Timeline 1885-1886

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1885        Jan 2, Gen. Wolseley received the last distress signal of Gen. Gordon in Khartoum.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1885        Jan 3, Anna Pavlova Russia~ez_rsquo~s premier ballerina, was born.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)   

1885        Jan 4, Dr. William W. Grant of Davenport, Iowa, performed what is believed to have been the first appendectomy; the patient was 22-year-old Mary Gartside.
    (AP, 1/4/00)

1885        Jan 15, Wilson Bentley (1865-1931) of Jericho, Vermont, made the world~ez_rsquo~s 1st clear photographs of snow crystals.
    (ON, 11/04, p.4)

1885        Jan 26, In Sudan General "Chinese" Gordon (Charles George Gordon, 51), British gov-gen of Sudan, was killed on the palace steps in the garrison at Khartoum by the forces of Muhammad Ahmed, El Mahdi. In 1961 "General Gordon~ez_rsquo~s Khartoum Journal," edited by Lord Elton, was published.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(HN, 1/26/99)(MC, 1/26/02)(ON, 4/02, p.10)

1885        Jan 27, Jerome Kern, Broadway composer (Showboat, Roberta), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1885        Jan 28, Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Garnet Wolseley arrived at Khartoum to relieve Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Gordon, but arrived 2 days late. El Mahdi died soon thereafter but was succeeded by the Khalifa.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1885          Jan 29, Leadbelly (d.1949), [Huddie William Ledbetter], blues singer, was born on the Jeter Plantation near Mooringsport, Louisiana.
    (http://leadbelly.lanl.gov/leadbelly.html)

1885        Jan 30, John Henry Towers, naval and aviation hero, was born.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1885        Jan, Grover Cleveland entered the White House as a bachelor.
    (SFEC, 8/18/96, PM p. 2)

1885        Feb 7, Sinclair Lewis (d.1951), American novelist of satire and realism, was born in Sauk Centre, Minnesota. His books include "Arrowsmith" and "Elmer Gantry." "There are two insults which no human will endure: the assertion that he hasn~ez_rsquo~t a sense of humor, and the doubly impertinent assertion that he has never known trouble." "Winter is not a season, it's an occupation."
    (AP, 6/26/98)(AP, 12/22/99)(HNQ, 5/18/98)(HN, 2/7/99)

1885        Feb 9, Alban Maria Johannes Berg, composer, was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 2/9/02)
1885        Feb 9, The 1st Japanese arrived in Hawaii.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1885        Feb 13, Elizabeth Virginia "Bess" Truman, 1st lady (1945-52), was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1885        Feb 15, Leopold Damrosch (52), composer, died.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1885        Feb 18, Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was published and became one of the writer's most famous works. Samuel Clemens, born in 1835, first used the pseudonym of Mark Twain when he wrote a humorous travel account in 1863. Books such as Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer made Mark Twain a popular American author because people could relate to his stories of boyhood adventures colored with social commentary. As a satirical, critical voice of the United States, Twain continued to write and lecture across the country and the world. Mark Twain died in 1910.
    (AP, 2/18/98)(HNPD, 2/18/99)

1885        Feb 21, The Washington Monument was dedicated.
    (HN, 2/21/98)(AP, 2/21/98)

1885        Feb 23, John Lee survived three attempts to hang him in Exeter Prison, as the trap failed to open.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1885        Feb 24, Chester Nimitz, was born. He was the U.S. admiral who commanded naval forces in the Pacific during WWII.
    (HN, 2/24/99)

1885        Feb 25, US Congress condemned barbed wire around government grounds.
    (MC, 2/25/02)
1885        Feb 25, Princess Alice of Battenberg, later Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark (d.1969), was born at Windsor Castle.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.M4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princess_Alice_of_Battenberg)

1885        Feb 26, The Congress of Berlin gave Congo to Belgium and Nigeria to England.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1885        Mar 3, The United States Congress passed the Major Crimes Act (18 U.S.C. 1153). It placed seven major crimes under federal jurisdiction if they are committed by a Native American in Native territory regardless of whether the victim of the crime was Native.
    (http://supreme.justia.com/us/437/634/)
1885        Mar 3, The U.S. Post Office began offering special delivery for first-class mail.
    (AP, 3/3/98)
1885        Mar 3, California became the 1st US state to establish a permanent forest commission.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1885        Mar 3, American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) incorporated as a subsidiary of Bell Telephone to build and operate a long distance network.
    (SC, 3/3/02)(SFC, 7/23/04, p.C1)

1885        Mar 4, Grover Cleveland was inaugurated as 1st Democratic President since Civil War.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1885        Mar 6, Ring Lardner (d.1933), American humorist and writer, was born. His books included  You Know Me Al (1916). "The family you come from isn't as important as the family you're going to have."
    (AP, 5/14/99)(HN, 3/6/01)(WSJ, 12/2/06, p.P8)

1885        Mar 11, Sir Michael Campbell, the first motorist to exceed 300 mph, was born.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1885        Mar 14, Gilbert & Sullivan's opera "Mikado," premiered in London.
    (WSJ, 11/22/00, p.A20)(MC, 3/14/02)

1885        Mar 20, Yiddish theater opened in NY with Goldfaden operetta.
    (MC, 3/20/02)
1885        Mar 20, John Matzeliger of Suriname patented a shoe lacing machine.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1885        Mar 21, Raoul Lufbery, French-born American fighter pilot of World War I, was born.
    (HN, 3/21/99)

1885        Mar 26, The Eastman Film Co. of Rochester, N.Y., manufactured the first commercial motion picture film. George Eastman had perfected a method for bonding photographic emulsion onto thin strips of celluloid.
    (AP, 3/25/98)(HN, 3/25/98)(ON, 11/03, p.5)
1885        Mar 26, Louis Riel's forces defeated Canadian forces at Duck Lake, Saskatchewan.
    (SS, 3/26/02)(ON, 11/07, p.12)

1885        Mar 28, The Salvation Army was officially organized in the U.S.
    (HN, 3/28/98)

1885        Mar 30, Texas was the last Confederate state readmitted to the Union.
    (HN, 3/30/01)
1885        Mar 30, In Afghanistan, Russian troops inflicted a crushing defeat on Afghan forces Ak Teppe despite orders not to fight.
    (HN, 3/30/99)

1885        Mar 31, Madame Blavatsky was hoisted in an invalid chair onto a steamer in the Madras harbor of India and departed for London. In England she wrote "The Secret Doctrine" and had as guests to her salon William Butler Yeats, Annie Besant and the young Mohandas K. Gandhi.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.127)
1885        Mar 31, Franz Wilhelm Abt (65), German composer, choir conductor, died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1885        Mar, In Loganville, Pa., Dr. George E. Holtzapple (22) saved Fred Gable (16), who was suffering from pneumonia, by supplying the boy with pure oxygen. Oxygen therapy became the only effective treatment for pneumonia until antibiotics became available in the 1940s.
    (ON, 4/07, p.10)

1885        Apr 3, Harry St. John Philby, [sheik Abdullah], British explorer, was born.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1885        Apr 16, Leo Weiner, composer (Fasching), was born in Hungary.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1885        Apr 17, Karen Blixen-Finecke (Isak Dinesen, d.1962), Danish writer (Out of Africa), was born. "God made the world round so we would never be able to see too far down the road."
    (AP, 9/15/00)(HN, 4/17/01)(MC, 4/17/02)

1885        Apr 18, The Sino-Japanese war ended.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1885        Apr 24, Metis rebels won a major victory over Canadian troops at Fish Creek, Saskatchewan. The troops had been shipped to the region by way of the new Canadian Pacific Railway.
    (Reuters, 11/22/02)(ON, 11/07, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Rebellion)

1885        Apr 30, Boston Pops Orchestra formed.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1885        May 2, "Good Housekeeping" magazine was 1st published.
    (MC, 5/2/02)
1885        May 2, The Congo Free State was established by King Leopold II of Belgium.
    (HN, 5/2/98)

1885        May 9, In the Battle of Batoche, Saskatchewan, Metis rebels ran out of ammunition and resorted to firing pebbles from their guns, until they were forced to retreat.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Rebellion)

1885        May 11, "King" Joseph Oliver, jazz cornetist and bandleader, was born.
    (HN, 5/11/02)

1885        May 14, Otto Klemperer, conductor, composer, was born in Breslau, Germany.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1885        May 15, Mormons began an exodus from the United States into Mexico. Chihuahua Governor Ochoa had agreed to sell land to the Mormons to colonize. Church President John Taylor had explored the area and church officials selected Casas Grandes, a valley in the state of Chihuahua, as the place to begin settlement.
    (www.epcc.edu/nwlibrary/borderlands/19_mormons.htm)

1885        May 18, Eurico Gaspar Dutra, President of Brazil (1945-50), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1885        May 19, First mass production of shoes (Jan Matzeliger in Lynn, Massachusetts).
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)
1885        May 19, ~ez_ldquo~Professor~ez_rdquo~ Robert Emmet Odlum of Washington, D.C., a well named swimming instructor and author of pamphlets on diving, jumped from Brooklyn bridge. He entered the water feet first (as was the accepted diving position at the time) and shattered every bone in his frame from heel to skull. He was pulled from the river unconscious and died a half hour later.
    (http://thepublici.blogspot.com/)
1885        May 19, German chancellor Bismarck took possession of Cameroon & Togoland.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1885        May 22, Victor-Marie Hugo (b.1802), French novelist (Les Miserables) and poet, died. In 1998 Graham Robb published the biography: "Victor Hugo." Hugo also did a number of drawings, later appreciated by Andre Breton and Max Ernst, and in 1914 Henri Focillon published the first critical study of them. In 1998 Pierre Georgel and Marie-Laure Prevost published "Shadows of a Hand: The Drawings of Victor Hugo."
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)(HN, 2/26/98)(SFEC, 5/31/98, BR p.4)(MC, 5/22/02)

