Return to home1871 Jan 1,
Sir Henry Durand (b.1812), British lord of the frontier between
India and Afghanistan, died after an elephant he was riding reared
and brained him on a stone archway in Tonk (later Tank, Pakistan).
1871 Jan 3, Henry
W. Bradley patented oleomargarine in Binghamton, NY.
(AH, 2/06, p.14)
1871 Jan 8, Prussian troops
began to bombard Paris during the Franco-Prussian War.
1871 Jan 17, The 1st cable car
patented by Andrew S. Hallidie. It began service in 1873.
1871 Jan 18, The German Empire
(Deutsches Kaiserreich) was proclaimed in Versailles. William
I of Prussia was proclaimed "German Emperor" (which was not the same
thing as "Emperor of Germany"). The unification of Germany was the
greatest geopolitical transformation of the period. Germany went on
to adopt the mark as its common currency.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(AP,
1/18/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany)(WSJ, 5/6/08, p.A21)
1871 Jan 26, A US income tax,
established during the Civil War, was repealed.
(MC, 1/26/02)(WSJ, 9/25/02, p.D8)
1871 Jan 28, France, under a
provisional republican government, continued the war against
Germany, but was forced to surrender in the Franco-Prussian War.
Surrounded by Prussian troops and suffering from famine, the French
army in Paris surrendered. During the siege, balloons were used to
keep contact with the outside world.
(V.D.-H.K.p.260)(AP, 1/28/98)(HN, 1/28/99)
1871 Jan, The bombardment of
(WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)
1871 Feb 7, Karl Wilhelm Eugen
Stenhammer, composer, was born.
1871 Feb 7, Henry Steinway
(b.1797), German-American piano maker, died. In 2006 James Barron
authored “Piano,” a history of the development of the modern piano.
(WSJ, 7/15/06, p.P8)(http://tinyurl.com/qn6dy)
1871 Feb 9, Howard T. Ricketts,
pathologist, was born.
1871 Feb 12, In France the new
National Assembly opened at Bordeaux. Two-thirds of members were
conservatives and wished the war to end.
1874 Feb 21, The Tribune of
Oakland, Ca., was founded by George Staniford and Benet A. Dewes.
The Oakland Daily Tribune was first printed at 468 Ninth St. as a
4-page, 3-column newspaper, 6 by 10 inches. Staniford and Dewes gave
out copies free of charge. The paper had news stories and 43
(SFEC, 5/17/98, BR
1871 Feb 26, France and Prussia
signed a preliminary peace treaty at Versailles.
1871 Feb 28, The 2nd
Enforcement Act set federal control of congressional elections.
1871 Mar 1, Germans paraded
down the Champs-Elysses, Paris, France during the Franco-Prussian
(HN, 3/1/99)(WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)
1871 Mar 1, J. Milton Turner
was named US minister to Liberia.
1871 Mar 3, Congress passed the
Indian Appropriation Act, which revoked the sovereignty of Indian
nations and made Native Americans wards of the American government.
The act eliminated the necessity of treaty negotiating and
established the policy that tribal affairs could be managed by the
U.S. government without tribal consent.
1871 Mar 3, Congress
established the civil service system.
1871 Mar 5, In Brazil Maria do
Carmo Jeronimo was born as a slave in the town of Carmo de Minas in
Minas Gerais state under the rule of Emperor Pedro II. Jeronimo died
in 2000, but the lack of a birth certificate prevented her being
recognized as the world's oldest woman.
(SFC, 6/16/00, p.A34)
1871 Mar 21, Journalist Henry
M. Stanley began his famous expedition to Africa to locate the
missing Scottish missionary David Livingstone.
(HNPD, 11/10/98)(AP, 3/21/02)
1871 Mar 21, Otto von Bismarck
became the 1st Chancellor of the German Empire.
1871 Mar 22, William Holden of
NC became the 1st US governor removed by impeachment.
1871 Mar 26, Serafín Alvarez
Quintéro, Spanish dramatist, playwright (El Flechazo), was born.
1871 Mar 26, Paris Commune was
founded. The Parisians revolted against their government and tried
to secede by electing their own government. The Commune of Paris
refused to obey Adolphe Thiers, the elected president of the
country. Thiers asked the Germans to release thousands of French
prisoners and organized a powerful force to overcome the Commune.
1871 Mar 27, Heinrich Mann,
Germany, novelist, essayist (Blue Angel); brother of Thomas Mann,
1871 Mar 28, Willem Mengelberg,
conductor (NY Philharmonic 1922-30), was born in Utrecht, Neth.
1871 Mar 29, Queen Victoria
opened Albert Hall in London.
1871 Mar, Pres. Grant sent
federal troops to South Carolina to suppress violence instigated by
the Ku Klux Klan.
(AH, 6/03, p.28)
1871 Apr 11, James Burns
(1808-1871), Scottish publisher and author, died. He had founded The
Englishman’s Library in the 1840s, a series that went up to 31
1871 Apr 15, 'Wild Bill' Hickok
became the marshal of Abilene, Kansas.
1871 Apr 16, John Millington
Synge (d.1909), dramatist and poet, was born in Ireland.
1871 Apr 16, German Empire
ended all anti-Jewish civil restrictions.
1871 Apr 20, The US 3rd
Enforcement Act, also known as the Ku Klux Klan Act, allowed the
President to suspend writ of habeas corpus.
1871 Apr 21, Leo Blech,
composer, conductor, was born.
1871 Apr 30, Anglo and Mexican
vigilantes killed 118 Apaches at Camp Grant, Arizona, and kidnapped
1871 May 9, In southern
California debt-ridden Rancho Cucamonga was foreclosed on by Isaias
1871 May 12, Segregated street
cars were integrated in Louisville, Ky.
1871 May 12,
Daniel-Francois-Esprit Auber (89), French opera composer, died.
1871 May 17, Gen. Sherman,
Indian fighter, escaped in ambulance from the Comanches.
1871 May 21-May 28, French
government troops attacked the Commune of Paris. As many as 10,000
communards were killed. Of 36,000 people arrested some 10,000 were
executed, imprisoned or deported. In 2014 John Merriman authored
“Massacre: The Life and Death of the Paris Commune of 1871.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Commune)(Econ, 11/29/14, p.74)
1871 May 23, In France
extremists burned the Tuileries Palace.
1871 May 28, The last French
communards of the Paris commune were shot against the Mur des
Federes in Pere Lachaise cemetery by troops from Versailles. The
Parisians had revolted against their government and tried to secede
by electing their own government. The Commune of Paris refused to
obey Adolphe Thiers, the elected president of the country. Thiers
asked the Germans to release thousands of French prisoners and
organized a powerful force to overcome the Commune.
1871 Jun 1, Korea’s Yongdu
Fortress fired at a US fleet as it sailed up the Ganghwa Straits,
which leads to the Han river. Some 650 Marines launched the first US
invasion of Korea following a failed attempt by diplomats to open
the Hermit Kingdom to trade. In the end, the Americans won the
battle militarily, but lost diplomatically.
1871 Jun 3, Jesse James and his
gang robbed Obocock Bank in Corydon, Iowa, of $15,000.
1871 Jun 10, A landing force of
110 U.S. Marines came ashore on Korea's Kangwha Island, a fortress
island guarding the approaches to Seoul. The Korean Punitive
Expedition was launched from an American fleet, which anchored in
the Han River after the isolationist Korean government rejected U.S.
diplomatic demands for an explanation of the fate of an American
ship and her crew believed killed by the Koreans. In two days of
fighting, the Marines and sailors captured the defensive forts on
the Island, leaving 243 Koreans dead. Nevertheless, the expedition
failed to open Korea to foreign trade.
1871 Jun 17, James Weldon
Johnson, African American poet and novelist who wrote "The
Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man," was born.
1871 Jun 27, The yen became the
new form of currency in Japan.
1871 Jun, The California
Historical Society was founded with 25 members. Many of its records
were destroyed in the 1906 SF earthquake and fire.
(SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.55)
1871 Jul 3, William Henry
Davies, Welsh poet, was born.
1871 Jul 3, Jesse James robbed
a bank in Corydon, Iowa, of $45,000.
1871 Jul 10, Marcel Proust
(d.1922), French novelist was born. His masterpiece was "Remembrance
of Things Past." In 1998 it was turned into a comic book series. In
1999 Edmund White published the biography "Marcel Proust" for the
Penguin Lives series. "We are healed of a suffering only by
experiencing it to the full."
(SFC, 9/16/98, p.A10)(SFEC, 2/7/99, Par p.14)(AP,
1871 Jul 20, British Columbia
joined Confederation as a Canadian province. Canada’s government
promised BC a railroad link to the eastern provinces as it joined
(AP, 7/20/97)(ON, 11/07, p.9)
1871 Jul 25, A carrousel was
patented by Wilhelm Schneider in Davenport, Iowa.
1871 Jul 26, Ferdinand Hayden
(1830-1887) and his government sponsored team arrived at the
Yellowstone Lake and the geyser fields.
(ON, 11/02, p.3)
1871 Aug 3, Vernon Louis
Parrington, critic, educator, author (Pulitzer 1928), was born.
1871 Aug 19, Orville Wright
(d.1948), aviation pioneer, was born in Dayton, Oh. His birthday is
celebrated as National Aviation Day.
(HN, 8/19/00)(WUD, 1994, p.1647)(MC, 8/19/02)
1871 Aug 26, The Boston Revere
Railroad Depot collision left 32 people dead on a single track
railroad with no telegraph communications.
1871 Aug 27, Theodore Dreiser
(d.1945), American novelist (Sister Carrie), was born. "Our
civilization is still in a middle stage, no longer wholly guided by
instinct, not yet wholly guided by reason."
(AP, 1/4/00)(HN, 8/27/00)
1871 Aug 30, Ernest Rutherford
(d.1937), physicist who discovered and named alpha, beta and gamma
radiation and was the first to achieve a man-made nuclear reaction,
was born in New Zealand.
1871 Aug, Joseph became chief
of Nez Perce Indians in the Wallowa Valley, Oregon.
(ON, 3/04, p.1)
1871 Aug, Heinrich Schliemann
obtained a permit to excavate the ruins of Troy.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.45)
1871 Sep 11, The 1st passenger
train passed through the Mount Cenis Tunnel between France and
Italy. Work on the 8-mile tunnel had begun in 1861 under the
direction of French engineer Germain Sommeiller (d.7/11/1871).
(ON, 2/03, p.9)
1871 Sep 19, President Abraham
Lincoln's body was transferred to a partially completed permanent
tomb at Springfield, Il.
1871 Sep, John Wesley Powell
began a 2nd expedition to survey the Grand Canyon, this time with a
congressional grant of $10,000.
(ON, 5/02, p.5)
1871 Oct 2, Cordell Hull,
Secretary of State for President Franklin Roosevelt who promoted
cooperation with the Soviet Union against Adolf Hitler, was born.
1871 Oct 2, Mormon leader
Brigham Young, 70, was arrested for polygamy. He was later
convicted, but the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the conviction.
1871 Oct 8, Around 9 p.m. on
Sunday a fire broke out in or near Patrick and Catherine O'Leary's
barn in the crowded southwestern section of Chicago. Fanned by high
winds, the fire burned out of control in the tinder-dry city for
more than 24 hours, until rain on Tuesday morning finally
extinguished the flames. Three and a half square miles were leveled
wiping out one-third of the city. The business district, the
courthouse and the central water pumping station, burned to the
ground. Thousands of Chicagoans fled the flames over the Randolph
Street Bridge. Approximately 250 people were killed in the fire;
98,500 people were left homeless; 17,450 buildings were destroyed.
The original Emancipation Proclamation was destroyed. Yet in spite
of the devastation, the city was so quickly rebuilt that by 1875,
few traces of the fire remained. Many people still believe that Mrs.
O'Leary's cow kicked over a lantern which started the fire. The
Chicago City Council once passed a resolution exonerating the cow
and apologizing to the O'Leary family. Pegleg O'Sullivan kicked over
a lantern after breaking into the O'Leary dairy barn to steal milk
for a whiskey punch party.
(HNPD, 10/8/98)(HN, 10/8/98)(MC, 10/8/01)(SFC,
1871 Oct 8, The 1938 film "In
Old Chicago," with Tyrone Power and Alice Faye, was a musical that
built up to the Chicago fire.
(HFA, '96, p.40)(Hem., 7/95, p.83)(AP,
10/8/97)(TVM, 1975, p.276)(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.C8)
1871 Oct 8-14, In Peshtigo,
Wisc., some 1,500 people were killed in the nation’s worst forest
fire, which burned across six counties and into Michigan. Fires also
broke out in the Michigan communities of Holland, Manistee and Port
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)(WSJ, 8/4/04, p.B1)(SSFC,
9/4/05, p.A7)(AP, 10/8/08)
1871 Oct 11, The Great Chicago
Fire was finally extinguished after 3 days. Over 300 were killed.
[see Oct 8]
1871 Oct 12, President Grant
ordered the South Carolina Ku Klux Klan to disperse and disarm in
(AH, 6/03, p.31)
1871 Oct 14, Alexander von
Zemlinsky (d.1942), composer (Schneeman), was born in Vienna,
Austria. His work included "Frulingsbegrabnis" (a cantata from
1897), "Die Seejunbfrau" (1902-1903), "Eine Florentinische Tragodie"
(an opera from 1914-1915), "Symphonic Songs" (1929), and "Der Zwerg"
(The Dwarf, an opera from 1921) and 7 other operas.
(WSJ, 6/11/98, p.A20)(MC, 10/14/01)
1871 Oct 17, President Grant
suspended writ of habeas corpus in South Carolina in response to
violence by the KKK. It applied to all arrests made by US marshals
and federal troops in nine of the state’s western counties. By the
end of November some 600 arrests were made.
(AH, 6/03, p.31)
1871 Oct 18, Charles Babbage
(b.1792), English mathematician and inventor of a calculating
machine, died. In 2001 Doron Swade authored “The Difference Engine:
Charles Babbage and the Quest to Build the First Computer.”
(www.thocp.net/biographies/babbage_charles.html)(WSJ, 3/7/09, p.W8)
1871 Oct 24, Anti Chinese
rioting took place in Los Angeles. A mob in Los Angeles hanged 16
Chinese men and one woman.
(SFEC, 2/6/00, Rp.10)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M5)
1871 Oct 27, Boss Tweed
(William Macy Tweed), Democratic leader of Tammany Hall, was
indicted on charges of fraud and grand larceny after NY Times
exposed his corruption. The conviction were overturned but civil
charges sent him to prison.
(MC, 10/27/01)(Arch, 7/02, p.24)
1871 Oct 30, Paul Valery
(d.1945), French poet and essayist, was born in Sete. "Two dangers
constantly threaten the world: order and disorder."
