Timeline 1875-1876

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1875        Jan 2, Thomas Dixon, Jr., author of the novel "The Clansman," was born. It was the basis for the 1915 film "Birth of a Nation" by D.W. Griffith.
    (AP, 7/23/98)(HNQ, 3/2/99)

1875        Jan 14, Dr. Albert Schweitzer (d.1965), French theologian who set up a native hospital in French Equatorial Africa (Gabon) in 1913, was born. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1952.
    (HN, 1/14/99)(MC, 1/14/02)(AP, 10/30/03)

1875        Jan 20, Jean Francois Millet (b.1814), French painter, was born.
    (www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/art.asp?aid=745)

1875        Jan 26, Electric dental drill was patented by George F. Green.
    (MC, 1/26/02)
1875        Jan 26, Pinkerton agents, hunting Jesse James, firebombed his mother’s house, killed his 13-year-old half-brother and seriously injured his mother.
    (AH, 2/05, p.16)

1875        Jan, Doc Holliday killed a man for the first time (in a fight).
    (MesWP)
1875        Jan, In the SF Bay Area a tunnel near Pacifica’s Mussel Rock, commissioned by SF attorney Richard Tobin, was completed. Storms soon rendered the tunnel impassable and the project was abandoned.
    (Daly City Fog Cutter, Vol 8 No. 3, 2008)

1875        Feb 2, Fritz Kreisler, violinist, composer, was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1875        Feb 4, Ludwig Prandtl, physicist (father of aerodynamics), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1875        Feb, Alexander Graham Bell traveled to Washington and filed patent applications for the multiple telegraph and the autograph telegraph.
    (ON, 1/03, p.2)

1875         Mar 1, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which was invalidated by the Supreme Court in 1883.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1875        Mar 3, The opera Carmen, composed by Georges Bizet (1873), opened in Paris at the Opera-Comique. The opera was based on a novella by Prosper Merimee (1803-1870).
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/merimee.htm)(AP, 3/3/98)
1875        Mar 3, The 1st recorded hockey game took place in Montreal. [see 1855]
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1875        Mar 3, Congress authorized a 20 coin. It lasted only 3 years.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1875        Mar 7, Composer Maurice Ravel (d.1937) was born in Cibourne, France.
    (AP, 12/28/97)(AP, 3/7/98)

1875        Mar 14, Smetana's "Vysehrad," premiered.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1875        Mar 15, John McCloskey, Roman Catholic archbishop of New York, was named the first American cardinal by Pope Pius IX.
    (AP, 3/15/97)

1875        Mar 19, Tiburcio Vasquez (b.1835), a cultured robber, was hanged in San Jose, Ca., after being found guilty of robbery and murder In 2010 John Boessenecker authored “Bandido,” an account of Vasquez’ life.
    (SSFC, 11/21/10, p.A2)

1875        Spring, Billy McGeorge led a gang of outlaws that preyed on freight wagons and passenger stages around Yankee Hill, Colorado.
    (WW, 12/96)

1875        Mar 26, Poet Robert Frost was born in San Francisco. [see Mar 26, 1874]
    (AP, 3/26/97)
1875        Mar 26, Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea (1948-60), was born. [see Apr 26]
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1875        Mar 29, Lou Henry Hoover, first lady, was born.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1875        Apr 1, Edgar Wallace, novelist, playwright, journalist (Terror), was born in England.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1875        Apr 2, Walter Chrysler, founder of Chrysler automobile company, was born. He grew up in Ellis, Kansas.
    (HN, 4/2/98)(WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)

1875        Apr 8, Albert I LCMM von Saksen-Coburg, king of Belgium (1909-34), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1875        Apr 11, Heinrich Schwabe, discoverer of the 11-year sunspot cycle, died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1875        Apr 17, The game of "snooker" was invented by Sir Neville Chamberlain.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1875        Apr 26, Syngman Rhee, Pres. of South Korea (1948-60), was born. [see Mar 26]
    (HN, 4/26/98)(MC, 4/26/02)

1875        May 1, 238 members of "Whiskey Ring" were accused of anti-US activities.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1875        May 7, German SS Schiller sank near Scilly Islands and 312 were killed.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1875        May 17, The first Kentucky Derby was run at Louisville; the winner was Aristides.  It later became part of the Triple Crown with the Belmont Stakes and the Preakness.
    (AP, 5/17/97)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.8)(HN, 5/17/02)

1875        May 23, Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr., president and chairman of the board for General Motors, was born. His foundation started the cancer research center Sloan-Kettering Institute. Sloan defined the modern automobile industry and helped rescue General Motors in 1920.
    (HN, 5/23/99)(WSJ, 1//03, p.D8)

1875        May 31, Italo Montemezzi, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1875        May, Alexander Graham Bell announced the addition of variable resistance to his initial telephone conception.
    (SFEM, 1/11/98, p.12)

1875        Jun 2, Alexander Graham Bell made his 1st complex sound transmission.
    (ON, 1/03, p.2)

1875        Jun 3, Georges  Bizet (36), French composer (Carmen, Pearl Fishers), died.
    (ON, 5/06, p.12)

1875        Jun 6, Walter P. Chrysler, founder of the Chrysler Corporation, was born.
    (HN, 6/6/98)
1875        Jun 6, Thomas Mann (d.1955), German novelist and essayist, was born (Nobel 1929). He was forced into exile by the Nazis. The major part of Mann’s oeuvre is concerned with problems of the artist per se, and no writer of our time and perhaps of any time has probed so deeply into the artistic personality  or described so brilliantly the workings of artistic genius. His work included Buddenbrooks (1901), Death in Venice (1912), Doctor Faustus (1947), and The Magic Mountain. Two biographies of Mann were published in 1995: Thomas Mann: A Biography by Ronald Hayman and Thomas Mann: A Life by Donald Prater. "Speech is civilization itself. The word, even the most contradictory word, preserves contact -- it is silence which isolates."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.367-368)(WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-5)(AP, 10/19/98)(HN, 6/6/99)

1875        Jun 12, In Louisiana work began on a new shipping channel at the mouth of the Mississippi River. American civil engineer James Buchanan Eads (1820-1887) led the project.
    (ON, 10/09, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Buchanan_Eads)

1875        Jun 28, The Billy McGeorge gang rode into Yankee Hill, Colorado, to redress the insult of a $50 wanted poster put up by Marshall Willie Kennard. Kennard met the gang and killed 2 of them before the rest surrendered. Billy McGeorge was convicted of murder under acting judge Bert Corgan and hung from the same pine tree as Barney Casewit.
    (WW, 12/96)

1875        Jun, Nez Perce Chief Joseph learned that had rescinded the executive order of 1873 and reopened the Wallowa Valley to white settlement.
    (ON, 3/04, p.2)

1875        Jul 3, Ernst F. Sauerbruch, German Nazi surgeon, was born.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1875        Jul 7, Jesse James robbed a train in Otterville, Missouri.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1875        Jul 10, Mary McLeod Bethune (d.1955), American educator, reformer and founder of the Bethune-Cookman College in Florida and the National Council of Negro Women, was born. "Invest in the human soul. Who knows, it might be a diamond in the rough."
    (AP, 7/9/97)(HN, 7/10/98)

1875        Jul 16, The new French constitution was finalized.
    (HN, 7/16/98)

1875        Jul 23, Isaac Merritt Singer (63), inventor (sewing machine), died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1875        Jul 26, Carl Jung (d.1961), Swiss psychiatrist and analytical psychologist who identified the introvert and extrovert types, was born in Kesswil, Switzerland. He saw the I Ching as a tool to help tune into the noncausal connectedness of the universe-- what he called synchronicity.
    (NH, 9/97, p.13)(WUD, 1994, p.774)(SFEC,10/19/97, BR p.3)(HN, 7/26/98)
1875        Jul 26, Black Bart, aka Charles E. Boles, began robbing stage coaches. He robbed at least 28 of Wells Fargo coaches before he was caught by a Wells Fargo agent in SF in 1883.
    (HN, 8/27/01)

1875        Jul 29, Peasants in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Balkans rebelled against the Ottoman army.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1875        Jul 31, The 17th president of the United States, Andrew Johnson, died in Carter Station, Tenn., at age 66. He succeeded Abraham Lincoln and was the only president to face impeachment proceedings.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(HN, 7/31/98)

