Timeline 1891-1894

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1891        Jan 1, An office was opened on Ellis Island, New York, to cope with the vast flood of immigrants coming into the United States.
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1891        Jan 8, Walter Bothe, subatomic particle physicist (Nobel 1954), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1891        Jan 11, Georges-Eugene Haussmann (b.1809), French town planner, died. He designed modern-day Paris.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_Haussmann)

1891        Jan 20, Mischa Elman, US violinist, was born in Talnoye, Ukraine.
    (MC, 1/20/02)
1891        Jan 20, King David Kalakaua, sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands, died at the SF Palace Hotel of Bright's disease. The USS Charleston returned his body.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C1)(SFC, 5/29/98, p.C18)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.T11)
1891        Jan 20, Princess Lili’uokalani (52) became queen upon the death of her brother. She fought against making Hawaii a part of the United States, making her unpopular among those Hawaiians who felt they had more to gain from annexation. She believed in "Hawaii for Hawaiians," and conceded less to foreign businesses and governments than her predecessors had.
    (HNPD, 1/25/99)(ON, 11/02, p.5)

1891        Jan 24, Max Ernst, German-French surrealist painter, sculptor, was born. [see Apr 2]
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1891        Jan 26, Ilya G. Ehrenburg,  writer, propagandist (Fall of Paris, The Thaw), was born in Kiev,  Ukraine.
    (MC, 1/26/02)
1891        Jan 26, Nicholaus Otto, auto pioneer (internal combustion engine), died.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1891        Jan 31, Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier (b.1815), French academic painter, died. His painting “Friedland, 1807,” begun in 1863, was completed in 1875.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/10149a.htm)

1891        Feb 6, The Dalton Gang committed its first crime, a train robbery in Alila, Calif. on Southern Pacific #17. In 1979 Ron Hansen authored "Desperadoes," a fictional account of the Dalton gang.
    (HN, 2/6/99)(WSJ, 8/1/00, p.A20)(MC, 2/6/02)

1891        Feb 7, US Great Blizzard of 1891 began.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1891        Feb 9, Ronald Colman, 1947 Academy Award actor (Tale of 2 Cities), was born in England.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1891        Feb 13, David Dixon Porter (77), US rear admiral (Union), died.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1891        Feb 14, William Tecumseh Sherman (b.1820), Union Civil War general, died. His famous "March to the Sea" changed the face of modern warfare. "Vox populi, vox humbug." (The voice of the people is the voice of humbug).
    (HN, 2/8/99)(AP, 4/7/99)(MC, 2/14/02)

1891        Feb 22, "Chico" Marx, actor, comedian (Marx Brothers, Animal Crackers), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1891        Feb 26, Henrik Ibsen’s "Hedda Gabler" premiered in Oslo.
    (SFC, 4/14/01, p.B1)(SC, 2/26/02)
1891        Feb 26, The 1st buffalo was purchased for Golden Gate Park in SF under John McLaren. A pair of bison, named Benjamin Harrison and Sarah Bernhardt, were settled in Golden Gate Park following reports that only 1000 were left in the US.
    (SFC, 12/13/99, p.A18)(SC, 2/26/02)(SFC, 10/30/08, p.B1)

1891        Feb 27, David Sarnoff, RCA Board Chairman and a pioneer of U.S. television, was born.
    (HN, 2/27/98)

1891        Feb 28, US Senator George Hearst (b.1820) of California died. He was the father of William Randolph Hearst.
    (Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)(SFEM, 10/24/99, p.20)

1891        Mar 3, Congress created the Office of Superintendent of Immigration (Treasury Department).
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1891        Mar 3, Congress created the US Courts of Appeal.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1891        Mar 8, Sam Jaffe, actor (Gunga Din, Dr Zorba-Ben Casey), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1891        Mar 14, A mob in New Orleans broke open a jail after a court dismissed charges against 19 Italian men indicted for the murder of police chief David C. Hemmessey. 11 of 19 defendants were hanged. The book "Vendetta" by Richard Gambino, and the movie of the same name, covered the event.
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M3)

1891        Mar 15, Joseph Bazalgette (b.1819), English civil engineer, died. He built interceptor sewers along the banks of the Thames and ended cholera outbreaks in London.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, p.78)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Bazalgette)

1891        Mar 17, The British steamer Utopia sank off the coast of Gibraltar.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1891        Mar 19, Earl Warren, governor of California, was born. He was appointed 14th Supreme Court Chief Justice (1953-1969) and led the commission that investigated the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.  "I always turn to the sports page first. The sports page records people’s accomplishments; the front page nothing but man’s failure."
    (HN, 3/19/99)(AP, 7/19/00)

1891        Mar 24, The Evening Sun published a tribute to P.T. Barnum (b.1810) that included his obituary so as to allow the old man to read it. Barnum died 2 weeks later. In 2001 James W. Cook authored "The Arts of Deception" with a focus on P.T. Barnum.
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, Z1 p.10)(WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A14)

1891        Mar 29, Georges-Pierre Seurat (31), French painter (Pointillism), died.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1891        Mar 31, Erich Walter Sternberg, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1891        Mar, Congressman millionaire Charles N. Felton of Menlo Park, California, was appointed to succeed Sen. Hearst.
    (Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)
1891        Mar, David Starr Jordan (40) of Indiana Univ. accepted an offer as president of the new Stanford Univ. in Palo Alto, Ca.
    (Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)(Ind, 11/17/01, 5A)

1891               Apr 1,  The London-Paris telephone connection opened.
    (OTD)
1891        Apr 1, Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), French painter, abandoned his wife and 5 children and left Marseille for Tahiti.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T12)(MC, 4/1/02)(SSFC, 5/11/03, p.C7)

1891        Apr 2, Max Ernst, German painter and sculptor, founder of surrealism, was born. [see Jan 24]
    (HN, 4/2/98)

1891        Apr 7, Nebraska introduced an 8 hour work day.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
1891        Apr 7, Phineas T. Barnum (88), US circus promoter (B & Bailey), died.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1891        Apr 11, A Jewish tailor's daughter (8) disappeared in Greece. A rumor spread that she was a Christian girl ritually killed by Jews.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1891        Apr 23, Sergey Sergeyevich Prokofiev, composer (Peter & the Wolf), was born in Ukraine. [see Apr 27]
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1891        Apr 23, Jews were expelled from Moscow.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1891        Apr 24, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Final Problem."
    (MC, 4/24/02)
1891        Apr 24, Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (b.1800), German Field Marshal, died. He was the chief of staff of the Prussian Army for thirty years and became later regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter 19th century.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helmuth_von_Moltke_the_Elder)

1891        Apr 25, Pres. Benjamin Harrison visited SF.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1891        Apr 27, Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev, composer, was born. [see Apr 23]
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1891        Apr 29, Pres. Benjamin Harrison arrived in Menlo Park, Ca., by special train for a visit with senators Stanford and Felton.
    (Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)

1891        May 4, Sherlock Holmes, Arthur Conan Doyle’s fictional detective, "died" at Reichenbach Falls.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1891        May 5, Carnegie Hall (then named Music Hall) had its opening night in New York City. Tchaikovsky was the guest conductor. Musicians, painters, dancers and actors thrived in two towers built by 19th-century industrialist Andrew Carnegie just after the hall went up. The Carnegie Towers, one 12 stories high, the other 16, housed more than 100 studios. In 2010 the city-owned towers were gutted in a $200 million renovation program.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(AP, 8/2/10)

1891        May 8, Helena Petrovna Blavatskaya (b.1831), Russian theosophist (Madame Blavatsky), died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.157)(MC, 5/8/02)

1891        May 11, Alexandre Becquerel (b.1820), French physicist, died. In 1839, Becquerel observed the photoelectric effect via an electrode in a conductive solution exposed to light.
    (www.patent-invent.com/electricity/inventors/alexandre_becquerel.html)

1891        May 15, Mikhail Bulgakov (d.1940), Russian novelist (Notes of a Dead Man, Heart of a Dog), was born.
    (HN, 5/15/01)(Econ, 3/13/04, p.86)
1891        May 15, Jules Massenet's opera "Griselde," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 5/15/02)
1891        May 15, Gerard and Anton Philips began their Philips & Co. operations in Eindhoven, Holland, with the production of light bulbs.
    (www.vedpuriswar.org/book/PHILIPS.htm)(WSJ, 1/7/04, p.A1)

1891        May 18, Rudolf Carnap, philosopher (German Logical Positivist), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1891        May 19, Rice Institute Chartered, Building, now Rice University.
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)

1891        May 21, James J. Corbett fought Peter "Black Prince" Jackson (1861-1901), in a much-heralded bout between San Francisco cross-town rivals. Since Corbett and Jackson were boxing instructors at the two most prestigious athletic clubs. They fought to a draw after 61 rounds. Jackson had won the Australian heavyweight championship in 1886 and the British Empire title in 1892.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_J._Corbett)

1891        May 23, Par Lagerkvist, Swedish writer (The Dwarf, Barabbas), was born.
    (HN, 5/23/01)

1891        May 25, Robert W.P. Peereboom, Dutch editor in chief (Haarlem Newspaper), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1891        Jun 9, Cole Porter (d.1964), American composer and lyricist, was born. [see Jun 9, 1893]
    (HN, 6/9/02)
1891        Jun 9, Painter Paul Gauguin arrived in Papeete, Tahiti.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1891        Jun 11, A. Charlois discovered asteroid #311 Claudia.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1891        Jun 11, Portugal assigned Barotseland, now in Zambia, to Britain and Nyasaland becomes a British protectorate.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1891        Jun 21, Hermann Scherchen, conductor (Nature of Music), was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1891         Jun 28, Esther Forbes, author (Johnny Tremain), was born.
    (HN, 6/28/01)

1891        Jun, The Chicago Herald built a monument to Columbus on San Salvador.
    (NH, 10/96, p.26)

1891        Jul 5, John Northrop, US biochemist, crystallized enzymes (Nobel 1946), was born.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1891        Jul 8, Warren G. Harding married Florence K. DeWolfe in Marion, Ohio. Harding called her "the Duchess." Harding had a long affair with Nan Britton, who bore him a daughter. From 1905-1920 he had an affair with Carrie Phillips. In 1998 Carl Sferrazza Anthony published "Florence Harding: The First Lady, The Jazz Age and the Death of America’s Most Scandalous President."
    (AP, 7/8/97)(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A19)

1891        Jul 31, Great Britain declared territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within their sphere of influence.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1891        Aug 2, Arthur Edward Drummond Bliss, composer (Olympians), was born in London.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1891        Aug 5, The 1st travelers checks were issued by American Express.
    (MC, 8/5/02)
1891        Aug 5, Henry Charles Litolff (73), French pianist, composer, died.
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1891        Aug 22, Jacque Lipchitz (d.1973), sculptor, was born in Poland.
    (HN, 8/22/00)

1891        Aug 24, Thomas Edison filed a patent for the motion picture camera.
    (HN, 8/24/98)

1891        Aug 25, Luis Iruarrizaga Aguirre, composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1891        Sep 3, Cotton pickers organized a union & strike in Texas.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1891        Sep 15, The Dalton gang held up a train and took $2,500 at Wagoner, Okla.
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1891        Sep 16, Karl Doenitz, German Admiral who succeeded Hitler in governing Germany, was born.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1891        Sep 18, Harriet Maxwell Converse was 1st white woman to become an Indian chief (her Indian name was Ga-is-wa-noh: the Watcher). She devoted herself to the study and preservation of Native American culture, was a staunch defender of Indian property rights during the 1880s.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1891        Sep 20, Lamine Gueye, Senegalese political leader, was born.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1891        Sep 26, Charles Munch (d.1968), Alsatian conductor (French Legion D'Honeur), was born in Strasbourg.
    (WUD, 1994 p.941)(MC, 9/26/01)

1891        Sep 28, Herman Melville (b.1819), writer (Billy Budd, Moby Dick), died at 72. In 1921 Raymond Weaver authored a pioneering study of Melville. In 2002 Hershel Parker authored "Herman Melville: A Biography, Volume 2." In 2005 Andrew Delbanco authored “Melville: His World and Work.”
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.M5)(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F6)(WSJ, 10/6/05, p.D8)

1891        Oct 1, The Leland Stanford Junior Memorial Univ. in Palo Alto, Ca., was dedicated. Stanford Univ. opened its Mission Romanesque Quadrangle in Palo Alto. It was established by Leland and Jane Stanford in honor of their late son.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4,5)(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)(SFC, 12/30/96, p.A15)(SFC, 6/20/98, p.A15)(Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)(Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)

1891        Oct 6, Charles Stewart Parnell (b.1846) died in Brighton, England. Irish statesman and leader of the Irish nationalists in the British House of Commons from 1880-‘90, Charles Parnell’s popularity in Ireland was so great that he was called "the uncrowned king of Ireland." Parnell formed a coalition with William Gladstone, who became prime minister and introduced a bill for Irish home rule in 1886. The bill was defeated. In 1890, as a result of a divorce scandal, Parnell was deposed as leader of the Irish nationalists.
    (AP, 10/6/97)(HNQ, 7/20/98)

1891        Oct 11, Charles Stewart Parnell (d.Oct 6) was buried in Ireland.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1891        Oct 12, Edith Stein was born to a Jewish family at Breslau. Through her passionate study of philosophy she searched after truth and found it in reading the autobiography of St. Teresa of Jesus. In 1922 she was baptized a Catholic and in 1933 she entered the Carmel of Cologne where she took the name Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. She was gassed and cremated at Auschwitz on August 9, 1942, during the Nazi persecution and died a martyr for the Christian faith after having offered her holocaust for the people of Israel.
    (WWW, Teresa Benedicta, 10/6/98)

1891        Oct 20, Sir James Chadwick, physicist, was born. He won the Nobel Prize for discovering the neutron.
    (HN, 10/20/00)
1891        Oct 20, Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya opposition leader and 1st premier (1963-78), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1891        Oct 24, Rafael L. Trujillo Molina, was born. He became president and dictator of the Dominican Republic (1930-61).
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1891        Oct 27, D. B. Downing, inventor, was awarded a patent for the street letter box, i.e. mailbox.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1891        Oct 28, An earthquake struck Mino-Owari, Japan and killed 7,300.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1891        Oct 29, Fanny Brice, comedian, singer and actress, was born in NYC.
    (HN, 10/29/00)(MC, 10/29/01)

1891        Nov 3, Louis L. Bonaparte (78), English-French linguist and senator, died.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1891        Nov 6, Comanche, the only 7th Cavalry horse to survive George Armstrong Custer’s "Last Stand" at the Little Bighorn, died at Fort Riley, Kan. Comanche, belonged to Captain Myles Keogh. The wounded horse, Comanche, was taken to Fort Abraham Lincoln in Dakota Territory, where he recovered and became a pampered celebrity. Comanche died at the age of 28.
    (HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 2/26/99)   

1891        Nov 10, The 1st Woman's Christian Temperance Union meeting was held in Boston.
    (MC, 11/10/01)
1891        Nov 10, Granville T. Woods patented an electric railway.
    (MC, 11/10/01)
1891        Nov 10, J.N. Arthur Rimbaud (b.1854), French poet and arms merchant (Saison en Enfer), died in Marseille after doctors amputated his leg. In 1961 Enid Starkie authored a biography. In 2000 Graham Robb authored "Rimbaud." Rimbaud stopped writing poetry at age 21 and ended his last years in Africa as an arms dealer. In 2008 Edmund White authored “Rimbaud: The Double Life of a Rebel.”
    (WUD, 1994 p.1234)(HN, 10/20/00)(SFC, 2/12/02, p.D3)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.115)

1891        Nov 15, W. Averell Harriman, (Gov-D-NY) and US ambassador to USSR (1943-46), was born.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
1891        Nov 15, Erwin Rommel, field marshal in World War II, was born. He commanded the Afrika Korps in North Africa and defended the Normandy coast on D-Day.
    (HN, 11/15/99)

1891        Nov 22, Edward L. Bernays (d.1995), public relations pioneer, was born in Vienna, Austria. In 1892 his family moved to New York City.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Bernays)

1891        Nov 23, Deodoroda Fonseca, the 1st president of Brazil, was ousted by a navy revolt.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1891        Nov 28, The National Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (now IBEW) was founded in St. Louis, home of Local 1.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1891        Dec 1, The Canadian, Dr. James B. Naismith, sports figure, inventor, teacher, invented the game of basketball at the YMCA in Springfield, Mass. A janitor provided peach baskets instead of the requested boxes.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.126)(DTnet, 11/28/97)(MC, 12/1/01)

1891        Dec 10, Nelly Sachs, Nobel Prize-winning poet, was born.
    (HN, 12/10/00)

1891        Dec 26, Henry Miller (d.1980), American writer, was born. His work included "Tropic of Cancer" and "Tropic of Capricorn". "Until we lose ourselves there is no hope of finding ourselves." "Like ships, men founder time and again."
    (AP, 3/16/97)(AP, 5/2/98)(HN, 12/26/98)

1891        Dec 29, Edison patented the "transmission of signals electrically" (radio).
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1891        Painter Paul Gauguin painted his landscape “Haere Mai,” which means “Come here!” in Tahitian.
    (SSFC, 10/23/11, p.M5)(http://tinyurl.com/3qex6r3)

1891        Claude Monet painted his impressionist "Grainstacks: Snow Effect."
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.E1)

1891        Camille Pissarro painted "Two Young Peasant Women." It was later analyzed as an attempt to marry painting and anarchism.
    (SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.8)

1891        William Fletcher authored “The History and Development of Steam.”
    (http://tinyurl.com/y98cs3h)
1891        Thomas Hardy published "Tess of the d’Urbervilles."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)
1891        Herman Melville authored "Billy Budd."
    (WSJ, 6/29/00, p.A24)
1891        William Morris (1834-1896), English poet, designer, painter, decorator and author, portrayed a vision of utopia in his novel entitled "News from Nowhere." The book describes a utopian fantasy in which people return to handicrafts. The ideas in the novel reflected the emphatic socialist views Morris would further explore in "How I Became a Socialist," published in 1896. A pioneer of the British socialist movement, Morris was apprenticed to an architect and later founded a manufacturing and decorating firm. He was of the Pre-Raphaelite school with a taste for simplicity and beauty in art and literature.
    (HNQ, 5/2/00)
1891        John Wesley Powell (d.1902) published the first complete classification and distribution map of native languages in the United States and Canada. He had led an expedition down the Green and Colorado rivers, through the Grand Canyon even though he had lost the lower part of his right arm in the Battle of Shiloh during the Civil War. Powell, a geographer and ethnologist, held a number of positions after resigning from the army in 1865, many for government agencies such as director of the U.S. Geographical Survey.
    (HNQ, 10/13/00)
1891        Emile Zola (1840-1902), French novelist, authored “L’Argent” (Money), the story of a scheming financier. It was first published as a newspaper serial.
    (WSJ, 7/19/08, p.W6)