(HN, 10/30/00)(AP, 6/10/00)(SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T10)
1871 Nov 1, Steven Crane, poet
and novelist, was born. He is best remembered as the author of "The
Red Badge of Courage" (1895), a realistic portrayal of one soldier's
Civil War battle experience. Crane's novels and short stories, which
were influenced by the French Naturalistic writers, showed
individuals at the mercy of natural and social forces. In the early
1890s Crane became a freelance writer in the Bowery area of New York
City and, resulting from his firsthand observation of poverty in the
slums, he wrote "Maggie: A Girl of the Streets" (1893), a book
considered shocking at the time. Crane covered the Greco-Turkish War
in 1897 and the Spanish-American War in 1898 as a news
correspondent. His later short-story collections, such as "The Open
Boat" and "Other Tales of Adventure" (1898), are recognized as
masterpieces of the form. Stephen Crane died of tuberculosis in 1900
at the age of 28.
(WSJ, 8/6/98, p.A13)(HNPD, 11/1/98)(HN, 11/1/98)
1871 Nov 10,
Journalist-explorer Henry M. Stanley found missing Scottish
missionary David Livingstone in Central Africa at Ujiji near
Unyanyembe on Lake Tanganyika. Stanley delivered his famous
greeting: "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Livingstone replied: "Yes,
and I feel thankful that I am here to welcome you." The two explored
Lake Tanganyika, but did not find the source of the Nile. When
Stanley left on March 14, 1872, he begged the doctor to return to
England with him, but Livingstone refused. He died in May 1873.
Stanley returned to Africa a year later, the first of many
subsequent African explorations.
(HFA, '96, p.42)(AP, 11/10/97)(HN, 11/10/98)(HNQ,
1871 Nov 21, Moses F. Gale
patented a cigar lighter in NYC.
1871 Nov 21, The 1st human
cannonball, Emilio Onra, was fired from a cannon.
1871 Nov 24, The National Rifle
Association was incorporated in NYC, and its first president named:
Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside.
(AP, 11/24/97)(MC, 11/24/01)
1871 Nov 27, Ku Klux Klan
trials began in Federal District Court in Columbia, SC.
(AH, 6/03, p.32)
1871 Dec 19, Albert L. Jones
patented corrugated paper in NYC.
1871 Dec 24, Giuseppe Verdi's
opera "Aida" had its world premiere in Cairo, Egypt. He completed it
too late to celebrate the 1869 opening of the Suez Canal.
(SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)(AP, 12/24/97)(PCh, 1992,
1871 Dec 27, World's 1st cat
show took place at the Crystal Palace, London.
1871 Emily Carr (d.1945),
Canadian artist and author, was born in Victoria. "You come into the
world alone and you go out of the world alone yet it seems to me you
are more alone while living than even going and coming."
(AP, 7/11/98)(SSFC, 9/23/01, p.T2)
1871 Mary Edmonia Lewis,
African-American sculptress, created her marble work "Hiawatha's
(WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A20)
1871 Degas painted "Racehorses
(SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.8)
1871 Edouard Manet made his
lithograph "Civil War."
(LSA, fall/96, p.21)
1871 Thomas Moran of England
was the artist on a US government expedition to Yellowstone and
painted "Nearing Camp, Evening on the Upper Colorado River." The
painting sold for $2.2 million in 1999 to the municipal art gallery
in Bolton, Lancashire.
(SFC, 1/18/99, p.B2)
1871 In France James McNeill
Whistler completed his best known work: "Arrangement in Grey and
Black: Portrait of the Painter's Mother," aka “Whistler's Mother.”
His mother, Anna McNeill Whistler (d.1881), had moved into his
apartment displacing his Irish model and sweetheart, Jo Heffernan.
When his mother died Whistler borrowed £50 to get her portrait back
from a pawn shop.
(WSJ, 5/31/95, p. A-14)(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.C6)
1871 Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
published his "Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex."
1871 St. George Mivart
published "The Genesis of Species," a critique of Darwinism.
(NH, 5/96, p.54)
1871 John Tyndall, Irish
scientist, authored “Fragments of Science.” He was in effect the
first science popularizer.
(WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P10)
1871 Euphemia Allen, 16,
composed "Chopsticks," a one finger piano tune.
(SFEC, 3/23/97, z1 p.7)
1871 In Utah the Mormon temple
in St. George was completed. This was the 3rd Mormon temple to be
built in the US and the first one in Utah.
(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.R10)
1871 The Salt Lake Tribune was
founded by dissident Mormons.
(WSJ, 10/6/00, p.A1)
1871 The California Historical
Society was founded. It is now located in SF at 678 Mission near
Third. 415-357-1848. Open Tuesday-Saturday 11-5.
(SFC, 8/30/96, p.D5)
1871 The San Francisco Art
Association was founded.
(SFEM, 11/24/96, p.8)(SFC, 5/30/03, p.E7)
1871 The Red Star Line, an
ocean passenger line, was founded as a joint venture between the
International Navigation Company of Philadelphia, which also ran the
American Line, and the Société Anonyme de Navigation
Belgo-Américaine of Antwerp, Belgium.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Star_Line)(SSFC, 4/21/13, p.H4)
1871 The Knights of Labor
organization was started as a secret order at a meeting of tailors
called by Uriah Stephens in Philadelphia. The Knights of Labor was
organized on a national basis in 1878. It was an industrial union
open to all gainfully employed skilled or unskilled workers and
headed by a General Assembly. By 1886 there were 5,892 local
assemblies and more than 700,000 members. Among other reforms, the
Knights supported an 8-hour day, graduated income tax, boycotts,
arbitration, and consumer and producer cooperatives. The
organization began to decline after 1886. [other sources give 1869
as the founding year.]
1871 P.T. Barnum (Phineas
Taylor Barnum,1810-1891), US showman, founded "The Greatest Show On
Earth" in Delavan, Wis. He presented General Tom Thumb and Jenny
Lind (1820-1870), "The Swedish Nightingale," to the public. He also
introduced 3 rings to the circus.
(WUD, 1994, p.121)(WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A19)(WUD, 1994,
1871 Steel plants and coal
mines began to open up in Birmingham, Alabama.
(SFC, 6/15/96, p.A6)
1871 The College of California
was acquired by the state and became the Univ. of California.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)
1871 In San Francisco William
Hammond Hall, Superintendent of Golden Gate Park stated: "Destroy a
public building and it can be rebuilt in a year; destroy a city
woodland park and all the people living at the time will have passed
away before its restoration can be effected."
(SFC, 7/28/97, p.A8)
1871 Fr. Joseph Neri, SJ,
demonstrated the 1st electric light in SF from a window of St.
Ignatius on San Francisco’s Market St. He used a large
electro-magnetic device, the Alliance Machine, that had been used in
the 2nd Siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War for lighting
(SFCM, 2/6/05, p.3)(GenIV, Winter 04/05)
1871 The Colorado Territorial
Correctional Facility was built.
(SFC, 6/13/13, p.A8)
1871 Robert Knight, Rhode
Island textile mill owner, secured patent number 418 for the brand
Fruit of the Loom.
1871 Catharine Beecher traveled
around the US and found "a terrible decay of female health all over
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.31)
1871 Baseball's National
Association was formed and marks the beginning of the US major
(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.A1)
1871 The US federal government
created the Life-Saving Service (LSS). It later became the US Coast
(ON, 1/02, p.1)
1871 The US Congress
appropriated $50,000 to the new Department of Justice (DOJ) to form
a suborganization devoted to "the detection and prosecution of those
guilty of violating federal law." The amount was insufficient for
the DOJ to fashion an integral investigating unit, so the DOJ
contracted out the services to the Pinkerton National Detective
1871 In NYC the Black Laborer's
Union and the Fenian O'Donovan Rossa paraded up Baxter St. to fight
for the 8-hour day.
(SFC, 7/29/98, p.A19)
1871 US state insurance
regulators created the National Association of Insurance
Commissioners (NAIC) to address the need to coordinate regulation of
multistate insurers. Headquarters was later established in Kansas
1871 In San Francisco Philip
Arnold (40) and John Slack, prospectors from Kentucky, introduced a
find of alleged diamonds and other precious stones to local
(SFC, 4/26/14, p.D1)
1871 Haeger Potteries of
Dundee, Ill., dates to this time.
(SFC, 1/4/06, p.G2)
1871 Mississippi purchased the
property of Oakland College and renamed it Alcorn University in
honor of James L. Alcorn, governor of the state. The college had
closed its doors at the beginning of the Civil War so that its
students could answer the call to arms.
1871 A glass plant was built in
a Missouri town that was named Crystal City. By 1895 the factory was
acquired by Pittsburgh Plate Glass, later PPG Industries, which
added a glass factory billed as the largest in the world. In 1990 it
was closed and bulldozed, leaving lingering environmental
contamination at the 250-acre site.
(WSJ, 9/16/08, p.A22)
1871 Phil D. Beckwith founded
the Round Oak Stove Co. in Dowagiac, Mich.
(SFC, 1/4/06, p.G2)
1871 J. Pierpont Morgan joined
with a friend to form the banking firm Drexel, Morgan.
(WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A24)
1871 Western Union started
handling money transfers.
(SFC, 2/2/06, p.A13)
1871 Luther Burbank developed
the Russet Burbank potato, later identified with Idaho.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)
1871 Russian chemist Dmitri
Mendeleyev developed the periodic classification system of the
elements, presenting a periodic table listing the elements in 1871.
[see 1869] Born in Siberia, the last of 17 children, Mendeleyev
eventually found success in academia. While writing a basic textbook
on chemistry in the 1860s, he attempted to find a way to classify
the elements. His periodic system gained acceptance over time. His
periodic table left gaps for elements as yet undiscovered, but he
correctly predicted the properties of three of those elements. The
table and his concepts of periodic law gained more acceptance with
the approach of the 20th century, forming the basis for modern
(HNQ, 1/4/01)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)
1871 America added 6,000 miles
of railway track this year in an endeavor that occupied a tenth of
its industrial labor force.
(Econ, 8/19/06, p.64)
1871 The number of cattle
shipped to Chicago grew to 600,000. Abilene may have been the first
cow town, but disease and rowdy cowboys shifted the cow capital
first to Wichita, then to Dodge City, Kansas. The profits to be made
were immense, with a $5 steer in Texas bringing up to $45 in Kansas.
In fact, the profitability of the cattle kingdom was one of the
factors contributing to its demise in 1886. Greedy ranchers
dangerously overstocked the grasslands with cattle by the mid-1880s.
1871 In Alaska a whaling fleet
of 32 ships was abandoned off Icy Cape in the Chukchi Sea. Seven
other vessels escaped with all the crew members saved. In 1998 an
attempt was made to locate the shipwreck site.
(SFC, 7/24/98, p.A3)
1871 The Great Chicago Fire
killed hundreds and left some 100,000 people homeless. Debris from
the fire was dumped into a lagoon between downtown and the shore of
lake Michigan and the landfill became Grant Park.
(WSJ, 8/21/96, p.A6)
1871 Brit Johnson, a black
Texas ranch foreman, was killed by Kiowa raiders. His home life had
been shattered in 1864 when an Indian raiding party killed his son
and captured his wife along with 2 of their other children. He
reportedly ransomed back his family in 1865 and continued searching
for other stolen children before he was killed. Author Alan Le May
(1899-1964) later used his story as a model in his novel “The
1871 Tad Lincoln (18), son of
Abraham Lincoln, died. Pneumonia was suspected.
(SSFC, 3/20/05, Par p.2)
1871 In Australia Sister Mary
MacKillop (1842-1909) was briefly dismissed from the Roman Catholic
Church after her order of nuns exposed a pedophile priest. She and
47 other nuns were thrown onto the streets of Adelaide, relying on
the charity of friends to survive. In 2010 MacKillop was canonized
as Australia's first saint.
1871 Belize was declared a
(SFC, 11/2/00, p.A12)
1871 Brazil’s parliament passed
the law of free womb, which stated that children born to slave
mothers would not themselves be slaves.
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.52)
1871 David O’Keefe (d.1901), an
Irish sea captain, was shipwrecked on Yap Island. He hitched a ride
to Hong Kong, found a new ship and returned to Yap. He made a
fortune using a Chinese junk and metal cutting tools to bring stone
money from Palau to Yap.
(SSFC, 11/26/00, p.T6)(AM, 3/04, p.22)
1871 The government of Costa
Rica hired Minor C. Keith (23), an engineer from Brooklyn, to build
a rail line. Keith grew bananas on the right of way to help finance
the project. His enterprise grew to become the United Fruit Company,
(WSJ, 8/9/99, p.A1)
1871 In Denmark the
Jutland-based Jyllands-Posten newspaper was founded.
1871 The Rothschild banking
empire bankrolled France's reparations to Germany.
(SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)
1871 Charles Joseph Minard,
French civil engineer, died. In 1861 he used techniques, which he
had invented to display flows of people, to create a graphic display
of Napoleon’s 1812-1813 march to and from Russia.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.74)
1871 Germany adopted the gold
(Econ, 7/5/14, p.57)
1871 Germany codified its
antisodomy laws under “Paragraph 175” of the penal code.
(SSFC, 11/16/14, p.P2)
1871 B. Bloch & Co. was
founded in Eichwald, Germany, for the manufacture of earthenware,
porcelain dinnerware, household items and decorative pieces. The
name was changed after World War I to Eichwalder Porcelain and Stove
Factory Bloch & Co.
(SFC, 8/16/06, p.G7)
1871 In India the Leopold Café
opened in Bombay (later Mumbai). It became an institution very
popular with foreign tourists trading India stories over beer.
1871 In India the Raj
introduced the Criminal Tribes Act, under which members of some 150
tribes were forced to register with the police, forbidden to move
around freely and in many cases herded into barbed-wire camps.
(Econ, 4/24/10, p.42)
1871 In Russia Alexander
Ostrovsky wrote "The Forest." It was a comedy play of bad manners
and greed that featured the character Raissa Pavlovna, a cousin to
Turgenev's Natalia Petrovna.
(SFC, 7/29/97, p.E1)
1871 Pepita, a celebrated
Spanish dancer, died. She had captivated British diplomat Lionel
Sackville, later the second Lord Sackville in 1852 and bore him
seven children, five of whom survived. In 2014 Robert Sackvile-West
authored “The Disinherited: A Story of Family, Love and Betrayal.”
(Econ, 4/26/14, p.82)
1871-1872 George Eliot (1819-1880), English writer
born as Mary Ann Evans, published her novel "Middlemarch" in 8
1871-1909 James Burrill Angell (1829-1916) served
as the president of the Univ. of Mich.
Fall. ‘97, p.23)
1871-1909 John Millington Synge, Irish playwright.
He wrote such plays as The Shadow of the Glen, The Well of the
Saints, Riders to the Sea, The Playboy of the Western World, The
Tinker's Wedding, and the unfinished Deirdre of the Sorrows. He died
on March 24. A biography of his life was written by David M. Kiely
in 1995 titled: John Millington Synge: A Biography.
(WSJ, 12/6/95, p.A-18)
1871-1914 Robert Hugh Benson, English author and
clergyman: "You can love a person deeply and sincerely whom you do
not like. You can like a person passionately whom you do not love."
1871-1946 Florine Stettheimer, American painter,
was born in Rochester, N.Y. She was a friend of Marcel Duchamp, her
circle included Marsden Hartley, Arthur Dove and Elie Nadelman. She
was also close to Alfred Stieglitz, Henry McBride and Georgia
O'Keeffe. "She keeps the comedy of her era alive for our own."