1875        Aug 2, The world’s 1st roller skating rink opened in London.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1875        Aug 4, Hans Christian Andersen (b.1805), Danish fairy tale writer, died. His biography was later written by Elias Bredsdorff (d.2002 at 90).
    (SFC, 8/23/02, p.A27)(MC, 8/4/02)

1875        Aug 9, Albert William Ketelbey, composer (In a Monastery Garden), was born in Aston, England.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1875        Aug 12, Ettore Panizza, composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1875        Aug 15, Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, Afro-British composer (Hiawatha's Wedding Feast), was born in London.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1875        Aug 16, Charles Grandison Finney (b.1792), American revivalist preacher, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Grandison_Finney)

1875        Aug 25, Captain Matthew Webb (1848-1883) became the first person to swim across the English Channel, traveling from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in 21 hours and 45 min. Swimming the Channel entails about 35 miles of swimming due to currents in waters that are 55 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit.
    (AP, 8/25/97)(HN, 8/25/98)(ON, 2/05, p.12)

1875        Aug 26, John Buchan (d.1940), Lord Tweedsmuir, was born in Perth, Scotland. He became a writer and governor general of Canada (1935), and was famous for his spy story "The Thirty-Nine Steps" (1915). "There may be Peace without Joy, and Joy without Peace, but the two combined make Happiness."
    (HN, 8/26/99)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)(AP, 1/7/98)

1875        Sep 1, Edgar Rice Burroughs, novelist, was born in Chicago. He created Tarzan, the Ape Man.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1875        Sep 3, Ferdinand Porsche, German automotive engineer, was born. He designed the Volkswagen in 1934 and the Porsche sports car in 1950.
    (HN, 9/3/00)(MC, 9/3/01)

1875        Sep 8, An explosion destroyed the Newark, NJ, factory of the Celluloid Manufacturing Co. The Hyatt brothers rebuilt the factory and it turned profitable in 1877.
    (ON, 11/03, p.4)

1875        Sep 10, M.K. Ciurlionis (d.1911), Lithuanian artist and composer, was born. Sep 22 is also given as a birth date.
    (LC, 1998, p.12,24)

1875        Sep 11, 1st newspaper cartoon strip, "Professor Tigwissel’s Burglar Alarm" appeared in the New York "Daily Graphics" newspaper.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1875        Sep 16, James Cash Penny, founder and owner of the J.C. Penny Company department stores, was born.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1875        Oct 4, In New Hampshire Josie Langmaid (17) disappeared while walking to Pembroke Academy, the local Pembroke high school. Her body was found that night and her head was found the next day. Joseph LaPage, an itinerant woodcutter, was eventually convicted of the crime and executed.
    (WSJ, 5/22/01, p.A8)

1875        Oct 12, Aleister [Edward S] Crowley (d.1947), (75 pseudonyms), British occultist-American mystic, was born. In 2000 Lawrence Sutin authored "Do What Thou Wilt, A Life of Aleister Crowley."
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.12)(MC, 10/12/01)
1875        Oct 12, Mayan Indians attacked the Xuxub sugar plantation in the Yucatan and dozens of workers were killed or taken captive. Bernadino Cen, the Mayan leader, was killed when the Mexican National Guard arrived the next day. In 2004 Paul Sullivan authored “Xuxub Must Die.”
    (WSJ, 5/13/04, p.D10)

1875        Oct 22, Sons of American Revolution was organized.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1875        Oct 25, Tchaikovsky’s 1st Piano Concerto premiered in Boston.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1875        Oct 28, Gilbert Grosvenor, editor, was born. He turned the National Geographic Society’s irregularly published pamphlet into a periodical with a circulation of nearly two million.
    (HN, 10/28/00)

1875        Oct, George G. Anderson, A Scottish carpenter and trail builder, engineered his way to the top of Half Dome in Yosemite. He used wooden pins and iron eyebolts drilled into the granite to pull himself up.
    (WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A20)(SSFC, 7/15/01, p.T1)

1875        Nov 4, "Pacific" collided with "Orpheus" off Cape Flattery, Wash., and 236 people died.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1875        Nov 7, Verney Cameron became the 1st European to cross equatorial Africa.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1875        Nov 16, William Bonwill patented dental mallet to impact gold into cavities.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1875        Nov 17, The American Theosophical Society was founded by Mme. Blavatsky and Col. Olcott. Colonel H.S. Olcott helped found the Theosophical Society in New York after a group of third-century Alexandrian scholars. It was set up to study occult phenomena and literature. Early members included Thomas Edison and Gen. Abner Doubleday. Its 3 main principles were: "To form a nucleus of the universal brotherhood of humanity without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste or color; to encourage the comparative study of religion, science and philosophy; and to investigate the unexplained laws of nature and the powers latent in humanity.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.114)(MC, 11/17/01)(WSJ, 5/17/02, p.W15)

1875        Dec 4, William Marcy Tweed (d.1878), the "Boss" of New York City's Tammany Hall political organization, escaped from jail and fled the country. He went to Cuba and then Spain were he was identified from cartoons by Thomas Nast and returned to prison.
    (AP, 12/4/97)(Arch, 7/02, p.24)

1875        Dec 12, Karl R.G. von Rundstedt, German gen-field marshal (Normandy), was born.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1875        Dec 17, Violent bread riots took place in Montreal.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1875        Rainer Maria Rilke (d.1926), German-Austrian poet, was born. He was born in Prague to German-speaking parents. His works include New Poems (1907), his autobiographical novel: "The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge," and his masterpieces the "Duino Elegies" and "The Sonnets to Orpheus." His mistress was Lou Andreas-Salome, a novelist, essayist and clinical psychologist. Ralph Freedman wrote a biography of Rilke titled Life of a Poet: Rainer Maria Rilke in 1996. His complete works were published in 1966 and an annotated edition in 1996. In 1997 his early work was published: "Diaries of a Young Poet," translated by Edward Snow and Michael Winkler. On the new year day: "And now let us believe in a long year that is given to us, new, untouched, full of things that have never been, full of work that has never been done, full of tasks, claims, and demands; and let us see that we learn to take it without letting fall too much of what it has to bestow upon those who demand of it necessary, serious and great things."
    (WSJ, 3/19/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 12/15/97, p.A20)(AP, 1/1/98)

1875        Edgar Degas, French painter, painted "Place de la Concorde," considered his greatest picture. It shows his artist friend, the Viscount Lepic, strolling Paris with his two daughters and pet borzoi.
    (WSJ, 4/6/95, p.A-12)

1875        Gabriel Guay exhibited his painting "The Awakening" at the Paris Salon. It featured a nude, life-size woman, just waking up.
    (SFEM, 4/11/99, p.30)

1875        Claude Monet painted "The Seine at Argenteuil."
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.E1)

1875        Thomas Moran, American artist, painted "Mountain of the Holy Cross."
    (SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)(AH, 10/01, p.18)

1875        Camille Pissarro painted "Climbing Path at the Hermitage."
    (SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.5)

1875        Renoir painted "Woman at the Piano."
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.C18)

1875        Toby Rosenthal painted "Boy Awakening."
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, DB p.39)

1875        James Tissot, English painter, began "On the Thames." Completed 1876.
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)

1875        Charles Darwin authored “Insectivorous Plants” as well as “The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants.”
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.87)

1875        Christian Scientist Mary Baker Eddy published "Science and Health."
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)

1875        William Ernest Henley, English poet, wrote his poem "Invictus" at the end of his stay in an infirmary for tuberculosis. The last 2 lines read "I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul."
    (SFC, 6/12/01, p.A12)

1875        James Hutton, Edinburgh Physician, published his "Theory of the Earth." It sought to explain the geological features we see around us by reference to the natural processes that are also observable today.
    (DD-EVTT, p.16)

1875        "Spiders of the United States," the collected works of Nicholas Marcellus Hentz (1797-1856), a pioneer collector of North American spiders, was republished.
    (NH, 7/96, p.74,75)

1875        Anthony Trollope authored “The Way We Live Now,” a scathing satirical novel published in London. It was regarded by many of Trollope's contemporaries as his finest work. The story includes the description of a great railroad stock swindle by Augustus Melmotte, a foreign-born financier with a mysterious past.
    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Way_We_Live_Now)