1891        The magazine "The Strand" was established in London and devoted itself to popular fiction and celebrity interviews. Arthur Conan Doyle became an early contributor.
    (WSJ, 4/12/99, p.A21)

1891        Pope Leo XIII wrote his encyclical "Rerum Novarum." It endorsed trade unionism and the safeguarding of property rights.
    (WSJ, 8/31/01, p.W17)

1891        The sumptuous Tampa Bay Hotel with great Moorish spires was built. It later became the Henry B. Plant Museum.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.60)

1891        James J. Corbett fought Peter Jackson to a draw after 61 rounds, Corbett‘s first notable fight. He lost his title to Robert Fitzsimmons in 1897.
    (HNQ, 6/20/00)

1891        The New Mexico Military Institute was founded in Roswell, NM.
    (SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D8)

1891        The largest concrete dam in the world was completed across the neck of Crystal Springs canyon south of San Francisco, Ca. It trapped the waters of San Mateo Creek and was the culmination of a 5 reservoir project.
    (Ind, 5/11/02, 5A)
1891        San Francisco’s California St. RR opened a crosstown cable car line on O’Farrell, Jones and Hyde with a Jones St. shuttle line that ran from O’Farrel five blocks to Market.
    (SFC, 2/1/14, p.C3)
1891        In San Francisco brothers, Behrend and Isaac Joost, organized The San Francisco and San Mateo Railroad Company. The Joost line did not pay expenses and was sold at a foreclosure sale on April 11, 1896.
    (www.noehill.com/sf/landmarks/sf079.asp)
1891        The Wheeler Hot Springs installation was set up 6 miles from Ojai, Calif. The springs gush from Matilija Canyon.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.47)(SFEC, 10/13/96, p.T7)
1891        A California bond measure raised almost $1 million for the construction of the SF Ferry Building. It was designed by Arthur Page Brown and finished in 1898. Brown died before the building was completed [see 1875].
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.B1)
1891        Stanford Univ. opened its Mission Romanesque Quadrangle in Palo Alto. It was established by Leland Stanford in honor of his late son.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4,5)(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)(SFC, 12/30/96, p.A15)
1891        The Salem memorial Park Jewish cemetery was established in Lawndale (Colma), Ca.
    (www.colmahistory.org/History.htm)
1891        The Del Monte brand appeared on premium canned fruits and vegetables of the Oakland Preserving Co. It was named after a fancy Monterey Hotel that suggested good taste.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.B1)
1891        The hay schooner Alma was built at San Francisco’s Hunters Point shipyard. In 1993 mariner Al Lutz (d.2010 at 55) took over the boat, the last survivor of the fleet of sailing schooners built to handle cargo on the SF Bay and the Sacramento River Delta.
    (SFC, 7/5/10, p.C6)
1891        In California the Southern Pacific Railroad established its San Ramon branch.
    (SSFC, 5/19/13, p.P7)

1891        Delaware State University was established as the State College for Colored Students. In 2006 it had about 3,690 students. The 400-acre campus is in the northern section of Dover, across the street from the racetrack.
    (AP, 9/21/07)

1891        Philosopher John Dewey and Fred Scott founded "The Inlander" journal at the U of M to promote literature and the same year began to allow free discussion in one of his courses.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.17,19)

1891        The University Record was founded at U of M as a record of the educational and scientific work at the university.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.18)

1891        Alice Dewey founded the Women’s League at the Univ. of Mich.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.18)

1891        The first US reported car accident was in Ohio.
    (http://tinyurl.com/83xl65b)

1891        The Multnomah Athletic Club opened in Portland, Oregon.
    (WSJ, 5/22/06, p.A1)

1891        The US meteorological program under the US Signal Service was transferred to the United States Weather Bureau, a division of the Dept. of Agriculture.
    (ON, 2/06, p.7)

1891        An international copyright law was passed.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A14)

1891        American Sugar Refining Company incorporated.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1891        The Thomas Houston Electric Co., the Thomas Houston International Electric Co., and Edison General Electric merged. Houston had made its fortune selling AC powered arc lights for city streets. In 1892 the new company was incorporated as General Electric.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)(ON, 10/04, p.8)

1891        National Lead was incorporated.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1891        George A. Hormel, son of German immigrants, opened a small retail meat shop in Austin, Minn. Within months he opened a packinghouse. His son Jay became president in 1929. Their canned ham product, developed in 1926, was named Spam on Jan 1, 1937, and registered as a trademark on May 11, 1937.
    (SFEM, 6/16/96, BR p.26)(WSJ, 4/29/04, p.D10)(www.hormel.com)

1891        Pennsylvania’s first free library was chartered.
    (Econ, 2/14/09, p.40)

1891        Pierre Lallemont (47), French mechanic, died in Boston. In 1866 he was granted a US patented for his velocipede, a rotary crank bicycle.
    (ON, 2/10, p.3)

1891        Argentine ants were 1st noticed New Orleans. By 1908 they were seen in California.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A1)

1891        In Austria Daniel Swarovski invented a machine to cut crystal stones to resemble faceted diamonds. His company prospered and in 2004 the Swarovski company placed a crystal star atop the Christmas tree at Rockefeller Center in NYC.
    (WSJ, 12/22/04, p.A1)

1891        British captain and spy H. Bower noted antelope and yak in incredible numbers in the Aru basin of Tibet.
    (NH, 5/96, p.50)
1891        The Brownfields Guild Pottery Society began business in Staffordshire, England, and continued operations to 1900.
    (SFC, 10/5/05, p.G3)
1891        Madame Blavatsky died in London at age 60 during an epidemic of influenza.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.72)

1891        Bulgarian socialists led by Dimitar Blagoev assembled secretly in the Buzludzha peak area to form an organized socialist movement.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzludzha)

1891        The Golenischeff papyrus was found at El Khibeh in Upper Egypt. This document was a personal report of an Egyptian messenger to Lebanon that dates back to 1110 BC.
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.29)

1891        In Paris Alexandre Darracq started Gladiator Cycles as one of the dozens of bicycle companies that saturated the market when the cycling craze boomed. The eccentric later became famous for manufacturing automobiles. The Golden Age of cycling reached its pinnacle in 1895, and that same year printer G. Massias unveiled one of the great Parisian advertising posters. Only four of these original posters exist today. The poster was later used by California vintner Hahn Family Wines, a led to a 2009 ban on the wine in Alabama.
    (www.cyclesgladiator.com/AboutCyclesGladiator)
1891        Montaudon, a French champagne maker, began operations. In 2008 it was acquired by LVMH, a luxury goods conglomerate.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.59)(www.champagnemontaudon.com/uk/home_uk.html)

1891        French Guinea was established, taking the same borders as the previous colony of Rivieres du Sud (1882–1891). Prior to 1882, the coastal portions of French Guinea were part of the French colony of Senegal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Guinea)

1891        Eugene Dubois, Dutch health officer, discovered the skull of a human in Java, Indonesia that he named Pithecanthropus erectus [Java Man]. The first Homo erectus skullcap was found near Trinil, Java.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.153)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.A4)(SFC, 11/14/00, p.A9)

1891        In Mexico the El Palacio de Hierro (The Iron Palace) chain of stores was founded to bring Parisian fashion to posh ladies of the new world.
    (Econ, 12/8/12, p.67)

1891        In Sweden the Skansen folk museum opened in Stockholm by Artur Hazelius (1833-1901) to show the way of life in the different parts of the country before the industrial era.
    (SSFC, 12/18/11, p.H5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skansen)

1891-1892    Sir John Abbott, Conservative Party, served as the 3rd Prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.81)
1891-1892    In Russia a severe famine led to the death of many peasants.
    (WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)

1891-1893    Lili’uokalani (1838-1917) reigned as the last monarch of Hawaii.
    (WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1891-1899    During this period the Hopi of Arizona began to produce silver jewelry. A man named Sikyatala learned silversmithing from a Zuni man.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.30)

1891-1903    The Model Flint Glass Co. of Findley, Ohio, produced the pressed-glass "bread plate" pattern called the "Last Supper."
    (SFC, 6/10/98, Z1 p.3)

1891-1918    The Edison Company produced films during this period. In 2005 Kino Int’l. brought out a 4-DVD set titled “Edison: The Invention of the Movies” containing 140 films made during this period.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.104)

1891-1921    Japanese dishes imported the US during this period were marked with only the word “Nippon.” After 1921 US law required the name of the exporting country to be in English.
    (SFC, 3/16/05, p.G4)

1891-1932    In Grand Rapids, Mich., the "Quaint Furniture" name was used by Albert and John George Stickley, who founded the Stickley Bros. Co. and produced furniture inspired by pieces made from their brother Gustav.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, Z1 p.2)

1891-1951    Fanny Brice, American actress and singer: "Let the world know you as you are, not as you think you should be, because sooner or later, if you are posing, you will forget the pose, and then where are you?"
    (AP, 11/10/00)

1891-1959    Stanley Spencer, English painter. He lived and worked in the village of Cookham and experienced visions of sexual and religious feelings that he translated into paintings.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B1,5)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.C1)

1891-1967    Ilya Ehrenburg, Russian writer. He was the Paris correspondent for Izvestia at the outset of Stalin’s purges in 1932, and won the Stalin Peace Prize in 1953. His books include: "The Ninth Wave" (1951), "The Thaw," and "People, Years and Life," his memoirs that began coming out it Novy Mir in 1960. Joshua Rubenstein wrote his biography in 1996 titled: "Tangled Loyalties: The Life and Times of Ilya Rubenstein."
    (WSJ, 4/2/96, p.A-12)

1891-1969    Thurman Arnold, American lawyer: "Dissent is not sacred; the right of dissent is."
    (AP, 5/14/98)

1891-1971     David Sarnoff, American broadcasting pioneer: "Competition brings out the best in products and the worst in people."
    (AP, 6/30/98)

1891-1973    Edith Mason, American opera singer. She is discussed in the 1997 book "The American Opera Singer" by Peter G. Davis.
    (WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A20)

1891-1982    Margaret Culkin Banning, American writer: "Regrets are as personal as fingerprints."
    (AP, 8/12/00)
   
1892        Jan 1, The US Immigration Service, after two years of construction, opened Ellis Island in New York Harbor, a new facility for "processing" immigrants. Annie Moore (15) of County Cork, Ireland, was the 1st person processed. The new facility replaced Castle Garden, which was closed because of massive overcrowding and corruption. The money changing concession was later granted to American Express to end the cheating of immigrants. Formerly used as a munitions dump and landfill, Ellis Island was designed, its architects claimed, to handle more than 8,000 newcomers a day. Orderly lines funneled bewildered immigrants past doctors and officials who examined them for signs of disease. The physically and mentally ill were refused admittance, forcing thousands of families to make the difficult decision to return home with a relative refused entry or push on without them. A final brusque interview by an immigration official determined whether the newcomers had already been promised jobs. About 80% of those who entered Ellis Island received landing cards permitting them to board ferries for NYC. In the 1890s, 75% of all immigrants entered the US through Ellis Island. It was closed in 1954.
    (AP, 1/1/98)(HNPD, 1/1/99)(AP, 1/1/98)(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)(HNPD, 9/18/98)(SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)
1892        Jan 1, The contagious Disease hospitals on Ellis Island were designed by the Boring & Tilton firm of New York in the French Renaissance Style. The hospital closed in 1951.
    (WSJ, 12/9/99, p.A24)

1892        Jan 3, J.R.R. Tolkien, author of the "Lord of the Rings" trilogy, was born in Bloemfontein, South Africa. "All that is gold does not glitter; not all those that wander are lost."
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)(AP, 1/5/99)(AP, 1/3/00)

1892        Jan 5, The 1st successful auroral photograph made.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1892        Jan 6, The local sultanates of Grande Comore were suppressed.
    (www.worldstatesmen.org/Comoros.html)

1892        Jan 8, Coal mine explosion killed 100 in McAlister, Okla.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1892        Jan 15, The rules of basketball were published for the first time, in Springfield, Mass., where the game originated.
    (AP, 1/15/00)

1892        Jan 17, In Exeter, Rhode Island, Mercy Brown (19), rumored to be a vampire, died of consumption. Some believed her story inspired Bram Stoker’s 1897 novel “Dracula.”
    (www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6628164)(SFC, 9/2/11, p.A8)

1892        Jan 18, Oliver Hardy, member of Laurel and Hardy comedy duo who starred in numerous films, was born in Harlem, Ga.
    (HN, 1/18/99)(MC, 1/18/02)

1892        Jan 21, Samuel Marsden Brookes, English-born artist, died in SF. He emigrated to the US in 1833, settled in Chicago and moved to SF in 1862. He was a founder of the SF Art Association and the Bohemian Club.
    (SFCM, 10/28/01, p.20)

1892        Jan 25, In Buganda (Uganda) the Battle of Mengo took place. Catholics advanced against Anglicans armed with machine guns just outside what is now Kampala.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, p.16)(www.africa2000.com/UGANDA/tribute.html)

1892        Feb 1, Judge Abraham Jefferson Seay was sworn in as the 2nd territorial governor (1892-1893) of Oklahoma.
    (http://digital.library.okstate.edu/chronicles/v020/v020p218.html)

1892        Feb 2, Bottle cap with cork seal was patented by William Painter in Baltimore.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1892        Feb 8, Fritz Todt, German Reichs minister (Organization Todt) succeeded by Albert Speer, was born.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1892        Feb 12, Illinois made President Lincoln's birthday a state holiday. Other states followed suit over the years.
    (AP, 3/9/05)

1892        Feb 13, Grant Wood, painter (American Gothic), was born in Eldon, Iowa. Wood studied at the University of Iowa, taught there and made Iowa the focus of his paintings.  His is considered one of America's first 'regionalist' painters. His most famous work 'American Gothic', often spoofed, is a painting of the puritanical farmer and his wife or daughter.
    (HN, 2/13/01)(SSFC, 7/3/05, p.E3)

1892        Feb 16, The opera “Werther” premiered at the Imperial Theatre Hofoper in Vienna. It was composed in 1887 by French composer Jules Massenet based on Goethe’s 1774 novel "The Sorrows of Young Werther.”
    (SFC, 9/17/10, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werther)

1892        Feb 18, Wendell Wilke was born. He was a presidential candidate against President Franklin Roosevelt.
    (HN, 2/18/99)

1892        Feb 22, Edna St. Vincent Millay, poet, writer, feminist, was born in Rockland, Maine.
    (HN, 2/22/01)
1892        Feb 22, "Lady Windermere's Fan," a melodrama by Oscar Wilde, was first performed, at London's St. James's Theater. It was about suspected infidelity.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)(AP, 2/22/99)

1892        Mar 3, 1st cattle tuberculosis test in US was made at Villa Nova, PA.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1892        Mar 9, David Garnett, novelist, editor (Lady into Fox), was born in England.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1892        Mar 9, Frank Puglia, actor (Black Orchid, Jungle Book), was born in Sicily, Italy.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1892        Mar 9, Joseph Weinheber, Austrian poet, writer (Adel und Untergang), was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1892        Mar 9, Vita Sackville-West (d.1962), English poet and writer, was born. "Summer makes a silence after spring."
    (AP, 6/21/97)(HN, 3/9/01)

1892        Mar 10, Arthur Oscar Honegger, composer (King David), was born in Le Havre, France.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1892        Mar 10, Eva Turner, British soprano, was born.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1892        Mar 11, Raoul Walsh, director (Thief of Baghdad, Battle Cry), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1892        Mar 13, Janet Flanner, writer ("Letter from Paris"), was born.
    (HN, 3/13/01)

1892        Mar 15, New York State unveiled the new mechanical lever, automatic ballot voting machine.
    (HN, 3/15/98)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A1)
1892        Mar 15, Jesse W. Reno, inventor, patented the 1st escalator in NYC.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1892        Mar 26, Poet Walt Whitman died in Camden, N.J. In 1997 Gary Schmidgall published the biography: "Walt Whitman: A Gay Life." It focused on the poet’s homosexuality. In 1999 a critical biography: Walt Whitman: The Song of Himself" by Jerome Loving was published along with "A Whitman Chronology" by Joann P. Krieg.
    (AP, 3/26/97)(SFEC, 9/14/97, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/99, p.E4)(SFEC, 4/4/99, Par p.15)

1892        Mar 27, Ferde (Ferdinand Rudolf von) Grof, composer, was born in NY.
    (MC, 3/27/02)
1892        Mar 27, Thorne Smith, author (Topper, Rain in the Doorway, Stray Lamb), was born.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1892        Mar 29, Jozsef Mindszenty, [Joseph Prehm], Hungarian cardinal, was born.
    (MC, 3/29/02)
1892        Mar 29, The Canadian Cricket Assn. was established.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.42)

1892        Apr 6, Donald Wills Douglas, US aircraft pioneer (McConnell Douglas), was born.
    (MC, 4/6/02)
1892        Apr 6, Lowell Thomas (d.1981), author, journalist, broadcaster and world traveler was born in Woodington, Ohio. "After the age of 80, everything reminds you of something else."
    (AP, 4/6/00)

1892        Apr 10, Victor de Sabata, conductor, composer (Il Macigno), was born in Trieste, Italy.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1892        Apr 12, George C. Blickensderfer received the first US patent for a portable typewriter.
    (www.todayinsci.com/4/4_12.htm)

1892        Apr 13, Arthur ("Bomber") Harris, Marshal of the RAF, was born in Cheltenham.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1892        Apr 15, General Electric Co., formed by the merger of the Edison Electric Light Co. and other firms, was incorporated in New York State.
    (AP, 4/15/02)

1892        Apr 19, The prototype of the first commercially successful American automobile was completed in Springfield, Mass., by Charles E. Duryea and his brother Frank.
    (AP, 4/19/97)

1892        Apr 25, Maud Hart Lovelace, children's author, was born.
    (HN, 4/25/01)

1892        Apr 27, Louis Victor de Broglie, physicist (studied electrons), was born.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1892        Apr 28, John Jacob Niles, American folk singer and folklorist, was born.
    (HN, 4/28/01)
1892        Apr 28, The 1st performance of Antonin Dvorak's overture "Carneval."
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1892        May 1, Howard Barlow, conductor (Voice of Firestone), was born in Plain City, Ohio.
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1892        May 1, A US quarantine station opened on Angel Island, SF Bay.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1892        May 2, Manfred von Richthofen (the Red Baron), was born. He was a German pilot and greatest ace of world War I with 80 planes to his credit.
    (HN, 5/2/99)