1885        May 26, Al Jolson (d.1950), American jazz singer and silent film actor, was born in Seredzius, Lithuania as Asa Yoelson. His father Morris was a rabbi and a cantor and so Asa started singing early, alongside his elder brother Harry and two elder sisters. In 1894 the family set off for America in search of a new life.
    (www.unionsquaremusic.co.uk/titlev4.php?ALBUM_ID=576&LABEL_ID=5)

1885        May 29, Erwin F. Finlay-Freundlich, British astronomer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1885        May 29, Alfred von Meissner (63), Austrian physician, writer (Ziska), died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1885        May, Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), a self-taught artist, exhibited two of his paintings at the Salon of French Art in Paris without bothering to obtain permission. One painting was cut with a knife and authorities removed them as soon as they were noticed. That same month he exhibited his work at the Salon of the Independents.
    (ON, 8/08, p.8)
1885        May, Richard Schmitt bought his brewery in Singen, Germany. [see 1875, Schmitt]
    (Hem., Nov.~ez_rsquo~95, p.114)

1885        Jun 6, Leo Delibes' opera "Lakme" was produced in Paris.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1885        Jun 14, The 1st photo finish horse race was recorded by Luis-Jean Delton as Paradox beat Reluisant at the Grand Prix de Paris.
    (SFC, 4/28/03, D1)

1885        Jun 17, The French naval ship Isere arrived in NYC with a cargo of wooden crates containing the pieces of the Statue of Liberty.
    (AP, 6/17/97)(ON, 4/03, p.3)

1885        Jun 22, In Sudan Muhammad Ahmad (b.1844), religious leader of the Samaniyya order, died of typhus. His chief deputy, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad took over the administration of the nascent Mahdist state.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ahmad)

1886        Jun 24, Ngazidja (Grande Comore)  became a French protectorate.
    (www.worldstatesmen.org/Comoros.html)

1885        Jun 26, Andre Maurois (d.1967), French writer (Balzac), was born as Émile Herzog. "Growing old is no more than a bad habit which a busy man has no time to form."
    (AP, 7/6/00)(MC, 6/26/02)

1885        Jul 2, Canada's North-West Insurrection ended with the surrender of Big Bear.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1885        Jul 6, French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) successfully tested an anti-rabies vaccine on a boy bitten by an infected dog. Thanks to his vaccine the death rate from rabies dropped to almost zero by 1888.
    (AP, 7/6/97)(ON, 6/08, p.6)

1885        Jul 23, Ulysses S. Grant (b.1822), commander of the Union forces at the end of the Civil War and the 18th president of the United States, died in Mount McGregor, NY, at age 63. He had just completed the final revisions to his memoirs, which were published as a 2 volume set by Mark Twain. In 1928 W.E. Woodward authored "Meet General Grant," and in 1981 William S. McFreeley authored "Grant: A Biography." His tomb was placed in the largest mausoleum in the US on a bluff over the Hudson River. In 1998 Geoffrey Perret published the biography "Ulysses S. Grant: Soldier and President." In 2004 Mark Perry authored ~ez_ldquo~Grant and Twain.~ez_rdquo~ In 2006 Edward G. Longacre authored ~ez_ldquo~General Ulysses S. Grant: The Soldier and Man.~ez_rdquo~ In 2011 Charles Bracelen Flood authored ~ez_ldquo~Grant~ez_rsquo~s Final Victory: Ulysses S. Grant~ez_rsquo~s Heroic Last Year.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A7)(SFEC, 4/19/98, Par p.20)(AP, 7/23/98)(ON, p.11)(ON, 12/00, p.7)(WSJ, 5/14/04, p.W10)(WSJ, 8/5/06, p.P9)(SSFC, 12/4/11, p.F5)

1885        Jul 28, Moses Montefiore (b.1784), Italy-born British financier, banker, philanthropist and Sheriff of London (1837-1838) died. Abigail Green authored Moses Montefiore: Jewish Liberator, Imperial Hero.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_Montefiore)

1885        Aug 9, Pietro Frosini (d.1951), renowned as much for his compositions as for his accordion playing, was born Pietro Giuffrida to a farming family on in the Mascalucia province of Catania, Sicily.
    (www.accordionusa.com/fe_03_07.htm)

1885        Aug 10, Leo Daft opened America's first commercially operated electric streetcar, in Baltimore.
    (AP, 8/10/99)

1885        Aug 11, Joseph Pulitzer~ez_rsquo~s NY World announced that $100,000 was raised in US for a pedestal for the Statue of Liberty.
    (ON, 4/03, p.3)

1885        Aug 15, Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, composer (Hiawatha's Wedding Feast), was born in London.
    (www.classical-composers.org)

1885        Aug 29, Gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for a motorcycle.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1885        Aug 30, Some 13,000 meteors were seen in 1 hour near Andromeda.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1885        Aug 31, Duboise Heyward, novelist, poet and dramatist best know for "Porgy" which was the basis for the opera "Porgy and Bess," was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1885        Sep 2, In Rock Springs, Wyoming Territory, 28 Chinese laborers were killed and hundreds more chased out of town by striking coal miners.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1885        Sep 4, The 1st cafeteria opened (NYC).
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1885        Sep 5, The 1st gasoline pump was delivered to a gasoline dealer in Ft. Wayne, Ind.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1885        Sep 10, Carl Clinton Van Doren, historian and critic who won a Pulitzer Prize for his biography on Benjamin Franklin, was born. His work included "9th Wave."
    (HN, 9/10/98)(MC, 9/10/01)

1885        Sep 11, D.H. Laurence, English novelist, author of "Lady Chatterley~ez_rsquo~s Lover" and "Sons and Lovers," was born.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1885        Sep 14, Vittorio Gui (d.1975), Italian conductor and composer (Batture d'aspetto), was born in Rome.
    (http://www.operone.de/komponist/gui.html)

1885        Sep 15, Jumbo (b.~1860), a circus elephant, was killed in Ontario, Canada, after being struck by a goods train while being loaded into a circus carriage. In 2014 John Sutherland authored ~ez_ldquo~Jumbo: The Unauthorized Biography of a Victorian Sensation.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 2/8/14, p.81)
1885        Sep 15, Juliusz Zarebski, Polish composer, died at 31.
    (http://www.dolmetsch.com/cdefsz.htm)

1885        Sep 16, Karen Horney, psychoanalyst who exposed the male bias in the Freudian analysis of women, was born.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1885        Sep 18, A coup d~ez_rsquo~etat in Eastern Rumelia led directly to a war between Serbia and Bulgaria. The Balkan peace settlement established by the 1878 Treaty of Berlin was undone when a coup d~ez_rsquo~etat in the disputed province of Eastern Rumelia resulted in Eastern Rumelia (separated from Bulgaria in 1878) announcing its re-unification with Bulgaria. Serbian prince Milan responded by demanding Bulgaria cede some of its territory to Serbia. An international conference convened and became deadlocked in November and Serbia declared war.
    (HNQ, 4/2/99)
                  
1885        Sep 20, Ferdinand Lamenthe, aka Jelly Roll Morton (d,1941), jazz pianist, composer and singer, was born in New Orleans. He was one of the first to orchestrate jazz music and disputed W.C. Handy's claim to be the originator of jazz and blues. He became famous at an early age for his classically informed improvisational piano playing often in brothels and other non-traditional settings. With his Red Hot Peppers in the 1920s, he pioneered the early jazz practice of reorchestrating and improvising upon well-known standards. He also wrote many enduring jazz tunes including the ~ez_lsquo~London Rag~ez_rsquo~ and the ~ez_lsquo~Jelly Roll Blues~ez_rsquo~.
    (HN, 9/20/98)(MC, 9/20/01)

1885        Sep 22, Erich Von Stroheim, director, actor and screenwriter best known for "Greed," was born.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1885        Oct 1, Special delivery mail service began in the United States.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1885        Oct 7, Nils Bohr, Danish physicist who won the 1992 Nobel Prize for physics and later worked on the first atom bomb, was born.
    (HN, 10/7/98)(MC, 10/7/01)

1885        Oct 10, Mary Newton (12), the daughter of US Army Engineer under Lt. Col. John Newton (1823-1895) triggered a 2nd huge blast to clear Flood Rock in the Hell Gate channel of the East River. Mill Rock Island was formed by joining two rocks with debris from the demolition. The Flood Rock detonation held the record as the largest deliberately planned explosion until the Trinity atomic blast in 1945.
    (ON, 2/08, p.10)

1885        Oct 11, Francois Mauriac, Nobel Prize-winning novelist (1952), was born.
    (HN, 10/11/00)

1885        Oct 22, Giovanni Martinelli, opera tenor (NY Met), was born in Montagnana, Italy.
    (MC, 10/22/01)
1885        Oct 22, John Ward and several team-mates secretly formed the Brotherhood of Professional Base Ball Players, the 1st baseball union.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1885        Oct 24, Johann Strauss' operetta, "The Gypsy Baron," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1885        Oct 25, Johannes Brahms' 4th Symphony in E, premiered.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1885        Oct 29, George B. McClellan (58), Union army general and governor of New Jersey (1878-1881), died.
     (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_McClellan)(ON, 12/03, p.4)