1875        Seth Lewelling of Milwaukie, Oregon, grew the 1st Bing cherry from the seed of a Republican cherry. He named it Bing after a Chinese worker on his farm.
    (SFC, 4/12/03, p.E3)

1875        The town of Ouray, Colo., was built during the silver and gold rush.
    (SFC, 2/16/06, p.E2)

1875        Christian Schwartz, a local merchant in Natchez, Miss., built a 5 bedroom home on one acre in the French Second Empire architectural style.
    (WSJ, 10/25/96, p.B10)

1875        Maria Mitchell (1818-1889), professor of astronomy at Vassar, helped found the American Association for the Advancement of Women and was elected the association’s 1st president.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)

1875        James A. Dacey (d.1925) ground up a batch of horseradish root and began to sell it in general stores. He became known as "The Horseradish King."
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, Z1 p.8)

1875        The US Supreme Court decision in Totten vs. the US denied the estate of a Union spy back pay for his Civil War espionage: "Both employer and agent must have understood that the lips of the other were to be forever sealed."
    (SFC, 6/9/96, p.A-14)

1875         The first commission book and a new badge were issued to operatives of the US Secret Service.
    (http://www.ustreas.gov/usss/history.shtml)

1875        San Francisco’s Lowell High School, then called the Union Grammar School, moved within San Francisco to Sutter Street between Gough and Octavia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowell_High_School_%28San_Francisco%29)
1875        The Riverside, Ca., Mission Inn began as the home of the Miller family. Under Frank Miller (d.1935) it was expanded with financing by Henry Huntington to a pretend mission of Vatican proportions.
    (HT, 4/97, p.14)
1875        In California the town of Pacific Grove on the Monterey peninsula was established as a retreat for Methodists.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, p.T6)
1875        A Marine Hospital was built in the Presidio area of San Francisco. An adjacent cemetery operated at the site from about 1981 to 1915. In 1912 US marine hospitals became Public Health Service hospitals. A new structure was completed in 1932. In 1952 the hospital was expanded and Landfill 8 covered the graves, which were never moved. In 1981 the hospital was decommissioned and in 2010 reopened as 154 luxury apartments. Landfill 8 was capped with sand and underwent restoration to resemble its original, pre-European look.
    (SFC, 11/25/06, p.B5)(SFC, 10/9/10, p.A10)
1875        Romualdo Pacheco became governor of California after Gov. Newton Booth won a US Senate seat. Pacheco served for 9 months and was later elected to Congress.
    (SSFC, 5/11/03, p.D6)
1875        In San Francisco the Ferry House, predecessor to the Ferry Building, was built. It was a 350-foot wooden shed and was soon replaced. In 1998 Nancy Olmsted published "The Ferry Building: Witness to a Century of Change."
    (SFEC, 12/20/98, BR p.2)
1875        The Palace Hotel opened in San Francisco. It was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake. A new Palace Hotel opened in 1909.
    (SFC, 8/21/09, p.A10)
1875        In San Francisco a picture by Walter Yeager depicted the California St. offices of Lazard Freres: Bankers.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.D1)
1875        James Lick, San Francisco real estate magnate, ordered a pre-fabricated glass house for his estate but died before it was erected. A group of wealthy men led by Leland Stanford donated the glass house to Golden Gate Park, where it became the Conservatory of Flowers. [see 1879]
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.4)(SFC, 8/24/01, p.A23)
1875        William Sharon of SF was elected to a 6-year term as Senator from Nevada. It is believed that he spent some $1 million to get elected.
    (Ind, 7/1/00,5A)

1875        In the US Pocahontas was depicted on the back of $20 bills.
    (SFC, 6/2/96, Z1 p.2)

1875        In Louisiana the “Mardi Gras Act” established Mardi Gras as an official and legal state holiday.
    (www.tamug.edu/nautilus/archive/2009/TAMUG77554Vol16Issue1.pdf)

1875        The first US sardine cannery opened in Maine, when a New York businessman set up the Eagle Preserved Fish Co. in Eastport. In 2010 the Stinson Seafood plant in eastern Maine, shut down after a century in operation. It was the last sardine cannery not just in Maine, but in the United States.
    (AP, 4/14/10)

1875        The Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical company was incorporated. It was originally founded in Detroit, Michigan, by Dr. Samuel P. Duffield, a physician and pharmacist. A partnership of Dr. Duffield and Hervey Coke Parke was formed in 1866, with George S. Davis becoming a third partner in 1867. Duffield withdrew in 1869, and the name Parke, Davis & Company was formally adopted in 1871.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parke-Davis)

1875        In NYC the Butter and Cheese Exchange, later known as the New York Mercantile Exchange (Nymex), was renamed to the American Exchange of New York.
    (WSJ, 9/28/05, p.C3)

1875        Mackinac Island, Michigan, became the 2nd US national park.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.C5)

1875        The Quahadi Comanches, led by Quanah Parker (c.1852-1911), gave up their fight and settled on Indian Territory in Oklahoma after hunters slaughtered the great buffalo herds of the Texas panhandle.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.85)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quanah_Parker)

1875        Jacob Bulova opened a jewelry shop in the financial district of NYC. It grew to become the Bulova Watch Co. In  1979 it was purchased by the Loews Corp. and taken private.
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.A4)

1875        Amos G. Rhodes opened his first retail furniture store in Atlanta, Ga. The company expanded to 80 stores in 13 states, but went bankrupt in 2005.
    (SFC, 9/19/06, p.G3)

1875        John Durant Larkin established a soap company in Buffalo, N.Y. The Larkin Co. attracted customers by offering premium gifts. In 1901 the company founded Buffalo Pottery to manufacture dishes given as premiums. The company closed in 1962.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, Z1 p.6)

1875        Lydia Estes Pinkham (1819-1883) was in her mid-fifties when economic hardship forced her and her family to begin selling bottles of a homemade health remedy. Mrs. Pinkham’s tonic, formulated from herbs and 20% alcohol as a "solvent and preservative," was first sold as a cure for "female complaints." Business grew as the family aggressively marketed their product with trade cards which linked Pinkham’s Compound with the patriotism and progress represented by the Brooklyn Bridge. Lydia Pinkham was probably the best-known woman in America at the time. Her medicines remained tremendously popular until the 1930s, when medical science and public awareness of the compound’s unfounded claims reduced sales to a trickle.
    (HNPD, 6/30/98)

1875        A rich vein of gold was struck in the Bunker Hill mine near Bodie, Calif.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, p.T3)

1875        A Nebraskan estimated a grasshopper swarm to be 1,800 miles long and 110 miles wide. In 2004 Jeffrey A. Lockwood authored “Locust: The Devastating Rise and Mysterious Disappearance of the Insect that Shaped the American Frontier.”
    (SSFC, 5/16/04, p.M3)

1875        French priest Jean-Baptiste Lamy became archbishop of the New Mexican territory.
    (WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)

1875        Calgary, Canada, was founded by Troop F of the royal Northwest Mounted Police. They built a log fort at the junction of the Bow and Elbow Rivers to control illegal whiskey traders operating from outposts with names like Fort Whoop-Up.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)
1875        Capt. George Nares set up the first base on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.763)

1875        Fiji’s Great Council of chiefs was established as the "Native Council" under British colonial rule. The council was disbanded in 2012. Most of the 55 chiefs had inherited their positions and privileged status in island life.
    (AP, 3/14/12)

1875        In Paris, France, the first stone was laid for the Sacre Coeur basilica in Montmartre.
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.91)
1875        The Jacquemart-Andre mansion in Paris was designed by Henri Parent. The building later became the Jacquemart-Andre Musee.
    (SFEC, 3/26/00, p.T12)
1875        France’s Rouen Museum acquired a Maori head, offered by a Parisian named Drouet. In 2011 France returned the first of 16 such human heads it had displayed as exotic curiosities. The other 15 were to be returned in 2012.
    (AP, 5/9/11)

1875        The Schmitt brewery was built by an innkeeper for his restaurant in Singen in the German state of Thuringia. Richard Schmitt buys the brewery in May 1885 for DM9,900. Today it is run by the Obstfelder family and produces around 26,000 gallons of beer annually.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.113-114)