1892        May 5, US Congress passed the Geary Chinese Exclusion Act, which required Chinese in the United States to be registered and carry an identity card or face deportation. The Six Companies of San Francisco ordered all 110,000 immigrants to refuse compliance.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M5)
1892        May 5, Jan Nepomuk Skroup (80), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1892        May 7, Archibald MacLeish, American poet and statesman, was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)
1892        May 7, Josip Broz Tito, leader of Yugoslavia (1943-80), was born.
    (HN, 5/7/98)

1892        May 16, Richard Tauber, [Ernst Seiffert], Austria-British, tenor, conductor ("Deine ist mein ganzes Herz"), was born.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1892        May 19, Charles Brady King of Detroit invented the pneumatic hammer. [see Jan 30, 1894]
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)

1892        May 20, George Sampson patented a clothes dryer.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1892        May 21, The opera "I Pagliacci," by Ruggiero Leoncavallo, was first performed, in Milan, Italy. The verismo opera was about Sicily in the 1870s.
    (AP, 5/21/97)(Econ, 11/26/05, Survey p.16)

1892        May 22, Dr. Washington Sheffield invented toothpaste tube.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1892        May 28, The Sierra Club was organized in San Francisco by John Muir.
    (AP, 5/28/97)(MC, 5/28/02)

1892        May 29, Alfonsina Storni, Argentine poet (La inquietud del rosal), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1892        May 29, Baha'u'llah [Mirza HA Noeri], Persian founder  of Baha’i faith, died at 74.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1892        May 31, Gregor Strasser, German pharmacist, NSDAP-Reich organization founder, was born.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1892        Jun 4, The Sierra Club was incorporated in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A1)(AP, 6/4/97)

1892        Jun 7, Homer Plessy was arrested after buying a railroad ticket in New Orleans and seating himself in the white-only section. He was an "octoroon," 7/8 white and 1/8 black. He had been selected to test the validity of the 1890 Louisiana law mandating separate cars for whites and blacks.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)

1892        Jun 10, The Republican National Convention in Minneapolis nominated President Harrison for re-election and Whitelaw Reid for vice president. Harrison, however, lost the election to former President Cleveland.
    (AP, 6/10/97)

1892        Jun 13, Basil Rathbone, actor (Sherlock Holmes), was born in Johannesburg, South Africa.
    (MC, 6/13/02)

1892        Jun 18, Macadamia nuts were 1st planted in Hawaii.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1892         Jun 21, Reinhold Niebuhr (d.1971), American Protestant clergyman and author was born. "God, give us grace to accept with serenity the things that cannot be changed, courage to change the things which should be changed, and the wisdom to distinguish the one from the other." "The tendency to claim God as an ally for our partisan values and ends is ... the source of all religious fanaticism."
    (AP, 5/4/97)(AP, 11/2/97)(HN, 6/21/01)

1892        Jun 23, The Democratic national convention in Chicago nominated former President Cleveland on the first ballot.
    (AP, 6/23/02)

1892        Jun 26, Pearl Sydenstricker Buck, Nobel Prize winning author (1938), was born. Her work included "The Good Earth." The basic discovery about any people is the discovery of the relationship between its men and women. "It is no simple matter to pause in the midst of one’s maturity, when life is full of function, to examine what are the principles which control that functioning."
    (AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/26/98)(AP, 6/27/98)(MC, 6/26/02)

1892         Jul 1, James M. Cain (d.1977), fiction writer, was born in Annapolis, Maryland. His work included "The Postman Always Rings Twice" and "Mildred Pierce." As a member of the "hard-boiled" school of crime fiction of the 1930s and 1940s he is often associated with the equally popular writers Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler.
    (HN, 7/1/98)(iUniv. 7/1/00)

1892        Jul 4, The Omaha Platform was adopted at the formative convention of the Populist (or People's) Party held in Omaha, Nebraska. The People's party, more commonly known as the Populist party, was organized in St. Louis to represent the common folk, especially farmers, against the entrenched interests of railroads, bankers, processors, corporations, and the politicians in league with such interests. At its first national convention in Omaha in July 1892, the party nominated James K. Weaver for president and ratified the so-called Omaha Platform, drafted by Ignatius Donnelly of Minnesota.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omaha_Platform)
1892        Jul 4, James Keir Hardie was 1st socialist chosen in British Lower house.
    (Maggio, 98)

1892        Jul 5, Andrew Beard was issued a patent for the rotary engine.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1892        Jul 9, A stray 500-pound shell from the Sandy Hook, New Jersey, testing range sank the schooner Henry R. Tilton.
    (AM, 7/04, p.35)

1892        Jul 12, In France flood waters burst from a lake buried under a glacier on Mt. Blanc killing at least 175 people in the St. Gervais valley.
    (SFC, 8/26/10, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/2aygvoz)

1892        Jul 18, Thomas Cook (83), English tour director (Thomas Cook & Son), died.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1892        Jul 22, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Austrian chancellor, Nazi war criminal, was born.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1892        Jul 23, Haile Selassie (d.1975), Emperor of Ethiopia (1930-74), was born as Tafari Makonnen at Ejarsa Goro, near Harer. He pleaded with the League of Nations to halt the Italian invasion of his country. "Outside the kingdom of the Lord there is no nation which is greater than any other."
    (AP, 7/23/02)(www.imperialethiopia.org/history3.htm)

1892        Jul 28, Joe E. Brown, comedian (Buck Circus Hour), was born in Holgate, Ohio.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1892        Aug 2, Jack Warner, US movie studio head (Warner Bros), was born.
    (MC, 8/2/02)
1892        Aug 2, Charles A. Wheeler patented a prototype of the escalator. [see Mar 15]
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1892        Aug 4, Lizzie Borden’s father and stepmother, Andrew and Abby Durfee Gray Borden, were killed with an ax in Fall River, Mass. Based on strong circumstantial evidence, Sunday school teacher Lizzie (32), Andrew Borden's daughter from a previous marriage, was charged and acquitted of the murders by an all-male jury. Later an opera titled "Lizzie Borden" by Jack Beeson drew a portrait of family pathology that depicted her as guilty of the crime.
    (WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-13)(AP, 8/4/97)(SFC, 9/17/97, p.A16)(HNPD, 8/4/98)

1892        Aug 5, Harriet Tubman received a pension from Congress for her work as a nurse, spy and scout during the Civil War.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1892        Aug 11, Hugh MacDiarmid, founder of the Scottish Nationalist Party , was born.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1892        Aug 13, The first issue of the "Afro American" newspaper was published in Baltimore, Maryland.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1892        Aug 17, Mae West (d.1980), American actress in burlesque, vaudeville, Broadway, and movies, was born in Brooklyn. "Marriage is a great institution, but I’m not ready for an institution, yet."
    (HN, 8/17/98)(AP, 8/31/00)(SC, 8/17/02)

1892        Aug 27, Fire seriously damaged New York City’s original Metropolitan Opera House, located at Broadway and 39th Street.
    (AP, 8/27/97)

1892        Aug 30, The Moravia, a passenger ship arriving from Germany, brought cholera to the United States.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1892        Sep 4, Darius Milhaud, Aix-en-Provence France, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1892        Sep 5, Joseph Szigeti, Budapest Hungary, violinist (Violinist Notebook 1933), was born.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1892        Sep 7, In New Orleans the 1st heavyweight-title boxing match, fought with gloves under the rules of the Marquis of Queensbury [Queensberry], aka John S. Douglas, ended when James J. Corbett (1866-1933) knocked out John L. Sullivan (1858-1918) in the 21st round.  In 1891 Corbett had fought Peter Jackson to a draw after 61 rounds. Corbett lost his title to Robert Fitzsimmons in 1897.
    (AH, 2/06, p.29)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_L._Sullivan)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.8)
1892        Sep 7, John G. Whittier, US poet and secretary of the Anti-Slavery Society, died.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1892        Sep 8, An early version of "The Pledge of Allegiance" appeared in "The Youth’s Companion," published in Boston and edited by Francis Bellamy, a Christian socialist, and cousin of writer Edward Bellamy. James Upham (d.1906), Bellamy’s supervisor, collaborated on the pledge. Frank E. Bellamy (1876-1915) of Cherryvale High School in Kansas had authored a 500-word patriotic essay which included the words of the Pledge of Allegiance and instructions on saluting the American Flag. His teacher entered the "Salute to the Flag" in a contest sponsored by the popular scholastic publication The Youth's Companion. His essay won first place in this national school contest. [see Oct 12]
    (AP, 9/8/97)(SSFC, 6/30/02, p.A3)(www.leatherockhotel.com/FrankBellamy.htm)(WSJ, 7/6/04, p.A23)

1892        Sep 10, Arthur Compton, physicist, was born in Wooster, Ohio.
    (HN, 9/10/00)

1892        Sep 12, Alfred A. Knopf, American publisher, was born. In 1966 he received the Alexander Hamilton Medal.
    (HN, 9/12/98)(MC, 9/12/01)

1892        Sep 26, John Philip Sousa and his newly formed band performed publicly for the first time, at the Stillman Music Hall in Plainfield, N.J.
    (AP, 9/26/07)
1892        Sep 26, The Diamond Match Co. patented book matches. [see Sep 27]
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1892        Sep 27, Book matches were patented by Diamond Match Company. [see Sep 26]
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1892        Oct 1, John Philip Sousa started his 12-year tour as director of the US Marine Band. He premiered many of his marches and produced the first commercial phonograph recordings. [see Oct 1, 1880]
    (SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-3)
1892        Oct 1, The University of Chicago opened.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1892        Oct 4, Engelbert Dollfuss, Austrian Fascist chancellor, was born. He was killed by Nazis in 1934.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1892        Oct 5, The Dalton Gang, notorious for its train robberies, was practically wiped out while attempting to rob a pair of banks in Coffeyville, Kan. They were trying to rob the Condon National Bank and the First National Bank simultaneously in their hometown. They were recognized by home town citizens who sounded the alarm and then armed themselves. A fierce gun battle ensued in which four citizens and four members of the Dalton Gang lost their lives.
    (AP, 10/5/97)(www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/daltons.htm)

1892        Oct 6, Alfred Tennyson (b.1809), writer and poet laureate, died at 83.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1892        Oct 8, Sergei Rachmaninoff first publicly performed his piano "Prelude in C-sharp Minor" in Moscow.
    (AP, 10/8/97)

1892        Oct 12, The American Pledge of Allegiance was 1st recited in public schools to commemorate Columbus Day. Francis Bellamy, a magazine editor of Rome, NY, wrote the "Pledge of Allegiance." [see Sep 8]
    (SFEC, 2/21/99, Z1 p.8)(Internet)

1892        Oct 15, US government convinced the Crow Indians to give up 1.8 million acres of their reservation (in the mountainous area of western Montana) for 50 cents per acre. Presidential proclamation opened this land to settlers.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1892        Oct 18, The first long-distance telephone line between Chicago and New York was formally opened. It could only handle one call at a time.
    (AP, 10/18/07)

1892        Oct 20, The city of Chicago dedicated the World’s Columbian Exposition.
    (AP, 10/20/97)

1892        Oct 30, Angelo Siciliano (d.1972) was born in Italy. In 1903 he and his mother moved to Brooklyn to live with an uncle. He later became known as body builder Charles Atlas.
    (ON, 12/09, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Atlas)

1892        Oct, The Univ. of Chicago began operations under Pres. William Rainey Harper. It was founded by John D. Rockefeller.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.19)(WSJ, 1/7/98, p.W11)

1892        Nov 2, Lawmen surrounded outlaws Ned Christie and Arch Wolf near Tahlequah, Indian Country (present-day Oklahoma). It would take dynamite and a cannon to dislodge the two from their cabin.
    (HN, 11/2/98)

1892        Nov 6, John Sigvard "Ole" Olsen, comedian (Olsen & Johnson), was born in Wabash, Ind.
    (MC, 11/6/01)
1892        Nov 6, Harold Ross, New Yorker editor, was born.
    (HN, 11/6/00)

1892        Nov 8, Former President Cleveland beat incumbent Benjamin Harrison and became the first (and, to date, only) president to win non-consecutive terms in the White House.
    (AP, 11/8/97)
1892        Nov 8, In Paris, France, anarchist Emile Henry placed a time bomb at the offices of the Carmaux Mining Company that killed 5 policemen.
    (www.marxists.org/reference/archive/henry/biography.htm)

1892        Nov 16, King Behanzin of Dahomey (now Benin), led soldiers against the French.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1892        Dec 2, Jay Gould (b.1836), American financier, died. In 1986 Maury Klein authored "The Life and Legend of Jay Gould." His fortune was estimated at $72 million.
    (WSJ, 3/21/00, p.A24)(www.nndb.com/people/421/000050271/)

1892        Dec 4, Francisco Franco (y Bahamonde), Spanish general and dictator (1936-75), was born. He came to power as a result of the Spanish Civil War.
    (HN, 12/4/00)(MC, 12/4/01)

1892        Dec 6, E. Werner von Siemens (75), German industrialist (Siemens AG), died.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1892        Dec 9, "Widowers' Houses," George Bernard Shaw's first play, opened at the Royalty Theater in London.
    (AP, 12/9/06)

1892        Dec 15, J. Paul Getty, American oilman and art collector, was born into oil money. His father, George Getty, owned a drilling company and Paul hit a gusher on the first hole he drilled. He decided to retire at age 24 but returned to the business after his father had a stroke.
    (HN, 12/15/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1892        Dec 18, Anton Bruckner's 8th Symphony, premiered.
    (MC, 12/18/01)
1892        Dec 18, Tchaikovsky’s "The Nutcracker Suite" ["Nutcracker Ballet"] publicly premiered in St. Petersburg, Russia, at the Maryinsky Theater.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, DB p.44)(AP, 12/18/97)

1892        Dec 20, Phileas Fogg completed his around the world trip, according to Jules Verne.
    (MC, 12/20/01)
1892        Dec 20, Pneumatic automobile tire was patented in Syracuse, NY.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1892        Cicily Fairfield (aka Rebecca West), writer, was born. Her books included "The Return of the Soldier" and "Black Lamb and Grey Falcon," which was written following a trip through Yugoslavia. She had a relationship with H.G. Wells that led to the birth of a son, Anthony. In 1996 Carl Rollyson wrote her biography: "Rebecca West: A Life." Her pen name came from a character in Ibsen’s play "Rosmersholm." Rebecca West died in 1983.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.5)(WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/6/00, p.A28)

1892        E.F. Holt painted "A Farmyard Scene."
    (SFEM, 10/18/98, p.14)

1892        Thomas Moran painted his geological extravaganza "Grand Canyon of the Colorado."
    (WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1892        John Singer Sargent, artist, began his painting of "Lady Agnew of Locknaw." It was completed in 1893.
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)

1892        Alfred Sisley painted "View of the Village of Moret."
    (WSJ, 2/29/00, p.B16)

1892        Anatole France wrote his novella “Le Procurateur de Judee.“
    (WSJ, 7/8/06, p.P8)

1892        In Fort Worth, Texas, 20 women founded the state’s 1st art museum with $50,000 from Andrew Carnegie.
    (WSJ, 12/17/02, p.D8)

1892        John Philip Sousa, the 17th director of the US Marine Band was given a gold baton that became ceremoniously passed to future directors.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Par, p.12)

1892        The settlement of Goldfield, Arizona, got its start when low grade gold ore was found in the area between the Superstition Mountains and the Goldfield Mounts. Low-grade or not, a town soon sprang up and on October 7, 1893 it received its first official post office.
    (Econ, 4/17/10, p.34)(www.goldfieldghosttown.com/history.html)
1892        Barbed wire that fenced the west at this time is on display at Oracle Junction, Arizona, and includes Curtis 4 Point.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.173)

1892        In California the Romanesque style post office of San Jose built. It was designed by federal architect Willoughby Edbrooke in the Richardsonian style and later became part of the San Jose Museum of Art.
    (SFC,10/15/97, p.D1)
1892        Hibernia Bank set up headquarters in a temple-style building at 1 Jones St. and Market near the SF Civic Center. In 2008 the building ,vacant since 2000, was sold for $3.95 million.
    (SFC, 3/25/05, p.F2)(SFC, 9/11/08, p.B1)
1892        In SF the Trinity Episcopal Church at Bush and Gough was completed. It was based on England’s Durham Cathedral. The church was originally established in 1849. In 2009 the main sanctuary was mothballed due to seismic issues and the lack of funds for repair.
    (SFEM, 8/9/98, p.27)(SFC, 5/29/09, p.B1)
1892        John H. Baird, a San Francisco capitalist, subdivided and sold a set of lots along Haight Street, site of the Haight Street Grounds sports field.
    (Randolph Delehanty "S.F., The Ultimate Guide", p. 252)
1892        The US Navy cruiser Olympia was built in San Francisco. It served as the flagship of Commodore George Dewey’s fleet that defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898. In 1957 it became a museum ship in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 7/11/12, p.A1)

1892        The Brown Palace Hotel opened in Denver, Colorado.
    (WSJ, 6/24/08, p.D7)

1892        Thomas Green Ryman, saloon and riverboat owner, built the Union Gospel Tabernacle in Nashville, Tenn., for revivalist Sam Jones. It later became the original home of the Grand Ole Opry.
    (SFCM, 3/11/01, p.43)

1892        A group of avocational archeologists founded the American Archeological Association. Their 1st magazine," The Archeologist," appeared a year later. The magazine was bought by Popular Science in 1895.
    (AM, 9/01, p.38)

1892        The word "homosexual" first appeared in print.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.E4)

1892        In Mitchell, South Dakota, a small, 12-year-old city of 3,000 inhabitants, the world’s only Corn Palace was established on the city’s Main Street. It was replaced in 1905 and agin in 1921.
    (www.cornpalace.org/Information/corn-palace-history.php)
1892        Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show toured in England with Sioux Chief Long Wolf (59) and 7-year-old White Star, a girl whose real name was Rose Ghost Dog. They both died on tour, he of pneumonia and she of a riding accident. Their bodies were returned to Wolf Creek, South Dakota, in 1997 and reburied.
    (SFC, 9/29/97, p.A8)

1892        The first Fig Newtons were created.
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, Z1 p.2)

1892        The National League sanctioned Sunday games for baseball.
    (WSJ, 7/27/00, p.A20)

1892        The first CAL-Stanford Big Game was held at the field called the Haight Street Grounds in SF. Legend says that Herbert Hoover, Stanford manager and future US president, forgot the requisite football and caused a several hour game delay.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.B12)

