Timeline 1879-1882

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1879        Jan 1, E.M. [Edward Morgan] Forster (d.1970), English novelist famous for "A Passage to India" and "A Room With a View," was born in London. His novels exemplified his ideas about the conflict between the imaginative and the earthy component of the human soul and character.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.366)(HN, 1/1/99)
1879        Jan 1, William Fox, US film pioneer (Nickelodeon), was born.
    (MC, 1/1/02)

1879        Jan 3, Grace Coolidge (Goodhue) First Lady: wife of 30th U.S. President Calvin Coolidge [1923-29], was born.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1879        Jan 5, The shares of Homestake Mining Co. began trading on the NY Stock Exchange.
    (WSJ, 1/5/00, p.CA1)

1879        Jan 11, The Zulu war against British colonial rule in South Africa began. [see Jan 12]
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1879        Jan 12, British-Zulu War began as British troops under Lieutenant General Frederic Augustus invaded Zululand from the southern African republic of Natal. [see Jan 11]
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1879        Jan 22, In South Africa battles at Isandlwana Zulu impis or regiments armed with spears and shields killed around 1,300 British troops bearing rifles. Private Samuel Wassall lived through the battle and was awarded the Victoria Cross along with 14 others.
    (AFP, 2/5/07)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.91)
1879        Jan 22-24, Eighty-two British soldiers with rifles held off attacks by 4,000 Zulu warriors with spears at the Battle of Rorke's Drift in South Africa. A large British troop had just been massacred prior to this battle. The 1964 film Zulu was based on this event.
    (History Channel, 4/9/98)(HN, 1/22/00)

1879        Feb 5, Joseph Swan demonstrated a light bulb using carbon glow.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1879        Feb 10, The 1st electric arc light was used in a California Theater. The first electric arc lights were installed in Cleveland in this year. Some women complained that the white light blanched their complexions in a most ghastly manner.
    (MC, 2/10/02)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.B5)

1879        Feb 11, Honore Daumier (b.1808), French caricaturist, painter, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.369)( www.britannica.com/eb/article-9029447)

1879        Feb 12, 1st artificial ice rink in North America was at Madison Square Garden, NYC. [see May 31]
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1879        Feb 14, Chile invaded the Bolivian port of Antofagasta after Bolivian authorities attempted to auction the confiscated property of CSFA, a Chilean mining company.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_Pacific)(Econ, 5/9/15, p.30)

1879        Feb 15, President Hayes signed a bill allowing female attorneys to argue cases before the Supreme Court.
    (AP, 2/15/98)(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1879        Feb 22, Frank Winfield Woolworth's 'nothing over five cents' shop opened at Utica, New York. It was the first chain store. The "Great 5-Cent Store" failed within weeks.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.B2)(AP, 2/22/99)(HN, 2/22/99)

1879        Feb 25, Congress passed the 1st Timberland Protection Act.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1879        Feb 26, Mabel Dodge Luhan, American biographer, was born.
    (HN, 2/26/01)

1879        Feb 27, Constantine Fahlberg discovered saccharin, an artificial sweetener.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1879        Feb 28, In the "Exodus of 1879" southern blacks fled political and economic exploitation.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1879        Mar 1, Library of Hawaii was founded.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1879        Mar 2, Julia Martha Thomas (55), a wealthy widow, was killed by her housekeeper Kate Webster (29) very close to Park Road in well-to-do Richmond, England, but her head was never found. Webster was tried and executed, but Thomas’ head was never found until it was unearthed in October, 2010, by workmen building an extension at the home of David Attenborough, the face of BBC natural history programs for more than 50 years. In 2011 the skull was formally recognized as that of Julia Martha Thomas.
    (AFP, 7/6/11)

1879        Mar 3, US geological survey director was authorized in Department of the Interior.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1879        Mar 3, Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood became the first woman to be admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.
    (AP, 3/3/05)

1879        Mar 8, Otto Hahn, German co-discoverer of nuclear fission, was born. He received a Nobel Prize in 1944.
    (HN, 3/8/98)(MC, 3/8/02)

1879        Mar 12, The British Zulu War began. Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood had expected little trouble as his cavalry ascended Hlobane Mountain. What he got was a Zulu army, 22,000 men strong.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1879        Mar 13, New England Telephone and Bell Telephone merged to become the National Bell Telephone Co.
    (SFEM, 1/11/98, p.13)

1879        Mar 14, Physicist Albert Einstein, mathematician best known for his theories on relativity was born in Ulm, Germany. He received the Physics Nobel Prize in 1921.
    (CFA, ‘96,Vol 179,  p.42)(AP, 3/14/97)(HN, 3/14/02)(MC, 3/15/02)

1879        Mar 17, The US Supreme Court in Wilkerson v. Utah ruled that Utah could use a firing squad for capital punishment.
    (http://supreme.justia.com/us/99/130/case.html)

1879        Mar 19, Jim Currie opened fire on the actors Maurice Barrymore and Ben Porter near Marshall, Texas. His shots wounded Barrymore and killed Porter.
    (HN, 3/19/99)

1879        Mar 25, Japan invaded the kingdom of Liuqiu (Ryukyu) Islands, formerly a vassal of China. The Ruykyuan monarchy was abolished and the islands were annexed to create the Okinawa Prefecture.  Prior to this Okinawa had paid tribute to both Japan and China. Okinawa became imperial Japan’s first colony.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, Par p.5)(NH, 9/01, p.56)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.55)

1879        Mar 27, Edward Steichen, pioneer of American photography, was born.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1879        Mar 28, British mounted troops under Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood went up Hlobane Mountain to battle the Zulus—only to be surrounded by a 22,000-man impi (army). Lieutenant Colonel Redvers Buller, received the Victoria Cross for his gallantry during the difficult withdrawal of his troopers from the mountain. Hlobane was the worst rout of British cavalry—and the last Zulu victory—of the Anglo-Zulu War in South Africa.
    (HN, 3/12/98)(HN, 3/28/99)

1879        Mar 29, Tchaikovsky’s opera "Yevgeny Onegin," premiered in Moscow.
    (MC, 3/29/02)
1879        Mar 29, Some 2,000 British and Colonial troops of the 90th Light Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood repulsed a major attack by 20,000 Zulu tribesmen at Kambula, Zululand. Jubilant over their victory at Hlobane the day before, the Zulus prepared to finish off the British at Khambula. This time, however, the outcome was different as the Zulus vainly assaulted British foes who were dug in and ready for them. The assault, depicted in "The Battle of Khambula" by Angus McBride, ended in failure for the Zulus, leaving them doubting for the first time their ability to win the Anglo-Zulu War.
    (HN, 3/29/99)(MC, 3/29/02)

1879        Apr 8, Milk was sold in glass bottles for the 1st time.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1879        Apr 9, W.C. Fields (Claude William Dukinfield [Dukenfield]), comedian, was born in Philadelphia. He began his career as a vaudeville juggler, appeared on Broadway and in motion pictures. [see Jan 29, 1880]
    (HN, 4/9/98)(HNQ, 9/30/01)

1879        Apr 16, Saint Bernadette, who had described seeing visions of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes, died in Nevers, France.
    (AP, 4/16/04)

1879        Apr 20, The first mobile home (horse drawn) was used in a journey from London to Cyprus. [what about Gypsy wagons, Conestoga wagons?]
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1879        Apr 29, Sir Thomas Beecham, founder of London Philharmonic, was born.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1879        Apr, In Indiana a fire struck the Catholic college of Notre Dame. The administration building and several others were destroyed.
    (WSJ, 11/8/01, p.A22)

1879        May 5, The US Supreme Court supported the power of states to restrict polygamy in Reynolds vs. United States.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reynolds_v._United_States)(SSFC, 12/15/13, p.A13)

1879        May 16, Antonin Dvorak's "Slavonic Dances" premiered.
    (MC, 5/16/02)
1879        May 16, Wallace Wilkerson was executed by firing squad in Utah. It was so disgraceful that one newspaper, the Ogden Junction, sarcastically reminded the state that "the French guillotine never fails." It was 27 minutes before he could be pronounced dead.
    (http://historytogo.utah.gov/salt_lake_tribune/in_another_time/012896.html)
1879        May 16, Treaty of Gandamak between Russia and England set up the state of Afghanistan.
    (HN, 5/16/98)

1879        May 19, Lord Waldorf Astor, British publisher, was born.
    (HN, 5/19/98)
1879        May 19, Lady Nancy Astor (Nancy Witcher Langhorne) was born. She was the first woman to sit in the British House of Commons.
    (HN, 5/19/99)   

1879        May 21, The Battle of Iquiquw was fought.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1879        May 24, William Lloyd Garrison (73), abolitionist (Liberator), died.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1879        May 25, W. Maxwell Aitken, Lord Beaverbrook, Canada-English banker, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1879        May 30, Gilmore Garden in NYC was renamed Madison Square Garden.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1879        May 31, New York’s Madison Square Garden opened its doors.
    (HN, 5/31/98)
1879        May 31, 1st electric railway opened at the Berlin Trades Exposition.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1879        Jun 16, Gilbert & Sullivan's "HMS Pinafore" debuted at Bowery Theater in NYC.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1879        Jun 21, Umberto Brunelleschi, Italian cartoonist, illustrator (Candide), was born.
    (MC, 6/21/02)
1879        Jun 21, F.W. Woolworth opened his 1st store. It failed almost immediately. Frank Woolworth added 10-cent items to the Great 5-Cent Store in Lancaster, Pa., and created Woolworth’s five-and-ten. This was his 2nd attempt after a failure in Utica. He took in $127 during his first day of business.
    (WSJ, 9/26/96, p.B1)(SFC,10/20/97, p.B2)(MC, 6/21/02)

1879        Jul 4, Afrikaner Union was formed by Rev SJ du Toit at Cape colony.
    (Maggio, 98)
1879        Jul 4, Battle at Rorkes Drift: Britain ended attack on Zulus.
    (Maggio, 98)

1879        Jul 5, Dwight Filley Davis (d. Nov 28, 1945 at 66), hall of famer, tennis player, presidential aide, and Sec of War under Coolidge. He donated tennis’s Davis Cup in 1945.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)(MC, 7/5/02)

1879        Jul 7, George Caleb Bingham (b.1811), artist and legislator, died in Kansas City, Mo. His paintings included “The Jolly Flatboatmen," which became a best-seller in 1846 after it was chosen by the American Art Union for its annual engraving.
    (WSJ, 11/3/07, p.W16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Caleb_Bingham)

1879        Jul 8, The first ship to use electric lights departed from San Francisco, California.
    (HN, 7/8/98)
1879        Jul 8, The steamship USS Jeannette under Lt. George W. De Long departed San Francisco on an expedition to reach the North Pole. [see June 12, 1881]
    (ON, 2/05, p.1)

1879        Jul 9, Ottorino Respighi, composer (Pines of Rome), was born in Bologna, Italy.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1879        Aug 8, Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary who occupied Mexico City three times, was born in Anenecuilco, Morelos state, Mexico.
    (HN, 8/8/98)(WUD, 1994 p.1659)(Internet)

1879        Aug 12, The 1st National Archery Association tournament was held in Chicago.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1879        Aug 13, John N. Ireland, English composer, pianist (Mai-Dun), was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1879        Aug 23, Governor-general Charles Gordon of Sudan returned to Cairo.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1879        Aug 28, Cetewayo (or Cetshwayo), last of the great Zulu kings, was captured by the British at the end of the Zulu wars.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1879        Aug 29, Jeanne Jugan (b.1792), a French nun, died. She had helped found the Little Sisters of the Poor. In 2009 she was canonized as a saint of the Catholic Church.
    (AP, 10/11/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeanne_Jugan)

1879        Aug 30, John Bell Hood (b.1831), former confederate general, died of yellow fever in a New Orleans epidemic.
    (AH, 10/02, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bell_Hood)

1879        Sep 10, Pacific Coast Oil Co. was founded in San Francisco by Lloyd Tevis, George Loomis and Charles Felton. In 1906 it became Standard Oil Co. (California). In 1926 it became Standard Oil Co. of California (Socal). In 1984 it became Chevron Corp. In 2001 it became ChevronTexaco. In 2005 it was renamed Chevron Corp.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)(SFC, 5/10/05, p.D1)

1879        Sep 14, Margaret Sanger (d.1966), feminist, nurse, birth control proponent, was born in Corning, NY. [see Sep 14, 1883]
    (www.who2.com/margaretsanger.html)

1879        Sep 17, Andrew "Rube" Foster, father of the Negro baseball leagues, was born.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1879        Sep 20, Former Pres. Ulysses S. Grant arrived in San Francisco aboard the steamship City of Tokio. He was in a bad mood because a steward had just emptied a glass of water with his false teeth through a porthole.
    (Ind, 2/17/00, 5A)

1879        Sep 23, Richard Rhodes invented a hearing aid called the Audiophone.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1879        Sep 29, John Wise (b.1808), balloonist, drowned when his "Pathfinder" long-distance balloon fell into Lake Huron.
    (ON, 11/00, p.8)
1879        Sep 29, Dissatisfied Ute Indians killed Agent Nathan Meeker and nine others in the "Meeker Massacre."
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1879        Sep, James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), artist, arrived in Venice following a lawsuit against critic John Ruskin that awarded him a single farthing.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.D5)

1879        Oct 2, Wallace Stevens, poet, was born.
    (HN, 10/2/00)
1879        Oct 2, A dual alliance was formed between Austria and Germany, in which the two countries agreed to come to the other’s aid in the event of aggression.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1879        Oct 4, Edward Murray East, botanist, was born. His research led to the development of hybrid corn.
    (HN, 10/4/00)

1879        Oct 8, Former Pres. Ulysses S. Grant was treated to a reception by Nevada Senator William Sharon at the old Ralston mansion in Belmont, Ca. Grant had just finished a tour around the world.
    (Ind, 7/1/00,5A)

1879        Oct 9, Max von Laue, German physicist, was born.
    (HN, 10/9/00)

1879        Oct 12, British troops occupied Kabul, Afghanistan.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1879        Oct 19, Thomas Edison demonstrated the electric light. [see Oct 21]
    (MC, 10/19/01)   

1879        Oct 21, Thomas Edison perfected his carbonized cotton filament light bulb after 14 months of testing at his laboratory in Menlo Park, N.J. It was the first incandescent electric lamp. The bulb burned for about 13 ½ hours.
    (AP, 10/21/97)(HN, 10/21/02)(AH, 10/04, p.15)

1879        Oct 24, In San Francisco the 9-day “Author’s Carnival" opened as a fundraiser for six charities. Six thousand people attended each  night.
    (SFC, 3/1/14, p.C3)

1879        Oct 26, Leon Trotsky (d.1940), a leader of the Bolshevik Revolution, was born. "Old age is the most unexpected of all the things that happen to a man." [see Nov 7,8]
    (AP, 8/21/98)(HN, 10/26/98)

1879        Oct 29, Franz JHMM von Papen, German diplomat and chancellor (1932), was born.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1879        Nov 4, William Penn Adair Rogers (d.1935) was born on a ranch in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). "I never met a man I didn't like." He was widely loved during the 1920s and 1930s for his gentle humor and homespun philosophies. Part Cherokee Indian, Rogers once told a Boston audience, "My ancestors didn't come over on the Mayflower, but they met the boat." Rogers got his show business start in 1902 doing rope tricks in a Wild West show. He moved on to vaudeville and, by 1916, he was the wisecracking star of Florenz Ziegfeld's "Follies." As a newspaper columnist and book author, Rogers poked fun at important people and events, and he was equally successful as a motion picture actor. Rogers' film credits include "A Connecticut Yankee" in 1931 and "State Fair" in 1933. The nation mourned when Will Rogers, along with pilot Wiley Post, were killed in an Alaska plane crash on August 15, 1935. "Statesmen think they make history; but history makes itself and drags the statesmen along."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.18)(HNPD, 11/4/98)(HN, 11/4/98)(AP, 7/10/99)
1879        Nov 5, James Clerk Maxwell (48) Scottish physicist (speed of light), died.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1879        Nov 7, Leon Davidovitsj Trotsky, [Leib Bronstein], Russian revolutionary, was born. [see Oct 26, Nov 8]
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1879        Nov 8, Leon Trotsky, Russian communist leader who rivaled Lenin, was born. [see Oct 26, Nov 7]
    (HN, 11/6/98)

1879        Nov 10, Vachel Lindsay, poet, was born. His work included "Rhymes to be Traded for Bread."
    (HN, 11/10/00)
1879        Nov 10, Little Bighorn participant Major Marcus Reno was caught window-peeping at the daughter of his commanding officer--an offense for which he would be court-martialed.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1879        Nov 27, Virgil Earp became a Deputy U.S. Marshall.
    (MesWP)
1879        Nov 27, Adam Tadeusz Wieniawski, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1879        Nov 29, Wyatt Earp arrived in Tombstone, AZ.
    (MesWP)

1879        Dec 18, Paul Klee (d.1940), Swiss abstract painter best known for The Mocker Mocked, was born.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1879        Dec 20, Thomas A. Edison privately demonstrated his incandescent light at Menlo Park, N.J.
    (AP, 12/20/97)

1879        Dec 21, Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, aka Joseph Stalin, was born. Joseph Stalin, Communist leader of the Soviet Union was responsible for the killing of more than 10 million of his own people.
    (HN, 12/21/98)(HNQ, 4/6/00)

