Return to home 1875 Jan 2,
Thomas Dixon, Jr., author of the novel "The Clansman," was born. It
was the basis for the 1915 film "Birth of a Nation" by D.W.
(AP, 7/23/98)(HNQ, 3/2/99)
1875 Jan 14, Dr. Albert
Schweitzer (d.1965), French theologian who set up a native hospital
in French Equatorial Africa (Gabon) in 1913, was born. He won the
Nobel Peace Prize in 1952.
(HN, 1/14/99)(MC, 1/14/02)(AP, 10/30/03)
1875 Jan 20, Jean Francois
Millet (b.1814), French painter, was born.
1875 Jan 26, Electric dental
drill was patented by George F. Green.
1875 Jan 26, Pinkerton agents,
hunting Jesse James, firebombed his mother’s house, killed his
13-year-old half-brother and seriously injured his mother.
(AH, 2/05, p.16)
1875 Jan, Doc Holliday killed a
man for the first time (in a fight).
1875 Jan, In the SF Bay Area a
tunnel near Pacifica’s Mussel Rock, commissioned by SF attorney
Richard Tobin, was completed. Storms soon rendered the tunnel
impassable and the project was abandoned.
(Daly City Fog Cutter, Vol 8 No. 3, 2008)
1875 Feb 2, Fritz Kreisler,
violinist, composer, was born in Vienna, Austria.
1875 Feb 4, Ludwig Prandtl,
physicist (father of aerodynamics), was born in Germany.
1875 Feb, Alexander Graham Bell
traveled to Washington and filed patent applications for the
multiple telegraph and the autograph telegraph.
(ON, 1/03, p.2)
1875 Mar 1, Congress passed
the Civil Rights Act, which was invalidated by the Supreme Court in
1875 Mar 3, The opera Carmen,
composed by Georges Bizet (1873), opened in Paris at the
Opera-Comique. The opera was based on a novella by Prosper Merimee
1875 Mar 3, The 1st recorded
hockey game took place in Montreal. [see 1855]
1875 Mar 3, Congress authorized
a 20¢ coin. It lasted only 3 years.
1875 Mar 7, Composer Maurice
Ravel (d.1937) was born in Cibourne, France.
(AP, 12/28/97)(AP, 3/7/98)
1875 Mar 14, Smetana's
1875 Mar 15, John McCloskey,
Roman Catholic archbishop of New York, was named the first American
cardinal by Pope Pius IX.
1875 Mar 19, Tiburcio Vasquez
(b.1835), a cultured robber, was hanged in San Jose, Ca., after
being found guilty of robbery and murder In 2010 John Boessenecker
authored “Bandido,” an account of Vasquez’ life.
(SSFC, 11/21/10, p.A2)
1875 Spring, Billy McGeorge led
a gang of outlaws that preyed on freight wagons and passenger stages
around Yankee Hill, Colorado.
1875 Mar 26, Poet Robert Frost
was born in San Francisco. [see Mar 26, 1874]
1875 Mar 26, Syngman Rhee,
President of South Korea (1948-60), was born. [see Apr 26]
1875 Mar 29, Lou Henry Hoover,
first lady, was born.
1875 Apr 1, Edgar Wallace,
novelist, playwright, journalist (Terror), was born in England.
1875 Apr 2, Walter Chrysler,
founder of Chrysler automobile company, was born. He grew up in
(HN, 4/2/98)(WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)
1875 Apr 8, Albert I LCMM von
Saksen-Coburg, king of Belgium (1909-34), was born.
1875 Apr 11, Heinrich Schwabe,
discoverer of the 11-year sunspot cycle, died.
1875 Apr 17, The game of
"snooker" was invented by Sir Neville Chamberlain.
1875 Apr 26, Syngman Rhee,
Pres. of South Korea (1948-60), was born. [see Mar 26]
(HN, 4/26/98)(MC, 4/26/02)
1875 May 1, 238 members of
"Whiskey Ring" were accused of anti-US activities.
1875 May 7, German SS Schiller
sank near Scilly Islands and 312 were killed.
1875 May 17, The first Kentucky
Derby was run at Louisville; the winner was Aristides. It
later became part of the Triple Crown with the Belmont Stakes and
(AP, 5/17/97)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.8)(HN, 5/17/02)
1875 May 23, Alfred Pritchard
Sloan, Jr., president and chairman of the board for General Motors,
was born. His foundation started the cancer research center
Sloan-Kettering Institute. Sloan defined the modern automobile
industry and helped rescue General Motors in 1920.
(HN, 5/23/99)(WSJ, 1//03, p.D8)
1875 May 31, Italo Montemezzi,
composer, was born.
1875 May, Alexander Graham Bell
announced the addition of variable resistance to his initial
(SFEM, 1/11/98, p.12)
1875 Jun 2, Alexander Graham
Bell made his 1st complex sound transmission.
(ON, 1/03, p.2)
1875 Jun 3, Georges Bizet
(36), French composer (Carmen, Pearl Fishers), died.
(ON, 5/06, p.12)
1875 Jun 6, Walter P. Chrysler,
founder of the Chrysler Corporation, was born.
1875 Jun 6, Thomas Mann
(d.1955), German novelist and essayist, was born (Nobel 1929). He
was forced into exile by the Nazis. The major part of Mann’s oeuvre
is concerned with problems of the artist per se, and no writer of
our time and perhaps of any time has probed so deeply into the
artistic personality or described so brilliantly the workings
of artistic genius. His work included Buddenbrooks (1901), Death in
Venice (1912), Doctor Faustus (1947), and The Magic Mountain. Two
biographies of Mann were published in 1995: Thomas Mann: A Biography
by Ronald Hayman and Thomas Mann: A Life by Donald Prater. "Speech
is civilization itself. The word, even the most contradictory word,
preserves contact -- it is silence which isolates."
(V.D.-H.K.p.367-368)(WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-5)(AP,
1875 Jun 12, In Louisiana work
began on a new shipping channel at the mouth of the Mississippi
River. American civil engineer James Buchanan Eads (1820-1887) led
1875 Jun 28, The Billy McGeorge
gang rode into Yankee Hill, Colorado, to redress the insult of a $50
wanted poster put up by Marshall Willie Kennard. Kennard met the
gang and killed 2 of them before the rest surrendered. Billy
McGeorge was convicted of murder under acting judge Bert Corgan and
hung from the same pine tree as Barney Casewit.
1875 Jun, Nez Perce Chief
Joseph learned that had rescinded the executive order of 1873 and
reopened the Wallowa Valley to white settlement.
(ON, 3/04, p.2)
1875 Jul 3, Ernst F.
Sauerbruch, German Nazi surgeon, was born.
1875 Jul 7, Jesse James robbed
a train in Otterville, Missouri.
1875 Jul 10, Mary McLeod
Bethune (d.1955), American educator, reformer and founder of the
Bethune-Cookman College in Florida and the National Council of Negro
Women, was born. "Invest in the human soul. Who knows, it might be a
diamond in the rough."
(AP, 7/9/97)(HN, 7/10/98)
1875 Jul 16, The new French
constitution was finalized.
1875 Jul 26, Carl Jung
(d.1961), Swiss psychiatrist and analytical psychologist who
identified the introvert and extrovert types, was born in Kesswil,
Switzerland. He saw the I Ching as a tool to help tune into the
noncausal connectedness of the universe-- what he called
(NH, 9/97, p.13)(WUD, 1994, p.774)(SFEC,10/19/97,
BR p.3)(HN, 7/26/98)
1875 Jul 26, Charles E. Boles
(b.1829), aka Black Bart, robbed his first stage coach in the
Stanislaus River Canyon, California. He robbed at least 28 of Wells
Fargo coaches before he was caught by a Wells Fargo agent in SF in
1883. He served four years of a six year sentence in San
Quentin and then was never heard from again. In 1995 Charles Hoeper
authored “Black Bart: Boulevardier Bandit.”
(HN, 8/27/01)(SFC, 3/29/14, p.D1)
1875 Jul 29, Peasants in Bosnia
and Herzegovina in the Balkans rebelled against the Ottoman army.
1875 Jul 31, The 17th president
of the United States, Andrew Johnson, died in Carter Station, Tenn.,
at age 66. He succeeded Abraham Lincoln and was the only president
to face impeachment proceedings.