1892        In Pennsylvania the Reading Railroad station opened in Philadelphia. It later became the home of the Reading /Terminal Market.
    (SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P4)
1892        Pennsylvania’s Mansfield Univ. played college football’s first night game.
    (WSJ, 9/26/08, p.A1)

1892        The US Supreme Court declared “this is a Christian nation” in a case concerning the use of foreign labor.
    (AH, 4/07, p.30)

1892        The Searsville dam was built on the San Francisquito Creek west of Stanford. Searsville Lake was formed and was later predicted to brim with silt by 2050. In 2014 the American Rivers environmental group named San Francisquito Creek as the 5th most endangered river in the US.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A18)(SFC, 4/9/14, p.E2)

1892        Barbour Silver was organized in Hartford, Conn. In 1898 it became part of the Int’l. Silver Co. of Meriden, Conn.
    (SFC, 10/19/05, p.G2)

1892        A legal case protected the shoreline of Lake Michigan from ownership by a railroad.
    (SFC, 3/21/14, p.D2)

1892        In New York state the Seneca Indians set up a treaty whereby non-Indian residents of Salamanca, a town built on the Seneca Nation of Indians' Allegheny Reservation, paid rent to the Seneca.
    (SFC, 8/18/99, p.C14)
1892        Voting machines were first used in the US in Lockport, New York.
    (BD emp letter, 9/27/96)
1892        John D. Rockefeller broke the Standard Oil Trust up into 20 separate companies after antitrust action against the Standard Oil Company.
    (HNQ, 1/23/00)
1892        Henry Clay Frick, partner of Andrew Carnegie, engineered a bloody clash with the labor union at the Pittsburgh Homestead Mill. 9-10 workers and 3 Pinkerton guards were killed and the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers union was crushed. The strike had arisen over Carnegie's efforts to automate steel production.
    (SFEC,1/20/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A8)

1892        In Marietta, Ohio, Collins R. Stevens (d.1921) and Orin C. Klock began manufacturing reed organs under the name Stevens & Klock. The company went out of business in 1924.
    (SFC, 12/17/08, p.G6)

1892        Bankers Manifesto: “At the coming Omaha Convention to be held July 4th (1892), our men must attend and direct its movement, or else there will be set on foot such antagonism to our designs as may require force to overcome. This at the present time would be premature. We are not yet ready for such a crisis. Capital must protect itself in every possible manner through combination (conspiracy) and legislation.” Congressman Charles A. Lindbergh, Sr. revealed the Bankers Manifesto of 1892 to the U.S. Congress somewhere between 1907 and 1917.
    (www.redicecreations.com/specialreports/2005/07jul/bankersmanifesto.html)

1892        Abercrombie & Fitch, clothing retailers, began operations.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, Survey p.11)

1892        The Gill Clay Pot Co. moved from Bellaire, Ohio, to Muncie, Ind., to be near glass companies and natural gas supplies. The company made pots and tanks to hold melting glass. In 1923 a family member opened Muncie Pottery next door.
    (SFC, 9/21/05, p.G3)

1892        The Central Glass Co. of Wheeling, W. Va., made a pattern of glass called Coin based on real US coins. After 8 months of production the US Treasury Dep. ruled that using the coins was a form of counterfeiting money and the pattern was discontinued.
    (SFC, 3/28/07, p.G7)

1892        The Macey Furniture Co. of Grand Rapids, Mich., opened as a mail-order operation. By 1900 it made its own furniture and in 1905 merged with Wernicke Furniture of Cincinnati. In 1907 the company became Globe-Wernicke.
    (SFC, 10/24/07, p.G2)
1892        The Royal furniture Co. began operating in Grand Rapids, Mich., and continued to 1931. In 1901 Robert Irwin bought a controlling interest and in 1919 combined royal with the Phoenix furniture Co., also in Grand Rapids, to form the Robert W. Irwin Co, which closed in 1953.
    (SFC, 1/7/09, p.G2)

1892        US Rubber was formed as the consolidation of nine domestic makers of rubber products.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1892        Joshua Pusey came out with his book matches.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.E4)

1892        Robert Ingersoll came out with his $1 pocket watch.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.E4)

1892        The 1st electrical hearing aid was invented. It weighed several pounds.
    (SSFC, 5/13/01, Par p.4)

1892        At the Univ. of Virginia the underground social club "Zs" was founded.
    (USAT, 1/15/97, p.6D)

1892        In California rains flooded the entire Central Valley and produced a lake that was some 250-300 miles long and 20-30 miles wide.
    (SFC, 5/27/98, p.A1)
1892        Cypress Lawn, a non-sectarian cemetery, was established in Lawndale (Colma), Ca.
    (GTP, 1973, p.45)(www.colmahistory.org/History.htm)

1892        E.E. Barnard, US astronomer, discovered Amalthea, a small potato-shaped moon of Jupiter.
    (SFC, 12/10/02, p.A2)
1892        Edwin Holmes discovered Comet 17P/Holmes. On Oct. 23, 2007, the comet, which had been visible to modern astronomers only with a telescope, suddenly erupted and expanded, possibly due to sinkholes in its nucleus.
    (AP, 11/4/07)

1892        In Vienna the Hotel Bristol opened.
    (WSJ, 9/26/08, p.A20)

1892        Bohemia granted Ludwig Moser (d.1916) permission to make his own glass. He had started decorating glass in 1857. In2008 Moser Glass Works was still operating in Karlsbad, Czech Republic.
    (SFC, 4/2/08, p.G2)

1892        Sun Yat-Sen (d.1925), Chinese statesman and revolutionary leader, graduated from the Hong Kong School of Medicine.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.18)(AP, 6/22/97)(HNQ, 6/3/98)
1892        Plague hit China and spread throughout south Asia. It ended after killing 6 million people in India.
    (SFC, 7/2/05, p.F9)

1892        Camille Flammarion of France explained the changing brightness of features on Mars to seasonal changes of yellow vegetation and shallow seas.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1892        In Germany Count Zeppelin left the army and began work on his lighter-than-air ship.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1892        Ernst von Mendelssohn Bartholdy acquired the mansion at Boernicke, Germany and 4,500 acres. The mansion was lost to the Nazis in the early 1930s and to the Soviets in 1945. In 1994 it passed to the control of a former Communist leader, Karl Heinz Posselt, the local deputy mayor. The Mendelssohn family was still seeking control in 1995.
    (WSJ, 12/5/95, p.A-1)

1892        Italy made it illegal for girls to marry before age 12.       
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Z1 p.5)

1892        Pavel Tretyakov, a wealthy Moscow businessman and patron of the arts, donated his collection of about 1200 works to the city of Moscow, together with the wing of his residence in which the works were housed. In the Hall of Ivanov the "Appearance of Christ to the People" dominates the room.
    (WSJ, 2/21/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 8/12/96, p.A11)

1892        Samoa made a decision to stay behind a day on the international date line and align it-self with US traders based in California. In 2011 it planned to leap 24 hours into the future so that it can be on the same weekday as Australia, New Zealand and eastern Asia.
    (AP, 5/9/11)

1892        In Serbia public transportation began in Belgrade.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, p.C3)

1892        A Boer government grabbed 90% of the land of southern Africa’s biggest woman, the Rain Queen of the Lobedu. She was immortalized by H. Rider Haggard as “She.”
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.62)

1892        In Switzerland the Brienz Rothornbahn steam-powered cog-wheeled train began operating a 5-mile run from Brienz to the 7,700 Rothorn mountain top.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.T5)

1892-1894    Sir John S.D. Thompson, Conservative Party, served as the 4th Prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.81)

1892-1894    The US Biological Survey sponsored Edgar Alexander Mearns and a field party to survey the borderlands, an area 100 miles wide and 250 miles long along the US-Mexican border from the boot heel of New Mexico to the Organ Pipe National Monument in south-central Arizona.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.58-61)

1892-1937     The Gilbert Islands (Kiribati Islands) were amalgamated as British possessions.
    (WSJ, 1/22/96, p.A-1)

1892-1944    Wendell Wilkie, candidate for US presidency against F.D. Roosevelt. He visited many foreign countries after his defeat as a sort of personal ambassador of the president. "The Constitution does not provide for first and second class citizens."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.318)(AP, 4/14/99)

1892-1950     Edna St. Vincent Millay, American author and poet: "It’s not love’s going hurts my days / But that it went in little ways."
    (AP, 3/4/98)

1892-1954    Robert H. Jackson, U.S. Supreme Court Justice: "Men are more often bribed by their loyalties and ambitions than by money."
    (AP, 2/23/00)

1892-1964    Eddie Cantor, American comedian-singer: "Matrimony is not a word, it’s a sentence."
    (AP, 10/12/00)

1892-1964    J.B.S. Haldane, scientist. He was one of the 3 founders (R.A. Fisher and Sewall Wright) of the modern theory of population genetics and integrated the Mendelian rules for heredity with Darwinian natural selection. He later proclaimed that mustard gas would be a good weapon for wars because its effects could be readily controlled.
    (NH, 10/98, p.2,22)

1892-1969     Dame Ivy Compton-Burnett, English author: "There are different kinds of wrong. The people sinned against are not always the best."
    (AP, 10/21/98)

1892-1969     Walter C. Hagen, American golfer: "Don’t hurry, don’t worry. You’re only here for a short visit. So be sure to stop and smell the flowers."
    (AP, 5/18/97)

1892-1969    Osbert Sitwell, English poet and author. His 50 books included a 5-volume autobiography, one of which was titled "Left Hand, Right Hand!" He and his siblings, Edith and Sacheverell, attained some fame in their day. In 1999 Philip Ziegler authored the biography "Osbert Sitwell."
    (WSJ, 12/14/99, p.A20)

1892-1972    Henry Darger, outsider artist, was the author of a 15,000 page illustrated novel titled: "The Story of the Vivian Girls, in What Is Known as the Realms of the Unreal." The work inspired the 1999 work by poet John Ashbury: "Girls on the Run," a single long poem divided into 21 numbered sections.
    (SFEC, 4/4/99, BR p.2)

1892-1973     Pearl S. Buck, American author: "The basic discovery about any people is the discovery of the relationship between its men and women."
    (AP, 6/18/97)

1892-1978    Margarett Sargent, painter and socialite. Her granddaughter, Ms. Moore, wrote her biography: "The White Blackbird: The Life of the Painter Margarett Sargent." She had studied under Mount Rushmore’s sculptor, Gutzon Borglum. From 1916 to 1936 her work was included in as many as 30 shows.
    (WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-15)(WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)

1892-1979    Mary Pickford, silent film actress, was born as Gladys Marie Smith in Toronto. Her life is documented in the 1997 book: "Pickford: The Woman Who Made Hollywood" by Eileen Whitfield.
    (SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.E6)

1892-1983    Dame Rebecca West, Irish author and journalist: "Those who foresee the future and recognize it as tragic are often seized by a madness which forces them to commit the very acts which makes it certain that what they dread shall happen." "There is no such thing as conversation. It is an illusion. There are intersecting monologues, that is all."
    (AP, 9/5/98)(AP, 4/9/99)

1892-1984    George Aiken, U.S. Senator: "If we were to wake up some morning and find that everyone was the same race, creed, and color, we would find some other causes for prejudice by noon."
    (AP, 4/11/99)

1893        Jan 4, US president Cleveland granted amnesty to Mormon polygamists.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1893        Jan 6, Great Northern Railway connected Seattle with east coast.
    (MC, 1/6/02)
1893        Jan 6, Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas (d.1967), writer and poet, was born in Lithuania.
    (LHC, 1/6/03)

1893        Jan 9, Mohara, Arab ivory and slave trader, died in battle and was eaten.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1893        Jan 11, Benjamin Butler (b.1818), former Union general, lawyer and governor of Massachusetts (1883-1884), died in New Hampshire.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin_Butler_%28politician%29)

1893        Jan 12, Hermann Goring, Reichsmarshal of the Third Reich and commander of the Luftwaffe, was born. He committed suicide before he was to be hung for war crimes.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1893        Jan 13, Britain's Independent Labor Party, a precursor to the current Labor Party, had its 1st meeting.
    (AP, 1/13/00)

1893        Jan 15, Fanny Kemble (b.1809), actress and writer, died in London. Her work included "Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation.” In 2000 Catherine Clinton authored "Fanny Kimble’s Civil Wars" and edited "Fanny Kemble’s Journals." In 2007 Deirdre David authored “Fanny Kemble: A Performed Life.”
    (WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A24)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.95)(www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1569.html)

1893        Jan 17, Hawaii's monarchy was overthrown by a group of businessmen and sugar planters under Sanford Ballard Dole, who forced Queen Lili’uokalani to abdicate and formed the Republic of Hawaii. This coup occurred with the knowledge of John L. Stevens, the US Minister to Hawaii. 300 Marines from the USS Boston were called to Hawaii, allegedly to protect American lives. Queen Lili’uokalani wrote to Pres. Harrison for support.
    (AP, 1/17/98)(HNPD, 1/25/99)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.T11)(ON, 11/02, p.6)
1893        Jan 17, A state record temperature of 17F, -27C, was recorded in Millsboro, Delaware.
    (MC, 1/17/02)
1893        Jan 17, The 19th president of the United States, Rutherford B. Hayes, died in Fremont, Ohio, at age 70.
    (AP, 1/17/98)

1893        Jan 20, Bessy Colman, first African American aviator, was born.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1893        Jan 26, Bessie Coleman, first black airplane pilot, was born.
    (HN, 1/26/99)
1893        Jan 26, Abner Doubleday (b.1819), credited with inventing baseball, died on his 74th birthday.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1893        Feb 1, The US Minister to Hawaii, at the request of Pres. Dole, placed the Provisional Government under formal US protection and raised the US flag over Hawaii.
    (ON, 11/02, p.6)
1893        Feb 1, Inventor Thomas A. Edison completed work on the world’s first motion picture studio, his "Black Maria," in West Orange, N.J.
    (AP, 2/1/97)
1893        Feb 1, The opera "Manon Lescaut," by Giacomo Puccini, premiered in Turin, Italy.
    (AP, 2/1/01)

1893        Feb 2, The first movie close-up (of a sneeze) was made at the Edison studio, West Orange, NJ.
    (HFA, '96, p.24)(MC, 2/2/02)

1893        Feb 9, Giuseppe Verdi’s last opera, "Falstaff," was first performed, in Milan, Italy.
    (AP, 2/9/01)
1893        Feb 9, Suez Canal builder De Lesseps and others were sentenced to prison for fraud.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1893        Feb 10, Jimmy Durante, ‘Schozzel,’ American comedian and film actor, was born in NYC. "Be nice to people on the way up. They’re the same people you’ll pass on the way down."
    (HN, 2/10/99)(AP, 2/10/01)(MC, 2/10/02)

1893        Feb 12, Omar Bradley (d.1981), U.S. army general, was born in Clark, Missouri. He was called "the soldier’s soldier" because of his interest in the welfare of enlisted men. He was a 1915 graduate of West Point, and won fame as commander in North Africa and France during WWII. Gen. Bradley became chief of staff in 1948, succeeding Gen. Dwight Eisenhower. In 1949 he became the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He led the largest concentration of ground troops in Europe during World War II." The world has achieved brilliance without conscience. Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants."
    (HNQ, 6/28/98)(HN, 2/12/99)(AP, 4/8/00)

1893        Feb 20, Russel Crouse, journalist, novelist, playwright (Life with Father), was born.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1893        Feb 21, Andés Segovia (d.1987), Spanish classical guitarist, was born in Linares, Spain.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1291)(HN, 2/21/01)(MC, 2/21/02)

1893        Feb 26, Ivor Armstrong Richards (I.A. Richards), writer, critic and teacher (Meaning of Meaning), was born.
    (HN, 2/26/01)(SC, 2/26/02)
1893        Feb 26, 2 Clydesdale horses set a record by pulling 48 tons on a sledge in Michigan.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1893        Feb 26, Einar Halvorsen skated to a world record 500 meter (48 seconds).
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1893        Feb 28, Edward Acheson of Pennsylvania, patented an abrasive he named "carborundum."
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1893        Mar 1, The US Diplomatic Appropriation Act authorized the rank of ambassador.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1893        Mar 2, 1st federal railroad legislation was passed; required safety features.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1893        Mar 3, Congress authorized 1st federal road agency in the Department of Agriculture.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1893        Mar 3, Columbian Isabella silver quarter was authorized.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1893        Mar 4, Grover Cleveland (D) was inaugurated as 24th US President (2nd term).
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1893        Mar 4, Francis Dhanis' army attacked the Lualaba and occupied Nyangwe (Congo).
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1893        Mar 5, Emmett J. Culligan, founder of water treatment organization, was born.
    (MC, 3/5/02)
1893        Mar 5, Hippolyte Taine (64), French philosopher, historian, died.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1893        Mar 9, Edgar Scauflaire, Belgian muralist, decorator, was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1893        Mar 9, Hans Munch, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1893        Mar 9, Congo cannibals killed 1000s of Arabs.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1893        Mar 10, New Mexico State University canceled its first graduation ceremony, because the only graduate Sam Steele was robbed and killed the night before.
    (HN, 3/10/98)(MC, 3/10/02)

1893        Mar 18, Wilfred Owen (d.1918), World War I English poet, was born. He was killed one week before Armistice Day of WW I. His fellow poet Siegfried Sassoon published Owen’s single slim volume of poetry.
    (NH, 10/98, p.18)(HN, 3/18/01)

1893        Mar 24, George Sisler, baseball player, was born.
    (HN, 3/24/01)

1893        Mar 27, The American Bell telephone Company made its first long distance telephone call to its branch office in New York.
    (HN, 3/27/99)

1893        Mar 29, US Congressman James Blount arrived in Hawaii to investigate the change in government. He later reported to Congress that annexation to the US was being forced and that the people of Hawaii supported their queen.
    (ON, 11/02, p.7)

1893        Mar 31, Clemens Krauss, conductor (Berlin State Orch-1937), was born in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1893        Apr 3, Leslie Howard, [Stainer], actor (Gone With the Wind), was born in London.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1893        Apr 6, Mormon Temple in Salt Lake City was dedicated.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1893        Apr 7, Allan W. Dulles, US diplomat, CIA head (1953-61) (Germany's Underground), was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1893        Apr 8, Edgar "Yip" Harburg, lyricist ("Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?," "Over the Rainbow"), was born.
    (HN, 4/8/01)
1893        Apr 8, Mary Pickford, silent film actress (Poor Little Rich Girl), was born.
    (HN, 4/8/98)
1893        Apr 8, The Critic reported that ice cream soda is the national drink of the US.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1893        Apr 11, Dean G. Acheson, statesman, U.S. secretary of state (1949-53) , was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1893        Apr 19, The Oscar Wilde play "A Woman of No Importance" opened at the Haymarket Theatre in London.
    (WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A20)(AP, 4/19/03)