1885        Oct 30, Ezra Pound (d.1972), poet and critic, was born in Hailey, Idaho. He wrote "The Cantos." Pound met William Carlos Williams at the Univ. of Pennsylvania in 1907 and they remained friends and wrote many letters. "Pound-Williams: Selected Correspondence" was ed. by Hugh Witemeyer in 1996. Ezra Pound spent 3 winters with W.B. Yeats (1913-1916) as the poets artistic prod and secretary. During World War II, Pound was arrested for broadcasting fascist propaganda to the United States from Rome. He stood trial for this crime and was judged to be insane. He was incarcerated at St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington from 1946 until his release in 1958. "Literature is news that stays news."
    (SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.6)(AP, 8/25/98)(HN, 10/30/98)(SFEC, 6/18/00, BR p.10)(MC, 10/30/01)

1885        Nov 2, Harlow Shapley, astronomer, was born. He discovered the Sun is not at the center of the galaxy.
    (HN, 11/2/00)

1885        Nov 3, Tacoma, Wa., vigilantes drove out Chinese residents and burned their homes and businesses.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1885        Nov 5, Will Durant (d.1981), historian and author, was born. "I think America is richer in intelligence than any other country in the world; and that its intelligence is more scattered than in any country of the world."
    (AP, 4/17/99)(HN, 11/5/00)

1885        Nov 7, The Canadian Pacific Railway completed its transcontinental rail line with the last spike driven at the Rocky Mountain town of Craigellachie.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.46)(ON, 11/07, p.12)

1885        Nov 10, Paul Daimler, son of Gottlieb Daimler, became the first motorcyclist when he rode his father's new invention on a round trip of six miles.
    (HN, 11/10/99)

1885        Nov 11, George Patton, U.S. Army commander in World War II, was born.
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1885        Nov 16, Canadian rebel Louis Riel was executed for high treason after he led another uprising that was crushed by a powerful militia.
    (AP, 11/1697)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)

1885        Nov 17, The Serbian Army, with Russian support, invaded Bulgaria.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1885        Nov 19, Bulgarians, led by Stefan Stambolov, repulsed a larger Serbian invasion force at Slivinitza.
    (HN, 11/19/98)

1885        Nov 26, The 1st photograph of a meteor was made.
    (MC, 11/26/01)
1885        Nov 26, Bulgaria moved into Serbia.
    (HNQ, 4/2/99)

1885        Nov 30, Albrecht (von) Kesselring, German field marshal, was born.
    (MC, 11/30/01)
1885        Nov 30, Jules Massenet's opera "Le Cid" had its premier in Paris. It included text from the playwright Corneille's "Le Cid."
    (WSJ, 11/18/99, p.A24)(MC, 11/30/01)

1885        Dec 2, Nikos Kazantzakis (d.1957), Greek writer and lawyer, was born. His work included "Zorba the Greek." [see Feb 18, 1887]
    (HN, 12/2/00)
1885        Dec 2, George Richards Minot (d.1950), physician (Nobel-1934), was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.913)(Internet)
1885        Dec 2, Karl Goldmark's opera "Queen of Sheba," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1885        Dec 22, Ito Hirobumi began serving as the first prime minister of Japan. He also served as the 5th (1892-96), 7th (1898) and 10th (1900-1901) PM of Japan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/It%C5%8D_Hirobumi)

1885        Dec 29, Gottlieb Daimler patented the 1st bike in Germany.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1885        Frederic Leighton (1830-1896), English painter and sculptor, created his sculpture "The Sluggard."
    (WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederic_Leighton,_1st_Baron_Leighton)

1885        Cezanne painted his watercolor of "Madame Cezanne with hydrangeas." His painting ~ez_ldquo~the Bather~ez_rdquo~ (Le Grand Baigneur) was also done about this time.
    (WSJ, 2/20/96, p.A-14)(WSJ, 3/29/08, p.W18)

1885        Winslow Homer painted "Lost on the Grand Banks." It was reportedly sold to Bill Gates in 1998 for $30 million.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98, Par p.2)

1885        Berthe Morisot (d.1895), French Impressionist, painted her self portrait.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.29)

1885        Renoir, French painter, painted "In the Garden." It was a lush double-portrait in which the artist~ez_rsquo~s future wife, Aline, calmly accepted the embrace of a suitor whose face says everything about love~ez_rsquo~s sweet delusions.
    (WSJ, 4/6/95, p.A-12)

1885        Ethel Reed, graphic artist, designed the poster for Folly or Saintliness by Jose Echegaray. A print by Ellen Thayer Fisher titled Sumac & Milkweed was made the same year.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.36, illus.)

1885        A tapestry study was done by Sir Edward Cowley Burne-Jones and William Morris.
    (SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)

1885        Vincent Van Gogh painted "The Potato Eaters" and "A Pair of Shoes."
    (SFC, 1/14/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)

1885        Thomas Mellon published privately his autobiography, which included much detail on the expanding US economy after the Civil War.
    (WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)

1885        J.R. McCulloch wrote his book "Taxation and the Funding System." In it he stated that: "The moment you abandon the cardinal principle of exacting from all individuals the same proportion of their income or their profits, you are at sea without a rudder or compass and there is no amount of injustice of folly you may not commit."
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, p.A18)

1885        William Dean Howells authored his novel ~ez_ldquo~The Rise of Silas Lapham,~ez_rdquo~ about a self-made industrialist, who slips from the high rung of success just as he attempts to enter the exclusive precincts of Boston~ez_rsquo~s elite.
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W10)

1885        Emile Zola (1840-1902) authored his novel ~ez_ldquo~Germinal,~ez_rdquo~ a fictional account of a French mining strike. It was the 13th novel in Zola's 20-volume series Les Rougon-Macquart.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germinal_%28novel%29)(WSJ, 10/7/97, p.A20)

1885        Architect William Le Baron Jenney began to use steel a steel frame skeleton for the first skyscrapers.
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, Z1 p.8)

1885        The Home Insurance Building in Chicago was built and is considered the first skyscraper. It stood 9 stories and had 2 added in 1891.
    (HT, 5/97, p.23)

1885        Charles Rollo Peters painted ~ez_ldquo~Italian Fisherman~ez_rsquo~s Wharf,~ez_rdquo~ a scene of the congested SF harbor.
    (SFC, 5/30/01, p.E3)
1885        Jules Harder, 1st chef of the SF Palace Hotel, authored ~ez_ldquo~The Physiology of Taste: Harder~ez_rsquo~s Book of Practical American Cookery.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFC, 9/7/05, p.F4)
1885        In San Francisco a 4-level Victorian was built at 3086 Washington St. In 2009 the 4,851 square-foot house listed for $6.45 million following renovations.
    (SFC, 10/14/09, p.C3)(SFL)
1885        The James A. Garfield monument on Kennedy Drive in San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s golden Gate Park was erected by the offerings of a ~ez_ldquo~grateful people.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.A13)(SFL)
1885        In San Francisco Adolph Sutro opened Sutro Heights to the public. The estate was dotted with European statues. He went on to build the Sutro Baths, a 3-acre glass palace.
    (G, Winter 98/99, p.2)
1885        St. Dominic~ez_rsquo~s Church in San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s Western Addition was built.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.A19)(SFL)
1885        San Francisco brewery owner Joseph Wieland died in a fire. His heirs commissioned a new boat for the Dolphin Club, which he had founded; the 40-foot Joseph Wieland rowing vessel was built by Al Rogers.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.A23)
1885        William Sharon, US senator and silver millionaire, died. He bequeathed $60,000 for the construction of a children~ez_rsquo~s playground in San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s Golden Gate Park.
    (Ind, 10/28/00, 5A)

1885        Thomas Hardy, English writer, built his own home, Max Gate, outside Dorchester on the Wareham Road. It was here that he wrote "Tess of the D~ez_rsquo~Ubbervilles" and "Jude the Obscure."
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p.T-4)

1885        The Norment-Parry Inn was built in Orlando, Florida. It is now the oldest house in Orlando and serves as a bed-and-breakfast inn. It is part of a 3 building complex called The Courtyard at Lake Lucerne.
    (Hem, Mar. 95, p.28)

1885        The Detroit Institute of Arts opened.
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A20)

1885        The Cincinnati Stock Exchange was founded. It closed its trading floor in 1980 and became America's first fully computerized exchange. Bernard Madoff, a former chairman of the NASDAQ Stock Market and founder of Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities, was one of the few NASDAQ market-makers who competed with the New York Stock Exchange, by trading stocks listed on the Big Board. His broker/dealer firm did this through an electronic market that was operated at the Cincinnati Stock Exchange.
    (http://tinyurl.com/58xb7g)

1885        Isaac Mayer Wise united pockets of Jewish immigrants and assembled 15 rabbis in Pittsburgh to articulate a platform for the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the Hebrew Union College, and the Central Conference of American Rabbis. The organization of Reform Judaism discussed the Mitzvot,  the 613 commandments in the Torah, and accepted only the moral laws as binding.
    (WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W15)
1885        Elizabeth Cochran (21) began to produce article for the Pittsburgh Dikspatch under the name ~ez_ldquo~Nelie Bly.~ez_rdquo~ In 1887 she moved to NYC hoping to find work at the New York World.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.11)