1879        Dec 24, Stanislav Pylypovych Lyudkevych, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1879        Dec 26, The "Tragic Overture" by Johannes  Brahms premiered.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1879        Dec 27, Thomas Nast paired the elephant and the donkey in a political cartoon with an Abe Lincoln-like figure standing over a sleeping elephant while a donkey with a tail labeled Delaware drags a hatless democrat over a precipice.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.84)

1879        Dec 28, The new Tay Bridge in Scotland, opened in 1877 over the Firth of Tay, collapsed during a storm as a train was crossing. Some 75 people were killed.
    (AFP, 5/16/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tay_Rail_Bridge)

1879        Dec 29, Billy Mitchell, aviation hero Gen (WW I), was born.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1879        Dec 30, Gilbert & Sullivan's "Pirates of Penzance," premiered in London.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1879        Dec 31, Gilbert and Sullivan's "Pirates of Penzance," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1879        Dec 31, Thomas Edison first publicly demonstrated his electric incandescent light in Menlo Park, N.J. and took out a patent.
    (AP, 12/31/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1879        Cezanne, French painter, painted his Self-Portrait. He also began work on "Auvers-Sur-Oise" (The Fence), which was completed in 1882. On Jan 1, 2000, the $4.8 million Auvers painting was stolen from the Ashmoleum Museum in Oxford.
    (WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-16)(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.A2)
1879        Edgar Degas, while in New Orleans, painted "Miss La La at the Cirque Fernando."
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)
1879        Monet painted "Lavacourt in Winter."
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)
1879        Pissaro painted "Rabbit Warren at Pontoise, Snow."
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)
1879        In Paris Pierre-Auguste Renoir painted "Two Little Circus Girls," a picture of Francisca and Angelina Wartenberg, jugglers in the Spanish Cirque Fernande.
    (DPCP 1984)
1879        French artist Renoir painted “Paysage bords de Seine." It was seized in 2012 by the FBI. A Virginia woman claimed to have bought it at a flea market for $7. In 2014 a federal judge cited evidence that it had been stolen over 60 years ago from the Baltimore Museum of Art.
    (SFC, 1/11/14, p.A4)
1879        John Singer Sargent began painting "The Spanish Dance."
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)
1879        Dostoevsky wrote "The Brothers Karamazov."
    (WSJ, 3/28/95, p.A-24)
1879        Henry George, economist, authored "Progress and Poverty." He laid out tax ideas that were based on a single tax on the value of land. He argued that the value of land was based on its location and that the value of the land should flow to society as a whole rather than the person who holds title.
    (WSJ, 5/28/99, p.B1)
1879        Henrik Ibsen wrote his play "A Doll’s House." Much of the dialogue was written to move characters on and off stage.
    (WSJ, 4/4/97, p.A7)(SFC, 1/7/99, p.A8)
1879        The Bliss Mansion was built in Carson City for Duane Bliss, a lumber magnate. He supplied lumber to the Comstock mines.
    (SSFC, 11/19/06, p.F10)
1879        The Washington Square United Methodist Church was built in NYC. In 2004 the congregation dropped to 60 and it was put up for sale asking $13 million.
    (WSJ, 12/29/04, p.B6)
1879        The Bishop’s House at 219-223 S.W. Stark St. in Portland, Oregon, was built by Archbishop Blanchet.
    (Exc, 6/96, p.72)
1879        Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910), founded the Church of Christ, Science.
    (WSJ, 9/26/03, p.W17)
1879        Independence, Colo., was founded as a mining camp. It was purchased by the Aspen Valley Land Trust in 2001 and transferred to the US Forest Service in 2004.
    (USAT, 1/30/04, p.7A)
1879        The Bowery Mission in New York City was founded. Its broad goal was to "save mankind" and it served to aid the homeless.
    (WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A19)
1879        Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), the future author of "The Amateur Emigrant" and other works, authored “Travels with a Donkey." It covered 12 days spent trekking in the Cevennes Mountains in France with the donkey, Celestine. He embarked this year on a 6,000-mile journey from his native Scotland to see his ailing-and married-lover in California. Stevenson, the author of "Treasure Island," must have realized the recklessness of this venture. There was no guarantee that the object of his affection-Frances (Fanny) Vandegrift Osbourne, would abandon her comfortable life and run off with the then-little-known author. Yet he seemed compelled to make the appeal, telling a friend that "No man is of any use until he has dared everything." The pair married on May 19, 1880.
    (HNQ, 9/6/98)(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)
1879        Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes had the first White House telephone installed.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.D1)
1879        Congress passed a law that banned ships from bringing more than 15 Chinese passengers to the US at one time.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1879        The US Congress made the US Army Corps of Engineers the leader of a new agency, The Mississippi River Commission, charged with controlling the Mississippi River.
    (NH, 2/05, p.45)
1879        John Wesley Powell became the first director of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
    (ON, 8/12, p.8)
1879        Texas passed legislation that made gay and lesbian activity a crime. The law was modified in 1993 to make homosexual sex a misdemeanor with a fine up to $500.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.A6)(SFC, 11/7/98, p.A7)
1879        In SF police arrested dancer Mabel Santly for indecent exposure following a vilification of the Can-can by the SF Chronicle. She was fined $300 for failing to keep her skirts around her ankles.
    (SFEM,11/30/97, p.20)
1879        P.T. Barnum (60) teamed up with James A. Bailey to create "The Greatest Show on Earth." [see Mar 28, 1881]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)
1879        Adolph Sutro returned to SF after becoming a millionaire from building a tunnel at the silver mines of the Nevada Comstock Lode.
    (G, Winter 98/99, p.1)
1879        The American Furniture Co. was first organized in Batesville, Ind. It was re-organized in 1888 and in 1930 merged with 2 other firms to form RomWeber Co.
    (SFC, 12/13/06, p.E3)
1879        Genesee Brewing began producing beer in Rochester, NY.
    (SFC, 3/13/00, p.B2)
1879        Armour & Co., a Chicago meat processor founded in the 1860s, introduced canned meats. Canned condensed milk was introduced in 1912. The “Armour’s Star" trademark was first used in 1931.
    (SFC, 8/2/06, p.G7)
1879        The Women’s Christian Temperance Union founded their 1st Northern California chapter in Petaluma.
    (SFC, 8/27/04, p.F2)
1879        The Italianate Crowley Opera House in Napa, Ca, was built. It went dark in 1914 and in 1973 local citizens lobbied to have it designated as a national landmark. It re-opened in 2003.
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, DB p.31)(SFC, 6/19/02, p.D1)(SFC, 8/4/03, p.A1)
1879        Chinese settlers built a temple dedicated to the river god, Bok Kai, at Marysville, Ca., at the junction of the Yuba and Feather Rivers.
    (HT, 3/97, p.10)
1879        A new California state constitution was adopted.
    (SFC, 10/14/99, p.A27)
1879        The California constitutional convention called for a state Board of Equalization to standardize the appraisal methods used by independent county assessors in property tax assessment.
    (SFC, 9/13/00, p.A15)(SFC, 6/21/11, p.D5)
1879        In southern California 3 community leaders, Ozro W. Childs, a Protestant horticulturist; former California Governor John G. Downey, an Irish-Catholic businessman; and Isaias W. Hellman, a German-Jewish banker and philanthropist, deeded to the Board of Trustees of the nascent University of Southern California 308 lots, which were located in an area designated "West Los Angeles," near the intersection of Vermont Avenue and Exposition Boulevard.
    (www.usc.edu/dept/publications/cat2005/about_usc/history.html)
1879        Milton Latham went broke and his SF home was auctioned off.
    (Ind, 1/9/98, p.5A)
1879        The San Francisco Free Public Library was opened in Pacific Hall on Bush St., between Kearny and Dupont (later Grant) streets.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.20)
1879        Gustave Niebaum, a Finnish sea captain, founded the Inglenook Winery near Rutherford in the Napa Valley of California. Niebaum had made a fortune in the Alaskan fur trade. His Inglenook Chateau, designed by Hamden McIntyre, opened in 1887. The winery was later sold in pieces to movie director, Francis Ford Coppola, who bought a large part in 1975 and the rest of it in 1994-95. In 1994 Constellation Brands acquired Inglenook Vineyards in the Central Valley and in 2008 sold the winery to the Wine Group of San Francisco along with Almaden Vineyards in a deal valued at $134 million.
    (WSJ, 11/7/95, p.A-20)(SFC, 1/24/08, p.C3)(SSFC, 4/26/09, p.E6)
1879        The Hercules Powder Works began manufacturing explosives north of Richmond, Ca. Production later shifted to fertilizer and continued until 1964. As the company moved out residential developers moved in and the town of Hercules took the company name.
    (SFC, 5/30/06, p.D1)
1879        The Yoakum brothers, convicted of murder, were lynched by a mob in San Lorenzo, Ca. The SF Bay town was earlier known as Squattersville.
    (http://www.sanlorenzoheritage.org/history/slzintro.htm)(SFC, 10/10/14, p.A1)
1879        California’s population was about 865,000.
    (Econ, 3/19/11, SR p.7)
1879        Clyde Cessna (d.1954) was born in Kansas. Enamored with flying after Louis Blériot's 1909 famous flight across the English Channel, Oklahoma automobile salesman Clyde Cessna became a pioneer aviator--flying, building and selling airplanes.
    (HNQ, 7/31/01)
1879        William Proctor and James Gamble launched Ivory soap in Cincinnati. In 2004 Davis Dyer, Frederick Dalzell and Rowena Olegario authored “Rising Tide: Lessons from 165 years of Brand Building at proctor & Gamble."
    (Econ, 7/24/04, p.75)
1879        Edwin Hall (1855-1938), American physicist, discovered a phenomenon that came to be called the Hall effect. He noted how electrons on a sheet of conductive material will be pushed towards one of the faces of the sheet under an electric current in a magnetic field.
    (Econ, 3/18/06, p.77)
1879        By this time a judge spread the claim that Dr. Jackson’s Eye Water had cured his crippling “red skin" disease. Dr. Alvah Jackson of Eureka Springs, Ark., had bottled water from the local Basin Spring as a elixir following claims that it had cured his son’s granulated eyelids.
    (SSFC, 9/16/07, p.G5)
1879        George Frederick Armstrong, British scientist, spent a summer measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in a garden in Grasmere, England. He was able to determine that there did exist a diurnal rise and fall in carbon dioxide concentration.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.246)
1879          James Ritty (1836-1918) and his brother invented the 1st cash register. It was to combat stealing by bartenders in his Dayton, Ohio, saloon. The first model looked like a clock, but instead of the hands indicating hours and minutes, they indicated dollars and cents. Behind the dial two adding discs accumulated the total of the amounts recorded. Known as "the incorruptible cashier," with no cash drawer, it would show anyone within sight how much had been recorded. They received a patent Jan 30, 1883.
    (www.inventors.about.com)(www.uspto.gov/go/kids/kidjan.htm)
1879        Photogravure was invented. It involved the transfer of photographic images onto a copper plate by acid-etching. The plate is then inked and pressed by hand onto artist's paper for a print of exceptional detail.
    (WSJ, 1/28/99, p.A1)
1879         George Eastman of Rochester, NY, perfected a ready-to-use dry plate for photography. Eastman sought to improve the chemistry and the processes of photography that had, for 40 years, required subjects to remain perfectly still for exposure times of up to a minute.
    (HN, 7/12/99)
1879        Lt. Col. Richard Henry Pratt persuaded Washington to hand over the mothballed Carlisle military barracks in Pennsylvania for use as a school for American Indians. In the early 20th century the school became a football powerhouse, beating Army in 1912. In 1918 the school was turned into a hospital to receive soldiers wounded in WW I.
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P9)
1879        Radcliffe College was established as the "Harvard Annex" for women who were denied access to Harvard. Its name was changed to Radcliffe in 1894 in honor of Ann Radcliffe.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A2)
1879        The striped bass was introduced into the San Francisco Bay. It later became an indicator species of the Bay’s health and an archenemy of the Bay’s native fishes.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.6)
1879        In Nevada the "Great Fire of Reno" claimed six lives.
    (AP, 11/5/06)

1879         In Afghanistan Sher Ali died in Mazar-i-Shariff, and Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan took over until October 1879. Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan gave up the following Afghan territories to the British: Kurram, Khyber, Michni, Pishin, and Sibi. Afghans lost these territories permanently.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1879        Gen’l. Roberts returned to Kabul to hang some Afghans in punishment for the murder of a British envoy. Roberts was besieged and another British force in southern Afghanistan was almost annihilated. Roberts retreated in a march from Kabul to Kandahar.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1879        The Royal National Park, Australia’s first national park, was officially gazetted.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.56)

1879        A cylindrical lump of platinum-iridium alloy was cast in Hatton Garden, England, and then dispatched to the Int’l. Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Sevres, France, as the standard measure for one kilogram. An ingot for the meter was deposited in 1889.
    (Econ, 1/29/11, p.79)

1879        Edmond de Goncourt published his French novel "Les Freres Zemganno."
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.75)

1879        Germany raised tariffs to limit agricultural and steel imports.
    (WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A1)
1879        Rosenthal began making porcelain plates in Selb, Germany. Limited edition Christmas plates were introduced in 1910.
    (SFC, 12/21/05, p.G6)

1879        Sotirio Boulgaris, silver artisan, migrated from Greece to Italy.
    (SFEM,7/28/96, p.32)
1879        Giuseppe Albertotti founded the Italian Opthalmological Society.
    (WSJ, 4/6/06, p.A12)   

1879        In Japan the Asahi Shimbun newspaper was founded.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.A19)
1879        The Tenshodo store, located in the heart of Ginza, the busiest high-end shopping district in Tokyo, was founded.
    (AP, 1/2/10)

1879        In Hungary the Tisza River overflowed and destroyed 5,500 of 5,800 houses in the town of Szeged.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.127)

1879        The Cyrus Cylinder was discovered by the Assyro-British archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam in the foundations of the Esagila, the main temple of Babylon, and was later placed in the British Museum in London. The cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, when Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian king Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire.  It was later considered as the world's first declaration of human rights.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lma678)(AFP, 2/7/10)

1879        The Peru Navy commissioned its first submarine, 21 years before the US Navy did the same.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, zone 1, p.6)

1879        Cinque (b.~1813), the leader of the 1839 Amistad revolt, died in Sierra Leone.
    (www.africawithin.com/bios/joseph_cinque.htm)

1879        In South Africa John Dunn (d.1885), Englishman and friend of Zulu King Cetshwayo, was granted 10,000 acres after the Anglo-Zulu war. Dunn took 27 Zulu wives and was declared a chief by the king.
    (SFC, 8/13/01, p.A9)

1879        In Spain Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola, a lawyer and amateur archeologist, discovered the Altamira Cave. His daughter Maria (8) discovered the 14,500 year-old wall paintings.
    (WSJ, 9/18/01, p.A20)(ON, 10/02, p.1)

1879-1883    In the War of the Pacific, Chile’s army won the nitrate-rich desert lands from Peru and Bolivia. The war was fought over the treatment of Chilean investors in the desert territories. The area remained in contention until a 1929 agreement proposed by Pres. Herbert Hoover.
    (SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.5)(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A22)

1879-1889    Nietzsche wrote all his best books.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(www.dartmouth.edu/~fnchron/index.html)

1879-1914    http://www.worldwar1.com/tlalli.htm

1879-1940    Paul Klee, Swiss painter and etcher. His work included "Geschwister" (Brother and Sister - 1930), an abstract painting of 3-dimensional interlocking planes. In 1996 it sold for $4.3 mil.
    (WUD, 1994, p.790)(SFC, 7/2/96, p.E3)

1879-1940     Leon Trotsky: "Old age is the most unexpected of all the things that happen to a man."
    (AP, 8//98)

1879-1944     Katharine Fullerton Gerould, American writer: The real drawback to 'the simple life' is that it is not simple. If you are living it, you positively can do nothing else. There is not time. "Funny how people despise platitudes, when they are usually the truest thing going. A thing has to be pretty true before it gets to be a platitude."
    (AP, 7/5/97)(AP, 1/7/99)

1879-1949    Robert Lynd, British essayist: "Were I a philosopher, I should write a philosophy of toys, showing that nothing else in life need to be taken seriously, and that Christmas Day in the company of children is one of the few occasions on which men become entirely alive."
    (AP, 12/25/98)

1879-1950     Alfred Korzybski, Polish-American linguist: "There are two ways to slice easily through life; to believe everything or to doubt everything. Both ways save us from thinking."
    (AP, 2/16/98)

1879-1951    John Erskine, American author and educator: "Opinion is that exercise of the human will which helps us to make a decision without information."
    (AP, 2/18/00)

1879-1953    Joseph Stalin, (Josif Vissarionovitch Dzhugashvili), Communist party leader. He was Sec. of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953, and Premier from 1941-1953.
    (AHD, 1971, p.1255)(AHD, p.1255)

1879-1955     Albert Einstein: "The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious ... the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science."
    (AP, 7/19/97)

1879-1955    Wallace Stevens, American poet and author: "All history is modern history."
    (AP, 1/27/00)