1893        Apr 20, Harold Lloyd, film comedian, was born. He is best remembered for his film "Safety Last."
    (HN, 4/20/99)
1893        Apr 20, Joan Miró (Joan Miro), Spanish painter, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/01)

1893        Apr 26, Anita Loos, author and playwright, was born. Her work included: "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes," "I Married an Angel," "San Francisco," "Saratoga," and "The Women."
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.6)

1893        Apr 29, Harold C. Urey, physicist (Deuterium, Nobel 1934), was born in Indiana.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1893        May 1, The World’s Columbian Exposition was officially opened in Chicago by President Cleveland. The El in Chicago was erected to take visitors to the World’s Columbian Exposition. It created a section of town called the Loop encircled by the railway. The exposition grounds covered over 600 acres of south Chicago along Lake Michigan. The exposition attracted over 21 million visitors who saw such wonders as the Ferris Wheel and electricity (first displayed in the Paris Exposition in 1889, but still unknown to most Americans). It was the first American exposition to make a profit. In 2003 Erik Larson authored "The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic and madness at the Fair That Changed America."
    (AP, 5/1/97)(Hem. 7/96, p.25)(HNQ, 2/18/01)(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.M1)

1893        May 5, Panic hit the New York Stock Exchange; by year's end, the country was in the throes of a severe depression. [see June 27]
    (AP, 5/5/99)

1893        May 29, A runaway circus train near Tyrone, Pa., left 5 dead and a lot of wild animals roaming the countryside.
    (THC, 12/2/97)
   
1893        Jun 1, "Falstaff," the last opera by Giuseppe Verdi, was produced in Berlin.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)(SFEM, 9/10/00, p.20)

1893        Jun 9, Cole Porter, American composer and lyricist, was born in Indiana. His songs include "Night and Day," "You're the Tops," and "I Get a Kick Our of You." In 1998 William McBrian published the biography "Cole Porter." [see Jun 9, 1891]
    (WUD, 1994 p.1120)(CFA, '96, p.48)(SFEC, 11/22/98, BR p.4)

1893        Jun 13, Dorothy Leigh Sayers (d.1957), English detective writer, creator of Lord Peter Wimsey, was born. "The worst sin -- perhaps the only sin -- passion can commit, is to be joyless."
    (AP, 5/17/97)(HN, 6/13/01)

1893        Jun 14, Philadelphia observed the first Flag Day.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1893        Jun 20, A jury in New Bedford, Mass., found Lizzie Borden innocent of the ax murders of her father, wealthy Fall River, Massachusetts, businessman Andrew Borden and his wife, Abby Borden. Lizzie Borden, defended by a team of skilled lawyers, was acquitted—some say on the strength of her lawyers’ portrayal of Lizzie as a respectable woman who could not have committed such brutal acts. Local townspeople were unconvinced, however, and Lizzie Borden was ostracized for the rest of her life.
    (AP, 6/20/97)(HNPD, 8/4/98)

1893        Jun 21, George Washington Gale Ferris, engineer, completed the construction of a 254-foot high revolving steel wheel with 38 passenger cars, each with 40 plush chairs, for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
    (ON, 11/99, p.7)(MC, 6/21/02)

1893         Jun 26, William "Big Bill" Broonzy, blues singer and guitarist, was born.
    (HN, 6/26/01)

1893        Jun 27, The New York stock market crashed. The crash triggered the failure of 642 banks and over 16,000 businesses. Railroad overbuilding led to scores of train-related bankruptcies.
    (AP, 6/27/97)(ON, 10/99, p.11)(WSJ, 2/1/00, p.B1)

1893        Jun 30, Harold Laski, political scientist, was born. He believed the state was responsible for social reform and wrote "Authority in the Modern State" and "The American President."
    (HN, 6/30/99)
1893        Jun 30, Pres. Cleveland issued a proclamation calling for a special session of Congress on August 7 to deal with the financial crises.
    (ON, 10/99, p.11)
1893        Jun 30, Excelsior diamond (blue-white 995 carats) was discovered.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1893        Jun, Pierre de Coubertin convinced the General Assembly of the USFSA, an amateur sporting society, to host a congress in France that would examine the issue of amateurism in sports.
    (ON, 8/07, p.3)
1893        Jun, Fridtjof Nansen left Norway for the North Pole aboard the Fram. He theorized that the ship would become ice-bound and cross the Arctic and the North Pole in 3 years.
    (ON, 7/05, p.1)

1893        Jul 1, Pres. Cleveland underwent a secret oral surgery aboard the yacht Oneida for a cancerous growth in his upper palate. The cancer operation remained a secret until July 1, 1917, when the doctor who performed the operation revealed the story.
    (ON, 10/99, p.11)(HNQ, 11/6/99)
1893        Jul 1, Canada enacted a riot act as part of its criminal code.
    (SSFC, 7/26/09, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/lfqouh)

1893        Jul 4, A Borrelly discovered asteroid #369 Aeria.
    (Maggio, 98)

1893        Jul 7, In Bardwell, Ky., C.J. Miller, a black man accused of murdering two white girls, was mutilated, torched and left hanging from a telegraph pole. Ida Wells (1862-1931) was commissioned to investigate the story by the Chicago Inter-Ocean newspaper and published her findings under the title “History Is a Weapon.”
    (WSJ, 3/8/08, p.W8)(www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/wellslynchlaw.html)

1893        Jul 7, Guy de Maupassant (42), writer, died.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1893        Jul 9, Daniel Hale Williams (1858-1931), an African-American surgeon, performed successful heart surgery on a teenager in Chicago.
    (WSJ, 11/17/07, p.W11)(http://tinyurl.com/37gnkk)

1893        Jul 17, Pres. Cleveland underwent a 2nd oral surgery aboard the yacht Oneida in a follow-up operation for a cancerous growth in his upper palate.
    (ON, 10/99, p.11)

1893        Jul 19, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Russian poet, was born.
    (HN, 7/19/01)

1893        Jul 22, Karl Menninger, psychiatrist and founder of the Menninger Foundation for studies mental health problems, was born.
    (HN, 7/22/98)
1893        Jul 22, Katherine Lee Bates (1819-1910), Wellesley professor, wrote the words to the song "America the Beautiful," while atop Pike’s Peak during a trip to Colorado. It appeared in print on July 4, 1895. In 1904 Clarence Barbour adapted it to the melody of Samuel Ward’s “Materna” (1890). Bates’ final version was completed in 1911.
    (WSJ, 9/28/01, p.W13)(SSFC, 10/21/01, Par p.8)(AH, 10/04, p.26)

1893        Jul 26, George Grosz (d.1959), German satiric artist and illustrator, was born. He arrived in Berlin in 1911 and began drawing what he saw in a style of expressionism and the journalistic style of Heinrich Zille. A collection of his work was published in 1997 based on an exhibition catalog titled: "The Berlin of George Grosz: Drawings, Watercolors and Prints, 1912-1930."
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, BR p.10)(HN, 7/26/01)

1893        Aug 1, Henry Perky and William Ford patented a machine for making shredded wheat breakfast cereal.
    (HN, 8/1/00)(MC, 8/1/02)

1893        Aug 7, Alfredo Catalani (39), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 8/7/02)(Internet)

1893        Aug 10, Chinese were deported from SF under the 1892 Exclusion Act.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1893        Aug 12, Howard Smith, actor (Harvey Griffin-Hazel), was born in Attleboro, Mass.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1893        Aug 20, Shechita (ritual slaughtering) was prohibited in Switzerland.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1893        Aug 22, Dorothy Parker (d.1967), poet, satirist, screenwriter and founding member of the Algonquin Round Table, was born in West Bend, N.J. "Authors and actors and artists and such / Never know nothing, and never know much."
    (AP, 8/22/97)(HN, 8/22/02)

1893        Aug 24, A fire in south Chicago left 5,000 people homeless.
    (Reuters, 8/24/01)

1893        Aug 29, The “clasp locker,” a clumsy slide fastener and forerunner to the zipper was first patented by Whitcomb L. Judson. He demonstrated it at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He invented an improved C-Curity fastener in 1902.
    (Wired, Dec., ‘95, p.138)(SFEC, 6/6/99, Z1 p.10)(ON, 7/04, p.3)

1893        Aug 30, Huey P. Long, Louisiana politician who served as governor and U.S. senator, known as "The Kingfish," was born.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1893        Sep 4, Beatrix Potter, English author, first told the story of Peter Rabbit in the form of a "picture letter" to Noel Moore, the son of Potter's former governess. A 2nd illustrated letter the same month later became “The Tale of Jeremy Fisher.” The “Tale of Peter Rabbit” was published in 1901.
    (HN, 9/4/00)(AP, 9/4/04)(Econ, 1/6/07, p.67)

1893        Sep 6, Floriano Vieira Peixoto, acting president of Brazil, faced a rebellion by officers of his navy led by Admiral Custodio Jose de Mello.
    (ON, 12/06, p.11)

1893        Sep 7, The Rhine river was officially closed for bathing. It had been determined the Rhine was infected with cholera.
    (MC, 9/7/01)   

1893        Sep 9, Frances Cleveland, wife of President Cleveland, gave birth to a daughter, Esther, in the White House. It was the first time a president’s child was born in the executive mansion.
    (AP, 9/9/97)

1893        Sep 14, In Virginia the Randolph-Macon Women’s College opened under Pres. William Waugh Smith.  The first session began with 36 boarding students and 12 professors.
    (SSFC, 9/10/06, p.A2)(www.rmwc.edu/about/history.asp)

1893        Sep 16, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, biochemist who isolated vitamin C, was born.
    (HN, 9/16/98)
1893        Sep 16, More than 100,000 settlers ("Sooners") claimed land in the Cherokee Strip during the first day of the Oklahoma land rush.
    (AP, 9/16/97)(HN, 9/16/98)

1893        Sep 19, New Zealand became the first nation to grant women the right to vote.
    (SFC, 8/15/98, p.E4)(HN, 9/19/01)

1893        Sep 21, Frank Duryea drove the 1st US made gas propelled car. [see Sep 22]
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1893        Sep 22, Bicycle makers Charles and Frank Duryea showed off the first American automobile produced for sale to the public by taking it on a maiden run through the streets of Springfield, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 9/22/00)

1893        Oct 1, In the 3rd worst hurricane in US history 1,800 people were killed in  Mississippi.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1893        Oct 6, Nabisco Foods invented Cream of Wheat.
    (MC, 10/6/01)
1893        Oct 6, Ford Madox Brown (b.1821), English painter, died in London. In 2010 Angela Thirlwell authored “Into the Frame: The Four Loves of Ford Madox Brown.”
    (Econ, 3/13/10, p.87)(http://tinyurl.com/yhpg5ut)

1893        Oct 15, The NY Times declared Coney Island “Sodom-by-the-Sea” for the thrilling rides that let men and women clutch each other.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.28)(http://tinyurl.com/39yjht)

1893        Oct 18, Lucy [Blackwell-] Stone, US abolitionist and feminist, died.
    (MC, 10/18/01)
1893        Oct 18, Charles F. Gounod, French composer (Faust, Romeo et Juliette), died at 75.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1893        Oct 27, Hurricane hit the US coast between Savannah, Ga., and Charleston, SC.
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1893        Oct 27, Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Austrian composer, conducted a revised version of his First Symphony at Hamburg's Ludwig Konzerthaus, still in its original five-movement.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Mahler)

1893        Oct 28, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducted the first public performance of his Symphony Number Six in B minor ("Pathetique") in St. Petersburg, Russia, just nine days before his death.
    (AP, 10/28/98)

1893        Oct 30, Charles Atlas, [Angelo Siciliano], US bodybuilder, was born.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1893        Oct, Floriano Vieira Peixoto, acting president of Brazil, contacted his ambassador in Washington with instructions to buy a fleet of warships for a new navy. Dr. Salvador de Mendonca soon authorized Charles R. Flint, an American businessman, to purchase ships and weapons for Brazil. Over the next 21 days Flint spent $1.5 million acquiring ships and guns including the new Zalinski dynamite gun.
    (ON, 12/06, p.11)

1893        Nov 6, Composer Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky died in St. Petersburg, Russia, at age 53. In 2000 Alexander Poznansky authored "Tchaikovsky Through Others’ Eyes."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.18)(AP, 11/6/97)(SFEC, 6/11/00, Par p.16)

1893        Nov 7, The state of Colorado granted women residents the right to vote.
    (AP, 11/7/97)
1893        Nov 7, In Barcelona, Spain, 23 people including 9 women, were killed at Liceo Opera House by a bomb thrown by anarchist Salvador Franch.
    (http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/vizetelly/vizetelly7.html)

1893        Nov 13, Queen Lili’uokalani met with Albert Willis, the new US Minister to Hawaii, and refused pardon for the Provisional Government.
    (ON, 11/02, p.7)

1893        Nov 20, The struggling Western League of Professional Baseball Clubs, meeting in Detroit, Michigan, elected Byron Bancroft Johnson (29), a former ballplayer and Cincinnati sportswriter, as president. He had been recommended by Charles Comiskey, a potential investor in the league and manager of the National League’s Cincinnati Reds.
    (ON, 6/09, p.10)

1893        Nov 22, M. Kaganovitsj Kogan, people's commissioner for Stalin, was born.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1893        Nov 25, Joseph W. Krutch, US naturalist, was born.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1893        Dec 2, Pauline C. Fryer (b.1833), stage performer and Union spy during the Civil War, died in San Francisco.
    (www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6333443)

1893        Dec 5, 1st electric car was built in Toronto. It could go 15 miles between charges.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1893        Dec 9, Auguste Vaillant (b.1861) threw a nail bomb from the second row of the public gallery in the Palais Bourbon into the chamber: 20 deputies were slightly injured. A symbolic gesture, meant to wound rather than kill, Vaillant was condemned to death, and guillotined February 5 1894. The deputies use the event to suppress the anarchist press.
    (http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/VaillantAuguste.htm)

1893        Dec 12, Edward G. Robinson, actor famous for gangster roles, was born.
    (HN, 12/12/00)

1893        Dec 15, Anton Dvorak's Symphony No. 9 in E-minor, Opus 95, "From the New World," was performed during a "public rehearsal" at New York's Carnegie Hall (the official world premiere was the next day).
    (AP, 12/15/03)

1893        Dec 20, The 1st state anti-lynching statute was approved in Georgia.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1893        Dec 23, The Engelbert Humperdinck opera " Haensel und Gretel " was first performed, in Weimar, Germany.
    (AP, 12/23/07)

1893        Dec 24, Henry Ford completed his 1st useful gas motor.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1893        Dec 25, Robert Leroy Ripley, artist, author and radio broadcaster (Believe It or Not), was born in Santa Rosa, Calif.
    (www.ripleysf.com/ripley/about/about.html)

1893        Dec 26, Mao Tse-tung, founding father of the People’s Republic of China  (PM 1949-76), was born in Shaoshan.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.44)(HN, 12/26/98)(SFC, 8/24/99, p.A12)(MC, 12/26/01)

1893        Dorothy Rothschild Parker, American author, was born. She observed that: "Most good women are hidden treasures who are only safe because nobody looks for them."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1049)
1893        Chaim Soutine (d.1943), artist, was born in Minsk. He studied art in Vilnius and moved to Paris. His work is seen in 3 distinct ways: as a crude primitive, as a master continuing in the French tradition, and as a prophet who helped form later painters.
    (WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)
1893        Mary Jane West (aka Mae West) was born in Brooklyn, NY. She wrote the plays "The Drag" and "Sex" for which she was convicted on obscenity charges. She starred in 8 Hollywood films. In 1997 Emily Wortis Leider wrote her biography: "Becoming Mae West: The Shaping of an Icon."
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, BR p.3)
1893        Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894), French Impressionist painter, completed “Regatta at Argenteuil,” in oil on canvas.
    (SFC, 6/1/13, p.E1)
1893        Mary Cassatt painted a 58-foot "Modern Woman" for the Women’s Building of the Chicago World’s Fair.
    (WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)
1893        Cezanne painted "Rideau, Cruchon, et Compotier" (Still Life With Curtain, Pitcher and Bowl of Fruit). In 1999 it was auctioned for $60.5 million.
    (SFC, 5/11/99, p.A3)(WSJ, 5/11/99, p.B4)
1893        Claude Monet created his "water garden" at Giverney.
    (WSJ, 7/1/99, p.A21)
1893        Edvard Munch (1863-1944), Norwegian artist, painted "The Scream." The red sky in the painting was later said to have resulted from his views of the red skies over Norway during the 1883 volcano explosion at Krakatoa. In 2012 an 1895 version sold for a record $119,922,500 at auction in New York City.
    (AP, 12/10/03)(AP, 5/3/12)
1893        Camille Pissarro painted "Place du Havre, Paris." It was the first of four urban scenes of his lifetime and was painted from his hotel window across from the St. Lazare     train station.
    (DPCP 1984)
1893        John Singer Sargent painted his portrait of "Elizabeth Winthrop."
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.E1)
1893        Charles Frye and his wife began their art collection at the Chicago World’s Fair where they bought Edmond Louyot’s "Small Girl with Pigs." They added mostly German or German-schooled works by painters such as Franz von Stuck, Franz von Lembach, and others of the Munich Secession movement.
    (WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)
1893        German artist Franz von Stuck painted "Sin," a shocking work of a bare-breasted woman whose shoulders were entwined with a gleaming-eyed snake.
    (WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)

1893        Gen’l. Lew Wallace wrote "The Prince of India."
    (HT, 3/97, p.66)

1893        Charles Young wrote "Lessons in Astronomy."
    (NH, 10/98, p.87)

1893        Emile Zola completed the last volume of "Les Rougon-Macquart," his saga of a French family branching throughout society during the Second Empire.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A13)

1893        Claude Debussy completed his only opera: "Pelleas et Melisande." It was based on a symbolist drama by Maeterlinck.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, DB p.13)

1893        Mildred and Patty Hill wrote a song  called "Good Morning to All" as a welcome song for schoolchildren. It later became the "Happy Birthday" Song with a 1935 copyright on the lyrics.
    (SSFC, 10/5/03, Par p.24)

1893        Engelbert Humperdinck composed his opera "Hansel and Gretel" with a libretto by his sister, Adelheid Wette.
    (WSJ, 10/27/98, p.A20)

