Return to home1891 Jan 1, An
office was opened on Ellis Island, New York, to cope with the vast
flood of immigrants coming into the United States.
1891 Jan 8, Walter Bothe,
subatomic particle physicist (Nobel 1954), was born in Germany.
1891 Jan 11, Georges-Eugene
Haussmann (b.1809), French town planner, died. He designed
1891 Jan 20, Mischa Elman, US
violinist, was born in Talnoye, Ukraine.
1891 Jan 20, King David
Kalakaua, sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands, died at the SF Palace
Hotel of Bright's disease. The USS Charleston returned his body.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C1)(SFC, 5/29/98, p.C18)(SFEC,
1891 Jan 20, Princess
Lili~ez_rsquo~uokalani (52) became queen upon the death of her brother. She
fought against making Hawaii a part of the United States, making her
unpopular among those Hawaiians who felt they had more to gain from
annexation. She believed in "Hawaii for Hawaiians," and conceded
less to foreign businesses and governments than her predecessors
(HNPD, 1/25/99)(ON, 11/02, p.5)
1891 Jan 24, Max Ernst,
German-French surrealist painter, sculptor, was born. [see Apr 2]
1891 Jan 26, Ilya G.
Ehrenburg, writer, propagandist (Fall of Paris, The Thaw), was
born in Kiev, Ukraine.
1891 Jan 26, Nicholaus Otto,
auto pioneer (internal combustion engine), died.
1891 Jan 31, Jean-Louis-Ernest
Meissonier (b.1815), French academic painter, died. His painting
~ez_ldquo~Friedland, 1807,~ez_rdquo~ begun in 1863, was completed in 1875.
1891 Feb 6, The Dalton Gang
committed its first crime, a train robbery in Alila, Calif. on
Southern Pacific #17. In 1979 Ron Hansen authored "Desperadoes," a
fictional account of the Dalton gang.
(HN, 2/6/99)(WSJ, 8/1/00, p.A20)(MC, 2/6/02)
1891 Feb 7, US Great Blizzard
of 1891 began.
1891 Feb 9, Ronald Colman, 1947
Academy Award actor (Tale of 2 Cities), was born in England.
1891 Feb 13, David Dixon Porter
(77), US rear admiral (Union), died.
1891 Feb 14, William Tecumseh
Sherman (b.1820), Union Civil War general, died. His famous "March
to the Sea" changed the face of modern warfare. "Vox populi, vox
humbug." (The voice of the people is the voice of humbug).
(HN, 2/8/99)(AP, 4/7/99)(MC, 2/14/02)
1891 Feb 22, "Chico" Marx,
actor, comedian (Marx Brothers, Animal Crackers), was born in NYC.
1891 Feb 26, Henrik Ibsen~ez_rsquo~s
"Hedda Gabler" premiered in Oslo.
(SFC, 4/14/01, p.B1)(SC, 2/26/02)
1891 Feb 26, The 1st buffalo
was purchased for Golden Gate Park in SF under John McLaren. A pair
of bison, named Benjamin Harrison and Sarah Bernhardt, were settled
in Golden Gate Park following reports that only 1000 were left in
(SFC, 12/13/99, p.A18)(SC, 2/26/02)(SFC,
1891 Feb 27, David Sarnoff, RCA
Board Chairman and a pioneer of U.S. television, was born.
1891 Feb 28, US Senator George
Hearst (b.1820) of California died. He was the father of William
(Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)(SFEM, 10/24/99, p.20)
1891 Mar 3, Congress created
the Office of Superintendent of Immigration (Treasury Department).
1891 Mar 3, Congress created
the US Courts of Appeal.
1891 Mar 8, Sam Jaffe, actor
(Gunga Din, Dr Zorba-Ben Casey), was born in NYC.
1891 Mar 14, A mob in New
Orleans broke open a jail after a court dismissed charges against 19
Italian men indicted for the murder of police chief David C.
Hemmessey. 11 of 19 defendants were hanged. The book "Vendetta" by
Richard Gambino, and the movie of the same name, covered the event.
(SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M3)
1891 Mar 15, Joseph Bazalgette
(b.1819), English civil engineer, died. He built interceptor sewers
along the banks of the Thames and ended cholera outbreaks in London.
1891 Mar 17, The British
steamer Utopia sank off the coast of Gibraltar.
1891 Mar 19, Earl Warren,
governor of California, was born. He was appointed 14th Supreme
Court Chief Justice (1953-1969) and led the commission that
investigated the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
"I always turn to the sports page first. The sports page records
people~ez_rsquo~s accomplishments; the front page nothing but man~ez_rsquo~s failure."
(HN, 3/19/99)(AP, 7/19/00)
1891 Mar 24, The Evening Sun
published a tribute to P.T. Barnum (b.1810) that included his
obituary so as to allow the old man to read it. Barnum died 2 weeks
later. In 2001 James W. Cook authored "The Arts of Deception" with a
focus on P.T. Barnum.
(SFEC, 3/14/99, Z1 p.10)(WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A14)
1891 Mar 29, Georges-Pierre
Seurat (31), French painter (Pointillism), died.
1891 Mar 31, Erich Walter
Sternberg, composer, was born.
1891 Mar, Congressman
millionaire Charles N. Felton of Menlo Park, California, was
appointed to succeed Sen. Hearst.
(Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)
1891 Mar, David Starr Jordan
(40) of Indiana Univ. accepted an offer as president of the new
Stanford Univ. in Palo Alto, Ca.
(Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)(Ind, 11/17/01, 5A)
Apr 1, The London-Paris telephone connection opened.
1891 Apr 1, Paul Gauguin
(1848-1903), French painter, abandoned his wife and 5 children and
left Marseille for Tahiti.
(SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T12)(MC, 4/1/02)(SSFC, 5/11/03,
1891 Apr 2, Max Ernst, German
painter and sculptor, founder of surrealism, was born. [see Jan 24]
1891 Apr 7, Nebraska introduced
an 8 hour work day.
1891 Apr 7, Phineas T. Barnum
(88), US circus promoter (B & Bailey), died.
1891 Apr 11, A Jewish tailor's
daughter (8) disappeared in Greece. A rumor spread that she was a
Christian girl ritually killed by Jews.
1891 Apr 23, Sergey Sergeyevich
Prokofiev, composer (Peter & the Wolf), was born in Ukraine.
[see Apr 27]
1891 Apr 23, Jews were expelled
1891 Apr 24, Start of Sherlock
Holmes adventure "Final Problem."
1891 Apr 24, Helmuth Karl
Bernhard Graf von Moltke (b.1800), German Field Marshal, died. He
was the chief of staff of the Prussian Army for thirty years and
became later regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter
1891 Apr 25, Pres. Benjamin
Harrison visited SF.
1891 Apr 27, Sergei Sergeyevich
Prokofiev, composer, was born. [see Apr 23]
1891 Apr 29, Pres. Benjamin
Harrison arrived in Menlo Park, Ca., by special train for a visit
with senators Stanford and Felton.
(Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)
1891 May 4, Sherlock Holmes,
Arthur Conan Doyle~ez_rsquo~s fictional detective, "died" at Reichenbach
1891 May 5, Carnegie Hall (then
named Music Hall) had its opening night in New York City.
Tchaikovsky was the guest conductor. Musicians, painters, dancers
and actors thrived in two towers built by 19th-century industrialist
Andrew Carnegie just after the hall went up. The Carnegie Towers,
one 12 stories high, the other 16, housed more than 100 studios. In
2010 the city-owned towers were gutted in a $200 million renovation
(AP, 5/5/97)(AP, 8/2/10)
1891 May 8, Helena Petrovna
Blavatskaya (b.1831), Russian theosophist (Madame Blavatsky), died.
(WUD, 1994 p.157)(MC, 5/8/02)
1891 May 11, Alexandre
Becquerel (b.1820), French physicist, died. In 1839, Becquerel
observed the photoelectric effect via an electrode in a conductive
solution exposed to light.
1891 May 15, Mikhail Bulgakov
(d.1940), Russian novelist (Notes of a Dead Man, Heart of a Dog),
(HN, 5/15/01)(Econ, 3/13/04, p.86)
1891 May 15, Jules Massenet's
opera "Griselde," premiered in Paris.
1891 May 15, Gerard and Anton
Philips began their Philips & Co. operations in Eindhoven,
Holland, with the production of light bulbs.
1891 May 18, Rudolf Carnap,
philosopher (German Logical Positivist), was born.
1891 May 19, Rice Institute
Chartered, Building, now Rice University.
1891 May 21, James J. Corbett
fought Peter "Black Prince" Jackson (1861-1901), in a much-heralded
bout between San Francisco cross-town rivals. Since Corbett and
Jackson were boxing instructors at the two most prestigious athletic
clubs. They fought to a draw after 61 rounds. Jackson had won the
Australian heavyweight championship in 1886 and the British Empire
title in 1892.
1891 May 23, Par Lagerkvist,
Swedish writer (The Dwarf, Barabbas), was born.
1891 May 25, Robert W.P.
Peereboom, Dutch editor in chief (Haarlem Newspaper), was born.
1891 Jun 9, Cole Porter
(d.1964), American composer and lyricist, was born. [see Jun 9,
1891 Jun 9, Painter Paul
Gauguin arrived in Papeete, Tahiti.
1891 Jun 11, A. Charlois
discovered asteroid #311 Claudia.
1891 Jun 11, Portugal assigned
Barotseland, now in Zambia, to Britain and Nyasaland becomes a
1891 Jun 21, Hermann Scherchen,
conductor (Nature of Music), was born in Berlin, Germany.
1891 Jun 28, Esther Forbes,
author (Johnny Tremain), was born.
1891 Jun, The Chicago Herald
built a monument to Columbus on San Salvador.
(NH, 10/96, p.26)
1891 Jul 5, John Northrop, US
biochemist, crystallized enzymes (Nobel 1946), was born.
1891 Jul 8, Warren G. Harding
married Florence K. DeWolfe in Marion, Ohio. Harding called her "the
Duchess." Harding had a long affair with Nan Britton, who bore him a
daughter. From 1905-1920 he had an affair with Carrie Phillips. In
1998 Carl Sferrazza Anthony published "Florence Harding: The First
Lady, The Jazz Age and the Death of America~ez_rsquo~s Most Scandalous
(AP, 7/8/97)(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A19)
1891 Jul 31, Great Britain
declared territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within
their sphere of influence.