1879-1958    Dorothy Canfield Fisher, American author and essayist: "If we would only give, just once, the same amount of reflection to what we want to get out of life that we give to the question of what to do with a two weeks’ vacation, we would be startled at our false standards and the aimless procession of our busy days."
    (AP, 10/9/98)

1879-1959     Ethel Barrymore, American actress: "You must learn day by day, year by year, to broaden your horizon. The more things you love, the more you are interested in, the more you enjoy, the more you are indignant about—the more you have left when anything happens."
    (AP, 8/7/98)

1879-1963    Lord Beveridge, British economist: "Scratch a pessimist, and you find often a defender of privilege."
    (AP, 3/25/99)

1879-1964     Viscountess Astor, American-born English politician: "The penalty of success is to be bored by people who used to snub you."
    (AP, 6/13/97)

1879-1973     Edward Steichen, American photographer: "Every 10 years a man should give himself a good kick in the pants."
    (AP, 2/1/97)

1880        Jan 1, The building of the Panama Canal was symbolically begun under the direction of French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps. Actual construction began a year later. In 2007 Matthew Parker authored “Panama Fever: The Battle to Build the Canal."
    (http://www.ared.com/history.htm)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.96)

1880        Jan 6, Tom Mix, silent screen cowboy actor (Dick Turpin), was born in Mix Run, Pa.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1880        cJan 8, Emperor Norton died in San Francisco and had an elaborate funeral sponsored by the Pacific Union Club at a cost of $10,000. His remains were later moved from the Masonic Cemetery to Woodlawn Cemetery with a marble tombstone inscribed: Norton I...Emperor of the United States and Protector of Mexico. Joshua A. Norton 1815-1880. Dr. Robert Burns Aird (d.2000) later composed a musical based on Norton's life. The organization E Clampus Vitius later proceeded to hold an annual memorial services at his Colma grave site.
    (HFA, '96, p.65)(G&M, 7/30/97, p.A24)(SFC, 2/22/00, p.A20)(CHA, 1/2001)

1880        Jan 10, Frank Leslie (b.1821), English-born American engraver, illustrator and publisher, died in NY. His publications included Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, aka Leslie's Weekly, (1852-1922).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Leslie)

1880        Jan 21, 1st US sewage disposal system, separate from storm drains, was established in Memphis.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1880        Jan 26, Douglas MacArthur (d.1964), U.S. general in World War I, was born. He was the youngest general in the U.S. Army in WW I. In World War II he was the commander of all U.S. Army forces in the South Pacific; in Korea he commanded all United Nations forces. William Manchester wrote his biography: "American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur."
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.13E)(HN, 1/26/99)

1880        Jan 27, Thomas Edison received a patent for his electric incandescent lamp.
    (AP, 1/27/98)

1880        Jan 28, Henry Casebolt, San Francisco inventor of the cable car grip, sold his interest in the Sutter Street Railway.
    (www.cable-car-guy.com/html/ccwho.html#hxc)

1880        Jan 29, W.C. Fields, comedian and actor, was born in Philadelphia as Claude William Dukinfield [Dukenfield]. His films included "David Copperfield" and "My Little Chickadee." [see Apr 9 1879]
    (HN, 1/29/99)(MC, 1/29/02)

1880        Jan, Anselm Feuerbach, German painter and close friend of Johannes Brahms, died.
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed. p.320)

1880        Feb 1, In San Francisco the buildings of the new St. Ignatius campus at Van Ness and Hayes were dedicated. Archbishop Alemany and bishop James A. Healy presided over the dedication of the new church oh Hayes St.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)

1880        Feb 12, John L. Lewis, American labor leader, was born.
    (HN, 2/12/01)

1880        Feb 17, Tsar Alexander II of Russia survived an assassination attempt.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1880        Mar 1, Lytton Strachey (d.1932), English biographer, critic (Benson Medal 1923), was born. "Uninterpreted truth is as useless as buried gold." 
    (AP, 3/25/00)(SC, 3/1/02)

1880        Mar 4, NY Daily Graphic published 1st half-tone engraving made by S.H. Horgan.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1880        Mar 8, President Rutherford B. Hayes declared that the United States would have jurisdiction over any canal built across the isthmus of Panama.
    (HN, 3/8/99)

1880        Mar 10, The Salvation Army arrived in the United States from England. The organization had been founded in Britain in 1865 by William Booth, a street preacher. It drew on revivalism and attention-getting tactics. In 1980 Edward McKinley authored "Marching To Glory," a definitive history of the army. In 1999 Diane Winston published "Red-Hot and Righteous," a history of the army's efforts in New York up to 1950.
    (AP, 3/10/98)(WSJ, 8/12/99, p.A20)

1880        Mar 12, Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) and C.D. Rudd launched the De Beers Mining Company after the amalgamation of a number of individual claims in South Africa.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecil_Rhodes)

1880        Mar 23, John Stevens of Neenah, Wis., patented the grain crushing mill. This mill allowed flour production to increase by 70 percent.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1880        Mar 25, Joseph Rummel (61), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1880        Mar 26, Duncan Hines, US restaurant guide writer (Out of Kentucky Kitchens), was born.
    (HN, 3/25/98)(SS, 3/26/02)

1880        Mar 30, Sean O'Casey (d. 1964), Irish playwright, was born. "It is my rule never to lose me temper till it would be detrimental to keep it."
    (AP, 3/17/00)(HN, 3/30/01)

1880        Mar 31, Wabash, Ind., became the first town completely illuminated by electrical lighting.
    (AP, 3/31/97)(HN, 3/31/98)
1880        Mar 31, Henryk Wieniawski (44), Polish violist, composer, died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1880        Mar, In NYC the Metropolitan Museum opened its new building on Fifth Ave. Its crown jewel was the Cesnola collection of antiquities of Cypriot artifacts collected by Luigi Palma de Cesnola. Cesnola was named the first director.
    (AM, 7/97, p.68)

1880        Apr 8, Victor Schertzinger, composer, director (Uptown NY), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1880        Apr 10, Frances Perkins, Labor secretary, first woman cabinet member in an American Administration, was born.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1880        Apr 15, William Gladstone became Prime Minister of England.
    (HN, 4/15/98)
1880        Apr 15, Max Wertheimer, Czech-born psychologist, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/01)

1880        Apr 17, National Bell reached a settlement with Western Union and became the American Bell Telephone Co.
    (SFEM, 1/11/98, p.13)

1880        Apr 19, The Times war correspondent telephoned a report of the battle of Ahmed Khel, the first time news was sent from a field of battle in this manner.
    (HN, 4/19/99)

1880        Apr 26, Mikhail Fokine (d.1942), choreographer, founder of modern dance, was born in Russia.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1880        May 8, Gustave Flaubert (b.1821), French novelist, died. He revealed in painful detail the small foibles of a bourgeois life and believed in perfection of form and the absolute value of art. His work included "Madam Bovary," "Salammbo" and "A Simple Heart." "Our ignorance of history causes us to slander our own times." In 2006 Frederick Brown authored “Flaubert : A Biography."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.278)(AP, 6/19/99)(HN, 12/12/99)(WSJ, 4/15/06, p.P8)

1880        May 9, Johann Hermann Berens (54), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1880        May 11, A US Marshal and his deputies faced a group of farmers in the San Joaquin Valley of California over a land dispute between the farmers and the Southern Pacific Railroad. The farmers had developed an irrigation system that turned the land into a rich agricultural area and the Railroad then claimed the land for itself and won a suit to that effect. Seven men were killed in what became known as the battle of Mussel Slough.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.84)

1880        May 18, In the 6th Kentucky Derby George Lewis aboard Fonso won in 2:37½.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1880        May 28, Ada May, a schooner with 120,000 feet of lumber, hit the Colorado Reef at Montara and was destroyed by the surf.
    (Ind, 3/31/01, 5A)

1880        May 29, Oswald Spengler, German philosopher of history, was born. He maintained that every culture grows, matures and decays. He wrote the book "The Decline of the West."
    (HN, 5/29/99)

1880         Jun 1, The first pay telephone was installed in the Yale Bank Building in New Haven, Conn.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)
1880         Jun 1, The U.S. census stood at 50,155,783.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

1880        Jun 5, Wild woman of the west Myra Maybelle Shirley married Sam Starr even though records show she was already married to Bruce Younger.
    (HN, 6/5/99)

1880        Jun 11, Jeannette Rankin, Congresswoman from Montana, the first woman in Congress who also voted against U.S. participation in both world wars, was born.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1880        Jun 12, Baseball’s first perfect game. The southpaw, left-handed Lee Richmond of the Worcester, Massachusetts, Ruby Legs, pitched himself to perfection with a 1-0 shutout of the Cleveland Spiders in a National League game.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1880        Jun 17, Carl Van Vechten, writer, poet, was born.
    (HN, 6/17/01)

1880        Jun 18, John Sutter (b.1803), Swiss-born California settler (gold discovered on his land), died in Lititz, Pa.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)(MC, 6/18/02)

1880        Jun 21, Arnold Lucius Gesell, psychologist and pediatrician, was born.
    (HN, 6/21/01)

1880        Summer, Robert Louis Stevenson and his new wife, Fanny Osbourne, honeymooned at Mount St. Helena. He moved to an abandoned mining camp in the Palisades cliffs above Napa Valley and worked on his novel "Treasure Island." He made notes for his book "Silverado Squatters."
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T3)(SFC,11/25/97, p.A15)

1880        Jun 29, France annexed Tahiti.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1880        Jun 27, Helen Adams Keller (d. Jun 1, 1968 at 87) author, social reformer, educator, lecturer, was born in Tuscumbia, Ala. She lost her sight and hearing at 19 months of age from scarlet fever. She received a college degree and became an author (Let us Have Faith) and lecturer despite being blind and deaf most of her life. Helen Keller died in Westport, Connecticut. "No matter how dull, or how mean, or how wise a man is, he feels that happiness is his indisputable right." "There is no king who has not had a slave among his ancestors, and no slave who has not had a king among his."
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)(AP, 11/17/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.3)(AP, 12/16/98)

1880        Jul 5, Jan Kubelik, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1880        Jul 6, Russia’s Tsar Alexander II, less than a month after Tsarina Maria's death on June 8, formed a morganatic marriage with his mistress Princess Catherine Dolgoruki, with whom he already had three children. A fourth child would be born to them before his death.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_II_of_)

1880        Jul 23, 1st commercial hydroelectric power planet began in Grand Rapids, Mich.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1880        Jul 25, Morris Raphel Cohen, American philosopher and mathematician, was born.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1880        Jul 27, A.P. Abourne patented a process for refining coconut oil.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1880        Jul 30, Robert Rutherford ("Colonel") McCormick, US, editor, publisher (Chicago Tribune), was born.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1880        Jul 31, Fancy Farm in Kentucky announced in a local newspaper upcoming barn dance, picnic and gander pulling. The event grew to become a major event and its 1982 event was certified in the Guinness Book of Records as the world’s largest picnic.
    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.26)

1880         Jul, In the Battle of Maiwand an Afghan woman named Malalai carried the Afghan flag forward after the soldiers carrying the flag were killed by the British. She becomes a heroine for her show of courage and valor. The 1892 Kipling poem "Barracks Room Ballads" recalled the Battle of Maiwand.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)

1880        Aug 1, Sir Frederick Roberts freed the British Afghanistan garrison of Kandahar from Afghan rebels.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1880        Aug 14, Construction of Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248, was completed 633 years after it was begun.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1880        Aug 22, George Herriman (d.1944), cartoonist and creator of Krazy Kat, was born.
    (HN, 8/22/00)

1880        Aug 24, Joshua L. Cowen, inventor of the electric train, was born.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1880        Aug 25, Robert E. Stolz (d.1976), Austrian composer, conductor, was born. He initially auditioned under Johann Strauss and later became conductor at the Theater-an-der-Wien.
    (WSJ, 12/28/99, p.A16)(MC, 8/25/02)

1880        Aug 31, Queen Wilhelmina of Netherlands (d. Nov 28, 1962 at 82) was born. She reigned from 1890-1947.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)(YN, 8/31/99)

1880        Aug, Eight Inuit from Canada’s north-eastern coast agreed to travel to Europe to be exhibits in a human zoo. They soon died from smallpox. The skeletons of Abraham Ulrikab (1845-1881) and most of his companions were rediscovered in 2014 fully mounted for display in the storerooms of a French museum.
    (Econ., 2/28/15, p.30)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Ulrikab)
1880        Aug, Chinese diplomat Wanyan Chonghou (1826-1893), under int’l. pressure, was freed following a death sentence for making concessions to Russia rather than extracting concession as directed.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.70)

1880        Sep 12, H.L. Mencken (Henry Louis Mencken, d.1956), American author, social satirist, was born in Baltimore, Md. He worked for the "Baltimore Sun" and later edited the "Smart Set" magazine with George Jean Nathan. He wrote a philological work entitled "The American Language." Nietzschean iconoclast H.L. Mencken referred to "Boobus Americanus" and was cynical about American democracy. Mencken won fame as a journalist with the Baltimore Morning Herald and Baltimore Sun, editor of The American Mercury magazine and as a literary critic. Mencken's criticism was often directed at the American middle class and members of what he called...the "boobeoisie (BOOB-WA-ZEE)." Very popular in the post-WWI period, Mencken’s literary criticism was instrumental in bringing writers such as D.H. Lawrence, Ford Madox Ford and Sherwood Anderson to the fore.
    (AP, 9/12/97)(HNQ, 6/20/98)(HN, 9/12/98)(www.todayinliterature.com)

1880        Sep 30, Henry Draper took the 1st photograph of the Orion Nebula.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1880        Oct 1, John Philip Sousa became the new director of US Marine Corps Band. [see Oct 1, 1892]
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1880        Oct 5, The first ball-point pen was patented on this day by Alonzo T. Cross.
    (HN, 10/5/00)
1880        Oct 5, Jacques Offenbach, German-French composer (La Belle Helene, Orpheus, Tales of Hoffman), died at 61.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1880        Oct 14, Apache leader Victorio was slain in Mexico by the Mexican army. [see Oct 15]
    (HN, 10/14/98)(MC, 10/14/01)

1880        Oct 15, Victorio, feared leader of the Minbreno Apache, was killed by Mexican troops in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. [see Oct 14]
    (HN, 10/15/98)

1880        Oct 16, Edward Wolff, composer, died at 64.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1880        Oct 27, Theodore Roosevelt (22) married his first wife, Alice Hathaway Lee.
    (AP, 10/27/07)

1880        Oct 28, San Francisco held a referendum on whether "The Awakening" by French artist Gabriel Guay (1848-1923) should be open for public view. An exhibit of a nude painting at the 15th Mechanic’s Fair triggered the referendum and 12,808 people bought tickets to the fair on the day of the vote, which passed in favor in a landslide.
    (SFC, 3/7/15, p.C2)(http://tinyurl.com/p5g2v8v)

1880        Nov 1, Sholem Asch, Polish-born American novelist, was born. He wrote "The Nazarene" and "The Apostle, Mary."
    (HN, 11/1/99)
1880        Nov 1, Grantland Rice, American sportswriter, was born.
    (HN, 11/1/00)
1880        Nov 1, Alfred L Wegener, German meteorologist (continental shift), was born.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1880        Nov 2, James A. Garfield was elected 20th president. During the Civil War, Garfield was a commander at the bloody fight at Chickamauga. The election was close, with Republican James Garfield getting 48.27% to Democrat Winfield Hancock‘s 48.25% and a difference of less than 2,000 votes! Garfield was shot by a disgruntled office seeker four months into his presidency.
    (HN, 11/2/98)(HNQ, 11//00)

1880        Nov 4, The first cash register was patented by James and John Ritty of Dayton, Ohio. [see James Ritty 1879]
    (AP, 11/4/05)

1880        Nov 8, Sarah Bernhardt, French actress, made her US debut at NY's Booth Theater.
    (MC, 11/8/01)
1880         Nov 8, Edwin Drake (b.1819), the man who drilled the first productive oil well (1859), died penniless.
    (www.todayinsci.com)

1880        Nov 10, Jacob Epstein, sculptor (Adam, Jacob & the Angel), was born.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1880            Nov 11, Lucretia Mott (née Lucretia Coffin b.1793), US Quaker, died in Abingdon, Kansas. She co-sponsored the First Woman's Rights Convention in 1848 at Seneca Falls, NY.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAWmott.htm)
1880        Nov 11, In Australia Ned Kelly (b.1855), outlaw, was hanged. The day before he died Kelly wrote to the governor of the jail asking "permission for my friends to have my body that they might bury it in consecrated ground." Kelly was hanged at the Old Melbourne Gaol but documents show his remains and those of 32 other executed prisoners were exhumed and reburied at Pentridge Prison in 1929. In 2011 his headless remains were identified using a DNA sample taken from Melbourne teacher Leigh Olver, Kelly's sister Ellen's great-grandson. In 2011 Victorian state attorney general Robert Clark decided to return his bullet-ridden bones to his descendants so they could meet his last request.
    (WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A8)(SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.6)(AP, 3/9/08)(AFP, 9/1/11)(AFP, 11/9/11)

1880        Nov 21, Adolph Arthur "Harpo" Marx, inventive American pantomimist who never spoke a line in his many movies, which he starred in alongside his brothers, was born.
    (HN, 11/21/98)

1880        Nov 25, Leonard Sidney Woolf (d.1969), English publisher, writer, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Woolf)

