great Sioux Reservation.
(HT, 3/97, p.43)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.37)
1868 Apr 13, Tewodros II
(1818-1868), also known as Theodore II, committed suicide at Magdala
while under British siege. He was Emperor of Ethiopia from
1868 Apr 26, Robert Herrick, US
writer (Common lot), was born.
1868 May 5, Memorial Day was
officially proclaimed by General John Logan, national commander of
the Grand Army of the Republic, in his General Order No. 11, and was
first observed on 30 May, 1868, when flowers were placed on the
graves of Union and Confederate soldiers at Arlington National
Cemetery. The preferred name for the holiday gradually changed from
"Decoration Day" to "Memorial Day", which was first used in 1882. It
was not declared the official name by Federal law until 1967.
1868 May 6, Gaston Leroux,
French novelist (The Phantom of the Opera), was born.
1868 May 9, Anton Bruckner's
1st Symphony in C premiered.
1868 May 13, Paolo Gallico,
composer, was born.
1868 May 16, Bedrich Smetana's
opera "Dalibor," premiered in Prague.
1868 May 16, The U.S. Senate
failed by one vote, cast by Edmund G. Ross, to convict President
Andrew Johnson as it took its first ballot on one of 11 articles of
impeachment against him. Johnson, who came to office on Abraham
Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, was an honest but tactless
man who made many enemies in the Radical Republican Congress. In
response to Johnson's recurrent interference with Radical
Reconstruction, the U.S. House of Representatives drew up 11
articles of impeachment against the chief executive in March 1868.
Although the charges against him were weak, Johnson was tried by the
Senate as the Constitution provides.
(AP, 5/16/97)(HNPD, 5/16/99)
1868 May 18, Nicholas II, the
last Russian czar (1894-1917), was born. He and his family, were
assassinated by revolutionaries.
(HN, 5/18/99)(SC, 5/18/02)
1868 May 20, The Republican
National Convention met in Chicago and nominated Grant.
1868 May 22, The Great Train
Robbery took place near Marshfield, Ind., as seven members of the
Reno gang made off with $96,000 ($98k) in cash, gold and bonds.
(AP, 5/22/97)(HN, 5/22/02)
1868 May 23, Kit Carson
(b.1809), American scout and frontiersman, died at Fort Lyon,
Colorado. In 1999 David Roberts authored "A Newer World: Kit Carson,
John C. Freemont and the Claiming of the American West."
(WUD, 1994, p.227)(SFEC, 2/13/00, BR
1868 May 26, The US Senate
impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson ended with his
acquittal as the Senate fell one vote short of the two-thirds
majority required for conviction. Edward Ross of Kansas cast the
(AP, 5/26/97)(SFC, 2/12/99, p.A12)
1868 May 26, Michael Barrett,
Irish nationalist, was executed for his part in the 1867 Clerkenwell
bombing. This was the last British public execution.
1868 May 29, Frederic baron
d'Erlanger, French composer, banker, was born.
1868 May 30, Memorial Day began
when two women placed flowers on both Confederate and Union graves.
Memorial Day, which began in 1868 as Decoration Day, was set aside
to remember those who have died in the service of their country.
Celebrated on May 30 for the first 100 years, Memorial Day was
officially changed to the last Monday in May in 1968.
(HN, 5/30/98)(HNPD, 5/31/99)
1868 May 31, The 1st Memorial
Day parade was held in Ironton, Ohio.
1868 Jun 1, The Texas
constitutional convention met in Austin.
1868 Jun 1, James Buchanan (b.
Apr 23, 1791), the 15th president of the United States, died near
Lancaster, Pa. He was the only US president to have never married.
In 1961 Philip Shreiver Klein authored "President James Buchanan: A
(AP, 6/1/97)(ON, 12/00, p.12)
1868 Jun 6, Robert F. Scott,
British explorer, was born.
1868 Jun 21, The first
performance of Wagners opera Die Meistersinger took place in
1868 Jun 22, Arkansas was
re-admitted to the Union.
1868 Jun 23, Christopher Latham
Sholes received a patent for an invention he called a "Type-Writer."
(HFA, 96, p.32)(SFC, 1/29/97, z-1 p.2)(AP,
1868 Jun 25, Florida, Alabama,
Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were
re-admitted to the Union.
1868 Jun 25, Congress enacted
legislation granting an eight-hour day to workers employed by the
1868 Jul 4, In Japan the last
Tokugawa armies were defeated at the Battle at Ueno.
1868 Jul 14, Alvin J. Fellows
patented a tape measure.
1868 Jul 15, William Thomas
Morton (b.1819), dentist, died in NYC. He was responsible for the
first successful public demonstration of ether as an inhalation
anesthetic. Morton's accomplishment was the key factor to the
medical and scientific pursuit that we now refer to as
1868 Jul 15, The Torrent sank
in Alaskas Cook Inlet after tidal currents, among the world's most
powerful, rammed it into a reef south of the Kenai Peninsula. About
130 Army soldiers had come north on the Torrent to build the first
US military fort in south-central Alaska. About 20 sailors and 15 of
the soldiers wives and children were also on board. All 155 people
on board survived. Remnants of the wreckage were found in 2007.
1868 Jul 20, The 1st use of tax
stamps on cigarettes.
1868 Jul 23, The 14th Amendment
was ratified, granting citizenship to African Americans. It gave
freed slaves full citizenship and equal protection under the laws,
however it did not spell out the extent of integration with white
1868 Jul 25, Congress passed an
act creating the Wyoming Territory. [see Jul 25, 1867]
1868 Jul 28, The 14th Amendment
to the Constitution, guaranteeing due process of law, was certified
in effect by Secretary of State William H. Seward. The amendment was
aimed primarily at assuring citizenship to blacks freed from slavery
by the Civil War.
(HN, 7/28/98)(AP, 7/28/08)
1868 Jul 28, Pres. Johnson
signed the Burlingame Treaty. It was negotiated by Anson Burlingame,
who represented the interests of China, and committed the US to a
policy of noninterference in Chinese affairs. It also established
commercial ties and provided unrestricted immigration of Chinese to
(Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)
1868 Aug 11, Thaddeus Stevens
(76), architect of Radical Reconstruction, died.
1868 Aug 16, Bernard McFadden,
publisher responsible for the magazine True Story, was born.
1868 Aug 16, Charles Sanford
Skilton (d.1941), composer, was born.
1868 Aug 23, Edgar Lee Masters
(d.1950), poet, novelist, was born in Garnett, Kansas.
1868 Sep 8, The NY Athletic
1868 Sep 17, The Battle of
Beechers Island began, in which Major George "Sandy" Forsyth and 50
volunteers held off 500 Sioux and Cheyenne in eastern Colorado.
1868 Sep 22, Race riots took
place in New Orleans, La.
1868 Sep 23, Grito de Lares
proclaimed Puerto Rico's independence. It was crushed by Spain.
1868 Sep 28, In the Opelousas
Massacre at St. Landry Parish, Louisiana, 200 blacks were killed.
1868 Oct 1, Rama IV, [Phra
Chomklao Chaoyuhua], died at 63. He served as king of Siam
(Thailand) from 1851-68. His son Chulalongkorn, Rama V (d.1910),
took over and encouraged the beginnings of a modern state.
(MC, 10/1/01)(Econ, 1/10/04, p.76)
1868 Oct 6, Leon Charles
Francois Kreutzer, composer, died at 51.
1868 Oct 7, Cornell University
was inaugurated in Ithaca, N.Y.
1868 Oct 10, Cuba revolted for
independence against Spain. This was the first day of open rebellion
for liberty, which was led by the man who is now known as the
"Father of Cuba," Carlos Manuel de Cespedes.
1868 Oct 11, Thomas Edison
patented his 1st invention, an electric voice machine.
1868 Oct 12, Charles Sumner
Greene, architect, was born.
1868 Oct 16, Denmark ended its
involvement in India by selling the rights to the Nicobar Islands to
(SFC, 11/3/11, p.A2)
1868 Oct 21, A major
earthquake, later estimated at magnitude 7, took place on the
Hayward Fault in northern California. It destroyed the top of the
San Mateo County Courthouse. At this time only 265,000 people lived
in the Bay Area. The Marine Hospital at Rincon Point was badly
damaged and forced to close.
(SMMB)(SFC, 6/13/96, p.C3)(SFC, 10/18/07,
p.A15)(SFC, 10/9/10, p.A10)
1868 Oct 21, The Hayward
Earthquake in northern California created a sunken area in San
Francisco that came to be called Pioches Lake. The area was filled
in and rooming houses were built, all of which collapsed in the 1906
(SFC, 6/8/13, p.C4)
1868 Oct 22, Jacques
Offenbach's opera "Genevieve de Brabant," premiered in NYC.
1868 Oct 26, Whites killed
several blacks in St. Bernard Parish, La.
1868 Nov 3, Republican Ulysses
S. Grant was elected 18th president. He won the election over
Democrat Horatio Seymour by 27,000 votes. He used the 1867
typewriter phrase "Now is the time for all good men to come to the
aid of the party" for his campaign.
(AP, 11/3/97)(SFEC, 3/22/98, Z1 p.8)(HN,
11/3/98)(WSJ, 2/17/99, p.A22)
1868 Nov 9, The Colorado, a
Pacific Mail side-wheeler steamer, was snagged off the West coast at
Montara, Ca. The shoal was later named Colorado Reef.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T3)(Ind, 3/31/01, 5A)
1868 Nov 13, Italian composer
Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (b.1792) died in France. His work
included 39 operas as well as sacred music, chamber music, songs,
and some instrumental and piano pieces. His opera "La Donna del
Lago" (1819) was based on the Walter Scott romance "The Lady of the
1868 Nov 19, William Sidney
Mount (b.1807), American genre painter, died. His work included:
Eel Spearing at Setauket (1845).
1868 Nov 23, Louis Ducos du
Hauron patented trichrome color photo process.
1868 Nov 24, Scott Joplin was
born in Texas. By the time he was a teenager, Joplin could play the
banjo and the piano, and had begun to work as a saloon musician. In
the late 1890s, he was performing and composing at the Maple Leaf
Club in Sedalia, Missouri, and in 1899 his "Maple Leaf Rag" made
ragtime popular. Ragtime was a mixture of classical European and
African-American styles of music, and it influenced the later
development of jazz. Joplin was not considered a serious composer
until ragtime resurfaced in the 1970s, when his composition "The
Entertainer" was the theme to the movie The Sting. The first grand
opera composed by an African American was Joplin's Treemonisha
(1911), which was not very successful at the time. In 1976, however,
more than 50 years after Joplin died, Treemonisha won the Pulitzer
(HNPD, 11/24/98)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)
1868 Nov 27, Lieutenant Colonel
George A. Custers 7th Cavalry killed Chief Black Kettle (b.1801)
and about 100 Cheyenne (mostly women and children) on the Washita
River near present day Cheyenne, Oklahoma.