(WSJ, 7/18/95, p.A-12)
1871-1947 Louise Homer, American opera singer. She
is discussed in the 1997 book "The American Opera Singer" by Peter
(WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A20)
1871-1951 Olive Fremstad, American opera singer.
She is discussed in the 1997 book "The American Opera Singer" by
Peter G. Davis.
(WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A20)
1872 Jan 6, Alexander N.
Scriabin, composer (Prometheus), was born in Moscow.
1872 Jan 12, Russian Grand Duke
Alexis began a gala buffalo hunting expedition with Gen. Phil
Sheridan and Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer.
1872 Jan 31, Zane Grey,
American West novelist (Riders of the Purple Sage), was born.
1872 Jan, US Attorney Gen’l.
Amos T. Akerman (1821-1880), ardent prosecutor of KKK activities,
resigned at the request of Pres. Grant.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amos_T._Akerman)(AH, 6/03, p.33)
1872 Feb 5, Lafayette Benedict
Mendel, biochemist, was born.
1872 Feb 6, Sir Thomas Phillips
(b.1792), English book collector, died. He had declared that he
wanted a copy of every book in the world.
1872 Feb 7, Alcorn A & M
1872 Feb 20, Metropolitan
Museum of Art, incorporated in 1870, opened in NYC.
1872 Feb 20, A hydraulic
electric elevator was patented by Cyrus Baldwin.
1872 Feb 20, Luther Crowell
patented a machine for manufacturing paper bags.
1872 Feb 20, Silas Noble and JP
Cooley patented a toothpick manufacturing machine.
1872 Mar 1, President Ulysses
S. Grant signed a measure creating Yellowstone National Park (Idaho,
Montana, Wyoming). The act of Congress creating Yellowstone National
Park was based on a report from an expedition led by Ferdinand
Hayden. The 2.2 million-acre preserve was the first step in a
national park system. Nathaniel Pitt Langford (39) was appointed the
(SFC, 5/19/96, Z1, p.2)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(ON,
11/02, p.4)(PCh, 1992, p.526)(AP, 3/1/08)
1872 Mar 1, Doc Holliday
received his Doctor of Dental Surgery.
1872 Mar 5, George Westinghouse
Jr. patented triple air brake for trains.
1872 Mar 7, Piet Mondrian
(d.1944), Dutch abstract painter, was born. He was born in
Amersfoort, near Amsterdam. His two principal styles date from
before and after 1907. His Red Tree in 1908 reflects the stance of a
Van Gogh. In 1911 he went to Paris and quickly changed his
style in response to Cubism. He emigrated to New York in 1940. His
Broadway Boogie Woogie was done in 1942-1943. He was labeled as a
degenerate by the Nazis and was sent to New York to continue
working. He went through a number of styles i.e. fauvist,
neoimpressionist Dutch landscapes, to total abstractions in a manner
of his own that he called neoplasticism. He was a pioneer of
(WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)(WSJ, 10/3/95, p.A-18)(SFC,
10/4/97, p.E1)(HN, 3/7/98)
1872 Mar 10, Giuseppe Mazzini
(66), Italian revolutionary (Giovane, Italy), died.
1872 Mar 13, Oswald Garrison
Villard, American journalist, was born.
1872 Mar 19, Sergei Diaghilev,
ballet director, was born in Gruzino Novgorod, Russia. [see Mar 31]
1872 Mar 22, Illinois became
1st state to require sexual equality in employment.
1872 Mar 25, Vito Pardo,
Italian sculptor (Columbus monument in Argentina), was born.
1872 Mar 26, Thomas J. Martin
patented a fire extinguisher.
1872 Mar 26, A 7.8 earthquake
shook the Owens Valley, California.
1872 Mar 31, Sergei Pavlovich
Diaghilev, dance master (Imperial Ballet), was born in Russia. [see
1872 Mar, Joshua Norton, aka
Emperor Norton, ordered SF and Oakland citizens to build a
suspension bridge across the bay. His similar Aug 19, 1869,
proclamation was later considered a forgery.
1872 Apr 1, The first edition
of The Standard was published.
1872 Apr 2, George B. Brayton
patented a gasoline powered engine.
1872 Apr 2, Samuel F.B. Morse
(80), developer of the electric telegraph, died in New York. In 2003
Kenneth Silverman authored "Lightning Man: The Accursed Life of
Samuel F.B. Morse."
(AP, 4/2/99)(MC, 4/2/02)(WSJ, 10/28/03,
p.A1)(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.M2)
1872 Apr 9, Samuel R. Percy
patented dried milk.
1872 Apr 12, Jesse James gang
robbed bank in Columbia, Kentucky, of $1,500 with 1 person killed.
1872 Apr 24, Mt. Vesuvius
1872 May 1, Hugo Alfvjen,
composer (Midsommarvaka), was born in Stockholm, Sweden.
1872 May 10, Victoria Woodhull
became the first woman nominated for U.S. president. Thomas Nast
depicted her as "Mrs. Satan." Woodhull adhered to a diet prescribed
by Sylvester Graham, known for his ginger-colored crackers.
Sylvester preached against demon rum and died at age 57 after
administering himself a medicinal treatment with considerable
liquor. Frederick Douglas, African-American statesman, was nominated
as vice president on the Equal Rights Party ticket.
(SFEC, 3/8/98, Par p.14-16)(SFC, 10/17/98,
p.E5)(HN, 5/10/98)(WSJ, 3/13/09, p.W2)
1872 May 12, J.C. Watson
discovered asteroid #121, Hermione.
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)
1872 May 18, Bertrand Russell
(d.1970), English mathematician, philosopher and social reformer,
(WSJ, 9/27/96, p.A16)(AP, 1/7/99)(HN, 5/18/99)
1872 May 22, The Amnesty Act
restored civil rights to Southerners.
1872 May, In San Francisco
Andrew Smith Hallidie started excavation on Clay St. for a cable car
(ON, 10/03, p.9)
1872 May, Don Carlos (24),
Spanish pretender, entered Navarre. King Amadeo I routed his forces
at Oroquista and forced him to take refuge in the Pyranees.
(PCh, 1992, p.523)
1872 Jun 4, Kentucky conmen
Philip Arnold (40) and John Slack took a party of San Francisco
investors, including Asbury Harpending, to a site in Wyoming where
diamonds and other precious stones were salted about. The con job
took in hundreds of thousands of dollars before geologist Clarence
King (30) identified the Wyoming site as a scam.
(SFC, 4/26/14, p.D2)
1872 Jun 4, Harvey Flint
(d.1882) patented his Quaker Bitters, a general cure-all with 21.4%
alcohol. He had recently left a family furniture business in
Providence, Rhode Island, and began making Quaker Bitters under the
name Flint & Co.
1872 Jun 5, The Republican
National Convention, the first major political party convention to
includes blacks, commenced.
1872 Jun 6, Alexandra
Fjodorovna Romanova, the last Russian Tsarina (1894-1918), was born.
She was later killed with her husband by revolutionaries.
(HN, 6/6/99)(MC, 6/6/02)
1872 Jun 17, Canadian
George Hoover hauled in a wagon load of whiskey and set up a tent
shop called Hoover’s Bar five miles west of Fort Dodge, Kansas. It
was the founding business of Dodge City. The town up to this time
had been dry.
(SFC, 6/13/98, p.E4)(HN, 6/17/98)
1872 Jun 27, Paul Laurence
Dunbar, African-American poet and writer, was born in Dayton, Ohio.
His poems include "Oak and Ivory" and "Majors and Minors."
(HN, 6/27/99)(SC, 6/27/02)
1872 Jul 2, Jacob W. Davis of
Reno, Nevada, sent Levi Strauss & Co. in San Francisco a sample
of his work pants and a business proposal for Strauss to apply for a
patent in exchange for a half share in the patent. Davis soon sold
his half share to Strauss and moved to San Francisco to supervise
the manufacture of the work pants.
(ON, 4/05, p.11)
1872 Jul 4, John Calvin
Coolidge (d.1933) 30th President of the United States (1923-29), was
born in Plymouth, Vermont. Calvin Coolidge, also known as 'Silent
Cal,' was a Republican; Vice President from 1921-23 and succeeded to
the Presidency on the death of Warren Harding in 1923; elected
President in 1924 and served a full term. He was especially known
for his economy of language. A lady dinner companion during his
presidency told him she had a bet she could get him to say more than
two words; he replied: "You lose." "Little progress can be made by
merely attempting to repress what is evil. Our great hope lies in
developing what is good."
(AP, 7/4/97)(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, Internet,
1872 Jul 16, Roald Amundsen
(d.1928), Norwegian explorer, discoverer of the South Pole, was
(Ind, 4/27/02, 5A)(MC, 7/16/02)
1872 Jul 18, Britain introduced
the Ballot Act for voting by secret ballot. [see Aug. 15]
(AP, 7/18/97)(HN, 7/18/98)
1872 Jul 18, Benito Juarez
(66), general (battle of Acapulco) and Pres. of Mexico (1858-1872),
died of a heart attack in the National Palace.
(MC, 7/18/02)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)
1872 Aug 1, The first
long-distance gas pipeline in the U.S. was completed. Designed for
natural gas, the two-inch pipe ran five miles from Newton Wells to
1872 Aug 3, Haakon VII, King of
Norway, was born in Charlottenlund, Denmark.
1872 Oct 10, William Henry
Seward (b.1801), former Gov. of New York (1839-1842) and American
Sec. of State from 1861-1869, died in Auburn, NY. He had arranged
the purchase of Alaska for the United States. In 2012 Walter Stahr
authored “Seward: Lincoln’s Indispensable Man.”
(Economist, 9/29/12, p.90)(
1872 Aug 14, Chief Joseph met
in council with some 40 settlers in the Wallowa Valley and ordered
them to leave the Nez Perce Indian land.
(ON, 3/04, p.2)
1872 Aug 15, The first secret
ballot voting in England was conducted to re-elect Hugh Childers as
MP for Pontefract in a ministerial by-election following his
appointment as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. [see July 18]
1872 Aug 19, Eugene-Prosper
Prevost (63), composer, died.
1872 Aug 21, Aubrey Beardsley
(d.1898), English artist (Salome), was born in Brighton.
1872 Aug 23, The 1st Japanese
commercial ship visited SF carrying tea.
1872 Aug 24, Max Beerbohm
(d.1956), critic, caricaturist, writer, wit (Saturday Review), was
born in England. His work included "Nobody ever died of
(AP, 4/9/97)(MC, 8/24/02)
1872 Sep 14, Britain paid US
$15 million for damages during Civil War. The British government
paid £3 million in damages to the United States in compensation for
building the Confederate commerce-raider Alabama. The confederate
navy‘s Alabama was built at the Birkenhead shipyards. Despite its
official neutrality during the American Civil War, Britain allowed
the warship to leave port, and it subsequently played havoc with
Federal shipping. The U.S. claimed compensation, and a Court of
Arbitration at Geneva agreed, setting the amount at £3 million.
(HNQ, 9/2/00)(ON, 9/01, p.12)
1872 Sep 17, Phillip W. Pratt
patented his sprinkler system for extinguishing fires.
1872 Sep 21, John Henry Conyers
of SC became the 1st black student at Annapolis.
1872 Oct 3, Bloomingdale's
department store opened in NYC.
1872 Oct 9, Aaron Montgomery
Ward (1844-1913), a young traveling salesman of dry goods, started
his mail-order business. The catalog of Aaron Montgomery Ward was
the first to be called a "Wish Book." The 1871 Chicago fire had
destroyed his initial inventory.
p.A1)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 12/29/00, p.A12)
1872 Oct 11, Harlan Fiske
Stone, Supreme Court (1925-41) Chief Justice (41-46), was born in
1872 Oct 12, Ralph Vaughan
Williams, composer (Hugh the Drover), was born in Down Amp, England.
1872 Oct 12, Chiricahua Apache
leader Cochise (d.1874) signed a peace treaty with Special Indian
Commissioner, General Oliver Otis Howard (1830-1909), in the Arizona
(HN, 10/12/98)(ON, 4/07, p.8)
1872 Oct 17, The Aculeo, a
British square-rigged sailing ship, struck rocks near Montara. All
21 crew survived. The ship broke up in a week with her cargo of
sheet iron, steel wire and coal from Liverpool.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T3)(Ind, 3/31/01, 5A)
1872 Oct 19, World's largest
gold nugget (215 kg) was found in New South Wales, Australia.
1872 Oct 21, The U.S. Naval
Academy admitted John H. Conyers, the first African American to be
1872 Oct 23, Theophile Gautier
(61), French poet, writer, historian, and critic, died.
1872 Oct 29, J.S. Risdon
patented a metal windmill.
1872 Nov 5, Ulysses S. Grant
was re-elected US president.
1872 Nov 5, Horace Greeley
(1811-1872), the New York editor who helped found the Republican
Party, was badly defeated when he ran with Benjamin Gratz Brown as a
Democrat against Ulysses S. Grant. He died two weeks later.
Greeley's political aspirations were realized when he was named by
the Liberal Republican Party to run for, but he lost the election,
even though he polled almost as many popular votes as the hero of
Vicksburg. His running mate, Missouri Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown,
was a drunk. Greeley was in favor of graham crackers and opposed to
women's corsets. He had also proposed to change the name of the
country to Columbia.
(SFC, 10/22/96, p.E8)(HNPD, 2/3/99)(WSJ, 6/5/96,
1872 Nov 5, Suffragist Susan B.
Anthony was arrested for trying to vote. On June 18, 1873, she was
fined $100 for attempting to vote in the presidential election. She
never paid the fine.
(AP, 11/5/97)(HN, 11/5/98)
1872 Nov 7, US cargo ship Mary
Celeste set sail from NY on a journey which ended when it was found
mysteriously abandoned the following month.
1872 Nov 9, Fire destroyed
nearly 800 buildings in Boston.
1872 Nov 15, In California the
115 foot Pigeon Point Light Station near Pescadero started
operation. It was built due to a series of shipwrecks in the area.
Service ended in the 1980s and in 2004 it was transferred to the
Peninsula Open Space Trust and the Calif. Dept. of Parks. On May 25,
2005 ownership was transferred from the US Coast Guard to the
California State Parks. A 5-year, $5 million restoration campaign
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T3)(SFEC,11/16/97, p.A2)(SFC,
3/23/04, p.B4)(SFC, 5/26/05, p.B1)
1872 Nov 28, The Modoc War of
1872-73 began in Siskiyou County, northern California when fighting
broke out between Modoc Chief Captain Jack and a cavalry detail led
by Captain James Jackson. At Lava Beds National Monument in northern
California 52  Modoc warriors held off over 1,000 US Army troops
for five months. The 4 year conflict was described in the 1997 book
"Hell with the Fire Out" by Arthur Quinn, a re-creation of the war
from eye-witness accounts.