(AP, 7/31/97)(HN, 7/31/98)
1875 Aug 2, The world’s 1st
roller skating rink opened in London.
1875 Aug 4, Hans Christian
Andersen (b.1805), Danish fairy tale writer, died. His biography was
later written by Elias Bredsdorff (d.2002 at 90).
(SFC, 8/23/02, p.A27)(MC, 8/4/02)
1875 Aug 9, Albert William
Ketelbey, composer (In a Monastery Garden), was born in Aston,
1875 Aug 12, Ettore Panizza,
composer, was born.
1875 Aug 15, Samuel
Coleridge-Taylor, Afro-British composer (Hiawatha's Wedding Feast),
was born in London.
1875 Aug 16, Charles Grandison
Finney (b.1792), American revivalist preacher, died.
1875 Aug 25, Captain Matthew
Webb (1848-1883) became the first person to swim across the English
Channel, traveling from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in 21
hours and 45 min. Swimming the Channel entails about 35 miles of
swimming due to currents in waters that are 55 to 65 degrees
(AP, 8/25/97)(HN, 8/25/98)(ON, 2/05, p.12)
1875 Aug 26, John Buchan
(d.1940), Lord Tweedsmuir, was born in Perth, Scotland. He became a
writer and governor general of Canada (1935), and was famous for his
spy story "The Thirty-Nine Steps" (1915). "There may be Peace
without Joy, and Joy without Peace, but the two combined make
(HN, 8/26/99)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)(AP, 1/7/98)
1875 Sep 1, Edgar Rice
Burroughs, novelist, was born in Chicago. He created Tarzan, the Ape
1875 Sep 3, Ferdinand Porsche,
German automotive engineer, was born. He designed the Volkswagen in
1934 and the Porsche sports car in 1950.
(HN, 9/3/00)(MC, 9/3/01)
1875 Sep 8, An explosion
destroyed the Newark, NJ, factory of the Celluloid Manufacturing Co.
The Hyatt brothers rebuilt the factory and it turned profitable in
(ON, 11/03, p.4)
1875 Sep 10, M.K. Ciurlionis
(d.1911), Lithuanian artist and composer, was born. Sep 22 is also
given as a birth date.
(LC, 1998, p.12,24)
1875 Sep 11, 1st newspaper
cartoon strip, "Professor Tigwissel’s Burglar Alarm" appeared in the
New York "Daily Graphics" newspaper.
1875 Sep 16, James Cash Penny,
founder and owner of the J.C. Penny Company department stores, was
1875 Oct 4, In New Hampshire
Josie Langmaid (17) disappeared while walking to Pembroke Academy,
the local Pembroke high school. Her body was found that night and
her head was found the next day. Joseph LaPage, an itinerant
woodcutter, was eventually convicted of the crime and executed.
(WSJ, 5/22/01, p.A8)
1875 Oct 12, Aleister [Edward
S] Crowley (d.1947), (75 pseudonyms), British occultist-American
mystic, was born. In 2000 Lawrence Sutin authored "Do What Thou
Wilt, A Life of Aleister Crowley."
(SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.12)(MC, 10/12/01)
1875 Oct 12, Mayan Indians
attacked the Xuxub sugar plantation in the Yucatan and dozens of
workers were killed or taken captive. Bernadino Cen, the Mayan
leader, was killed when the Mexican National Guard arrived the next
day. In 2004 Paul Sullivan authored “Xuxub Must Die.”
(WSJ, 5/13/04, p.D10)
1875 Oct 22, Sons of American
Revolution was organized.
1875 Oct 25, Tchaikovsky’s 1st
Piano Concerto premiered in Boston.
1875 Oct 28, Gilbert Grosvenor,
editor, was born. He turned the National Geographic Society’s
irregularly published pamphlet into a periodical with a circulation
of nearly two million.
1875 Oct, George G. Anderson, A
Scottish carpenter and trail builder, engineered his way to the top
of Half Dome in Yosemite. He used wooden pins and iron eyebolts
drilled into the granite to pull himself up.
(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A20)(SSFC, 7/15/01, p.T1)
1875 Nov 4, "Pacific" collided
with "Orpheus" off Cape Flattery, Wash., and 236 people died.
1875 Nov 7, Verney Cameron
became the 1st European to cross equatorial Africa.
1875 Nov 16, William Bonwill
(1833-1899), a Philadelphia dentist, provided specifications for a
patent for an electrical tooth-filling Instrument, a dental
mallet to impact gold into cavities. The patent application was
filed in 1873 and accepted in 1888.
1875 Nov 16, Jasper O’Farrell
(b.1817), the first surveyor for San Francisco and architect of its
streets, died after taking a drink at a tavern on Hardie Place at
1875 Nov 17, The American
Theosophical Society was founded by Mme. Blavatsky and Col. Olcott.
Colonel H.S. Olcott helped found the Theosophical Society in New
York after a group of third-century Alexandrian scholars. It was set
up to study occult phenomena and literature. Early members included
Thomas Edison and Gen. Abner Doubleday. Its 3 main principles were:
"To form a nucleus of the universal brotherhood of humanity without
distinction of race, creed, sex, caste or color; to encourage the
comparative study of religion, science and philosophy; and to
investigate the unexplained laws of nature and the powers latent in
(Smith., 5/95, p.114)(MC, 11/17/01)(WSJ, 5/17/02,
1875 Dec 4, William Marcy Tweed
(d.1878), the "Boss" of New York City's Tammany Hall political
organization, escaped from jail and fled the country. He went to
Cuba and then Spain were he was identified from cartoons by Thomas
Nast and returned to prison.
(AP, 12/4/97)(Arch, 7/02, p.24)
1875 Dec 12, Karl R.G. von
Rundstedt, German gen-field marshal (Normandy), was born.
1875 Dec 17, Violent bread
riots took place in Montreal.
1875 Rainer Maria Rilke
(d.1926), German-Austrian poet, was born. He was born in Prague to
German-speaking parents. His works include New Poems (1907), his
autobiographical novel: "The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge," and
his masterpieces the "Duino Elegies" and "The Sonnets to Orpheus."
His mistress was Lou Andreas-Salome, a novelist, essayist and
clinical psychologist. Ralph Freedman wrote a biography of Rilke
titled Life of a Poet: Rainer Maria Rilke in 1996. His complete
works were published in 1966 and an annotated edition in 1996. In
1997 his early work was published: "Diaries of a Young Poet,"
translated by Edward Snow and Michael Winkler. On the new year day:
"And now let us believe in a long year that is given to us, new,
untouched, full of things that have never been, full of work that
has never been done, full of tasks, claims, and demands; and let us
see that we learn to take it without letting fall too much of what
it has to bestow upon those who demand of it necessary, serious and
(WSJ, 3/19/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 12/15/97, p.A20)(AP,
1875 Edgar Degas, French
painter, painted "Place de la Concorde," considered his greatest
picture. It shows his artist friend, the Viscount Lepic, strolling
Paris with his two daughters and pet borzoi.
(WSJ, 4/6/95, p.A-12)
1875 Gabriel Guay exhibited his
painting "The Awakening" at the Paris Salon. It featured a nude,
life-size woman, just waking up.
(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.30)
1875 Claude Monet painted "The
Seine at Argenteuil."
(SFC, 4/10/97, p.E1)
1875 Thomas Moran, American
artist, painted "Mountain of the Holy Cross."
(SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)(AH, 10/01, p.18)
1875 Camille Pissarro painted
"Climbing Path at the Hermitage."
(SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.5)
1875 Renoir painted "Woman at
(SFC, 5/7/99, p.C18)
1875 Toby Rosenthal painted
(SFEC, 5/7/00, DB p.39)
1875 James Tissot, English
painter, began "On the Thames." Completed 1876.
(SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)
1875 Charles Darwin authored
“Insectivorous Plants” as well as “The Movements and Habits of
(Econ, 1/24/09, p.87)
1875 Christian Scientist Mary
Baker Eddy published "Science and Health."
(SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)
1875 William Ernest Henley,
English poet, wrote his poem "Invictus" at the end of his stay in an
infirmary for tuberculosis. The last 2 lines read "I am the master
of my fate: I am the captain of my soul."
(SFC, 6/12/01, p.A12)
1875 James Hutton, Edinburgh
Physician, published his "Theory of the Earth." It sought to explain
the geological features we see around us by reference to the natural
processes that are also observable today.