1875        India’s Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) was established.
    (Econ, 5/21/11, p.79)

1875        Joseph Neesima founded Doshisha Univ. in Kyoto, Japan. He had previously acquired an American education at Amherst College after defying a ban on travel abroad.
    (SFC, 4/18/06, p.B5)
1875        Russia recognized Japan's control over the 4 southernmost Kurile Islands.
    (SFC, 1/19/99, p.A8)
1875        The tomb of John Baptiste Tavernier, the man who brought the blue diamond from India to France in 1642, was found in Moscow.
    (THC, 12/3/97)

1875        In St. Petersburg, Russia, a mansion was purchased by Duke Vasily Naryshkin, whose family included Nataliya Naryshkina, the second wife of Czar Alexis and the mother of Peter the Great. The mansion had been put together by connecting two 18-century houses, one of which belonged to Pushkin's African grandfather Abram Gannibal. After the Bolsheviks nationalized private property, part of the mansion was turned into a stolovaya, a canteen-like restaurant serving utilitarian meals. In 2012 workers found treasure, dating back to 1917, was found in storage space hidden between two floors.
    (AP, 3/30/12)

1875        Stuart Cranston, Scottish tea merchant, setup the world’s first tea room in Glasgow.
    (WSJ, 4/7/07, p.P14)

1875        The Society of True Afrikaners was formed in the Boland town of Paarl, where also stands the Language Monument to the Afrikaner language.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 577)

1875        The kingdom of Tonga adopted a constitution written by a Methodist missionary. It declared that the Sabbath is forever sacred.
    (WSJ, 7/20/95, p. a-10)

1875-1935    In San Jose, Ca., a paupers graveyard was used as the final resting spot for those who died at the Santa Clara Valley Medical Center. In the 1950s the site was covered by a parking lot. In 2012 it was re-discovered during excavation work for a new building.
    (SFC, 5/19/12, p.C3)
1875-1948    David Lewelyn Wark Griffith (D.W. Griffith), American film producer and director. His films included "Intolerance."
    (WUD, 1994, p.622)(SFC, 8/16/97, p.A18)
1875?-1958    Yoruba sculptor Olowe lived during this period. He carved a lintel in a sacrifice motif of grisly elegance: birds plucking the eyes from human faces.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)
1875-1965    Albert Schweitzer, German-born missionary and Nobel laureate. "Man must cease attributing his problems to his environment, and learn again to exercise his will—his personal responsibility in the realm of faith and morals."
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1876        Jan 5, Conrad Adenauer (d.1967), statesman and first chancellor of post-World War II West Germany, was born. He was chancellor of Germany from 1949-1963. "The good Lord set definite limits on man's wisdom, but set no limits on his stupidity -- and that's not fair!"
    (AHD, 1971, p.15)(AP, 7/1/98)(HN, 1/5/99)

1876        Jan 12, Jack London (d.1916), American writer and adventurer, was born in SF at 3rd and Brannon. The original home burned down in the 1906 fire. He is best known for his dog novels "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang."
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AHD, p.768)(HN, 1/12/99)(SFC, 1/10/03, p.E6)
1876        Jan 12, Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, composer, was born in Venice, Italy.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1876        Jan 24, Bat Masterson had a legendary gunfight in Sweetwater, Texas. A cavalry soldier named King and a woman named Mollie Brennan were killed, Masterson was seriously wounded in the hip in a saloon.
    (MesWP)(AH, 2/06, p.14)

1876        Feb 2, The National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs with eight teams (Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Hartford, Louisville, New York, Philadelphia, St Louis) was formed in New York.
    (AP, 2/2/97)(HN, 2/2/99)(MC, 2/2/02)

1876          Feb 7, Pres Grant's private secretary, Gen. Orville E. Babcock, was acquitted of involvement in the Whiskey Ring. The "Whiskey Ring" was a conspiracy among distillers, revenue collectors, and high federal officials to avoid taxation through fraudulent reports on whiskey production. 230 indictments were secured, but no convictions were made. Grant helped Babcock secure an acquittal for his part in the ring. This affair contributed to the reputation for corruption that Grant's administrations acquired.
    (MC, 2/7/02)(Internet)

1876        Feb 12, Al Spalding opened a sporting good shop.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1876        Feb 14, Rival inventors Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both applied for patents for the telephone.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1876        Feb 15, A historic Elm at Boston was blown down.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1876        Feb 16, George Macauley Trevelyan (d.1962), English historian (Giuseppi Garibaldi), was born: "’History repeats itself’ and ‘History never repeats itself’ are about equally true ... We never know enough about the infinitely complex circumstances of any past event to prophesy the future by analogy."
    (AP, 4/14/01)(MC, 2/16/02)

1876        Feb 17, Sardines were 1st canned by Julius Wolff in Eastport, Maine.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1876        Feb 18, A direct telegraph link was established between Britain & New Zealand.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1876        Feb 19, Gardiner Hubbard submitted Alexander Graham Bell's patent application for a telephone.
    (ON, 1/03, p.4)

1876        Feb 21, Constantin Brancusi (d.1957), Romanian-French sculptor (Princesse X), was born in Hobitza, Romania. he made it to Paris in 1902. His works include "The Kiss" (1908) and the "Sleeping Muse" (1910).
    (WSJ, 10/19/95, A-18)(WSJ, 11/30/01, p.W12)(MC, 2/21/02)

1876        Feb 24, Henrik Ibsen's "Peer Gynt," premiered in Oslo.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1876        Feb 26, Agustin P. Justo y Rolon, President of Argentina (1931-38), was born.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1876        Mar 1, Guernsey Cattle Club formed in Farmington, CT.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1876        Mar 2, Pius XII [Eugenio MGG Pacelli], 260th Pope (1939-58), was born to an aristocratic Roman family accustomed to serving the Catholic Church.
    (SFEC, 9/26/99, BR p.3)(SC, 3/2/02)

1876        Mar 4, US Congress decided to impeach Secretary of War (under Ulysses S. Grant) William Worth Belknap (1829-1890) of malfeasance in office for accepting over $24,000 in bribes from a post trader seeking immunity from removal. It is not clear whether he was aware of the arrangement or whether his wife had made the bargain and accepted the payoffs. Nevertheless, he was impeached by a unanimous vote of the United States Senate, though at his formal trial the Senate fell short of the number of votes required to convict. By then he had resigned, which doubtless accounted for his acquittal. He died in Washington, D.C. on October 13,1890 and was buried in Section 1 of Arlington National Cemetery.
    (SC, 3/4/02)(www.arlingtoncemetery.net/wwbelkna.htm)

1876        Mar 7, Patent #174,465 was issued to Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) for his telephone. In 2008 Seth Shulman authored “The Telephone Gambit,” the story behind Alexander Graham Bell’s 1876 telephone patent #174,465. Shulman made a case that Bell stole the critical technology for making the telephone work from Elisha Gray, who had filed his own papers just hours after Bell.
    (SFEM, 1/11/98, p.12)(HN, 3/7/98)(AP, 3/7/98)(WSJ, 1/16/08, p.D10)

1876        Mar 8, Franco Alfano, Italian opera composer (Il dottore Antonio), was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1876        Mar 10, Alexander Graham Bell made what was, in effect, the first telephone call. He found a way of converting words into electrical current and back again and sent his first message using his new variable-liquid resistance transmitter. Bell’s telephone caused the current to vary smoothly in proportion to the pressure created on a microphone by human speech and got a patent. His assistant, in an adjoining room in Boston, heard Bell say over the experimental device:" Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you."
    (I&I, Penzias, p.97)(CFA, ‘96, p.42)(SFEM, 1/11/98, p.12)(AP, 3/10/98)(HN, 3/10/98)

1876        Mar 17, Gen. Crook destroyed Cheyenne and Ogallala-Sioux Indian camps.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1876        Apr 1,  The first official NL baseball game took place.  Boston beat Philadelphia 6-5.
    (OTD)