(SFC,10/16/96,zz1p.1)(SFEC, 4/6/97, BR p.5)(SFEC,
10/25/98, p.T9)(HN, 11/28/98)
1872 Nov 29, Horace Greeley
(b.1811), founder of the New York Tribune, died. The daily paper
reflected much of the morality of his New England upbringing and he
partnered a high standard of news gathering with printed arguments
and urges against drinking, gambling, capital punishment
and—increasingly in the 1850s—slavery. The slavery issue and his
lifelong desire for high political office led him away from his
political party, the Whigs, and to the newly emerging Republican
Party. He usually sided with the radical wing of the Republicans,
advocating early emancipation of slaves. Still unsuccessful in state
and national bids, he eventually joined a group of Republican
dissenters who formed the Liberal Republican Party to oppose Grant.
While he received almost 44% of the popular vote, he received only
18% of the electoral vote, which were cast for other candidates due
to his death. In 2006 Robert C. Williams authored “Horace Greeley.
(HNQ, 11/3/00)(WSJ, 5/25/06, p.D8)
1872 Dec 5, The Marie Celeste,
a Canadian-built American-owned merchant brigantine, was discovered
in the Atlantic Ocean, unmanned and apparently abandoned (the one
lifeboat was missing, along with its crew of seven). In 1885 the
ship was destroyed when her last owner intentionally wrecked her off
the coast of Haiti in an attempt to commit insurance fraud.
1872 Dec 9, P.B.S. Pinchback
became the first African American Governor of Louisiana. [see Dec
1872 Dec 11, America's first
black governor took office as Pinckney Benton Stewart Pinchback
became acting governor of Louisiana. [see Dec 9]
1872 Dec 12, Edwin Forrest
(b.1806), American actor, died in Philadelphia.
1872 Dec 21, The HMS
Challenger, under Captain George Nares, sailed from Portsmouth,
England, on a 4-year journey to survey the world’s oceans.
1872 Dec 26, The 4th largest
snowfall in NYC history reached 18 inches.
1872 Dec 28, A U.S. Army force
defeated a group of Apache warriors at Salt River Canyon, Arizona
Territory, with 57 Indians killed but only one soldier.
1872 Dec 28, James Van Ness
(b.1808), the 7th mayor of San Francisco (1855-1856), died in San
Luis Obispo, Ca.
1872 Dec, "Texas Jack"
Omohundro, a genuine frontier scout, joined the more famous Western
scout William "Buffalo Bill" Cody on a Chicago stage as the stars of
Ned Buntline's melodrama The Scouts of the Prairie. John Burwell
"Texas Jack" Omohundro was a Virginian who served with the
Confederate Army and later fought a few Indians in Texas before
helping to drive Longhorn cattle to North Platte, Neb. He met
Buffalo Bill Cody there in 1870, and Cody persuaded Texas Jack to
become a scout at nearby Fort McPherson. The two scouts resigned in
the fall of 1872 and headed for the bright lights of the stage. The
Scouts of the Prairie was a success, and they took the action-packed
act on the road. In 1873, Buffalo Bill and Texas Jack began starring
in a similar melodrama called The Scouts of the Plains. They were
joined for a short time by another frontier legend, Wild Bill
Hickok, who had a lesser role because he was said to have "a voice
like a girl."
1872 Julia Morgan (d.1957),
architect, was born in San Francisco and raised in Oakland.
(SFC, 7/18/00, p.A8)(SFC, 6/18/04, p.F4)
1872 Edgar Degas, French
painter, journeyed to New Orleans where his mother was born. He made
22 paintings there. His time in New Orleans is covered in the 1997
book "Degas in New Orleans: Encounters in the Creole World of Kate
Chopin and George Washington Cable" by Christopher Benfey.
(SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)(SFC, 3/5/99, p.W12)
1872 John Gast, American
painter, created his "American Progress."
(AH, 10/01, p.18)
1872 Winslow Homer painted the
calendar favorite: "Snap the Whip."
(WSJ, 4/2/96, p.A-12)
1872 Thomas Moran painted
"Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone," a work that helped Congress
decide to designate Yellowstone as the first national park.
(WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)
1872 Mihaly von Munkacsy
painted his oil "The Prisoner." It captured the despair and
resignation of a ragged prisoner and his guard.
(WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)
1872 Camille Pissarro, French
artist, painted "Louveciennes" and “The Fence.”
(SFC, 1/20/99, p.E1)(SFC, 3/29/14, p.E5)
1872 Auguste Renoir painted a
portrait of Camille Monet. In 1998 it was part of Steve Wynn's
collection at the Nevada Bellagio casino.
(SFEM, 11/29/98, p.13)
1872 Darwin wrote his
"Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals." Also a 6th and
last edition of "Origin of the Species" was published.
(NH, 8/96, p.56)(NH, 5/96, p.54)
1872 Alphonse Daudet
(1840-1897), French novelist, authored “Tartarin of Tarascon,” the
comic story of a big-hearted braggart.
(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.W7)
1872 Fyodor Dostoevsky
(1821-1881), Russian author, completed his novel “The Possessed,”
also known as “Besy” or “The Devils.” In it he foresaw political
terrorism on the eve of its birth among revolutionary groups.
(WSJ, 1/28/06, p.P12)
1872 William Dean Howells
authored his novel: "Their Wedding Journey."
(ON, 4/02, p.6)
1872 Friedrich Nietzsche
published his first book: "The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of
Music," in which Greek tragedy was interpreted along Wagnerian lines
with Appolonian and Dionysian opposites.
( LGC, 1970, p.266)(WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)
1872 English author Marie
Louise de la Ramee published “A Dog of Flanders” under her
pseudonym "Ouida." It is about a Flemish boy named Nello and
his dog Patrasche. Film versions were produced in 1914, 1924, 1935,
1959, 1975, 1992, 1995 and 1999.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Dog_of_Flanders)(SFC, 6/11/10, p.C7)
1872 Leo Tolstoy wrote "Anna
(SFEM, 11/24/96, p.58)
1872 Mark Twain’s "Roughing It"
was published. It chronicles the night he and 2 friends spent in a
blizzard only 15 steps from the Desert Wells Trading Station in
(SFEM, 9/15/96, p.24)(AM, Jul/Aug '97
1872 Jules Verne published his
novel "A Journey to the Center of the Earth."
(PacDisc. Spring/'96, p.26)
1872 The French opera
"Djamilah," composed by Georges Bizet, was set in Turkish-ruled
Egypt. It told the story of a Muslim pasha who buys a young mistress
in the Cairo slave market.
(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)(ON, 5/06, p.11)
1872 The opera "La Fille de
Madame Angot" was written by Charles Lecocq. An English version in
1998 by David Scott Marley was titled "Daughter of the Cabinet."
(SFC, 7/17/98, p.D5)
1872 California banned boxing
but fights continued to take place on boats and open fields and
anywhere that police could be avoided.
(SFC, 5/3/14, p.C2)
1872 A brick lighthouse was
erected on St. Simons Island off the US coast of Georgia. The island
is one of 4 barrier islands called the Golden Isles.
(SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G7)
1872 The New Market Theater in
Portland, Oregon, was built at a cost of $100,000. A huge produce
market occupied its ground floor.
(Exc, 6/96, p.71)
1872 The International Bible
Students Association was founded in Pittsburgh by Charles Taze
Russell. During the 1870s, Charles Taze Russell established himself
as an independent and controversial Adventist teacher. Russell was
succeeded as president in 1917 by Joseph Franklin Rutherford (Judge
Rutherford; 1869–1942), who changed the group’s name to Jehovah’s
Witnesses in 1931 to emphasize its members’ belief that Jehovah, or
Yahweh, is the true God and that the Witnesses were his specially
1872 The German Evangelical
Synod of North America was established.
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)
1872 The Butter and Cheese
Exchange opened in NYC. It later became known as the New York
Mercantile Exchange (Nymex).
(WSJ, 9/28/05, p.C3)
1872 In Cambridge, Mass., the
Metaphysical Club was founded as a discussion group and included
Oliver Wendall Holmes, Charles Sanders Pierce, William James and
Chauncy Wright. In 2001 Louis Menand authored "The Metaphysical
Club: A Story of ideas in America," which traced the American
development of pragmatism.
(SSFC, 6/10/01, DB p.70)(SFC, 6/15/01, p.C15)
1872 Peter French (23) rode
from Ca. to Oregon with 1,200 head of shorthorn cattle for Dr. Hugh
Glenn and settled in what is now called Frenchglen.
(SFEC, 7/6/97, p.T5)
1872 The 1st place golf prize
for the British Open at the Old Course in St. Andrew's, a red
leather belt with a silver buckle, was retired and replaced with a
silver claret jug.
(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W9)
1872 The federal government of
the United States became more involved with education by granting
public land to the states for the purpose of establishing
agricultural and mechanical arts colleges. The initiative resulted
in 68 of such land-grant colleges.
1872 A US Mining Act law was
passed that let anyone claim public land for hardrock mining for as
little as $2.50 per acre with no royalties to the federal
government. The law was used by a Danish mining firm in 1995 for 110
acres of public land in Idaho that may contain a billion dollars
worth of minerals.
(WSJ, 9/7/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 2/28/97, p.A6)(SFC,
1872 A US law was passed to
prevent bar owners from luring sailors offshore with booze and
prostitutes. In 2002 it was used against Greenpeace activists.
(SFC, 12/30/03, p.A1)
1872 US Congress passed
legislation forbidding advertisements on American currency and
postage. The law regarding postage was amended in Jan, 2006.
(SFC, 6/1/06, p.A1)
1872 The Osage Indians
purchased close to 2,300 square miles in the Oklahoma Territory from
the Cherokee and created the Osage Reservation.
(SFCM, 3/9/08, p.20)
1872 The high chief of the
tribes of the eastern Samoan islands gave America permission to
establish a naval base in exchange for military protection.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.45)
1872 Little Rock, Arkansas,
blasted huge chunks of its namesake rock to make room for a railway
bridge. In 2009 the city launched a $650,000 project to excavate the
remains of the neglected “Little Rock,” estimated to be 300 million
(WSJ, 1/28/09, p.A1)
1872 A group of New Orleans
businessmen invented a King of Carnival -- Rex -- to parade in the
first daytime parade. They introduced the Mardi Gras colors of
purple, green and gold; the Mardi Gras song, and the Mardi Gras
1872 In New Hampshire workers
digging fence post hole, for businessman and naturalist Seneca Ladd
(d.1892), discovered a lump of clay that contained a 4x2½-inch
egg-shaped stone with a variety of carved features. It came to be
known as the “Mystery Stone.” Ladd’s daughter donated the stone to
the New Hampshire Historical Society in 1927.
(SFC, 7/24/06, p.E3)
1872 Jesse Hiatt on his farm in
Winterset, Iowa, discovered a wild apple tree that he named the
Hawkeye. It was later bought by the Stark brothers nursery in
Louisiana, Missouri, and renamed the Delicious Apple.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)
1872 The Ransom and Randolph
Co. was founded in Ohio for the manufacture of supplies to dentists,
doctors and barbers.
(SFC, 8/24/05, p.G6)
1872 Andrew Carnegie built a
steel plant and revolutionized the American steel industry. A few
years after being hired by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1852, he
began to invest in railroads, receiving huge dividends. When a new
steel-making process made cheap steel possible, Carnegie built his
1872 Kaposi's sarcoma was first
described by the Austro-Hungarian dermatologist, Moritz Kaposi.
(Ligand Corp. PB, 5/17/00)
1872 Jane Wells of Chicago
invented the baby jumper, a hanging canvas saddle for tots to bounce
(SFC, 2/28/98, p.B4)
1872 The San Francisco Bohemian
Club was founded by 5 newspapermen, a Shakespearean actor, a vintner
and a local merchant. The Bohemian grove, a 2,700 acre redwood grove
on the Russian River, became their summer encampment. In 1974 John
van der Zee authored “The Greatest Men’s Party on Earth.”
(SFC, 1/24/02, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/15/04, p.A1)(SSFC,
1872 Rev. Ellsworth Jerome Hill
of Kankakee crossed the river to Langham Island, 40 miles southwest
of Chicago and found a number of rare native plants and a new plant
that was not named until 1906 by botanist Edward Lee Greene as
Iliamna remota, or the Kankakee mallow. A related plant, found 800
miles to the east in 1927, was named the Peters Mountain mallow.
(Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.57-58)
1872 At a Memphis warehouse, a
cask of molasses burst open on a loading dock and a wall of goo
eight feet tall slowly surged downhill toward the Mississippi River.
It caught a dozen slow-moving pedestrians unawares.
(HFA, '96, p.71)
1872 In Nevada Francis Marion
"Borax" Smith (d.1931) found borax in Peel’s Marsh. In 1890 he
developed the Pacific Coast Borax Company to transport the borax on
a 1-day, 169-mile trip from Death Valley to a railhead at Mohave
with the famed 20-mule team. He later consolidated the SF Bay Area
trolley lines into the Key System.
(SFC, 11/6/98, p.D5)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.A19)
1872 The US had 61,000 miles of
railroads and about 15,000 acres of prime woodland were cut for rail
ties in this year alone.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.51)
1872 Robert S. Duncanson,
American painter, died. Duncanson was a black painter who lived in
Cincinnati, Canada and Detroit. He had established himself in
Cincinnati with portraits of abolitionist leaders and landscapes of
the Hudson Valley. His paintings include: Land of the Lotus Eaters
(1861), Blue Hole, Flood Waters, Little Miami River, and View of
Cincinnati, Ohio, from Covington, Kentucky (1851).
(WSJ, 11/1/95, p.A-12)
1872 William Henry Seward
(b.1801), former US Sec. of State (1861-1869), died. In 1900
Frederic Bancroft authored "The Life of William H. Seward."
(WUD, 1994 p.1307)
1872 C.P. Scott began editing
the Guardian in England and continued for almost 60 years. Scott was
a friend of Zionist Chaim Weizmann. In 2004 Daphna Baram authored
“Disenchantment: The Guardian and Israel.”
(Econ, 7/31/04, p.71)
1872 London’s Clerkenwell fire
station began operations. Its closure on Jan 9, 2014, marked the end
of Britain’s oldest operating fire station.
1872 In England the right of
assembly was established and the first lawful public meetings were
held at the Reformer's Tree in Hyde Park.
(SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)
1872 The British Consulate
building, a colonial style house with an arcaded veranda was built
along the banks of the Huang Pu River in Shanghai, and is now
occupied by the Shanghai Foreign Investment Co.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 84)
1872 Zey, king of the Asante
(Ghana), wrote to the British monarch asking for the slave trade to
(Econ, 2/24/07, p.73)
1872 Hawaii’s King Kamehameha V
asked the Kaiser of Prussia to send a music teacher for the Royal
Hawaiian Band. Henry Berger, a Prussian military band leader,
arrived and led the group for 43 years. He was later considered the
father of Hawaiian music.
(WSJ, 3/10/05, p.A1)
1872 A census, begun in 1867,
was completed in India under the direction of the British.
(Econ, 2/26/11, p.48)(http://tinyurl.com/5wdrbws)
1872 A Japanese government
decree struck down ancient conventions that kept women off many of
the country’s mountains. In 2004 a 1,300-year tradition against
women climbers on Mount Omine continued.