1875 "Spiders of the United
States," the collected works of Nicholas Marcellus Hentz
(1797-1856), a pioneer collector of North American spiders, was
(NH, 7/96, p.74,75)
1875 Anthony Trollope authored
“The Way We Live Now,” a scathing satirical novel published in
London. It was regarded by many of Trollope's contemporaries as his
finest work. The story includes the description of a great railroad
stock swindle by Augustus Melmotte, a foreign-born financier with a
1875 Seth Lewelling of
Milwaukie, Oregon, grew the 1st Bing cherry from the seed of a
Republican cherry. He named it Bing after a Chinese worker on his
(SFC, 4/12/03, p.E3)
1875 The town of Ouray, Colo.,
was built during the silver and gold rush.
(SFC, 2/16/06, p.E2)
1875 Christian Schwartz, a
local merchant in Natchez, Miss., built a 5 bedroom home on one acre
in the French Second Empire architectural style.
(WSJ, 10/25/96, p.B10)
1875 Maria Mitchell
(1818-1889), professor of astronomy at Vassar, helped found the
American Association for the Advancement of Women and was elected
the association’s 1st president.
(ON, 2/07, p.9)
1875 James A. Dacey (d.1925)
ground up a batch of horseradish root and began to sell it in
general stores. He became known as "The Horseradish King."
(SFEC, 9/27/98, Z1 p.8)
1875 The US Supreme Court
decision in Totten vs. the US denied the estate of a Union spy back
pay for his Civil War espionage: "Both employer and agent must have
understood that the lips of the other were to be forever sealed."
(SFC, 6/9/96, p.A-14)
1875 The first commission book
and a new badge were issued to operatives of the US Secret Service.
1875 San Francisco’s Lowell
High School, then called the Union Grammar School, moved within San
Francisco to Sutter Street between Gough and Octavia.
1875 The Riverside, Ca.,
Mission Inn began as the home of the Miller family. Under Frank
Miller (d.1935) it was expanded with financing by Henry Huntington
to a pretend mission of Vatican proportions.
(HT, 4/97, p.14)
1875 In California the town of
Pacific Grove on the Monterey peninsula was established as a retreat
1875 A Marine Hospital was
built in the Presidio area of San Francisco. An adjacent cemetery
operated at the site from about 1981 to 1915. In 1912 US marine
hospitals became Public Health Service hospitals. A new structure
was completed in 1932. In 1952 the hospital was expanded and
Landfill 8 covered the graves, which were never moved. In 1981 the
hospital was decommissioned and in 2010 reopened as 154 luxury
apartments. Landfill 8 was capped with sand and underwent
restoration to resemble its original, pre-European look.
(SFC, 11/25/06, p.B5)(SFC, 10/9/10, p.A10)
1875 Romualdo Pacheco became
governor of California after Gov. Newton Booth won a US Senate seat.
Pacheco served for 9 months and was later elected to Congress.
(SSFC, 5/11/03, p.D6)
1875 In San Francisco the Ferry
House, predecessor to the Ferry Building, was built. It was a
350-foot wooden shed and was soon replaced. In 1998 Nancy Olmsted
published "The Ferry Building: Witness to a Century of Change."
(SFEC, 12/20/98, BR p.2)
1875 The Palace Hotel opened in
San Francisco. It was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake. A new Palace
Hotel opened in 1909.
(SFC, 8/21/09, p.A10)
1875 In San Francisco a picture
by Walter Yeager depicted the California St. offices of Lazard
(SFC, 12/11/96, p.D1)
1875 James Lick, San Francisco
real estate magnate, ordered a pre-fabricated glass house for his
estate but died before it was erected. A group of wealthy men led by
Leland Stanford donated the glass house to Golden Gate Park, where
it became the Conservatory of Flowers. [see 1879]
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.4)(SFC, 8/24/01,
1875 William Sharon of SF was
elected to a 6-year term as Senator from Nevada. It is believed that
he spent some $1 million to get elected.
1875 In the US Pocahontas was
depicted on the back of $20 bills.
(SFC, 6/2/96, Z1 p.2)
1875 In Louisiana the “Mardi
Gras Act” established Mardi Gras as an official and legal state
1875 The first US sardine
cannery opened in Maine, when a New York businessman set up the
Eagle Preserved Fish Co. in Eastport. In 2010 the Stinson Seafood
plant in eastern Maine, shut down after a century in operation. It
was the last sardine cannery not just in Maine, but in the United
1875 The Parke-Davis
Pharmaceutical company was incorporated. It was originally founded
in Detroit, Michigan, by Dr. Samuel P. Duffield, a physician and
pharmacist. A partnership of Dr. Duffield and Hervey Coke Parke was
formed in 1866, with George S. Davis becoming a third partner in
1867. Duffield withdrew in 1869, and the name Parke, Davis &
Company was formally adopted in 1871.
1875 In NYC the Butter and
Cheese Exchange, later known as the New York Mercantile Exchange
(Nymex), was renamed to the American Exchange of New York.
(WSJ, 9/28/05, p.C3)
1875 Mackinac Island, Michigan,
became the 2nd US national park.
(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.C5)
1875 The Quahadi Comanches, led
by Quanah Parker (c.1852-1911), gave up their fight and settled on
Indian Territory in Oklahoma after hunters slaughtered the great
buffalo herds of the Texas panhandle.
1875 Jacob Bulova opened a
jewelry shop in the financial district of NYC. It grew to become the
Bulova Watch Co. In 1979 it was purchased by the Loews Corp.
and taken private.
(WSJ, 1/7/07, p.A4)
1875 Amos G. Rhodes opened his
first retail furniture store in Atlanta, Ga. The company expanded to
80 stores in 13 states, but went bankrupt in 2005.
(SFC, 9/19/06, p.G3)
1875 John Durant Larkin
established a soap company in Buffalo, N.Y. The Larkin Co. attracted
customers by offering premium gifts. In 1901 the company founded
Buffalo Pottery to manufacture dishes given as premiums. The company
closed in 1962.
(SFC, 2/11/98, Z1 p.6)
1875 Lydia Estes Pinkham
(1819-1883) was in her mid-fifties when economic hardship forced her
and her family to begin selling bottles of a homemade health remedy.
Mrs. Pinkham’s tonic, formulated from herbs and 20% alcohol as a
"solvent and preservative," was first sold as a cure for "female
complaints." Business grew as the family aggressively marketed their
product with trade cards which linked Pinkham’s Compound with the
patriotism and progress represented by the Brooklyn Bridge. Lydia
Pinkham was probably the best-known woman in America at the time.
Her medicines remained tremendously popular until the 1930s, when
medical science and public awareness of the compound’s unfounded
claims reduced sales to a trickle.
1875 A rich vein of gold was
struck in the Bunker Hill mine near Bodie, Calif.
(SFC, 6/23/96, p.T3)
1875 A Nebraskan estimated a
grasshopper swarm to be 1,800 miles long and 110 miles wide. In 2004
Jeffrey A. Lockwood authored “Locust: The Devastating Rise and
Mysterious Disappearance of the Insect that Shaped the American
(SSFC, 5/16/04, p.M3)
1875 French priest
Jean-Baptiste Lamy became archbishop of the New Mexican territory.
(WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)
1875 Calgary, Canada, was
founded by Troop F of the royal Northwest Mounted Police. They built
a log fort at the junction of the Bow and Elbow Rivers to control
illegal whiskey traders operating from outposts with names like Fort
(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)
1875 Capt. George Nares set up
the first base on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic.
(NG, 6/1988, p.763)
1875 Fiji’s Great Council of
chiefs was established as the "Native Council" under British
colonial rule. The council was disbanded in 2012. Most of the 55
chiefs had inherited their positions and privileged status in island
1875 In Paris, France, the
first stone was laid for the Sacre Coeur basilica in Montmartre.
(Econ, 6/12/10, p.91)
1875 The Jacquemart-Andre
mansion in Paris was designed by Henri Parent. The building later
became the Jacquemart-Andre Musee.
(SFEC, 3/26/00, p.T12)
1875 France’s Rouen Museum
acquired a Maori head, offered by a Parisian named Drouet. In 2011
France returned the first of 16 such human heads it had displayed as
exotic curiosities. The other 15 were to be returned in 2012.