1893        The SF Japanese Tea Garden was built in Golden Gate Park as part of the 1894 Midwinter Fair. It was designed by Makoto Hagiwara.
    (SFC, 7/29/97, p.A6)(BS, 5/3/98, p.5R)(Ind, 9/28/02, 5A)

1893        Chicago’s new Monadnock Building carried its 17 stories on ground-floor walls 6 feet thick.
    (SFC, 8/23/08, p.F4)
1893        The Field Museum of Natural History opened in Chicago. It was founded during the World’s Columbian Exposition and named after department store magnate Marshall Field.
    (WSJ, 8/30/04, p.A1)(SFC, 7/6/13, p.A10)
1893        The Chicago Stock Exchange, designed by Louis Sullivan, was completed. It was demolished in 1972.
    (WSJ, 10/8/03, p.D6)
1893        Charlie Wacker, director of the World's Columbian Exposition and a friend of Louis Glunz, was instrumental in making Louis a bottler of Schlitz beer for the Chicago Exposition.
    (www.glunzbavarianhaus.com/glunz-bavarian-chicago.html)
1893        At the Chicago Exposition Milton Hershey was impressed with an exhibition featuring chocolate-making machinery from Germany and commented to his cousin, Frank Snavely, "Caramels are only a fad. Chocolate is a permanent thing." With that, Hershey decided to go into the chocolate business, purchasing the German-made machinery and installing it at his Lancaster Caramel Company in Pennsylvania. With the help of expert chocolate makers, Hershey was soon producing chocolate-covered caramels, called "novelties." In 1900, Hershey sold the Lancaster Caramel Company for $1 million, but retained the chocolate-making machinery. Soon thereafter, he launched the Hershey Chocolate Company and built a town around it, Hershey, Pennsylvania.
    (HNQ, 10/31/00)
1893        Farida Mazar Spyropoulos, also performing under the stage name Fatima, appeared as Little Egypt” at the "Street in Cairo" exhibition on the Midway at the World's Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Egypt_%28dancer%29)
1893        F.W. Rueckheim introduced a confection of popcorn, peanuts and molasses at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. It was given the name Cracker Jack in 1896.
    (AH, 10/04, p.71)

1893        S.S. McClure (1857-1949), an Irish immigrant, and John Sanborn Philips (1861-1949) founded McClure’s Magazine, an American illustrated monthly periodical. The magazine continued to 1929.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McClure%27s)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.86)

1893        There was a Parliament of World Religions but it failed to develop a consensus and infrastructure.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, Z1 p.3)

1893        The Anti-Saloon League formed in Ohio. It became national in 1895 when it merged with an organization in Washington D.C.
    (AH, 2/05, p.72)

1893        Swami Vivekananda was sent to Chicago by his guru, Ramakrishna, from India to spread his teachings on yoga.
    (WSJ, 6/23/00, p.A1)

1893        Frederick Jackson Turner, American historian, defined elements of the American character drawn from the country’s encounter with the frontier: "that dominant individualism... that buoyancy and exuberance which came with freedom - these are the traits of the frontier, or traits called out elsewhere because of the existence of the frontier."
    (WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-12)

1893        Chatauqua, a nationwide traveling lecture and entertainment program, came to Ashland, Oregon.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T3)

1893        The governor of Texas said the "mission of the concealed deadly weapon is murder. To check it is the duty of every self-respecting, law-abiding man."
    (http://tinyurl.com/d337x96)

1893        The baseball pitching mound was moved back 5 feet to 60 feet 6 inches from home plate.
    (WSJ, 4/2/99, p.W7)

1893        The US Supreme Court ruled that the tomato must be considered a vegetable for purposes of trade because it was used as a vegetable.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, Z1 p.3)

1893        Lili’uokalani (1838-1917), the last monarch of Hawaii, surrendered at gunpoint to American troops.
    (WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1893        A US commemorative half-dollar featured Christopher Columbus.
    (WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)

1893        Buck Duke began buying up farmland in rural New Jersey. His daughter Doris Duke died in 1993 and was said to be the richest woman in the world. In 2003 Duke Farms opened 700 of 2,700 acres to the public.
    (WSJ, 10/1/03, p.D9)

1893        Chicago was engulfed in the Panic of 1893 after the close the World’s Columbian Exposition.
    (Hem., 7/95, p.79)(CFA, ‘96, p.89)

1893        Emma Goldman was jailed for exhorting poor people to demand bread in the US.
    (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)

1893        The National Cordage Co. was reorganized after the market panic as US Cordage.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R46)

1893        Pickard China was established in Edgerton, Wisconsin, by Wilder Austin Pickard, and moved to Chicago in 1897. For some forty years the Pickard China Studio, as the firm was then known, was a decorating company specializing in hand painted art pieces, dessert and tea sets.
    (www.pickardchina.com/About_us.htm)

1893        Richard W. Sears adopted the corporate name of Sears, Roebuck and Co. Sears had begun selling watches in North Redwood, Minn. in 1886 and opened a Chicago headquarters after hiring watchmaker Alvah C. Roebuck in 1887. In 1888 the 1st Sears catalog sold watches and jewelry.
    (SFC, 11/18/04, p.A1)   

1893        Otto H.L. Wernicke founded the Wernicke Furniture Co. in Minneapolis, Minn., to manufacture his patented elastic bookcases, later known as stackable bookcases. In 1897 he moved the business to Grand Rapids, Mich.
    (SFC, 8/9/06, p.G3)

1893        Charles Duryea (1861-1938) and his brother Jack were the first to successfully build a gasoline-engine motor vehicle in Springfield, Mass.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1893        Henry D. Perky invented a machine to make what he called "little whole wheat mattresses," later known as shredded wheat.
    (SFC, 6/10/00, p.B3)

1893        Rudolph Diesel, German engineer, developed his diesel engine.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1893        The box kite was invented.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, z-1 p.7)

1893        The first vasectomy was performed.
    (SFC, 8/16/97, p.E3)

1893        An oil field was discovered in Los Angeles, California.
    (SSFC, 10/29/06, p.F6)
1893        The San Andreas Fault in California was detected.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.17)
1893        In San Francisco a 2-story wooden building was built about this time at 1690 Post St. It was owned by black businessman Charles Sullivan, who later rented the downstairs storefront to James “Jimbo” Edwards, who  then started selling chicken and waffles. From 1950 to 1965 it became Jimbo’s Bop City, a late-night hangout for jazz musicians. In 1980 the building was moved to 1712-1716 Filmore St. and became home to Marcus Books. In 2014 Jimbo’s Bop City and Marcus Books were named SF historic landmarks.
    (SFC, 1/30/14, p.D3)
1893        In San Francisco the cascade at Stow Lake in Golden Gate Park was first turned on. In 1894 it was dedicated and named Huntington Falls after Collis P. Huntington, who contributed $25,000 for the project. The falls collapsed in 1962 and were turned off for 22 years.
    (Ind, 10/28/00, 5A)(SSFC, 6/7/09, DB p.46)
1893        In San Francisco Fr. Edward Allan, SJ (1849-1911) took over the administration of St. Ignatius College.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)

1893        Chicago's Mayor Carter Harrison was killed, the 1st US mayor shot in a political killing.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.E2)

1893        Francis Parkman (b.1823), American historian, died. His work covered in part France's struggle for possession of North America.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1049)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)

1893        Leland Stanford, co-founder of Stanford Univ., died.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.A15)

1893        Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel, aka Antonio Conselheiro, founded the settlement of Canudos in the "certao" region of Bahia, Brazil. He was a charismatic religious leader and established an independent community of some 25,000. the movement favored the deposed monarchy and was crushed by government troops.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)(Econ, 1/10/04, p.74)

1893        John Tyndall, British physicist, died from an overdose of chloral given to him by his young wife, Louise, who mixed up the chloral (a small dose for insomnia at night) with his normal big dose of magnesia (for his indigestion in the morning). "Yes, my poor darling," he said, "you have killed your John." Tyndall appreciated the powerful effect that carbon dioxide had on the Earth and even suggested that it might be the explanation for the ice ages.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.28)

1893         The Durand line, drawn by British diplomat Sir Mortimer Durand, fixed the borders of Afghanistan with British India, splitting Pushtun tribal areas and leaving half of these Afghans in what is now Pakistan. The agreement was first signed by Sir Mortimer Durand and Abdur Rahman Khan, the ruler of Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(Econ, 7/22/06, p.44)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.34)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.18)
1893        The first electric bread toasters were made in England about this time.
    (SFC, 1/23/08, p.G4)

1893        Lord Stanley, the 6th governor general of Canada, established the Stanley Cup. It was presented to the champion hockey league team. The Stanley Cup, the trophy of professional ice hockey‘s championship, is named for Frederick Arthur, Lord Stanley of Preston, governor general of Canada. The trophy was first played for in 1893-94 and was won by the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association team. Since 1917, it has gone to the winner of the National Hockey League playoffs.
    (WSJ, 9/6/96, p.A1)(HNQ, 7/28/00)

1893        China’s Empress Dowager Cixi bestowed on a doctor in the imperial household the right to collect a prized medicinal herb on the Diaoyu islands, known to Japan as the Senkaku islands.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.53)

1893        The baronial-style Royal Victoria Hospital was built in Montreal, Canada, through the financial donations of Scottish immigrants: the cousins Donald Smith, 1st Lord Strathcona, and George Stephen, 1st Lord Mount Stephen.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Victoria_Hospital,_Montreal)

1893        France began colonizing West Africa and Timbuktu came under French rule until Mali became independent in 1960.
    (AP, 4/1/12)
1893        The first automobile license plates were issued in Paris, France.  The first American city to require drivers to be licensed and register their vehicle was Boston.
    (HNQ, 7/18/00)

1893        The Royal Hong Kong Police set up a police training school for its British led force.
    (WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A12)

1893        The Kresty Prison in St. Petersburg, Russia, was built to hold political prisoners. In 2001 some 8,800 men were crammed into it with as many as 14 men per cell.
    (SFC, 5/23/01, p.A10)
1893         The Russalka, a 19th century ironclad, Russian vessel sank in the Baltic Sea with 177 sailors aboard. In 2003 it was discovered off the Finnish coast.
    (AP, 7/26/03)
1893        Many Russian pilgrims for the ceremony of the Holy Fire Shrine at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem died in a snowstorm north of Jerusalem.
    (Econ, 12/16/06, p.61)

1893        Mohandas Gandhi (24) moved to South Africa to work as a legal advisor to an Indian businessman.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1893        Johan August Strindberg (43), Swedish writer, married Frida Uhl (20), the daughter of a renowned Viennese theater critic and newspaper editor. The marriage lasted 4 years. In 2000 Monica Strauss authored "Cruel Banquet: The Life and Loves of Frida Strindberg."
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, BR p.3)

1893        Vietnam’s highland town of Dalat was founded as a retreat from the tropical coast.
    (WSJ, 1/3/06, p.A14)

1893-1894    During the economic crisis of 1893-94, groups of jobless men organized into so-called "armies" with their leaders referred to as "generals."
    (HNQ, 8/24/99)

1893-1894    Clarence Bloomfield Moore excavated 83 Indian mounds in Florida using his steamer Gopher of Philadelphi as a research station.
    (AM, 7/00, p.56)

1893-1897    Grover Cleveland became the 24th President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)
1893-1897    Adlai Ewing Stevenson (b.Oct 23, 1835) (D) served as 23rd VP.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1893-1899    Fred Holland Day and Herbert Copeland founded the avant-garde publishing house Copeland & Day. [see 1864-1933]
    (Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)

1893-1924    Henry Cabot Lodge was the Republican senator from Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 5/7/96, p.A-6)

1893-1932    Helen Hathaway, American writer: "More tears have been shed over men's lack of manners than their lack of morals."
    (AP, 3/5/99)

1893-1935     Huey P. Long, American politician: "It ain’t enough to get the breaks. You gotta know how to use ‘em."
    (AP, 8/29/97)

1893-1939     Ernst Toller, German poet and dramatist: "History is the propaganda of the victors."
    (AP, 10/7/97)

1893-1944    Israel Joshua Singer, brother of Isaac Bashevis Singer, wrote realistic novels of in the mainstream Yiddish tradition.
    (WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)

1893-1952    Fulton Oursler, American journalist and author: "We crucify ourselves between two thieves: regret for yesterday and fear of tomorrow."
    (AP, 4/2/01)

1893-1962    Elbert Botts, Caltrans chemist, died. He invented the "Botts dots," highway lane markers that were first installed in California in 1966.
    (SFC, 1/18/97, p.A15)

1893-1963    Evelyn Scott, American author: "I realized a long time ago that a belief which does not spring from a conviction in the emotions is no belief at all."
    (AP, 4/5/99)

1893-1967    Charles Burchfield, American painter. He looked for essences in nature and saw a "Buzzing, blooming confusion of energies." He was the nearest American painter to the style of Van Gogh.
    (SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)

1893-1970    Vera Brittain, British author: "Politics are usually the executive expression of human immaturity."
    (AP, 10/8/00)

1893-1973    Samuel Nathaniel Behrman, American author and dramatist: "There are two kinds of people in one’s life -- people whom one keeps waiting—and the people for whom one waits."
    (AP, 7/9/00)

1893-1976    Mao Tse Tung was born on Dec 26. He led the Chinese Communists to victory over the Nationalists of Chiang Kai-shek . He was Chairman of the Party from 1943-1976 and Chairman of the People’s Republic of China from 1949-1959.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.44)(WUD, 1994, p. 874)

1893-1977    Gen. Lewis B. Hershey, Selective Service director: "A boy becomes an adult three years before his parents think he does, and about two years after he thinks he does."
    (AP, 11/4/99)

1893-1990     Dr. Karl Menninger, American psychiatrist: "I never could see why people were so happy about Dickens’ ‘A Christmas Carol’ because I never had any confidence that Scrooge was going to be different the next day."
    (AP, 12/19/97)

1893-1991     Martha Graham, American modern dance pioneer: "Censorship is the height of vanity." [see 1893-1991]
    (AP, 9/8/97)

1893-1996    Geoffrey Dearmer, poet and BBC radio editor. He fought during WW I at Gallipoli and the Somme and wrote the poems "The Sentinel" and "The Somme."
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A18)

1894        Jan 7, One of the earliest motion picture experiments took place at the Thomas Edison studio in West Orange, N.J., as comedian Fred Ott was filmed sneezing.
    (AP, 1/7/98)

1894        Jan 8, Fire caused serious damage at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
    (AP, 1/8/98)

1894        Jan 9, The "Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze" was released in movie theaters.
    (MC, 1/9/02)
1894        Jan 9, Georges Feydeau's "Un Fil a la Patte," ("Cat Among the Pigeons") premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1894        Jan 27, The privately financed Mid-Winter International Exposition opened in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park. It featured an Electric Tower, a Fine Arts Building and a Royal Pavilion. The Tennis courts were situated at their current site. It was the result of a campaign led by Michael de Young, founding publisher of the SF Chronicle. The Egyptian-styled fine arts building became the M.H. de Young Memorial Museum.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.4)(SFC, 7/29/97, p.A5,6)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.A22)(SFC, 7/5/14, p.C2)

1894        Jan 30, Boris III  (d.1943), czar of Bulgaria (1918-43), was born.
    (SFC, 9/6/00, p.A10)(MC, 1/30/02)
1894        Jan 30, Pneumatic hammer was patented by Charles King of Detroit. [see May 19, 1892]
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1894        Jan, US Rear Admiral Andrew Benham led a fleet of US Navy ships into the harbor of Rio de Janeiro escorting American merchants ships. The outgunned Brazilian rebel fleet made no serious challenge.
    (ON, 12/06, p.12)
1894        Jan, The "Prayer Book Cross" sculpture, a sandstone copy of a Celtic cross, was made for San Francisco’s Mid-Winter Fair and remained in Golden Gate Park. The cross was built to commemorate a June 23, 1579, sermon given somewhere around Point Reyes by Francis Fletcher, the chaplain of the Golden Hind, the first-ever Protestant service in North America. 
    (SFC, 6/12/99, p.A20)(SFC, 8/10/13, p.C3)
1894        Jan, San Francisco quarrymen George and Harry Gray caused a rock slide that crushed a duplex at 312˝ and 314˝ Vallejo St.
    (SFC, 2/22/14, p.C3)
1894        Jan, The Japanese Tea Garden in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park was designed for the Mid-Winter Exposition by Makoto Hagiwara, inventor of the fortune cookie (1914).
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A24)

1894        Feb 3, Norman Rockwell, artist and illustrator, was born. He painted scenes of small-town America. Most of his work appeared in the Saturday Evening Post.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1894        Feb 4, Antoine J "Adolphe" Sax (b.1814), Belgium-born instrument maker (saxophone), died in Paris. In 2005 Michael Segell authored ”The Devil’s Horn: The Story of the Saxophone, From Noisy Novelty to King of Cool.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolphe_Sax)(SSFC, 10/16/05, p.M3)

1894        Feb 7, The US House of Representatives passed a resolution that prevented the sending of US troops to Hawaii to restore Queen Lili’uokalani.
    (ON, 11/02, p.7)

1894        Feb 8, The US Enforcement Act was repealed making it easier to disenfranchise blacks.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1894        Feb 10, Harold MacMillan, British prime minister from 1957 to 1963, was born.
    (HN, 2/10/97)(HN, 2/10/99)

1894        Feb 12, In Paris, France, anarchist Emile Henry hurled a bomb into the Cafe Terminus killing one and injuring twenty.
    (www.marxists.org/reference/archive/henry/biography.htm)

1894        Feb 13, In Brazil peace talks between Pres. Peixoto and navy rebels broke down completely when Admiral Saldanha da Gama led a landing party that stormed a republican fort at Nictheroy on the Guanabara Bay opposite from Rio de Janeiro. The rebels were driven back.
    (ON, 12/06, p.12)

1894        Feb 14, Jack Benny (d.1974), comedian, radio and television performer... and violinist, was born as Benjamin Kubelsky in Waukegan, Ill: "Age is strictly a case of mind over matter. If you don't mind, it doesn't matter."
    (HN, 2/14/01)(AP, 2/14/08)
1894        Feb 14, Mary Lucinda Cardwell Dawson, was born. She founded the National Negro Opera Company (NNOC) and was appointed to President John F. Kennedy's National Committee on Music.
    (HN, 2/14/99)

1894        Feb 20, Curt Richter, biologist, was born.
    (HN, 2/20/01)

1894        Feb 25, Meher Baba, spiritual leader, was born.
    (HN, 2/25/01)

1894        Feb 28, Ben Hecht (d.1964), American author and screenwriter, was born. "There’s one thing that keeps surprising you about stormy old friends after they die -  their silence."
    (AP, 11/17/00)(HN, 2/28/01)   