1868 Nov 28, Mt. Etna in Sicily
1868 Dec 1, John D. Rockefeller
began anti oil war.
1868 Dec 5, 1st American
bicycle college opened in NY.
1868 Dec 7, Jesse James gang
robbed a bank in Gallatin, Missouri, and killed 1 person.
1868 Dec 12, In Indiana 56
hooded men entered New Albany jail. Frank Reno was the first to be
dragged from his cell to be lynched. He was followed by his two
brothers, William and Simeon. Another gang member, Charlie Anderson,
was also hanged in the prison. [see May 22]
1868 Dec 20, Harvey Firestone,
industrialist, was born.
1868 Dec 22, John Nance Garner,
(VP-D-1933-41), was born in Texas.
1868 Dec 24, Emanuel Lasker,
world chess champion (1894-21), was born in Germany.
1868 Dec 25, President Andrew
Johnson granted an unconditional pardon to all persons involved in
the Southern rebellion that resulted in the Civil War.
1868 Maud Humphrey, artist, was
born in Rochester, N.Y. She worked as a watercolorist and
specialized in portraits of children dressed in Victorian fashions.
One of her children was movie star Humphrey Bogart.
(SFC, 7/1/98, Z1 p.6)
1868 Martin Johnson Heade
painted "Thunderstorm Over Narragansett Bay."
(SFC, 9/20/97, p.E1)
1868 Jean-Francois Millet
painted "Path Lined With Trees Near Vichy."
(WSJ, 7/12/99, p.A26)
1868 Claude Monet painted "The
River." It shows the water of the Seine and was an early attempt by
the artist to depict shimmering light on water.
1868 Louisa May Alcott (d.1888)
authored "Little Women." In 1998 "Little Women" premiered in Houston
as an opera by Mark Adomo.
(WSJ, 8/29/01, p.A12)(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E2)
1868 Susan B. Anthony, the
suffrage leader, put out the first issue of "The Revolution" in New
1868 Darwin published "The
Variation of Plants and Animals Under Domestication."
(NH, 6/96, p.24)
1868 Dostoevsky wrote "The
(WSJ, 3/28/95, p.A-24)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)
1868 Tigran Tcukhatjian
(Tchukhadjian) composed "Arshak II," a pseudo-European grand opera.
(WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A18)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A20)
1868 Ambroise Thomas composed
his opera "Hamlet."
(WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)
1868 Frederick Law Olmsted
began laying out the planned Riverside community outside Chicago
over 1,600 acres of Illinois prairie.
(WSJ, 5/25/99, p.A26)
1868 The Virginia and Truckee
railroad line was built to serve Virginia City, Nv., site of the
richest silver strike in history. Ted Wurm (d.2004) later
co-authored with Harre W. Demoro "Silver Short Line," a history of
(SSFC, 2/29/04, p.A25)
1868 Alpheus Hardy, a Boston
merchant enriched by his clipper ships, built the first cottage at
Birch Point, Bar Harbor, Maine.
(HT, 3/97, p.12)
1868 St. Peters Episcopal
Church was built in Carson City, Nev.
(SSFC, 11/19/06, p.F10)
1868 In Syracuse NY the Everson
Museum of Art was founded.
(WSJ, 6/20/97, p.A16)
1868 Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902), a social reformer and militant feminist, said, "The
male element is a destructive force" in an address to the Womens
Suffrage Convention in Washington, D.C.
(AP, 11/12/97)(HNQ, 5/17/98)
1868 The first "chocolate box"
was introduced by Richard Cadbury. It depicted his daughter holding
(SFC, 2/10/99, Z1 p.5)
1868 The first known bicycle
race was held in Paris.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1868 The US established
Memorial Day to honor Union soldiers killed in the Civil War. It was
first called Decoration Day. It was later expanded to honor all the
2.8 million soldiers killed in the service of the country.
(SFC, 5/27/96, p.A18) (SFC,
1868 San Franciscos first real
ballpark, the Recreation Grounds, was built at 25th and Folsom. Some
4 thousand fans watched the SF Eagles beat the Oakland Wide Awakes.
(SFC, 9/21/13, p.C3)
1868 Gen. John Bidwell built
Bidwell mansion on his 26,000-acre ranch in Chico, Ca. Bidwell was
the founder of Chico and had made his fortune working for John
Sutter. He had been a New York farmer and crossed the continent
penniless in 1841.
(SFC, 3/9/01, p.WBb 7)(SFC, 4/21/07, p.B5)
1868 A tidal slough was dammed
to form Lake Merritt and connected Oakland, Ca., to the lumber port
of Brooklyn. After 2 years of incorporation Brooklyn residents voted
themselves out of existence.
(SFCM, 4/11/04, p.6)
1868 California decided to sell
state-owned tidelands. In 1879 the state constitution was amended to
prevent the sale of tidelands to private parties within 2 miles of a
(SFC, 6/15/06, p.B4)
1868 In California Fort Bidwell
in Modoc Ct. was established as a cavalry outpost to protect
settlers from Indians.
(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T9)
1868 Balboa Park in San Diego
was established as a 1,200-acre recreational area.
(BS, 5/3/98, p.5R)
1868 Riggs National Bank
supplied the $7.2 million in gold bullion for the purchase of
(WSJ, 4/7/04, p.A1)
1868 The "Ohio Idea,"
promulgated by Ohio congressman George Pendleton, called for payment
of the national debt with greenbacks. This position was adopted by
the Democrats at their 1868 convention. The "Ohio Idea" was in
opposition to the "hard money" proponents who called for payments in
gold. The 1869 Public Credit Act officially repudiated the "Ohio
Idea" with its provision for the payment of government obligations
1868 A treaty between the
government and Native Americans was signed that was later
interpreted by some Native Americans as an entitlement to surplus
federal lands. [perhaps the April treaty with the Sioux]
(G, Summer 97, p.4)
1868 Navaho Indians living
under confinement near Fort Sumner, New Mexico, were allowed to
return to their homelands in Arizona following a visit by Gen.
William Tecumseh Sherman. Some 7,100 survivors of the 1864 Long Walk
had been released onto a New Mexico reservation of 5,500 acres. The
Navajo returned to Hopi land where 3.5 million acres, 1/6th of their
former homeland, was returned.
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)(WSJ,
1868 Charlotte "Charley"
Parkhurst was the first woman to vote for US president in
California. The Santa Cruz female stagecoach driver impersonated a
man. In 1998 Pam Munoz Ryan wrote her biography: "Riding Freedom."
(SFEC, 7/26/98, BR p.8)
1868 In Nevada the Central
Pacific Railroad came through Reno. The town had been founded on the
banks of the Truckee River by Myron Lake and was named after a Civil
War general. Lake's land was bought up by Charles Crocker, who had
surveyors lay out streets and a town for which he sold lots. The
Crocker land eventually came under the control of the Pacific
Improvement Co., controlled by Crocker, Huntington, Hopkins and
(SFC, 2/16/00, p.A12)
1868 The SF-San Jose railroad
line joined the Southern Pacific Railroad and became a part of the
(GTP, 1973, p.73)
1868 Gustav and Albert Goelitz,
German emigrants, started the Goelitz candy business in Illinois.
The company later moved to California and invented the all natural
Jelly Belly jelly bean in 1976.
(SFC, 8/11/99, Z1 p.3)
1868 Greenwood China was
organized and by 1886 impressed its mark on ironstone or white
granite. Its mark used the New Jersey coat of arms and the company
produced dishes. It and Greenwood Pottery advertised together but
went out of business in 1933.
(SFC, 12/30/96, z-1 p.2)
1868 Edwards Sands Frost of
Biddeford Maine made his first designs for hooked rugs. He devised a
method of stenciling the designs on burlap and was credited as the
first person to mass produce hooked rugs.
(SFC, 8/14/96, z-1 p.5)
1868 Over 100,000 Texas
longhorn cattle came up the Chisholm Trail to the Abilene, Ka.,
(ON, 4/01, p.12)
1868 Helium was detected in the
Suns spectrum during a total solar eclipse.
(NH, 7/02, p.34)
1868 In 2008 scientists, using
NASAs Chandra X-Ray Observatory, reported that a supernova took
place in the Milky Way about this time.
(SFC, 5/15/08, p.A3)
1868 Emily and Elizabeth
Blackwell opened the worlds 1st medical school for women, the
Womens Medical College of the New York Infirmary.
(ON, 4/03, p.3)
1868 Thomas Huxley delivered
his lecture On a Piece of Chalk to the working men of Norwich during
the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of
1868 Mrs. Thomas Smith of New
South Wales, Australia, dumped a gin carton full of rotten Tasmanian
apples into her backyard. The seeds of one spoiled apple took hold
and Granny Smith was so impressed that she took some to a commercial
(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)
1868 The cottony-cushion scale
was accidentally introduced from Australia to California and began
wreaking havoc on the citrus crops. The pest was not controlled
until it was found that the lady bug beetle, Rodolia cardinalis, fed
on the scale in the 1880s.
(HFA, 96, p.102)
1868 In England a collection of
photos by Gustave Le Gray was donated to the Victoria and Albert
(WSJ, 3/24/98, p.A20)
1868 The St Pancras station
opened in London. It was known as the Cathedral of the Railways
and for a time was the largest enclosed space in the world.
(Econ, 11/10/07, p.71)
1868 In England the Anglican
church began to hold conferences for bishops. The conferences were
then convened every ten years.
(SFEC, 8/2/98, p.A23)
1868 Britains first fully
diversified managed fund (mutual fund), appeared. Foreign &
Colonial was established to invest in foreign bonds.
(WSJ, 1/3/07, p.R6)(Econ, 3/17/12, p.85)
1868 A new meat market opened
in London at the site of the old Smithfield livestock market. The
original Metropolitan Railway passed underneath allowing the market
to receive much of its meat by hydraulic lifts. The railways stopped
carrying meat after 1950.
(Econ, 1/26/13, p.16)
1868 Ludwig II (1845-1886) of
Bavaria began the construction of his fairy-tale-style castle at
(SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T5)
1868 In Darjeeling, India,
English tea planters formed the Darjeeling Planters Club.
(SSFC, 7/15/07, p.G5)
1868 In Japan women were
allowed to climb Mt. Fuji.