1891 Aug 2, Arthur Edward
Drummond Bliss, composer (Olympians), was born in London.
1891 Aug 5, The 1st travelers
checks were issued by American Express.
1891 Aug 5, Henry Charles
Litolff (73), French pianist, composer, died.
1891 Aug 22, Jacque Lipchitz
(d.1973), sculptor, was born in Poland.
1891 Aug 24, Thomas Edison
filed a patent for the motion picture camera.
1891 Aug 25, Luis Iruarrizaga
Aguirre, composer, was born.
1891 Sep 3, Cotton pickers
organized a union & strike in Texas.
1891 Sep 15, The Dalton gang
held up a train and took $2,500 at Wagoner, Okla.
1891 Sep 16, Karl Doenitz,
German Admiral who succeeded Hitler in governing Germany, was born.
1891 Sep 18, Harriet Maxwell
Converse was 1st white woman to become an Indian chief (her Indian
name was Ga-is-wa-noh: the Watcher). She devoted herself to the
study and preservation of Native American culture, was a staunch
defender of Indian property rights during the 1880s.
1891 Sep 20, Lamine Gueye,
Senegalese political leader, was born.
1891 Sep 26, Charles Munch
(d.1968), Alsatian conductor (French Legion D'Honeur), was born in
(WUD, 1994 p.941)(MC, 9/26/01)
1891 Sep 28, Herman Melville
(b.1819), writer (Billy Budd, Moby Dick), died at 72. In 1921
Raymond Weaver authored a pioneering study of Melville. In 2002
Hershel Parker authored "Herman Melville: A Biography, Volume 2." In
2005 Andrew Delbanco authored ~ez_ldquo~Melville: His World and Work.~ez_rdquo~
(SSFC, 7/14/02, p.M5)(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F6)(WSJ,
1891 Oct 1, The Leland Stanford
Junior Memorial Univ. in Palo Alto, Ca., was dedicated. Stanford
Univ. opened its Mission Romanesque Quadrangle in Palo Alto. It was
established by Leland and Jane Stanford in honor of their late son.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4,5)(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)(SFC,
12/30/96, p.A15)(SFC, 6/20/98, p.A15)(Ind, 10/17/98, p.5A)(Ind,
1891 Oct 6, Charles Stewart
Parnell (b.1846) died in Brighton, England. Irish statesman and
leader of the Irish nationalists in the British House of Commons
from 1880-~ez_lsquo~90, Charles Parnell~ez_rsquo~s popularity in Ireland was so great
that he was called "the uncrowned king of Ireland." Parnell formed a
coalition with William Gladstone, who became prime minister and
introduced a bill for Irish home rule in 1886. The bill was
defeated. In 1890, as a result of a divorce scandal, Parnell was
deposed as leader of the Irish nationalists.
(AP, 10/6/97)(HNQ, 7/20/98)
1891 Oct 11, Charles Stewart
Parnell (d.Oct 6) was buried in Ireland.
1891 Oct 12, Edith Stein was
born to a Jewish family at Breslau. Through her passionate study of
philosophy she searched after truth and found it in reading the
autobiography of St. Teresa of Jesus. In 1922 she was baptized a
Catholic and in 1933 she entered the Carmel of Cologne where she
took the name Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. She was gassed and
cremated at Auschwitz on August 9, 1942, during the Nazi persecution
and died a martyr for the Christian faith after having offered her
holocaust for the people of Israel.
(WWW, Teresa Benedicta, 10/6/98)
1891 Oct 20, Sir James
Chadwick, physicist, was born. He won the Nobel Prize for
discovering the neutron.
1891 Oct 20, Jomo Kenyatta,
Kenya opposition leader and 1st premier (1963-78), was born.
1891 Oct 24, Rafael L. Trujillo
Molina, was born. He became president and dictator of the Dominican
1891 Oct 27, D. B. Downing,
inventor, was awarded a patent for the street letter box, i.e.
1891 Oct 28, An earthquake
struck Mino-Owari, Japan and killed 7,300.
1891 Oct 29, Fanny Brice,
comedian, singer and actress, was born in NYC.
(HN, 10/29/00)(MC, 10/29/01)
1891 Nov 3, Louis L. Bonaparte
(78), English-French linguist and senator, died.
1891 Nov 6, Comanche, the only
7th Cavalry horse to survive George Armstrong Custer~ez_rsquo~s "Last Stand"
at the Little Bighorn, died at Fort Riley, Kan. Comanche, belonged
to Captain Myles Keogh. The wounded horse, Comanche, was taken to
Fort Abraham Lincoln in Dakota Territory, where he recovered and
became a pampered celebrity. Comanche died at the age of 28.
(HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 2/26/99)
1891 Nov 10, The 1st Woman's
Christian Temperance Union meeting was held in Boston.
1891 Nov 10, Granville T. Woods
patented an electric railway.
1891 Nov 10, J.N. Arthur
Rimbaud (b.1854), French poet and arms merchant (Saison en Enfer),
died in Marseille after doctors amputated his leg. In 1961 Enid
Starkie authored a biography. In 2000 Graham Robb authored
"Rimbaud." Rimbaud stopped writing poetry at age 21 and ended his
last years in Africa as an arms dealer. In 2008 Edmund White
authored ~ez_ldquo~Rimbaud: The Double Life of a Rebel.~ez_rdquo~
(WUD, 1994 p.1234)(HN, 10/20/00)(SFC, 2/12/02,
p.D3)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.115)
1891 Nov 15, W. Averell
Harriman, (Gov-D-NY) and US ambassador to USSR (1943-46), was born.
1891 Nov 15, Erwin Rommel,
field marshal in World War II, was born. He commanded the Afrika
Korps in North Africa and defended the Normandy coast on D-Day.
1891 Nov 22, Edward L. Bernays
(d.1995), public relations pioneer, was born in Vienna, Austria. In
1892 his family moved to New York City.
1891 Nov 23, Deodoroda Fonseca,
the 1st president of Brazil, was ousted by a navy revolt.
1891 Nov 28, The National
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (now IBEW) was founded in St.
Louis, home of Local 1.
1891 Dec 1, The Canadian, Dr.
James B. Naismith, sports figure, inventor, teacher, invented the
game of basketball at the YMCA in Springfield, Mass. A janitor
provided peach baskets instead of the requested boxes.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.126)(DTnet, 11/28/97)(MC,
1891 Dec 10, Nelly Sachs, Nobel
Prize-winning poet, was born.
1891 Dec 26, Henry Miller
(d.1980), American writer, was born. His work included "Tropic of
Cancer" and "Tropic of Capricorn". "Until we lose ourselves there is
no hope of finding ourselves." "Like ships, men founder time and
(AP, 3/16/97)(AP, 5/2/98)(HN, 12/26/98)
1891 Dec 29, Edison patented
the "transmission of signals electrically" (radio).
1891 Painter Paul Gauguin
painted his landscape ~ez_ldquo~Haere Mai,~ez_rdquo~ which means ~ez_ldquo~Come here!~ez_rdquo~ in
1891 Claude Monet painted his
impressionist "Grainstacks: Snow Effect."
(SFC, 6/13/98, p.E1)
1891 Camille Pissarro painted
"Two Young Peasant Women." It was later analyzed as an attempt to
marry painting and anarchism.
(SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.8)
1891 William Fletcher authored
~ez_ldquo~The History and Development of Steam.~ez_rdquo~
1891 Thomas Hardy published
"Tess of the d~ez_rsquo~Urbervilles."
1891 Herman Melville authored
(WSJ, 6/29/00, p.A24)
1891 William Morris
(1834-1896), English poet, designer, painter, decorator and author,
portrayed a vision of utopia in his novel entitled "News from
Nowhere." The book describes a utopian fantasy in which people
return to handicrafts. The ideas in the novel reflected the emphatic
socialist views Morris would further explore in "How I Became a
Socialist," published in 1896. A pioneer of the British socialist
movement, Morris was apprenticed to an architect and later founded a
manufacturing and decorating firm. He was of the Pre-Raphaelite
school with a taste for simplicity and beauty in art and literature.
1891 John Wesley Powell
(d.1902) published the first complete classification and
distribution map of native languages in the United States and
Canada. He had led an expedition down the Green and Colorado rivers,
through the Grand Canyon even though he had lost the lower part of
his right arm in the Battle of Shiloh during the Civil War. Powell,
a geographer and ethnologist, held a number of positions after
resigning from the army in 1865, many for government agencies such
as director of the U.S. Geographical Survey.
1891 Emile Zola (1840-1902),
French novelist, authored ~ez_ldquo~L~ez_rsquo~Argent~ez_rdquo~ (Money), the story of a
scheming financier. It was first published as a newspaper serial.
(WSJ, 7/19/08, p.W6)
1891 The magazine "The Strand"
was established in London and devoted itself to popular fiction and
celebrity interviews. Arthur Conan Doyle became an early
(WSJ, 4/12/99, p.A21)
1891 Pope Leo XIII wrote his
encyclical "Rerum Novarum." It endorsed trade unionism and the
safeguarding of property rights.
(WSJ, 8/31/01, p.W17)
1891 The sumptuous Tampa Bay
Hotel with great Moorish spires was built. It later became the Henry
B. Plant Museum.
(Hem., 3/97, p.60)
1891 James J. Corbett fought
Peter Jackson to a draw after 61 rounds, Corbett~ez_lsquo~s first notable
fight. He lost his title to Robert Fitzsimmons in 1897.
1891 The New Mexico Military
Institute was founded in Roswell, NM.
(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D8)
1891 The largest concrete dam
in the world was completed across the neck of Crystal Springs canyon
south of San Francisco, Ca. It trapped the waters of San Mateo Creek
and was the culmination of a 5 reservoir project.
(Ind, 5/11/02, 5A)
1891 San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s California
St. RR opened a crosstown cable car line on O~ez_rsquo~Farrell, Jones and
Hyde with a Jones St. shuttle line that ran from O~ez_rsquo~Farrel five
blocks to Market.
(SFC, 2/1/14, p.C3)
1891 In San Francisco brothers,
Behrend and Isaac Joost, organized The San Francisco and San Mateo
Railroad Company. The Joost line did not pay expenses and was sold
at a foreclosure sale on April 11, 1896.
1891 The Wheeler Hot Springs
installation was set up 6 miles from Ojai, Calif. The springs gush
from Matilija Canyon.
(AAM, 3/96, p.47)(SFEC, 10/13/96, p.T7)
1891 A California bond measure
raised almost $1 million for the construction of the SF Ferry
Building. It was designed by Arthur Page Brown and finished in 1898.