1875 The Schmitt brewery was
built by an innkeeper for his restaurant in Singen in the German
state of Thuringia. Richard Schmitt buys the brewery in May 1885 for
DM9,900. Today it is run by the Obstfelder family and produces
around 26,000 gallons of beer annually.
(Hem., Nov.’95, p.113-114)
1875 Joseph Neesima founded
Doshisha Univ. in Kyoto, Japan. He had previously acquired an
American education at Amherst College after defying a ban on travel
(SFC, 4/18/06, p.B5)
1875 The Ottoman Empire
defaulted on its debt. This led to foreign lenders to set up the
“Ottoman Public Debt Administration” in 1881.
(Econ, 2/8/14, p.58)
1875 Russia recognized Japan's
control over the 4 southernmost Kurile Islands.
(SFC, 1/19/99, p.A8)
1875 The tomb of John Baptiste
Tavernier, the man who brought the blue diamond from India to France
in 1642, was found in Moscow.
1875 In St. Petersburg, Russia,
a mansion was purchased by Duke Vasily Naryshkin, whose family
included Nataliya Naryshkina, the second wife of Czar Alexis and the
mother of Peter the Great. The mansion had been put together by
connecting two 18-century houses, one of which belonged to Pushkin's
African grandfather Abram Gannibal. After the Bolsheviks
nationalized private property, part of the mansion was turned into a
stolovaya, a canteen-like restaurant serving utilitarian meals. In
2012 workers found treasure, dating back to 1917, was found in
storage space hidden between two floors.
1875 Stuart Cranston, Scottish
tea merchant, setup the world’s first tea room in Glasgow.
(WSJ, 4/7/07, p.P14)
1875 The Society of True
Afrikaners was formed in the Boland town of Paarl, where also stands
the Language Monument to the Afrikaner language.
(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 577)
1875 The kingdom of Tonga
adopted a constitution written by a Methodist missionary. It
declared that the Sabbath is forever sacred.
(WSJ, 7/20/95, p. a-10)
1875-1935 In San Jose, Ca., a paupers graveyard
was used as the final resting spot for those who died at the Santa
Clara Valley Medical Center. In the 1950s the site was covered by a
parking lot. In 2012 it was re-discovered during excavation work for
a new building.
(SFC, 5/19/12, p.C3)
1875-1948 David Lewelyn Wark Griffith (D.W.
Griffith), American film producer and director. His films included
(WUD, 1994, p.622)(SFC, 8/16/97, p.A18)
1875?-1958 Yoruba sculptor Olowe lived during this
period. He carved a lintel in a sacrifice motif of grisly elegance:
birds plucking the eyes from human faces.
(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)
1875-1965 Albert Schweitzer, German-born
missionary and Nobel laureate. "Man must cease attributing his
problems to his environment, and learn again to exercise his
will—his personal responsibility in the realm of faith and morals."
1876 Jan 5, Conrad Adenauer
(d.1967), statesman and first chancellor of post-World War II West
Germany, was born. He was chancellor of Germany from 1949-1963. "The
good Lord set definite limits on man's wisdom, but set no limits on
his stupidity -- and that's not fair!"
(AHD, 1971, p.15)(AP, 7/1/98)(HN, 1/5/99)
1876 Jan 12, Jack London
(d.1916), American writer and adventurer, was born in SF at 3rd and
Brannon. The original home burned down in the 1906 fire. He is best
known for his dog novels "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang."
(HFA, '96, p.22)(AHD, p.768)(HN, 1/12/99)(SFC,
1876 Jan 12, Ermanno
Wolf-Ferrari, composer, was born in Venice, Italy.
1876 Jan 24, Bat Masterson had
a legendary gunfight in Sweetwater, Texas. A cavalry soldier named
King and a woman named Mollie Brennan were killed, Masterson was
seriously wounded in the hip in a saloon.
(MesWP)(AH, 2/06, p.14)
1876 Feb 2, The National League
of Professional Base Ball Clubs with eight teams (Boston, Chicago,
Cincinnati, Hartford, Louisville, New York, Philadelphia, St Louis)
was formed in New York.
(AP, 2/2/97)(HN, 2/2/99)(MC, 2/2/02)
1876 Feb 7, Pres Grant's
private secretary, Gen. Orville E. Babcock, was acquitted of
involvement in the Whiskey Ring. The "Whiskey Ring" was a conspiracy
among distillers, revenue collectors, and high federal officials to
avoid taxation through fraudulent reports on whiskey production. 230
indictments were secured, but no convictions were made. Grant helped
Babcock secure an acquittal for his part in the ring. This affair
contributed to the reputation for corruption that Grant's
1876 Feb 12, Al Spalding opened
a sporting good shop.
1876 Feb 14, Rival inventors
Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both applied for patents for
1876 Feb 15, A historic Elm at
Boston was blown down.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1876 Feb 16, George Macauley
Trevelyan (d.1962), English historian (Giuseppi Garibaldi), was
born: "’History repeats itself’ and ‘History never repeats itself’
are about equally true ... We never know enough about the infinitely
complex circumstances of any past event to prophesy the future by
(AP, 4/14/01)(MC, 2/16/02)
1876 Feb 17, Sardines were 1st
canned by Julius Wolff in Eastport, Maine.
1876 Feb 18, A direct telegraph
link was established between Britain & New Zealand.
1876 Feb 19, Gardiner Hubbard
submitted Alexander Graham Bell's patent application for a
(ON, 1/03, p.4)
1876 Feb 21, Constantin
Brancusi (d.1957), Romanian-French sculptor (Princesse X), was born
in Hobitza, Romania. he made it to Paris in 1902. His works include
"The Kiss" (1908) and the "Sleeping Muse" (1910).
(WSJ, 10/19/95, A-18)(WSJ, 11/30/01, p.W12)(MC,
1876 Feb 24, Henrik Ibsen's
"Peer Gynt," premiered in Oslo.
1876 Feb 26, Agustin P. Justo y
Rolon, President of Argentina (1931-38), was born.
1876 Mar 1, Guernsey Cattle
Club formed in Farmington, CT.
1876 Mar 2, Pius XII [Eugenio
MGG Pacelli], 260th Pope (1939-58), was born to an aristocratic
Roman family accustomed to serving the Catholic Church.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, BR p.3)(SC, 3/2/02)
1876 Mar 4, US Congress decided
to impeach Secretary of War (under Ulysses S. Grant) William Worth
Belknap (1829-1890) of malfeasance in office for accepting over
$24,000 in bribes from a post trader seeking immunity from removal.
It is not clear whether he was aware of the arrangement or whether
his wife had made the bargain and accepted the payoffs.
Nevertheless, he was impeached by a unanimous vote of the United
States Senate, though at his formal trial the Senate fell short of
the number of votes required to convict. By then he had resigned,
which doubtless accounted for his acquittal. He died in Washington,
D.C. on October 13,1890 and was buried in Section 1 of Arlington
1876 Mar 7, Patent #174,465 was
issued to Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) for his telephone. In
2008 Seth Shulman authored “The Telephone Gambit,” the story behind
Alexander Graham Bell’s 1876 telephone patent #174,465. Shulman made
a case that Bell stole the critical technology for making the
telephone work from Elisha Gray, who had filed his own papers just
hours after Bell.
(SFEM, 1/11/98, p.12)(HN, 3/7/98)(AP,
3/7/98)(WSJ, 1/16/08, p.D10)
1876 Mar 8, Franco Alfano,
Italian opera composer (Il dottore Antonio), was born.
1876 Mar 10, Alexander Graham
Bell made what was, in effect, the first telephone call. He found a
way of converting words into electrical current and back again and
sent his first message using his new variable-liquid resistance
transmitter. Bell’s telephone caused the current to vary smoothly in
proportion to the pressure created on a microphone by human speech
and got a patent. His assistant, in an adjoining room in Boston,
heard Bell say over the experimental device:" Mr. Watson, come here,
I want to see you."
(I&I, Penzias, p.97)(CFA, ‘96, p.42)(SFEM,
1/11/98, p.12)(AP, 3/10/98)(HN, 3/10/98)
1876 Mar 17, Gen. Crook
destroyed Cheyenne and Ogallala-Sioux Indian camps.
1876 Apr 1, The first
official NL baseball game took place. Boston beat Philadelphia
1876 Apr 8, Amilcare
Ponchielli's opera "La Gioconda," premiered in Milan.
1876 Apr 11, General Sir
Charles ("Chinese") Gordon ended religious tolerance in Sudan.