1876        Apr 8, Amilcare Ponchielli's opera "La Gioconda," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1876        Apr 11, General Sir Charles ("Chinese") Gordon ended religious tolerance in Sudan.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1876        Apr 18, Daniel O’Leary completed a 500 mile walk in 139 hours, 32 minutes.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1876        Apr 22, O.E. Rolvaag, novelist (Giants in the Earth), was born.
    (HN, 4/22/01)
1876        Apr 22, Tchaikovsky completed his "Swan Lake" ballet.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1876        Apr 25, The Chicago White Stockings (later Chicago Cubs) beat Louisville 4-0 (1st NL shutout) in the 1st NL game. Albert G. Spalding (1850-1915), former pitcher for the Boston Red Stocking, had joined the Chicago White Stockings after helping form the new National League. His move effectively ended the National Association, baseball’s first professional league. Spalding managed the White Stockings from 1876-1877 and continued as a player to 1878.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yb7u9ou)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Spalding)

1876        May 2, American civil engineer James Buchanan Eads hired the luxury steamer Grand Republic for her maiden voyage to carry investors and the press from New Orleans to the jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi to show off his work. The jetties were completed in 1880 and New Orleans went from being the nation’s 9th largest port to the 2nd largest.
    (ON, 10/09, p.8)

1876        May 10, Centennial Fair opened in Philadelphia. Centennial Hall was built in Philadelphia, Pa., to commemorate the country’s 100th birthday. The US Centennial Exhibition was a world’s fair celebrating the founding of the US and drew over 9.9 million people. The US population at this time was 46 million.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.108)(SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.9)(MC, 5/10/02)

1876        May 17, The 7th US Cavalry under Custer left Ft. Lincoln.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1876        May, During an uprising in central Bulgaria (part of the overall "Eastern Crisis‘ in the Balkans from 1875-78), Khristo Botev, nationalist hero and poet, re-entered Bulgaria with a small band of rebels. He was killed near Mt. Veslez a few days after his return.
    (HNQ, 9/7/00)
1876        May, Residents in Tbilisi, Georgia, found a collection of ancient gold jewels in the muddy streets following a downpour. The objects were dated from the 5th to the 1st century BC when the region was known as Colchis.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.100)

1876        Jun 5, Bananas became popular in US following the Centennial Exposition in Phila.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1876        Jun 8, French author George Sand (b.1804 as Lucile Aurore Dupin Dudevant) died in Nohant, France. In 1975 Curtis Cate published the biography: "George Sand." French author. In 1993 Francis Steegmuller and Barbara Bray published their translation of correspondence between Flaubert and Sand. In 2000 Belinda Jack authored "George Sand: A Woman’s Life Writ Large." "I would rather believe that God did not exist than believe that He was indifferent."
    (AP, 6/8/00)(AP, 10/17/98)(SFEC, 8/27/00, BR p.5)(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10)

1876        Jun 11, A.L. Kroeber, anthropologist, textbook author, was born in Hoboken, NJ.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1876        Jun 17, General George Crook’s command of 1300 men with friendly Crow and Shoshone scouts was attacked and bested on the Rosebud River, Montana, by 1,500 Sioux and Cheyenne under the leadership of Crazy Horse.
    (HN, 6/17/98)(WSJ, 8/5/05, p.W2)

1876        Jun 20, Antonio L de Santa Ana, president of Mexico and victor at Alamo, died.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1876        Jun 21, The first gorilla arrived in Britain.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1876        Jun 22, Nathanael Herreshoff (1848-1938) sailed his revolutionary catamaran, Amaryllis, to victory in the New York’s Second Centennial Regatta.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lff9e68)(SFC, 9/6/13, p.A12)
1876        Jun 22, Annie Oakley, sharpshooter, married Frank Butler, marksman.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.68)
1876        Jun 22, General Alfred Terry sent Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer to the Rosebud and Little Bighorn rivers to search of Indian villages.
    (HN, 6/22/99)

1876        Jun 23, Irvin S. Cobb, U.S. playwright, novelist, actor, and editor, was born. He is best remembered for his "Judge Priest" stories.
    (HN, 6/23/99)

1876        Jun 25, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his telephone at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.D1)(ON, 1/03, p.5)
1876        Jun 25, In the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana, Gen. George A. Custer and some 250 men in his 7th Cavalry were massacred by the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians. To crush the Plains Indians and drive them onto reservations, Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and more than 600 7th Cavalrymen and Indian scouts advanced on an Indian encampment in the Little Bighorn Valley of Montana. Custer's main concern was to keep the Indians from escaping, but on this day, he faced the biggest alliance of hostile Plains Indians--mostly Sioux and Cheyenne--ever gathered in one place. Custer and his entire personal command, about 210 soldiers, were wiped out. The site is near a region where paleontologist Prof. Edward Drinker Cope dug for dinosaur fossils just a few days after the massacre. Custer and his cavalrymen had attacked an encampment of 2,000 to 4,000 Lakota, Cheyenne and other Indians. Up to 300 Indians possessed Henry and Winchester repeating rifles.
    (WSJ, 11/1/94, p.1)(SFC, 6/28/96, p.A5)(AP, 6/25/97)(HNPD, 6/25/99)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.82)

1876        Jun 26, Myles Keough's wounded horse, Commanche, was found after the battle of the Little Big Horn and led to the steamer The Far West some ten miles away and transported to Fort Lincoln where he became the celebrated "only survivor." The horse lived to be twenty-nine and upon his death the Seventh wanted to preserve his body, so they sent it to the University of Kansas to be stuffed.
    (Internet, Myles Keogh, 8/5/99)

1876        Jul 2, Montenegro declared war on Turkey.
    (PC, 1992, p.537)

1876        Jul 4, Fr. Joseph Neri, SJ, introduced electric lights on Market Street in SF.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)
1876        Jul 4, Batholdi visited Bedloe Island, future home of his Statue of Liberty.
    (Maggio, 98)

1876        Jul 8, White terrorists attacked Black Republicans in Hamburg, SC, and killed 5.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1876        Jul 17, At Warbonnet Creek, Nebraska, Buffalo Bill Cody took the scalp of Cheyenne Chief Yellow Hair (Yellow Hand) following a duel.
    (http://tinyurl.com/a4ja2)(WSJ, 12/13/05, p.D8)

1876        Jul 31, US Coast Guard officers' training school was established at New Bedford, MA.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1876        Jul, Leland and Jane Stanford purchased the old Mayfield Grange home of George Gordon in Menlo Park, Ca. The estate came to be named Palo Alto. Stanford began his horse breeding farm this year on an initial 650 acres. It eventually extended to 8,800 acres.
    (Ind, 12/30/00, 5A)(Ind, 4/19/03, 5A)

1876        Aug 1, Colorado was admitted as the 38th state.
    (AP, 8/1/97)(HN, 8/1/99)

1876        Aug 2, Frontiersman Wild Bill Hickok, holding aces over eights, was shot and killed from behind by “Crooked Nose” Jack McCall, while playing poker at a saloon in Deadwood, S.D.
    (AP, 8/2/97)(MC, 8/2/02)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.32)

1876        Aug 5, Mary Ritter Beard, American historian and writer, was born.
    (HN, 8/5/00)

1876        Aug 7, Margaretha Zelle (aka Mata Hari) was born in the Netherlands. Mata Hari, otherwise known as Margaretha G. Macleod, passed secrets to the Germans in World War I.
    (WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A16)(HN, 8/7/98)

1876        Aug 12, Mary Roberts Rinehart, mystery writer (Miss Pinkerton), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1876        Aug 13, Reciprocity Treaty between US and Hawaii was ratified.
    (MC, 8/13/02)
1876        Aug 13, Richard Wagner's monumental epic, "Ring of the Nibelung" premiered with 4 operas on 4 consecutive nights) at the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.69)(MC, 8/13/02)

1876        Aug 15, US law removed Indians from Black Hills after gold find. Sioux leaders Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull led their warriors to protect their lands from invasion by prospectors following the discovery of gold. This led to the Great Sioux Campaign staged from Fort Laramie. Gold was discovered in Deadwood in the Dakota territory by Quebec brothers Fred and Moses Manuel. The mine was incorporated in California on Nov 5, 1877, as the Homestake Mining Company.
    (HT, 3/97, p.43)(WSJ, 1/5/00, p.CA1)(MC, 8/15/02)