Brown died before the building was completed [see 1875].
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.B1)
1891 Stanford Univ. opened its
Mission Romanesque Quadrangle in Palo Alto. It was established by
Leland Stanford in honor of his late son.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4,5)(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)(SFC,
1891 The Salem memorial Park
Jewish cemetery was established in Lawndale (Colma), Ca.
1891 The Del Monte brand
appeared on premium canned fruits and vegetables of the Oakland
Preserving Co. It was named after a fancy Monterey Hotel that
suggested good taste.
(SFC, 3/1/97, p.B1)
1891 The hay schooner Alma was
built at San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s Hunters Point shipyard. In 1993 mariner Al
Lutz (d.2010 at 55) took over the boat, the last survivor of the
fleet of sailing schooners built to handle cargo on the SF Bay and
the Sacramento River Delta.
(SFC, 7/5/10, p.C6)
1891 In California the Southern
Pacific Railroad established its San Ramon branch.
(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.P7)
1891 Delaware State University
was established as the State College for Colored Students. In 2006
it had about 3,690 students. The 400-acre campus is in the northern
section of Dover, across the street from the racetrack.
1891 Philosopher John Dewey and
Fred Scott founded "The Inlander" journal at the U of M to promote
literature and the same year began to allow free discussion in one
of his courses.
(MT, Fall. ~ez_lsquo~97, p.17,19)
1891 The University Record was
founded at U of M as a record of the educational and scientific work
at the university.
(MT, Fall. ~ez_lsquo~97, p.18)
1891 Alice Dewey founded the
Women~ez_rsquo~s League at the Univ. of Mich.
(MT, Fall. ~ez_lsquo~97, p.18)
1891 The first US reported car
accident was in Ohio.
1891 The Multnomah Athletic
Club opened in Portland, Oregon.
(WSJ, 5/22/06, p.A1)
1891 The US meteorological
program under the US Signal Service was transferred to the United
States Weather Bureau, a division of the Dept. of Agriculture.
(ON, 2/06, p.7)
1891 An international copyright
law was passed.
(WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A14)
1891 American Sugar Refining
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1891 The Thomas Houston
Electric Co., the Thomas Houston International Electric Co., and
Edison General Electric merged. Houston had made its fortune selling
AC powered arc lights for city streets. In 1892 the new company was
incorporated as General Electric.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)(ON, 10/04, p.8)
1891 National Lead was
(WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)
1891 George A. Hormel, son of
German immigrants, opened a small retail meat shop in Austin, Minn.
Within months he opened a packinghouse. His son Jay became president
in 1929. Their canned ham product, developed in 1926, was named Spam
on Jan 1, 1937, and registered as a trademark on May 11, 1937.
(SFEM, 6/16/96, BR p.26)(WSJ, 4/29/04,
1891 Pennsylvania~ez_rsquo~s first free
library was chartered.
(Econ, 2/14/09, p.40)
1891 Pierre Lallemont (47),
French mechanic, died in Boston. In 1866 he was granted a US
patented for his velocipede, a rotary crank bicycle.
(ON, 2/10, p.3)
1891 Argentine ants were 1st
noticed New Orleans. By 1908 they were seen in California.
(SFC, 4/25/01, p.A1)
1891 In Austria Daniel
Swarovski invented a machine to cut crystal stones to resemble
faceted diamonds. His company prospered and in 2004 the Swarovski
company placed a crystal star atop the Christmas tree at Rockefeller
Center in NYC.
(WSJ, 12/22/04, p.A1)
1891 British captain and spy H.
Bower noted antelope and yak in incredible numbers in the Aru basin
(NH, 5/96, p.50)
1891 The Brownfields Guild
Pottery Society began business in Staffordshire, England, and
continued operations to 1900.
(SFC, 10/5/05, p.G3)
1891 Madame Blavatsky died in
London at age 60 during an epidemic of influenza.
(Smith., 5/95, p.72)
1891 Bulgarian socialists led
by Dimitar Blagoev assembled secretly in the Buzludzha peak area to
form an organized socialist movement.
1891 The Golenischeff papyrus
was found at El Khibeh in Upper Egypt. This document was a personal
report of an Egyptian messenger to Lebanon that dates back to 1110
1891 In Paris Alexandre Darracq
started Gladiator Cycles as one of the dozens of bicycle companies
that saturated the market when the cycling craze boomed. The
eccentric later became famous for manufacturing automobiles. The
Golden Age of cycling reached its pinnacle in 1895, and that same
year printer G. Massias unveiled one of the great Parisian
advertising posters. Only four of these original posters exist
today. The poster was later used by California vintner Hahn Family
Wines, a led to a 2009 ban on the wine in Alabama.
1891 Montaudon, a French
champagne maker, began operations. In 2008 it was acquired by LVMH,
a luxury goods conglomerate.
1891 French Guinea was
established, taking the same borders as the previous colony of
Rivieres du Sud (1882~ez_ndash~1891). Prior to 1882, the coastal portions of
French Guinea were part of the French colony of Senegal.
1891 Eugene Dubois, Dutch
health officer, discovered the skull of a human in Java, Indonesia
that he named Pithecanthropus erectus [Java Man]. The first Homo
erectus skullcap was found near Trinil, Java.
(RFH-MDHP, p.153)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.A4)(SFC,
1891 In Mexico the El Palacio
de Hierro (The Iron Palace) chain of stores was founded to bring
Parisian fashion to posh ladies of the new world.
(Econ, 12/8/12, p.67)
1891 In Sweden the Skansen folk
museum opened in Stockholm by Artur Hazelius (1833-1901) to show the
way of life in the different parts of the country before the
1891-1892 Sir John Abbott, Conservative Party,
served as the 3rd Prime Minister of Canada.
(CFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.81)
1891-1892 In Russia a severe famine led to the
death of many peasants.
(WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)
1891-1893 Lili~ez_rsquo~uokalani (1838-1917) reigned as the
last monarch of Hawaii.
(WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)
1891-1899 During this period the Hopi of Arizona
began to produce silver jewelry. A man named Sikyatala learned
silversmithing from a Zuni man.
(NH, 11/1/04, p.30)
1891-1903 The Model Flint Glass Co. of Findley,
Ohio, produced the pressed-glass "bread plate" pattern called the
(SFC, 6/10/98, Z1 p.3)
1891-1918 The Edison Company produced films during
this period. In 2005 Kino Int~ez_rsquo~l. brought out a 4-DVD set titled
~ez_ldquo~Edison: The Invention of the Movies~ez_rdquo~ containing 140 films made
during this period.
(Sm, 3/06, p.104)
1891-1921 Japanese dishes imported the US during
this period were marked with only the word ~ez_ldquo~Nippon.~ez_rdquo~ After 1921 US
law required the name of the exporting country to be in English.
(SFC, 3/16/05, p.G4)
1891-1932 In Grand Rapids, Mich., the "Quaint
Furniture" name was used by Albert and John George Stickley, who
founded the Stickley Bros. Co. and produced furniture inspired by
pieces made from their brother Gustav.
(SFC, 1/14/98, Z1 p.2)
1891-1951 Fanny Brice, American actress and
singer: "Let the world know you as you are, not as you think you
should be, because sooner or later, if you are posing, you will
forget the pose, and then where are you?"
1891-1959 Stanley Spencer, English painter. He
lived and worked in the village of Cookham and experienced visions
of sexual and religious feelings that he translated into paintings.
(SFC, 10/14/97, p.B1,5)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.C1)
1891-1967 Ilya Ehrenburg, Russian writer. He was
the Paris correspondent for Izvestia at the outset of Stalin~ez_rsquo~s
purges in 1932, and won the Stalin Peace Prize in 1953. His books
include: "The Ninth Wave" (1951), "The Thaw," and "People, Years and
Life," his memoirs that began coming out it Novy Mir in 1960. Joshua
Rubenstein wrote his biography in 1996 titled: "Tangled Loyalties:
The Life and Times of Ilya Rubenstein."
(WSJ, 4/2/96, p.A-12)
1891-1969 Thurman Arnold, American lawyer:
"Dissent is not sacred; the right of dissent is."
1891-1971 David Sarnoff, American broadcasting
pioneer: "Competition brings out the best in products and the worst
1891-1973 Edith Mason, American opera singer. She
is discussed in the 1997 book "The American Opera Singer" by Peter
(WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A20)
1891-1982 Margaret Culkin Banning, American
writer: "Regrets are as personal as fingerprints."
1892 Jan 1, The US Immigration
Service, after two years of construction, opened Ellis Island in New
York Harbor, a new facility for "processing" immigrants. Annie Moore
(15) of County Cork, Ireland, was the 1st person processed. The new
facility replaced Castle Garden, which was closed because of massive
overcrowding and corruption. The money changing concession was later
granted to American Express to end the cheating of immigrants.
Formerly used as a munitions dump and landfill, Ellis Island was
designed, its architects claimed, to handle more than 8,000
newcomers a day. Orderly lines funneled bewildered immigrants past
doctors and officials who examined them for signs of disease. The
physically and mentally ill were refused admittance, forcing
thousands of families to make the difficult decision to return home
with a relative refused entry or push on without them. A final
brusque interview by an immigration official determined whether the
newcomers had already been promised jobs. About 80% of those who
entered Ellis Island received landing cards permitting them to board
ferries for NYC. In the 1890s, 75% of all immigrants entered the US
through Ellis Island. It was closed in 1954.
(AP, 1/1/98)(HNPD, 1/1/99)(AP, 1/1/98)(SFC,
3/21/98, p.E3)(HNPD, 9/18/98)(SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)
1892 Jan 1, The contagious
Disease hospitals on Ellis Island were designed by the Boring &
Tilton firm of New York in the French Renaissance Style. The
hospital closed in 1951.
(WSJ, 12/9/99, p.A24)
1892 Jan 3, J.R.R. Tolkien,
author of the "Lord of the Rings" trilogy, was born in Bloemfontein,
South Africa. "All that is gold does not glitter; not all those that
wander are lost."
(440 Int'l. 1/3/99)(AP, 1/5/99)(AP, 1/3/00)
1892 Jan 5, The 1st successful
auroral photograph made.
1892 Jan 6, The local
sultanates of Grande Comore were suppressed.
1892 Jan 8, Coal mine explosion
killed 100 in McAlister, Okla.