1876 Apr 18, Daniel O’Leary
completed a 500 mile walk in 139 hours, 32 minutes.
1876 Apr 22, O.E. Rolvaag,
novelist (Giants in the Earth), was born.
1876 Apr 22, Tchaikovsky
completed his "Swan Lake" ballet.
1876 Apr 25, The Chicago White
Stockings (later Chicago Cubs) beat Louisville 4-0 (1st NL shutout)
in the 1st NL game. Albert G. Spalding (1850-1915), former pitcher
for the Boston Red Stocking, had joined the Chicago White Stockings
after helping form the new National League. His move effectively
ended the National Association, baseball’s first professional
league. Spalding managed the White Stockings from 1876-1877 and
continued as a player to 1878.
1876 May 2, American civil
engineer James Buchanan Eads hired the luxury steamer Grand Republic
for her maiden voyage to carry investors and the press from New
Orleans to the jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi to show off
his work. The jetties were completed in 1880 and New Orleans went
from being the nation’s 9th largest port to the 2nd largest.
(ON, 10/09, p.8)
1876 May 10, Centennial Fair
opened in Philadelphia. Centennial Hall was built in Philadelphia,
Pa., to commemorate the country’s 100th birthday. The US Centennial
Exhibition was a world’s fair celebrating the founding of the US and
drew over 9.9 million people. The US population at this time was 46
(Hem, 6/96, p.108)(SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.9)(MC,
1876 May 17, The 7th US Cavalry
under Custer left Ft. Lincoln.
1876 May, During an uprising in
central Bulgaria (part of the overall "Eastern Crisis‘ in the
Balkans from 1875-78), Khristo Botev, nationalist hero and poet,
re-entered Bulgaria with a small band of rebels. He was killed near
Mt. Veslez a few days after his return.
1876 May, Residents in Tbilisi,
Georgia, found a collection of ancient gold jewels in the muddy
streets following a downpour. The objects were dated from the 5th to
the 1st century BC when the region was known as Colchis.
(Econ, 11/15/08, p.100)
1876 Jun 5, Bananas became
popular in US following the Centennial Exposition in Phila.
1876 Jun 8, French author
George Sand (b.1804 as Lucile Aurore Dupin Dudevant) died in Nohant,
France. In 1975 Curtis Cate published the biography: "George Sand."
French author. In 1993 Francis Steegmuller and Barbara Bray
published their translation of correspondence between Flaubert and
Sand. In 2000 Belinda Jack authored "George Sand: A Woman’s Life
Writ Large." "I would rather believe that God did not exist than
believe that He was indifferent."
(AP, 6/8/00)(AP, 10/17/98)(SFEC, 8/27/00, BR
p.5)(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10)
1876 Jun 11, A.L. Kroeber,
anthropologist, textbook author, was born in Hoboken, NJ.
1876 Jun 17, General George
Crook’s command of 1300 men with friendly Crow and Shoshone scouts
was attacked and bested on the Rosebud River, Montana, by 1,500
Sioux and Cheyenne under the leadership of Crazy Horse.
(HN, 6/17/98)(WSJ, 8/5/05, p.W2)
1876 Jun 20, Antonio L de Santa
Ana, president of Mexico and victor at Alamo, died.
1876 Jun 21, The first gorilla
arrived in Britain.
1876 Jun 22, Nathanael
Herreshoff (1848-1938) sailed his revolutionary catamaran,
Amaryllis, to victory in the New York’s Second Centennial Regatta.
(http://tinyurl.com/lff9e68)(SFC, 9/6/13, p.A12)
1876 Jun 22, Annie Oakley,
sharpshooter, married Frank Butler, marksman.
(SFEM, 1/25/98, p.68)
1876 Jun 22, General Alfred
Terry sent Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer to the Rosebud and
Little Bighorn rivers to search of Indian villages.
1876 Jun 23, Irvin S. Cobb,
U.S. playwright, novelist, actor, and editor, was born. He is best
remembered for his "Judge Priest" stories.
1876 Jun 25, Alexander Graham
Bell demonstrated his telephone at the Centennial Exposition in
(SFC, 2/3/97, p.D1)(ON, 1/03, p.5)
1876 Jun 25, In the Battle of
the Little Bighorn in Montana, Gen. George A. Custer and some 250
men in his 7th Cavalry were massacred by the Sioux and Cheyenne
Indians. To crush the Plains Indians and drive them onto
reservations, Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and more than 600 7th
Cavalrymen and Indian scouts advanced on an Indian encampment in the
Little Bighorn Valley of Montana. Custer's main concern was to keep
the Indians from escaping, but on this day, he faced the biggest
alliance of hostile Plains Indians--mostly Sioux and Cheyenne--ever
gathered in one place. Custer and his entire personal command, about
210 soldiers, were wiped out. The site is near a region where
paleontologist Prof. Edward Drinker Cope dug for dinosaur fossils
just a few days after the massacre. Custer and his cavalrymen had
attacked an encampment of 2,000 to 4,000 Lakota, Cheyenne and other
Indians. Up to 300 Indians possessed Henry and Winchester repeating
(WSJ, 11/1/94, p.1)(SFC, 6/28/96, p.A5)(AP,
6/25/97)(HNPD, 6/25/99)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.82)
1876 Jun 26, Myles Keough's
wounded horse, Commanche, was found after the battle of the Little
Big Horn and led to the steamer The Far West some ten miles away and
transported to Fort Lincoln where he became the celebrated "only
survivor." The horse lived to be twenty-nine and upon his death the
Seventh wanted to preserve his body, so they sent it to the
University of Kansas to be stuffed.
(Internet, Myles Keogh, 8/5/99)
1876 Jul 2, Montenegro declared
war on Turkey.
(PC, 1992, p.537)
1876 Jul 4, Fr. Joseph Neri,
SJ, introduced electric lights on Market Street in SF.
(GenIV, Winter 04/05)
1876 Jul 4, Batholdi visited
Bedloe Island, future home of his Statue of Liberty.
1876 Jul 8, White terrorists
attacked Black Republicans in Hamburg, SC, and killed 5.
1876 Jul 17, At Warbonnet
Creek, Nebraska, Buffalo Bill Cody took the scalp of Cheyenne Chief
Yellow Hair (Yellow Hand) following a duel.
(http://tinyurl.com/a4ja2)(WSJ, 12/13/05, p.D8)
1876 Jul 31, US Coast Guard
officers' training school was established at New Bedford, MA.
1876 Jul, Leland and Jane
Stanford purchased the old Mayfield Grange home of George Gordon in
Menlo Park, Ca. The estate came to be named Palo Alto. Stanford
began his horse breeding farm this year on an initial 650 acres. It
eventually extended to 8,800 acres.
(Ind, 12/30/00, 5A)(Ind, 4/19/03, 5A)
1876 Aug 1, Colorado was
admitted as the 38th state.
(AP, 8/1/97)(HN, 8/1/99)
1876 Aug 2, Frontiersman Wild
Bill Hickok, holding aces over eights, was shot and killed from
behind by “Crooked Nose” Jack McCall, while playing poker at a
saloon in Deadwood, S.D.
(AP, 8/2/97)(MC, 8/2/02)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.32)
1876 Aug 5, Mary Ritter Beard,
American historian and writer, was born.
1876 Aug 7, Margaretha Zelle
(aka Mata Hari) was born in the Netherlands. Mata Hari, otherwise
known as Margaretha G. Macleod, passed secrets to the Germans in
World War I.
(WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A16)(HN, 8/7/98)
1876 Aug 12, Mary Roberts
Rinehart, mystery writer (Miss Pinkerton), was born.
1876 Aug 13, Reciprocity Treaty
between US and Hawaii was ratified.
1876 Aug 13, Richard Wagner's
monumental epic, "Ring of the Nibelung" premiered with 4 operas on 4
consecutive nights) at the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, Bavaria,
(Hem., 1/96, p.69)(MC, 8/13/02)
1876 Aug 15, US law removed
Indians from Black Hills after gold find. Sioux leaders Crazy Horse
and Sitting Bull led their warriors to protect their lands from
invasion by prospectors following the discovery of gold. This led to
the Great Sioux Campaign staged from Fort Laramie. Gold was
discovered in Deadwood in the Dakota territory by Quebec brothers
Fred and Moses Manuel. The mine was incorporated in California on
Nov 5, 1877, as the Homestake Mining Company.