(SSFC, 9/5/04, p.A2)
1872 A police raid in Glasgow,
Scotland, found only 2 pubs in 30 serving real Scotch whiskey.
(WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A7)
1872-1874 More than 4 million buffalo were killed
by white hunters.
1872-1873 Vincenzo Gemito, Italian sculptor, makes
terra-cotta busts of Giuseppi Verdi and his wife, Giuseppina
Strepponi, during their stay in Naples.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.90)
1872-1873 The Modoc War was fought in Siskiyou
County, Ca. 60 Indian men, outnumbered 20 to
1, held off an army for nearly 6 months. In 1977 Arthur J. Quinn
wrote "Hell With the Fire Out," a re-creation of the war from
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 10/25/98, p.T9
1872-1933 Addison Mizner, American architect and
playwright: "Misery loves company, but company does not
reciprocate." "God gives us relatives; thank God, we can choose our
friends." In 2003 the Sondheim play "Bounce" was based on Addison
and Wilson Mizner.
(AP, 12/2/97)(AP, 1/24/98)(WSJ, 7/3/03, p.D8)
1872-1945 Gottardo Piazzoni, Swiss-born artist. He
moved to Marin, Ca. and painted landscapes.
(SFC, 7/5/96, p.D1)
1872-1949 Georges Gurdjieff, Armenian author and
explorer: "Awakening begins when a man realizes that he is going
nowhere and does not know where to go."
1872-1950 Leon Blum, French statesman: "Life does
not give itself to one who tries to keep all its advantages at once.
I have often thought morality may perhaps consist solely in the
courage of making a choice."
1872-1951 Dr. Albert Barnes amassed a large
collection of impressionist art (Renoir, Cezanne, Matisse) and
locked the doors to his collection when art critics of the 1920s
called the work "lunatic art." His story is documented on a new CD
titled Passion for Art by Continuum (Corbis Publ.) and priced at
$40-50. He made his money just after the turn of the century with
Argyrol, a medical compound for treating infections.
(New Media, 2/95, p.84)(Civil., Jul-Aug., '95,
1872-1960 Ellery Sedgwick, American editor: "In
America, getting on in the world means getting out of the world we
have known before."
1872-1961 Judge Learned Hand, American jurist: "A
society in which men recognize no check upon their freedom soon
becomes a society where freedom is the possession of only a savage
1872-1964 Alexander Meiklejohn, American
educator: "There is, I think, nothing in the world more futile than
the attempt to find out how a task should be done when one has not
yet decided what the task is."
1872-1970 Bertrand Russell, English philosopher
and mathematician: "Why is propaganda so much more successful when
it stirs up hatred than when it tries to stir up friendly feeling?"
1873 Jan 7, Adolph Zukor, movie
producer, director, executive (Paramount), was born in Hungary.
1873 Jan 7, Charles Peguy
(d.1914), French poet and writer, was born.
1873 Jan 13, William Pitt
Kellogg (1830-1918), American politician and carpetbagger, began
serving as the governor of Louisiana and continued to 1877. He
was the state's last Republican governor until the inauguration of
David C. Treen in 1980.
1873 Jan 14, "Celluloid" was
registered as a trademark.
1873 Jan, Ann Eliza Young
(b.1844), one of the many wives of Mormon leader Brigham
Young, revolted against the indignities and hypocrisy of polygamy.
Her divorce was granted in January, 1875.
1873 Feb 1, Matthew Fontaine
Maury (b.1806), American astronomer, died. He was also a historian,
oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and
educator. Maury proposed that the US invite the maritime nations of
the world to a conference to establish a “universal system” of
meteorology, and he was the leading spirit of that pioneer
scientific conference when it met in Brussels in 1853. Within a few
years, nations owning three fourths of the shipping of the world
were sending their oceanographic observations to Maury at the Naval
Observatory, where the information was evaluated and the results
given worldwide distribution.
(Econ, 2/27/10, SR
1873 Feb 2, Baron Konstantin
von Neurath, German secretary of State (1932-38), was born. After WW
II he was tried as war criminal and received jail sentence.
1873 Feb 12, The US Congress
abolished bimetallism and authorized $1 & $3 gold coins.
1873 Feb 12, The 1st Spanish
Republic was proclaimed. King Amadeo I abdicated following a 2-year
reign. Emilio Cistelar y Ripolo (40) became prime minister,
but the Carlist civil war continued.
(PCh, 1992, p.527)
1873 Feb 13, Feodor Chaliapin,
opera singer, was born.
1873 Feb 27, Enrico Caruso
(d.1921), was born. He was the Italian operatic lyric tenor who
excelled in operas such as Pagliacci.
1873 Mar 1, E. Remington and
Sons (1816–1896), a firearms manufacturer founded in 1816 by
Eliphalet Remington in Ilion, New York, started manufacturing the
first commercial typewriter. James Densmore and George Yost
contracted Remington to build 1,000 machines designed by Christopher
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._Remington_and_Sons)(ON, 12/10, p.8)
1873 Mar 3, William Green,
President of the American Federation of Labor (1924-52), was born.
(HN, 3/3/99)(SC, 3/3/02)
1873 Mar 3, US Congress
authorized federal departmental postage stamps.
1873 Mar 3, US Congress and
government raised their own salary, retroactively.
1873 Mar 4, Pres. Ulysses S.
Grant accepted the oath of office, administered by Chief Justice
Salmon Chase, for his 2nd term. At the inauguration ceremony 150
canaries, whose chirping was to amuse guests, froze to death in
1873 Mar 4, New York Daily
Graphic, 1st illustrated daily newspaper in US, was published.
1873 Mar 9, Royal Canadian
Mounted Police founded. [see May 23]
1873 Mar 10, Jakob Wassermann
(d.1934), novelist (My Life as German & Jew), was born in
Germany. "In every person, even in such as appear most reckless,
there is an inherent desire to attain balance."
(AP, 3/25/97)(MC, 3/10/02)
1873 Mar 19, Max Reger,
composer, pianist, prof. (Leipzig Univ), was born in Brand, Bavaria.
1873 Mar 20, Sergei V.
Rachmaninov, Russian-US pianist, composer (Aleko), was born. [see
1873 Mar 22, Slavery was
abolished in Puerto Rico.
Apr 1, M. Namik Kemal's play " Vatan yahut
Silistre" premiered in Constantinople.
1873 Apr 1, Composer Sergei
Rachmaninoff (d.1943) was born in Novgorod Province, Russia. [see
1873 Apr 1, The British White
Star steamship Atlantic, enroute to NYC from Liverpool with 811
passengers under Capt. James Agnew Williams (33), sank off Nova
Scotia killing 565 people, mostly women and children. A court of
inquiry suspended Williams for 2 years.
(ON, 4/03, p.7)
1873 Apr 13, In the Colfax
Massacre in Grant Parish, Louisiana, some 105 blacks were killed on
Easter Sunday. Many bodies, hidden or dumped into the Red River;
were recovered and found to have been mutilated. In the end, only
nine men were arrested, and they were charged with the murder of
only one man. Among those arrested was William J. Cruikshank. In
2007 Lalita Tademy authored her novel “Red River” based on the
1873 Apr 22, Ellen Glassgow,
American novelist, was born.
1873 Apr 25, Howard R. Garis,
children's writer, was born.
1873 Apr 25, Walther de la
Mare, poet and novelist (Memoir of a Midget, Come Hither), was born.
1873 Apr 28, A. Manzoni (88),
writer, died. Giuseppi Verdi dedicated his "Requiem" to his memory.
1873 May 1, David Livingstone
(60), British physician, explorer (Africa), died in Chitambo,
Zambia. His body passed through Zanzibar for a funeral in London in
Apr 18, 1874.
1873 May 3, Nikolay N.
Tcherepnin, composer of ballets, songs, was born in St. Petersburg.
1873 May 7, US marines attacked
1873 May 8, Melvil Dewey
(d.1931) presented the 1st draft of his decimal classification
system to the Amherst College Library Committee. [see 1876]
(ON, 3/04, p.12)
1873 May 8, John Stuart Mill
(b.1806), British philosopher and economist, died in Avignon,
France. He completed his autobiography just before death. Here he
wrote that happiness is the incidental by-product of pursuing some
other worthy goal.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stuart_Mill)(Econ, 4/21/12, p.84)
1873 May 9, Howard Carter,
discoverer of King Tutankhamen's tomb, was born.
1873 May 10, Belgian priest
Joseph de Veuster (d.1889), aka Father Damien, arrived on Molokai,
Hawaii, to tend the spiritual needs of the lepers. The Catholic
priest spent his life ministering to the lepers and built homes,
churches and moved the whole colony to a more sheltered area. Damien
was beatified in 1995. The settlement peaked at about 1200. A film
about him was shot in 1998 with Peter O’Toole and Kris
p.T3)(WSJ, 8/14/98, p.A1)
1873 May 12, The penny postal
card, issued by the Post Office Department, was first put on sale in
Springfield, Mass., and in other cities a day later.
1873 May 15, Nikolay N.
Tcherepnin, composer of ballets, songs, was born in St Petersburg,
1873 May 20, Levi Strauss of
San Francisco and Jacob Davis of Reno, Nevada, received a patent for
miners’ work pants that included rivets to reinforce the pockets.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A10)(ON, 4/05,
1873 May 23, Canada's North
West Mounted Police force was established. The North West Mounted
Police was formed by the Canadian government to protect new settlers
in the territory between Manitoba and British Columbia. [see Mar 9]
(AP, 5/23/97)(HNQ, 5/5/98)
1873 May 24, Leo Delibes' opera
"Le Roi l'a Dit," premiered in Paris.
1873 May 27, The first
Preakness [horserace] was held at Pimlico, Md. It later became part
of the Triple Crown. Edward R. Bradley's Kalitan was the 1st winner.
(HFA, '96, p.30)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.8)(WSJ,
1873 Jun 5, Sultan Bargash
closed the slave market of Zanzibar. Missionaries bought the site
and began building an Anglican cathedral.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C13)(MC, 6/5/02)
1873 Jun 16, Pres. Grant signed
an executive order that permitted Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce to
live in the Wallowa Valley, Oregon, to perpetuity.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, Par. p.5)(ON, 3/04, p.2)
1873 Jun 18, Suffragist Susan
B. Anthony (1815-1906) was fined $100 in Canandaigua, NY, for
attempting to vote in the 1872 presidential election. The fine was
never paid [see Nov 5, 1872].
(AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/18/98)(ON, 12/09, p.4)
1873 Jun 28, Alexis Carrel,
French surgeon and biologist, was born. He won a Nobel Prize in 1912
for the development of blood vessel suture technique.
(HN, 6/28/99)(MC, 6/28/02)
1873 Jun 29, China’s Emperor
Tongzhi held the first imperial audience with foreign diplomats in
80 years. Japan’s foreign minister asked for compensation for an
attack on sailors from the Ryukyu islands by aborigines on Taiwan.
China disavowed responsibility.
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.72)
1873 Jul 1, Prince Edward
Island became the 7th Canadian province.
1873 Jul 10, French poet Paul
Verlaine (1844-1896) wounded Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891) with a
1873 Jul 21, At Adair, Iowa,
more than seven years after the Liberty holdup, the James-Younger
gang made their first train robbery. See 1866 for the 1st US train
(OGA, 11/24/98)(HN, 7/18/00)
1873 Aug 2, Inventor Andrew S.
Hallidie successfully tested a cable car he had designed for the
city of San Francisco. Various references give the date of this
event as Aug. 1, but more recent research points to Aug. 2. Hallidie
made the first cable car trip aboard his Nob Hill Line at 4 a.m. It
traveled down Clay St. from Knob Hill to Kearney.
(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A16)(AP, 8/2/06)
1873 Aug 18, Leo Slezak,
Austria tenor, actor (Othello), was born.
1873 Aug 18, Otto Harbach,
songwriter (Smoke Gets in Your Eyes), was born.
1873 Aug 26, Lee De Forest
(d.1961), inventor of the audion vacuum tube, was born in Council
bluffs, Iowa. He is considered the father of radio.
(WUD, 1994 p.379)( http://www.britannica.com)
1873 Aug, The cannibalized
remains of 5 men were found on the banks of the Gunnison River,
Colorado. Alfred Packer (d.1907), one of a 6-man prospecting party,
had emerged from the area 3 months earlier. Packer was arrested but
escaped for 9 years. He then spent 18 years in jail and was paroled
in 1901. [see Apr 13, 1883]
(AM, 5/01, p.50)
1873 Sep 18, Jay Cooke &
Co. announced that it was suspending trading due to bankruptcy. The
firm had pioneered the sale of war bonds.
(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A22)
1873 Fall, Leaders of the
Northern California 1872 Modoc War were executed and survivors were
exiled to Oklahoma.
(SFEC, 6/18/00, p.T7)
1873 Sep 20, A financial panic
hit the NY Stock Exchange when the high-flying bond dealer, Jay
Cooke, granted too many loans to the railroads. Panic spread to
Europe as London and Paris markets crashed and the New York Stock
Exchange closed for the first time for 10 days. The economy went
into a 6 year depression. Philadelphia banker and newspaperman
Anthony Drexel teamed up with J.P. Morgan to depose a rival bank run
by Jay Cooke. They published allegations to undermine confidence and
cause a run that led to a panic.
(WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)(WSJ, 7/8/96, p.C1)(WSJ,
10/7/98, p.A22)(SSFC, 7/14/02, p.G2)
1873 Oct 3, Captain Jack and
three other Modoc Indians were hanged in Oregon for the murder of
General Edward Canby.
1873 Oct 9, Charles Rudolph
Walgreen, "the father of the modern drugstore" was born.
1873 Oct 19, Yale, Princeton,
Columbia and Rutgers universities drafted the first code of football
1873 Oct 20, The P.T. Barnum
Hippodrome featuring the "Greatest Show on Earth," opened in NYC.
1873 Oct 27, Farmer Joseph F.
Glidden applied for a patent on barbed wire. Glidden eventually
received five patents and is generally considered the inventor of
barbed wire. [see Nov 24, 1874] Joseph Glidden and Isaac Ellwood
formed a company in De Kalb, Illinois to manufacture barbed wire, an
essential product of old West. Patents on barbed wire were granted
as early as 1867, but Glidden was the first to devise a commercially
viable way of producing it after seeing a sample of barbed wire at a
fair in 1873. Glidden and Ellwood’s product greatly increased the
use of barbed wire to protect crops and livestock from roaming
cattle. Open ranges dramatically dwindled in the face of new fencing
over the next two decades.
(HN, 10/27/98)(HNQ, 2/12/01)
1873 Oct 27, Emily Post
(d.1960), authority on social behavior and writer, was born into
high society in Baltimore. Md.
(WSJ, 10/16/08, p.A13)
1873 Oct 30, P T Barnum's
circus, "Greatest Show on Earth," debuted in NYC.
1873 Nov 4, Dentist John Beers
of SF patented the gold crown.
1873 Nov 16, William
Christopher Handy, W.C. Handy, father of the blues famous for "St.