1892 Jan 15, The rules of
basketball were published for the first time, in Springfield, Mass.,
where the game originated.
1892 Jan 17, In Exeter, Rhode
Island, Mercy Brown (19), rumored to be a vampire, died of
consumption. Some believed her story inspired Bram Stoker~ez_rsquo~s 1897
1892 Jan 18, Oliver Hardy,
member of Laurel and Hardy comedy duo who starred in numerous films,
was born in Harlem, Ga.
(HN, 1/18/99)(MC, 1/18/02)
1892 Jan 21, Samuel Marsden
Brookes, English-born artist, died in SF. He emigrated to the US in
1833, settled in Chicago and moved to SF in 1862. He was a founder
of the SF Art Association and the Bohemian Club.
(SFCM, 10/28/01, p.20)
1892 Jan 25, In Buganda
(Uganda) the Battle of Mengo took place. Catholics advanced against
Anglicans armed with machine guns just outside what is now Kampala.
1892 Feb 1, Judge Abraham
Jefferson Seay was sworn in as the 2nd territorial governor
(1892-1893) of Oklahoma.
1892 Feb 2, Bottle cap with
cork seal was patented by William Painter in Baltimore.
1892 Feb 8, Fritz Todt, German
Reichs minister (Organization Todt) succeeded by Albert Speer, was
1892 Feb 12, Illinois made
President Lincoln's birthday a state holiday. Other states followed
suit over the years.
1892 Feb 13, Grant Wood,
painter (American Gothic), was born in Eldon, Iowa. Wood studied at
the University of Iowa, taught there and made Iowa the focus of his
paintings. His is considered one of America's first
'regionalist' painters. His most famous work 'American Gothic',
often spoofed, is a painting of the puritanical farmer and his wife
(HN, 2/13/01)(SSFC, 7/3/05, p.E3)
1892 Feb 16, The opera
~ez_ldquo~Werther~ez_rdquo~ premiered at the Imperial Theatre Hofoper in Vienna. It
was composed in 1887 by French composer Jules Massenet based on
Goethe~ez_rsquo~s 1774 novel "The Sorrows of Young Werther.~ez_rdquo~
1892 Feb 18, Wendell Wilke was
born. He was a presidential candidate against President Franklin
1892 Feb 22, Edna St. Vincent
Millay, poet, writer, feminist, was born in Rockland, Maine.
1892 Feb 22, "Lady Windermere's
Fan," a melodrama by Oscar Wilde, was first performed, at London's
St. James's Theater. It was about suspected infidelity.
(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)(AP, 2/22/99)
1892 Mar 3, 1st cattle
tuberculosis test in US was made at Villa Nova, PA.
1892 Mar 9, David Garnett,
novelist, editor (Lady into Fox), was born in England.
1892 Mar 9, Frank Puglia, actor
(Black Orchid, Jungle Book), was born in Sicily, Italy.
1892 Mar 9, Joseph Weinheber,
Austrian poet, writer (Adel und Untergang), was born.
1892 Mar 9, Vita Sackville-West
(d.1962), English poet and writer, was born. "Summer makes a silence
(AP, 6/21/97)(HN, 3/9/01)
1892 Mar 10, Arthur Oscar
Honegger, composer (King David), was born in Le Havre, France.
1892 Mar 10, Eva Turner,
British soprano, was born.
1892 Mar 11, Raoul Walsh,
director (Thief of Baghdad, Battle Cry), was born in NYC.
1892 Mar 13, Janet Flanner,
writer ("Letter from Paris"), was born.
1892 Mar 15, New York State
unveiled the new mechanical lever, automatic ballot voting machine.
(HN, 3/15/98)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A1)
1892 Mar 15, Jesse W. Reno,
inventor, patented the 1st escalator in NYC.
1892 Mar 26, Poet Walt Whitman
died in Camden, N.J. In 1997 Gary Schmidgall published the
biography: "Walt Whitman: A Gay Life." It focused on the poet~ez_rsquo~s
homosexuality. In 1999 a critical biography: Walt Whitman: The Song
of Himself" by Jerome Loving was published along with "A Whitman
Chronology" by Joann P. Krieg.
(AP, 3/26/97)(SFEC, 9/14/97, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/99,
p.E4)(SFEC, 4/4/99, Par p.15)
1892 Mar 27, Ferde (Ferdinand
Rudolf von) Grof, composer, was born in NY.
1892 Mar 27, Thorne Smith,
author (Topper, Rain in the Doorway, Stray Lamb), was born.
1892 Mar 29, Jozsef Mindszenty,
[Joseph Prehm], Hungarian cardinal, was born.
1892 Mar 29, The Canadian
Cricket Assn. was established.
(CFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.42)
1892 Apr 6, Donald Wills
Douglas, US aircraft pioneer (McConnell Douglas), was born.
1892 Apr 6, Lowell Thomas
(d.1981), author, journalist, broadcaster and world traveler was
born in Woodington, Ohio. "After the age of 80, everything reminds
you of something else."
1892 Apr 10, Victor de Sabata,
conductor, composer (Il Macigno), was born in Trieste, Italy.
1892 Apr 12, George C.
Blickensderfer received the first US patent for a portable
1892 Apr 13, Arthur ("Bomber")
Harris, Marshal of the RAF, was born in Cheltenham.
1892 Apr 15, General Electric
Co., formed by the merger of the Edison Electric Light Co. and other
firms, was incorporated in New York State.
1892 Apr 19, The prototype of
the first commercially successful American automobile was completed
in Springfield, Mass., by Charles E. Duryea and his brother Frank.
1892 Apr 27, Louis Victor de
Broglie, physicist (studied electrons), was born.
1892 Apr 28, John Jacob Niles,
American folk singer and folklorist, was born.
1892 Apr 28, The 1st
performance of Antonin Dvorak's overture "Carneval."
1892 May 1, Howard Barlow,
conductor (Voice of Firestone), was born in Plain City, Ohio.
1892 May 1, A US quarantine
station opened on Angel Island, SF Bay.
1892 May 2, Manfred von
Richthofen (the Red Baron), was born. He was a German pilot and
greatest ace of world War I with 80 planes to his credit.
1892 May 5, US Congress passed
the Geary Chinese Exclusion Act, which required Chinese in the
United States to be registered and carry an identity card or face
deportation. The Six Companies of San Francisco ordered all 110,000
immigrants to refuse compliance.
(AP, 5/5/97)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M5)
1892 May 5, Jan Nepomuk Skroup
(80), composer, died.
1892 May 7, Archibald MacLeish,
American poet and statesman, was born.
1892 May 7, Josip Broz Tito,
leader of Yugoslavia (1943-80), was born.
1892 May 16, Richard Tauber,
[Ernst Seiffert], Austria-British, tenor, conductor ("Deine ist mein
ganzes Herz"), was born.
1892 May 19, Charles Brady King
of Detroit invented the pneumatic hammer. [see Jan 30, 1894]
1892 May 20, George Sampson
patented a clothes dryer.
1892 May 21, The opera "I
Pagliacci," by Ruggiero Leoncavallo, was first performed, in Milan,
Italy. The verismo opera was about Sicily in the 1870s.
(AP, 5/21/97)(Econ, 11/26/05, Survey p.16)
1892 May 22, Dr. Washington
Sheffield invented toothpaste tube.
1892 May 28, The Sierra Club
was organized in San Francisco by John Muir.
(AP, 5/28/97)(MC, 5/28/02)
1892 May 29, Alfonsina Storni,
Argentine poet (La inquietud del rosal), was born.
1892 May 29, Baha'u'llah [Mirza
HA Noeri], Persian founder of Baha~ez_rsquo~i faith, died at 74.
1892 May 31, Gregor Strasser,
German pharmacist, NSDAP-Reich organization founder, was born.
1892 Jun 4, The Sierra Club was
incorporated in San Francisco.
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A1)(AP, 6/4/97)
1892 Jun 7, Homer Plessy was
arrested after buying a railroad ticket in New Orleans and seating
himself in the white-only section. He was an "octoroon," 7/8 white
and 1/8 black. He had been selected to test the validity of the 1890
Louisiana law mandating separate cars for whites and blacks.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)
1892 Jun 10, The Republican
National Convention in Minneapolis nominated President Harrison for
re-election and Whitelaw Reid for vice president. Harrison, however,
lost the election to former President Cleveland.
1892 Jun 13, Basil Rathbone,
actor (Sherlock Holmes), was born in Johannesburg, South Africa.
1892 Jun 18, Macadamia nuts
were 1st planted in Hawaii.
1892 Jun 21, Reinhold Niebuhr
(d.1971), American Protestant clergyman and author was born. "God,
give us grace to accept with serenity the things that cannot be
changed, courage to change the things which should be changed, and
the wisdom to distinguish the one from the other." "The tendency to
claim God as an ally for our partisan values and ends is ... the
source of all religious fanaticism."
(AP, 5/4/97)(AP, 11/2/97)(HN, 6/21/01)
1892 Jun 23, The Democratic
national convention in Chicago nominated former President Cleveland
on the first ballot.
1892 Jun 26, Pearl
Sydenstricker Buck, Nobel Prize winning author (1938), was born. Her
work included "The Good Earth." The basic discovery about any people
is the discovery of the relationship between its men and women. "It
is no simple matter to pause in the midst of one~ez_rsquo~s maturity, when
life is full of function, to examine what are the principles which
control that functioning."
(AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/26/98)(AP, 6/27/98)(MC,
1892 Jul 1, James M. Cain
(d.1977), fiction writer, was born in Annapolis, Maryland. His work
included "The Postman Always Rings Twice" and "Mildred Pierce." As a
member of the "hard-boiled" school of crime fiction of the 1930s and
1940s he is often associated with the equally popular writers
Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler.
(HN, 7/1/98)(iUniv. 7/1/00)
1892 Jul 4, The Omaha Platform
was adopted at the formative convention of the Populist (or
People's) Party held in Omaha, Nebraska. The People's party, more
commonly known as the Populist party, was organized in St. Louis to
represent the common folk, especially farmers, against the
entrenched interests of railroads, bankers, processors,
corporations, and the politicians in league with such interests. At
its first national convention in Omaha in July 1892, the party
nominated James K. Weaver for president and ratified the so-called
Omaha Platform, drafted by Ignatius Donnelly of Minnesota.
1892 Jul 4, James Keir Hardie
was 1st socialist chosen in British Lower house.
1892 Jul 5, Andrew Beard was
issued a patent for the rotary engine.