1880        Dec 2, Josephine Lang (65), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1880        Dec 11, Louis Pasteur (57), French scientist, began an experiment to identify the microbe that causes rabies.
    (ON, 6/08, p.4)

1880        Dec 20, NY's Broadway was lit by electricity. It later became known as "Great White Way."
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1880        Dec 31, George Catlett Marshall, Chief of Staff who led the U.S. Army to victory in World War II and later became Secretary of State for President Harry Truman, was born. He won Nobel Peace Prize in 1953 for the Marshall Plan.
    (WUD, 1994 p.879)(HN, 12/31/98)(MC, 12/31/01)

1880        Dec, George Eastman received an order for photographic dry-plates and together with Henry Strong launched the Eastman Dry Plate Co.
    (ON, 3/05, p.11)

1880        Hans Hofmann (d.1966), abstract artist, was born and raised in Munich, Germany. He lived in Paris from 1904-1914 and moved to the US in 1931.
    (SFC, 7/31/01, p.B5)(WSJ, 1/15/04, p.D8)

1880        Rodin created his sculpture "The Thinker."
    (HNQ, 12/6/00)

1880        Monet painted "Sunset on the Seine in Winter."
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.D1)

1880        Thomas Moran painted "Lower Manhattan From Communipaw, New Jersey."
    (SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)

1880        Berthe Morisot painted the riverscape "Boats on the Seine."
    (SFC, 10/30/96, p.E7)

1880        Renoir began his painting "Luncheon of the Boating Party," ["The Rower’s Lunch"] the culmination of a decade of riverscapes. It depicted a scene at the Restaurant Fournaise on the banks of the Seine at a spot known as La Grenouillere (the frog pond). It was completed in 1881 and sold to Duncan Philips in 1923 for $125,000.
    (WSJ, 9/10/96, p.A16)(SFC, 10/30/96, p.E7)(DPCP 1984)

1880        John Singer Sargent painted "Fumee d’Ambre Gris."
    (WSJ, 8/11/00, p.W6)

1880        Vincent Van Gogh ended his career as a theology student and began painting.
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1880        Joaquin Maria Machado de Assis (1839-1908), Brazilian mulatto writer, wrote his novel "The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas." The Oxford Library of Latin America published a new edition in 1998.
    (WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)

1880        Henry Adams authored his novel “Democracy."
    (SSFC, 2/13/11, p.G1)
1880        Henry James, American writer, authored his novel “Washington Square," in which he depicts the insular world of his NYC childhood.
    (WSJ, 4/19/08, p.W8)

1880        Paul Lafargue (1842-1911), French revolutionary and journalist, published “Le Droit a la Paresse" (The Right to Laziness), in which he recommended that men should work no more than three hours a day.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.51)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Lafargue)

1880        Guy de Maupassant wrote his short story “Boule de Suif" (Butterball). In 2006 it premiered as an opera by composer Stephen Hartke and librettist Philip Littell.
    (WSJ, 8/8/06, p.D5)

1880        Joaquin Miller (1837-1913), "poet of the Sierras," published "Utopia."
    (SFEM, 4/2/00, p.48)

1880        Gen. Lew Wallace (1827-1905) of Indiana published "Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ." Some of book was written while Wallace was living in Santa Fe at El Palacio as the Territorial governor in the 1870s.
    (WSJ, 2/14/96, p.A-15)(HT, 3/97, p.66)(SFEC, 7/6/97, p.T7)

1880        "Heidi’s Years of Wandering and Learning" was published. It was later made famous by a film version with Shirley Temple. It was partly set in Maienfeld, Switzerland. Johanna Spyri authored the 2-volume Heidi novel published in 1880-1881. The 2nd volume was titled "Heidi Makes Use of Her Experience."
    (WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A11)(SFEC, 9/24/00, p.T6)(SFC, 7/5/01, p.C7)

1880        Charles Crocker, California railroad pioneer, built the Hotel Del Monte on the Monterey Peninsula as a wooden Gothic structure. It was destroyed by fire in 1887, rebuilt and burned again in 1924. It was later purchased by Samuel F.B. Morse with the backing of SF banker Herbert Fleishhacker. Morse sold the hotel and over 600 surrounding acres to the US Navy in the late 1940s. In 1952 the Naval Postgraduate School moved onto the site.
    (SSFC, 5/18/08, p.A15)
1880        John Ballard, a blacksmith and former slave, bought land on a mountain in the Santa Monica range of southern California. In 2010 the 2,031 peak, previously known as Negrohead Mountain, was renamed to Ballard Mountain.
    (SFC, 2/22/10, p.A6)
1880        California politicians integrated the state’s public schools.
    (SSFC, 5/16/04, p.E5)
1880        In California Folsom Prison began operations.
    (WSJ, 11/26/97, p.CA4)

1880        David King Udall (1851-1938), while living in Nephi, Utah, was called to be the Mormon bishop in St. Johns, Arizona, a small and primarily Hispanic Catholic community.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_King_Udall)

1880        US Pres. Rutherford Hayes lunched at the Cliff House in SF.
    (SSFC, 8/21/05, p.A1)

1880        At the Republican national convention Pres. Grant lost his bid for a 3rd term to James Garfield after 35 ballots.
    (Ind, 2/3/00, 5A)

1880        Blanche Kelso Bruce (1841-1898), US Senator from Mississippi, lost his senate seat. Pres. Garfield appointed him registrar of the Treasury.
    (WSJ, 7/12/06, p.D12)

1880        A US census found 435 non-native residents in Alaska.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.27)

1880        In NYC the American Exchange of New York, later known as the New York Mercantile Exchange (Nymex), was renamed as the Butter, Cheese and Egg Exchange of New York.
    (WSJ, 9/28/05, p.C3)

1880        Richard Etheridge was promoted to Keeper of the North Carolina Life-Saving Station #17. He was the 1st black man to be appointed a Station Keeper in the US Life-Saving Service.
    (ON, 1/02, p.1)

1880        Caroline Romney hauled in printing presses to a tent with a sawdust floor and started the Record in Durango, Colo.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.6)

1880        William Grace, shipping magnate, was elected mayor of New York City. His election put the Irish in control of city politics.
    (WSJ, 3/17/97, p.A18)

1880        Maria Longworth Nichols founded the Rookwood Pottery firm in Cincinnati. The firm operated until 1941. Decorators for the firm included Albert Valentien, Carl Schmidt, Kataro Shirayamadani and Matthew Daly.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, Z1 p.6)
1880        Andrew J. Cron joined R.B. Kills to found Cron Kills Co., a furniture manufacturer, in Piqua, Ohio.
    (SFC, 7/18/07, p.G2)
1880        B. Manischewitz founded an operation in Cincinnati to make unleavened bread based on a 5,000-year-old recipe.
    (SFC, 9/22/03, p.B4)

1880        The industrial force exceeded the number of people engaged in agriculture in the United States and Germany.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.284)

1880        Oilmen in southern California formed a company that grew to become Unocal.
    (SFC, 4/5/05, p.C1)

1880        Tucson, Arizona. The railroad came into the city.
     (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.31)

1880        Juneau was born when prospectors hit a mother lode on Gastineau Channel. Juneau was settled soon after a gold strike nearby by Richard Harris and Joe Juneau.
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, p.T10)(HNQ, 2/6/00)

1880        George Hearst purchased the SF Daily Evening Examiner newspaper to advertise his political beliefs. Hearst won the Examiner as payment for a gambling debt.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)(WSJ, 8/9/99, p.B9)(CHA, 1/2001)

1880        George M. Pullman established his own industrial community at Lake Calumet, south of Chicago. His company town provided homes for 2,500 workers along with schools, parks churches and a hotel.
    (SFC, 7/1/98, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 12/3/98, p.A3)

1880        Francis W. Parker (d.1902 at 64), a pioneer in progressive elementary education, became supervisor of the Boston school system and later established the Chicago Institute. He experimented with methods while teaching in various places during the American Civil War in an attempt to change the prevailing rigidity of U.S. schools. He later went to Germany in 1872 where he studied educational methods in use there. Upon returning, he became school superintendent for Quincy, Massachusetts, where he introduced science, arts and crafts into the curriculum. Parker stressed children‘s individuality and promoted self-expression, socialized activity and a more informal atmosphere. An endowment enabled him to establish the Chicago Institute in 1899.
    (HNQ, 9/6/00)

1880        James Albert Bonsack (1859-1924) invented the first cigarette rolling machine. He received 2 patents for it in 1881. Bonsack's machine was able to produce 120,000 cigarettes in ten hours, revolutionizing the cigarette industry. In 2007 Allan M. Brandt authored “The Cigarette Century: The Rise and Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product that Defined America."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Albert_Bonsack)

1880        The Przewalski’s horse, a wild sub-species of an ancient type was discovered in Mongolia about this time. 1870s, The Russian explorer, Colonel Nicholas Prjevalski, traveled through Mongolia. The wild horses of the Mongolian steppes are named after him.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p.493)(SFC, 4/14/96, T-1)

1880        Pueblo Chochiti men led anthropologist Adolph F.A. Bandolier to Frijoles Canyon in New Mexico. Bandolier later authored the novel on Pueblo life called “The Delightmakers." Cliff dwelling in the area were preserved (1916) in a national park named after Bandelier.
    (SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D7)

1880        Woodsmen march west to Wisconsin clearing forests of white pine, yellow birch, hemlock, maple, and oak.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.51)

1880        Johnson Chestnut Whittaker, one of the first blacks to attend West Point, was assaulted in his room by three masked men. No one confessed and Whittaker was expelled when the school concluded that he faked the attack. In 1995 Pres. Clinton awards a military commission to Whittaker posthumously.
    (WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-1)

1880        Daniel Mooney, a prospector, plunged to his death and gave his name to Mooney Falls in Havasu Canyon, Arizona.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F4)

1880        Sydney journalists J.F. Archibald and John Haynes founded “The Bulletin" with an editorial focus on political and business commentary, with some literary content. The magazine shut down in 2008 due to falling circulation blamed in part on the Internet.
    (AP, 1/24/08)
1880        Melbourne, Australia, held an Int’l. Exposition.
    (Hem, 8/02, p.46)

1880        In Austria Dr. Josef Breuer (1842-1925) found his patient Bertha Pappenheim (aka Anna O), an hysteric woman, was relieved of symptoms after he had induced her to recall unpleasant past experiences under hypnosis. His talk therapy involved some 1,000 hours of treatment. The case introduced Freud to the cathartic method, the “talking cure," pivotal in his later work.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/79009/Josef-Breuer)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.85)

1880        The Sarajevo Brewery was built. Builders dug 3 wells down 600 feet to provide water for the brewery. The Austro-Hungarian empire ruled Bosnia at this time.
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.A8)

1880        Britain assigned all North American Arctic islands to Canada, right up to Ellesmere Island. From this vast swath of territory were created three provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) and two territories (Yukon and Nunavut), and two extensions each to Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Confederation)
1880        A British effort to tunnel under the Channel stopped after 1½ miles.  The Chunnel was completed in 1994.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1880        William Harry Grindley started W.H. Grindley & Co. of Tunstall, Staffordshire, England, for the manufacture of English china. The business continued until 1991.
    (SFC, 12/19/07, p.G5)
1880        Britain’s exports of manufactured goods accounted for 40% of the global total.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.3)

1880        Colonel Olcott and Madame Blavatsky took Buddhist vows in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).
    (Smith., 5/95, p.120)

1880        Swedish Egyptologist Karl Piehl uncovered the tomb of Amenhotep, the deputy seal-bearer of the Pharaoh King Tuthmosis III (1504BC-1452BC), in the city of Luxor, about 600 km (375 miles) to the south of the capital Cairo. It later disappeared under the sand and was rediscovered in 2009.
    (Reuters, 3/1/09)
1880        Abi Hasira (b.1807), a Jewish kabbalist (aka Abu Hassira, Jacoub Ben Masoud, Yaakov Abuhatzeira) and the son of the chief rabbi of Morocco, died in Damanhur, near Alexandria, Egypt, following an attempted trip to the Holy Land. He is revered by some Jews as a mystic renowned for his piety and for performing miracles. His gravesite became popular with pilgrims.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7pryucu)(AP, 1/4/10)

1880        The Hotel Concorde Saint-Lazare was built near the St. Lazare train station in Paris at the behest of the government to encourage travel by train. In 2006 the hotel was purchased by Westbrook Partners, an American private equity group.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.98)
1880        France resurrected Bastille Day as a national holiday. The July 14 holiday had been abolished by Napoleon Bonaparte. “La Marseillaise" was adopted as the French national anthem. In 2008 Christopher Prendergast authored “the Fourteenth of July: And the Taking of the Bastille."
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.91)
1880        The Hermes harness makers of France added saddle-making to their manufacturing list.
    (Hem., 7/95, p.27)
1880        The French colonized Polynesia.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T12)
c1880        The Durif grape was named by Francois Durif, French botanist and grape breeder, as the result of an unintended crossing between two varieties. California vines labeled Petite Sirah were later identified as Durif. In 1998 the Durif grape was identified as a cross between the French grape Peloursin and Syrah
    (SFC, 1/20/05, p.F5)

1880        Heinrich Schliemann, German entrepreneur and archeologist, donated the treasure he found at the site of Troy to Germany in 1881. He had dubbed the collection "Priam’s Treasure." The archeologist bequeathed the treasure "to the German people for undivided and eternal preservation in the capital of the Reich" in 1880. [must have been on the cusp]
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 4/17/96, p.A-18)

1880        Irish tenant farmers, seeking rent cuts after poor harvests, staged a protest and refused to respond to eviction notices from estate manager Charles Boycott (thus immortalizing his name).
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1880        A tablet known as the Siloam inscription was found in a tunnel hewed to channel water from a spring outside Jerusalem's walls into the city and taken by the Holy Land's Ottoman rulers to Istanbul. It was later placed in the collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. The tunnel was constructed around 700 BC, a project mentioned in the Old Testament's Book of Chronicles. The tablet was installed to celebrate the moment the two construction teams of King Hezekiah met underground. In 2007 Jerusalem's mayor asked the Turkish government to return the tablet.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

1880        Japan’s Yokohama Specie Bank was founded. It became the Bank of Tokyo in 1946. Following later mergers it became part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group in 2005.
    (WSJ, 9/23/08, p.C1)

1880        Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine were part of Syria under Ottoman rule.
    (Econ, 5/27/06, p.80)

1880        Palestinian nun Sister Maria Alfonsina Danil Ghattas (1843) and Father Joseph Tannous co-founded the Sisters of the Most Holy Rosary of Jerusalem. In 2009 she was beatified, an important step toward sainthood.
    (www.zenit.org/article-26823?l=english)(SFC, 11/23/09, p.A2)

1880        Russia began keeping records of its weather.
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.40)

1880        Sadiq Bey, an Egyptian army colonel, took the first known photographs of Mecca and Medina. He traveled extensively between 1860-1880 and kept itineraries of his travels. The photos were sold to the Saudi government in 1998.
    (WSJ, 6/19/98, p.W12)

1880        In Spain Captain Salvador Ordonez developed a new artillery piece to defend harbors and military installations.
    (G, Spring/98, p.5)

1880        The city of Timbuktu, later part of Mali, became part of the French colony of Upper Senegal.
    (ON, 11/06, p.7)

1880        In Zaire Catholicism became established. In 1980 Pope John visited Kinshasa for the centennial of Catholicism in Zaire.
    (SFC, 7/18/97, p.A10)

1880-1889    The San Francisco Belt Line began operating during this period to move freight from ships docked at the port for trans-shipment by rail.
    (SSFC, 10/18/09, p.A2)

1880s         Lord Bryce published "The American Commonwealth."
    (WSJ, 3/12/98, p.A16)

1880s        There was a petition to Congress by 52 Indians of Yosemite requesting $1 million to relinquish rights to the valley. There is no record of any response.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)
1880s        Blacks fell prey to a resurgent Southern racism that culminated in the rigid system of segregation and exploitation that went by the name of "Jim Crow."
    (WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A6)
1880s        Henry D. Cogswell, dentist, made a fortune in SF real estate. He was a man of temperance and financed a number of fountains that were donated to cities in America, including the one in Washington D.C. on 7th St.
    (HT, 4/97, p.80)
1880s        The Rockland Lime and Lumber Company burned local redwood off the Big Sur coastline to produce lime from the naturally occurring limestone. It was then packed into barrels and shipped to Monterey and SF where it was used to make cement. The site later became Limekiln State Park.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T3)

1880s    In great land runs of the US, settlers jumped the gun to go to Oklahoma, which thus became nicknamed the Sooner State. In the Choctaw language, Oklahoma means red human. [see 1889]
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-6)
 
1880s    The Aunt Jemima Manufacturing Co. was founded in St. Joseph, Mo. The firm was sold to the R.T. Davis Milling Co. in the early 1890s.
    (SFC,10/22/97, Z1 p.7)

1880s    Margarete Steiff went into business making stuffed animals. In the mid-1920s she introduced stuffed Jocko and other stuffed chimpanzees, named after famous circus chimps.
    (SFC, 5/20/98, Z1 p.6)

1880s    The Mapuche Indians were conquered by the Chilean army. By 2000 they lost nearly 95% of their land on the Bio Bio River.
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, p.A18)