1876        Aug 16, Opera "Siegfried" premiered at Bayreuth. [See Aug 13]
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1876        Aug 17, Eric Drummond, 1st Sec.-General of League of Nations (1919-33), was born.
    (SC, 8/17/02)
1876        Aug 17, The opera "Gotterdammerung" was produced at Bayreuth. [see Aug 13]
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1876        Aug 19, George Smith (b.1840), British Assyriologist, died of dysentery in Syria. He was on his way home from a 3rd trip to Mesopotamia. Smith had completed the translation of the complete Epic of Gilgamesh in 1874.
    (ON, 11/07, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Smith_(assyriologist))

1876        Aug 29, Charles F. Kettering, inventor (automobile self-starter), was born in Ohio.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1876        Aug 8, Thomas A. Edison received a patent for his mimeograph.
    (AP, 8/8/97)

1876        Sep 1, The Ottomans inflicted a decisive defeat on the Serbs at Aleksinac.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1876        Sep 6, A race riot took place in Charleston, SC.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1876        Sep 7, The James and Younger gang botched an attempt to rob the First National Bank of Northfield, Minn. Joseph Heywood, the bank teller, was shot and killed when he refused to open the safe. The 3 Younger brothers, Cole, Bob and Jim, were captured 2 weeks later in a swamp near Madelia. 3 others were killed. Photos of all 6 were taken at the time and identified by Cole Younger, who wrote the names on the pictures. The pictures sold at auction in 1999 for $39,100. The raid was reenacted in 1948 and became a regular event in 1970.
    (HN, 9/7/98)(WSJ, 10/29/99, p.W16)(WSJ, 9/6/01, p.A20)(MT, Summer 02, p.22)

1876        Sep 13, Sherwood Anderson (d.1941), author, poet and publisher (Winesburg), was born in Winesburg, Ohio. "Sometimes I think we Americans are the loneliest people in the world. To be sure, we hunger for the power of affection, the self-acceptance that gives life. It is the oldest and strongest hunger in the world. But hungering is not enough."
    (AP, 9/28/00)(MC, 9/13/01)

1876        Sep 15, Bruno Walter (d.1962), [B W Schlesinger], conductor (NY Phil), was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (www.britannica.com)

1876        Sep 19, The 1st carpet sweeper was patented by Melville Bissell of Grand Rapids, Mich.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1876        Sep 24, Mary Newton (2), the daughter of US Army Engineer Lt. Col. John Newton, triggered a huge blast to clear rocks in the Hell Gate channel of the East River. Newton had been authorized to begin work to deepen the channel in 1867.
    (ON, 2/08, p.8)

1876        Sep, Sitting Bull, a legendary Hunkpapa Sioux chief and medicine man, led an escape to Canada in the vengeful aftermath of the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Even though he had not fought in the June 25 massacre, the medicine man was considered a threat by white authorities because his visions of victory had encouraged the uprising. In 1881 famine forced Sitting Bull’s band back to a reservation in the United States. Throughout the mid-1880s, Sitting Bull won international fame as the prototype of the American Indian when he joined Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show on tour. Sitting Bull returned to the reservation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, where he was killed in 1890 during a struggle with Indian police.
    (HNPD, 9/27/98)

1876        Oct 3, John L. Routt, the Colorado Territory governor, was elected the first state governor of Colorado in the Centennial year of the U.S.
    (HN, 10/3/98)

1876        Oct 10, Walter Niemann, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1876        Oct 17, Henry Morton Stanley's expedition, to find the source of the Congo River, reached the Lualaba River.
    (MC, 10/17/01)
1876        Oct 17, Rydal Hull, a 3-masted, iron-hulled, square-rigged ship carrying coal from Cardiff, Wales, hit Frenchman’s Reef north of Princeton, Ca. 9 of the 30-man crew drowned.
    (Ind, 3/31/01, 5A)

1876        Oct 26, President Grant sent federal troops to SC.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1876        Oct 31, In India’s Megna River Delta a tidal wave caused by a cyclone flooded the river delta and the city of Backergunge. Some areas became covered with 40 feet of water. 100,000 people drowned and another 100,000 were reported to have perished from subsequent diseases caused by polluted water.
    (www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)

1876        Oct, George T. Morgan joined the US Mint and soon created a sketch for a $100 gold coin, which was never made.
    (WSJ, 11/29/08, p.B2)

1876        Nov 4, James Fraser, designer of the buffalo nickel, was born.
    (MC, 11/4/01)
1876        Nov 4, Johannes Brahms' Symphony #1 in C, premiered at Karlsruhe.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1876        Nov 7, The presidential vote between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel Tilden was very close and the Florida result looked like it would determine the national outcome. In 1974 Prof. Jerrell Shofner authored "Nor Is It Over," a study of the 1876 election. In 2003 Roy Morris Jr. authored "Fraud of the Century." Louisiana was stolen for Hayes. 13,000 Tilden votes were discounted in Louisiana by a bribe-taking election board.
    (WSJ, 12/11/00, p.A18)(WSJ, 2/3/03, p.D6)
1876        Nov 7, Rutherford B. Hayes was elected 19th president of the US. Because of the closeness of the race he became president only by a deal with Southern conservatives to end Federal occupation of the South, i.e. the Hayes-Tildon Compromise. Samuel J. Tilden (D) won the popular vote. Hayes carried the electoral college by one vote. Lemonade Lucy, wife of Pres. Hayes, later received the 1st Siamese cat in the US.
    (HN, 11/7/99)(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A20)(SFC, 8/5/00, p.B4)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M3)
1876        Nov 7, Edward Bouchet became the 1st black to receive a PhD in US college at Yale.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1876        Nov 23, Manuel de Falla (d.1946), composer (El Amor Brujo), was born in Cadiz, Spain.
    (WUD, 1994, p.512)(MC, 11/23/01)

1876        Nov 25, Colonel Ronald MacKenzie destroyed Cheyenne Chief Dull Knife’s village, in the Bighorn Mountains near the Red Fork of the Powder River, during the so-called Great Sioux War.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1876        Nov 26, Willis Haviland Carrier, inventor, was born. He invented the first air conditioning system to control both temperature and humidity in 1902.
    (HN, 11/26/00)(Andrea)

1876        Dec 3, Hermann Goetz (35), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1876        Dec 5, Daniel Stillson (Mass) patented the 1st practical pipe wrench.
    (MC, 12/5/01)
1876        Dec 5, In NYC a fire in the Brooklyn Theater killed 278 people.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kate_Claxton)
   
1876        Dec 6, US Electoral College picked Republican Hayes as president, although Tilden won the popular election. A questionable vote count in Florida ended and Hayes was ahead by 924 votes. The Democratic attorney general validated the Tilden electors.
    (WSJ, 12/11/00, p.A18)(MC, 12/6/01)
1876        Dec 6, The 1st US crematorium began operation in Washington, Penn.
    (MC, 12/6/01)
1876        Dec 6, Jack McCall was convicted for the murder of Wild Bill Hickok and sentenced to hang.
    (HN, 12/6/98)

1876        Dec 20, Hannah Omish (12) was the youngest person ever hanged in US.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1876        Dec 25, Mohammed Ali Jinnah (d.1948), founder of Pakistan (1947), gov. (1947-58), was born in Karachi.
    (SFC, 7/30/03, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ali_Jinnah)

1876        Dec 29, Pablo Casals, violinist, conductor, composer, was born in Vendrell, Catalonia, Spain.
    (MC, 12/29/01)
1876        Dec 29, In the Ashtabula train disaster a Pacific Express, carrying some 159 passengers and crew, was traveling over a bridge near Ashtabula, Ohio. Only the first engine of the train made it to the other side at 7:28 p.m. as the bridge began to collapse. The rest of the train broke away and plummeted to the bottom of the ravine below. Approximately 92 men, women and children were killed. The bridge was owned by the Lake Shore and Michigan railroad, and was the joint creation of Charles Collins, Engineer, and Amasa Stone, Chief Architect and Designer. After testifying before an investigative jury, Charles Collins quietly went home and shot himself in the head. He was also buried in the Chestnut Grove Cemetery, several feet from the mass grave. Amasa Stone (1818-1883) committed suicide approximately 7 years later.  Stone was held partly responsible for the disaster by the same investigative jury before which Collins had testified, and was publicly scorned for many years.
    (http://deadohio.com/AshTrain.htm)

c1876        Rodin made the original plaster for "Age of Bronze," the figure of a naked youth.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.46)(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1876        Edward Mitchell Bannister, African-American artist, won a 1st place prize at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, but was turned away from the exhibition hall when he went to collect his medal.
    (WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A20)