1892 Jul 9, A stray 500-pound
shell from the Sandy Hook, New Jersey, testing range sank the
schooner Henry R. Tilton.
(AM, 7/04, p.35)
1892 Jul 12, In France flood
waters burst from a lake buried under a glacier on Mt. Blanc killing
at least 175 people in the St. Gervais valley.
(SFC, 8/26/10, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/2aygvoz)
1892 Jul 18, Thomas Cook (83),
English tour director (Thomas Cook & Son), died.
1892 Jul 22, Arthur
Seyss-Inquart, Austrian chancellor, Nazi war criminal, was born.
1892 Jul 23, Haile Selassie
(d.1975), Emperor of Ethiopia (1930-74), was born as Tafari Makonnen
at Ejarsa Goro, near Harer. He pleaded with the League of Nations to
halt the Italian invasion of his country. "Outside the kingdom of
the Lord there is no nation which is greater than any other."
1892 Jul 28, Joe E. Brown,
comedian (Buck Circus Hour), was born in Holgate, Ohio.
1892 Aug 2, Jack Warner, US
movie studio head (Warner Bros), was born.
1892 Aug 2, Charles A. Wheeler
patented a prototype of the escalator. [see Mar 15]
1892 Aug 4, Lizzie Borden~ez_rsquo~s
father and stepmother, Andrew and Abby Durfee Gray Borden, were
killed with an ax in Fall River, Mass. Based on strong
circumstantial evidence, Sunday school teacher Lizzie (32), Andrew
Borden's daughter from a previous marriage, was charged and
acquitted of the murders by an all-male jury. Later an opera titled
"Lizzie Borden" by Jack Beeson drew a portrait of family pathology
that depicted her as guilty of the crime.
(WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-13)(AP, 8/4/97)(SFC, 9/17/97,
1892 Aug 5, Harriet Tubman
received a pension from Congress for her work as a nurse, spy and
scout during the Civil War.
1892 Aug 11, Hugh MacDiarmid,
founder of the Scottish Nationalist Party , was born.
1892 Aug 13, The first issue of
the "Afro American" newspaper was published in Baltimore, Maryland.
1892 Aug 17, Mae West (d.1980),
American actress in burlesque, vaudeville, Broadway, and movies, was
born in Brooklyn. "Marriage is a great institution, but I~ez_rsquo~m not
ready for an institution, yet."
(HN, 8/17/98)(AP, 8/31/00)(SC, 8/17/02)
1892 Aug 27, Fire seriously
damaged New York City~ez_rsquo~s original Metropolitan Opera House, located
at Broadway and 39th Street.
1892 Aug 30, The Moravia, a
passenger ship arriving from Germany, brought cholera to the United
1892 Sep 4, Darius Milhaud,
Aix-en-Provence France, composer, was born.
1892 Sep 5, Joseph Szigeti,
Budapest Hungary, violinist (Violinist Notebook 1933), was born.
1892 Sep 7, In New Orleans the
1st heavyweight-title boxing match, fought with gloves under the
rules of the Marquis of Queensbury [Queensberry], aka John S.
Douglas, ended when James J. Corbett (1866-1933) knocked out John L.
Sullivan (1858-1918) in the 21st round. In 1891 Corbett had
fought Peter Jackson to a draw after 61 rounds. Corbett lost his
title to Robert Fitzsimmons in 1897.
1892 Sep 7, John G. Whittier,
US poet and secretary of the Anti-Slavery Society, died.
1892 Sep 8, An early version of
"The Pledge of Allegiance" appeared in "The Youth~ez_rsquo~s Companion,"
published in Boston and edited by Francis Bellamy, a Christian
socialist, and cousin of writer Edward Bellamy. James Upham
(d.1906), Bellamy~ez_rsquo~s supervisor, collaborated on the pledge. Frank E.
Bellamy (1876-1915) of Cherryvale High School in Kansas had authored
a 500-word patriotic essay which included the words of the Pledge of
Allegiance and instructions on saluting the American Flag. His
teacher entered the "Salute to the Flag" in a contest sponsored by
the popular scholastic publication The Youth's Companion. His essay
won first place in this national school contest. [see Oct 12]
(AP, 9/8/97)(SSFC, 6/30/02,
p.A3)(www.leatherockhotel.com/FrankBellamy.htm)(WSJ, 7/6/04, p.A23)
1892 Sep 10, Arthur Compton,
physicist, was born in Wooster, Ohio.
1892 Sep 12, Alfred A. Knopf,
American publisher, was born. In 1966 he received the Alexander
(HN, 9/12/98)(MC, 9/12/01)
1892 Sep 26, John Philip Sousa
and his newly formed band performed publicly for the first time, at
the Stillman Music Hall in Plainfield, N.J.
1892 Sep 26, The Diamond Match
Co. patented book matches. [see Sep 27]
1892 Sep 27, Book matches were
patented by Diamond Match Company. [see Sep 26]
1892 Oct 1, John Philip Sousa
started his 12-year tour as director of the US Marine Band. He
premiered many of his marches and produced the first commercial
phonograph recordings. [see Oct 1, 1880]
(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-3)
1892 Oct 1, The University of
1892 Oct 4, Engelbert Dollfuss,
Austrian Fascist chancellor, was born. He was killed by Nazis in
1892 Oct 5, The Dalton Gang,
notorious for its train robberies, was practically wiped out while
attempting to rob a pair of banks in Coffeyville, Kan. They were
trying to rob the Condon National Bank and the First National Bank
simultaneously in their hometown. They were recognized by home town
citizens who sounded the alarm and then armed themselves. A fierce
gun battle ensued in which four citizens and four members of the
Dalton Gang lost their lives.
1892 Oct 6, Alfred Tennyson
(b.1809), writer and poet laureate, died at 83.
1892 Oct 8, Sergei Rachmaninoff
first publicly performed his piano "Prelude in C-sharp Minor" in
1892 Oct 12, The American
Pledge of Allegiance was 1st recited in public schools to
commemorate Columbus Day. Francis Bellamy, a magazine editor of
Rome, NY, wrote the "Pledge of Allegiance." [see Sep 8]
(SFEC, 2/21/99, Z1 p.8)(Internet)
1892 Oct 15, US government
convinced the Crow Indians to give up 1.8 million acres of their
reservation (in the mountainous area of western Montana) for 50
cents per acre. Presidential proclamation opened this land to
1892 Oct 18, The first
long-distance telephone line between Chicago and New York was
formally opened. It could only handle one call at a time.
1892 Oct 20, The city of
Chicago dedicated the World~ez_rsquo~s Columbian Exposition.
1892 Oct 30, Angelo Siciliano
(d.1972) was born in Italy. In 1903 he and his mother moved to
Brooklyn to live with an uncle. He later became known as body
builder Charles Atlas.
1892 Oct, The Univ. of Chicago
began operations under Pres. William Rainey Harper. It was founded
by John D. Rockefeller.
(MT, Fall. ~ez_lsquo~97, p.19)(WSJ, 1/7/98, p.W11)
1892 Nov 2, Lawmen surrounded
outlaws Ned Christie and Arch Wolf near Tahlequah, Indian Country
(present-day Oklahoma). It would take dynamite and a cannon to
dislodge the two from their cabin.
1892 Nov 6, John Sigvard "Ole"
Olsen, comedian (Olsen & Johnson), was born in Wabash, Ind.
1892 Nov 6, Harold Ross, New
Yorker editor, was born.
1892 Nov 8, Former President
Cleveland beat incumbent Benjamin Harrison and became the first
(and, to date, only) president to win non-consecutive terms in the
1892 Nov 8, In Paris, France,
anarchist Emile Henry placed a time bomb at the offices of the
Carmaux Mining Company that killed 5 policemen.
1892 Nov 16, King Behanzin of
Dahomey (now Benin), led soldiers against the French.
1892 Dec 2, Jay Gould (b.1836),
American financier, died. In 1986 Maury Klein authored "The Life and
Legend of Jay Gould." His fortune was estimated at $72 million.
1892 Dec 4, Francisco Franco (y
Bahamonde), Spanish general and dictator (1936-75), was born. He
came to power as a result of the Spanish Civil War.
(HN, 12/4/00)(MC, 12/4/01)
1892 Dec 6, E. Werner von
Siemens (75), German industrialist (Siemens AG), died.
1892 Dec 9, "Widowers' Houses,"
George Bernard Shaw's first play, opened at the Royalty Theater in
1892 Dec 15, J. Paul Getty,
American oilman and art collector, was born into oil money. His
father, George Getty, owned a drilling company and Paul hit a gusher
on the first hole he drilled. He decided to retire at age 24 but
returned to the business after his father had a stroke.
(HN, 12/15/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)
1892 Dec 18, Anton Bruckner's
8th Symphony, premiered.
1892 Dec 18, Tchaikovsky~ez_rsquo~s "The
Nutcracker Suite" ["Nutcracker Ballet"] publicly premiered in St.
Petersburg, Russia, at the Maryinsky Theater.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, DB p.44)(AP, 12/18/97)
1892 Dec 20, Phileas Fogg
completed his around the world trip, according to Jules Verne.
1892 Dec 20, Pneumatic
automobile tire was patented in Syracuse, NY.
1892 Cicily Fairfield (aka
Rebecca West), writer, was born. Her books included "The Return of
the Soldier" and "Black Lamb and Grey Falcon," which was written
following a trip through Yugoslavia. She had a relationship with
H.G. Wells that led to the birth of a son, Anthony. In 1996 Carl
Rollyson wrote her biography: "Rebecca West: A Life." Her pen name
came from a character in Ibsen~ez_rsquo~s play "Rosmersholm." Rebecca West
died in 1983.
(SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.5)(WSJ, 11/21/96,
p.A20)(WSJ, 3/6/00, p.A28)
1892 E.F. Holt painted "A
(SFEM, 10/18/98, p.14)
1892 Thomas Moran painted his
geological extravaganza "Grand Canyon of the Colorado."
(WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)
1892 John Singer Sargent,
artist, began his painting of "Lady Agnew of Locknaw." It was
completed in 1893.
(SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)
1892 Alfred Sisley painted
"View of the Village of Moret."
(WSJ, 2/29/00, p.B16)
1892 Anatole France wrote his
novella ~ez_ldquo~Le Procurateur de Judee.~ez_ldquo~
(WSJ, 7/8/06, p.P8)
1892 In Fort Worth, Texas, 20
women founded the state~ez_rsquo~s 1st art museum with $50,000 from Andrew
(WSJ, 12/17/02, p.D8)
1892 John Philip Sousa, the
17th director of the US Marine Band was given a gold baton that
became ceremoniously passed to future directors.