1885         "Pemberton~ez_rsquo~s French Wine Coca" made its premier In Dr. Jacob's pharmacy in Atlanta. John Stith Pemberton refined the wine-based drink and Coca-Cola, the future symbol of "the American way of life," made its debut in 1886.
    (AP, 5/3/03)(http://cocaine.org/coca-cola/)

1885        The soft drink Dr Pepper was introduced.
    (SFEC, 2/21/99, Z1 p.8)

1895        George Henderson founded Dorchester Pottery outside Boston. Charles A. Hill, his brother-in-law, was the plant manager and decorator.
    (SFC, 6/17/98, Z1 p.3)

1885        Annie Oakley joined Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show and toured Europe.
    (WSJ, 3/12/99, p.W18)

1885        John Montgomery Ward and fellow baseball players secretly formed the Brotherhood of Professional Base Ball Players.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, BR p.4)

1885        To escape a federal crackdown on polygamy, hundreds of Mormon families fled to Mexico and established the first of five Mormon colonies in the state of Chihuahua.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)

1885        Christmas became a national holiday in the US.
    (http://tinyurl.com/dmun5)

1885        The US Mail began a Special Delivery service and issued the first $.10 stamp for the guaranteed immediate delivery.
    (SFC, 6/7/97, p.A6)

1885        The National Aquarium first opened to visitors in Washington DC. On Sep 30, 2013, it closed its operations at the US Dept. of Commerce building due to renovations.
    (SFC, 9/30/13, p.A4)

1885        California in response to the ~ez_ldquo~yellow menace~ez_rdquo~ passed legislation that allowed districts to create separate schools for Asian Americans.
    (SSFC, 5/16/04, p.E5)
1885        In California the Far Niente winery was built in Napa Valley. In 2008 it was among the a maverick group of local wineries to embrace solar power.
    (SFC, 5/29/08, p.A1)
1885        Union Iron Works launched its first ship, the coal carrier Arago, from Pier 70 in SF.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A11)
1885        A Cal Western railroad line was built in northern California to haul lumber along the Noyo River canyon. A connection to Willits was completed in 1911. It became known as the Skunk Train when Cal Western began using single-car rail buses with bad gas fumes in 1925.
    (SSFC, 8/31/03, p.A27)(SFC, 6/8/13, p.A7)

1885        The Concord, Mass., public library banned "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" by Mark Twain.
    (SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)

1885        Princeville, North Carolina was chartered. It had been founded by a community of newly freed slaves and originally called Freedom Hill or Liberty Hill on the south side of the Tar River. It was named after Turner Prince, a carpenter who was one of its early leaders.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.A8)

1885        Joseph O~ez_rsquo~Neil, US Army lieutenant, spent a month ascending from Port Angeles to Hurricane Ridge in the Olympic Mountains of Washington state.
    (NG, 7/04, p.66)

1885        Chief Joseph and his band of Nez Perce were allowed to take up residence on the Colville reservation in northern Washington.
    (ON, 3/04, p.5)

1885        George Westinghouse (1846-1914), who eventually held more than 400 patents, turned his interest to electricity and in 1886 formed the Westinghouse Electric.
    (HNQ, 5/28/00)

1885        Charles Cretors of Chicago invented the first popcorn popping machine. It was powered by steam and first drawn by a team of horses.
    (HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.67)

1885        Philip Handel started Handel and Co., a ceramic and glass operation in Meridan, Conn. He moved to New York and made lamps, vases and other glassware from 1893-1933.
    (SFC, 7/22/98, Z1 p.2)(SFC, 1/10/07, p.G2)

1885        Leland and Jane Stanford founded Stanford Univ. The cornerstone was laid in 1887. The 1st class began in 1891 with David Starr Jordan (d.1931) as the first president.
    (SFEM, 1/30/00, p.8)(Ind, 4/12/03, 5A)(Ind, 4/19/03, 5A)

1885        Sylanus Bowser invented the kerosene pump. Twenty years later he modified it into a self-regulating gasoline pump.
    (SFEC, 10/10/99, Z1 p.6)

1885        The cigar lighter was invented.
    (SFC, 8/28/98, p.B4)

c1885    The founder of Johnson Controls invented an electric room thermostat.
    (WSJ, 2/3/97, p.B4)

1885        Arcade Manufacturing Co. of Freeport, Ill., began as a manufacturer of industrial castings and household items. It introduced toys in the 1890s and by the 1920s was a major manufacturer of high-quality cast-iron toys.
    (SFC, 5/17/06, p.G5)

1885        Carl Friedrich Benz invented the first operable auto with an internal combustion engine.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1885        The Varney model of the miner~ez_rsquo~s candlestick was patented.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, Z1 p.7)

1885        The clipper ship James Stafford crossed the Pacific Ocean in 21 ½ days, a record that lasted until 1995.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.B6)

1885        US drug manufacturer Parke-Davis sold cocaine in various forms, including cigarettes, powder, and even a cocaine mixture that could be injected directly into the user's veins with the included needle.
     (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocaine)

1885        Scientists discovered the plant growth hormone auxin. In 2005 they managed to reveal its mechanism of action.
    (WSJ, 6/3/05, p.B1)

1885        A new star appeared in the Great Nebula of Andromeda.
    (SCTS, p.1185)

1885        In Texas George Bannerman Dealey founded the Dallas News at the behest of Col. A.H. Belo.
    (SFC, 2/20/07, p.B4)
1885        America's 1st recorded serial murders took place in Austin, Texas.
    (SFCM, 10/11/03, p.34)

1885        Helen Hunt Jackson (b.1830), author and social reformer, died. Her books included "Ramona" (1984). In 2003 Kate Phillips authored Helen Hunt Jackson: A Literary Life."
    (SFEC, 12/20/98, BR p.5)(SFC, 4/19/03, p.D4)

1885        Titian Ramsey Peale (b.1799), American naturalist and painter, died. He and his nephew developed and patented the kinematoscope, a forerunner of the motion picture camera.
    (NH, 5/96, p.75)

1885        Brazil passed a law freeing slaves between the ages of 60 and 65 in exchange for three final years of service. By the following year slaves began running away from their masters in large numbers.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.52)

1885        Richard Burton, British adventurer and linguist, published his translation of ~ez_ldquo~The Thousand and One Nights.~ez_rdquo~ The 1835 Cairene manuscripts formed the cornerstone of the canonical version of the fluid text.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, p.54)
1885        Britain enacted a "gross indecency" law. It was later used to persecute thousands of English homosexuals, including playwright Oscar Wilde, who spent two years in prison after a trial in 1895, and World War II code breaker Alan Turing, who committed suicide after being convicted in 1952.
    (AP, 1/16/13)
1885        Britain began maintaining records of elections.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.72)
1885        In England John Starley introduced the safety bicycle. It had 2 wheels of the same size and pedals attached to a chain to the rear wheel.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.34)(Econ, 7/31/10, p.70)
1885        English scientist Francis Galton proved that no two 2 fingerprints were identical.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, Zone 1 p.5)
1885        William Hesketh Lever opened his 1st factory to make Sunlight Soap in Britain. In 2004 Adam Macqueen authored ~ez_ldquo~The King of Sunlight: How William Lever Cleaned Up the World.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 7/24/04, p.75)

1885        Canada began forcing tens of thousands of Chinese, who helped build the nation's railroad, to pay a "head tax" if they wished to remain in the country and then taxed them again to bring in their families. It started at $50 and by 1903 grew to $500. Collections ended in 1923, when immigration from China was banned. Canada only began admitting Chinese again in 1947. On June 22, 2006, Canada apologized.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
1885        The Canadian Pacific Railway completed its transcontinental rail line.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.46)
1885        In BC, Canada, St. Paul~ez_rsquo~s Church was built at Fulford. It was the first church on Salt Spring Island.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T5)

1885        Alphonse Bertillon of the Paris Police Dept. (Surete) developed the Bertillon system to help identify criminals. It was based on a variety or personal characteristics including hair and eye color and various body measurements.
    (ON, 4/04, p.11)

1885        The 70-room Herrenchiemsee Castle of Ludwig II of Bavaria was built on an island in Lake Chiemsee.
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T4)
1885        In Germany a treaty made in Berlin called for the humane treatment of Africans.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)

1885        In Japan the first Shakespeare production was a Kabuki adaptation of a Japanese novel inspired by a Charles Lamb narrative based on "The Merchant of Venice."
    (SFC,12/23/97, p.E6)

1885        In the Netherlands the façade of the Rijksmuseum was completed.
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1885        Managua, Nicaragua, was leveled by an earthquake.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1885        Dr. Lazarus Ludwig Zamenhof (1859-1917), Polish ophthalmologist, invented the artificial language known as Esperanto. [see 1887]
    (SFCM, 6/8/03, p.18)

1885        A Swedish ~ez_ldquo~Treskilling Yellow~ez_rdquo~ postage stamp was printed with a one-of-kind error. In 1996 it sold for a record $2.3 million. In 2010 it was again sold but the price was not revealed.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, p.A6)

c1885    Geneva rubies were sold in Switzerland. They were supposedly made by processing small bits of real rubies into larger gemstones.
    (SFC, 7/17/96, z-1, p.7)