Louis Blues," was born in Alabama.
(HN, 11/16/98)(MC, 11/16/01)
1873 Nov 19, James Reed and two
accomplices robbed the Watt Grayson family of $30,000 in the Choctaw
1873 Nov 20, Budapest was
formed from 2 Rival cities, Buda and Obuda on the west bank of the
Danube and Pest on the east bank.
(WUD, 1994, p.193)(MC, 11/20/01)
1873 Dec 7, Willa Cather
(d.1947), American author famous for "O Pioneers" and "My Antonia,"
was born. "I like trees because they seem more resigned to the way
they have to live than other things do."
(HN, 12/7/98)(AP, 10/26/99)
1873 Leon Czolgosz (d.1901),
anarchist and assassin of Pres. McKinley (1901), was born to Polish
parents in Detroit.
(AH, 10/01, p.25)
1873 Degas painted “Degas
Blanchisseuses souffrant des dent” (Laundry women with toothache).
It was stolen in 1973 while on loan from the Louvre and recovered at
a NYC Sotheby’s auction in 2010.
(Econ, 11/27/10, p.83)
1873 Edgar Degas painted
"Cotton Merchants in New Orleans."
(SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)
1873 Claude Monet painted
"Sunrise," a depiction of the port of La Havre with ships in the
Spring. Monet moved from Paris to Giverny in this year.
(SFC, 11/13/98, p.C8)(SSFC, 5/20/01, p.T8)
1873 Camille Pissarro painted
"Street in Pontoise, Winter."
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.D1)
1873 Renoir painted "Woman in a
Garden." It sold for $6.7 million in 2000.
(SFC, 11/10/00, p.W13)
1873 Repin created his painting
"The Volga Barge."
(SSFC, 11/3/02, p.M6)
1873 Walter Bagehot
(1826-1877), British economist, authored “Lombard Street: A
Description of the Money Market.” The 1st edition was dated Dec 31,
1873 Mrs. H.W. Beecher
published her "Motherly Talks With Young House-Keepers."
(SFC, 2/19/96, zz-1 p.2)
1873 James Fitzjames Stephen,
journalist and jurist, authored "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," a
devastating attack on the liberalism of John Stuart Mill.
(WSJ, 10/18/02, p.W17)
1873 Mark Twain and Charles
Dudley Warner authored “The Gilded Age,” a novel set in the
scandalous Grant administration.
(WSJ, 9/16/06, p.P10)
1873 American writer Charles
Stoddard (1843-1909) began a long tour as special correspondent of
the San Francisco Chronicle. The “South Sea Idyls,” a collection of
his travel tales, were published based on his 1864 travels to the
South Sea Islands.
(SFC, 2/27/14, p.D5)
1873 Gen'l. Lew Wallace wrote
"The Fair God."
(HT, 3/97, p.66)
1873 The original Harford pier
was built at Port San Luis Harbor, Ca. It was rebuilt in 1915
following a tidal wave and became known as the Avila Beach Pier.
(SSFC, 9/17/06, p.G8)
1873 In SF the city’s
International Hotel, built in 1854, moved from Jackson Street to 848
(SSFC, 8/19/07, p.B1)
1873 San Francisco’s first
cable car hit the tracks starting at Clay and Jones streets on Nob
(SFC, 2/1/14, p.C1)
1873 The Hamilton-Turner House
on Lafayette Square in Savannah, Georgia was built. It now sports a
horse from a carousel on its roof, placed there by its current owner
Ms. Nancy Hillis, author of the Savannah Map of Good and Evil.
(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-6)
1873 In NYC a long brick
building, 9½ feet by 42 feet, was built on Bedford Street in
Greenwich Village on land used as an alley. Poet Edna St. Vincent
Millay later lived there, as did anthropologist Margaret Mead. It
was dubbed NYC’s skinniest house and in 2010 sold for $2.1 million.
(SFC, 1/14/10, p.A4)
1873 Hope, Arkansas, was
founded to accommodate the newly emerging Cairo & Fulton
Railroad. It was named after Hope Loughborough, the daughter of one
of the executives. Later Pres. Bill Clinton spent 4 childhood years
at 117 South Hervey St. with his grandparents Eldridge and Edith
(SFC, 3/13/99, p.A3)
1873 Modern lawn tennis made
its debut. It was a variation of a game played for centuries by
royals. Major Walter Clopton Wingfield, a British army officer,
devised the game for the entertainment of guests at his country
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.81)
1873 Baseball was banned in
Cuba under Spanish rule, but was never completely quelled and came
back strong after the Spanish-American War.
(SFC, 5/29/99, p.B5)
1873 The "franking privilege"
of sending mail free of charge, initiated in 1776 and extended to
war veterans, became too widespread and was abolished because it had
become too widespread and abused. In 1874 Congress began to
gradually reinstate to federal agencies and representatives.
1873 The US Comstock Act was
passed. It declared the public dissemination of information about
contraception illegal. Until this time newspapers and magazines were
filled with ads for birth-control devices and services. Anthony
Comstock, morals crusader, successfully lobbied for a strict federal
law on obscenity and established the New York Society for the
suppression of Vice.
(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.39)(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)
1873 The US Supreme Court in
the Slaughter-House cases limited the Privileges or Immunities in
the 14th Amendment to a few minor federal prerogatives.
1873 The Univ. at Berkeley
became part of the Univ. of California and was required by law to
admit women. The first roofed halls including south Hall opened at
Berkeley and Daniel Coit Gilman from Yale served as the first
president of the new state university until 1875, when he accepted
an offer at Johns Hopkins.
(PacDis, Winter ’97, p.24)(SFEM, 1/30/00, p.8)
1873 In SF Mifflin Gibbs, the
owner of a boot shop at 636 Clay St., was elected as San Francisco’s
1st black judge.
(SFC, 7/2/07, p.B2)
1873 In Yosemite Valley the
Cosmopolitan, a bath house and saloon, began its “Grand Register of
Yo-Semite Valley” and continued with entries until 1884. In 2007
Bill Lane, former publisher of Sunset Magazine, purchased the book
from the family of the owners of the Cosmopolitan for $130,000 and
donated to Yosemite National Park.
(SFC, 12/15/07, p.A1)
1873 The big coho salmon runs
of Marin County, Ca., began to decline when the first of seven dams
was built in the Lagunitas Creek watershed.
(SFC, 6/24/14, p.A8)
1873 Adolph Coors selected the
waters of Clear Creek, Colorado, for his dream of high producing a
high quality beer.
(SFEC, 4/30/00, BR p.4)
1873 In Chicago bonds were
issued for the Saginaw & Canada Railroad Co. The operation built
40 miles of track and went broke in 1876. The worthless bonds were
later found and given to the Public Museum of Grand Rapids in 1992,
where they were sold in the gift shop for $22.95. Scam artists
acquired a large quantity in bulk and sold them as real bonds to
investors for a total scam of some $12 million.
(WSJ, 2/25/99, p.A1,8)
1873 Adam Schaaf opened a piano
company in Chicago. Pianos were made at his 6-story building on
Wabash Ave until 1926.
(SFC, 2/22/06, p.G6)
1873 Boston, Mass., established
a mounted police unit, the first such unit in the country. The unit
was disbanded in 2009 due to budget cuts.
(SFC, 6/29/09, p.A4)
1873 In Marblehead, Mass.,
Lydia Pynkham, a Quaker and women's rights advocate, developed and
began to produce and sell the Lydia Pynkham Vegetable Compound for
problems that ailed women.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.A10)
1873 The ship Ironsides, a
219-foot long steamship, sank in 110 feet of water about four miles
from her destination at Grand Haven, Michigan.
(LSA, Spring 1995, p.8)
1873 James Edmond Scripps
(1835-1906), the son of a prominent British book binder, tapped the
growing class of working men and women by launching a newspaper, The
Evening News (later, The Detroit News).
1873 The firm of Drexel, Morgan
moved to 23 Wall Street. The firm grew by shifting its business from
government finance in the 1870s to railroads in the 1880s.
(WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A24)
1873 Asa T. Soule of Rochester,
NY, concocted the alcohol laced Hop Bitters patent medicine and made
a fortune. The Univ. of Rochester later declined a $100,000 offer to
change its name to Hops Bitters Univ.
(SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)
1873 In Wisconsin the Racine
Silver Plate Co. was founded.
(SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.7)
1873 The Peshtigo inferno
burned huge stretches of forest along the border of northern
Wisconsin and Minnesota.
(HFA, '96, p.71)
1873 Booksellers Barnes &
Noble began business.
(WSJ, 9/3/96, p.A6)
1873 Color photography was
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1873 James D. Dana, American
geologist, rejected Hall's theory of subsidence by loading of the
crust. He offered a new interpretation, namely that the down-warping
of the crust was a cause not a result of the thick column of
sediment. A long, deep depression in the crust offered a site for
the accumulation of sands, silts and other sediments over a long
period. This phase of down-warping and sedimentation gave way to one
of uplift and compression. The trough was referred to by Dana as a
geosyncline and the association of geosynclines with mountain
building has now been demonstrated in many parts of the world.
1873 The "Big Bonanza," a huge
silver deposit, was found by miners working for the Comstock Kings
in Virginia City. The 1999 book "The Roar and the Silence" by Ronald
James described the silver boom in Virginia City.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, Z1 p.4)
1873 Heinrich Schliemann,
German archeologist, discovered a hoard of magnificent treasure
within the ruins of Troy.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.42)
1873 Jean Louis Agassiz
(b.1807), Swiss naturalist and educator, died. He wrote a
succession of papers  outlining continental glaciation not
only of Europe but of North America.
(DD-EVTT, p.129)(AHD,1971, p.24)(HN, 5/28/01)
1873 The four Martin brothers
began making stoneware in London and continued to 1923. In 1885 they
introduced jugs modeled with human faces on each side.
(SFC, 12/19/06, p.G3)
1873 British army officers
brought back from India the game of poona. They played it on the
country estate of the Duke of Beaufort. The estate was named
Badminton and thus poona became known as badminton.
(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)
1873 Britain sent an agent,
Henry Wickham, to Brazil to get rubber seeds. The Seedlings were
cultivated in Kew Gardens and transplanted to Malaysia.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1873 Hancock & Whittingham
made earthenware in Stoke, Staffordshire, England, and continued to
(SFC, 1/23/08, p.G5)
1873 The four Martin brothers
began making stoneware in London and continued to 1923. In 1885 they
introduced jugs modeled with human faces on each side.
(SFC, 12/19/06, p.G3)
1873 In England the Brunner
Mond chemical firm began operating a few miles from Quarry Bank Mill
at Styal. In 2006 Brunner Mond was bought by India’s Tata Chemicals.
(Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.19)
1873 The British based Rio
Tinto Company was formed by investors to mine ancient copper
workings at Rio Tinto near Huelva in southern Spain. By 2003 the
company had mining interests in 40 countries and revenues of $11.8
1873 In Canada Louis Riel of
Manitoba was elected to the federal Parliament in Ottawa but
lawmakers were resentful of his 1869 uprising and moved to deny him
his seat. This led to a nervous breakdown and he spent three years
in a mental institution in Quebec.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)
1873 A French expeditionary
force in Vietnam sacked Hanoi's citadel.
(NG, May, 04, p.87)
1873 Ludwig II of Bavaria began
the construction of his palace at Linderhof.
(SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T5)
1873 Rabbi Esriel Hildesheimer
founded the Rabbinerseminar zu Berlin as German Orthodoxy’s answer
to the Judisch-Theologische Seminar in Breslau. Its outlook was that
although Jewish law, the halacha, was immutable, it had to be
couched in contemporary language. In 1990 Rabbi David Ellenson
authored a biography of Rabbi Hildesheimer.
(Econ, 7/28/12, SR p.10,11)
1873 The Verein für
Socialpolitik, Germany’s economic association, was founded.
(Econ, 1/22/05, p.48)
1873 In Germany Count Ferdinand
von Zeppelin began the conceptual work for his improved air machine.
He planned a rigid structure with gas held at various intervals in
the framework with engines for propulsion and a suspended gondola to
house the engines, crew and passengers.
1873 India’s introduced into
the Statue Book of the Bengal Births and Deaths Registration Act, to
be followed later by the Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration
Act of 1886.
1873 Oji Paper was founded in
Japan. In 2006 it was Japan’s biggest paper company.
(Econ, 8/12/06, p.51)
1873 The Dutch began
colonization efforts in Aceh province (Indonesia), which led to a
(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.A30)(SFCM, 11/2/03, p.8)
1873 Holland America cruise
line began operations from the Netherlands.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T5)
1873 Many Basques fled Spain
during the 2nd Carlist War.
(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A2)
1873 Some 400 Hindustani
laborers arrived in Suriname. The Hindu festival, known as Diwali
(the festival of lights), later became officially observed on Nov 3.
1873-1874 Spain’s system of federal government
(Econ, 11/17/12, p.15)
1873-1878 Alexander MacKenzie, Liberal Party,
served as the 2nd Prime Minister of Canada.
(CFA, '96, p.81)
1873-1879 A US economic recession took place over
(WSJ, 11/29/08, p.B2)
1873-1914 Charles Peguy, French poet and writer:
"It is impossible to write ancient history because we lack source
materials, and impossible to write modern history because we have
far too many."
1873-1924 The Scandinavian Monetary Union
established a common currency for its members.
(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)
1873-1933 Sandor Ferenczi, a Hungarian disciple of
Freud. He accompanied Freud and Carl Jung on a visit to the US. His
extensive correspondence with Freud was later published.
(SFC, 7/14/96, DB p.6)
1873-1939 Ford Madox Ford, English novelist, poet,
critic and editor. Prof. Frank MacShane (d.1999) later authored a
biography on Ford.
(WUD, 1994, p.554)(SFC, 11/18/99, p.C8)
1873-1951 Fritz Thyssen, German industrialist:
"When I rest, I rust."
1873-1954 Colette, French author, whose works
included "Cheri" and "Gigi." "To talk to a child, to fascinate him,
is much more difficult than to win an electoral victory. But it is
also more rewarding." In 1999 Claude Francis and Fernande Gontier
published a 2-part biography: "Creating Colette: Volume One: From
Ingenue to Libertine 1873-1913. The 2nd volume was "From Baroness to
Woman of Letters 1913-1954." Other biographies included: "The
Difficulty of Loving" by Margaret Crossland; "Colette: A Taste for
Life" by Yvonne Mitchell; "Colette" by Joanna Richardson; "Colette:
A Passion for Life" by Genevieve Dorman.
(AP, 10/18/97)(SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.8)
1873-1961 Karl Schwarzschild, German astronomer
and mathematician, made important contributions to Einstein's
relativity theory. The Schwarzschild radius is the theoretical limit
of a mass in size shrunken so as its escape velocity is equal to the
velocity of light.
(TNG, Klein, p.77-78)
1874 Jan 1, New York City
annexed the Bronx.
1874 Jan 4, Josef Suk, Czech
violinist and composer (Asrael), was born.
1874 Jan 5, Joseph Erlanger,
doctor (shock therapy Nobel 1944), was born.