(SFC, 7/7/96, Par, p.12)
1892 The settlement of
Goldfield, Arizona, got its start when low grade gold ore was found
in the area between the Superstition Mountains and the Goldfield
Mounts. Low-grade or not, a town soon sprang up and on October 7,
1893 it received its first official post office.
1892 Barbed wire that fenced
the west at this time is on display at Oracle Junction, Arizona, and
includes Curtis 4 Point.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.173)
1892 In California the
Romanesque style post office of San Jose built. It was designed by
federal architect Willoughby Edbrooke in the Richardsonian style and
later became part of the San Jose Museum of Art.
1892 Hibernia Bank set up
headquarters in a temple-style building at 1 Jones St. and Market
near the SF Civic Center. In 2008 the building ,vacant since 2000,
was sold for $3.95 million.
(SFC, 3/25/05, p.F2)(SFC, 9/11/08, p.B1)
1892 In SF the Trinity
Episcopal Church at Bush and Gough was completed. It was based on
England~ez_rsquo~s Durham Cathedral. The church was originally established in
1849. In 2009 the main sanctuary was mothballed due to seismic
issues and the lack of funds for repair.
(SFEM, 8/9/98, p.27)(SFC, 5/29/09, p.B1)
1892 John H. Baird, a San
Francisco capitalist, subdivided and sold a set of lots along Haight
Street, site of the Haight Street Grounds sports field.
(Randolph Delehanty "S.F., The Ultimate Guide",
1892 The US Navy cruiser
Olympia was built in San Francisco. It served as the flagship of
Commodore George Dewey~ez_rsquo~s fleet that defeated the Spanish at the
Battle of Manila Bay in 1898. In 1957 it became a museum ship in
(SFC, 7/11/12, p.A1)
1892 The Brown Palace Hotel
opened in Denver, Colorado.
(WSJ, 6/24/08, p.D7)
1892 Thomas Green Ryman, saloon
and riverboat owner, built the Union Gospel Tabernacle in Nashville,
Tenn., for revivalist Sam Jones. It later became the original home
of the Grand Ole Opry.
(SFCM, 3/11/01, p.43)
1892 A group of avocational
archeologists founded the American Archeological Association. Their
1st magazine," The Archeologist," appeared a year later. The
magazine was bought by Popular Science in 1895.
(AM, 9/01, p.38)
1892 The word "homosexual"
first appeared in print.
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.E4)
1892 In Mitchell, South Dakota,
a small, 12-year-old city of 3,000 inhabitants, the world~ez_rsquo~s only
Corn Palace was established on the city~ez_rsquo~s Main Street. It was
replaced in 1905 and agin in 1921.
1892 Buffalo Bill Cody~ez_rsquo~s Wild
West Show toured in England with Sioux Chief Long Wolf (59) and
7-year-old White Star, a girl whose real name was Rose Ghost Dog.
They both died on tour, he of pneumonia and she of a riding
accident. Their bodies were returned to Wolf Creek, South Dakota, in
1997 and reburied.
(SFC, 9/29/97, p.A8)
1892 The first Fig Newtons were
(SFEC, 10/31/99, Z1 p.2)
1892 The National League
sanctioned Sunday games for baseball.
(WSJ, 7/27/00, p.A20)
1892 The first CAL-Stanford Big
Game was held at the field called the Haight Street Grounds in SF.
Legend says that Herbert Hoover, Stanford manager and future US
president, forgot the requisite football and caused a several hour
1892 In Pennsylvania the
Reading Railroad station opened in Philadelphia. It later became the
home of the Reading /Terminal Market.
(SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P4)
1892 Pennsylvania~ez_rsquo~s Mansfield
Univ. played college football~ez_rsquo~s first night game.
(WSJ, 9/26/08, p.A1)
1892 The US Supreme Court
declared ~ez_ldquo~this is a Christian nation~ez_rdquo~ in a case concerning the use
of foreign labor.
(AH, 4/07, p.30)
1892 The Searsville dam was
built on the San Francisquito Creek west of Stanford. Searsville
Lake was formed and was later predicted to brim with silt by 2050.
In 2014 the American Rivers environmental group named San
Francisquito Creek as the 5th most endangered river in the US.
(SFC, 2/19/01, p.A18)(SFC, 4/9/14, p.E2)
1892 Barbour Silver was
organized in Hartford, Conn. In 1898 it became part of the Int~ez_rsquo~l.
Silver Co. of Meriden, Conn.
(SFC, 10/19/05, p.G2)
1892 A legal case protected the
shoreline of Lake Michigan from ownership by a railroad.
(SFC, 3/21/14, p.D2)
1892 In New York state the
Seneca Indians set up a treaty whereby non-Indian residents of
Salamanca, a town built on the Seneca Nation of Indians' Allegheny
Reservation, paid rent to the Seneca.
(SFC, 8/18/99, p.C14)
1892 Voting machines were first
used in the US in Lockport, New York.
(BD emp letter, 9/27/96)
1892 John D. Rockefeller broke
the Standard Oil Trust up into 20 separate companies after antitrust
action against the Standard Oil Company.
1892 Henry Clay Frick, partner
of Andrew Carnegie, engineered a bloody clash with the labor union
at the Pittsburgh Homestead Mill. 9-10 workers and 3 Pinkerton
guards were killed and the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel
Workers union was crushed. The strike had arisen over Carnegie's
efforts to automate steel production.
(SFEC,1/20/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)(WSJ,
1892 In Marietta, Ohio, Collins
R. Stevens (d.1921) and Orin C. Klock began manufacturing reed
organs under the name Stevens & Klock. The company went out of
business in 1924.
(SFC, 12/17/08, p.G6)
1892 Bankers Manifesto: ~ez_ldquo~At the
coming Omaha Convention to be held July 4th (1892), our men must
attend and direct its movement, or else there will be set on foot
such antagonism to our designs as may require force to overcome.
This at the present time would be premature. We are not yet ready
for such a crisis. Capital must protect itself in every possible
manner through combination (conspiracy) and legislation.~ez_rdquo~
Congressman Charles A. Lindbergh, Sr. revealed the Bankers Manifesto
of 1892 to the U.S. Congress somewhere between 1907 and 1917.
1892 The Gill Clay Pot Co.
moved from Bellaire, Ohio, to Muncie, Ind., to be near glass
companies and natural gas supplies. The company made pots and tanks
to hold melting glass. In 1923 a family member opened Muncie Pottery
(SFC, 9/21/05, p.G3)
1892 The Central Glass Co. of
Wheeling, W. Va., made a pattern of glass called Coin based on real
US coins. After 8 months of production the US Treasury Dep. ruled
that using the coins was a form of counterfeiting money and the
pattern was discontinued.
(SFC, 3/28/07, p.G7)
1892 The Macey Furniture Co. of
Grand Rapids, Mich., opened as a mail-order operation. By 1900 it
made its own furniture and in 1905 merged with Wernicke Furniture of
Cincinnati. In 1907 the company became Globe-Wernicke.
(SFC, 10/24/07, p.G2)
1892 The Royal furniture Co.
began operating in Grand Rapids, Mich., and continued to 1931. In
1901 Robert Irwin bought a controlling interest and in 1919 combined
royal with the Phoenix furniture Co., also in Grand Rapids, to form
the Robert W. Irwin Co, which closed in 1953.
(SFC, 1/7/09, p.G2)
1892 US Rubber was formed as
the consolidation of nine domestic makers of rubber products.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)
1892 Joshua Pusey came out with
his book matches.
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.E4)
1892 Robert Ingersoll came out
with his $1 pocket watch.
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.E4)
1892 The 1st electrical hearing
aid was invented. It weighed several pounds.
(SSFC, 5/13/01, Par p.4)
1892 At the Univ. of Virginia
the underground social club "Zs" was founded.
(USAT, 1/15/97, p.6D)
1892 In California rains
flooded the entire Central Valley and produced a lake that was some
250-300 miles long and 20-30 miles wide.
(SFC, 5/27/98, p.A1)
1892 Cypress Lawn, a
non-sectarian cemetery, was established in Lawndale (Colma), Ca.
1892 E.E. Barnard, US
astronomer, discovered Amalthea, a small potato-shaped moon of
(SFC, 12/10/02, p.A2)
1892 Edwin Holmes discovered
Comet 17P/Holmes. On Oct. 23, 2007, the comet, which had been
visible to modern astronomers only with a telescope, suddenly
erupted and expanded, possibly due to sinkholes in its nucleus.
1892 In Vienna the Hotel
(WSJ, 9/26/08, p.A20)
1892 Bohemia granted Ludwig
Moser (d.1916) permission to make his own glass. He had started
decorating glass in 1857. In2008 Moser Glass Works was still
operating in Karlsbad, Czech Republic.
(SFC, 4/2/08, p.G2)
1892 Sun Yat-Sen (d.1925),
Chinese statesman and revolutionary leader, graduated from the Hong
Kong School of Medicine.
(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.18)(AP, 6/22/97)(HNQ, 6/3/98)
1892 Plague hit China and
spread throughout south Asia. It ended after killing 6 million
people in India.
(SFC, 7/2/05, p.F9)
1892 Camille Flammarion of
France explained the changing brightness of features on Mars to
seasonal changes of yellow vegetation and shallow seas.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)
1892 In Germany Count Zeppelin
left the army and began work on his lighter-than-air ship.
1892 Ernst von Mendelssohn
Bartholdy acquired the mansion at Boernicke, Germany and 4,500
acres. The mansion was lost to the Nazis in the early 1930s and to
the Soviets in 1945. In 1994 it passed to the control of a former
Communist leader, Karl Heinz Posselt, the local deputy mayor. The
Mendelssohn family was still seeking control in 1995.
(WSJ, 12/5/95, p.A-1)
1892 Italy made it illegal for
girls to marry before age 12.
(SFC, 7/7/96, Z1 p.5)
1892 Pavel Tretyakov, a wealthy
Moscow businessman and patron of the arts, donated his collection of
about 1200 works to the city of Moscow, together with the wing of
his residence in which the works were housed. In the Hall of Ivanov
the "Appearance of Christ to the People" dominates the room.