1880s    Anti-Semitism in France spread as a creed to the Catholic, royalist right. A belief was rampant that there existed a Jewish "syndicate" whose occult influence had shaped French affairs since the Revolution. This belief inspired "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" and a book by Edouard Drumont titled "Jewish France" that sold through 200 editions.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A13)

1880s    Germany set up a vocational training system.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.30)
1880s    In Germany Louis Doberman, a night watchman and keeper of the local dog pound, refined the dog that bears his name into a fierce creature.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)

1880s    The Palace of Justice in Valladolid, Mexico, was built by Belgian engineer Guillermo Wodon de Sorinne.
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1880s    Namibia was made a German protectorate and the deadly Deutsche Schutzruppe "peacekeeping regiment" quelled the tribes. They eventually annihilated 75% of the Herero and Nama peoples.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.T4)

1880s-1890s    The art phenomenon of "tonalism" was a darker cousin to Impressionism. Some of its practitioners were George Innes, Thomas Wilmer Dewing and J. Alden Weir.
    (WSJ, 11/2/99, p.A24)

1880s-1890s    Lev Ivanov was the second ballet master of the St. Petersburg imperial theaters, assistant to Marius Petipa. In 1997 Roland John Wiley published "The Life and Ballets of Lev Ivanov."
    (WSJ, 11/18/97, p.A20)

1880-1900    Rodin worked on his "Gates of Hell" over this period.
    (SFC, 8/18/99, p.D5)

1880-1901    Abdur Rahman, backed by the British, took the throne of Afghanistan as Emir and ruled to 1901. During his reign, Afghanistan was sandwiched between the British colonial rulers of India, which then encompassed modern-day Pakistan, and the Russian empire that extended into Caucasus areas of Central Asia. As the British and the Russians built tracks that went right up to his border, Rahman Khan responded with a decree that no railroad would be allowed to enter Afghan territory, reasoning that without them, it would be difficult for invading troops to cross the mountainous frontier.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.12)(AP, 3/10/12)

1880-1914    This period of time is examined in through an economic perspective by Guilio Gallarotti in his Anatomy of an International Monetary Regime: The Classical Gold Standard 1880-1914.
    (WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)

1880-1920    The Beaux-Arts style defined Manhattan building over this period. It was named after the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris where many American architects studied. The style reflects a modern interpretation of classical references, e.g. columns, domes, carved marble and worked bronze.
    (WSJ, 4/22/97, p.A20)
1880-1920    Over 2 billion board feet of white pine were shipped out of northern Minnesota to build the towns and cities of a growing America. In 2004 Jeff Forester authored “The Forest for the Trees: How Humans shaped the North Woods."
    (NH, 10/1/04, p.70)
1880-1920    The population of Congo was halved due to murder, starvation, exhaustion, exposure, disease, and a lowered birth rate due to the exploitation by King Leopold II.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)

1880-1930    The 3rd wave of immigrants arrived in Hawaii to work on sugar cane and then pineapple plantations owned by Europeans and Americans. The first workers were Chinese and they were followed by Japanese, Okinawans, Koreans, Puerto Ricans, Portuguese and Filipinos.
    (SFEM, 2/8/98, p.10,32)
1880-1930    A 2nd major wave of Italians immigrated to California. The 1st wave was in 1850-1870.
    (SSFC, 7/10/05, p.D5)

1880-1936    Oswald Spengler, German philosopher, author of the Decline of the West.
    (AHD, 1971, p.1242)

1880-1940    This period in the colonial history of Kenya was chronicled with a collection of photographs in 2008 by Nigel Pavit in his book “Kenya: A Country in the Making."
    (WSJ, 9/27/08, p.W11)

1880-1942    Robert Musil, Austrian writer. His work included "The Man Without Qualities."
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, BR p.9)

1880-1946    Arthur Dove, American painter, was a native of upstate New York and received a stipend from Duncan Phillips at age 50 that allowed him to paint full time. He reduced natural forms to what he called "extractions" and tried to create the sensory experience of being in nature.
    (SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)(WSJ, 3/6/98, p.A13)

1880-1946    Channing Pollock, American author and dramatist: "Happiness is a way station between too much and too little."
    (AP, 10/27/99)

1880-1950    In 2002 Robert M. Fogelson of MIT authored "Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1880-1950." It was a look at how big cities stumbled into decline.
    (SSFC, 3/31/02, p.M6)

1880-1954    B.C. Forbes, Scottish journalist: "You have no idea how big the other fellow's troubles are."
    (AP, 12/17/98)

1880-1956     H.L. Mencken, American author and journalist: "It is the dull man who is always sure, and the sure man who is always dull." "One may no more live in the world without picking up the moral prejudices of the world than one will be able to go to Hell without perspiring." "Injustice is relatively easy to bear; what stings is justice."
    (AP, 5/14/97)(AP, 6/14/98)(AP, 10/10/98)   

1880-1958    Dame Christabel Pankhurst, English suffragist: "Never lose your temper with the press or the public is a major rule of political life."
    (AP, 3/21/99)

1880-1960    Kathleen Norris, American author: "Each and every one of us has one obligation, during the bewildered days of our pilgrimage here: the saving of his own soul, and secondarily and incidentally thereby affecting for good such other souls as come under our influence."
    (AP, 12/6/98)

1880-1962    R.H. Tawney, English historian, drew a strong connection between Protestantism and the rise of capitalism.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.167)

1881        Jan 2, Camille Saint-Saens' 3rd Concerto in B premiered.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1881        Feb 4, Fernand Leger (d.1955), French painter, was born.
    (HN, 2/4/01)
1881        Jan 4, The "Academic Festival Overture" by Johannes Brahms premiered in Breslau.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1881        Jan 22, Ancient Egyptian obelisk, "Cleopatra's Needle," was erected in Central Park.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1881        Feb 4, Kliment J. Woroshilov, marshal, president USSR (1953-60), was born.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1881        Feb 5, Phoenix, Ariz., was incorporated.
    (AP, 2/5/97)
1881        Feb 5, Thomas Carlyle (b.1795), Scottish essayist and historian, died in London.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/carlyle.htm)

1881        Feb 9, Feodor M. Dostoevsky (59), Russian novelist (Crime & Punishment), died.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1881        Feb 10, The Offenbach (d.1880) opera "Les Contes d’Hoffman" (Tales of Hoffman) had its premiere at the Opera-Comique.
    (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)( LGC-HCS, p.310)

1881        Feb 14, Otto Selz, German psychologist, was born.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1881        Feb 19, Kansas became the first state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages.
    (AP, 2/19/98)

1881        Feb 26, Natal British troops under General-Major Colley occupied Majuba Hill.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1881        Feb 26, SS Ceylon began its 1st round-the-world cruise from Liverpool.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1881        Mar 4, Fiction’s Sherlock Holmes and Watson began "A Study in Scarlet", their 1st case together.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1881        Mar 4, James A. Garfield was inaugurated as 20th President.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1881        Mar 4, California became the 1st state to pass plant quarantine legislation.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1881        Mar 4, South African President Kruger accepted a cease-fire with the British in the First Boer War (1880-1881 – aka Transvaal Revolt). [see Mar 23]
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1881        Mar 13, Alexander II (62), Tsar of Russia, was assassinated when a bomb was thrown at him near his palace by the anarchist group People’s Will led by Sophia Perovskaya. He was succeeded by his son Alexander III (36). A wave of repression and persecution followed. In 2005 Edvard Radzinsky authored the biography “Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar."
    (PCh, 1992, p.557)(WSJ, 4/17/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 10/27/05, p.D7)

1881        Mar 16, Barnum & Bailey Circus debuted. [see Mar 18]
    (MC, 3/16/02)
1881        Mar 16, Modest P. Mussorgsky (42), Russian composer (Boris Godunov), died. [see Mar 28]
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1881        Mar 18, Barnum and Bailey’s Greatest Show on Earth opened in Madison Square Gardens. [see Mar 16]
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1881        Mar 23, Hermann Staudinger, chemist, plastics researcher (Nobel '53), was born in Germany.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1881        Mar 23, Roger Martin du Guard, French novelist (Les Thibault-Nobel 1937), was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1881        Mar 23, Boers and Britain signed a peace accord. This ended the 1st Boer war.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1881        Mar 23, Gas lamp set fire to Nice, France, opera house and 70 died.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1881        Mar 28, "Greatest Show On Earth" was formed by P.T. Barnum and James A. Bailey. [see 1879 and Mar 16,18, 1881]
    (MC, 3/28/02)
1881        Mar 28, Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (42), composer, died. [see Mar 16]
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1881        Mar 29, Raymond Hood, architect, was born.
    (HN, 3/29/01)

1881         Apr 1,  Anti-Jewish riots took place in Jerusalem.
    (OTD)
1881           Apr 1,  Kingdom post office in Netherlands opened.
    (OTD)

1881        Apr 7, Lewis R. Redmond, a North Carolina moonshiner wanted for murder, was cornered at his home. He was shot 6 times while trying to escape, but survived and was convicted and sentenced to 10 years in prison. He served just 3 years and returned to work for a licensed distillery.
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W11)

1881        Apr 8, Fernand Lamy, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1881        Apr 11, River ferry "Princess Victoria" sank in Thames River, Ontario, and 180 died. [see May 24]
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1881        Apr 19, Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, British PM (1868, 1874-1880), novelist, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.415)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Disraeli)

1881        Apr 22, Alexander Kerensky, Russian PM (1917), was born in Simbirsk.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1881        Apr 23, Gilbert & Sullivan's opera "Patience" was produced in London.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1881        Apr 27, Pogroms against Russian Jews started in Elisabethgrad.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1881        Apr 28, Billy the Kid was held in Lincoln County Courthouse jail, near Carrizozo N.M. for the shooting of Sheriff William Brady, but escaped and killed two guards. He used an 1876 single-action army revolver made by Samuel Colt. The gun sold for $46,000 in 1998.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, p.T8,9)(AP internet 7/14/97)(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W12)(SFC, 2/2/01, p.A14)
1881        Apr 28, Robert W. Ollinger, US warden, last victim of Billy the Kid, died.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1881        May 1, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (d.1955), French Jesuit philosopher, paleontologist, was born. He authored the "Phenomenon of Man" wherein he proposed the idea of the noosphere, i.e. sphere of mind, in which all the minds of all the humans on earth could be conceived of as both separate and as combined in one great, single intelligence.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.388)(MC, 5/1/02)
1881        May 1, A family wagon got stuck on train tracks the SF Bay town of San Lorenzo, Ca. 5 of 6 children were killed.
    (http://www.sanlorenzoheritage.org/history/slzintro.htm)(SFC, 10/10/14, p.A11)

1881        May 4, Aleksandr F. Kerenski, Russian premier (1917) Predecessor  to Bolshevist coup), was born.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1881        May 5, Anti-Jewish rioting took place in Kiev, Ukraine.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1881        May 8, Henry Morton Stanley signed a contract with a Congo monarch. [see Sep 24]
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1881        May 12, The Treaty of Bardo established Tunis [Tunisia] as a French protectorate. The French withdrew their forces after signing the treaty. The terms of the agreement gave France responsibility for the defense and foreign policy decisions of Tunisia. Henceforth, Tunis became a French protectorate
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Bardo)

1881        May 14, Rudolph Karstadt founded his first store in Wismar, Germany. In 1999 Karstadt merged with Quelle, a mail-order business founded in 1927 by Gustav Schickedanz. By 2009 the venerable German chain, which  included the famous Berlin department store KaDeWe, faced bankruptcy after years of erratic management.
    (WSJ, 7/17/06, p.C8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quelle_(company))(AFP, 9/3/10)
1881        May 14, Mary Seacole (b.1805), Jamaican nurse, died. She is best known for her efforts in the Crimean War during the 1850s. She borrowed money to make the 4,000-mile (about 6500 km) journey by herself and distinguished herself treating battlefield wounded, often nursing wounded soldiers from both sides while under fire.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

1881        May 16, World's 1st electric tram went into service in Lichterfelder near Berlin.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1881        May 17, Frederick Douglass was appointed recorder of deeds for Washington, D.C.
    (HN, 5/17/98)

1881        May 19, Kemal Ataturk (d.1938), first president (1923-38) of the Republic of Turkey, later set this as his birth date. He did not know the exact day, but favored May 19, tied to his start in 1919 of the war for independence.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mustafa_Kemal_Atat%C3%BCrk)(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.N3)

1881        May 21, Clara Barton filed papers for the American Association of the Red Cross.
    (ON, 8/12, p.12) (AP, 5/21/97)

1881        May 24, Some 200 people died when the Canadian ferry Princess Victoria sank near London, Ontario. [see Apr 11]
    (AP, 5/24/97)
1881        May 24, Samuel Palmer (b.1805), English painter and printmaker, died. He was a leading light in a brotherhood of painters called the “Ancients," for their preference of archaic Gothic architecture. In 2011 Rachel Campbell-Johnston authored “Mysterious Wisdom: the Life and Work of Samuel Palmer."
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Palmer)

1881        May 29, Frederik Septimus Kelly, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1881        Jun 12, The steamship USS Jeannette sank under ice during an expedition to reach the North Pole. The crew, having abandoned the ship, prepared 3 lifeboats in an attempt to reach Siberia. Less than half survived. Chief engineer George W. Melville (d.1912) made it back to NYC on Sep 13, 1883, and in 1900 became engineer in chief of the US Navy. In 2014 Hampton Sides authored “In the Kingdom of Ice: The Grand and Terrible Polar Voyage of the USS Jeannette."
    (http://tinyurl.com/l8pd4zh)(ON, 2/05, p.1,5)

1881        Jun 25, Crystal Eastman, suffragist, was born.
    (HN, 6/25/01)

1881        Jun 29, Muhammad Ahmad (1844-1855) proclaimed himself as the Mahdi or messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith in Sudan and led a successful military campaign against the Turco-Egyptian government of the Sudan (known as the Turkiyah).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ahmad)

1881        Jul 2, Less than four months after his inauguration, James Garfield, the 20th President of the US, was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau, who wished to be appointed consul to France, at the Washington railroad station. Garfield lived out the summer with a fractured spine and seemed to be gaining strength until he caught a chill and died on September 19. Guiteau was apprehended at the time of the shooting and, in spite of an insanity defense, was convicted of murder. Chester Alan Arthur became the 21st President. Guiteau was hanged in June 1882.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo,110)(HN, 7/2/98)(HNPD, 9/19/98)(AP, 7/2/07)

1881        Jul 4, In Alabama Tuskegee Institute enrolled 30 students. It was founded by former slave Booker T. Washington as a "normal" school and industrial institute where "colored" people with little or no formal schooling could be trained as teachers and skilled workers.
    (NH, 2/97, p.82)(WSJ, 2/24/98, p.A22)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1881        Jul 8, Edward Berner of Two Rivers, Wisconsin, created the Sundae.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1881        Jul 14, Outlaw Billy the Kid (21), (born as Henry McCarty) aka William H. Bonney or Kid Antrim, was shot and killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Billy had been held in Lincoln County Courthouse jail but escaped and killed two guards. The Kid had fled to Fort Sumner and on a tip, Garrett set out toward Fort Sumner to find him, with lawmen John Poe and Thomas C. "Kip" McKinney. According to some, Pete Maxwell had alerted Poe to the Kid's whereabouts. Many details about Billy the Kid's death are controversial but, apparently, as he was returning to Maxwell's house he came upon Poe and McKinney outside, unsure of whether they were friends or foes. Garrett was awaiting inside, and as the Kid entered the room, Garrett shot him above the heart. Newspaperman A.J. Fountain awarded Garrett a gold star, which fetched $100,000 at auction in 2008. Joel Jacobsen later authored "Such Men as Billy the Kid."
    (AP, 7/14/97)(HNPD, 7/14/98)(SFC, 2/2/01, p.A14)(SFC, 6/17/08, p.B8)

1881        Jul 20, Sioux Indian leader Sitting Bull, a fugitive since the Battle of the Little Big Horn, surrendered to federal troops.
    (AP, 7/20/97)(HN, 7/20/98)

1881        Jul 21, Frederick Dick, physician, was born.
    (HN, 7/21/02)

1881        Jul 22, Margery Williams Bianco, author (The Velveteen Rabbit), was born.
    (HN, 7/22/02)
1881        Jul 22, The first volume of "The War of the Rebellion," a compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, was published.
    (HN, 7/22/99)

1881        Jul, US Army Lt. Augustus W. Greely led a scientific expedition to Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic and called the site Ft. Conger. 25 American soldiers set forth to establish a scientific base in the Arctic. There were only 6 survivors. In 2000 Leonard Gurttridge authored "Ghosts of Cape Sabine," which told their story.
    (SFC, 3/9/00, p.D12)

1881        Aug 3, US Nation Lawn Tennis Association removed "Nation" from name.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1881        Aug 6, Alexander Fleming (d.1955), Scottish bacteriologist who discovered penicillin (1928), was born. He won the Nobel Prize in 1945. Fleming first observed the antibiotic properties of the mold that makes penicillin, but it was Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Walter Florey who developed it into a useful treatment.
    (AHD, 1971, p.501)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Fleming)