1885-1889    Grover Cleveland became the 22nd President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)

1885-1920    Sisters Frances and Mary Allen of Deerfield, Massachusetts, began their careers as schoolteachers, but when deafness forced a change of profession, they turned to photography. Their work shows everyday activities in a rural community.  Self-taught in their craft, the Allen sisters achieved remarkable success. During their photography career from 1885 to 1920, their work appeared in numerous books and magazines as covers, illustrations and frontispieces.
    (HNPD, 1/3/00)

1885-1930    D.H. Lawrence, English novelist. David Herbert Lawrence. "The world fears a new experience more than it fears anything. Because a new experience displaces so many old experiences."
    (WUD, 1994, p.812)(AP, 3/4/00)

1885-1958    Eva Gauthier, American concert singer. She is discussed in the 1997 book "The American Opera Singer" by Peter G. Davis.
    (WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A20)

1885-1962    Niels Henrik David Bohr, Danish theoretical physicist. He is the author of the Bohr theory which is a model of atomic structure wherein electrons travel around the nucleus in orbits determined by quantum conditions of angular momentum.
    (AHD, 1971, p.147)

1885-1957     Sacha Guitry, French director, actor and dramatist: "The little I know I owe to my ignorance." "You can pretend to be serious; but you can't pretend to be witty."
    (AP, 5/27/98)(AP, 2/27/99)

1885-1968    Helen M. Cam, English historian and educator: "We must not read either law or history backwards."
    (AP, 8/15/00)

1885-1973    Otto Klemperer, maestro, was born in Breslau and died in Zurich. "Otto Klemperer: His Life and Times" Vol II was completed by John Lucas based on the work of Mr. Heyworth and published in 1996. Vol I by Peter Heyworth was published in 1983.
    (WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)

1886        Jan 1, A great blizzard buried the eastern and southern plains, killing 50 to 85 percent of the cattle herds.
    (HNPD, 1/4/99)

1886        Feb 16, Van Wyck Brooks (d.1963), American biographer, critic and literary historian, was born. "Nothing is so soothing to our self-esteem as to find our bad traits in our forebears. It seems to absolve us."
    (AP, 8/14/00)(HN, 2/16/01)

1886        Jan 25, Wilhelm Furtwangler, conductor, composer, was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1886        Jan 26, Karl Benz patented the 1st automobile. [see Jan 29]
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1886        Jan 28, Artur Rubinstein, pianist, was born in Lodz, Poland.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1886        Jan 29, 1st successful gasoline-driven car was patented by Karl Benz in Karlsruhe. [see Jan 26]
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1886        Feb 9, President Cleveland declared a state of emergency in Seattle because of anti-Chinese violence.
    (MC, 2/9/02)
1886        Feb 9, Modest Mussorgsky~ez_rsquo~s (1839-1881) opera ~ez_ldquo~Khovanschchina,~ez_rdquo~ arranged by Rimsky-Korsakov, premiered in St. Petersburg. The Gregorian date is Feb 21.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khovanshchina)

1886        Feb 13, Painter Thomas Eakins resigned from the Philadelphia Academy of Art over controversial use of male nudes in a coed art class.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1886        Feb 14, California orange growers ship their first trainload of fruit from Los Angeles.
    (HCB, 2003, p.92)

1886        Feb 15, Sax Rohmer, author (Dr. Fu Manchu), was born in England.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1886        Feb 23, Tchaikovsky~ez_rsquo~s symphonic poem "Manfred" premiered.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1886        Feb 23, An aluminum manufacturing process was developed.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1886        Feb 23, London Times published the world's 1st classified ad.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1886        Feb 27, Hugo L. Black (d.1971) was born in Alabama. He became the 78th Supreme Court Justice (1937-71) and wrote opinions forbidding prayer in schools (Sen-D-Ala).
    (http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1848)

1886        Feb 8, Two rival leftist organizations, the London United Workmen's Committee and H.F. Hyndman's revolutionary Social Democratic Federation, gave notice of their intention to hold meetings simultaneously in Trafalgar Square. A brief riot occurred and sometimes became referred to as Black Monday.
    (www.sparknotes.com/drama/majorbarbara/section10.rhtml)

1886        Mar 3, The Treaty of Bucharest concluded the Serb-Bulgarian war, re-establishing pre-war Serbo-Bulgarian borders but leaving Eastern Rumelia and Bulgaria united.
    (HNQ, 4/2/99)

1886        Mar 6, The 1st US alternating current power plant started in Great Barrington, MA.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1886        Mar 8, Edward Kendall, chemist, isolated cortisone (Nobel 1950), was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1886        Mar 13, Albert William Stevens, balloonist and photographer, was born.
    (HN, 3/13/01)

1886        Mar 17, The Carrollton Massacre in Mississippi occurred and 20 African Americans were killed.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1886        Mar 24, Edward Weston, photographer, was born.
    (HN, 3/24/01)

1886        Mar 26, The 1st cremation in England took place.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1886        Mar 27, Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe, German-US architect (Bauhaus), was born.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1886        Mar 28, Jarosla Novotny, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1886        Mar 29, Coca-Cola was advertised for the first time in the Atlanta Daily. Its inventor, Dr. John Pemberton, claimed it could cure anything from hysteria to the common cold. John Stith (Doc) Pemberton, pharmacist, concocted a bath of a dark, sugary syrup meant to be mixed with carbonated water and sold at the city~ez_rsquo~s soda fountains. This was the beginning of Coca Cola, which then contained enough cocaine to give the a drinker a buzz and more caffeine than the drink contains today. Sales at the soda fountain of Jacob~ez_lsquo~s Pharmacy averaged 9 drinks a day in the first year. The story is told by Frederick Allen in his book ~ez_ldquo~Secret Formula.~ez_rdquo~ The drink was named by Frank Robinson and he created its signature script logo. [see May 8]
    (www.sodamuseum.bigstep.com/generic.jhtml?pid=1)

1886        Mar 31, Giovanni Rossi (57), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1886        Apr 6, The City of Vancouver, Canada, was incorporated. The ceremony was delayed when it was discovered no one had thought to bring paper on which to write down the details. The ceremony was held in Jonathan Miller's house. The population of the city was about 1,000.
    (www.vancouverhistory.ca/chronology2.html)

1886        Apr 11, General Nelson A. Miles arrived at Fort Bowie, Ariz., to begin his assignment to subjugate or destroy a band of Apaches led by Geronimo.
    (ON, 10/06, p.1)

1886        Apr 26, Ma Rainey, [Gertrude Pridgett], "Mother of the Blues", US blues singer, was born. [see Apr 3, 1888]
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1886        Apr 27, A band of Apaches led by Geronimo attacked a ranch west of Fort Huachuca and killed 3 American citizens.
    (ON, 10/06, p.1)

1886        Apr 28, Erich Salomon, German photographer, was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)   

1886        Apr, Abolitionist Frederick Douglass gave a speech in Washington to celebrate the 24th year after the Emancipation Proclamation. He said: "Where justice is denied, where poverty is enforced, where ignorance prevails, where any one class is made to feel that society is an organized conspiracy to oppress, rob and degrade them, neither persons nor property will be safe.
    (USAT, 2/14/97, p.15A)
1886        Apr, In San Francisco school children on Arbor Day planted the first trees of the Presidio forest. Adolph Sutro enlisted schoolchildren to help plant eucalyptus, acacia, Monterey pine and Monterey cypress trees in Glen Park. The 904-foot Mount Parnassus, owned by Sutro, was also planted.
    (G, Winter, p.3)(SFC, 5/26/00, Wb p.8)(SFC, 6/20/00, p.A1)

1886        May 1, A labor strike began across the US to support an 8-hour work day.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAspies.htm)

1886        May 2, Edouard Lockroy, French Minister of Culture, announced plans for a tower for the 1889 Paris exhibition and invited proposals for the project. The winning design was submitted by engineer Gustave Eiffel.
    (ON, 7/03, p.9)

1886        May 3, Police arrived outside the McCormick Harvester Works in Chicago, where 1,400 IWPA workers were on strike. They opened-fire on the crowd while anarchist August Spies was making a speech, killing four of the workers.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAspies.htm)

1886        May 4,    At Haymarket Square in Chicago, a labor demonstration for an 8-hour workday turned into a riot when a bomb exploded. Seven policemen were killed and some 60 others injured. Only one policeman was killed in the strike. 3 labor leaders were executed Nov 10, 1887, for the bombing. The Haymarket affair is generally considered to have been an important influence on the origin of international May Day observances for workers.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(WSJ, 2/6/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haymarket_Riot)

1886        May 5, A bomb exploded on the fourth day of a workers' strike in Chicago, Ill.
    (HN, 5/5/99)

1886        May 8, Atlanta pharmacist John Stith Pemberton invented the flavor syrup for Coca-Cola, which contained cocaine. The name for the soft drink came from his bookkeeper, Frank Robinson. Sales of Coca-Cola at the soda fountain of Jacob~ez_lsquo~s Pharmacy averaged 9 drinks a day in the first year. [see Mar 29]
    (AP, 5/8/97)(HN, 5/8/98)(www.sodamuseum.bigstep.com/generic.jhtml?pid=1)

1886        May 9, William Hornaday, taxidermist for the Smithsonian Institute, arrived with his assistants in Miles City, Montana, on a venture to hunt buffalo and learned that none had been seen for a long time.
    (ON, 3/02, p.8)