1894        Mar 3, The first Greek newspaper in America was published on this day. It was known as the "New York Atlantis".
    (HC, Internet, 3/3/98)(SC, 3/3/02)
1894        Mar 3, British PM William Gladstone submitted his resignation to Queen Victoria, ending his fourth and final premiership. Gladstone was later quoted as saying this year: “Do not let me be told that one nation has no authority over another. Every nation, and if need be every human being, has authority on behalf of humanity and justice.”
    (AP, 3/3/08)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.98)

1894        Mar 4, There was a great fire in Shanghai; over 1,000 buildings were destroyed.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1894        Mar 8, NY passed the 1st state dog license law. [see Mar 10]
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1894        Mar 10, New York Gov. Roswell P. Flower signed the nation's first dog-licensing law. The license fee was $2, renewable annually for $1.
    (AP, 3/10/99)

1894        Mar 12, Edward W. White (1845-1921) was sworn in as associate Justice on the US Supreme Court. He became Chief Justice in 1910.
    (www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/55/)
1894        Mar 12, Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1894        Mar 13, The Dynamite Squadron of ships, purchased and outfitted in the US, steamed into the harbor of Rio de Janeiro. Rebel sailors immediately surrendered in exchange for safe passage to Argentina aboard Portuguese warships. The rebellion ended a weeks later when the rebel flagship, Aquidbada, was captured off Desterro by the American crew of the Nictheroy, the former Morgan steamship El Cid.
    (ON, 12/06, p.12)

1894        Mar 16, The opera "Thais," composed by Jules Massenet, premiered in Paris. The libretto was by Louis Gallet. It was based on a novel by Anatole France. The heroine is a 4th century Egyptian courtesan.
    (AP, 3/16/00)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 12/19/02, p.D10)

1894        Mar 17, US and China signed a treaty preventing Chinese laborers from entering US. The Chinese government abandoned its migrant workers in exchange for a profitable trade deal with the US.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.610)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M5)

1894        Mar 19, Jackie "Moms" Mabley, comedienne (Merv Griffin Show), was born in Brevard, SC.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1894        Mar 20, Lajos Kossuth (91), Hungarian freedom fighter, president (1849), died.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1894        Mar 22, Hockey’s first Stanley Cup championship game was played; the home team Montreal Amateur Athletic Association defeated the Ottawa Capitals, 3-1. [see 1893]
    (AP, 3/22/97)

1894         Mar 24, Underwriters Laboratories (UL), an independent product safety certification organization, conducted its first test on non-combustible insulation material after founder William Henry Merrill opened the Electrical Bureau of the National Board of fire Underwriters.
    (www.ul.com/global/eng/pages/corporate/aboutul/history/)

1894        Mar 25 Jacob S. Coxey began leading an "army" of unemployed from Massillon, Ohio, to Washington, D.C., to demand help from the federal government.  Coxey advocated, as a way to provide jobs and increase the amount of money in circulation, a public works program of road construction and local improvements to be financed by the issuance of $500 million in legal tender notes. Coxey's Army of unemployed disbanded when Coxey and two other leaders were arrested for trespassing on the White House lawn in 1894.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(HNQ, 8/24/99)

1894        Apr 1, The manufacture and sale of Kinetoscopes and films were assigned to the Edison Manufacturing Company, thus moving them out of the experimental laboratory. The Kinetograph Department, a new division in the Edison Company, was launched.
    (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/edhtml/edmvhist1.html)

1894        Apr 5, 11 strikers were killed in riot at Connellsville, Penn.
    (MC, 4/5/02)
1894        Apr 5, Start of Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of Empty House."
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1894        Apr 14, Thomas Edison made his first public showing of the kinetoscope. The first Kinetoscope Parlor opened in New York City where you could view moving film through a magnifying lens. Thomas Edison invented the Kinetograph in 1889, a cinema camera that utilized celluloid roll film that had been developed by George Eastman in 1888. The Kinetoscope, developed by Edison in 1891, was a peephole viewer in which the developed film moved continuously under a magnifying glass. The Cinematographe and Vitascope were later machines that actually projected images onto a screen. The Stroboscope and Phenakistoscope were devices developed in 1832, pre-dating photography, that attempted to show apparent motion from a series of drawings on a revolving disc.
    (HN, 4/14/98)(HNQ, 2/17/00)

1894        Apr 17, Nikita S Khrushchev, Soviet premier (1958-64) during the Cold War, was born.
    (HN, 4/17/99)

1894        Apr 19, Jules Massenet's opera "Werther," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1894        Apr 21, George Bernard Shaw's "Arms & the Man," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1894        Apr 26, Rudolf Hess, Nazi leader, was born. He was the Hitler deputy who flew to England to negotiate an Anglo-German treaty.
    (HN, 4/26/99)(MC, 4/26/02)

1894        Apr 29, The Commonweal of Christ, called Coxey's Army, arrived in Wash, DC, 500 strong to protest unemployment; Coxey was arrested for trespassing at Capitol.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1894        Apr 30, Giuseppe Farnara and Francis Polti were convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison for attempted terrorism in London.
    (Econ, 5/3/08, p.65)
   
1894        May 10, Dimitri Tiomkin, composer (Academy Award 1954- High and Mighty), was born in Russia.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1894        May 11, Martha Graham, choreographer (Appalachian Spring), was born in Allegheny, Penn.
    (MC, 5/11/02)
1894        May 11, Mari Sandoz, writer and biographer (Crazy Horse), was born.
    (HN, 5/11/02)
1894        May 11, Workers at the Pullman Palace Car Company in Illinois went on strike. The American Railway Union, led by Eugene Debs, subsequently began a boycott of Pullman that blocked freight traffic in and out of Chicago. Pullman had cut wages due to the recession but left high rents in his company town. Mail cars were coupled to Pullman cars and Pres. Cleveland ordered federal troops onto the trains to insure the delivery of mail. Illinois Gov. John Peter Altgeld opposed Cleveland’s plans. 34 union workers were killed when federal troops intervened.
    (AP, 5/11/97)(SFC, 12/3/98, p.A3)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1894        May 14, Fire in Boston bleachers spread to 170 adjoining buildings.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1894         May 15, Katherine Anne Porter (d.1980), American author, was born. She is best remembered for her book "Ship of Fools." "Love must be learned, and learned again and again; there is no end to it. Hate needs no instruction, but wants only to be provoked." "I do not understand the world, but I watch its progress."
    (AP, 1/25/98)(AP, 3/4/99)(HN, 5/15/99)

1894        May 21, In France anarchist Emile Henry (22) went to the guillotine, his last words being: “Courage camarades! Vive l'anarchie!”
    (www.marxists.org/reference/archive/henry/biography.htm)

1894        May 25, Dirk Vansina, Flemish playwright (Verschaeve Gives Evidence), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1894        May 27, (Samuel) Dashiell Hammett (d.1961), detective writer was born in Maryland. His work include "The Maltese Falcon," "The Continental Op," and "The Dain Curse."
    (WUD, 1994, p.641)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A15)(HNPD, 9/24/98)(HN, 5/27/01)

1894        May 29, Bea Lillie, comic actress, was born.
    (HN, 5/29/01)
1894        May 29, Josef von Sternberg, film director (Blue Angel), was born.
    (HN, 5/29/01)

1894        May 31, Fred Allen [John Florence Sullivan], American comedian, was born.
    (HN, 5/31/01)
1894        May 31, The US Senate passed a resolution encouraging Hawaii to establish its own form of government without interference from the US.
    (ON, 11/02, p.7)
1894        May 31, Victor Horsley, medical researcher, published a report in Nature indicating that cats shot through the head stop breathing and that resuscitative efforts helped them survive.
    (WSJ, 8/21/96, p.A15)

1894        Jun 4, Blanch Knopf, publishing CEO (Knopf), was born.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1894        Jun 8, Erwin Schulhoff (d.1942), composer, was born in Prague. He composed a body of jazz-inspired music that included "Rag Music" and "String Quartet No. 1." http://www.fuguemasters.com/schulhoff.html
    (WSJ, 3/14/97, p.A11)

1894        Jun 13, Mark Van Doren (d.1972), American poet, writer and educator, was born. "There are two statements about human beings that are true: that all human beings are alike, and that all are different. On those two facts all human wisdom is founded."
    (AP, 5/30/00)(HN, 6/13/01)

1894        Jun 17, 1st US poliomyelitis epidemic broke out in Rutland, Vermont.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1894        Jun 20, George Delacorte, philanthropist, publisher (Dell Books), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1894        Jun 23, Edward VIII [Duke of Windsor], King of England, was born. He abdicated his throne for American Wallis Simpson.
    (HN, 6/23/99)
1894        Jun 23, Alfred Kinsey, zoologist and sociologist, was born.
    (HN, 6/23/01)

1894        Jun 24, Sadi Carnot (b.1837), French Pres. (1887-1894), was assassinated by an Italian anarchist.
    (AH, 10/01, p.25)(NG, 11/04, p.76)(http://tinyurl.com/78pc6)

1894        Jun 26, The American Railway Union with 125,000 workers, led by Eugene Debs, called a general strike in sympathy with Pullman workers that blocked freight traffic in and out of Chicago. [see May 11]
    (AP, 6/26/97)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)
1894        Jun 26, Karl Benz of Germany received a US patent for a gasoline-driven auto.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1894        Jun 28, Labor Day was established as a holiday for federal employees on the first Monday of September. The U.S. Congress passed an act making the first Monday in September a legal holiday.
    (AP, 9/5/97)(HNPD, 9/5/98)

1894        Jun 30, Gavrilo Princip, Bosnian assassin (arch-duke Franz Ferdinand), was born.
    (MC, 6/30/02)
1894        Jun 30, Korea declared independence from China and asked for Japanese aid.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1894        Jul 2, Andre Kertesz, photographer, was born.
    (HN, 7/2/01)
1894        Jul 2, The US Government obtained an injunction against striking Pullman Workers.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1894        Jul 4, San Francisco’s Mid-Winter Fair at Golden Gate Park closed down. More than 1.3 million people had attended.
    (Ind, 10/28/00, 5A)(SFC, 7/5/14, p.C2)
1894        Jul 4, The Provisional Government under Judge Stanford B. Dole declared Hawaii a republic.
    (HN, 7/4/98)(ON, 11/02, p.7)
1894        Jul 4, Elwood Haynes successfully tested one of 1st US autos at 6 MPH.
    (Maggio, 98)

1894        Jul 9, Dorothy Thompson, journalist, writer and radio commentator, was born.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1894        Jul 16, Many negro miners in Alabama were killed by striking white miners.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1894        Jul 17, Georges Lemaitre, Belgian astronomer, was born.
    (HN, 7/17/01)

1894        Jul 18, Charles Marie Leconte de Lisle (born 1818), French poet, died.
    (MC, 7/18/02)(WUD, 1994, p.817)

1894        Jul 20, 2000 federal troops were recalled from Chicago with the end of the Pullman strike.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1894        Jul 22, The first major automobile race with prizes and a promoter was organized as a reliability trial by Le Petit Journal of Paris. It took place on the 78-mile route between Paris and Rouen, France [see Aug 30, 1867].
    (http://wapedia.mobi/en/Auto_racing)(http://tinyurl.com/ycbvsah)(Econ, 4/22/06, p.65)

1894        Jul 23, Japanese troops took over the Korean imperial palace in Seoul.
    (AP, 7/23/97)(HN, 7/23/98)

1894        Jul 25, Walter Brennan, actress (Real McCoys, At Gun Point), was born in Swampscott, Mass.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1894        Jul 25, Japanese forces sank the British steamer Kowshing which was bringing Chinese reinforcements to Korea.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1894        Jul 26, Aldous L. Huxley (d.1963), author (Brave New World), was born in Surrey, England. "Most human beings have an almost infinite capacity for taking things for granted." "Parodies and caricatures are the most penetrating of criticisms."
    (AP, 7/13/97)(AP, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)

1894        Aug 1, The First Sino-Japanese War erupted, the result of a dispute over control of Korea; Japan's army routed the Chinese.
    (AP, 8/1/04)

1894        Aug 16, George Meany, the first president of the AFL-CIO, was born in New York City.
    (AP, 8/16/97)
1894        Aug 16, Indian chiefs from the Sioux & Onondaga tribes met to urge their people to renounce Christianity and return to their  old Indian faith.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1894        Aug 18, US Congress established the Bureau of Immigration.
    (AP, 8/18/97)

1894        Aug 24, Congress passed the first graduated income tax law, which was declared unconstitutional the next year. It imposed a 2% tax on incomes over $4000. The Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional. [see Aug 27]
    (WSJ, 3/11/98, p.A20)(HN, 8/24/98)

1894        Aug 27, The US Congress passed the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act, providing for a graduated income tax that was down by the Supreme Court May 20, 1895. Pres. Grover Cleveland enacted the tax to cope with the deficit.
    (AP, 8/27/99)(WSJ, 9/25/02, p.D8)

1894        Aug 28, Karl Boehm, Austrian conductor, was born. Famed for his interpretations of Wagner and Beethoven.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1894        Sep 1, By an act of Congress, Labor Day was declared a national holiday.
    (WSJ, 9/25/95, p.A-1)(HN, 9/1/99)
1894        Sep 1, The Great Hinckley Fire destroyed Hinckley, Minn., and five other communities and killed over 400 people.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)(AP, 9/1/08)

1894        Sep 3, Richard Niebuhr, theologian, was born.
    (HN, 9/3/00)

1894        Sep 4, Some 12,000 tailors in New York City went on strike to protest the existence of sweatshops.
    (AP, 9/4/97)

1894        Sep 13, J.B. Priestley (d.1984), British novelist and playwright, was born. "The weakness of American civilization, and perhaps the chief reason why it creates so much discontent, is that it is so curiously abstract. It is a bloodless extrapolation of a satisfying life. ... You dine off the advertiser's 'sizzling' and not the meat of the steak."
    (AP, 9/13/98)(HN, 9/13/00)
1894        Sep 13, Alexis-Emmanuel Chabrier, French composer (Espana, L'etoile), died at 53.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1894        Sep 15, Jean Renoir (d.1979), French film director, was born. He was the son of Pierre Renoir (1841-1919), the impressionist painter. His work included "Grand Illusion" and  "The Rules of the Game." "When a friend speaks to me, whatever he says is interesting."
    (HN, 9/15/00)(AHD, p.1215)(AP, 10/11/00)   
1894        Sep 15, Japan defeated China in the Battle of Ping Yang (Pyongyang).
    (http://24.1911encyclopedia.org/C/CH/CHINKIANG.htm)

1894        Sep 19, Rachel Field, novelist and playwright who wrote "All This and Heaven Too" and "And Now Tomorrow," was born.
    (HN, 9/19/98)

1894        Sep 24, E. Franklin Frazier, first African-American president of the American Sociological Society, was born.
    (HN, 9/24/98)

1894        Sep, Guglielmo Marconi, Italian engineer, built his first radio equipment. By the end of this month he could flit a switch and make a bell ring at the other end of his attic workspace. Originally, radio or radiotelegraphy was called 'wireless telegraphy', which was shortened to 'wireless'. The prefix radio- in the sense of wireless transmission was first recorded in the word radioconductor, coined by the French physicist Edouard Branly in 1897.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(ON, 11/99, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio)
1894        Sep, A major fire in Wisconsin burned several million acres.
    (SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)

1894        Oct 14, e.e. cummings (d.1962), American poet, was born. "To be nobody but myself—in a world which is doing its best, night and day, to make you everybody else—means to fight the hardest battle which any human being can fight, and never stop fighting."
    (AP, 10/14/98)(HN, 10/14/98)

1894        Oct 15, Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935), a Jewish army officer in France, was arrested for allegedly betraying military secrets to Germany.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Dreyfus)

1894        Oct 17, Ohio national guard killed 3 lynchers while rescuing a black man.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1894        Oct 20 (OS), Alexander III (b.1845), Russian tsar (b.1881-94), died in Livadia, Crimea.
    (MT, Fall/03, p.12)(www2.sptimes.com)

1894        Oct 24, J. Anthony Froude (b.1818), English historian, died. In 2005 Julia Markus authored “J. Anthony Froude: The Last Undiscovered Great Victorian.”
    (WSJ, 10/4/05, p.D8)(http://en.thinkexist.com/birthday/October_24/)

1894        Oct 29, The opera “Rob Roy” opened at the Herald Square Theater, NYC. The old Waldorf Hotel was near Herald Square and soon produced the Rob Roy drink, Scotch whisky and sweet vermouth.
    (www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=7669)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P10)

1894        Oct 30, Peter Warlock, composer, was born as Philip Heseltine.
    (MC, 10/30/01)
1894        Oct 30, Daniel Cooper patented a time clock.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1894        Nov 1, A vaccine for diphtheria was announced by Dr. Roux of Paris.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1894        Nov 5, Richard Strauss' "Till Eulenspiegel," premiered.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1894        Nov 6, The Tammany Hall officials lost. It had been a powerful Democratic political organization in NYC, founded in 1879 as a fraternal benevolent society. The name is based after a Delaware Indian Chief, Tamanen or Temmenund, later facetiously canonized as patron saint of the US.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.42)

1894        Nov 16, 6,000 Armenians were massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1894        Nov 18, 1st Sunday newspaper color comic section published in the NY World.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1894        Nov 20, Anton Rubinstein (64), Russian composer (Dmitri Donskoi), died.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1894        Nov 26, Norbert Weiner, American mathematician who is considered the father of automation (cybernetics), was born.
    (HN, 11/26/98)(MC, 11/26/01)

1894        Nov, Swami Vivekananda founded the Vedanta Society in NYC. It was the first Hindu organization intended to attract American adherents.
    (AH, 4/07, p.31)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedanta_Society)

1894        Dec 3, Robert Louis Stevenson (b.1850), Scottish-American writer, died in Samoa. He was the author of such works as "Treasure Island," "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," "The Master of Ballantrae," "The Silverado Squatters, "Kidnapped" and "Travels with a Donkey." In 2005 Clair Harman authored “Robert Louis Stevenson: A Biography.”
    (Smith., 8/95, p.51-58)(AP, 12/3/97)(Econ, 1/29/05, p.79)

1894        Dec 5, Georges Feydeau's "L'Hotel du Libre Echange," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1894        Dec 8, James Thurber (d.1961), American humorist, writer and editor, best known for "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty," was born. "You can fool too many of the people too much of the time." "It is better to know some of the questions than all of the answers."
    (AP, 10/22/98)(HN, 12/8/98)(AP, 1/1/99)