(WSJ, 2/21/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 8/12/96, p.A11)
1892 Samoa made a decision to
stay behind a day on the international date line and align it-self
with US traders based in California. In 2011 it planned to leap 24
hours into the future so that it can be on the same weekday as
Australia, New Zealand and eastern Asia.
1892 In Serbia public
transportation began in Belgrade.
(SFC, 1/14/98, p.C3)
1892 A Boer government grabbed
90% of the land of southern Africa~ez_rsquo~s biggest woman, the Rain Queen
of the Lobedu. She was immortalized by H. Rider Haggard as ~ez_ldquo~She.~ez_rdquo~
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.62)
1892 In Switzerland the Brienz
Rothornbahn steam-powered cog-wheeled train began operating a 5-mile
run from Brienz to the 7,700 Rothorn mountain top.
(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.T5)
1892-1894 Sir John S.D. Thompson, Conservative
Party, served as the 4th Prime Minister of Canada.
(CFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.81)
1892-1894 The US Biological Survey sponsored Edgar
Alexander Mearns and a field party to survey the borderlands, an
area 100 miles wide and 250 miles long along the US-Mexican border
from the boot heel of New Mexico to the Organ Pipe National Monument
in south-central Arizona.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.58-61)
1892-1937 The Gilbert Islands (Kiribati Islands)
were amalgamated as British possessions.
(WSJ, 1/22/96, p.A-1)
1892-1944 Wendell Wilkie, candidate for US
presidency against F.D. Roosevelt. He visited many foreign countries
after his defeat as a sort of personal ambassador of the president.
"The Constitution does not provide for first and second class
1892-1950 Edna St. Vincent Millay, American
author and poet: "It~ez_rsquo~s not love~ez_rsquo~s going hurts my days / But that it
went in little ways."
1892-1954 Robert H. Jackson, U.S. Supreme Court
Justice: "Men are more often bribed by their loyalties and ambitions
than by money."
1892-1964 Eddie Cantor, American comedian-singer:
"Matrimony is not a word, it~ez_rsquo~s a sentence."
1892-1964 J.B.S. Haldane, scientist. He was one of
the 3 founders (R.A. Fisher and Sewall Wright) of the modern theory
of population genetics and integrated the Mendelian rules for
heredity with Darwinian natural selection. He later proclaimed that
mustard gas would be a good weapon for wars because its effects
could be readily controlled.
(NH, 10/98, p.2,22)
1892-1969 Dame Ivy Compton-Burnett, English
author: "There are different kinds of wrong. The people sinned
against are not always the best."
1892-1969 Walter C. Hagen, American golfer:
"Don~ez_rsquo~t hurry, don~ez_rsquo~t worry. You~ez_rsquo~re only here for a short visit. So be
sure to stop and smell the flowers."
1892-1969 Osbert Sitwell, English poet and author.
His 50 books included a 5-volume autobiography, one of which was
titled "Left Hand, Right Hand!" He and his siblings, Edith and
Sacheverell, attained some fame in their day. In 1999 Philip Ziegler
authored the biography "Osbert Sitwell."
(WSJ, 12/14/99, p.A20)
1892-1972 Henry Darger, outsider artist, was the
author of a 15,000 page illustrated novel titled: "The Story of the
Vivian Girls, in What Is Known as the Realms of the Unreal." The
work inspired the 1999 work by poet John Ashbury: "Girls on the
Run," a single long poem divided into 21 numbered sections.
(SFEC, 4/4/99, BR p.2)
1892-1973 Pearl S. Buck, American author: "The
basic discovery about any people is the discovery of the
relationship between its men and women."
1892-1978 Margarett Sargent, painter and
socialite. Her granddaughter, Ms. Moore, wrote her biography: "The
White Blackbird: The Life of the Painter Margarett Sargent." She had
studied under Mount Rushmore~ez_rsquo~s sculptor, Gutzon Borglum. From 1916
to 1936 her work was included in as many as 30 shows.
(WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-15)(WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)
1892-1979 Mary Pickford, silent film actress, was
born as Gladys Marie Smith in Toronto. Her life is documented in the
1997 book: "Pickford: The Woman Who Made Hollywood" by Eileen
(SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.E6)
1892-1983 Dame Rebecca West, Irish author and
journalist: "Those who foresee the future and recognize it as tragic
are often seized by a madness which forces them to commit the very
acts which makes it certain that what they dread shall happen."
"There is no such thing as conversation. It is an illusion. There
are intersecting monologues, that is all."
(AP, 9/5/98)(AP, 4/9/99)
1892-1984 George Aiken, U.S. Senator: "If we were
to wake up some morning and find that everyone was the same race,
creed, and color, we would find some other causes for prejudice by
1893 Jan 4, US president
Cleveland granted amnesty to Mormon polygamists.
1893 Jan 6, Great Northern
Railway connected Seattle with east coast.
1893 Jan 6, Vincas
Mykolaitis-Putinas (d.1967), writer and poet, was born in Lithuania.
1893 Jan 9, Mohara, Arab ivory
and slave trader, died in battle and was eaten.
1893 Jan 11, Benjamin Butler
(b.1818), former Union general, lawyer and governor of Massachusetts
(1883-1884), died in New Hampshire.
1893 Jan 12, Hermann Goring,
Reichsmarshal of the Third Reich and commander of the Luftwaffe, was
born. He committed suicide before he was to be hung for war crimes.
1893 Jan 13, Britain's
Independent Labor Party, a precursor to the current Labor Party, had
its 1st meeting.
1893 Jan 15, Fanny Kemble
(b.1809), actress and writer, died in London. Her work included
"Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation.~ez_rdquo~ In 2000 Catherine
Clinton authored "Fanny Kimble~ez_rsquo~s Civil Wars" and edited "Fanny
Kemble~ez_rsquo~s Journals." In 2007 Deirdre David authored ~ez_ldquo~Fanny Kemble: A
(WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A24)(Econ, 6/23/07,
1893 Jan 17, Hawaii's monarchy
was overthrown by a group of businessmen and sugar planters under
Sanford Ballard Dole, who forced Queen Lili~ez_rsquo~uokalani to abdicate and
formed the Republic of Hawaii. This coup occurred with the knowledge
of John L. Stevens, the US Minister to Hawaii. 300 Marines from the
USS Boston were called to Hawaii, allegedly to protect American
lives. Queen Lili~ez_rsquo~uokalani wrote to Pres. Harrison for support.
(AP, 1/17/98)(HNPD, 1/25/99)(SFEC, 8/29/99,
p.T11)(ON, 11/02, p.6)
1893 Jan 17, A state record
temperature of 17F, -27C, was recorded in Millsboro, Delaware.
1893 Jan 17, The 19th president
of the United States, Rutherford B. Hayes, died in Fremont, Ohio, at
1893 Jan 20, Bessy Colman,
first African American aviator, was born.
1893 Jan 26, Bessie Coleman,
first black airplane pilot, was born.
1893 Jan 26, Abner Doubleday
(b.1819), credited with inventing baseball, died on his 74th
1893 Feb 1, The US Minister to
Hawaii, at the request of Pres. Dole, placed the Provisional
Government under formal US protection and raised the US flag over
(ON, 11/02, p.6)
1893 Feb 1, Inventor Thomas A.
Edison completed work on the world~ez_rsquo~s first motion picture studio,
his "Black Maria," in West Orange, N.J.
1893 Feb 1, The opera "Manon
Lescaut," by Giacomo Puccini, premiered in Turin, Italy.
1893 Feb 2, The first movie
close-up (of a sneeze) was made at the Edison studio, West Orange,
(HFA, '96, p.24)(MC, 2/2/02)
1893 Feb 9, Giuseppe Verdi~ez_rsquo~s
last opera, "Falstaff," was first performed, in Milan, Italy.
1893 Feb 9, Suez Canal builder
De Lesseps and others were sentenced to prison for fraud.
1893 Feb 10, Jimmy Durante,
~ez_lsquo~Schozzel,~ez_rsquo~ American comedian and film actor, was born in NYC. "Be
nice to people on the way up. They~ez_rsquo~re the same people you~ez_rsquo~ll pass on
the way down."
(HN, 2/10/99)(AP, 2/10/01)(MC, 2/10/02)
1893 Feb 12, Omar Bradley
(d.1981), U.S. army general, was born in Clark, Missouri. He was
called "the soldier~ez_rsquo~s soldier" because of his interest in the
welfare of enlisted men. He was a 1915 graduate of West Point, and
won fame as commander in North Africa and France during WWII. Gen.
Bradley became chief of staff in 1948, succeeding Gen. Dwight
Eisenhower. In 1949 he became the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff. He led the largest concentration of ground troops in
Europe during World War II." The world has achieved brilliance
without conscience. Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical
(HNQ, 6/28/98)(HN, 2/12/99)(AP, 4/8/00)
1893 Feb 20, Russel Crouse,
journalist, novelist, playwright (Life with Father), was born.
1893 Feb 21, Andés Segovia
(d.1987), Spanish classical guitarist, was born in Linares, Spain.
(WUD, 1994 p.1291)(HN, 2/21/01)(MC, 2/21/02)
1893 Feb 26, Ivor Armstrong
Richards (I.A. Richards), writer, critic and teacher (Meaning of
Meaning), was born.
(HN, 2/26/01)(SC, 2/26/02)
1893 Feb 26, 2 Clydesdale
horses set a record by pulling 48 tons on a sledge in Michigan.
1893 Feb 26, Einar Halvorsen
skated to a world record 500 meter (48 seconds).
1893 Feb 28, Edward Acheson of
Pennsylvania, patented an abrasive he named "carborundum."
1893 Mar 1, The US Diplomatic
Appropriation Act authorized the rank of ambassador.
1893 Mar 2, 1st federal
railroad legislation was passed; required safety features.
1893 Mar 3, Congress authorized
1st federal road agency in the Department of Agriculture.
1893 Mar 3, Columbian Isabella
silver quarter was authorized.
1893 Mar 4, Grover Cleveland
(D) was inaugurated as 24th US President (2nd term).
1893 Mar 4, Francis Dhanis'
army attacked the Lualaba and occupied Nyangwe (Congo).
1893 Mar 5, Emmett J. Culligan,
founder of water treatment organization, was born.
1893 Mar 5, Hippolyte Taine
(64), French philosopher, historian, died.
1893 Mar 9, Edgar Scauflaire,
Belgian muralist, decorator, was born.
1893 Mar 9, Hans Munch,
composer, was born.
1893 Mar 9, Congo cannibals
killed 1000s of Arabs.