1881        Aug 8, Paul L.E. von Kleist, German general-fieldmarshal (Eastern Front), was born.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1881        Aug 12, Cecil B. DeMille (d.1959), pioneering motion picture director, was born in Mass. Before becoming a household name in the early days of movie-making, he attended the New York Academy of Dramatic Arts and in 1900 began working on plays with his older brother William. The director, producer and screenwriter was most famous for his movie "The Ten Commandments."
    (HNPD, 8/12/98)(HN, 8/12/98)(SC, 8/12/02)

1881        Aug 13, The first African-American nursing school opened at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1881        Aug 19, Georges Enescu, composer (Romanian Dances), was born in Romania.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1881        Aug 20, Nikolay Yakovlevich Myaskovsky, composer, was born in Poland of Russian military parentage.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(Internet)

1881        Aug 27, New York state’s Pure Food Law went into effect to prevent "the adulteration of food or drugs."
    (HN, 8/27/00)
1881        Aug 27, A hurricane hit Florida and the Carolinas; about 700 died.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1881        Aug 31, The first U.S. tennis championships (for men) were played, in Newport, R.I.
    (AP, 8/31/06)

1881        Aug, The Edison Electric Illumination Co. began building its 1st DC generating plant in Manhattan. The station was completed in September of 1882.
    (ON, 10/04, p.5)

1881        Sep 3, Anton Bruckner completed his 6th Symphony.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1881        Sep 5, A fire in the thumb of Michigan killed 169 people and burned a million acres.
    (SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)

1881        Sep 13, Lewis Latimer invented and patented an electric lamp with a carbon filament.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1881        Sep 13, Ambrose Everett Burnside, US Union general, died at 57.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1881        Sep 15, Ettore Arco Isidoro Bugatti (d.1947), race car builder (Amaz Bugattis), was born in Milan, Italy.
    (www.britannica.com)

1881        Sep 18, The Chicago Tribune reported on a televideo experiment.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1881        Sep 19, The 20th president of the United States, James A. Garfield, died of wounds inflicted by assassin, Charles J. Guiteau. Alexander Graham Bell had made several unsuccessful attempts to remove the assassin’s bullet with a new metal detection device.
    (AP, 9/19/97)(AP, 11/14/97)(ON, 5/02, p.9)

1881        Sep 20, Chester A. Arthur was sworn in as the 21st president of the United States, succeeding James A. Garfield, who had been assassinated.
    (AP, 9/20/97)(HNPD, 9/19/98)

1881        Sep 24, Henry Morton Stanley signed a contract with Congo monarch. [see May 8]
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1881        Sep 26, The Alice Buck, a ship from New York loaded with railroad iron for Portland, hit rocks north of Point Montara. 13 were rescued and 6 people died.
    (Ind, 3/31/01, 5A)

1881        Oct 4, [Heinrich AH] Walther von Brauchitsch, German field marshal, was born.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1881        Oct 11, David Houston patented roll film for cameras.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1881        Oct 13, A revival of the Hebrew language began as Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends agreed to use Hebrew exclusively in their conversations.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1881        Oct 15, Pelham Grenville Wodehouse (d.1975), British writer and humorist, was born in Guildford, Surrey, England. He produced 93 books and countless articles and short stories. He was the creator of the two great comic characters: Bertie Wooster and his valet, Jeeves.
    (Hem., 10/’95, p.109)(HN, 10/15/00)

1881          Oct 22, Boston Symphony Orchestra gave its 1st concert.
    (www.bach-cantatas.com/Bio/BSO.htm)

1881        Oct 25, Pablo Picasso (d.1973), painter and sculptor, was born in Malaga, Spain. He worked in France and a painter and sculptor. Francoise Gilot was the mother of 2 of his children. His work includes “Gilot," and “Self-Portrait with a Palette" (1906). He immortalized the French apéritif Pernod by including it in many paintings. “Picasso and Dora" was written by James Lord.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, p.C11)(SFC, 8/14/96, zz-1 p.4) (WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A14)(HN, 10/25/98)

1881        Oct 26, Wyatt Earp, his two brothers and "Doc" Holliday showed up at the OK Corral in Tombstone, Arizona, to disarm the Clanton and McLaury boys, who were in violation of a ban on carrying guns in the city limits: "Gunfight at the O.K. Corral." Billy Clanton and Tom and Frank McLaury were killed; Earp’s brothers were wounded. This was the notorious "Showdown at the OK Corral." In 1992 the "Encyclopedia of Western Lawmen and Outlaws" by Jay Robert Nash was published. In 1999 Allan Barra published "Inventing Wyatt Earp: His Life and Many Legends."
    (SFC, 8/19/96, p.A3)(AP, 10/26/97)(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T6)(SFEC, 1/17/99, BR p.5)

1881        Nov 7, Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday, two participants in Tombstone, Arizona’s, famous Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, were jailed as the hearings on what happened in the fight grew near.
    (HN, 11/7/98)

1881        Nov 14, Charles J. Guiteau went on trial for assassinating President Garfield. Guiteau was convicted and hanged the following year.
    (AP, 11/14/97)

1881        Nov 15, The American Federation of Labor was founded. [see Nov 17]
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1881        Nov 17, Under Samuel Gompers (d.1924), the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Union of the United States was formed--a precursor to the American Federation of Labor. Gompers emigrated from England to New York with his family as a boy. He grew up working in a sweatshop and amid discussion about labor reform. Gompers led the AFL for 40 years, sometimes using strikes and boycotts to demand workers' rights. He successfully changed the unionism of the 19th century in the United States, uniting different labor groups and keeping away from political influence to guide American laborers. [see Nov 15]
    (HNPD, 11/17/98)

1881        Nov 25, Pope John the 23rd (1958-1963) was born Angelo Roncalli near Bergamo, Italy.
    (AP, 11/25/97)(MC, 11/25/01)

1881        Nov 28, Stefan Zweig (d.1942), poet, essayist, dramatist (Beware of Pity), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_Zweig)

1881        Dec 1, Virgil, Wyatt and Morgan Earp were exonerated in court for their action in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Ariz.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1881        Dec 8, Vienna's Ring Theater was destroyed by fire and 640-850 people were killed.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1881        Dec 10, Viscount Alexander of Tunis, British soldier, was born. He took his title from his part in the Allied victories in North Africa.
    (HN, 12/10/99)

1881        Dec 20, Branch Ricky, President of the Brooklyn Dodgers who made Jackie Robinson the first black to play in the modern major leagues in 1947, was born.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1881        Dec, German-born illustrator Thomas Nast made his familiar illustration of "Merry Old Santa Claus" in Harper's Weekly.
    (HNPD, 12/25/99)

1881        Claude Monet painted his landscape "Paysage Dans L’Ile Saint Martin." It later ended up in the corporate collection of Reader’s Digest.
    (WSJ, 11/13/98, p.W16)

1881        Pierre-Auguste Renoir painted "On the Terrace," a picture of a young woman and a pink-cheeked child with the Seine in the background.
    (DPCP 1984)

1881        Rodin sculpted his "Eve."
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.46)

1881        Anton Romako (Vienna) painted "Girl on a Swing (Olga van Wassermann)."
    (SFC, 8/29/01, p.E5)

1881        In Japan Shibata Zeshin made a book of lacquer paintings on paper, a medium that he alone mastered.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)

1881        Frank Baum, publisher of the South Dakota Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer, called for the extermination of American Indians. "Having wronged them for centuries we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the Earth." Baum later authored "The Wizard of Oz."
    (SFC, 10/10/00, p.A2)

1881        "What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking" by Abby Fisher was published by the Women’s Co-operative Printing Office.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, zz1, p.1)

1881        The travel diaries “Notes of a Pianist" by Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869) was published. This was the 1st book of permanent interest by an American artist who was not a full-time author. The book was reprinted in 2006.
    (WSJ, 7/22/06, p.P14)

1881        Helen Hunt Jackson (1831-1885) wrote "A Century of Dishonor: The Early Crusade for Indian Reform."
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.7)

1881        Henry James wrote his novel "The Portrait of a Lady." He also wrote his novella "Washington Square." Both books were later made into films.
    (SFC, 5/9/97, p.D12)(SFC, 10/10/97, p.C1)

1881        A Massachusetts lighthouse was erected in Wellfleet. It was later moved by the Coast Guard from Wellfleet to Yerba Buena, Calif., and to Point Montara, Ca., in 1928.
    (AP, 6/5/08)(SFC, 6/14/08, p.B2)

1881        James T. Lafferty, a real estate developer, built his 65-foot, wood and tin, Lucy the Elephant building in Margate, NJ., a suburb of Atlantic City. In 1970 the 6-story structure was relocated to a nearby park.
    (SSFC, 8/19/01, p.T2)(NW, 8/26/02, p.51)(NG, 8/04, p.146)

1881        Dankmar Adler, Chicago engineer, invited Louis Sullivan to form a partnership. There was much work in Chicago after the Great Fire that destroyed 18,000 buildings and covered three square miles.
    (Hem., 7/95, p.77)

1881        Rev. F.M. Warrington described the mining town of Bodie, Calif., as "a sea of sin, lashed by the tempests of lust and passion."
    (SFC, 6/23/96, p.T1,3)

1881        Judge James Logan (d.1928) produced the loganberry, saying that he invented it and raised it from a seed.
    (SFC, 11/29/97, p.C3)

1881        Henry Chadwick became editor of the annual Spalding Guide on baseball.
    (WSJ, 7/19/01, p.A20)

1881        The only recorded 19th-century incident in which Indian scouts turned against the U.S. Army occurred at Cibicue Creek in Arizona Territory. At Cibicue Creek, White Mountain Apache scouts were asked to campaign against their own kin, resulting in a mutiny against the army soldiers. Three of the mutinous scouts were later court-martialed and executed.
    (HNQ, 2/27/99)

1881        David and William White founded their White Furniture Co. in Mebane, NC. The business continued until 1993.
    (SFC, 1/25/06, p.G2)

1881        Joseph Brandenstein opened a coffee company in SF, naming it after his son Michael J. Brandenstein and Co. The name was later shortened to MJB Inc.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.D2)(SFC, 6/5/08, p.C2)

1881        The Tennessee Coal and Railroad Co. was renamed to the Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Co.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1881        The USS Constitution (aka Old Ironsides) last sailed under free sail. It was restored in 1931 and visited ports on both coasts until 1934. It sailed again in 1997.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.14)(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A1)

1881        Denver was made the capital of the state of Colorado. Denver was named after the governor of the Kansas Territory, James William Denver.
    (HNQ, 4/4/00)

1881        Hamilton Disston (1844-1896) negotiated with Florida Governor Bloxham and the Internal Improvement Fund to drain all of the lands overflowed by Lake Okeechobee and the Kissimmee River in exchange for one-half the reclaimed land. Disston also purchased outright from the State four million acres of overflowed lands at 25 cents an acre. He dug 80 miles of drainage canals before he ran out of money.
    (www.tommymarkham.com/OCF/ocf01.htm)(Sm, 3/06, p.52)

1881        Dutch Henry, a miner in Oregon’s Rogue River area, went on trial for the murder of a suspiciously large number of fellow miners in “self defense," but was not convicted.
    (SSFC, 3/18/07, p.G4)

1881        The Michigan Legislature required that the bodies of indigents, who would otherwise be buried by the state, to be turned over to the Univ. of Michigan Medical School.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.3)
1881        Alice Freeman Palmer became the forward-thinking president of Wellesley College after graduating from the Univ. of Mich. in 1876.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.12)

1881        Enrico Rosenzi and Benjamin Lupton, founder of the West Side Glass Co. of Bridgeton, NJ, patented Ferroline, an opaque black glass. Their factory burned down in 1885 and production ceased in 1886 as sales faltered.
    (SFC, 12/5/07, p.G2)

1881        The Wharton School was founded in Pennsylvania. In 2003 it was recognized as the oldest and best business school in the US.
    (WSJ, 9/17/03, p.A1)

1881        Adolph Sutro bought most of San Francisco’s western headlands. Sutro acquired 2200 acres of land around the Cliff House which had become a disreputable entertainment hall. Sutro bought the Cliff House and the adjacent 80 acres to develop a seaside attraction that included the Sutro Baths and the Sutro Conservatory.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.6)(G, Winter 98/99, p.1)(SFC, 4/14/99, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 9/29/12, p.C3)
1881        The city directory of San Francisco indicated 233,959 residents, 428 restaurants, 342 oyster saloons, 18 oyster dealers, 90 coffee saloons, 299 bakeries, 254 retail butchers, 205 fresh fruit sellers, some 1400 grocers and an equal number of bars, 40 brewers and 15 champagne importers.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, Z1, p.1)
1881        The story of California’s Asti Winery began as Italian Swiss Colony when Italian immigrant Andrea Sbarboro invited anybody of Italian or Swiss descent to join him and work on land at Asti in northern California to produce wine and share profits. Their first vintage in 1886 was called Tipo Chianti. In 2004 Jack Florence authored “Legacy of a Village: The Italian Swiss Colony Winery and People of Asti, California."
    (SSFC, 5/31/09, p.E6)

1881        William H. Purvis introduced macadamia nuts to Hawaii.
    (www.hawaiiag.org/history.htm)

1881        George B. Mattoon founded his Mattoon Manufacturing Co. in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. From 1904 to the 1950s the company manufactured upscale furniture. The name of the company was changed to Northern Furniture following Mattoon’s death (1916), when the Reiss family took over and re-named it R-Way Furniture. The Northern Furniture brand name continued.
    (SFC, 10/4/06, p.G2)

1881        In London a court and police station on Bow Street opened opposite the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden. The Bow Street court closed in 2006.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)

1881        The area around Bosnia was annexed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Pope Leo XIII reasserted the Catholic Church with dioceses in Sarajevo, Banja Luka and Mostar.
    (SFC, 4/15/97, p.A10)

1881        William Cornelius Van Horne (1843-1915), Illinois-born railroad manager, joined the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) as general manager with the task of managing the construction of the trans Canada railway.
    (ON, 11/07, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cornelius_Van_Horne)

1881        Francis Edgeworth (1845-1926), Irish-born economist, proposed the creation of a “hedonimeter," which would measure the utility that each individual gained from his decisions.
    (Econ, 7/26/08, p.84)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Ysidro_Edgeworth)

1881        Chilean soldiers pillaged Peru’s national library during the War of the Pacific. In 2007 Chile returned 3,778 books taken by its soldiers.
    (SFC, 11/7/07, p.A3)
1881        In Chile the Mapuches Indians made peace with the government. Their name means "people of the earth."
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.A12)
1881        A German expedition to Chile that took 11 Kawesqar Indians to Europe to appear in what was later described as a human zoo. 5 of the Indians died in 1882 in Zurich, Switzerland. Their remains were repatriated in 2010.
    (AP, 1/12/10)

1881        French composer Jules Massenet wrote the grand opera "Herodiade".
    (WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)
1881        The French state finally relinquished its hold on the arts and turned power over to the Societe des artistes Français.
    (Calg. Glen., 1996)
1881        France scrapped blasphemy laws. They had carried the death penalty before the 1789 revolution.
    (Econ, 1/24/15, p.53)

1881        Heinrich Schliemann, German entrepreneur and archeologist, donated the treasure he found at the site of Troy to Germany in 1881. He had dubbed the collection "Priam’s Treasure." The archeologist bequeathed the treasure "to the German people for undivided and eternal preservation in the capital of the Reich" in 1880.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 4/17/96, p.A-18)
1881        The Aug. Schatz & Sohne company was founded in Triburg, Germany, to produce clocks. These included anniversary clocks, also called 400-day clocks, because they could be wound to run for more than 365 days.
    (SFC, 2/21/07, p.G3)

1881        The first complete census of India’s population was conducted on a uniform basis providing the most complete and continuous demographic record for any comparable population.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5wdrbws)

1881        In Japan the Asahi Shimbun newspaper became jointly owned by Ryuhei Murayama and Riichi Ueno.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.A19)

1881        A writer named Carle Liche published an article in the Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine that described his travels in Madagascar. He claimed to be the first European to contact the Mkodo tribe of cave-dwelling pigmies and described a man-eating tree and a ceremony in which a woman was sacrificed to the sacred tree. The story was debunked in 1955 by science writer Willy Ley, who established that Liche was a pseudonym and that the Mkodos and their tree were fictional creations.
    (SSFC, 10/31/10, p.K2)

1881        Hamdi Bey (1842-1910), Ottoman statesman painter and archeologist, founded the Archeological Museum of Istanbul. It opened in 1891.
    (NH, 6/03, p.44)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osman_Hamdi_Bey)
1881         Ottoman forces crushed Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League's leaders and families were arrested and deported.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1881        A large pogrom took place against the Jews in Odessa, Ukraine.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.88)

1881        In Montevideo, Uruguay, the central fountain of Ciudad Vieja was built by Italians.
    (SSFC, 10/30/05, p.F6)

1881        King Lobengula left an encampment to regroup his "induna" warriors as colonial forces advanced toward it. In 1993 Lobengula's tribal capital was rebuilt as a symbolic national monument near the second city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, and became a center of academic and historical studies. In 2010 a bush fire destroyed the historic site.
    (AP, 8/26/10)