(SFC, 9/12/13, p.A4)
1868 It was forbidden to be
born or to die on Japans Miyajima Island until the Meiji
(SFEC, 3/26/00, p.T11)
1868 In Japan Ryoma Sakamoto,
the rebel who helped topple the feudal government system in 1967,
was assassinated. In 1966 Ryotaro Shiba authored the historical
novel "Ryoma on the Move" in 8 paperback volumes. Between 1987 and
1996 a comic series on Ryoma ran in magazines and a 23-volume
compilation was later made.
(WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1,16)
1868 Lesotho in Southern Africa
was annexed by the British.
(WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A11)
1868 Edvard Hagerup Grieg
(1843-1907), Norwegian composer, completed his Piano Concerto in A
(Econ, 8/13/11, p.81)
1868-1870 Cathy Williams disguised herself as a
man and served with distinction with the Buffalo Soldiers, black
soldiers in Army units on the frontier.
(SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.5)
1868-1912 The Meiji Period of Japan.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1868-1919 Henry "Marse" Watterson ran the
Louisville Courier-Journal. He was known to have a good recipe for
(WSJ, 5/3/96, p.A-8)
1868-1926 Gertrude Bell, adventurer, advisor to
kings, ally of Lawrence of Arabia. She wrote "The Desert and the
Sown" and spent much of her life in the Arab world whilst spying for
Britain in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Her 1996 biography by Janet
Wallach is: "Desert Queen, The Extraordinary Life of Gertrude Bell."
(SFEC, 9/15/96, BR p.5)(Hem., 5/97, p.99)
1868-1930: "Kin Hubbard" (Frank McKinney),
American humorist: "There seems to be an excess of everything except
parking space and religion."
1868-1933 In Trenton, New Jersey, the Greenwood
China Co. made ironstone and white granite pottery.
(SFC,12/17/97, Z1 p.16)
1868-1934 Mary Hunter Austin, American novelist
and playwright: "I am not sure that God always knows who are His
great men; He is so very careless of what happens to them while they
1868-1938 E.V. Lucas, English author and critic:
"The art of life is to show your hand. There is no diplomacy like
candor. You may lose by it now and then, but it will be a loss well
gained if you do. Nothing is so boring as having to keep up a
1868-1841 Emile Bernard, French poet. He founded
the Pont-Aven Group of Symbolists.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.34)
1868-1944 William Allen White, American
journalist: "Consistency is a paste jewel that only cheap men
1868-1952 Norman Douglas, Scottish [British]
author: Justice is too good for some people and not good enough for
the rest. "You can tell the ideals of a nation by its
(AP, 11/3/97)(AP, 5/22/99)
1868-1955 Paul Claudel, French author: "Why must
all the churches be closed at night? How often has the wanderer
groaned in front of those closed doors?"
1869 Jan-May, Chinese laborers
on the Central Pacific set a one-day record when they laid ten miles
of track in one day across the Utah desert. This beat the 4 mile
record accomplished by Irish workers on the Union Pacific line.
(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)
1869 Feb 2, James Oliver
invented the removable tempered steel plow blade.
1869 Feb 6, Harper's Weekly
published the 1st picture of Uncle Sam with chin whiskers.
1869 Feb 6, Carlo Cattaneo
(b.1801), Italian politician, died in Switzerland. His writings
significantly shaped the Italian Risorgimento. His journal, Il
Politecnico (The Polytechnic), not only served as a vehicle for
his political views but also was influential in introducing new
scientific and technical improvements into Italy.
1869 Feb 15, Charges of treason
against Jefferson Davis were dropped. Jefferson Davis Mexican War
exploits had led him directly to the Confederate White House.
1869 Feb 20, Tenn. Gov. W.C.
Brownlow declared martial law in Ku Klux Klan crisis.
1869 Feb 26, Nadezjda K.
Krupskaja, Russian revolutionary, wife of Lenin, was born.
1869 Feb 26, 15th Amendment,
guaranteeing right to vote, was sent to states.
1869 Mar 1, Postage stamps
showing scenes were issued for 1st time.
1869 Mar 1, Alphonse MLP de
Lamartine (78), French poet (History of Girondins), died.
1869 Mar 3, University of South
Carolina opened to all races.
1869 Mar 4, Ulysses S. Grant
was sworn in as the 18th president of the US.
(ON, 9/01, p.7)
1869 Mar 8, Louis Hector
Berlioz (b.1803), French composer (Symphony Fantastic), died. He was
later hailed as the most blazing musical innovator of the early 19th
century. In 1969 David Cairns translated his memoirs The Memoirs of
p.D4)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)
1869 Mar 11, Vladimir Odoevsky,
Russian prince, senator, scientist writer and critic, died. A
collection of his short stories was translated to English in 2012.
(NYT, 9/27/12, p.7)(
1869 Mar 13, Arkansas
legislature passed anti-Klan law.
1869 Mar 15, Cincinnati Red
Stockings became the 1st pro baseball team.
1869 Mar 18, Neville
Chamberlin, British Prime Minister (1937-40), was born. He tried to
make peace "in our time" with German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, but
instead made it easier for Hitler to take over continental Europe.
1869 Mar 21, Albert Kahn, the
architect who originated modern factory design, was born.
1869 Mar 21, Florenz Ziegfeld,
creator of the Ziegfeld Follies, was born. In 1974 Randolph Carter
(d.1998 at 90) authored "The World of Flo Ziegfeld."
(HN, 3/21/98)(SFC, 10/24/98, p.A22)
1869 Apr 6, John and Isaiah
Hyatt applied for a new patent using collodion to manufacture
billiard balls. They later named their product celluloid. It was
similar to that made by English inventor Alexander Parkes, who
patented the process in England in 1855. The new plastic could be
molded and mass produced, but was very flammable and exploded when
struck with excessive force. [see Jun 15]
(HNQ, 5/8/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(MC,
4/6/02)(PCh, 1992, p.467)(ON, 11/03, p.3)
1869 Apr 8, Harvey Cushing, US
neurosurgeon (blood pressure studied), was born.
1869 Apr 8, American Museum of
Natural History opened in NYC.
1869 Apr 9, The Hudson Bay
Company ceded its territory to Canada.
1869 Apr 10, The US Congress
increased the number of Supreme Court judges from 7 to 9.
1869 Apr 12, The US Supreme
Court in Texas v White established that secession is illegal. The
case involved a claim by the Reconstruction government of Texas that
United States bonds owned by Texas since 1850 had been illegally
sold by the Confederate state legislature during the American Civil
1869 Apr 12, Henri-Desire
Landru (Bluebeard), French sex murderer, was born.
1869 Apr 12, North Carolina
legislature passed an anti-Klan Law.
1869 Apr 13, Steam power brake
was patented by George Westinghouse.
1869 Apr 20, Johann Carl
Gottfried Loewe (72), composer, died.
1869 Apr 30, Hawaiian YMCA was
1869 Apr, Frances Emp. Louis
Napoleon ordered the dissolution of the Public Works Fund.
(ON, 9/06, p.12)
1869 May 1, Folies Bergere
opened in Paris.
1869 May 6, A special Southern
Pacific train left Sacramento bound for Utah to drive the final
spike connecting the SP to the Union Pacific on May 8. The UP train
did not arrive until May 10.
(WSJ, 8/25/00, p.W10)
1869 May 10, In the desert near
Promontory, Utah, railway official Leland Stanford, drove down a
golden spike to unite the tracks from the east and the west. The
first transcontinental railroad was completed when the Union Pacific
Railroad--building west from Omaha, Nebraska--and the Central
Pacific--building east from Sacramento, California--met at
Promontory Point, Utah. Recognizing that transportation was
essential to the economic development of the nation, the U.S.
Congress passed legislation in 1862 that provided for the
construction of a railroad linking the east and west coasts. A
depression followed the completion of the railroad and the Chinese
became a target of ill-will as unemployment soared. Engine 350 was
the first one down the Union Pacific line and commemorative platters
were made for the occasion. In 1999 David Howard Bain published
"Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad." In
2000 Stephen E. Ambrose authored "Nothing Like It in the World, The
Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869." In 2007
Richard Rayner authored The Associates: Four Capitalists Who
(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)(SFC,1/22/97, Z1 p.7)(HN,
5/11/99)(WSJ, 11/4/99, p.A28)(WSJ, 8/25/00, p.W10)(SSFC, 12/17/00,
BR p.10)(SSFC, 1/20/08, p.M1)
1869 May 24, John Wesley Powell
departed Green River City, Wyoming, with 9 men on an expedition to
explore the canyons of the Green and Colorado River. Over 3 years he
led two expeditions to explore the Grand Canyon. Three members of
the first expedition were killed, reportedly by Indians. His written
account was suspected to be inflated if not fictitious. A 1997 novel
by Oakley Hall, "Separations," depicted the events.
(HFA, 96, p.127)(SFC, 4/23/97, p.D5)(ON, 5/02,
1869 May 29, Philippe
Vandermaelen (73), Flemish cartographer, publisher, died.
1869 Jun 1, The Electric
Voting Machine was patented by Thomas A. Edison.
1869 Jun 6, Siegfried Wagner,
German opera composer, conductor, son of Richard Wagner (who
composed "Siegfried Idyll" to commemorate his birth), was born.
1869 Jun 8, Lloyd Wright
(d.1959), American architect. He designed Taliesin West near
Scottsdale, Arizona on 600 acres in the foothills of the McDowell
Mountains. He also designed the beehive building of the Guggenheim
Museum on 5th Ave in NYC. "Give me the luxuries of life and I will
willingly do without the necessities." [see Jun 8,1867]
(WUD, 1994, p.1647)(AAM, 3/96, p.43)(WSJ,
1869 Jun 8, Ives W. McGaffey of
Chicago patented the 1st vacuum cleaner.
1869 Jun 9, Charles Elmer Hires
sold his 1st root beer in Phila.
1869 Jun 15, Celluloid was
patented in the USA. [see Apr 6]
1869 Jun 24, Mary Ellen "Mammy"
Pleasant officially became the Voodoo Queen in San Francisco,
1869 Jun 27, Emma Goldman,
Lithuanian born American anarchist, feminist and birth control
advocate, was born. She was deported to the Soviet Union for
inciting World War I draft riots in New York.
1869 Jul 8, William Vaughan
Moody, poet and playwright (The Great Divide), was born.
1869 Jul 15, Margarine was
patented by Hippolye Mega-Mouriss for use by French Navy.
1869 Jul 29, Booth Tarkington
(d.1946), US dramatist and novelist (17, Magnificent Ambersons), was
born. "Mystics always hope that science will some day overtake
(AP, 1/31/00)(MC, 7/29/02)
1869 Jul, John Augustus
Roebling, inventor of the steel wire cable and designer of the
Brooklyn Bridge, was killed in a construction accident at the outset
of construction of the Brooklyn Bridge. Roebling died of a tetanus
infection from a foot injury. He had earlier completed the first
suspension bridge over the Niagara gorge linking the US and Canada.