1874 Jan 11, Gail Borden
(b.1801), inventor of condensed milk, died in Borden, Tx. Epitaph:
“I tried and failed, I tried again and again and succeeded.”
(ON, 5/04, p.5)(
1874 Jan 13, Battle between
jobless and police in NYC left 100s injured.
1874 Jan 17, Chang and Eng
Bunker (62), Chinese-Thai Siamese twins, died.
1874 Jan 22, [David Wark] D.W.
Griffith, U.S. film director, was born. He was the most influential
figure in early film history, and made "The Birth of A Nation" and
1874 Jan, 25, The birthday of
Somerset Maugham (d.1965), English author and playwright.
(HFA, '96, p.22)(AHD, p.807)
1874 Jan 29, John David
Rockefeller Jr, philanthropist, was born in Cleveland, Ohio.
1874 Jan 31, Jesse James gang
robbed a train at Gads Hill, Missouri.
1874 Feb 3, Gertrude Stein
(d.1946), poet and novelist, was born in Pittsburgh, Pa. Her older
brother, Michael, managed the family business, which included San
Francisco's Market Street railway line. Her parents were Daniel and
Milly. The family returned to America from Europe in 1878, and
settled in Oakland, California, where Gertrude attended First Hebrew
Congregation of Oakland's Sabbath school. Her relationship with her
brother, Leo (1872-1947), abruptly ended in 1914. Her work included
"Three Lives," "G.M.P." and "Tender Buttons." Stein coined the term
"Lost Generation" in reference to the disillusioned intellectuals
and aesthetes of the post-World War I years. The 40-year
relationship between Gertrude and Leo is told by Brenda Wineapple in
"Sister Brother, Gertrude and Leo Stein." "Everybody gets so much
information all day long that they lose their common sense." "It is
awfully important to know what is and what is not your business."
(SFEC, 8/11/96, DB,
1874 Feb 9, Amy Lowell
(d.1925), poet, critic, was born. "Youth condemns; maturity
(AP, 11/25/00)(HN, 2/9/01)
1874 Feb 9, Jules Michelet
(75), French historian (History of France), died.
1874 Feb 12, Auguste Perret,
French architect, was born. He pioneered in designs of reinforced
1874 Feb 12, King David
Kalakaua of Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), became the 1st king to visit
US. King Lunalilo had died without an heir and the legislature
elected lawyer David Kalakaua as king.
(MC, 2/12/02)(ON, 11/02, p.5)
1874 Feb 17, Thomas J. Watson
Sr. (d.1956), U.S. industrialist, was born in upstate New York. In
1914 he began running the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co., a
predecessor to IBM. He converted the financially ailing
manufacturing business into the international giant IBM.
(WUD, 1994, p.1614)(HN, 2/17/99)(WSJ, 5/15/03,
1874 Feb 17, Adolphe Quetelet
(b.1796), Belgian astronomer and mathematician, died. He founded and
directed the Brussels Observatory and was influential in introducing
statistical methods to the social sciences.
1874 Feb 20, Mary Garden, opera
star, was born in Aberdeen, Scotland.
1874 Feb 21, Benjamin Disraeli
replaced William Gladstone as English premier. Disraeli's 2nd
ministry continued to 1880.
(MC, 2/21/02)(PC, 1992, p.530)
1874 Feb 24, Honus Wagner,
baseball shortstop, was born. He later became known as "The Flying
1874 Mar 2, Baseball batter's
box was officially adopted.
1874 Mar 5, Blanche Kelso Bruce
(1841-1898), elected by the Mississippi Legislature, formally
entered the US Senate. Bruce was the first full-term African
American Senator (1874-1881). In 2006 Lawrence Otis Graham authored
“The Senator and the Socialite: The True Story of America’s First
1874 Mar 7, The opera “I
Lituani,” by Amilcare Ponchielli (1834-1886) premiered at Milan’s La
Scala with great success. The libretto was based on Adam
Mickiewicz's long epic poem Konrad Wallenrod. The opera was about
the incursions of the Teutonic Knights against the pagan
1874 Mar 8, Millard Fillmore
(b.1800), the 13th president of the United States (1850-1853), died
of a stroke in Buffalo, N.Y.
(SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)(AP, 1/7/98)(AP, 3/8/98)
1874 Mar 11, Charles Sumner
(63), a white civil rights leader, died.
1874 Mar 15, Harold L. Ickes,
New Deal politician, was born.
1874 Mar 17, Kincsem, a horse
that never lost a race, was born.
1874 Mar 18, Hawaii signed a
treaty giving exclusive trading rights with the islands to the
1874 Mar 22, Young Men's Hebrew
Association was organized in NYC.
1874 Mar 24, Harry Houdini
(d.1926), magician, escape artist, was born as Erik Weisz (Ehrich
Weiss) in Budapest. Young Ehrich Weiss emigrated with his parents to
New York and then to Wisconsin (1878). Sometime around 1891 he and a
partner in a magic act billed themselves as the Brothers Houdini, in
homage to French magician Eugène Robert-Houdin. As Harry Houdini,
Weiss became world-famous for his mind-boggling escapes. At age 43
he had a volcanic love affair with the widow of Jack London,
Charmian. In 1996 Kenneth Silverman wrote the biography: "Houdini!!!
The Career of Ehrich Weiss."
(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(HN, 3/24/98)(SFC, 7/7/98,
p.B3)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A10)(HNQ, 5/16/99)
1874 Mar 26, Robert Frost, poet
(d.1963), was born in San Francisco. Robert Lee Frost, American
poet. In a biography of Frost by Jeffrey Myers: "Robert Frost: A
Biography," the author claims that Frost moved his birthday up a
year to make himself legitimate. A 3-volume biography by Lawrence
Thompson was completed in 1976. Myers reveals that Frost's lover,
Kay Morrison, was also involved with Lawrence Thompson, but that
that would not be disclosed in the Thompson biography. "Before I
built a wall I'd ask to know What I was walling in or walling out."
[see Mar 26, 1875]
(WUD, 1994, p.571)(HN, 3/25/98)(AP, 3/26/97)(AP,
1874 Apr 3, Eduardo Sanchez de
Fuentes, composer, was born.
1874 Apr 5, Johann Strauss,
Jr.'s Opera "Die Fledermaus" was produced in Vienna.
1874 Apr 15, George Harrison
Shull, American botanist, developer of hybrid corn, was born.
1874 Apr 15, Johannes Stark,
Nobel Prize-winning German physicist, was born.
1874 Apr 15, Members of the
“Societe anonyme des peintres, sculpteurs, et graveurs” opened their
first show, The First Exhibition of Independent Artists” on the
Boulevard des Capucines in Paris.
(ON, 9/06, p.7)
1874 Apr 16, Dr. David
Livingstone's corpse arrived in Southampton.
1874 Apr 18, David Livingstone
was buried in Westminster Abbey.
1874 Apr 24, John Russell Pope,
US architect (Jefferson Memorial), was born.
1874 Apr 24-26, The 2-story
mansion leased by Thomas Clarke on the southwest corner of 16th and
Castro in Oakland, Ca., was reported to be haunted. Dr. Joseph
LeConte Sr., co-founder of the Univ. of California and the Sierra
Club, was called in to evaluate the situation. A 360 page report was
compiled but not released. In 1877 Clarke published a 23-page
pamphlet called "The Oakland Ghost," in which he argued that the
house was haunted.
1874 Apr 25, Guglielmo Marconi
(d.1937), inventor of the radio, was born. He was an Italian
electrical engineer and the developer of wireless telegraphy. He won
a Nobel Prize in 1909.
(HFA, '96, p.28)(AHD, p.798)(HN, 4/25/98)(SS,
1874 May 4, Frank Conrad,
electrical engineer and broadcasting pioneer, was born.
1874 May 12, The US Assay
office in Helena, Montana, was authorized.
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)
1874 May 13, Pope Pius IX
issued the encyclical "On the Greek-Ruthenian rite."
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1874 May 20, Levi Strauss began
marketing blue jeans with copper rivets at $13.50 per doz. [see
(HN, 5/20/98)(SFC, 8/28/98, p.B4)(MC, 5/20/02)
1874 May 29, G.K. Chesterton
(d.1936), English poet-essayist, was born. "Every man is dangerous
who only cares for one thing."
(AP, 8/4/99)(HN, 5/29/01)
1874 May 29, The present
constitution of Switzerland took effect.
1874 May, John Wesley Hardin
gunned down Charlie Webb in Comanche, TX.
Jun 8, Cochise (b.~1810), Chiricahua Apache war chief (his name
meant “his nose”) and leader of the Chokonen band, died on a
reservation in the Dragoon Mountains in southeastern Arizona.
1874 Jun 21, The Schooner
America, designed by George Steers, was sold at auction for $5000 to
former Union Gen. Benjamin Butler, who transferred it from Annapolis
to Portsmouth, NH, where he sailed it till he died. By 1942 the hull
of the schooner became unsalvageable and it was burned. The rudder
was saved and put on display at Mystic Seaport in Connecticut.
(AH, 2/03, p.29,31)
1874 Jun 22, Dr. Andrew T. Sill
of Macon, Missouri, founded osteopathy.
1874 Jun 22, Howard Staunton,
world chess champion and designer of chess pieces, died.
1874 Jun 25, Rose Cecil O’Neill
(d.1944), illustrator, writer and creator of the Kewpie doll, was
born in Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
1874 Jun 28, The Freedmen's
Bank, created to assist former slaves in the United States, closed.
African American depositors lost some $3 million.
1874 Jun, In the Summer Willie
Kennard, black Civil War veteran, was appointed the new Marshall at
Yankee Hill, Colorado, after arresting Barney Casewit, rapist and
murderer, and killing his 2 companions. Casewit was hung the next
day after being tried and convicted under councilman Bert Corgan.
1874 Jul 1, The 1st US zoo
opened in Philadelphia.
1874 Jul 2, Colonel Custer
departed from Fort Abraham Lincoln with some 1,000 soldiers and 70
Indian scouts on a 1200 mile expedition to chart the Black Hills of
eastern Wyoming western South Dakota, land which belonged to the
Sioux. The expedition returned on August 30.
(AH, 6/03, p.37)
1874 July 3, In southern
California Isaias Hellman forms the Cucamonga Homestead Association
to sell land north of Base Line Road and west of Hermosa in Alta
1874 Jul 4, Social Democratic
Workmen's Party of North America was formed.
1874 Jul 12, Start of Sherlock
Holmes Adventure, "Gloria Scott."
1874 Jul 24, James Woodward and
a colleague by the name of Mathew Evans, described in the patent as
a "Gentleman" but in reality a hotel keeper, filed a patent for the
Woodward and Evan's Light.
1874 Jul 26, Serge
Koussevitsky, conductor of the Boston Symphony, was born in
1874 Jul 28, Ernst Cassirer,
German philosopher, educator (Essay on Man), was born.
1874 Aug 2, Gold was discovered
in the Black Hills of northeastern Wyoming and western South Dakota
during an expedition led by Colonel Custer. The land belonged to the
Sioux but was invaded by prospectors. Sioux leaders Crazy Horse and
Sitting Bull retaliated.
(HT, 3/97, p.43)(AH, 6/03, p.37)
1874 Aug 10, Herbert Clark
Hoover (d.1964), the 31st president of the United States
(1929-1933), was born in West Branch, Iowa.
(AP, 8/10/97)(SFEC, 1/12/97, Z3 p.4)(HN,
8/10/98)(AH, 12/02, p.20)
1874 Aug 10, Antanas Smetona
(d.1944), the 1st president of Lithuania, was born.
1874 Aug 11, Harry S. Parmelee
patented a sprinkler head.
1874 Aug 27, Karl Bosch, German
chemist (BASF, Nobel 1931), was born.
1874 Sep 1, In Australia Sydney
General Post Office opened.
1874 Sep 2, Reese Durham, local
manager of the Butterfield Stage Station in Yankee Hill, Colorado,
decided to try to run the new black Marshall, Willie Kennard, out of
town. He failed and died.
1874 Sep 12, François Pierre
Guillaume Guizot (b.1787), French historian, orator, and statesman,
1874 Sep 13, Arnold Franz
Walter Schoenberg (d.1951), 12-tone composer, was born in Vienna,
Austria. He wrote the book "Style and Idea" and composed such works
as the 21 songs of "Pierrot Lunaire" based on a poem by Albert
Giraud translated into German by Otto Erich Hartleben, "Moses und
Aron," "A Survivor from Warsaw" and "Erwartung."
(LGC-HCS, 1970, p. 562-575)(WSJ, 8/20/96,
p.A8)(WSJ, 8/22/96, p.A12)(MC, 9/13/01)
1874 Sep 18, The Nebraska
Relief and Aid Society was formed to help farmers whose crops were
destroyed by grasshoppers swarming throughout the American West.
1874 Sep 20, Gustav
Holst, composer of "The Planets," was born.
1874 Sep 28, Colonel Ranald
Mackenzie (d.1889) raided a war camp of Comanche and Kiowa at the
Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, Texas, slaughtering 2,000 of their
(HN, 9/28/98)(SFCM, 3/11/01, p.53)
1874 Oct 4, Kiowa leader
Santanta, known as "the Orator of the Plains," surrenders in
Darlington, Texas. He was later sent to the state penitentiary,
where he committed suicide October 11, 1878.
1874 Oct 15, A US child labor
law took 12 year olds out of work force.
1874 Oct 20, Charles Ives
(d.1954), composer, was born in Danbury, Ct. His work included
symphonies, songs, and "Three Places in New England." He was pioneer
of dissonance as flavoring.
(WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A10)(HN, 10/20/00)(MC, 10/20/01)
1874 Oct 26, Peter Cornelius,
German composer, died at 49.
1874 Oct, Alexander Graham Bell
stated his basic idea for the telephone. The 1997 book "Alexander
Graham Bell, The Life and Times of the Man Who Invented the
Telephone," was written by Edwin Grosvenor and Morgan Wesson.
Antonio Meucci, an Italian-American candlemaker, was also later
credited for inventing the telephone, 5 years before Bell.
(SFEM, 1/11/98, p.12)(WSJ, 6/25/99, p.A1)
1874 Nov 7, The elephant first
appeared as a political icon in a Thomas Nast cartoon in Harper's
Weekly. The Republican Party was symbolized as an elephant in a
cartoon drawn by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly magazine.
(Hem, 8/96, p.84)(AP, 11/7/97)
1874 Nov 18, Clarence Day,
American writer, was born in NYC. His work included "Life with
(HN, 11/18/00)(MC, 11/18/01)
1874 Nov 19, Karl Adrian
Wohlfart, composer, was born.
1874 Nov 19, William Marcy
"Boss" Tweed of Tammany Hall (NYC) was convicted of defrauding city
of $6M and sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment.