1886        May 10, Karl Barth (d.1966), Swiss theologian, was born. "Conscience is the perfect interpreter of life."
    (AP, 3/9/01)(HN, 5/10/02)
1886        May 10, The US Supreme Court ruling in Santa Clara County v Southern Pacific Railroad dealt with taxation of railroad properties. A unanimous decision, written by Justice Harlan, ruled on the matter of fences, holding that the state of California illegally included the fences running beside the tracks in its assessment of the total value of the railroad's property. As a result, the county could not collect taxes from Southern Pacific that it was not allowed to collect in the first place.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Clara_County_v._Southern_Pacific_Railroad)(Econ, 3/26/11, p.78)(Econ, 4/16/11, p.18)

1886        May 15, Poet Emily Dickinson (b.1830) died in Amherst, Mass., where she had lived in seclusion for the previous 24 years. In 2001 Alfred Habegger authored her biography: "My Wars Are laid Away in Books." In 2008 Brenda Wineapple authored ~ez_ldquo~White Heat: The Friendship of Emily Dickinson & Thomas Wentworth Higginson (1823-1911). In 2010 Lyndall Gordon authored ~ez_ldquo~Lives Like Loaded Guns: Emily Dickinson and her Family Feuds,~ez_rdquo~ in which he presents evidence that Dickinson suffered from congenital epilepsy.
    (AP, 5/15/97)(HN, 5/15/01)(WSJ, 11/2/01, p.W11)(Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)

1886        May 16, Douglas Southall Freeman, journalist, historian, Pulitzer Prize-winning biographer, was born.
    (HN, 5/16/01)

1886        May 19, Camille Saint-Saens' 3rd Symphony in C ("Organ"), premiered.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1886        May 22, The cover of Harper~ez_rsquo~s Weekly featured an illustrated picture of a jousting match in San Francisco with a German-style castle in the background atop Telegraph Hill. The castle, known as Layman~ez_rsquo~s Folly (1883-1903), was built by Frederick O. Layman. He had also built a 1,400-foot cable car line up Greenwich St. from Powell to the summit of Telegraph Hill.
    (SFC, 3/8/14, p.C2)

1886        May 25, Philip Murray, founder of Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) , was born.
    (HN, 5/25/98)

1886        Jun 2, President Cleveland married Frances Folsom in a White House ceremony. Cleveland~ez_rsquo~s bride, Frances Folsom, was the 22-year-old daughter of Cleveland~ez_rsquo~s late law partner and friend, Oscar Folsom. The intimate wedding ceremony took place in the White House Blue Room with fewer than 40 people present.(To date, Cleveland is the only president to marry in the Executive Mansion while in office.)
    (AP, 6/2/97)(WSJ, 9/23/97, p.A1)(HNQ, 6/2/98)

1886        Jun 3, 24 Christians were burned to death in Namgongo, Uganda.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1886        Jun 10, Mount Tarawera erupted at Rotorua on the North Island. 155 people were killed and several Maori and European settlements, including Te Wairoa, were destroyed.
    (SFEC, 1/9/00, p.T5)(SSFC, 10/28/12, p.M6)

1886        Jun 11, David Steinman, bridge designer (Hudson, Triborough), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1886        Jun 13, King Ludwig II (40), King of Bavaria, drowned in Lake Starnberg. Bavarian leaders had conspired to remove Ludvig II from office and got a doctor, who never saw him, to declare him insane. He was captured and taken to a mansion on Lake Starnberg where he was found floating dead with his doctor. In 1996 Greg King authored "The Mad King."
    (AP, 6/13/97)(SFEC, 4/9/00, p.T5)
1886        Jun 13, A swift fire destroyed Vancouver, Canada, in a time variously reported between twenty and forty-five minutes. At least eight people died, and some accounts claim 28. About 1,000 wooden buildings, virtually the entire city, were totally consumed.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.42)(www.vancouverhistory.ca/chronology2.html)

1886        Jun 25, Henry (Hap) Arnold, commanding general of the U.S. Army Air Force during World War II, was born.
    (HN, 6/25/99)
1886        Jun 25, Britain adopted its Riot (Damages) Act, intended to provide compensation for losses by riots.
    (www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Vict/49-50/38/introduction)

1886        Jun 29, James Van Der Zee, African-American photographer, was born.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1886        Jul 3, In Germany Karl Benz drove the 1st automobile. [see Jan 29]
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1886        Jul 4, The 1st scheduled Canadian transcontinental passenger train (CPR) reached Pt. Moody, BC. It had left Montreal on June 28.
    (ON, 11/07, p.12)

1886        Jul 13, Father Edward J. Flanagan, catholic priest, founder of Boys Town, was born in Roscommon, Ireland.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

1886        Jul 23, Arthur Whitten Brown, British aviator, was born.
    (HN, 7//2302)
1886        Jul 23, New York saloonkeeper Steve Brodie claimed to have made a daredevil plunge from the Brooklyn Bridge into the East River. However, few historians believe the jump actually occurred
    (AP, 7/23/07)

1886        Jul 26, William Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury as prime minister of England.
    (HN, 7/26/98)

1886        Jul 31, Franz Liszt, composer, died in Bayreuth. His work included the symphonic poem "Les Preludes" and the "Faust Symphony." Cosima-von-Bulow was a illegitimate daughter of Liszt and married to Richard Wagner. A 3 volume biography of Liszt (1977, 1983, 1996) was written by Alan Walker, Vol 3 was titled: "Franz Liszt: The final Years." Deszno Legany of Hungary earlier wrote: "Liszt and His country: 1874-1866."
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A14)

1886        Aug 20, Paul Tillich, German-US theologian and philosopher who wrote "Systematic Theology," was born.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(MC, 8/20/02)

1886        Aug 27, Eric Coates, viola player, composer, was born in Hucknall, Nottinghamshire, England.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1886        Aug 31, An earthquake rocked Charleston, S.C., killing 60 people, according to the US Geological Survey.
    (AP, 8/31/07)

1886        Sep 4, Elusive Apache leader Geronimo (1829-1909) surrendered to General Nelson A. Miles (1839-1925) at Skeleton Canyon, Ariz. This ended the last major US-Indian war.
    (HN, 9/4/98)(ON, 10/06, p.4)

1886        Sep 9, The Berne International Copyright Convention took place at the instigation of Victor Hugo and backed the individual copyright laws of the European states. It was updated in 1971. In 1993 the Brussels directive brought in a Europe-wide 70-year rule.
    (HN, 9/9/00)(WSJ, 1/31/02, p.A16)(www.ifla.org.sg/documents/infopol/copyright/ucc.txt)

1886        Sep 13, Alain Locke, writer and first African-American Rhodes scholar, was born.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1886        Sep 14, Jan Garrique Masaryk (d.1948), Czech statesman, was born.
    (www.britannica.com)
1886        Sep 14, George K. Anderson of Memphis, Tennessee, patented typewriter ribbon.
    (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bltypewriter.htm)

1886        Oct 7, Spain abolished slavery in Cuba.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.C4)(MC, 10/7/01)

1886        Oct 10, The tuxedo dinner jacket made its American debut at the autumn ball in Tuxedo Park, N.Y.
    (AP, 10/10/97)

1886        Oct 16, David Ben-Gurion (d.1973), Israeli statesman, was born in Plonsk, Poland. He was the 1st PM of Israel and served from 1948-53 and in 1955.
    (HN, 10/16/00)(MC, 10/16/01)

1886        Oct 26, Gustav Hermann Unger, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1886        Oct 28, The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island, formerly Bedloe's Island,  in New York Harbor, a gift from the people of France, was dedicated by President Cleveland. It was designed by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi and originally named Liberty Enlightening the World. It was erected at the entrance of New York harbor as a symbol of freedom to welcome immigrants and others from around the world and became a monument to republicanism and to the amity between the French and American nations. The 225-ton statue arrived in 214 packing cases in June 1885 and was assembled on an American-built pedestal, the money for which was largely raised by Joseph Pulitzer. Lady Liberty, holding up her torch at the entrance of the harbor, remains one of America's most recognized monuments. Later the poem "New Colossus" by Emma Lazarus was placed at the base. The island was renamed by Pres. Eisenhower.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1389)(WSJ, 7/26/96, p.A9)(THC, 4/10/97)(AP, 10/28/97) (HNPD, 10/28/98)(HN, 10/28/98)(MC, 10/28/01)

1886        Nov 9, Ed Wynn, actor and comedian, was born.
    (HN, 11/9/00)

1886        Nov 18, Chester A. Arthur (56), 21st president of the United States (1881-1885),  died in New York.
    (AP, 11/18/97)

1886        Nov 21, Harold G. Nicolson, English diplomat and author (Good Behavior), was born.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1886        Nov 24, Margaret Anderson, editor, was born. She founded "The Little Review."
    (HN, 11/24/00)

1886        Nov 30, 1st commercially successful AC electric power plant opened in Buffalo.
    (MC, 11/30/01)
1886        Nov 30, Folies Bergere introduced an elaborate review featuring women in sensational costumes. Years later, the Folies followed the Parisian taste for striptease and gained a reputation for spectacular nudie shows. The Folies had originated as a hall for operettas, pantomime, and even political meetings.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1885        Nov, Atlanta, Georgia, voted to become a dry city effective July, 1886.
    (www.sodamuseum.bigstep.com/generic.jhtml?pid=1)