1876        Degas painted "Absinthe."
    (WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W8)

1876        Jean-Leon Gerome painted "Solomon's Wall, Jerusalem."
    (WSJ, 2/5/99, p.W12)

1876        Winslow Homer (1836-1910) painted "Gloucester Harbor." In 1997 it hung at the Nelson Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City. He also did "The Cotton Pickers" in this year and completed “Breezing Up (A Fair Wind).”
    (WSJ, 11/10/97, p.B6)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.B1)(WSJ, 8/12/06, p.P14)

1876        Monet painted "Dans La Prairie." It was expected to sell for $16-20 million in 1999. He also did "La Repos Dans le Jardin" this year.
    (WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W16)(WSJ, 5/3/02, p.W12)

1876        Pierre-Auguste Renoir painted "The Garden of the Rue Cortot" at what is now the Montmartre museum in Paris. He also did a portrait of Alfred Sisley about this time. His work "At the Theater" (La Premiere Sortie) was also begun and completed the next year.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.T11)(DPCP 1984)(WSJ, 8/13/99, p.W10)

1876        The 2nd Impressionist exhibition opened in Paris featuring Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas and Berthe Morisot.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.9)

1876        Robert Browning wrote his poem "The Pied Piper of Hamelin."
    (WSJ, 6/11/01, p.A20)

1876        George Eliot (1819-1880), Englishwoman writer, authored “Daniel Deronda,” the story of man who discovers his Jewish origins.
    (WSJ, 9/22/07, p.W6)

1876        Anthony Trollope (1815-1882) authored “The Prime Minister,” the 5th of a sextet of novels known as “The Pallisers.” It offered sharp insights on power, sex, love and money.
    (WSJ, 8/26/06, p.P8 )

1876        Emile Zola wrote "L’Assommoir" and gave voice to Parisian slum-dwellers. In the novel he imitated their vulgar slang.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A13)

1876        Friedrich Nietzsche predicted that there would one day be an international language.
    (Wired, 8/96, p.93)

1876        The Oriental Hotel was built in Bangkok, Thailand, near the Chao Phraya River. It is now considered one of the best hotels in the world.
    (Hem, Mar. 95, p.59)

1876        Henry James (1843-1916) writer, had a "love affair" with Russian painter Pavel Zhukovsky.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.1)

1876        Descendants of Betsy Ross reportedly began to spread the myth that she made the first US flag to create a tourist attraction in Philadelphia.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.4)

1876        Joseph Drexel began to serve as the director of the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.W4)

1876        Melvil Louis Dewey (b.1851), Amherst College librarian, published the 1st edition of the “Dewey Decimal System.” He had created "A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library" using his Dewey Decimal System. [see May 8, 1873]
    (HN, 12/10/98)(SSFC, 4/14/02, p.C18)(ON, 3/04, p.12)

1876        The Workingmen’s Party of the United States (WPUS) was founded in Philadelphia, Pa. In 1878 it reformed as the Socialist Labor Party.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workingmen%27s_Party_of_the_United_States)

1876        E.H. Harriman founded the Tompkins Square Boys club in New York's Lower East Side.
    (WSJ, 3/21/00, p.A24)

1876        T. Southard of Peekskill, NY, became Southard, Robertson & Co. The Southard company had manufactured toy wood-burning heating stoves as early as 1850.
    (SFC, 3/1/06, p.G7)

1876        Barbed wire that fenced the west at this time was later put on display at Oracle Junction, Arizona, and included Watkins ‘lazyplate’ and Glidden ‘Oval Twist.’
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.173)

1876        The medieval game of court tennis arrived in the US. It was the fore-runner of lawn tennis, which was already being played in the US.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D7)

1876        President Ulysses S. Grant authorized the funds to complete the construction of the Washington Monument, but without the ornate building and classical statue.
    (ON, 3/00, p.10)

1876        James G. Blaine, Republican candidate for the presidency, saw his chances collapse under criticism for accepting a $100,000 fee while lobbying for railroads. The problem came up again in 1884.
    (WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A22)

1876        Texas adopted a post-civil war constitution. It barred idiots, lunatics, paupers and women from voting.
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.30)

1876        I. Magnin, the San Francisco department store opened. It lasted until Jan. 1995.
    (Hem, Mar. 95, p.89)
1876        The California Maritime Academy was founded. The Board of Supervisors and the Chamber of Commerce proposed to train young criminals onboard the ship Jamestown for work in the merchant naval service. Its history is told by Capt. Walter W. Jaffee in "The Track of the Golden Bear, The California Maritime Academy Schoolships."
    (SFEM, 1/19/97, p.7)
1876        Lazard Freres ceased operations in San Francisco as a fabrics and hardware import-export company and established itself as the bank: Lazard Freres & Co.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.D1)
1876        Austin and Reuben Hills began roasting coffee at the Bay City Market in SF. [see 1878]
    (SSFC, 8/5/01, p.A1)
1876        Two brothers from Italy named Simi founded the Simi Winery just north of Healdsburg, Ca. It is currently owned by Moet-Hennessy / Louis Vuitton.
    (WCG, 7/95, p.78)
1876        The Chinatown of Chico, Ca., was destroyed by a fire. About this time arson, murder and terrorism forced the Chinese out of Truckee.
    (SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M5)

1876        The Georgia state capital was moved from Milledgeville, originally designed to be the state capital, to Atlanta.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, Z1 p.2)

1876        George V. Ayres (1852-1939) arrived in the Black Hills at the beginning of the gold rush there and within a year began working at the R.C. Lake Hardware Store in Deadwood, SD. By the mid 1880s he owned the store and later moved it to the main floor of the Bullock Hotel, built in the mid-1890s.
    (SFC, 1/24/07, p.G7)

1876        Wyatt Earp moved to Dodge City, Kansas.
    (MesWP)

1876        Lewis R. Redmond (1854-1906) of North Carolina shot and killed a revenue agent near Brevard, NC, when the agent tried to arrest him for making and transporting illegal whiskey.
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W11)

1876        Edwin Lankester, an evolutionary biologist and later director of the British Museum, exposed the American medium Henry Slade, as a fake and took him to court on charges of criminal fraud.
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.18)

1876        Dr. John Harvey Kellogg was 24 years old when he became staff physician at the Battle Creek Sanitarium in Michigan--a position he held for 62 years. Dr. Kellogg, a respected abdominal surgeon, ran "the San" as a health institute where the wealthy could rejuvenate themselves with Kellogg's offbeat cures. Illness was caused, Kellogg believed, by poor eating habits that left poisons in the intestinal tract. Among Kellogg's solutions to the dietary dilemma were "fletcherizing," or chewing food hundreds of times before swallowing, and a vegetarian diet high in bran. It was the bowels, however, that received Kellogg's undivided attention. Patients at the San were subjected to regimens of "cleansing enemas" that cured "ulcers, diabetes, schizophrenia, acne...and premature old age."
    (HNPD, 2/26/99)

1876        The A.J. Whitcomb Indestructible Pocket Kite was patented. It was made of cotton fabric.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, z-1 p.7)

1876        Pressed-glass plates for the 100 year memorial of the Battle of Bunker Hill were manufactured for sale.
    (SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)

1876        Samuel T. Cooper purchased six hand-operated knitting machines and with his sons founds S.T. Cooper & Sons, a hosiery manufacturer located in Ludington, Michigan. At the turn of the century the company moved to Kenosha, Wisconsin.
    (SSFC, 11/29/09, p.N6)(http://tinyurl.com/y9d8vq4)

1876        Woman’s underwear began to be sold in stores.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, Z1 p.2)

1876        The Moxie Nerve Food Co. introduced a medicine to be taken with a spoon. The medicine was later changed to a carbonated drink, produced in Salem, Mass. Moxie produced a lot of items for advertising that became valuable as collectibles.
    (SFC, 7/15/98, Z1 p.3)