His son and partner, Washington A. Roebling, supervised the Brooklyn
Bridge to its completion in spite of a debilitating illness.
(HFA, '96, p.30)(AP, 5/24/97)(HNPD, 5/23/99)(WSJ,
6/10/99, p.A24)(ON, 4/01, p.9)
1869 Aug 10, O.B. Brown
patented a moving picture projector.
1869 Aug 12, In
Piribebuy, Paraguay, 1,600 poorly armed men, many of them mere
children, spent 5 hours resisting the assault of 20,000 allied
Brazilian, Argentine and Uruguayan forces intent on conquest, before
finally being overwhelmed. At the end of the battle, in which the
Hospital de Sangre was burnt down, along with all the wounded
inside, many prisoners were decapitated.
1869 Aug 17, Oxford beat
Harvard on the Thames River in the 1st international boat race.
1869 Aug 24, Cornelius
Swarthout of Troy, New York, patented the waffle iron.
1869 Aug 27, Karl Haushofer,
soldier, geographer, was born.
1869 Aug 29, John Wesley Powell
and his men successfully navigated the last rapid in the Grand
Canyon and reached the mouth of the Virgin River in Nevada.
(ON, 8/12, p.8)
1869 Sep 6, 110 miners, a
number of them young boys, were killed in coal mine disaster which
occurred early in the morning in Avondale, Pennsylvania, when a fire
broke out in a mineshaft, cutting off the miners' escape route and
their only source of air.
1869 Sep 10, A Baptist minister
invented the rickshaw in Yokohama, Japan. The jinrikisha, or
rickshaw, was developed as a cheap alternative to horse power in
1870. In 1998 Tony wheeler wrote "Chasing Rickshaws" with
photographs by Richard IAnson.
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T9)(MC, 9/10/01)
1869 Sep 12, Peter M. Roget,
English physician and lexographer, died. In 2008 Joshua Kendall
authored The Man Who Made Lists: Love, Death, Madness, and the
Creation of Rogets Thesaurus (1852).
1869 Sep 13, Jay Gould and
James Fisk attempted to control the US gold market.
1869 Sep 22, Richard Wagner's
opera "Das Rheingold" premiered in Munich.
1869 Sep 22, The Cincinnati Red
Stockings, the first professional baseball team, arrived in San
Francisco after a rollicking, barnstorming tour of the West.
1869 Sep 23, Edgar Lee Masters,
poet and novelist (Spoon River Anthology), was born.
1869 Sep 24, Black Friday.
Thousands of businessmen were ruined in a Wall Street panic after
financiers Jay Gould and James Fisk attempted to corner the gold
(AP, 9/24/97)(MC, 9/24/01)
1869 Sep 27, Wild Bill Hickok,
sheriff of Hays City, Kan., shot down Samuel Strawhim, a drunken
teamster causing trouble.
1869 Oct 1, Austria issued the
world's first postal card, the Correspondenz Karte, a plain-line
card printed with a 2-kreuzer stamp.
1869 Oct 2, Mohandas Karamchad
Gandhi (d.1948), called Mahatma, Hindu nationalist, political and
spiritual leader was born in Porbandar, India. His nonviolent
actions helped to eradicate British rule in India. He was
assassinated in 1948. "Love is the strongest force the world
possesses, and yet it is the humblest imaginable." "To enjoy life
one should give up the lure of life." [see Oct 3]
(AHD, 1971, p.542)(HFA, 96, p.40)(SFC, 1/31/97,
p.A13)(AP, 10/2/97)(AP, 1/12/98)(HN, 10/2/98)(AP, 1/12/98)(AP,
1869 Oct 3, Mohandas Karamchad
Gandhi (d.1948), called Mahatma, Hindu nationalist and spiritual
leader was born. He was later assassinated. [see Oct 2]
(AHD, 1971, p.542)(HFA, 96, p.40)(SFC, 1/31/97,
1869 Oct 6, Johannes Brahms'
"Liebeslieder Walzes," premiered.
1869 Oct 8, Franklin Pierce
(64), the 14th president (1853-1857) of the United States, died in
(AP, 10/8/97)(MC, 10/8/01)
1869 Oct 13, Charles-Augustin
Sainte-Beuve, French writer (Tableau Historique), died.
1869 Oct 16, A hotel in Boston
became the 1st to have indoor plumbing.
1869 Oct 21, The 1st shipment
of fresh oysters came West overland from Baltimore.
1869 Oct 23, John Heisman,
American college football coach from 1892 to 1927, was born. He had
a trophy for best college player named after him.
1869 Oct 25, August Otto Halm,
composer, was born.
1869 Nov 1, Louis Riel seized
Fort Garry, Winnipeg, during the Red River Rebellion. Louis Riel,
Metis leader, helped stage an uprising against the influx of white
settlers in Manitoba that resulted in a provisional government that
he led. Manitoba was admitted as Canadas 5th province and the Metis
were allocated 1.4 million acres of land, but Riel fled charged with
failing to stop the execution of Thomas Scott, an English Protestant
captured during the fighting.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)(HN, 11/1/98)(Reuters,
1869 Nov 2, Sheriff Wild Bill
Hickok lost his reelection bid in Ellis County, Kan.
1869 Nov 8, The
transcontinental railway arrived in Oakland, Ca., with a stop at
Suisun City. The Mariposa pulled 6 coaches into Oakland at 7th and
(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W27)(SFC, 9/3/99, p.A4)(SFC,
1869 Nov 11, Victor Emmanuel
III, king of Italy (1900-46) and Ethiopia, was born.
1869 Nov 17, The Suez Canal was
opened in Egypt, linking the Mediterranean and the Red seas. The 100
mile canal eliminated a 4000-mile trip around Africa. Empress
Eugenie, the wife of Napoleon III, together with Ferdinand de
Lesseps, chief architect of the canal, led the first file of ships
from on board the French imperial yacht Aigle. It was financed by
the Rothschild banking empire. In 2003 Zacharay Karabell authored
"Parting the Desert: The Creation of the Suez Canal."
(I&WWI, p.1041)(SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)(AP,
11/17/97)(MC, 11/17/01)(WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)
1869 Nov 22, Andre Gide
(d1951), French novelist and critic (Lafcadio's Adventures- Nobel
1947), was born. "There are very few monsters who warrant the fear
we have of them." "Believe those who are seeking the truth; doubt
those who find it." "The color of truth is gray."
(AP, 10/31/97)(AP, 3/24/98)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1
1869 Dec 10, Governor John
Campbell signed a bill that granted women in the Wyoming Territory
the right to vote as well as hold public office. Esther Morris had
pressed state senator William Bright to sponsor the suffrage bill.
Wyoming became the 1st US state to enfranchise women.
(AP, 12/10/97)(HN, 12/10/98)(USAW, 5/19/02, p.8)
1869 Dec 14, Nathan Meeker,
agricultural editor of the New York Tribune, wrote a column
appealing to readers of high moral character to join him in building
a utopian community by the South Platte River near the foot of the
Rocky Mountains. He selected 700 of some 3000 applicants and founded
Greeley, Colo., named after his publisher Horace Greeley.
(Sm, 2/06, p.99)
1869 Dec 18, Louis Moreau
Gottschalk (b.1829), American composer, died in Brazil.
1869 Dec 22, Edwin Arlington
Robinson (d.1935), American poet, was born. "Christmas has come and
gone, and Ito speak selfishlyam glad of it. The season always
gives me the blues in spite of myself, though I manage to get a good
deal of pleasure from thinking of the multitudes of happy kids in
various parts of the world."
(AP, 12/26/97)(SFEC, 4/23/00, BR p.6)
1869 Dec 24, Edwin M[cMasters]
Stanton (55), US Secretary of War (1861-65), died.
1869 Dec 28, William Finley
Semple of Mount Vernon, Ohio, patented chewing gum.
1869 Dec 31, Henri Matisse
(d.1954), French artist best known for his paintings "Woman with a
Hat" and "The Red Studio," was born. His work included the "Dance
II," now at the Hermitage in Moscow. In 1998 Hilary Spurling
authored "The Unknown Matisse: A Life of Henri Matisse, Vol 1:
(WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A5)(SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.9)(HN,
1869 Johann Friedrich Overbeck
(b.1789), German Nazarene artist, was born.
(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)
1869 Gustave Courbet painted
"The Rock of Hautepierre."
1869 Edgar Degas painted
"Madame Camus at the Piano."
1869 Jules-Elie Delaunay
created his painting "The Plague in Rome."
(WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)
1869 Claude Monet painted "The
Seine at Bougival, Evening."
(SFC, 7/11/01, p.D1)
1869 Renoir and Monet sat side
by side and painted views of the bathing house, La Grenouillleres
and its patrons.
(WSJ, 9/10/96, p.A16)(SFC, 10/30/96, p.E2)
1869 Camille Pissarro painted
"The Versailles Road at Louveciennes."
(SFEM, 1/31/99, p.18)
1869 Francis Galton, British
psychologist, authored Hereditary Genius, in which he argued that
natural abilities are derived by inheritance.
1869 John Stuart Mill authored
his essay On Liberty in which he argued that the state should
repress mans acts only if they harm others.
(Econ, 4/8/06, p.67)
1869 Rangawarsita, a Javanese
royal courtier, compiled the "Books of Kings," which mentioned an
event from the middle of the first millennium that sounded like a
major eruption. In about 535 there was some evidence that the
Krakatoa volcano had a major eruption.
(WSJ, 5/15/00, p.A46)
1869 Catherine Esther Beecher
and sister Harriet Beecher Stowe authored American Womans Home,
in which they recommended a scientific approach to household
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.125)
1869 Alfred Russel Wallace
(1823-1913), British field biologist, authored The Malay
Archipelago. He had gone to Indonesia in 1852 looking for the
origin of species.
1869 Johannes Brahms composed
his "German Requiem."
(WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)
1869 Thomas Henry Huxley,
English biologist, naturalist and writer, coined the term "agnostic"
after he got tired of being called an atheist. [2nd source says
(SFEC, 2/15/98, Z1 p.8)(SFEC, 9/3/00, Z1 p.2)
1869 Railroad companies built
the first bridge across the Missouri River at Kansas City.
(SSFC, 11/12/06, p.G6)
1869 The US federal government
took 7,500 acres within the Cheyenne-Arapaho reservation of Oklahoma
for a military fort, Fort Reno. In 1997 the closed fort was under
control of the Agriculture Dept. and used for a small research
(SFC, 3/10/97, p.A2)
1869 Daniel E. Sickles was
appointed minister to Spain. A newspaper summed up his career: "mail
robber, spy, murderer, confidence man, general, satrap, politician."