(HT, 3/97, p.43)(WSJ, 1/5/00, p.CA1)(MC, 8/15/02)
1876 Aug 16, Opera "Siegfried"
premiered at Bayreuth. [See Aug 13]
1876 Aug 17, Eric Drummond, 1st
Sec.-General of League of Nations (1919-33), was born.
1876 Aug 17, The opera
"Gotterdammerung" was produced at Bayreuth. [see Aug 13]
1876 Aug 19, George Smith
(b.1840), British Assyriologist, died of dysentery in Syria. He was
on his way home from a 3rd trip to Mesopotamia. Smith had completed
the translation of the complete Epic of Gilgamesh in 1874.
1876 Aug 29, Charles F.
Kettering, inventor (automobile self-starter), was born in Ohio.
1876 Aug 8, Thomas A. Edison
received a patent for his mimeograph.
1876 Sep 1, The Ottomans
inflicted a decisive defeat on the Serbs at Aleksinac.
1876 Sep 6, A race riot took
place in Charleston, SC.
1876 Sep 7, The James and
Younger gang botched an attempt to rob the First National Bank of
Northfield, Minn. Joseph Heywood, the bank teller, was shot and
killed when he refused to open the safe. The 3 Younger brothers,
Cole, Bob and Jim, were captured 2 weeks later in a swamp near
Madelia. 3 others were killed. Photos of all 6 were taken at the
time and identified by Cole Younger, who wrote the names on the
pictures. The pictures sold at auction in 1999 for $39,100. The raid
was reenacted in 1948 and became a regular event in 1970.
(HN, 9/7/98)(WSJ, 10/29/99, p.W16)(WSJ, 9/6/01,
p.A20)(MT, Summer 02, p.22)
1876 Sep 13, Sherwood Anderson
(d.1941), author, poet and publisher (Winesburg), was born in
Winesburg, Ohio. "Sometimes I think we Americans are the loneliest
people in the world. To be sure, we hunger for the power of
affection, the self-acceptance that gives life. It is the oldest and
strongest hunger in the world. But hungering is not enough."
(AP, 9/28/00)(MC, 9/13/01)
1876 Sep 15, Bruno Walter
(d.1962), [B W Schlesinger], conductor (NY Phil), was born in
1876 Sep 19, The 1st carpet
sweeper was patented by Melville Bissell of Grand Rapids, Mich.
1876 Sep 24, Mary Newton (2),
the daughter of US Army Engineer Lt. Col. John Newton, triggered a
huge blast to clear rocks in the Hell Gate channel of the East
River. Newton had been authorized to begin work to deepen the
channel in 1867.
(ON, 2/08, p.8)
1876 Sep, Sitting Bull, a
legendary Hunkpapa Sioux chief and medicine man, led an escape to
Canada in the vengeful aftermath of the Battle of the Little
Bighorn. Even though he had not fought in the June 25 massacre, the
medicine man was considered a threat by white authorities because
his visions of victory had encouraged the uprising. In 1881 famine
forced Sitting Bull’s band back to a reservation in the United
States. Throughout the mid-1880s, Sitting Bull won international
fame as the prototype of the American Indian when he joined Buffalo
Bill Cody’s Wild West Show on tour. Sitting Bull returned to the
reservation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, where he was killed in
1890 during a struggle with Indian police.
1876 Oct 3, John L. Routt, the
Colorado Territory governor, was elected the first state governor of
Colorado in the Centennial year of the U.S.
1876 Oct 10, Walter Niemann,
composer, was born.
1876 Oct 17, Henry Morton
Stanley's expedition, to find the source of the Congo River, reached
the Lualaba River.
1876 Oct 17, Rydal Hull, a
3-masted, iron-hulled, square-rigged ship carrying coal from
Cardiff, Wales, hit Frenchman’s Reef north of Princeton, Ca. 9 of
the 30-man crew drowned.
(Ind, 3/31/01, 5A)
1876 Oct 26, President Grant
sent federal troops to SC.
1876 Oct 31, In India’s Megna
River Delta a tidal wave caused by a cyclone flooded the river delta
and the city of Backergunge. Some areas became covered with 40 feet
of water. 100,000 people drowned and another 100,000 were reported
to have perished from subsequent diseases caused by polluted water.
1876 Oct, George T. Morgan
joined the US Mint and soon created a sketch for a $100 gold coin,
which was never made.
(WSJ, 11/29/08, p.B2)
1876 Nov 4, James Fraser,
designer of the buffalo nickel, was born.
1876 Nov 4, Johannes Brahms'
Symphony #1 in C, premiered at Karlsruhe.
1876 Nov 7, The presidential
vote between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel
Tilden was very close and the Florida result looked like it would
determine the national outcome. In 1974 Prof. Jerrell Shofner
authored "Nor Is It Over," a study of the 1876 election. In 2003 Roy
Morris Jr. authored "Fraud of the Century." Louisiana was stolen for
Hayes. 13,000 Tilden votes were discounted in Louisiana by a
bribe-taking election board.
(WSJ, 12/11/00, p.A18)(WSJ, 2/3/03, p.D6)
1876 Nov 7, Rutherford B. Hayes
was elected 19th president of the US. Because of the closeness of
the race he became president only by a deal with Southern
conservatives to end Federal occupation of the South, i.e. the
Hayes-Tildon Compromise. Samuel J. Tilden (D) won the popular vote.
Hayes carried the electoral college by one vote. Lemonade Lucy, wife
of Pres. Hayes, later received the 1st Siamese cat in the US.
(HN, 11/7/99)(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A20)(SFC, 8/5/00,
p.B4)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M3)
1876 Nov 7, Edward Bouchet
became the 1st black to receive a PhD in US college at Yale.
1876 Nov 23, Manuel de Falla
(d.1946), composer (El Amor Brujo), was born in Cadiz, Spain.
(WUD, 1994, p.512)(MC, 11/23/01)
1876 Nov 25, Colonel Ronald
MacKenzie destroyed Cheyenne Chief Dull Knife’s village, in the
Bighorn Mountains near the Red Fork of the Powder River, during the
so-called Great Sioux War.
1876 Nov 26, Willis Haviland
Carrier, inventor, was born. He invented the first air conditioning
system to control both temperature and humidity in 1902.
1876 Dec 3, Hermann Goetz (35),
1876 Dec 5, Daniel Stillson
(Mass) patented the 1st practical pipe wrench.
1876 Dec 5, In NYC a fire in
the Brooklyn Theater killed 278 people.
1876 Dec 6, US Electoral
College picked Republican Hayes as president, although Tilden won
the popular election. A questionable vote count in Florida ended and
Hayes was ahead by 924 votes. The Democratic attorney general
validated the Tilden electors.
(WSJ, 12/11/00, p.A18)(MC, 12/6/01)
1876 Dec 6, The 1st US
crematorium began operation in Washington, Penn.
1876 Dec 6, Jack McCall was
convicted for the murder of Wild Bill Hickok and sentenced to hang.
1876 Dec 20, Hannah Omish (12)
was the youngest person ever hanged in US.
1876 Dec 25, Mohammed Ali
Jinnah (d.1948), founder of Pakistan (1947), gov. (1947-58), was
born in Karachi.
1876 Dec 29, Pablo Casals,
violinist, conductor, composer, was born in Vendrell, Catalonia,
1876 Dec 29, In the Ashtabula
train disaster a Pacific Express, carrying some 159 passengers and
crew, was traveling over a bridge near Ashtabula, Ohio. Only the
first engine of the train made it to the other side at 7:28 p.m. as
the bridge began to collapse. The rest of the train broke away and
plummeted to the bottom of the ravine below. Approximately 92 men,
women and children were killed. The bridge was owned by the Lake
Shore and Michigan railroad, and was the joint creation of Charles
Collins, Engineer, and Amasa Stone, Chief Architect and Designer.
After testifying before an investigative jury, Charles Collins
quietly went home and shot himself in the head. He was also buried
in the Chestnut Grove Cemetery, several feet from the mass grave.
Amasa Stone (1818-1883) committed suicide approximately 7 years
later. Stone was held partly responsible for the disaster by
the same investigative jury before which Collins had testified, and
was publicly scorned for many years.
c1876 Rodin made the original
plaster for "Age of Bronze," the figure of a naked youth.