1886        Dec 1, Rex Stout, writer, poet, was born. He created the detective character Nero Wolfe.
    (HN, 12/1/00)

1886        Dec 6, Joyce Kilmer (d.1918), American poet best known for his poem "Trees," was born. Kilmer was killed by a sniper in WW I.
    (HN, 12/6/98)(WUD, 1994 p.786)

1886        Dec 8, Diego Rivera (d.1957), Mexican painter, was born in Guanajuato.
    (SSFC, 8/19/12, p.P2)
1886        Dec 8, The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was founded at a convention of union leaders in Columbus, Ohio, by some 25 labor groups representing about 150,000 members. The first president of the American Federation of Labor was Samuel Gompers, who had reorganized the Cigarmakers Union and participated in the founding of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions in 1881.
    (AP, 12/8/97)(HNPD, 9/7/99)

1886         Dec 9, Clarence Birdseye, inventor of flash freezing foods, was born.
    (HNPD, 12/9/98)

1886        Dec 12, Edward Richard Woodham (b.1831), English survivor of the Charge of the Light Brigade (1854), died.
    (AP, 9/29/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Richard_Woodham)

1886        Dec 17, At a Christmas party, Sam Belle shot his old enemy Frank West, but was fatally wounded himself.
    (HN, 12/17/98)

1886        Dec 18, Ty [Tyrus Raymond] Cobb, American baseball player, first man to be elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, was born.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1886        Dec 20, Domingo Julio Gomez Garcia, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1886        Karl von Frisch, Austrian ethologist, was born. In the 1940s he first described the method by which honeybees describe the source of gathered pollen to their fellow bees. The bees perform a dance is that integrates information about the orientation of the sun and the distance to the pollen source.
    (WUD, 1994, p.569)(NH, 9/97, p.60)

1886        French artist Jean-Leon Gerome painted "The First Kiss of the Sun."
    (WSJ, 2/5/99, p.W12)
1886        Henri Fantin-Latour painted "Vase With Autumn Asters."
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.B1)
1886        French sculptor Auguste Rodin created his marble sculpture "The Kiss."
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A5)
1886        The last impressionist exhibition was held in France.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.E8)
1886        Rene Lalique, a pioneer of Art Nouveau style, set up his own jewelry workshop in Paris, France. He had already apprenticed under Louis Aucoq and worked for Cartier, Boucheron and other established houses.
    (SSFC, 2/4/07, p.C4)
1886        Paul Durand-Ruel, a Paris art dealer, packed his bag with 300 Impressionist paintings and took them to sell in America.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, SR p.13)

1886        Medardo Rosso sculpted his "The Golden Age."
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.46)

1886        Thomas Hardy, English writer, authored "The Mayor of Casterbridge."
    (SFC, 8/16/03, p.D1)

1886        George Ray (1817-1902) authored ~ez_ldquo~The Country Banker,~ez_rdquo~ a handbook for newly appointed branch managers.
    (www.archive.org/details/countrybanker00raeg)

1886        Baron von Richard Krafft-Ebing (1840-1902) published a work on mental disease.
    (WUD, 1994, p.795)

1886        Pierre Loti, French naval officer and author, wrote "An Iceland Fisherman."
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, DB p.40)

1886        Robert Louis Stevenson wrote "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" and "Kidnapped." His work also included "Silverado Squatters" based on his experiences in Calistoga, Ca. Stevenson used Mount St. Helena and the Palisades for story scenes in  "Treasure Island."
    (Article on Calistoga by Cybil McCabe, 7/95)(WSJ, 4/24/98, p.W1)

1886        Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), Russian writer, authored his novel ~ez_ldquo~The Death of Ivan Ilyich.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 2/25/06, p.P6)

1886        Jules Verne (1828-1905) authored his novel ~ez_ldquo~The Clipper of the Clouds.~ez_rdquo~
    (ON, 3/06, p.3)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/verne.htm)

1886        Emile Zola (1840-1902), French author, wrote "The Masterpiece," the story of an artist in pursuit of his vision. Zola described the horror felt by much of the general public when presented with the work of the new Impressionists.
    (WSJ, 4/29/06, p.P10)(Econ, 5/2/09, p.85)

1886        The musical "The Black Crook" was named as the first American musical.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, DB p.13)

1886        The Beaumont Hotel was built in Ouray, Colo.
    (SFC, 2/16/06, p.E2)

1886        James McCutcheon, who made a fortune in the linen trade, hired a Boston architect to build him a mansion in Greenwich, Connecticut. In late 2007 the property was sold to Rene Kern, managing director of the General Atlantic hedge fund, who planned to demolish it, despite protests, and build a new home.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A6)

1886        In Galveston, Texas, the Millie Walters House was built. It was the last of the famous Postoffice St. bordellos.
    (HT, 5/97, p.62)

1886        Assembly Hall, a gothic-style building built by the Latter-day Saint pioneers, was completed in Salt Lake City, Utah.
    (THM, 4/27/97, p.N3)

1868        The ship Balclutha was built in Glasgow, Scotland. It was named in Gaelic for Clyde~ez_rsquo~s rock. For 16 years it sailed from the British Isles with a load of coal around Cape Horn to SF where it picked up grain and returned to Europe. It was later preserved at the National Maritime Museum in San Francisco. [1st source said 1860]
    (SFC, 5/28/96, p.A15)(SFEC,11/23/97, p.D1)

1886        A US general interest magazine was begun that came to be known as Cosmopolitan.
    (SFC, 8/19/05, p.E9)

1886        The Baptist General Convention, a state umbrella group for Baptist churches, was founded in Texas.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.A14)

1886        Agua Caliente, home of warm mineral springs used by the Sonoma Valley Indians, was founded as the first resort in Sonoma, Ca.
    (WCG, p.58)

1886        David McConnell of New York founded the California Perfume Company. He found that people were buying his books because of his free rose oil perfumes. US saleswoman P.F.E. Albee of Winchester, N.H., became the first Avon Lady. The company was named Avon in 1939.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.B1)

1886        Nicholas Hilger began river boat tours on the Missouri River near Helena at the site of the limestone cliffs named the Gates of the Mountains by the Lewis and Clark expedition.
    (GOTM, brochure)

1886        Millionaires Pulitzer, McCormick, Rockefeller, Morgan and others formed the Jekyll Island Club as a vacation resort for themselves and their families on Jekyll Island off the coast of Georgia.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-7)

1886        Ybor City was founded next to St. Petersburg by Spanish, Italian and Cuban cigar workers.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.60)

1886        A board game called "The Game of Baseball" was made with a lithographed game board by the McLoughlin Brothers. In 1999 the boxed game was worth $3,000.
    (SFC, 4/7/99, Z1 p.7)

1886        The beverages Moxie, Dr Pepper, Coca-Cola [see Mar 29] and Hires Root Beer all appeared in bottles.
    (SFC, 10/7/00, p.B5)

1886        Maxwell House coffee was named.
    (SFC, 10/7/00, p.B5)

1886        Pres. Grover Cleveland (49) married Frances Folsom (21), his ward and the daughter of his late law partner. He became the first and only president to be married in the White House. Cleveland's bride, Frances Folsom, was the 22-year-old daughter of Cleveland's late law partner and friend, Oscar Folsom. For years, the bachelor Cleveland acted as executor of Folsom's estate, but no one suspected his interest in Frances until he proposed marriage after her graduation from Wells College. The intimate wedding ceremony took place in the White House Blue Room with fewer than 40 people present. They had 2 sons and 3 daughters, one of whom, Ruth, inspired the Babe Ruth candy bar.
    (SFEC, 8/18/96, PM p. 2)(HNQ, 11/1/98)

1886        The US Army, which handled weather forecasting, banned the word ~ez_ldquo~tornado.~ez_rdquo~ It had determined that the harm done by predicting a tornado would be greater than that done by the tornado itself. The ban was lifted in 1952.
    (SFC, 3/16/09, p.D6)

1886        US Corporations acquired the legal status of "personhood" and the accompanying right to constitutional protections.
    (SFC, 9/26/03, p.E4)
1886        The Passenger Vessel Services Act (PSA) of this year required that cruise ships stopping in at US ports be built and registered in the US, be owned by US citizens and manned by American seamen~ez_mdash~or that they stop at a foreign port before returning passengers to their departure point. It was designed to protect US ferry boats operating on the Great Lakes from Canadian competition.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.C10)(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.B1)