In 2002 Thomas Keneally authored "American Scoundrel," a biography
(WSJ, 3/29/02, p.W10)
1869 In San Francisco the
Catholic Sisters of Charity opened an orphanage on the top of Mount
(SFC, 7/24/13, p.D6)
1869 The transcontinental
railway arrived in Oakland, Ca.
(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W27)
1869 Wells Fargo allowed Leland
Stanford, Charles Crocker, Henry Huntington and mark Hopkins (the
Big Four) to gain controlling interest in exchange for the exclusive
rights to carry express over the Transcontinental Railroad.
(SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)
1869 The Pacific Lumber Company
was founded. It was headquartered in San Francisco.
(SFC, 9/4/96, p.A4)
1869 In Connecticut the Meriden
Silver Plate Co. was founded.
(SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.9)
1869 About this time Edmund
McIlhenny, banker, traveled to New Orleans and acquired some pepper
seeds from a man on the street, which he grew and used to develop
a hot sauce that he called Tabasco, after peppers from
Mexicos state of Tabasco. In 2007 Jeffrey Rothfeder authored
McIlhennys Gold: How a Louisiana Family Built the Tabasco Empire.
(SFC, 4/5/99, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D11)
1869 Gambling in Nevada was
(SFEC, 5/10/98, DB p.64)
1869 John Brown - of the
banking firm of Brown Brothers & Co. - put all of his banks
capital on the line to block a cornering of the gold market by Jay
Gould and Jim Fisk.
(WSJ, 5/8/95, p.A-14)
1869 100,000 young evergreens
were sold at Christmas in New York City.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.53)
1869 In NYC Hart Island became
the citys graveyard. The island had also been used as a Union
training camp, a Confederate prison, a yellow-fever quarantine, a
lunatic asylum, a workhouse for aged inmates, a prison for WW II
German soldiers, an antiaircraft missile base, a rehab center for
the homeless and drug addicts, and a driving school for chronic
(WSJ, 8/26/98, p.10)
1869 Marcus Goldman, son of a
German peasant, began to broker credit to diamond and leather
merchants near Wall Street. He later offered a partnership to his
son-in-law Sam Sachs. In 1999 Lisa Endlich published "Goldman Sachs:
The Culture of Success." In 2008 Charles D. Ellis authored The
Partnership: The Making of Goldman Sachs.
(WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 10/1/08, p.A23)
1869 Alexander Turney Stewart
(d.1860), Irish-born entrepreneur, founded Garden City, NJ.
1869 Dr. Thomas Bramwell Welsh,
a wine steward at a church in Vineland, pasteurized Concord grape
juice to produce an unfermented sacramental wine. He later came to
be known as the father of the fruit juice industry.
(SFEC, 8/8/99, Z1 p.8)
1869 Henry John Heinz partnered
with L. Clarence Noble to form Heinz & Noble in Sharpsburg, Pa.
Their first product was grated horseradish. Their first ketchup was
introduced in 1876. They produced tomato and walnut ketchup for 24
cents per gallon and sold them from whiskey barrels. In 2013 Warren
Buffetts Berkshire Hathaway and 3G Capital acquired Heinz in a
$23.3 billion deal.
1869 Pillsbury was founded as a
US flour milling company.
(WSJ, 5/5/99, p.B1)
1869 Western Union formed
Western Electric to make apparatus for the telegraph. It was later
subsumed into AT&A and then spun off as Lucent.
(WSJ, 10/5/04, p.D8)
1869 George Westinghouse
(1846-1914) introduced the railroad airbrake. The device enabled the
engineer to brake a train from the locomotive. Westinghouse secured
a patent for the first air brake, an invention that had a
revolutionary impact on railroad transportation, making high-speed
travel safe. Westinghouse already held patents for a rotary steam
engine and other railroad equipment when he incorporated the
Westinghouse Air Brake Co. in 1869. He later invented an automatic
air brake for long freight trains. Westinghouse, who eventually held
more than 400 patents, turned his interest to electricity in 1885
and later formed the Westinghouse Electric.
(THC, 12/2/97)(HNQ, 5/28/00)
1869 Margarine was invented.
(NW, 9/16/02, p.34D)
1869 Carbon paper was first
(SFC, 6/3/00, p.D4)
1869 Frederick Marriott flew
his unmanned Aviator Hermes Jr. over a field near Millbrae and
Burlingame in California. The machine was a gasbag filled with
hydrogen, and a steam engine turning rotors with attached delta
wings guided by men on the ground with ropes.
(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A23)
1869 John Boyle OReilly, Irish
nationalist, spy, convict, and poet, escaped by sea from an
Australian prison camp and settled in Boston.
(Smith., 4/1995, p.146)
1869 The first Univ. of Mich.
University Hospital opened in Ann Arbor. It was the only university
owned teaching hospital in the US.
(MT, Sum. 98, p.15)
1869 The petrified man hoax
known as the "Cardiff Giant" was promoted in New York, Boston,
Albany and Syracuse. A 10 foot 4 ½ inch limestone statue of a man
was claimed to have been dug up in Cardiff, N.Y.
(SFC, 11/18/00, p.B3)
1869 Ludwig Karl Kahlbaum in
Innsbruck, Austria, described for the 1st time the medical condition
of catatonia. He compiled a list of almost 40 signs involving
unusual movements. For decades it was thought to be a type of
schizophrenia. By 2006 it was still not well understood.
(SSFC, 12/24/06, p.B6)
1869 Etienne Leopold Trouvelot
(1827-1895), French artist, amateur entomologist and immigrant to
the US, imported gypsy-moth eggs to set up a silk production project
in the backyard of his Medford, Mass., home. The moth became a
(WSJ, 5/1/01, p.A24)(SSFC, 5/22/05, Par p.4)
1869 Dmitri Ivanovich
Mendeleyev (1834-1907), Russian chemist, formulated the periodic
table of elements [see 1871]. In 2001 Paul Strathern authored
"Mendeleyevs Dream," a history of chemistry.
(V.D.-H.K.p.324)(HN, 2/8/01)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)
1869 New York Herald reporter
Henry Morton Stanley was instructed to travel to Africa for the
opening of the Suez Canal and to locate David Livingstone, the
British missionary doctor who had been missing since 1866.
Livingstone's final expedition to central Africa had been undertaken
to bring Christianity to the natives, to help eradicate the slave
trade and to locate the source of the Nile.
1869 A fire at Yellow Jacket
Mine near Virginia City, Nevada, killed 45 people.
(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T7)
1869 Roger Fenton (b.1819),
British photographer, died. In 2004 Gordon Baldwin, Malcolm Daniel
and Sarah Greenough authored All the Mighty World: The Photographs
of Roger Fenton 1852-1860.
(SSFC, 11/14/04, p.E1)
1869 Henri Jomini, military
theorist, died. He had used the campaigns of Napoleon to formulate
theories of warfare that influenced military commanders through much
of the 19th century. Jomini began his military career in 1798,
volunteering his services to the French Army. With the peace of
Amiens, he left the army and wrote his "Treatise of Grand Military
Operations." The book impressed Napoleon enough to have Jomini
appointed a staff colonel in 1805, Jomini having volunteered again
in 1804. Jomini rose to become chief of staff under Marshall Ney,
but left the French army to fight for Russia in 1813 as a general
and aide-de-camp of Alexander I. By the time of his death in 1869,
he had written several other works, organized the Russian military
academy and advised kings on tactics for their various military
1869 Henry J. Raymond, founder
of the New-York Daily Times, died of a heart attack in the apartment
of his lover, actress Rose Eytinge.
(SFEM, 1/16/00, p.17)
1869 The Austrian government
introduced the first postcard, the Correspondenz Karte, a plain-line
card printed with a 2-kreuzer stamp.
(Hem, 6/96, p.97)
1869 The Giant Panda of China
was first made known to the West by the French missionary Armand
1869 The Benedictine monastery
on the Croatian island of Sveta Marija was abandoned.
(SSFC, 6/20/04, p.D8)
1869 In England the
grandparents of Alan Sainsbury (1902-1998) founded a family grocery
in London that grew to become a supermarket empire.
(SFC, 10/27/98, p.B6)
1869 In France Pierre and
Ernest Michaux built the first motorcycle. It was powered by a steam
(SFEC, 7/27/97, Z1 p.7)
1869 In Paris the Bon Marche
department store, founded by Aristide and Marguerite Boucicaut,
began displaying its wares for customers to inspect and introduced
(Econ, 10/2/04, p.18)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.15)
1869 In Hungary Mark Pick
founded a sausage company in Szeged.
(SFC, 3/21/97, p.D2)
1869 Iceland made it illegal to
sell or distribute pornography.
(Econ, 4/20/13, p.64)
1869 Japans Yasukuni shrine
was dedicated to the Japanese who died in wars since 1853. The name,
which means peaceful country, was bestowed by Emperor Meiji in
(Econ, 10/8/05, Survey p.15)
1869 In Yokohama, Japan,
Baptist missionary Jonathan Scobie put together the first jinriksha
to cart around his invalid wife.
(SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)
1869 Paraguays army
surrendered to the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
Pres. Lopez refused to surrender.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.46)
1869 In Scotland the tea
clipper Cutty Sark was launched. The name referred to the Scottish
word for short shift or dress.
(SSFC, 6/19/05, p.E6)
1869-1870 The first Vatican Council. The doctrine
of papal infallibility was declared. The council was interrupted by
the Franco-Prussian war.
1869-1876 In Britain the Midland Railway Company
built the 70-mile Settle-Carlisle railway.
(Hem., 1/97, p.114)
1869-1877 Ulysses S. Grant served as the 18th
President of the US.
(A&IP, ESM, p.96b)
1869-1877 Elihu Washburne (1816-1887) served as
Americas minister to France and was influential in negotiating the
armistice for the Franco-Prussian War. During the 2 months of the
Paris Commune (1870) he arranged passports for Americans to escape
(Econ, 6/4/11, p.95)
1869-1886 St. Francis Cathedral was built in Santa
Fe, New Mexico, under the direction of French priest (later bishop)
(SSFC, 6/10/01, p.T8)
1869-1921 Of the 11 U.S. presidents serving
between 1869 and 1921, seven of them were born in Ohio. The
presidents and their places of birth were: Ulysses S. Grant, Point
Pleasant; Rutherford B. Hayes, Delaware; James A. Garfield, Orange;
Benjamin Harrison, North Bend; William McKinley, Niles; William H.