1894        Dec 9, Jules Regnault (b.1834), French economist, died. He first suggested a modern theory of stock price changes in Calcul des Chances et Philosophie de la Bourse (1863).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Regnault)

1894        Dec 17, Arthur Fiedler, conductor (Boston Pops), was born in Boston, Mass.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1894        Dec 22, Debussy's "Prelude l'apres-midi d'un faune," premiered.
    (MC, 12/22/01)
1894        Dec 22, French army officer Alfred Dreyfus was fraudulently convicted of treason in a court-martial that triggered worldwide charges of anti-Semitism. Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery captain on the General Staff, was accused of passing secret French military documents to the German embassy in Paris. Dreyfus was eventually vindicated. [see 1906]
    (WSJ, 4/22/96, p.A-20)(AP, 12/22/97)

1894        Dec 26, Antonio Molina, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1894        Dec 30, Amelia Jenks Bloomer (76), suffragist, died in Council Bluffs, Iowa; she had gained notoriety for wearing a short skirt and baggy trousers that came to be known as "bloomers."
    (AP, 12/30/02)

1891        Dec, In San Francisco Salvation Army Capt. Joseph McFee used a large crab pot for the 1st time at the Market St. ferry landing to solicit food for a charity Christmas dinner to feed poor dockworkers and sailors. The organization had come to the US in 1880.
    (SFC, 12/1/04, p.A1)
1894        Dec, An uprising in Eritrea was swiftly put down by the Italians. Italian troops under Gen. Oreste Baratieri then marched south from Eritrea and seized the northwestern Agame region of Ethiopia.
    (ON, 2/11, p.7)

1894        Roland Paris, Austrian sculptor, was born. He specialized in satirical bronzes and was a student of Henry van de Velde, one of the founders of the Bauhaus.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)

1894        Paul Gauguin painted "Breton Village in the Snow."
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)
1894        Frederic Leighton began his painting "Flaming Jane." It was completed in 1895.
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W10)
1894        Monet completed his painting "Cathedral at Rouen (La Cour d’Albane)."
    (SFC, 7/11/01, p.D1)
1894        Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), French artist, painted his “Landscape of the Ile-de-France” about this time.
    (SFC, 3/29/14, p.E5)

1894        A German-Swiss-Austrian consortium founded Banca Commerciale Italiana.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, Survey p.13)

1894-1895    Edvard Munch (1863-1944), Norwegian artist, painted "Madonna." In 2004 it was stolen from the Oslo Munch Museum.
    (WSJ, 8/24/04, p.D8)

1894        Le Douanier Rousseau painted "War, or the Ride of Discord."
    (WSJ, 2/3/00, p.A24)

1894        George Curzon authored "Problems of the Far East."
    (WSJ, 6/11/03, p.D10)

1894        John Muir produced his book: "The Mountains of California."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.77)

1894        H. Bower published his "Diary of a Journey Across Tibet."
    (NH, 5/96, p.68)

1894        John Dewey published "The Psychology of Infant Language."
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.17)

1894        George Du Maurier authored "Trilby," most likely the best selling novel of the 19th century. In it he introduced the satanic character of Svengali, a Jewish mesmerist. In 2000 Daniel Pick authored "Svengali’s Web," a study of the connection between hypnotism and anti-Semitism
    (WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)

1894        The Christian Science Mother Church was built in Boston, USA.
    (SFC, 12/10/95, p.T-5)

1894        The Church of the Holy Ghost was built by Portuguese immigrants on Maui.
    (SSFC, 8/24/03, p.C6)

1894        Waterman Gymnasium was built at the Univ. of Michigan and named after Joshua W. Waterman, a major contributor. He had intended that the money be used for the women of the university as well as the men. Waterman gym was constructed for $62,000. It was demolished in the spring of 1977 to make way for an addition to the chemistry buildings.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.15,16)

1894        The National Guard Armory at Glen Falls, NY, was built. In 2009 it was put up for sale.
    (SSFC, 10/25/09, p.A20)

1894         The Secret Service began informal part-time protection of President Cleveland.
    (http://www.ustreas.gov/usss/history.shtml)

1894        Dr. John Harvey Kellogg of Battle Creek, Mich., filed for a patent for “flaked cereals and [the] process of preparing same.”  search for the perfect food led to the development of breakfast food flakes made of wheat called Granose. Will Keith Kellogg, John's brother, improved on the Granose idea and founded the W.K. Kellogg Company in 1906.
    (HNPD, 2/26/99)(SFEC, 8/15/99, p.A4)(ON, 2/05, p.9)

1894        The US began keeping records on the weather.
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A1)

1894        Louisiana extended the Separate Car Act to include train station waiting rooms. The Legislature in this year also passed a law prohibiting interracial marriage.
    (ON, 11/03, p.5)

1894        Artist Solly Walter called upon bodybuilder Eugene Sandow, who juggled dumbbells and lifted horses for the Midwinter Fair at Golden Gate Park, to serve as a model for his lecture: "The Relation of Muscle to Art."
    (SFEM, 4/11/99, p.35)
1894        In San Francisco a wood frame structure was erected at 573-575 Castro St. It later became the camera shop of Harvey Milk and was voted for landmark status in 2000.
    (SFC, 2/25/00, p.A21)
1894        Beer town in San Francisco was a Richmond district neighborhood built to serve patrons of the Midwinter Fair in GG Park.
    (SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A15)
1894        San Francisco’s Old St. Mary’s began to run under the direction of the missionary Paulist Fathers.
    (SFC, 4/7/96, p.B-10)
1894        In San Francisco the Mission of the Good Shepherd, a resettlement home for newly arrived and indigent Americans, was begun. It was later renamed the Canon Kip Community House after Rev. William Kip, grandson of the first Episcopal Bishop of California.
    (SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)
1894        In San Francisco the 30-foot-tall Pioneer Monument was erected at Hyde and Grove streets. It was a historic tableau of life in early California. The monument was later moved a block up on Hyde to make room for the new SF Main Library.
    (SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-13)
1894        In San Francisco the new YMCA building at Mason and Ellis was completed. It was dedicated in 1903 when the debt was paid off.
    (SFC, 5/13/99, p.A21)
1894        Adolph Sutro (1830-1898) was elected as the 24th mayor of SF. He served to Jan 3, 1897.
     (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolph_Sutro)
1894        The SF Mint struck 24 Liberty dimes (1894-S). Philadelphia minted 1.3 million and New Orleans produced 720,000. The SF dimes were produced by the mint director as a special gift for visiting big shots. In 1980 a SF minted 1894-S dime sold for $160,000. In 2007 an 1894-S dime sold for $1.9 million.
    (SFC, 9/23/05, p.F3)(SFC, 7/27/07, p.A11)
1894        The SF Bay ferry steamer Sausalito was launched from the Fulton Iron Works in San Francisco. The ship was retired in 1933 and in 1934 became the clubhouse of the Sportsmen Yacht Club in Antioch, Ca.
    (SFC, 11/30/05, p.B1)
1894        In San Francisco the Woodward’s Gardens amusement park, opened in 1866, closed. Many of its curiosities were moved to Sutro Baths, which opened in 1896.
    (SFC, 10/30/12, p.E6)
1894        The city of Palo Alto, Ca., was founded.
    (SFC, 11/26/96, p.D5)
1894        The Mountain Copper Co. of Great Britain bought the Iron Mountain Mine north of Redding, California, and developed it into the only big copper producer on the Pacific Coast. The exposure of a large concentration of pyrite to oxygen water and bacteria created a poisonous runoff that ran into the Sacramento River. The mind was abandoned in 1966 but by the 1980s tons of acidic water still flowed into the river. The site became known as one of the most polluted places on Earth. In 2004 the EPA built the Slip Rock Creek Retention Dam to capture most of the toxic sludge. EPA management costs in 2010 were estimated at $200 million over the next 30 years.
    (http://ice.ucdavis.edu/education/esp179/?q=node/164)(SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)(SSFC, 8/29/10, p.A15)

1894        Helena became the capital of Montana.
    (HIR, 9/11/97, p.5A)

1894        Wheeling Gaunt, a former slave, bequeathed 9 acres of land to the village of Yellow springs, Ohio, with the stipulation that the "poor worthy widows" of the town receive 25 lbs. of flour every Christmas.
    (WSJ, 12/4/96, p.B1)

1894        Lord Francis Henry Hope, owner of the Hope Diamond, went bankrupt and sold the diamond for $140,000.
    (THC, 12/3/97)

1894        The Denver Press Club was founded. In 1996 it was the longest continually operating press club.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.A2)

1894        Cattlemen on the Roan Plateau of Colorado drove some 4,000 sheep of cliffs in a clash known as the Peach Day Massacre. This was such an outrage that the state legislature passed the Rees-Oldman Act to divide up Roan Plateau grazing rights between cattle and sheep operators.  Conflicts between cattle and sheep operators continued for several decades well into the 1930’s. It was later found that some 5.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas rested beneath the plateau.
    (USAT, 3/5/04, p.6A)(Internet)

1894        Milton Hershey (1857-1945) founded Hershey Foods in Pennsylvania. He built an industrial town near where he was born and named it after himself.
    (WSJ, 7/26/02, p.B1)(SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D1)(Econ, 3/24/07, p.18)

1894        The Pope Manufacturing Co. built a bicycle with Colt six-shooters fixed to the seat and 2 Colt repeating carbines fixed to the handlebars. It was called the Columbia Army Cycle and built on a contract bid against the horse. The horse won.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, zone 1 p.4)

1894        The Forbes Silver Co. was organized as a division of the Meriden Brittania Co. of Meriden, Conn. It became part of Int’l. Silver in 1898.
    (SFC, 8/5/98, Z1 p.3)

1894        Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) made his first lamps.
    (SFC, 5/26/99, Z1 p.6)

1894        Percival Lowell (1855-1916), American astronomer, built a private observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona and commenced a decade long series of observations with emphasis on Mars. He "confirmed" water filled canals and proclaimed Mars the home of an advanced civilization.
    (Smith., 8/95, p.72)(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percival_Lowell)

1894        W.W. Campbell and Edward Barnard of Lick Observatory in California detected no water vapor on Mars and said that the canals were optical illusions.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1894        William Harris, US Education Secretary, lamented that American children’s class time was reduced from 193.5 to 191 days.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D1,10)

1894        The Regents of the Univ. of Michigan declared that: ‘Henceforth in the selection of professors and instructors and other assistants in instruction in the University, no discrimination be made in selection between men and women.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.13)

1894        The Bonaparte collection of some 14,000 books on linguistics was sold to the Newberry Library in Chicago from a London bookseller. Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte (1813-1891), linguist, had amassed the collection.
    (DrEE, 9/28/96, p.4)

1894        The Decatur Fairest Wheel Works of Decatur, Ill., made its first "Fairest Wheel," a glass wheel with a wood framed glass coin box that dispensed cigars for coins.
    (SFC, 3/31/99, Z1 p.6)

1894        A great fire swept through Biloxi, Mississippi.
    (ON, 11/06, p.11)

1894        A fireball was seen streaking across the skies of southern Nevada. 14 years alter a prospector found a 1.45 kg meteorite that was named the Quinn Canyon meteorite.
    (www.viamagazine.com/top_stories/articles/treasures_rock_jan10.asp)

1894        Norton Bush (b.1834), artist, died in Oakland. He came to SF in 1853 established a studio and made many trips to South America to make sketches for tropical paintings.
    (SFCM, 10/28/01, p.20)

1894        Andrew Clemens (b.1857), deaf sand artist, died. He created pictures in attractive bottles using natural color sands from Iowa.
    (SFC, 5/24/06, p.G3)

1894        George Dickel, producer of Cascade Tennessee Whisky, died. His widow and relatives renamed the whiskey after him.
    (SFC, 2/04/04, p.D2)

1894        In Britain William Harcourt introduced the estate duty to replace 5 death duties.
    (Econ, 10/27/07, p.90)(www.tax.org.uk/showarticle.pl?id=1566)
1894        In England the Manchester Ship Canal opened in an effort to bypass Liverpool’s port with a more direct water route from the Mersey to central Manchester.
    (Econ, 4/19/14, p.49)

1894         The plague in China reached its port cities and began to circle the globe. In Hong Kong it killed some 10,000 people. Dr Alexander Yersin, a French bacteriologist sent to Hong Kong by the Institute Pasteur, found in the buboes of the plague victims "a swarm of microbes, all similar in appearance...short bacilli with rounded ends."
    (NG, 5/88, p.684)

1894        Prince Henri d’Orleans (1822-1897) published a book of his journey through France’s empire. His account soured over the northern coastline of Vietnam, where red tape interfered with exploitation of the area’s coal reserves.  In 1897 Emile Roux authored “Searching for the Sources of the Irrawaddy: With Prince Henri D'Orleans from Hanoi to Calcutta Overland (1895-1896).”
    (www.dco.co.th/product_info.php?products_id=1130)(Econ, 8/31/13, p.34)
1894        French poet Pierre Louys (1870-1925) authored “The Songs of Bilitis” (1894) a book of lesbian love poetry.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Songs_of_Bilitis)
1894        French Baron Pierre de Coubertin proposed an international Olympics competition to be held every 4 years in a different nation to emphasize int’l. peace and cooperation.
    (WSJ, 7/19/96, p.R16)
1894        In south-west France a paleolithic figurine was discovered. It became known as the Venus of Brassempouy.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.78)

1894        In Germany the Zum Auspannen der Pferde (Z.A.D.P.) was founded by Sophie von Sell as a society to honor the ex-chancellor Bismarck by unharnessing his horses and drawing his carriage on his return to Berlin after being dismissed by Wilhelm II.
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed.p.107)
1894        Heinrich Hertz (b.1857, German physicist, died of blood poisoning. He was the first person to broadcast and measure radio waves.
    (WUD, 1994, p.666)(USAT, 2/13/97, p.4B)

1894        The town of Copan Ruinas was founded in Honduras.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.29)

1894        The British introduced the Land Acquisition Act in India in order to build railroads and canals. It obliged private owners to part with land required for a public purpose.
    (Econ, 8/30/08, p.63)

1894        In Mali Touareg nomads first rebelled against the French and were bloodily suppresed.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.58)

1894        In Mexico Edward Herbert Thompson, American consul, purchased land in the Yucatan that contained the ruins of the Mayan city of Chichen Itza.
    (ON, 5/02, p.6)

1894        A disastrous breach of Dutch coastal defenses occurred.
    (www.metoffice.com/education/secondary/students/flood.html)

1894        New Zealand passed the world's first minimum wage law.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1894        A ship of the Tsar’s navy visited Tokyo on the occasion of the 25th wedding anniversary of Emperor Meiji. It was the last Russian ship to visit until 1997.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A12)

1894        Sir Arthur Conan Doyle visited Klosters, Switzerland, and predicted that skiing would grow in popularity: "I am convinced that the time will come when hundreds of Englishmen will come to Switzerland for the skiing season."
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.76)

1894-1895    Webster Edgerly, head of the Ralston movement, bought up large chunks of farmland in central New Jersey’s Hopewell Valley. The name of the movement was an acronym for his 7 principles for living: regime, activity, light, strength, temperation, oxygen and nature. His plan was to build the City of Ralston, a utopian community based on his 7 principles.
    (Arch, 5/04, p.31)
1894-1895     Japan went to war against China.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1894-1896    Thousands of Armenians were massacred by the Turks after attempts for autonomy and self-defense failed. This issue was then referred to as the "Armenian Question."
    (Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)

1894-1896    Sir Mackenzie Bowell, Conservative Party, became the 5th prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.81)

1894-1956     Fred Allen, American comedian: "Television is a triumph of equipment over people, and the minds that control it are so small that you could put them in a gnat’s navel with room left over for two caraway seeds and an agent’s heart."
    (AP, 6/3/98)

1894-1956    Lawrence D. Bell, American aircraft manufacturer: "Show me a man who cannot bother to do little things and I’ll show you a man who can not be trusted to do big things."
    (AP, 8/24/00)

1894-1961     Dorothy Thompson, American journalist and author: "It is not the fact of liberty but the way in which liberty is exercised that ultimately determines whether liberty itself survives." "When liberty is taken away by force, it can be restored by force. When it is relinquished voluntarily by default, it can never be recovered."
    (AP, 1/19/98)

1894-1964    Norbert Wiener, American mathematician: "A conscience which has been bought once will be bought twice."
    (AP, 3/23/00)

1894-1966    Abbe Georges Lemaitre, Belgian physicist, author of the theory of an expanding universe begun in the explosion of a primeval atom.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.334)

1894-1971    T.V. Soong, Chinese financier and government official. He was an official for the Chinese Nationalist government from 1927-1949. In 1923 he financed the Nationalist party of Sun Yat-Sen, his brother-in-law, and established the Central Bank of China. The bank became the government treasury in 1924 when Soong was appointed minister of finance. Chiang Kai-shek was another brother-in-law to Soong, and appointed him minister of foreign affairs in 1942. He invested heavily in foreign stock and moved to San Francisco in 1949 when mainland China was captured by the Soviets.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1894-1975     Jackie "Moms" Mabley, American singer and comedian: "The teen-agers aren’t all bad. I love ‘em if nobody else does. There ain’t nothing wrong with young people. Jus’ quit lyin’ to ‘em."
    (AP, 7/16/98)

1894-1977    Lester Markel, American editor: "What you see is news, what you know is background, what you feel is opinion."
    (AP, 5/8/00)

1894-1980 George Meany, American labor leader: "The most persistent threat to freedom, to the rights of Americans, is fear."
    (AP, 8/16/98)

1894-1981    Paul Green, American playwright. He received the Pulitzer Prize in 1926 for "In Abraham’s Bosom." He is best known as the godfather of outdoor drama and the art form called theater of the people, symphonic dramas for out door amphitheaters.
    (WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)

1894-1984    Brooks Atkinson, American drama critic: "The most fatal illusion is the settled point of view. Since life is growth and motion, a fixed point of view kills anybody who has one."
    (AP, 1/24/99)

1894-1985    Susan Ertz, American author. "Millions long for immortality who do not know what to do with themselves on a rainy Sunday afternoon."
    (AP, 3/22/97)

1894-1985    Robert Nathan, American author and composer: "Love hath no physic for a grief too deep."
    (AP, 6/8/00)

1894-1988    Adela Rogers St. Johns, American journalist: "Happiness is a sort of atmosphere you can live in sometimes when you're lucky. Joy is a light that fills you with hope and faith and love."
    (AP, 11/26/98)

1894-1991    Martha Graham, modern dance pioneer: "No artist is ahead of his time. He is his time. It is just that others are behind the time." [see 1893-1991]
    (AP, 4/2/00)

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