1886        George Hearst was elected US Senator for California.
    (SFEM, 10/24/99, p.20)
1886        The three Korbel brothers built a lumber mill in Guerneville, California. The mill prospered logging redwoods and specialized in fancy moldings used in many of the Victorian homes of San Francisco. The property was acquired by the Heck family in 1954 who began producing sparkling wines.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, zz1 p.3)
1886        In San Francisco Adolph Sutro opened his Sutro Baths. The huge glass enclosure had room for 1,600 bathers. Late in his life the former mayor donated the Sutro Library to the city. It was made up of a 50,000-volume genealogy collection, medieval Jewish tests, books and documents from the Italian Renaissance, the papers of British explorer Joseph Banks, a labor archive and other collections.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.6)
1886        The 13-room Haas-Lilienthal House was built at 2007 Franklin, SF. Architect Peter R. Schmidt built the 24-room house of fir and redwood for Bertha and William Haas, a mercantile grocer, for $18,500.
    (SFC, 7/17/96, z-1, p.2)(SFC, 8/30/96, p.D5)
1886        In San Francisco the Union Iron Works red brick machine shop was built across from the dry dock gate at Pier 70. It closed in 2004 due to seismic issues. In 2009 plans were made public for the redevelopment of the area.
    (SSFC, 7/3/05, p.F2)(SFC, 7/11/09, p.A6)
1886        In SF the Fior d~ez_rsquo~Italia restaurant began to serve clients for a nearby North Beach bordello. Tortellini was a nickel, risotto with clams a dime and veal scallopine  and calf~ez_rsquo~s liver was 15 cents.  It was originally located at 482 Broadway and later moved to 601 Union St. In February 2005 the restaurant was burned out of its Washington Square location. It re-opened in November on Mason Street at the former San Remo Hotel.
    (SFC, 4/23/02, p.A1)(SFC, 11/23/05, p.B5)(SSFC, 5/1/11, DB p.46)
1886        In SF the North Beach jewelry business, later run by Rocco Matteucci (d.1959), was founded.
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.A24)
1886        Aaron Shenson started a meat business. In 1953 the H. Shenson Wholsesale Meat Co. moved to a new plant at 1040 Bryant St., SF.
    (SFC, 12/19/03, p.E2)
1886        In San Francisco Mrs. Abbie Parrott purchased the old St. Ignatius Market Street school site for $900,000. her family later built the Emporium store on this site.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)

1886        Josephine Garis Cochrane (d.1913), a housewife from Shelbyville, Ill., patented the first dishwashing machine. She named it the Garis-Cochran Dishwashing Machine in honor of her father and late husband.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(ON, 4/00, p.12)

1886        The Chicago Tribune began using the Linotype, invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler (1854-1899) of Germany. It produced newspaper type until it was replaced by computers.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, p.A21)(ON, 7/00, p.5)
1886        Charles T. Yerkes acquired a primitive horse-car company on Chicago~ez_rsquo~s North Side. He acquired another the following year on the West Side and proceeded to develop the city~ez_rsquo~s streetcar system. His accomplishments included the Northwestern Elevated, the Consolidated Traction network of suburban lines and the Union Loop.
    (WSJ, 8/29/06, p.D5)

1886        The Grand Rapids School Furniture Company was founded in Grand Rapids, Mich. By 1899 the company had merged with 18 others to form the American Seating Co. of NYC.
    (SFC, 1/14/09, p.G2)

1886        Bloomingdale's department store in NYC moved to 59th and Lexington Ave.
    (SSFC, 9/24/06, p.D2)
1886        Robert J. Horner opened a furniture shop on West 23rd Street in NYC. In 1914-15 the business merged with a furniture company owned by George C. Flint and became Flint & Horner, which grew into a large retail store.
    (SFC, 1/16/08, p.G4)

1886        American statistician Herman Hollerith started a business renting out tabulating machines, which he had invented, for the US census. In 1911 the company merged with others to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, later renamed IBM.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.67)

1886        George Westinghouse incorporated the Westinghouse Electric Company.
    (ON, 10/04, p.6)

1886        Alexander Winton, Cleveland bicycle manufacturer, made his first running experimental car. He went into the car business a year later.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.66)

1886        Richard W. Sears began selling watches in North Redwood, Minn. In 1887 he opened a Chicago headquarters after hiring watchmaker Alvah C. Roebuck. In 1888 the 1st Sears catalog sold watches and jewelry. [see 1893]
    (SFC, 11/18/04, p.B1)

1886        Duke's Cameo smokes was patented.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, Z1 p.4)

1886        LaVerne Noyes (1849-1919) invented his akromotor, a device that converted wind to electricity and proved to be immensely useful to American farmers.
    (http://eos.lib.uchicago.edu/e/spcl/excat/donors2.html#d)

1886        In Honolulu, Hawaii, a fire destroyed the original Chinatown.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.3)

1886        Texas was hit by 4 hurricanes.
    (SSFC, 9/26/04, p.A1)

1886        Alexander Ostrovsky (b.1823), Russian social realist playwright, died.
    (WSJ, 7/26/00, p.A24)

1886        Peter "Black Prince" Jackson (1861-1901), St. Croix-born boxer, won the Australian heavyweight championship. In 1892 he won the British Empire title.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/298854/Peter-Jackson)

1886        London~ez_rsquo~s Soho district of this year was the setting for Joseph Conrad~ez_rsquo~s 1907 novel "The Secret Agent."
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.C12)
1886        The Clunies-Ross family was granted the Cocos Islands in the Indian Ocean, about 2,700 kilometers (1,680 miles) northwest of Perth, by Queen Victoria. Captain John Clunies-Ross, a Scottish trader, had landed there in 1825.
    (AFP, 1/21/08)
1886        Arthur Wharton (1865-1930), Accra, Gold Coast (now Ghana)-born athlete, won the British Amateur Athletics Association 100 yards sprint in a world record time of exactly 10 seconds. He is believed to have been the world's first black professional footballer.
    (AP, 6/30/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Wharton)
1886        Henry Stanley (1841-1904), Welsh-born journalist, led the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition to "rescue" Emin Pasha, the governor of Equatoria in the southern Sudan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Morton_Stanley)
1886        Thomas Stevens, a British adventurer, made a 620 miles mile bicycle trip pedaling north on a high-wheeler from Guangzhou in the south to Jiujiang.
    (Econ, 5/26/12, SR p.3)

1886        In Bulgaria the Cathedral of the Assumption was built in Varna.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T3)

1886        The ruler of Bambao unified Grande Comore Island into the State of Ngazidja, with the local rulers retaining their titles.
    (www.worldstatesmen.org/Comoros.html)

1886        In Cuba slavery was abolished.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.C4)

1886        Frenchman Edouard Drumont authored ~ez_ldquo~La France Juive,~ez_rdquo~ an anti-Semitic tract that became a best-seller.
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.91)
1886        ~ez_ldquo~Illuminations,~ez_rdquo~ the final work of Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891), was published in France. By this time he had given up on poetry to become a trader in Africa.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.98)

1886        In Germany the firm of Robert Bosch GmbH was founded. It later became a world leader in automotive electronics.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.A30)

1886        In Mexico the Tequila San Matias company in Guadalajara began tequila production.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, Z1 p.4)

1886        A handful of German families, led by Elisabeth Nietzsche-Foerster (1935), founded the Aryan colony Nueva Germania in the jungles of Paraguay. The idea had been originally suggested by composer Richard Wagner in 1880. The colony fell apart in 1893 and Elisabeth Nietzsche-Foerster, described by her brother, Friedrich Nietzsche (d.1900), as a ~ez_ldquo~vengeful anti-Semitic goose,~ez_rdquo~ returned to Germany where she edited and promoted the work of her brother.
    (SSFC, 3/13/05, p.C6)

1886        Piotr Smirnov was made 'Official Purveyor' of vodka to the imperial Russian court. His pure, charcoal-filtered vodka became the toast of the Czars. Later, one of Smirnov's sons escaped Russia's revolution and restarted the family business in Paris, adopting the francophone name Smirnoff. The pure Smirnoff vodka took America by storm in the 1930's and went on to become a global icon.
    (www.diageo.com/en-row/AboutDiageo/OurHistory/)

1886        The ship Balclutha was built in Glasgow, Scotland. It was named in Gaelic for Clyde~ez_rsquo~s rock. For 16 years it sailed from the British Isles with a load of coal around Cape Horn to SF where it picked up grain and returned to Europe. It was later preserved at the National Maritime Museum in San Francisco.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.D3)(www.nps.gov/safr/historyculture/balclutha.htm)

1886        The discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand, South Africa, launched the city of Johannesburg. Labor was provided from Lesotho.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 562)(WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A11)

1886-1888    Vincent Van Gogh made his Paris sojourn.
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1886-1952     Sister Elizabeth Kenny, Australian nurse: "Some minds remain open long enough for the truth not only to enter but to pass on through by way of a ready exit without pausing anywhere along the route."
    (AP, 11/25/97)

1886-1963     Robert Schuman, French statesman: "When I was a young man I vowed never to marry until I found the ideal woman. Well, I found her~ez_mdash~but, alas, she was waiting for the perfect man."
    (AP, 6/26/97)

1886-1965     Paul Tillich, American theologian: "The first duty of love is to listen."
    (AP, 11/28/97)

1886-1967    Bruce Barton, American advertising executive: "Conceit is God~ez_rsquo~s gift to little men."
    (AP, 8/11/00)

1886-1967    Mir Osman Ali Khan, 7th and last ruler of the Sif Jahi dynasty in India. He ruled Hyderabad up to 1948 and amassed a fortune from taxation. He donated to hundreds of universities and hospitals regardless of caste and religion. When he died rooms were found filled with bank notes eaten through by rats.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1886-1967    Siegfried Sassoon, English poet and novelist. He met Wilfred Owen in a sanatorium and published his poetry after Owen died at the front.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1270)

1886-1969    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, member of Bauhaus, established a new dept. of architecture at Armour Institute (later Illinois Institute of Technology) in Chicago.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.363)

1886-1975     Rex Stout, American author: "There are two kinds of statistics, the kind you look up and the kind you make up."
    (AP, 7/14/97)

1886-1966    Karl Barth, Swiss theologian: "Conscience is the perfect interpreter of life."
    (AP, 3/9/01)

Go to 1887-1890