Taft, Cincinnati; Warren G. Harding, Morrow County. These were the
only Ohio-born presidents. Three of them, Garfield, McKinley and
Harding died in office.
1869-1934 Marie Dressler, Canadian actress: "Never
one thing and seldom one person can make for a success. It takes a
number of them merging into one perfect whole."
1869-1940 Emma Goldman, American anarchist: "Show
me the country in which there are no strikes and Ill show you that
country in which there is no liberty."
1869-1944 Stephen Leacock, Canadian
humorist-educator: "If youth only had a chance or old age any
1869-1949 Hans Erich Pfitzner, German composer and
conductor. He became a Nazi sympathizer and an enthusiastic
(WUD, 1994, p.1078)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)
1869-1951 Andre Gide, French author and critic:
"There are very few monsters who warrant the fear we have of them."
"Believe those who are seeking the truth; doubt those who find it."
"The color of truth is gray."
(AP, 10/31/97)(AP, 3/24/98)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1
1869-1955 Calouste Gulbenkian, Armenian oil
merchant. By 1907 he combined Royal Dutch Oil and Shell Oil and
emerged with a large block of stock in the combined company. He
later brokered all the oil sold in Iran to the West for a 5%
commission and earned the nickname Mr. Five percent. He collected
old master paintings, Turkish carpets, illuminated manuscripts and
left a fortune valued at $1 billion.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)
1869-1984 Paul Mayewski and Willi Dansgaard
analyze ice-core from south Greenland covering this time period and
found that the sulfate concentration had tripled since around 1900.
the nitrate concentration showed to double.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.65)
1870 Jan 3, Construction of the
Brooklyn Bridge began.
1870 Jan 9, Alexander Herzen
(b.1812), Russian author, died in France. In 1961 US Prof. Martin
Malia (1924-2004) authored Alexander Herzen and the Birth of
Russian Socialism (1812-1855).
1870 Jan 10, John D.
Rockefeller (1839-1937) and his brother William incorporated the
Standard Oil Company of Ohio. The original Standard Oil Company,
founded by John D. Rockefeller and three partners in 1870, was
incorporated in the state of Ohio.
(WSJ, 7/15/97, p.A16)(AP, 1/10/98)(HN,
1870 Jan 10, Victor Noir (22),
French journalist, was killed by Prince Pierre Bonaparte. Noir "had
called on him with a companion to present his editor's challenge to
a duel because of a journalistic dispute concerning Corsican
politics. Public sentiment over Noir's death forces Napoleon III to
abdicate. A statue of Noirs prostrate figure became a magnet for
infertile women rubbing themselves against him as a sexual charm.
1870 Jan 15, The Democratic
party was represented as a donkey in a cartoon by Thomas Nast in
(Hem, 8/96, p.84)(AP, 1/15/98)
1870 Jan 19, Nathaniel
Langford, agent of the Northern Pacific Railroad Co., presented a
lecture in Wash. DC on the challenges of building a RR through the
northern Rockies and reported that Yellowstone Valley contained
dozens of geysers. This prodded Ferdinand Hayden to seek
Congressional support for a scientific expedition to the valley.
(ON, 11/02, p.2)
1870 Jan 23, American army
forces, looking for Mountain Chief's band of hostile Blackfoot
Indians, fell instead upon Heavy Runner's peaceable Piegan band in
Montana and killed 173, many of them women and children.
(www.legendsofamerica.com/NA-Blackfoot.html)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.M2)
1870 Jan 26, Virginia rejoined
1870 Feb 2, Samuel Clemens,
Mark Twain, married Olivia Langdon in Elmira, New York. He fell in
love with her photograph during an 1867 trip to the Holy Land with
her brother Charles.
(SFEM, 1/25/98, p.31)
1870 Feb 2, The press agencies
Havas, Reuter and Wolff signed an agreement whereby between them
they would cover the whole world.
1870 Feb 2, The "Cardiff
Giant," supposedly the petrified remains of a human discovered in
Cardiff, N.Y., was revealed to be nothing more than carved gypsum.
1870 Feb 3, 15th Amendment on
Black suffrage was passed. [see Mar 30]
1870 Feb 5, The 1st motion
picture was shown to a theater audience in Philadelphia.
1870 Feb 7, Alfred Adler,
psychiatrist (Inferiority Complex), was born in Austria.
1870 Feb 9, The U.S. Army
established the US National Weather Service. Congress under
continued petition from Smithsonian secretary Joseph Henry and
colleagues, passed a military appropriation enabling the US Army
Signal Service to make standardized weather observations.
(AP, 2/9/99)(ON, 2/06, p.7)
1870 Feb 12, Women in the Utah
Territory gained the right to vote. However, that right was taken
away in 1887.
1870 Feb 12, An official
proclamation set April 15 as last day of grace for US silver coins
to circulate in Canada.
1870 Feb 13, Leopold Godowsky,
virtuoso pianist, composer, was born in Lithuania.
1870 Feb 14, Esther Morris
became the worlds first female justice of the peace.
1870 Feb 15, Ground was broken
for Northern Pacific Railway near Duluth, Minn.
(440 Intl., 2/15/99)
1870 Feb 16, The clipper ship
Cutty Sark left London on its first voyage, proceeding around Cape
Hope to Shanghai 3 1/2 months later. The ship made only eight
voyages to China in the tea trade, as steam ships replaced sail on
the high seas.
1870 Feb 17, Mississippi became
the 9th state readmitted to US after Civil War. [see Feb 23]
1870 Feb 17, Nebraska, the last
state needed to secure ratification, approved the 15th Amendment to
the US Constitution, guaranteeing the right to vote regardless of
(AH, 2/05, p.17)
1870 Feb 23, Mississippi was
readmitted to the Union. [see Feb 17]
1870 Feb 23, Anton Burlingame,
former Mass., legislator, former US ambassador to China and current
Chinese diplomat, died in Russia. He was returned to Boston for
(Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)
1870 Feb 25, Hiram Revels
(Sen-R-MS) was sworn in as the 1st black member of Congress.
1870 Feb 26, New York City's
first pneumatic-powered subway line was opened to the public. The
tunnel was only a block long, and the line had only one car.
1870 Feb 26, Wyatt Outlaw,
black leader of Union League in North Carolina, was lynched.
1870 Mar 1, Francisco S. Lopez
(43), President of Paraguay (1862-70), was killed in the War of the
Triple alliance. The Brazilian army had cornered him at Cerro Cora.
A rough post-war census counted just 29,000 males over the age of 15
left in Paraguay.
1870 Mar 5, Frank Norris,
novelist (McTeague, The Octopus), was born.
1870 Mar 6, Oscar Strauss,
composer (Ein Walzertraum), was born in Vienna, Austria.
1870 Mar 17, the Massachusetts
Legislature authorized the incorporation of Wellesley Female
Seminary. It later became Wellesley College.
1870 Mar 18, The 1st US
National Wildlife Preserve was Lake Merritt in Oakland, Calif. Lake
Merritt, actually a tidal lagoon, was named after Samuel Merritt, a
physician and one of the 1st mayors of Oakland.
(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W31)(SFC, 1/5/01, WBb p.8)(SFCM,
1870 Mar 19, The opera
"Guarany," premiered in Milan.
1870 Mar 30, The 15th Amendment
to the US Constitution, guaranteeing the right to vote regardless of
race, was declared in effect by Secretary of State Hamilton Fish.
(HN, 3/30/98)(AP, 3/30/08)
1870 Mar 30, Texas was the last
Confederate state readmitted to the Union.
(AP, 3/30/97)(HN, 3/30/98)
1870 Apr 2, Victoria Claflin
Woodhull (1838-1927) became the first woman to run for president of
the United States when she announced her candidacy for the 1872
election, but she spent Election Day in jail for sending obscene
literature through the mail. Woodhull challenged convention in
Victorian-era America. Victoria and her sister, Tennessee Claflin,
got their start as spiritual advisors to financier Cornelius
Vanderbilt. With his backing, the sisters became the first women to
open their own successful brokerage firm.
1870 Apr 9, The American
Anti-Slavery Society dissolved.
1870 Apr 9, Heinrich
Schliemann, German archeologist, with neither a permit nor the
consent of the Turkish landowners, had his hired men sink trenches
on the summit of the mound of Hissarlik, the spur of a limestone
plateau on the northwest coast, where he suspected that the ancient
ruins of Troy lay buried. Schliemann was hired by Frank Calvert
(1828-1908), US Consular Agent at the Dardanelles, to excavate at
Thymbra. In 1999 Susan Heuck Allen authored Finding the Wall of
Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik.
4/96, p.44)(Arch, 11/04, p.8)
1870 Apr 13, The Metropolitan
Museum of Art was incorporated in New York. The museum opened in
1870 Apr 22, Vladimir Ilyich
Lenin (d.1924), also known as Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, Russian
revolutionary leader and first communist leader of USSR, was born.
It was later learned that he was a hereditary noble and that he had
a French mistress named Inessa Armand. In 1996 Richard Pipes edited
"The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive."
(V.D.-H.K.p.260)(WSJ, 10/23/96, p.A19)(SFC,
3/27/97, p.A15)(HN, 4/22/98)
1870 Apr 27, Heinrich
Schliemann discovered Troy.
1870 Apr 30, Franz Lehár,
operetta composer, was born. He is best known for "The Marry Widow"
and "The Land of Smiles."
1870 May 7, Marcus Loew, film
executive, was born. He consolidated studios to create MGM.
1870 May 8, In France a
national plebiscite voted confidence in the Empire with about 84% of
votes in favor. On the eve of the plebiscite members of the Paris
Federation were arrested on a charge of conspiring against Napoleon
III. This pretext was further used by the government to launch a
campaign of persecution of the members of the International
1870 May 12, An act creating
the Canadian province of Manitoba was given royal assent, to take
effect in July.
1870 May 25, Irish Fenians
raided Eccles Hill, Quebec.
1870 Jun 5, A fire in
Constantinople killed some 900 people.
1870 Jun 9, Washington: Pres
Grant met with Sioux chief Red Cloud.
1870 Jun 9, Charles Dickens
(58), writer, died in Gads Hill, England. His work included the
"Pictures from Italy" and Oliver Twist. In 2009 Michael Slater
authored Charles Dickens. In 2011 Claire Tomalin authored Charles
Dickens: A Life.
9/12/09, p.92)(SSFC, 11/27/11, p.F5)
1870 Jun 11, William Gilmore
Simms (b.1806), American Southern writer, died. His books included
Guy Rivers (1834) and The Yemassee (1835).
1870 Jun 17, George Cormack,
cereal inventor (Wheaties), was born.
1870 Jun 22, The US Congress
created the Department of Justice.