1881-1882    Although Pierre-Auguste Renoir embraced Impressionism early on, his travels to Algeria, Italy, and Provence from 1881-82 led him to reject the style. Renoir came from a family of artisans, who soon noticed and encouraged his aptitude for painting. When Renoir decided to study painting in earnest, he found himself stifled by the conventions and traditions of the day. Renoir and some of his fellow students (Frédéric Bazille, Claude Monet and Alfred Sisley) began meeting with young painters Paul Cézanne and Camille Pissarro and a style developed. Although critical and financial success did not come to the group with the first Impressionist exposition of 1874, Renoir’s interest in the human figure (as opposed to landscapes) led him to receive several portrait commissions. The trips in the early 1880s exposed him to elements of classicism that he felt drawn to in terms of both color and brushstrokes. However, despite his newfound interest, he retained the use of vibrant coloration and a bucolic view of nature.
    (HNQ, 5/23/01)
1881-1882    Dr. Muller of Germany was said to be working at the Swiss Geisenheim viticultural station when he made the crossing that joined the late-ripening Riesling and the early-ripening and prolific Silvaner. The grape became know as Muller-Thurgau. Müller-Thurgau entered the well-kept records of Germany's vineyards in 1921, but it was not until a major symposium on the crossing was held at Alzey in 1938 that it gained any widespread acceptance.
    (www.winepressnw.com/features/story/4842844p-4779998c.html)

1881-1890    The currency base of the US declined some 60% as the old Civil War bonds are paid off. This led to panics and instability.
    (WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-8)

1881-1885    Chester A. Arthur, Vice-President under Garfield, was the 21st President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)

1881-1885    Fort Hays, Kansas, was the temporary home to the black "buffalo soldiers."
    (NH, 7/98, p.30)

1881-1906    The town of Calico in San Bernadino County, Ca., grew during the gold rush. 50 mines produced some $21 million in silver over this period.
    (SFC, 6/24/02, p.A13)

1881-1919    Some 59 laborers, mostly Chinese immigrants, were killed during this period in explosions at the California Powder Works in Hercules. They were paid 12.5 cents per hour.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)

c.1881-1927     Mary Webb, Scottish religious leader: The more anybody wants a thing, the more they do think others want it. "The well of Providence is deep. It's the buckets we bring to it that are small."
    (AP, 7/7/97)(AP, 12/9/98)

1881-1934    In Germany Ernst Paul Lehmann made tin toys over this period in Brandenburg. His toys included a toy mule that kicked while pulling a cart driven by a clown called "the balky mule." The toy was valued at $1,500 in 1997.
    (SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.7)

1881-1945    Bela Bartok, Hungarian composer. His works include the opera: "Bluebeard’s Castle," and his pantomime score: "The Miraculous Mandarin," which first premiered in Cologne in 1926. Also he wrote: a Concerto for Orchestra, a Solo Violin Sonata, Third Piano Concerto, Four Pieces for Orchestra, the Contata Profana, a folk ballad for chorus and soloists.
    (WSJ, 8/24/95, p.A-14)

1881-1958     Rose Macaulay, English poet and essayist: "Work is a dull thing; you cannot get away from that. The only agreeable existence is one of idleness, and that is not, unfortunately, always compatible with continuing to exist at all."
    (AP, 12/30/97)

1881-1959     Edgar A. Guest, American author, journalist and poet: "The best of all the preachers are the men who live their creeds."
    (AP, 8/14/98)

1881-1960    Franklin Pierce Adams, F.P.A., American journalist, columnist, humorist and author. "There are plenty of good five-cent cigars in the country. The trouble is they cost a quarter. What this country really needs is a good five-cent nickel."
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 5/8/99)

1881-1970    Alexander Kerensky, Russian revolutionary leader. He led a more centrist group of revolutionaries as opposed to the extreme left minority group of Lenin.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.261)

1882        Jan 2, Oscar Wilde arrived in New York City and began to tour the US with lectures on the aesthetic movement.
    (HT, 3/97, p.16)
1882        Jan 2, Because of anti-monopoly laws, Standard Oil was organized as a trust. Attorney Samuel Dodd of Standard Oil first had the idea of a trust. A board of trustees was set up, and all the Standard properties were placed in its hands.
    (www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=51)

1882        Jan 6, Sam Rayburn (d.1961), U.S. Democrat congressman from Texas who became the Speaker of the House of Representatives (1940-46, 1949-53), was born.
    (HN, 1/6/99)(HNQ, 4/7/00)

1882        Jan 18, A.A. [Alan Alexander] Milne, novelist, humorist and journalist who wrote Winnie the Pooh, was born.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1882        Jan 25, Virginia Woolf (d.1941), English author, critic, was born. She was a member of the intellectual circle known as the Bloomsbury Group and wrote "Mrs. Dalloway" and "Orlando." "On the outskirts of every agony sits some observant fellow who points." "I read the Book of Job last night, I don’t think God comes out of it well." "The compensation of growing old was simply this: that the passions remain as strong as ever, but one has gained—at last! -- the power which adds the supreme flavor to existence, the power of taking hold of experience, of turning it round, slowly, in the light." In 1997 Panthea Reid published: "Art and Affection: A Life of Virginia Woolf." In 1998 Mitchell Leaska published: "Granite and Rainbow: The Life of Virginia Woolf."
    (AP, 7/6/97)(IW 12/29/97)(AP, 1/18/98)(SFC, 5/25/98, p.E6)(HN, 1/25/99)

1882        Jan 30, Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945), was born in Hyde Park, N.Y. He led the country out of the Great Depression and through most of World War II.
    (AP, 1/30/98)(HN, 1/30/99)(MC, 1/30/02)

1882        Jan 31, Anna Pavlova, ballerina, choreographer, was born in St. Petersburg, Russia.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1882        Feb 2, James Joyce (d.1941), Irish novelist and poet was born near Dublin. He wrote "Ulysses" and "Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man." From "Ulysses": "History, Stephen said, is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake." In 1998 John Wyse Jackson and Peter Costello published the biography: "John Stanislaus Joyce: The Voluminous Life and Genius of James Joyce’s Father."
    (AP, 6/22/98)(AP, 2/2/99)(HN, 2/2/99)

1882        Feb 7, American pugilist John L. Sullivan became the last of the bare-knuckle world heavyweight champions with his defeat of Patty Ryan in Mississippi City.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_L._Sullivan)

1882        Feb 14, George Jean Nathan (d.1958), US editor, author, critic (Smart Set, American Mercury), was born: "Love demands infinitely less than friendship."
    (AP, 4/30/99)(MC, 2/14/02)

1882        Feb 15, John Barrymore, actor, was born in Philadelphia. He was sibling to actors Lionel Barrymore & Ethel Barrymore, father of actors John Drew Barrymore & Diana Barrymore and grandfather of actor Drew Barrymore.
    (HN, 2/15/01)(MC, 2/15/02)
1882        Feb 15, SS Dunedin left New Zealand with 1st frozen meat for England.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1882        Feb 28, Geraldine Farrar, US soprano, actress (Story of American Singer), was born.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1882        Mar 3, New York Steam Corp began distributing steam to Manhattan buildings.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1882        Mar 9, False teeth were patented. [see 1822]
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1882        Mar 16, US Pres. Chester Arthur signed the Treaty of Geneva following the Senate’s ratification of the treaty. The US thus joined the Int’l. Red Cross.
    (ON, 8/12, p.12)

1882        Mar 18, Morgan Earp was gunned down while playing pool.
    (MesWP)

1882        Mar 19, Gaston Lachaise (d.1935), Franco-American sculptor (Standing Woman), was born.
    (SFC, 2/2/02, p.D1)(MC, 3/19/02)

1882        Mar 22, US Congress outlawed polygamy. The Edmunds-Tucker Act was adopted by the US to suppress polygamy in the territories. [see Morrill Act 1862] President Chester Arthur signed a measure outlawing polygamy.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.39)(AP, 3/22/08)

1882        Mar 24, German scientist Robert Koch announced in Berlin that he had discovered the bacillus responsible for tuberculosis.
    (AP, 3/23/97)
1882        Mar 24, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (b.1807), US poet (Song of Hiawatha), died. He is the sole American honored with a bust in the Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey. In 2000 J.D. McClatchy edited "Longfellow: Poems and Other Writings."
    (WSJ, 10/31/00, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Wadsworth_Longfellow)

1882        Mar 25, 1st demonstration of pancake making was in a NYC Dept store.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1882        Mar 26, Oscar Wilde arrived in SF for a series of lectures. His first lecture on “The English Renaissance," was given the next night at Platt’s Hall at Bush and Montgomery. 
    (SFEC,11/16/97, DB p.3)(SFC, 10/12/12, p.C3)

1882        Mar 29, The Knights of Columbus was granted a charter by the state of Connecticut.
    (AP, 3/29/07)

1882        Apr 3, Wood block alarm was invented. When alarm rang it dropped 20 wood blocks.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1882        Apr 3, Outlaw Jesse James (34) was shot in the back and killed at his home in St. Joseph, Mo., by Robert Ford, a cousin and member of his own gang for a $5,000 reward. Jesse and Frank James, the bank robbing James brothers, were born as Woodson and Alexander. In 1995 the body of Jesse James was exhumed for DNA testing. The test proved that it was James, who was killed in 1882. In 2000 Desmond Barry authored the novel "The Chivalry of Crime" based on the story of Jesse James. In 2000 the body of a man, J. Frank Dalton (d.1951), who claimed to be Jesse James was exhumed for DNA analysis.
    (AP, 4/3/97)(SFC,12/26/97, p.C22)(SFEC, 4/23/00, BR p.5)(SFC, 5/31/00, p.A4)(HNQ, 6/21/00)(HN, 4/3/02)

1882        Apr 10, Capt. William Matson sailed the schooner Emma Claudina through the Golden Gate toward Hawaii. Matson had just founded his shipping company to cover service between San Francisco and Hawaii.
    (SSFC, 2/18/07, DB p.58)

1882        Apr 13, An anti-Semitic League formed in Prussia.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1882        Apr 17, Artur Schnabel, pianist (Beethoven Piano Sonatas), was born in Lipnik, Austria.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1882        Apr 18, Leopold Stokowski, conductor (Philadelphia Orchestra), was born in London England.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1882        Apr 19, Charles R. Darwin (b.1809), English naturalist (Origin of Species), died at Downe, England, at age 73. In 1995 Janet Browne authored "Voyaging" the 1st of her 3-part biography. In 2002 her 2nd volume "The Power of Place" was published.
    (MC, 4/19/02)(WBO, 2002)(FT, 12/14/02, p.IV)

1882        Apr 23, Albert Coates, conductor, composer (Eagle), was born in St. Petersburg.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1882        Apr 25, French commander Henri Riviere seized the citadel of Hanoi.
    (HN, 4/25/98)

1882        Apr 26, Jessie Redmon Fauset, author, was born. Fauset’s work included: "There Is confusion," "Plum Bun," "The Chinaberry Tree," and "American Style."
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.5)

1882        Apr 27, Ralph Waldo Emerson, US poet, philosopher, author, essayist, died. He was one of the original members of the Transcendental Club with Thoreau and Orestes Brownson.
    (HNQ, 6/14/98)(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W11)(MC, 4/27/02)

1882        Apr 28, Alberto Pirelli, Italian industrialist, was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1882        May 6, Over President Arthur’s veto, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which barred Chinese immigrants from the United States for 10 years. It was amended and passed by Congress on August 3 and was signed by Pres. Arthur. Renewals and amendments continued to 1904. The laws were repealed in 1943. In 2011 the US Senate passed a resolution expressing regret for the act.
    (AP, 5/6/97)(www.u-s-history.com/pages/h739.html)(SFC, 10/11/11, p.C1)

1882        May 9, Henry J. Kaiser, builder of Liberty Ships for U.S. war effort, was born.
    (HN, 5/9/98)

1882        May 13, Georges Braque (d.1963, French cubist painter, was born in Argenteuil, near Paris. He said of his work that: "The aim is not to reconstitute an anecdotal fact, but to constitute a pictorial fact." He was shot in the head during WW I and had his head drilled to relieve the pressure. His "Billiard Tables" series was painted between 1944 and 1949.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.359-360)(AHD, 1971, p.160)(WSJ, 5/7/97, p.A16)(MC, 5/13/02)

1882        May 15, May Laws: Czar Alexander III banned Jews from living in rural Romania.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1882        May 20, Sigrid Undset, Norwegian novelist (Kristin Lavransdatter), was born.
    (HN, 5/20/01)
1882        May 20, Henrik Ibsen's "Ghosts" (Gengangere, 1881) premiered in Chicago.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
1882        May 20, The St. Gotthard-railroad tunnel opened between Switzerland & Italy.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1882        May 22, The United States formally recognized Korea.
    (HN, 5/22/98)

1882        May 25, Harry Fox, entertainer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1882        Jun 2, Giuseppi Garibaldi (b.1807), Italian rebel leader, died. His autobiography was published in 1889. In 2007 Lucy Riall authored “Garibaldi: Invention of a Hero."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Garibaldi)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.98)

1882        Jun 6, An electric iron was patented by Henry W. Seely in NYC.
    (MC, 6/6/02)
1882        Jun 6, Cyclone in Arabian Sea (Bombay India) drowned 100,000.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1882        Jun 10, Vasily Perov (b.1833), Russian painter, died.
    (http://center.rusmuseum.ru/InetBookNew/perov_paint_eng.html)

1882        Jun 17, Igor Fedorovich Stravinsky (d.1971), U.S. composer, was born in Oranienbaum, Russia. He wrote "The Rite of Spring" and "The Firebird" among other symphonies. His work also included "The Rake’s Progress" and "Oedipus Rex." The libretto for Rake’s Progress was written by W.H. Auden and Chester Kallman.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1405)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 12/4/96, p.A16)(HN, 6/17/98)

1882        Jun 21, Rockwell Kent (d.1971), artist, book illustrator, was born.
    (HN, 6/21/01)

1882        Jun 24, Joseph Joachim Raff (60), German opera composer, died.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1882        Jun 30, Charles Guiteau the assassin of President Garfield was hanged in a Washington jail.
    (HNPD, 9/19/98)

1882        Jul 1, Susan Glaspell (d.1948), novelist and playwright, author of "Alison’s House," was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.600)(HN, 7/1/98)

1882        Jul 4, Telegraph Hill Observatory opened in SF.
    (Maggio, 98)

1882        Jul 8, Percy Grainger, composer, pianist, conductor (Hill Songs), was born in Melbourne.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1882        Jul 10, Ima Hogg, Texas art patron, founder of Houston Symphony, was born.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1882        Jul 14, Johnny Ringo, a fast draw gunman, was found dead in Tombstone.
    (SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1882        Jul 16, Mary Todd Lincoln, the widow of Abraham Lincoln, died of a stroke.
    (HN, 7/16/98)
   
1882        Jul 22,    Edward Hopper (d.1967), American artist (Nighthawks), was born in Nyack, N.Y.
    (www.fact-index.com)

1882        Jul 26, Richard Wagner's final opera "Parsifal," premiered in Bayreuth, Germany.
    (WSJ, 7/2/99, p.W11A)(MC, 7/26/02)

1882        Jul 31, Belle and Sam Starr were charged with Horse stealing in the Indian territory. Myra Maybelle Shirley (Belle Starr) was neither a belle nor the star of any outlaw band and still remains a legendary wild woman of the Old West.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1882        Aug 3, US Congress passed the 1st Immigration Act. The amended act banned Chinese immigration for ten years. The Chinese Exclusion Act barred laborers from China and halted a massive immigration of Cantonese peasants. [see 1882-1943]
    (HN, 8/3/98)(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)(www.u-s-history.com/pages/h739.html)

1882        Aug 7, Hatfields of south West Virginia and McCoys of eastern Kentucky re-engaged in a feud that dated back to 1865. Some 100 were wounded or died. In 2007 medical evidence indicated that many of the descendants of the McCoys suffered from an inherited disease that leads to hair-trigger rage and violent outbursts.
    (www.tugvalleychamberofcommerce.com/tour.html)(SFC, 4/6/07, p.A16)

1882        Aug 13, William Jevons (b.1835), English economist, drowned while bathing near Hastings. His book “The Theory of Political Economy" (1871) declared that value depends entirely upon utility.
    (Econ, 7/26/08, p.84)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Stanley_Jevons)

1882        Aug 17, Samuel Goldwyn, American movie mogul who helped start MGM (Metro Goldwyn Mayer), was born as Schmuel Gelbfisz in Warsaw, Poland.
    (HN, 8/17/00)

1882        Aug 28, Belle Benchley, the first female zoo director in the world, who directed the Zoological Gardens of San Diego, was born.
    (HN, 8/28/98)

1882        Aug 29, Australia defeated England in cricket for the first time. The following day a obituary appeared in the Sporting Times addressed to the British team.
    (HN, 8/29/98)

1882        Sep 1, The first Labor Day was observed in New York City by the Carpenters and Joiners Union. [see Sep 5]
    (HN, 9/1/00)

1882        Sep 3, The French, Vietnamese and Chinese battled at Hanoi; hundreds died.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1882        Sep 4, Thomas Edison displayed the first practical electrical lighting system. He successfully turned on the lights in a one square mile area of New York City with the world’s 1st electricity generating plant.
    (MC, 9/4/01)(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.R6)