1876        Adolphus Busch, a German immigrant beer-maker, licensed the name of Budweiser in America. The name came from the town of Budweis in Bohemia. The town was later renamed Ceske Budejovice but a local brewery used the Budweiser name for its beer.
    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.A12)

1876        John Danner (b.1823) of Canton, Ohio, invented and patented a revolving bookcase. His John Danner Mfg. Co. soon expanded to produce drug cases, cabinets and store stools.
    (SFC, 12/21/05, p.G6)
1876        In Dayton, Ohio, the Royal Remedy and Extract Co. was founded by Irvin Souders. The company was incorporated in 1888  and introduced Sweet Wheat chewing gum in 1889.
    (SFC, 3/12/08, p.G4)

1876        Thomas Edison established his laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1876        Johns Hopkins University was founded. It handed out the first US graduate Pd.D.’s in 1878.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, Z1 p.2)

1876        Benedictine monks in North Carolina established Belmont Abbey as a monastery and school. In 2007 they introduced a program in Motorsports Management.
    (WSJ, 10/4/07, p.A1)

1876        It was demonstrated that small electric generators could light a lamp.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1876        Oil was struck in a well near what later became Santa Clarita, California. It was sold to the Pacific Coast Oil Co. of San Francisco in 1879, which eventually became Chevron.
    (SSFC, 10/29/06, p.F6)
1876        Drawbridge on Station Island was started at the southern end of the SF Bay with a single shack for the railroad bridge caretaker to raise a bridge for shipping traffic over Coyote Slough. Its last resident, Charlie Luce, left in 1979.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.A19,20)

1876        The high-wheel bicycle was introduced in the US at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia.
    (ON, 2/10, p.3)

1876        The US population was about 40 million. The US population at this time was 46 million.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.108)(SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.9)(SFEC, 4/4/99, Z1 p.8)   

1876        The excavation of Pergamon (later Bergama, Turkey) by German archeologist uncovered a monument called the Great Altar with a frieze of the mythological Greek hero Telephos that dated to the 2nd century BC.
    (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)

1876        William M. "Bill" Doolin was killed by an "Oklahoma" posse. Photos of the dead man were sold for 25 cents.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.6)

1876        In Canada the Indian Act was enacted by the Parliament under the provisions of Section 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867, which provides Canada's federal government exclusive authority to legislate in relation to "Indians and Lands Reserved for Indians." The statute concerns registered Indians (that is, First Nations peoples of Canada), their bands, and the system of Indian reserves.
    (Econ, 3/28/09, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Act)

1876        Queen Victoria added the title of Empress of India.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)
1876        British Parliament passed the Unseaworthy Ships Bill (Merchant Shipping Act). It was advocated by Samuel Plimsoll (1824-1898), author of “Our Seaman.” The Act required a series of lines to be painted on the ship to show the maximum loading point. A salesman for the Liverpool Rubber Company attached the Plimsoll name to a line of canvas shoes.
    (www.victorianweb.org/history/plimsoll.html)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.79)
1876        James Murray agreed to take over as editor of a new dictionary being compiled by England’s Philological Society. In 1878 Oxford Univ. Press agreed to publish the dictionary and Murray agreed to produce the work in 10 years.
    (ON, 11/05, p.5)
1876        Charles Roberts reported the statures of some 100,000 children drawn from the registers of London military hospitals. It was one of the first statistical inquiries into the economics of height.
    (Econ, 4/5/08, p.82)

1876        Construction of the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World), a gift to the US, began in France. The interior iron framework was designed by Alexandre Gustave Eiffel. The design by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi included 7 rays on her crown to represent the seven seas and continents. Her tablet was engraved with the date July 4, 1776 in Roman numerals. Broken shackles at her feet represented tyranny.
    (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)

1876        The Berlin Nationalgalerie was inaugurated by Kaiser Wilhelm I on Museum Island in the Spree River. It re-opened in 2002 after 4 years of renovation.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)
1876        A paper in the Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift, a  Germany medical journal, suggested that salsalate could help diabetics control their blood sugar. Harvard researchers in the 1990s conducted studies that supported the claim.
    (WSJ, 1/20/09, p.A12)
1876        Carl von Linde (1842-1934), German engineer, invented refrigeration.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_von_Linde)
1876        Nikolaus Otto (1832-1891), German inventor, first demonstrated the four-stroke engine.
    (www.keveney.com/otto.html)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolaus_Otto)

1876        Porfirio Diaz rose to the Mexican presidency following a coup. He was an economically progressive leader, imposed brutal order on the countryside and liberated Mexico City from its perennial floods. He escaped to France in 1910.
    (WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A1)

1876        Helena Modrzejewska, celebrated Polish actress, left for America with her husband Count Karol Chapowski, their son, Rudolf (15), the young journalist Henryk Sienkiewicz and a few friends. Helena proceeded to establish herself on the American stage as Helena Modjeska. In 2000 Susan Sontag planned to publish an historical novel based on Modjeska: "In America."
    (SFC, 1/6/00, p.E1)

1876        Russia under Alexander II invaded Ottoman-controlled Bulgaria with a mixture of humanitarian and imperialistic motives following reports that Turks were massacring Bulgarians.
    (SFC, 9/7/08, Books p.5)

1876        The gladiolus rust, Uromyces trasversalis, was discovered in South Africa. Some 90 years later it turned up in the Mediterranean region then spread to Europe, South America, and Australia. In 2006 it was detected in the US.
    (SSFC, 8/9/09, p.L2)

1876        The Swedish firm Ericsson was founded. It started selling phones in China in the 1890s.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.8)

1876        Murad V succeeded Abdul Aziz in the Ottoman House of Osman. He was soon succeeded by Abdul Hamid II who ruled until 1909.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1876-1880    Fr. John Pinasco, SJ, served as the 7th president of San Francisco’s St. Ignatius College.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)

1876-1914    This period is covered on a CD-ROM distributed by Apple Computer Corp. and adopted for CD by the American Social History Project at New York’s Hunter College and the Voyager Co. It is first published in 1993 and by 1995 is causing controversy due to some explicit stories on various subjects. It sells for $49.95.
    (WSJ, 2/10/95), p.B-1)

1876-1933     Wilson Mizner, American playwright: "The worst-tempered people I’ve ever met were people who knew they were wrong." "A fellow who is always declaring he’s no fool usually has his suspicions." In 2003 the Sondheim play "Bounce" was based on Addison and Wilson Mizner.
    (AP, 5/8/97)(WSJ, 7/3/03, p.D8)

1876-1944    Irvin Cobb, American humorist: "A good storyteller is a person who has a good memory and hopes other people haven't."
    (AP, 7/9/99)

1876-1947    Willa Cather, American writer, was born in Virginia. 2nd source says she was born in 1873. She grew up in Nebraska and spent time in NYC as an editor. She wrote over 15 books including: "O, Pioneers!" "My Antonia" and "The Song of the Lark."
    (WUD, 1994, p.233)(RBI, 1989)

1876-1948    Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari,  German-Italian composer. His work included "The Secret of Suzanne" and "Sly."
    (WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A25)

1876-1950    Helen Rowland, American writer, journalist and humorist: "Nothing annoys a man as to hear a woman promising to love him ‘forever’ when he merely wanted her to love him for a few weeks."
    (AP, 9/9/98)

1876-1957    Rev. James M. Gillis, Roman Catholic author, editor and broadcaster: "Whom the gods would make bigots, they first deprive of humor."
    (AP, 8/28/00)
1876-1957     Ralph Barton Perry, American author and educator. "Humanitarianism needs no apology ... Unless we feel it toward all men without exception, we shall have lost the chief redeeming force in human history." "Humanitarianism needs no apology. ... Unless we ... feel it toward all men without exception, we shall have lost the chief redeeming force in human history."
    (AP, 3/28/97)(AP, 3/2/98)

1876-1958    Charles F. Kettering, American inventor: "My definition of an educated man is the fellow who knows the right thing to do at the time it has to be done. ... You can be sincere and still be stupid."
    (AP, 9/7/00)

1876-1961    Isaac Frederick Marcosson, American journalist: "Only the mediocrities of life hide behind the alibi 'in conference.' The great of this earth are not only simple but accessible."
    (AP, 2/26/99)

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