1870 Jun 25, Richard Wagner's
opera "Die Walkure" was produced in Munich.
1870 Jun 26, Christmas was made
a federal holiday in the US.
1870 Jun 26, The first section
of the famous boardwalk in Atlantic City, N.J., was opened to the
1870 Jun 30, Ada H. Kepley of
Effingham, Ill., became Americas first female law school graduate.
1870 Jul 11(Jun 11), 1st-stone
Amstel Brewery opened in Amsterdam.
1870 Jul 15, Georgia became the
last of the Confederate states to be admitted to the Union.
1870 Jul 15, Manitoba entered
confederation as the fifth Canadian province.
1870 Jul 18, Pontifical
infallibility was proclaimed at the Vatican Council. It proclaimed
as dogma that the Pope when speaking ex cathedra can make no mistake
in solemn declarations of what must be believed in matters of faith
and morals. The 20th ecumenical council, soon adjourned due to the
outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War.
(PTA, 1980, p.510)(MC, 7/18/02)
1870 Jul 19, The
Franco-Prussian War began. Napoleon declared war on Bismarck.
Emperor Napoleon III of France declared war on Germany under Otto
von Bismarck. Napoleon was defeated in three months and abdicated.
(WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)(V.D.-H.K.p.260)(AP,
1870 Jul 20, Vladimir D.
Nabokov, Russian jurist, minister of Justice (1918-19), was born.
1870 Jul 23, In France Marx
completed what will become known as his "First Address."
1870 Jul 24, The 1st trans-US
rail service began.
1870 Jul 27, Hilaire Belloc,
French writer (Cautionary Tales), was born.
1870 Jul 30, Clara Barton
departed for field with the Red Cross following the French
declaration of war against Prussia. In Basle Antoinette Margot (27)
joined her as an aide and interpreter.
(ON, 8/12, p.11)
1870 Aug 6, White conservatives
suppressed the black vote and captured Tenn. Legislature.
1870 Aug 6, Battle at
Spicheren: Prussia beat France.
1870 Aug 14, David [James]
Glasgow Farragut, admiral, died.
1870 Aug 17, Frederick Russell,
developer of the 1st successful typhoid fever vaccine, was born.
1870 Aug 17, The 1st ascent of
Mt. Rainier in Washington state.
1870 Aug 17, Esther Morris was
named a justice of the peace in South Pass City, the first woman to
hold public office in the US.
(SFC, 8/18/98, p.A8)(SC, 8/17/02)
1870 Aug 18, Prussian forces
defeated the French at the Battle of Gravelotte during the
1870 Aug 19, Bernard Baruch,
U.S. representative to the U.N. Atomic Energy Commission, was
born. "Let us not deceive ourselves: we must elect world
peace or world destruction."
(HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)
1870 Aug 25, Richard Wagner
married Cosima von Bulow. Cosima was the illegitimate daughter of
Franz Liszt and had married Hans von Bulow. She and Wagner already
had 3 children by the time they married.
(LGC, 1970, p.266)
1870 Aug 31, Maria Montessori
(d.1952), educator and physician, was born in Chiaravalle, Italy.
She opened her 1st Montessori school in San Lorenzo, Italy in 1907.
1870 Sep 1, The Prussian army
crushed the French under Marshal MacMahon at Sedan, the last battle
of the Franco-Prussian War.
(HN, 9/1/99)(PCh, 1992, p.516)
1870 Sep 2, Samuel Augustus
Maverick (b.1803), Texas lawyer, politician, land baron and signer
of the Texas Declaration of Independence, died. His name is the
source of the term "maverick", first cited in 1867, which means
independent minded. Maverick was considered independent minded by
his fellow ranchers because he refused to brand his cattle.
1870 Sep 2, Napoleon III with
80,000 men capitulated to the Prussians at Sedan, France.
(PCh, 1992, p.516)(WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)(HN,
1870 Sep 4, At news of Sedan,
Paris workers invaded the Palais Bourbon and forced the Legislative
Assembly to proclaim the fall of the Empire. Emperor Louis Napoleon
III was overthrown in a bloodless coup. The 3rd French Republic was
proclaimed in Paris and a government of national defense was formed.
(HN, 9/4/98)(ON, 9/06,
1870 Sep 5, Author Victor Hugo
returned to Paris from the Isle of Guernsey where he had lived in
exile for almost 20 years.
1870 Sep 6, The last British
troops to serve in Austria were withdrawn.
1870 Sep 19, Two Prussian
armies began a 135-day siege of Paris as the 2nd Empire collapsed.
This forced the people of the city to eat Castor and Pollux, the 2
elephants in the zoo.
(PCh, 1992, p.516)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.B3)
1870 Sep 20, Mayor William
Tweed was accused of robbing the NY treasury.
1870 Sep 20, Italian troops
under Victor Emmanuel II took control of the Papal States from
France, leading to the unification of Italy. Pope Pius IX
(WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A6)(SFEM, 1/19/96, p.10)(AP,
1870 Sep 24, George Claude,
French engineer, was born. He invented the neon light.
1870 Sep 27, Henry T.P.
Comstock (50), Canadian silver prospector, died.
1870 Oct 2, The papal states
voted in favor of union with Italy. The capital was moved from
Florence to Rome.
1870 Oct 7, French Minister of
the Interior Leon Gambetta escaped besieged Paris by balloon, hoping
to reach the French provisional government in Tours. Gambetta was
slightly wounded when his balloon drops dangerously low over
Prussian held territory, only rising to safety after the pilot
jettisons the ballast.
1870 Oct 8, Louis Vierne,
composer, was born.
1870 Oct 12, Gen. Robert E. Lee
(63) died in Lexington, Va. In 1998 David J. Eicher published
"Robert E. Lee: A Life Portrait." In 2001 Michael Fellman authored
"The Making of Robert E. Lee." In 2007 Elizabeth Brown Pryor
authored Reading the Man: A Portrait of Robert E. Lee Through His
(AP, 10/12/97)(SFEC, 4/19/98, Par p.20)(SSFC,
1/28/01, Par p.12)(WSJ, 5/15/07, p.D6)
1870 Oct 13, Gustav Mahler (10)
gave his 1st public piano concert.
1870 Oct 19, The 1st blacks (4)
were elected to House of Reps.
1870 Oct 19, The British SS
Cambria left for the North Sea coast. 196 were killed.
1870 Oct 20, The Summer Palace
in Beijing, China, was burnt to the ground by a Franco-British
1870 Oct 20, Michael William
Balfe (62), composer (Bohemian Girl), died.
1870 Oct 25, Postcards were 1st
used in US.
1870 Oct 25, The Pimlico Race
Course in Baltimore, Md., opened and a horse named Preakness won the
first stakes race on the program. 3 years later Pimlico honored that
horse by naming a race for him.
1870 Oct 27, The French
fortress of Metz surrendered to the Prussian Army.
1870 Oct 30, French National
Guard was defeated at Le Bourget.
1870 Nov 1, The U.S. Weather
Bureau made its first meteorological observations, using reports
gathered by telegraph from 24 locations.
1870 Nov 18, Dorthea Dix,
pseudonym for Elizabeth Gilman, who wrote syndicated advice, was
1870 Nov 27, Joe Mack was born.
He became a builder of gasoline-powered delivery wagons, which
eventually evolved into the Mack Truck Company.
1870 Nov 29, Compulsory
education was proclaimed in England.
1870 Dec 12, Joseph H. Rainey
became the first black lawmaker sworn into the U.S. House of
Representatives. Rainey, a Republican from South Carolina, filled
the seat made vacant by the expulsion of Representative Benjamin F.
Whittemore. Rainey served for 10 years.
(AP, 12/12/97)(MC, 12/12/01)
1870 Dec 18, Saki, [Hector Hugo
Munro], author (Reginald, When William Came), was born in Burma.
1870 Dec 25, Rosa Luxemburg
(d.1919), Polish-German revolutionary and founder of the German
Communist Party, was born: "Freedom is always and exclusively
freedom for the one who thinks differently."
(HN, 12/25/98)(AP, 7/6/99)
1870 Dec 25, The Tiber broke
its banks in a terrible flood in Rome.
(Econ, 7/25/05, p.72)
1870 Harry Longabaugh
(aka "the Sundance Kid") was born in Lancaster County, PA.
1870 Cecil Charles Windsor
Aldin, popular British artist, was born in London. His "Fallowfield
Hunt" scenes were published in 1900 for home decoration. The Buffalo
Pottery Co. of NY used the prints on dishes from 1908-1909.
(SFC, 1/8/97, z-1 p.6)
1870 Edward Burne-Jones,
artist, painted his "Phyllis and Demophoon."
(WSJ, 6/11/98, p.A20)
c1870 Adolphe Braun made his
carbon print of the landscape photograph: "Glacier de Morteratch."
(SFEC, 11/29/98, DB p.22)
1870 Frederic Edwin Church
painted "Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives."
(WSJ, 8/11/00, p.W6)
1870 Renoir painted the
portrait "Rapha Maitre."
(SFC, 8/29/01, p.E1)
1870 The Rev. Ebenezer Cobham
Brewer published his "Dictionary of Phrase and Fable."
(WSJ, 10/10/96, p.A20)
1870 William Robinson
(1838-1935), Irish gardener and journalist, authored The Wild
Garden. His most famous contribution to gardening was his book The
English Flower Garden, (1883).
1870 Leo Delibe wrote his
ballet "Coppelia." It was based on a tale by E.T.A. Hoffman and was
first produced this year in Paris.
(WSJ, 7/16/96, p.A9)(WSJ, 6/10/97, p.A16)
1870 The opera "Il
Guarany" by Carlos Gomes had its premiere at La Scala. It was based
on the book "O Guarani" by Jose de Alencar.
(WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/14/96, p.A20)
c1870 The ukulele, invented by
Manuel Nunez of Portugal, turned up in the Hawaiian islands.
(SFC, 9/2/00, p.B3)
1870 The first road was built
to Stinson Beach from Sausalito, Ca. The area then became known as
Willow Camp after a tent settlement sprang up among the willow
(SFC, 11/27/07, p.A13)
1870 On the Oregon coast the
Blanco Lighthouse was constructed at Cape Blanco.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T3)
1870 Harold Robinson, an
ex-slave from Missouri, founded the Hotel Robinson in Julian, Ca., a
former gold-mining town near Anza Borrego Desert State Park. It was
later renamed the Julian Hotel.
(SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C5)
1870 US Secret Service
headquarters relocated to New York City.
1870 A US Mint began operations
in Carson City, Nev., and continued to 1893, after which it was
turned into the Nevada State Museum.