(SFEM, 11/24/96, p.46)(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)
1876 Edward Mitchell Bannister,
African-American artist, won a 1st place prize at the Centennial
Exposition in Philadelphia, but was turned away from the exhibition
hall when he went to collect his medal.
(WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A20)
1876 Winslow Homer (1836-1910)
painted "Gloucester Harbor." In 1997 it hung at the Nelson Atkins
Museum of Art in Kansas City. He also did "The Cotton Pickers" in
this year and completed “Breezing Up (A Fair Wind).”
(WSJ, 11/10/97, p.B6)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.B1)(WSJ,
1876 Monet painted "Dans La
Prairie." It was expected to sell for $16-20 million in 1999. He
also did "La Repos Dans le Jardin" this year.
(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W16)(WSJ, 5/3/02, p.W12)
1876 Pierre-Auguste Renoir
painted "The Garden of the Rue Cortot" at what is now the Montmartre
museum in Paris. He also did a portrait of Alfred Sisley about this
time. His work "At the Theater" (La Premiere Sortie) was also begun
and completed the next year.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.T11)(DPCP 1984)(WSJ, 8/13/99,
1876 The 2nd Impressionist
exhibition opened in Paris featuring Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste
Renoir, Edgar Degas and Berthe Morisot.
(NMWA, 12/04, p.9)
1876 Robert Browning wrote his
poem "The Pied Piper of Hamelin."
(WSJ, 6/11/01, p.A20)
1876 George Eliot (1819-1880),
Englishwoman writer, authored “Daniel Deronda,” the story of man who
discovers his Jewish origins.
(WSJ, 9/22/07, p.W6)
1876 Anthony Trollope
(1815-1882) authored “The Prime Minister,” the 5th of a sextet of
novels known as “The Pallisers.” It offered sharp insights on power,
sex, love and money.
(WSJ, 8/26/06, p.P8 )
1876 Emile Zola wrote
"L’Assommoir" and gave voice to Parisian slum-dwellers. In the novel
he imitated their vulgar slang.
(WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A13)
1876 Friedrich Nietzsche
predicted that there would one day be an international language.
(Wired, 8/96, p.93)
1876 The Oriental Hotel was
built in Bangkok, Thailand, near the Chao Phraya River. It is now
considered one of the best hotels in the world.
(Hem, Mar. 95, p.59)
1876 Henry James (1843-1916)
writer, had a "love affair" with Russian painter Pavel Zhukovsky.
(SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.1)
1876 Descendants of Betsy Ross
reportedly began to spread the myth that she made the first US flag
to create a tourist attraction in Philadelphia.
(SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.4)
1876 Joseph Drexel began to
serve as the director of the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.
(SFC, 3/24/00, p.W4)
1876 Melvil Louis Dewey
(b.1851), Amherst College librarian, published the 1st edition of
the “Dewey Decimal System.” He had created "A Classification and
Subject Index for Cataloguing and arranging the Books and Pamphlets
of a Library" using his Dewey Decimal System. [see May 8, 1873]
(HN, 12/10/98)(SSFC, 4/14/02, p.C18)(ON, 3/04,
1876 The Workingmen’s Party of
the United States (WPUS) was founded in Philadelphia, Pa. In 1878 it
reformed as the Socialist Labor Party.
1876 E.H. Harriman founded the
Tompkins Square Boys club in New York's Lower East Side.
(WSJ, 3/21/00, p.A24)
1876 T. Southard of Peekskill,
NY, became Southard, Robertson & Co. The Southard company had
manufactured toy wood-burning heating stoves as early as 1850.
(SFC, 3/1/06, p.G7)
1876 Barbed wire that fenced
the west at this time was later put on display at Oracle Junction,
Arizona, and included Watkins ‘lazyplate’ and Glidden ‘Oval Twist.’
(NOHY, 3/90, p.173)
1876 The medieval game of court
tennis arrived in the US. It was the fore-runner of lawn tennis,
which was already being played in the US.
(SFC, 5/15/98, p.D7)
1876 President Ulysses S. Grant
authorized the funds to complete the construction of the Washington
Monument, but without the ornate building and classical statue.
(ON, 3/00, p.10)
1876 James G. Blaine,
Republican candidate for the presidency, saw his chances collapse
under criticism for accepting a $100,000 fee while lobbying for
railroads. The problem came up again in 1884.
(WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A22)
1876 Texas adopted a post-civil
war constitution. It barred idiots, lunatics, paupers and women from
(Econ, 10/29/05, p.30)
1876 I. Magnin, the San
Francisco department store opened. It lasted until Jan. 1995.
(Hem, Mar. 95, p.89)
1876 The California Maritime
Academy was founded. The Board of Supervisors and the Chamber of
Commerce proposed to train young criminals onboard the ship
Jamestown for work in the merchant naval service. Its history is
told by Capt. Walter W. Jaffee in "The Track of the Golden Bear, The
California Maritime Academy Schoolships."
(SFEM, 1/19/97, p.7)
1876 Lazard Freres ceased
operations in San Francisco as a fabrics and hardware import-export
company and established itself as the bank: Lazard Freres & Co.
(SFC, 12/11/96, p.D1)
1876 Austin and Reuben Hills
began roasting coffee at the Bay City Market in SF. [see 1878]
(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.A1)
1876 Two brothers from Italy
named Simi founded the Simi Winery just north of Healdsburg, Ca. It
is currently owned by Moet-Hennessy / Louis Vuitton.
(WCG, 7/95, p.78)
1876 The Chinatown of Chico,
Ca., was destroyed by a fire. About this time arson, murder and
terrorism forced the Chinese out of Truckee.
(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M5)
1876 The Georgia state capital
was moved from Milledgeville, originally designed to be the state
capital, to Atlanta.
(SFEC, 7/16/00, Z1 p.2)
1876 George V. Ayres
(1852-1939) arrived in the Black Hills at the beginning of the gold
rush there and within a year began working at the R.C. Lake Hardware
Store in Deadwood, SD. By the mid 1880s he owned the store and later
moved it to the main floor of the Bullock Hotel, built in the
(SFC, 1/24/07, p.G7)
1876 Wyatt Earp moved to Dodge
1876 Lewis R. Redmond
(1854-1906) of North Carolina shot and killed a revenue agent near
Brevard, NC, when the agent tried to arrest him for making and
transporting illegal whiskey.
(WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W11)
1876 Edwin Lankester, an
evolutionary biologist and later director of the British Museum,
exposed the American medium Henry Slade, as a fake and took him to
court on charges of criminal fraud.
(PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.18)
1876 Dr. John Harvey Kellogg
was 24 years old when he became staff physician at the Battle Creek
Sanitarium in Michigan--a position he held for 62 years. Dr.
Kellogg, a respected abdominal surgeon, ran "the San" as a health
institute where the wealthy could rejuvenate themselves with
Kellogg's offbeat cures. Illness was caused, Kellogg believed, by
poor eating habits that left poisons in the intestinal tract. Among
Kellogg's solutions to the dietary dilemma were "fletcherizing," or
chewing food hundreds of times before swallowing, and a vegetarian
diet high in bran. It was the bowels, however, that received
Kellogg's undivided attention. Patients at the San were subjected to
regimens of "cleansing enemas" that cured "ulcers, diabetes,
schizophrenia, acne...and premature old age."
1876 The A.J. Whitcomb
Indestructible Pocket Kite was patented. It was made of cotton
(SFC, 2/5/97, z-1 p.7)
1876 Pressed-glass plates for
the 100 year memorial of the Battle of Bunker Hill were manufactured
(SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)
1876 Samuel T. Cooper purchased
six hand-operated knitting machines and with his sons founds S.T.
Cooper & Sons, a hosiery manufacturer located in Ludington,
Michigan. At the turn of the century the company moved to Kenosha,
1876 Woman’s underwear began to
be sold in stores.
(SFEC, 8/27/00, Z1 p.2)
1876 The Moxie Nerve Food Co.
introduced a medicine to be taken with a spoon. The medicine was
later changed to a carbonated drink, produced in Salem, Mass. Moxie
produced a lot of items for advertising that became valuable as
(SFC, 7/15/98, Z1 p.3)
1876 Adolphus Busch, a German
immigrant beer-maker, licensed the name of Budweiser in America. The
name came from the town of Budweis in Bohemia. The town was later
renamed Ceske Budejovice but a local brewery used the Budweiser name
for its beer.