1882        Sep 5, The first Labor Day observance—a picnic and parade—was held in New York City. Matthew Maguire, a machinist and secretary of the New York City Central Labor Union, probably first suggested the celebration in 1882 to recognize the contributions of workers to America. Parades like the one in Buffalo, New York, around 1900, soon became an important part of Labor Day festivities. Matthew Maguire, a machinist and secretary of the New York City Central Labor Union, probably first suggested the celebration in 1882 to recognize the contributions of workers to America. Local and regional Labor Day observances spread across the nation until, on June 28, 1894, the U.S. Congress passed an act making the first Monday in September a legal holiday. [see Sep 1]
    (AP, 9/5/97)(HNPD, 9/5/98)(HNQ, 9/7/98)

1882        Sep 10, The 1st international conference to promote anti-Semitism met in Dresden, Germany (Congress for Safeguarding of Non-Jewish Interests).
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1882        Sep 13, British troops defeated Egyptian forces in the Battle at Tel-el-Kebir.
    (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/battles/egypt/egypt3.htm)

1882        Sep 14, British General Wolseley (d.1913) reached Cairo.
    (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/battles/egypt/egypt4.htm)

1882        Sep 18, The Pacific Stock Exchange was founded in SF as Local Security Board in the basement of Wohl & Pollitz at 403 California.
    (SFC, 7/14/98, p.B1)(SFC, 7/24/98, p.B1)

1882        Sep 22, Wilhelm Keitel, German field marshal, was born.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1882        Oct 3, Gunther von Kluge, German field marshal, was born.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1882        Oct 5, Robert Goddard (d.1945), American rocket scientist, was born. He received 214 patents for rocket systems and components.
    (HN, 10/5/98)(ON, 1/01, p.5)
1882        Oct 5, Outlaw Frank James surrendered in Missouri six months after brother Jesse’s assassination.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1882        Oct 14, Eamon DeValera, Taoiseach and President of Ireland (1937-48, 51-54, 57-59), was born in NY.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1882        Oct 18, Alexander Graham Bell made his historic telephone call to the mayor of Chicago.
    (SFEM, 1/11/98, p.13)

1882        Oct 19, Vincas Kreve (d.1954), Lithuanian writer and poet, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincas_Kr%C4%97v%C4%97-Mickevi%C4%8Dius)

1882        Oct 20, Bela Lugosi (d.1956), film actor, was born in Lugos, Hungary, as Bela Blasko. He is famous for his portrayal of Count Dracula (1931).
    (Internet)

1882        Oct 22, N.C. Wyeth (d.1945), painter, was born. He became famous for his illustrations of "Treasure Island" and "Robin Hood."
    (Hem., 6/98, p.133)(HN, 10/22/00)

1882        Oct 29, Jean Giraudoux, French dramatist, novelist and diplomat, famous for his book "Tiger at the Gates," was born. His plays included "Eglantine" and "Provinciales."
    (HN, 10/29/98)(MC, 10/29/01)

1882        Oct 30, William F. "Bull" Halsey, Jr., American admiral, was born. He played an instrumental role in the defeat of Japan during World War II. The Japanese surrender was signed on his flagship, the USS Missouri.
    (HN, 10/30/99)

1882        Nov 2, Newly elected John Poe replaced Pat Garrett as sheriff of Lincoln County, New Mexico Territory.
    (HN, 11/2/98)

1882        Nov 5, Bedrich Smetana's "Ma Vlast," premiered.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1882        Nov 10, Frances Perkins, first US woman cabinet member--Secretary of Labor, was born.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1882        Nov 14, Billy Clairborne, a survivor of the gunfight at the O.K. Corral, lost his life in a shoot-out with Buckskin Frank Leslie.
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1882        Nov 15, Felix Frankfurter, U.S. 80th Supreme Court Justice (1939-62), was born in Vienna, Austria. He came to the U.S. in 1894 and graduated from Harvard Law School in 1906. A close adviser to President Franklin Roosevelt, Frankfurter helped recruit personnel for the New Deal. He was appointed associate justice of the Supreme Court in 1939 and served until 1962. Frankfurter died on February 22, 1965. "There is no inevitability in history except as men make it."
    (AP, 2/27/98)(HNQ, 3/16/99)(MC, 11/15/01)

1882        Nov 18, Amelita Galli-Curci, Italian operatic soprano, was born.
    (MC, 11/18/01)
1882        Nov 18, Jacques Maritain, French Catholic philosopher (exponent of St Thomas), was born.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1882        Dec 6, Anthony Trollope (b.1815), English writer, died. His autobiography "An Autobiography," was published in 1883. He wrote harshly about his mother and made her out to be a second-rate writer.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1517)(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W17)(MC, 12/6/01)

1882        Dec 9, Joaquin Turina, composer (Rima), was born in Seville, Spain.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1882        Dec 11, Fiorella H. La Guardia (d.1947), mayor of New York City, 1934-1945, was born.
    (AP, 1/8/98)(WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiorello_La_Guardia)
1882        Dec 11, Boston's Bijou Theatre, the first American playhouse to be lighted exclusively by electricity, gave its first performance: Gilbert and Sullivan's "Iolanthe, Or The Peer and the Peri."
    (AP, 12/11/08)

1882        Dec 16, Walther Meissner, German physicist (Meissner effect), was born.
    (MC, 12/16/01)

1882        Dec 22, 1st string of Christmas tree lights was created by Thomas Edison.
    (SFC, 12/23/98, Z1 p.3)(MC, 12/22/01)
   
1882        Dec 28, Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, English astronomer who confirmed Einstein's theory of relativity, was born.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1882        Dec 31, Leon Michel Gambetta (44), French attorney and premier (1881-82), died.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1882        Claude Monet painted "The Cliff Walk (Pourville)." His series of seaside cliff scenes are among his most dramatic paintings. The series included "Fisherman's Cottage on the Cliffs at Varengeville."
    (DPCP 1984)

1882        John Singer Sargent (26) painted "The Sulphur Match" and "The Daughters of Edward Boit." He also completed "El Jaleo," the mural-scale depiction of a Spanish dancer.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)

1882        Vincent Van Gogh painted "The Wounded Veteran.'
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1882        Bishop Crittenden authored the dime novel “The Entwined Lives of Miss Gabrielle Austin, Daughter of the Late Rev. Ellis C. Austin, and Redmond, the Outlaw, Leader of the North Carolina Moonshiners."
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W11)(www.theridgebooks.com/si/7107.html)

1882        Ignatius Donnelly wrote "Atlantis: The Antediluvian World."
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, BR p.3)

1882        Friedrich Nietzsche authored “Die Fröhliche Wissenschaft" (The Gay Science), in which he pronounced the death of God.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/nietzsch.htm)

1882        J.A. Gillet and W.J. Rolfe published "The Heavens Above," a popular handbook of astronomy.
    (NH, 10/98, p.87)

1882        Leslie Stephen, the father of Virginia Woolf, began writing the "Dictionary of National Biography." It was published over the years 1890-1911.
    (WSJ, 11/12/99, p.W13)

1882        Henrik Ibsen wrote his moral melodrama "An Enemy of the People."
    (WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A16)

1882        The maternal grandfather of jazz saxophonist Sam Rivers published "A Collection of Revival Hymns and Plantation Melodies."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, DB p.41)

1882        Brahms completed his "Piano Concerto in B flat M."
    (BLW, 1963 ed. p. 19)

1882        The six tone poems "Ma Vlast" (My Homeland) by Czech composer Smetana were first performed in their entirety.
    (SFC, 5/9/97, p.D6)

1882        The opera "Iolanthe" by Gilbert and Sullivan opened in New York and London.
    (SFC, 6/21/00, p.E4)

1882        The Golden Gate Park Band was founded in San Francisco and began performing annual concerts in Golden Gate Park.
    (SFC, 7/3/96, p.E1)

1882        In Colorado the Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad was completed to haul gold, silver and other minerals.
    (SFEC,11/16/97, p.T5)

1882        The Knights of Columbus, a benevolent society of Roman Catholic men, was founded in the US.
    (AHD, 1971, p.724)

1882        Manhattan College athletic director Brother Jasper initiated the American tradition of baseball‘s seventh-inning stretch. Feeling sorry for restless students watching an 1882 baseball game between the college team and the semi-pro Metropolitans, Brother Jasper called a time-out during the seventh inning and asked the spectators to stand up and stretch for a little while. This was repeated at another college game against the New York Giants baseball team. In honor of their coach, Manhattan College named their team the Jaspers.
    (HNQ, 4/30/00)

1882        Pres. Chester Arthur approved new borders for the Hopi reservation, a 1.6 million-acre site in the center of 17 million acres of Navajo land in the 4 Corners area of the Southwest. A 3,863 sq. mile area was set up as a Hopi reservation. The intent was to keep Mormon settlers away from Hopi pueblos. The Hopi Reservation was formed on territory historically used by both Hopi and Navajo.
    (SFC, 12/28/96, p.A4)(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
1882        US Pres. Chester Arthur (1829-1886) was diagnosed with terminal kidney disease. Only his doctors knew and his fatigue was commonly mistaken for executive laziness.
    (AH, 6/07, p.14)

1882        The US and Korea signed the Chemulpo Treaty, which pledged perpetual peace and friendship between the President of the US and King Kojong (1852-1919) of Chosen and their respective people.
    (AH, 10/07, p.56)(www.asianresearch.org/articles/1623.html)

1882        Theodore Roosevelt described Thomas Jefferson as "perhaps the most incapable executive that ever filled the presidential chair." Roosevelt added, "It would be difficult to imagine a man less fit to guide a state with honor and safety through the stormy times that marked the opening of the present century."
    (HNQ, 9/21/98)

1882        Marshall Virgil Earp and his brother Wyatt left Tombstone, Arizona.
    (SFC, 8/19/96, p.A3)
1882        In Colorado Bat Masterson served as the town Marshall of Trinidad.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.A6)

1882        John Armstrong III, a Texas Ranger, settled a ranch south of Corpus Christi. He bought the beginnings of the Armstrong Ranch with the $4,000 bounty he received for capturing outlaw John Wesley Hardin. The ranch, which expanded to 50,000 acres, is near the King Ranch, settled by the Kleberg family.
    (SFC, 2/13/06, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/dhd84)

1882        Barbed wire was used to fence the west at this time. Specimens were later put on display at Oracle Junction, Arizona, and included Dodge and Washburn and Ellwood "Spread."
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.173)

1882        Charles M. Bergstresser bankrolled a publishing venture with Charles Dow and Edward Jones and established the new agency known as the Customer’s Afternoon Letter. Bergstresser dubbed it the Wall street Journal in 1889. Dow and Jones left the Kiernan New Agency to launch Dow Jones. Dow developed an initial stock average containing 11 stocks, which appeared in the Customer's Afternoon Letter, a 2-page bulletin that developed into the WSJ.
    (WSJ, 3/4/96, p. C-1)(WSJ, 3/30/99, p.C15)

1882        The Globe Files Co. was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1898 it introduced a vertical filing system.
    (SFC, 8/9/06, p.G3)

1882        The Standard Oil Trust began and issued its first stock signed by John D. Rockefeller. The trust was preceded by the Standard Oil Company. All pre-1920 stocks were printed by the American Banknote Co. John D. Rockefeller by this time had acquired 77 separate oil companies and controlled some 90 percent of the refinery and pipeline business in the country through the Standard Oil Trust.
    (Cont, 12/97, p.58)(HNQ, 1/23/00)

1882        The factory of the Racine Silver Plate Co. burned down. It was re-opened a year later in Rockford, Ill.
    (SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.7)

1882        The Royal Worcester pottery company in England began making the "Asthetic" or "Oscar Wilde" teapots. They depicted a man on one side and a woman on the other and were inspired by the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta "Patience."
    (SFC, 12/30/96, z-1 p.2)

1882        Thomas Edison manufactured electricity generators that fetched $33,000 in 1994 as a collector’s antique.
    (WSJ, 12/9/94, p.R-8)

1882        Edison Electric installed a power grid in Manhattan that wrecked telephone reception.
    (SFEM, 1/11/98, p.13)

1882        In Chicago electric streetcars began running and created havoc with the telephone system.
    (SFEM, 1/11/98, p.13)

1882        The electric iron was patented.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

c1882    Thomas Doolittle began manufacturing new hard-drawn copper wire. Angus Hibbard, field operation manager for American Bell, began to use the new wire to replace the old iron lines.
    (SFEM, 1/11/98, p.14)

1882        Heinz began patenting ketchup bottles.
    (SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)

1882        Farmer John Frazier discovered an aquifer of mineral water in Frazier Station, Ca., and renamed the town to Carlsbad after the resort in Karlsbad, Bohemia.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.C5)

1882        Moritz Daniel Oppenheim (b.1800), "painter of the Rothschilds and the Rothschild of painters," died.
    (WSJ, 5/22/01, p.A24)

1882        Alexander Hamilton Stephens was elected governor of Georgia but died after serving just a few months.
    (HNQ, 5/24/98)

1882        The Hotel Evropa was built in Sarajevo, Bosnia. It was gutted by Serb shells in 1992. Restoration after the 1992-1995 war was completed in 2008.
    (Econ, 7/19/08, p.60)

1882        In London euphoric investors pushed up the stock prices of the first companies to issue shares for companies with new patents for equipment to power electric lights.
    (WSJ, 1/7/98, p.B1)
1882        The British Parliament passed the Electric Lights Act to regulate electric utilities.
     (WSJ, 1/7/98, p.B1)
1882        Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), English philosopher, culminated his visit to the US with a dinner a Delmonico’s in NYC, at which mostly Republican men of science, religion, business and government participated. In 2008 Barry Werth authored “Banquet at Delmonico’s: Great Minds, the Gilded Age, and the Triumph of Evolution in America."
    (WSJ, 1/9/09, p.A11)
1882        James Atkinson, British engineer, invented the Atkinson cycle engine, an ultra-lean internal combustion engine.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.77)(www.jyrojak.com/steamtime.htm)

1882        In Egypt a military coup against the Khedive furnished a pretext for a British invasion.
    (WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)

1882        In France secular primary education became compulsory. A day off on Thursday was provided for students to attend religious education outside the school.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.55)

1882        In Hawaii King David Kalakaua built the Iolani Palace.
    (SFC, 6/20/08, p.A5)(www.iolanipalace.org)

1882        Jigoro Kano (1860-1938), founder of judo, opened his first judo school, the Kodokan, in Tokyo. Some 40 years later he added a women’s section.
    (SFC, 7/25/11, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kan%C5%8D_Jigor%C5%8D)
1882        The central Bank of Japan was established.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.B2)

1882        In Russia the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society was founded to support Russian pilgrimages to the Holy Land.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.84)

1882        In Barcelona, Spain, ground was broken for the new Sagrada Familia church. Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926) became involved in the project in 1883. Completion of the 5-tower basilica was expected in 2026.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagrada_Fam%C3%ADlia)(SFC, 9/18/13, p.A2)

1882-1844    Jean Giraudoux, French novelist, playwright and diplomat. He wrote "The Mad Woman of Chaillot." It was later adopted by playwright Maurice Valency (1903-1996) in a New York production with Audrey Hepburn.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1679)(SFEC, 9/30/96, p.A23)

1802-1889    Juana Briones Y Tapia de Miranda was born in Santa Cruz, Ca. She was a battered wife and became the first California woman to get a divorce. Her family moved to the Presidio in 1812. She was the first to settle on San Francisco’s Powell St. in what is now North Beach and worked as a homeopathic doctor. In 1989 the Women’s Heritage Museum persuaded the state to authorize a plaque in her honor to be set in Washington Square.
    (SFEC, 5/26/97, p.A11)(SFC,11/17/97, p.A1,21)(SFC, 8/24/13, p.C1)

1882-1943    In the US the Chinese Exclusion Act was in force. [see May 6, 1882] The Chinese Exclusion Act, prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers into the United States, was first passed in 1882 and then repealed by Congress in 1943. Strong anti-Chinese feeling in the West led to the 1882 act, which was extended for 10 years in 1894 and indefinitely in 1902. The laws were finally repealed in 1943 but only after the Chinese population in the U.S. had declined dramatically. In 2007 Jean Pfaelzer authored “Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans."
    (SFEC, 8/18/96, DB p.27)(HNQ, 9/9/98)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M1)

1882-1945    Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd president of the US.
    (AHD, 1971, p. 1127)

1882-1961     Percy Williams Bridgeman, American scientist: "There is no adequate defense, except stupidity, against the impact of a new idea."
    (AP, 8/10/97)

1882-1944    Hendrik Willem van Loon, Dutch-American journalist and lecturer: "Any frontal attack on ignorance is bound to fail because the masses are always ready to defend their most precious possession -- their ignorance."
    (AP, 12/7/98)

1882-1950    James Stephens, Irish poet and novelist: "Originality does not consist in saying what no one has ever said before, but in saying exactly what you think yourself."
    (AP, 5/21/99)

1882-1967    Geraldine Farrar, American opera singer. She was very photogenic and starred in a dozen silent films. She is discussed in the 1997 book "The American Opera Singer" by Peter G. Davis.
    (WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A20)

1882-1967     Henry J. Kaiser, American industrialist: "When your work speaks for itself, don’t interrupt." "Trouble is only opportunity in work clothes."
    (AP, 12/2/99)

1882-1968    According to records at Tuskegee Univ. 4,743 people were killed by lynch mobs in the US during this period. 3,446 of these people were black.
    (Econ, 6/18/05, p.29)

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