(SSFC, 11/19/06, p.F10)
1870 The pottery firm Knowles,
Taylor and Knowles began operations in East Liverpool, Ohio, and
continued to 1931. They were best known for their Lotus Ware
(SFC, 3/14/07, p.G2)
1870 A Rhode Island company
began making the Howell torpedo, the first to follow a track without
leaving a wake. It made 50 by 1889 when a rival company copied and
surpassed the design.
(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.A7)
1870 Alta, Utah, couched in a
glacial-cut schism in the Wasatch Range, boomed with silver mining
and counted 5,000 inhabitants, 26 saloons, five breweries, and one
murder a night.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.78)
1870 George Grant (d.1910)
became the 1st black graduate from Harvard Dental School. He got the
1st patent for a golf tee in 1899.
(ST, 2/20/04, p.C1)
1870 By this time San Francisco
was the 10th largest US city.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)
1870 George Dickel (d.1894),
purchased a site in Cascade Hollow, Tenn., and soon began producing
Cascade Tennessee Whisky.
(SFC, 2/04/04, p.D2)
1870 E.H. Harriman (22) bought
a seat on the new York Stock Exchange.
(WSJ, 3/21/00, p.A24)
1870 Frederick August Otto
Schwartz (FAO Schwartz) opened up his 1st NYC store on Broadway
called Schwartz Toy Bazaar.
(WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)
1870 Two-thirds of all teachers
in public and private schools were women.
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)
1870 Charles Adams of New York
began manufacturing his chewing gum "Charles Adams Gum No 1" in a
(SFC, 1/13/98, p.A19)
c1870 The first whistle was
pealess and made of solid brass.
(WSJ, 3/30/00, p.A1)
1870 William Lyman of the US
invented the home can opener, with a cutting wheel that rolls around
1870 Woodsmen marched west to
Michigan clearing forests of white pine, yellow birch, hemlock,
maple, and oak.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.51)
1870 The US census categorized
the population as "White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese and Indian." The
census counted employed women for the first time with four-fifths
tallied as working on farms or in domestic service.
(SFC,12/26/97, p.A21)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.29)
1870 Federal census data of the
southern end of Mulberry St. in New York City showed 39 Italian men
employed as organ grinders.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.49)
1870 The population of Chicago
(Econ, 3/18/06, Survey p.12)
1870 The Chinese population in
California grew to 50,000.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1870 There was an earthquake in
Lone Pine, Ca., and some people died.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T3)
1870 Frederic Bazille (29),
artist and friend of Claude Monet, died.
(WSJ, 3/9/99, p.A20)
1870 Alexandre Dumas (b.1802),
French novelist and dramatist who wrote "The Count of Monte Cristo"
and "The Three Musketeers," died. In 1851 he wrote "A Gil Blas in
California" (A Year Along the Banks of the San Joaquin and
Sacramento"). "I need several mistresses. If I only had one, shed
be dead inside of eight days."
(SFC, 7/24/02, p.D3)
1870 In Queensland, Australia
Henry Redford rustled a thousand head of cattle from near Fairfield
and drove them over a thousand miles across uncharted desert to
market in South Australia.
(NG, 12/97, p.56)
1870 By this time the British
government had begun attempts to regulate firearms.
(WSJ, 8/6/02, p.D6)
1870 The Vanemuine Theater was
founded in Tartu, Estonia.
(Hem, 4/96, p.23)
1870 In France the Hotel du Cap
on the French Riviera was commercially opened as the Villa Soleil.
This is the hotel described in F. Scott Fitzgeralds opening of
"Tender is the Night."
(CNT, Nov.,1994, p.218)
1870 In France Madame Pomeroy
introduced the first brut champagne. Until this time champagne was
(Hem., 10/97, p.104)
1870 Sophus Lie (1842-1899),
Norwegian mathematician, became a media sensation after he was found
outside Paris with a backpack filled with undecipherable
mathematical notes and arrested as a spy.
1870 In Japan Yataro Iwasaki
began Mitsubishi as a steamship company.
(WSJ, 7/15/97, p.A16)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.67)
1870 Baseball was brought to
Japan by American missionaries.
(http://tinyurl.com/6xjluk)(Econ, 3/29/08, p.83)
1870 In Mexico Tequila
Herradura began producing tequila at the Hacienda San Jose del
Refugio in the highlands of Jalisco state. Their tequila was made
from 100% blue-agave juice.
(WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A1)
1870 Sweden produced the
Brunsviga mechanical calculator.
(SFC, 10/29/96, p.F1)
1870 The abolition of the Papal
States freed the Jews from restrictions in Romes ghetto.
(SFC, 9/1/00, p.D4)
1870 Antonio Guzman Blanco
(1830-1899) became president of Venezuela.
1870s The California Point
Reyes Lighthouse was built on the foggiest point of the entire
(SFEC, 8/22/98, p.T7)
1870s Anthony Comstock
(1844-1915), self-appointed anti-vice crusader, devoted a lifetime
to battling wickedness, to purify America and protect its youth from
sin. Armed with exhibits showing young lives wrecked by pornography,
Comstock shepherded through the U.S. Congress with little opposition
a stringent anti-obscenity law known as the "Comstock Law."
Pornography was outlawed, but so was anything that could be
described as "lewd, obscene, lascivious, or filthy"--terms even
modern courts find difficult to define. Over the years, targets of
Comstock's rigid definition of obscene have been abortionists,
sellers of contraceptive devices and even those merely disseminating
information about contraception, including medical doctors. After
his appointment as special postal agent in 1873, Comstock boasted
that he had seized thousands of pounds of obscene materials. By the
time of his death in 1915, Victorian ideals of propriety were
changing and Comstock had become a parody of himself, but the
Comstock Law and its impact on American culture outlived him.
1870s The CP railroad
advertised for farmers to come west to the Central Valley of
California. They promised land for $2.50 to $5 per acre, and not
more than $10. Furthermore settlers would not have to pay until the
railroad conveyed title.
(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)
1870s A depression hit the US
following the Civil War.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1870s George Hearst (d.1891)
built the Charcoal Kilns in Death Valley.
1870s The technology for thin
steel cable allowed the creation of wire objects such as fencing,
outdoor furniture and other small objects.
(SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)
1870s Some 400 Hutterites, a
sect of Anabaptists, migrated from Europe to the US. They settled on
three communal farms in South Dakota.
(NH, 9/98, p.14)
1870s Anti-Semitism flourished
in France among men of the left who held Jewishness to be synonymous
(WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A13)
1870s Edgar Degas, French
painter journeyed to New Orleans. His time in New Orleans is covered
in the 1997 book "Degas in New Orleans: Encounters in the Creole
World of Kate Chopin and George Washington Cable" by Christopher
(SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)
1870s The Russian explorer,
Colonel Nicholas Prjevalski, traveled through Mongolia. The wild
horses of the Mongolian steppes are named after him. [see 1880]
(SFC, 4/14/96, T-1)
1870-1871 "The best book on this period is Emile
Zolas historical novel The Debacle." In reference to the days of
the Paris Commune.
(WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)
1870-1871 Brahms composed his "Triumphlied" to
celebrate Germanys victory over France and the foundation of the
German Empire. It is dedicated to the German Emperor but is really
written for Prince Bismarck.
(BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed., p.107,318)
1870-1871 During the Franco-Prussian War there was
a shortage of beef and horse meat began to be used. Germany annexed
Alsace after the war.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T4)
1870-1880 Golfers discovered that nicked gutta
percha balls flew farther and ball manufacturers began to pound the
ball covers in an even pattern.
(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)
1870s-1880s Clarence E. Dutton, Army engineer,
surveyed the Colorado Plateau and wrote his "Tertiary History of the
Grand Canyon District."
(SFEC, 10/4/98, BR p.12)
1870-1882 Alexander Conrad was a stoneware
manufacturer in southwestern Pennsylvania during this time.
(SFC, 4/15/98, Z1 p.6)
1870-1893 New mines sharply boosted silver
supplies and caused severe inflation around the globe.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1870-1910 Some 60 million Europeans, mostly young
males with few job skills, emigrated to the US, Canada, Australia
(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A8)
1870-1913 Hannah Barlow, artist, worked for the
Doulton Co., now known as the maker of Royal Doulton wares. She was
the first female artist to work for the company and her designs
featured animals in motion. She lost the use of her right hand in
1876 but learned to use her left hand and continued working.
(SFC, 6/25/97, Z1 p.6)
1870-1913 During this period the world GDP per
head increased an average of 1.3% a year.
(Econ, 9/16/06, Survey p.4)
1870-1920s The heyday of news boards lasted from
1870 through the 1920s, when they were supplanted by the advent of
radio transmission of breaking news directly into American homes. In
large cities around the turn of the 20th century, people learned the
latest news by reading the days headlines posted on large slates in
front of the newspaper building.
1870-1937 Alfred Adler, Austrian psychoanalyst:
"There is a Law that man should love his neighbor as himself. In a
few hundred years it should be as natural to mankind as breathing or
the upright gait; but if he does not learn it he must perish." "It
is the individual who is not interested in his fellow men who has
the greatest difficulties in life and provides the greatest injury
to others. It is from among such individuals that all human failures
(AP, 4/19/97)(AP, 2/24/98)
1870-1938 Benjamin Cardozo, US Supreme Court
Justice. He was an early proponent of the school of jurisprudence
called Legal Realism. In 1998 Andrew L. Kaufman published his
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)
1870-1942 Alice Caldwell Rice, American humorist:
"Life is made up of desires that seem big and vital one minute, and
little and absurd the next. I guess we get what's best for us in the
1870-1948 Franz Lehar, Hungarian composer of
operettas. His work included "The Merry Widow."
(WUD, 1994, p.819)(WSJ, 6/10/97, p.A16)
1870-1949 "Studies in the Economic History of Late
Imperial China" and "The Chinese Economy" by Albert Feuerwerker was
published in 2 volumes in 1996.
(MT, Fall 96, p.14)
1870-1963 Herbert Samuel, English political
leader: "The world is like a mirror; frown at it, and it frowns at
you. Smile, and it smiles, too."
1870-1965 Bernard M. Baruch, American businessman
and statesman: "During my eighty-seven years I have witnessed a
whole succession of technological revolutions. But none of them has
done away with the need for character in the individual or the
ability to think."
1870-1966 Maxfield Parrish, American artist. He
achieved fame for his murals, advertisements, and book and magazine
(WSJ, 3/27/00, p.A46)
1870-1996 In Canada an estimated 150,000
indigenous children were wrenched from their homes over this period
and sent to Christian boarding schools, where many were sexually and
physically abused. In 2008 PM Stephen Harper delivered an
unqualified public apology.
(Econ, 6/14/08, p.50)