1874 Nov 24, Farmer Joseph
Glidden's patent for barbed wire was granted. Glidden designed a
simple wire barb that attached to a double-strand wire, as well as a
machine to mass-produce the wire. The invention was a welcome
alternative to other types of fencing for farming on the arid Great
Plains--wood fences and stone walls were difficult to construct
because of the lack of sufficient rocks and trees, and the existing
wire fences were easily broken when cattle leaned against them. The
use of barbed-wire fences changed ranching and farming life. Farmers
could keep roaming cattle and sheep off their land, but open-range
cowboys and Native American farmers were restricted to the land and
resources not claimed and marked by the new fences. As more settlers
moved onto the plains, the amount of public, shared land decreased
and open-range farming became obsolete.
(HNPD, 11/23/98)(HN, 11/24/98)
1874 Nov 27, Charles A. Beard,
distinguished American historian who wrote "History of the United
States," was born.
1874 Nov 27, Chaim Weizmann was
born (d.1852). He was an Israeli chemist and Zionist leader and the
first President of Israel from 1948-1952.
(HFA, '96, p.42)(WUD, 1994, p.1619)
1874 Nov 29, Antonio Egas
Moniz, lobotomist (Nobel 1949), was born in Portugal.
1874 Nov 30, Sir Winston
Churchill, British statesman, was born at Blenheim Palace in
Oxfordshire, England. After attending the Royal Military College, he
served as a reporter and writer, and then in different positions in
Parliament as his political power grew. His most influential role
was as British prime minister during World War II from 1940 to 1945.
Churchill had been part of the Cabinet during World War I, but his
judgment was questioned and his political career ebbed. Up against
the threat of Adolf Hitler, however, Churchill committed himself to
defeating the Nazis and succeeded. Working together with President
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Josef Stalin, he managed to turn the tide
of the war in favor of the Allies. Churchill served again as prime
minister from 1951 to 1955. He died at his home in London in 1965.
(AP, 11/30/97)(HNPD, 11/30/98)(HN, 11/30/98)
1874 Nov 30, Lucy Maud
Montgomery, author, was born. Her work included "Anne of Green
1874 Dec 8, The Jesse James
gang took a train at Muncie, Kansas.
1874 Laura Montoya (d.1949) was
born in Colombia. She founded the Congregation of the Missionary
Sisters of the Immaculate Mary and was beatified in 2004.
1874 Edward Burne-Jones painted
"The Beguiling of Merlin."
(WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W10)
1874 Kramskoi created his
painting "The Peasant Ignatii Pirogov."
(SSFC, 11/3/02, p.M6)
1874 Claude Monet, Pierre
Auguste-Renoir, Albert Sisley and Edouard Manet gathered at
Argenteuil on the banks of the Seine to relax and paint.
(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W16)
1874 Alfred Sisley painted
"Snow Effect at Argenteuil."
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)
1874 Dion Boucicault, Irish
playwright, authored "The Shaughraun." It was a serious picture of
oppressed Ireland and a satirical take on human folly.
(WSJ, 11/18/98, p.A20)
1874 Thomas Brewer, Spencer
Baird and Robert Ridgeway wrote "A History of North American Birds."
(AH, 6/02, p.40)
1874 John William Draper, a
physician, authored "History of the Conflict Between Religion and
Science." He focused on the conflict between "the expansive force of
human intellect" and "the compressing arising from traditional
(WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W15)
1874 Gustave Flaubert
(1821-1880), French novelist, authored “The Temptation of St.
(SFC, 7/13/13, p.E3)
1874 Former Confederate Gen.
Joseph E. Johnston authored “Narrative of Military Operations
Directed During the Late War Between the States.” In the book he
defended himself against allegations of inabilities and failings
made by Gen. Hood in an official 1865 report. Hood responded in a
book titled “Advance and Retreat,” which contained a 90 page section
entitled “Reply to General Johnston.” It was published posthumously
(AH, 10/02, p.43)(www.wtj.com/archives/hood/)
1874 George Marsh, the first
American conservationist, published "The Earth as Modified by Human
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.53)
1874 Charles Melville Scammon
authored "Marine Animals of the North-Western Coast of North
America." Before he became a naturalist Scammon was a ship's captain
from Maine engaged in whaling and originated the practice of
slaughtering pregnant or nursing female whales.
(WSJ, 8/10/01, p.W14)
1874 The play "The Two Orphans"
opened in NYC and starred Kate Claxton as the blind girl named
(SFC, 4/21/99, Z1 p.6)
1874 The Old Franklin
Publishing House printed an illustrated account of the Benders in
Kansas, where three women committed murder on a succession of
guests. The story was told again in John James more sedate version
of 1913, The Benders in Kansas.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.21)
1874 The end of day bugle call
"Taps" was given its name. It had become the official Army call
after the Civil War.
(SFC, 2/4/98, p.E8)
1874 Trinity Church in Nevada
City was established.
(SFC, 7/15/98, p.A20)
1874 The Lincoln County
Courthouse in New Mexico was built. It served as the Murphy-Dolan
store and monopolized the local business until 1877 when Alexander
McSween and John Tunstall opened a rival mercantile.
(SFEC, 2/23/96, p.T9)
1874 Henry Steel Olcott, New
York attorney and journalist, met Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, a
down-on-her-luck Russian aristocrat and mystic. They set up house
together in a New York apartment that comes to be known as the
(Smith., 5/95, p.111)
1874 The first national
convention of the Women's Christian Temperance Union was held. The
Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was established to promote
the movement for prohibition in the U.S. It shut down saloons all
over the country because they believed that male drinking was the
cause of prostitution, child abuse and poverty. Under the leadership
of its second president, Frances Willard, the WCTU grew to a
nationwide movement with 200,000 members, the largest and most
socially acceptable women's organization of the time. Although
prohibition was the WCTU's primary mission, they also campaigned for
woman suffrage, reasoning that if women could vote, they would
reform American society for the betterment of all. The WCTU spurred
the founding in 1893 of the Anti-Saloon League. On December 18,
1917, the U.S. Congress adopted and submitted to the states an
amendment to the Constitution prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or
transportation of alcoholic liquors. The 18th Amendment was declared
ratified on January 29, 1919 and went into effect on January 16,
1920. It was repealed by the 21st Amendment in 1933.
(SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(HNQ, 11/189)(HNPD,
1874 The Chautauqua Institution
began as a Methodist community 60 miles south of Buffalo and
established a reputation as a purveyor of summer "learning
vacations." [see 1878] The Chautauqua Institution was founded to
further adult education. In 1970 Alfreda L. Irwin authored a study
of the community: "Three Taps of the Gavel."
(SFEC, 9/29/96, Par p.13)(SFEC, 5/30/99,
p.T2)(WSJ, 7/31/00, p.B1)
1874 The first Kentucky Oaks
Race for 3-year-old fillies and the Kentucky Derby was held. [see
(Sp., 5/96, p.20)
1874 Secret Service
headquarters returned to Washington, D.C. after 4 years in NYC.
1874 Arkansas passed a
constitution that included a ban on gambling. In 2008 Arkansas
voters approved a state lottery by a 63% margin.
(Econ, 11/22/08, p.45)
1874 A tunnel was carved
through the solid Franciscan rock for Hibernia Bank cofounder
Richard Tobin. He wanted to be able to ride his buggy back and forth
between his family’s city home and their house in Rockaway Beach,
Pacifica, south of Daly City, Ca.. Nature delivered the coup de
grace to Tobin’s Folly in 1906, when the SF earthquake reportedly
knocked off most of the rock tunnel and threw it into the ocean.
1874 Union Pacific completed a
cavernous, brick, train repair shed in West Oakland. It was
shuttered in 2002 and in 2010 was scheduled for demolition.
(SSFC, 10/3/10, p.C1)
1874 In San Juan Bautista, Ca.,
the Plaza Hall was built.
(SSFC, 2/22/04, p.C5)
1874 A schoolhouse was built in
Ojai, Calif. that was later converted to a bed and breakfast.
(AAM, 3/96, p.46)
1874 The Elms House in
Calistoga, Ca., was built.
(SSFC, 11/15/09, p.M4)
1874 Construction on
California’s Folsom Prison began.
(SFEC, 1/26/97, p.B4)
1874 The San Francisco Federal
Mint building opened at 5th and Mission. It was designed by Alfred
Mullett, the Treasury's supervising architect.
(SFC, 7/5/97, p.A13)(SSFC, 1/28/03, p.E1)
1874 The California state
capitol in Sacramento, built in the Renaissance Revival style, was
completed. It was designed by Reuben Clark (d.1866). [see 1869]
(SFEC, 12/20/98, p.T6)(SSFC, 10/27/02, p.A16)
1874 In San Luis Obispo, Ca.,
the Ah Louis Store was built to serve the 2000 Chinese coolies who
worked on nearby railroad tunnels.
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T6)
1874 Capt. James Cass of
Bristol, England, built a wharf and pier named Cass Landing on the
north end of Morro Bay, Ca., to facilitate the loading of ships
carrying lumber, staples and dairy products between the
Central Coast and San Francisco. It became the town of Cayucos,
carved from the Morro y Cayucos Rancho. The name was after a unique
plank canoe (cayuco) invented by the local Chumash Indians.
(SSFC, 1/4/09, p.E6)
1874 Jean Laurent founded a
vineyard in St. Helena that he named the Laurent Winery. After a
series of owners it was purchased in 1977 by Bruce Markham and
renamed Markham Vineyards. Mercian Corp. took over in 1988.
(SFC, 10/9/02, p.E7)
1874 The California Legislature
passed compulsory school attendance laws.
(SFC, 2/15/02, p.H4)
1874 California law made it a
felony to encourage or aid in a suicide.
(SFC, 2/11/15, p.D1)
1874 The California state
Supreme Court in Ward vs. Flood upheld a law authorizing racial
segregation in public schools.
(SSFC, 5/16/04, p.E5)
1874 In California the
Pinnacles rock spires were first seen by non-natives.
(CAS, 1996, p.16)
1874 The Nevada state
legislature overrode the Governor’s veto and approved a railroad
from Austin to Battle Mountain. Construction only began 4 ½
1874 Sandy Hook, New Jersey,
became operational as a proving ground for American military
weapons. It was later turned into a National Recreation Area.
(AM, 7/04, p.33)(AM, 11/04, p.9)
1874 Ice cream sodas appeared
when soda fountain operator Robert Green ran out of his customary
flavoring and substituted vanilla ice cream instead. Overnight his
sales soared from $6 to $600 a day. The soda jerk got named because
of the sharp tug exercised on the fountain levers.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, zone 1 p.2)(HNQ, 6/12/98)
1874 Cleveland set up the first
ordinary electric street trolley.
(SFC, 7/19/97, p.E4)
1874 Former slave James Webster
Smith was expelled from West Point for failing an exam. He was
commissioned by the Army in 1997 and his certificate was presented
to South Carolina State Univ.
(SFC, 9/23/97, p.A3)
1874 The Warner Brothers Co.,
later Warnaco, was set up by physicians Lucien Warner and I. DeVer
Warner to manufacture a "sanitary corset." They were concerned over
the strains corsets placed on the female body.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A19)
1874 The clipper ship Western
Shore was built at Coos Bay for the Simpson Brothers Lumber Co. of
San Francisco. In 1878 it ran aground on Duxbury Reef near Bolinas,
(SFC, 10/22/05, p.B2)
1874 In Oregon Elijah Davidson
discovered a marble cavern in the Siskiyou Mountains that later
became a national monument.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.17)
1874 Cattleman Charles
Goodnight rounded up 5 orphaned buffalo calves and set them loose on
10,000 acres in the Palo Duro Canyon of the Texas Panhandle. The
herd grew to 250 animals and a number were sent to start herds
elsewhere. In 1997 the herd was put under the guardianship of the
state. By 2001 it was realized that inbreeding put the herd at risk
of extinction. In 2005 Ted Turner agreed to provide 3 bulls from his
herd in New Mexico to help the Texas herd.
(WSJ, 8/2/05, p.A1)
1874 Ezra Cornell (b.1809),
American capitalist and philanthropist, died.
(WUD, 1994, p.325)
1874 Edward Troye (b.1808),
Swiss-born Kentucky artist, died. He portrayed horses and spent time
in the Middle East in search of Arab breeding stock.
(WSJ, 7/16/03, p.D8)
1874 The British East India
Company, having paid it final dividend in 1873, folded.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)
1874 David Stanley, British
journalist, crossed Africa from the east to the west across the
Congo River basin on a 999-day journey sponsored by London’s Daily
Telegraph. In 2004 Tim Butcher, also a journalist for the Daily
Telegraph, followed Stanley’s path on a trip that took 44 days. In
2008 Butcher authored “Blood River: A Journey to Africa’s Broken
(WSJ, 10/31/08, p.A15)
1874 In Hawaii David Kalakaua
was elected King.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C1)
1874 In France the Bordeaux
Ecole de Management was founded. In 2002 the school introduced a
master's program in business administration for wine.
(WSJ, 3/19/02, p.B1)
1874 A transit of Venus
occurred. Pierre Janssen, a French astronomer, invented a
multi-exposure camera to view the event, but the results were
(Econ, 5/29/04, p.79)
1874 Bicycle couriers came into
being in Paris taking messages from banks to telegraph offices.
(Econ, 4/23/11, p.89)
1874 A constitution was granted
1874-1875 The Gatling gun was first used against
the Comanche Indians at the Battle of Red River in the Texas
(SFC, 3/18/00, p.B4)
1874-1875 The Silverado silver mine in Napa
County, Ca. is the largest silver producer in Napa, Ca.
(WCG, 7/95, p.21)
1874-1879 Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, a former
runaway slave from Tennessee, led some 1,100 Tennessee ex-slaves to
Kansas and founded the Baxter Springs Colony in Cherokee County and
Dunlap colony in Morris County.
(NH, 7/98, p.28)
1874-1942 Alice Duer Miller, American author:
"People love to talk but hate to listen."
1874-1945 Ellen Glasgow, American author:
"Experience has taught me that the only cruelties people condemn are
those with which they do not happen to be familiar." "No idea is so
antiquated that it was not once modern. No idea is so modern that it
will not someday be antiquated.... To seize the flying thought
before it escapes us is our only touch with reality."
(AP, 12/12/97)(AP, 5/11/98)(AP,
1874-1947 Nicholas Roerich, Russian painter,
archeologist and author. He came to the US in 1920.
(WUD, 1994, p.1241)
1874-1950 William Lyon Mackenzie King, Canadian
statesman: "Government, in the last analysis, is organized opinion.
Where there is little or no public opinion, there is likely to be
bad government, which sooner or later becomes autocratic
1874-1957 George Gustav Heye, New York banker. He
began the collection of Indian cultural material in 1903. It now has
more than 1 million artifacts from North, Central and south America
spanning 10,000 years. The George Gustav Heye Center of the National
Museum of the American Indian is located in the Alexander Hamilton
US custom House in New York. [see 1916, Heye]
(Hem, Mar. 95, p.19)
1874-1965 W. Somerset Maugham English
author-dramatist: "The tragedy of love is indifference." "The great
tragedy of life is not that men perish, but that they cease to
(AP, 11/29/97)(AP, 9/17/98)
1874-1967 Mary Garden, considered the first great
American modernist singer. She is discussed in the 1997 book "The
American Opera Singer" by Peter G. Davis.
(WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A20)