(SFC, 4/9/98, p.A12)
1876 John Danner (b.1823) of
Canton, Ohio, invented and patented a revolving bookcase. His John
Danner Mfg. Co. soon expanded to produce drug cases, cabinets and
(SFC, 12/21/05, p.G6)
1876 In Dayton, Ohio, the Royal
Remedy and Extract Co. was founded by Irvin Souders. The company was
incorporated in 1888 and introduced Sweet Wheat chewing gum in
(SFC, 3/12/08, p.G4)
1876 Thomas Edison established
his laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1876 Johns Hopkins University
was founded. It handed out the first US graduate Pd.D.’s in 1878.
(SFEC, 7/16/00, Z1 p.2)
1876 Benedictine monks in North
Carolina established Belmont Abbey as a monastery and school. In
2007 they introduced a program in Motorsports Management.
(WSJ, 10/4/07, p.A1)
1876 It was demonstrated that
small electric generators could light a lamp.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)
1876 Oil was struck in a well
near what later became Santa Clarita, California. It was sold to the
Pacific Coast Oil Co. of San Francisco in 1879, which eventually
(SSFC, 10/29/06, p.F6)
1876 San Francisco Bay’s
Station Island was uninhabited until Drawbridge on Station Island
was started at the southern end of the bay with a single shack for a
Southern Pacific Cost railroad bridge caretaker to raise a bridge
for shipping over Coyote Slough. The last train stopped in 1955. Its
last resident, Charlie Luce, left in 1979.
(SFC, 4/7/00, p.A19,20)(SFC, 12/27/14, p.C2)
1876 The high-wheel bicycle was
introduced in the US at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia.
(ON, 2/10, p.3)
1876 The US population was
about 40 million. The US population at this time was 46 million.
(Hem, 6/96, p.108)(SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.9)(SFEC,
4/4/99, Z1 p.8)
1876 The excavation of Pergamon
(later Bergama, Turkey) by German archeologist uncovered a monument
called the Great Altar with a frieze of the mythological Greek hero
Telephos that dated to the 2nd century BC.
(WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)
1876 William M. "Bill" Doolin
was killed by an "Oklahoma" posse. Photos of the dead man were sold
for 25 cents.
(SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.6)
1876 In Canada the Indian Act
was enacted by the Parliament under the provisions of Section 91(24)
of the Constitution Act, 1867, which provides Canada's federal
government exclusive authority to legislate in relation to "Indians
and Lands Reserved for Indians." The statute concerns registered
Indians (that is, First Nations peoples of Canada), their bands, and
the system of Indian reserves.
1876 Queen Victoria added the
title of Empress of India.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)
1876 British Parliament passed
the Unseaworthy Ships Bill (Merchant Shipping Act). It was advocated
by Samuel Plimsoll (1824-1898), author of “Our Seaman.” The Act
required a series of lines to be painted on the ship to show the
maximum loading point. A salesman for the Liverpool Rubber Company
attached the Plimsoll name to a line of canvas shoes.
(www.victorianweb.org/history/plimsoll.html)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.79)
1876 James Murray agreed to
take over as editor of a new dictionary being compiled by England’s
Philological Society. In 1878 Oxford Univ. Press agreed to publish
the dictionary and Murray agreed to produce the work in 10 years.
(ON, 11/05, p.5)
1876 Charles Roberts reported
the statures of some 100,000 children drawn from the registers of
London military hospitals. It was one of the first statistical
inquiries into the economics of height.
(Econ, 4/5/08, p.82)
1876 Construction of the Statue
of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World), a gift to the US, began
in France. The interior iron framework was designed by Alexandre
Gustave Eiffel. The design by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi included 7
rays on her crown to represent the seven seas and continents. Her
tablet was engraved with the date July 4, 1776 in Roman numerals.
Broken shackles at her feet represented tyranny. In 2014 Elizabeth
Mitchell authored “Liberty’s Torch: The Great Adventure to Build the
Statue of Liberty.”
(SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)(SSFC, 7/6/14, p.N4)
1876 The Berlin Nationalgalerie
was inaugurated by Kaiser Wilhelm I on Museum Island in the Spree
River. It re-opened in 2002 after 4 years of renovation.
(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)
1876 A paper in the Berliner
Klinische Wochenschrift, a Germany medical journal, suggested
that salsalate could help diabetics control their blood sugar.
Harvard researchers in the 1990s conducted studies that supported
(WSJ, 1/20/09, p.A12)
1876 Carl von Linde
(1842-1934), German engineer, invented refrigeration.
1876 Nikolaus Otto (1832-1891),
German inventor, first demonstrated the four-stroke engine.
1876 Porfirio Diaz rose to the
Mexican presidency following a coup. He was an economically
progressive leader, imposed brutal order on the countryside and
liberated Mexico City from its perennial floods. He escaped to
France in 1910.
(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A1)
1876 Helena Modrzejewska,
celebrated Polish actress, left for America with her husband Count
Karol Chapowski, their son, Rudolf (15), the young journalist Henryk
Sienkiewicz and a few friends. Helena proceeded to establish herself
on the American stage as Helena Modjeska. In 2000 Susan Sontag
planned to publish an historical novel based on Modjeska: "In
(SFC, 1/6/00, p.E1)
1876 Russia under Alexander II
invaded Ottoman-controlled Bulgaria with a mixture of humanitarian
and imperialistic motives following reports that Turks were
(SFC, 9/7/08, Books p.5)
1876 The gladiolus rust,
Uromyces trasversalis, was discovered in South Africa. Some 90 years
later it turned up in the Mediterranean region then spread to
Europe, South America, and Australia. In 2006 it was detected in the
(SSFC, 8/9/09, p.L2)
1876 The Swedish firm Ericsson
was founded. It started selling phones in China in the 1890s.
(Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.8)
1876 Murad V succeeded Abdul
Aziz in the Ottoman House of Osman. He was soon succeeded by Abdul
Hamid II who ruled until 1909.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1876-1880 Fr. John Pinasco, SJ, served as the 7th
president of San Francisco’s St. Ignatius College.
(GenIV, Winter 04/05)
1876-1914 This period is covered on a CD-ROM
distributed by Apple Computer Corp. and adopted for CD by the
American Social History Project at New York’s Hunter College and the
Voyager Co. It is first published in 1993 and by 1995 is causing
controversy due to some explicit stories on various subjects. It
sells for $49.95.
(WSJ, 2/10/95), p.B-1)
1876-1933 Wilson Mizner, American playwright:
"The worst-tempered people I’ve ever met were people who knew they
were wrong." "A fellow who is always declaring he’s no fool usually
has his suspicions." In 2003 the Sondheim play "Bounce" was based on
Addison and Wilson Mizner.
(AP, 5/8/97)(WSJ, 7/3/03, p.D8)
1876-1944 Irvin Cobb, American humorist: "A good
storyteller is a person who has a good memory and hopes other people
1876-1947 Willa Cather, American writer, was born
in Virginia. 2nd source says she was born in 1873. She grew up in
Nebraska and spent time in NYC as an editor. She wrote over 15 books
including: "O, Pioneers!" "My Antonia" and "The Song of the Lark."
(WUD, 1994, p.233)(RBI, 1989)
1876-1948 Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari,
German-Italian composer. His work included "The Secret of Suzanne"
(WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A25)
1876-1950 Helen Rowland, American writer,
journalist and humorist: "Nothing annoys a man as to hear a woman
promising to love him ‘forever’ when he merely wanted her to love
him for a few weeks."
1876-1957 Rev. James M. Gillis, Roman Catholic
author, editor and broadcaster: "Whom the gods would make bigots,
they first deprive of humor."
1876-1957 Ralph Barton Perry, American author and
educator. "Humanitarianism needs no apology ... Unless we feel it
toward all men without exception, we shall have lost the chief
redeeming force in human history." "Humanitarianism needs no
apology. ... Unless we ... feel it toward all men without exception,
we shall have lost the chief redeeming force in human history."
(AP, 3/28/97)(AP, 3/2/98)
1876-1958 Charles F. Kettering, American inventor:
"My definition of an educated man is the fellow who knows the right
thing to do at the time it has to be done. ... You can be sincere
and still be stupid."
1876-1961 Isaac Frederick Marcosson, American
journalist: "Only the mediocrities of life hide behind the alibi 'in
conference.' The great of this earth are not only simple but