1893 Mar 10, New Mexico State
University canceled its first graduation ceremony, because the only
graduate Sam Steele was robbed and killed the night before.
(HN, 3/10/98)(MC, 3/10/02)
1893 Mar 18, Wilfred Owen
(d.1918), World War I English poet, was born. He was killed one week
before Armistice Day of WW I. His fellow poet Siegfried Sassoon
published Owen~ez_rsquo~s single slim volume of poetry.
(NH, 10/98, p.18)(HN, 3/18/01)
1893 Mar 24, George Sisler,
baseball player, was born.
1893 Mar 27, The American Bell
telephone Company made its first long distance telephone call to its
branch office in New York.
1893 Mar 29, US Congressman
James Blount arrived in Hawaii to investigate the change in
government. He later reported to Congress that annexation to the US
was being forced and that the people of Hawaii supported their
(ON, 11/02, p.7)
1893 Mar 31, Clemens Krauss,
conductor (Berlin State Orch-1937), was born in Vienna.
1893 Apr 3, Leslie Howard,
[Stainer], actor (Gone With the Wind), was born in London.
1893 Apr 6, Mormon Temple in
Salt Lake City was dedicated.
1893 Apr 7, Allan W. Dulles, US
diplomat, CIA head (1953-61) (Germany's Underground), was born.
1893 Apr 8, Edgar "Yip"
Harburg, lyricist ("Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?," "Over the
Rainbow"), was born.
1893 Apr 8, Mary Pickford,
silent film actress (Poor Little Rich Girl), was born.
1893 Apr 8, The Critic reported
that ice cream soda is the national drink of the US.
1893 Apr 11, Dean G. Acheson,
statesman, U.S. secretary of state (1949-53) , was born.
1893 Apr 19, The Oscar Wilde
play "A Woman of No Importance" opened at the Haymarket Theatre in
(WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A20)(AP, 4/19/03)
1893 Apr 20, Harold Lloyd, film
comedian, was born. He is best remembered for his film "Safety
1893 Apr 20, Joan Miró (Joan
Miro), Spanish painter, was born.
1893 Apr 26, Anita Loos, author
and playwright, was born. Her work included: "Gentlemen Prefer
Blondes," "I Married an Angel," "San Francisco," "Saratoga," and
(440 Int~ez_rsquo~l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.6)
1893 Apr 29, Harold C. Urey,
physicist (Deuterium, Nobel 1934), was born in Indiana.
1893 May 1, The World~ez_rsquo~s
Columbian Exposition was officially opened in Chicago by President
Cleveland. The El in Chicago was erected to take visitors to the
World~ez_rsquo~s Columbian Exposition. It created a section of town called
the Loop encircled by the railway. The exposition grounds covered
over 600 acres of south Chicago along Lake Michigan. The exposition
attracted over 21 million visitors who saw such wonders as the
Ferris Wheel and electricity (first displayed in the Paris
Exposition in 1889, but still unknown to most Americans). It was the
first American exposition to make a profit. In 2003 Erik Larson
authored "The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic and madness at
the Fair That Changed America."
(AP, 5/1/97)(Hem. 7/96, p.25)(HNQ, 2/18/01)(SSFC,
1893 May 5, Panic hit the New
York Stock Exchange; by year's end, the country was in the throes of
a severe depression. [see June 27]
1893 May 29, A runaway circus
train near Tyrone, Pa., left 5 dead and a lot of wild animals
roaming the countryside.
1893 Jun 1, "Falstaff," the
last opera by Giuseppe Verdi, was produced in Berlin.
(DTnet, 6/1/97)(SFEM, 9/10/00, p.20)
1893 Jun 9, Cole Porter,
American composer and lyricist, was born in Indiana. His songs
include "Night and Day," "You're the Tops," and "I Get a Kick Our of
You." In 1998 William McBrian published the biography "Cole Porter."
[see Jun 9, 1891]
(WUD, 1994 p.1120)(CFA, '96, p.48)(SFEC,
11/22/98, BR p.4)
1893 Jun 13, Dorothy Leigh
Sayers (d.1957), English detective writer, creator of Lord Peter
Wimsey, was born. "The worst sin -- perhaps the only sin -- passion
can commit, is to be joyless."
(AP, 5/17/97)(HN, 6/13/01)
1893 Jun 14, Philadelphia
observed the first Flag Day.
1893 Jun 20, A jury in New
Bedford, Mass., found Lizzie Borden innocent of the ax murders of
her father, wealthy Fall River, Massachusetts, businessman Andrew
Borden and his wife, Abby Borden. Lizzie Borden, defended by a team
of skilled lawyers, was acquitted~ez_mdash~some say on the strength of her
lawyers~ez_rsquo~ portrayal of Lizzie as a respectable woman who could not
have committed such brutal acts. Local townspeople were unconvinced,
however, and Lizzie Borden was ostracized for the rest of her life.
(AP, 6/20/97)(HNPD, 8/4/98)
1893 Jun 21, George Washington
Gale Ferris, engineer, completed the construction of a 254-foot high
revolving steel wheel with 38 passenger cars, each with 40 plush
chairs, for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
(ON, 11/99, p.7)(MC, 6/21/02)
1893 Jun 26, William "Big
Bill" Broonzy, blues singer and guitarist, was born.
1893 Jun 27, The New York stock
market crashed. The crash triggered the failure of 642 banks and
over 16,000 businesses. Railroad overbuilding led to scores of
(AP, 6/27/97)(ON, 10/99, p.11)(WSJ, 2/1/00, p.B1)
1893 Jun 30, Harold Laski,
political scientist, was born. He believed the state was responsible
for social reform and wrote "Authority in the Modern State" and "The
1893 Jun 30, Pres. Cleveland
issued a proclamation calling for a special session of Congress on
August 7 to deal with the financial crises.
(ON, 10/99, p.11)
1893 Jun 30, Excelsior diamond
(blue-white 995 carats) was discovered.
1893 Jun, Pierre de Coubertin
convinced the General Assembly of the USFSA, an amateur sporting
society, to host a congress in France that would examine the issue
of amateurism in sports.
(ON, 8/07, p.3)
1893 Jun, Fridtjof Nansen left
Norway for the North Pole aboard the Fram. He theorized that the
ship would become ice-bound and cross the Arctic and the North Pole
in 3 years.
(ON, 7/05, p.1)
1893 Jul 1, Pres. Cleveland
underwent a secret oral surgery aboard the yacht Oneida for a
cancerous growth in his upper palate. The cancer operation remained
a secret until July 1, 1917, when the doctor who performed the
operation revealed the story.
(ON, 10/99, p.11)(HNQ, 11/6/99)
1893 Jul 1, Canada enacted a
riot act as part of its criminal code.
(SSFC, 7/26/09, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/lfqouh)
1893 Jul 4, A Borrelly
discovered asteroid #369 Aeria.
1893 Jul 7, In Bardwell, Ky.,
C.J. Miller, a black man accused of murdering two white girls, was
mutilated, torched and left hanging from a telegraph pole. Ida Wells
(1862-1931) was commissioned to investigate the story by the Chicago
Inter-Ocean newspaper and published her findings under the title
~ez_ldquo~History Is a Weapon.~ez_rdquo~
1893 Jul 7, Guy de Maupassant
(42), writer, died.
1893 Jul 9, Daniel Hale
Williams (1858-1931), an African-American surgeon, performed
successful heart surgery on a teenager in Chicago.
(WSJ, 11/17/07, p.W11)(http://tinyurl.com/37gnkk)
1893 Jul 17, Pres. Cleveland
underwent a 2nd oral surgery aboard the yacht Oneida in a follow-up
operation for a cancerous growth in his upper palate.
(ON, 10/99, p.11)
1893 Jul 19, Vladimir
Mayakovsky, Russian poet, was born.
1893 Jul 22, Karl Menninger,
psychiatrist and founder of the Menninger Foundation for studies
mental health problems, was born.
1893 Jul 22, Katherine Lee
Bates (1819-1910), Wellesley professor, wrote the words to the song
"America the Beautiful," while atop Pike~ez_rsquo~s Peak during a trip to
Colorado. It appeared in print on July 4, 1895. In 1904 Clarence
Barbour adapted it to the melody of Samuel Ward~ez_rsquo~s ~ez_ldquo~Materna~ez_rdquo~ (1890).
Bates~ez_rsquo~ final version was completed in 1911.
(WSJ, 9/28/01, p.W13)(SSFC, 10/21/01, Par
p.8)(AH, 10/04, p.26)
1893 Jul 26, George Grosz
(d.1959), German satiric artist and illustrator, was born. He
arrived in Berlin in 1911 and began drawing what he saw in a style
of expressionism and the journalistic style of Heinrich Zille. A
collection of his work was published in 1997 based on an exhibition
catalog titled: "The Berlin of George Grosz: Drawings, Watercolors
and Prints, 1912-1930."
(SFEC, 7/13/97, BR p.10)(HN, 7/26/01)
1893 Aug 1, Henry Perky and
William Ford patented a machine for making shredded wheat breakfast
(HN, 8/1/00)(MC, 8/1/02)
1893 Aug 7, Alfredo Catalani
(39), Italian composer, died.
1893 Aug 10, Chinese were
deported from SF under the 1892 Exclusion Act.
1893 Aug 12, Howard Smith,
actor (Harvey Griffin-Hazel), was born in Attleboro, Mass.
1893 Aug 20, Shechita (ritual
slaughtering) was prohibited in Switzerland.
1893 Aug 22, Dorothy Parker
(d.1967), poet, satirist, screenwriter and founding member of the
Algonquin Round Table, was born in West Bend, N.J. "Authors and
actors and artists and such / Never know nothing, and never know
(AP, 8/22/97)(HN, 8/22/02)
1893 Aug 24, A fire in south
Chicago left 5,000 people homeless.
1893 Aug 29, The ~ez_ldquo~clasp
locker,~ez_rdquo~ a clumsy slide fastener and forerunner to the zipper was
first patented by Whitcomb L. Judson. He demonstrated it at the
World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He invented an improved
C-Curity fastener in 1902.
(Wired, Dec., ~ez_lsquo~95, p.138)(SFEC, 6/6/99, Z1
p.10)(ON, 7/04, p.3)
1893 Aug 30, Huey P. Long,
Louisiana politician who served as governor and U.S. senator, known
as "The Kingfish," was born.
1893 Sep 4, Beatrix Potter,
English author, first told the story of Peter Rabbit in the form of
a "picture letter" to Noel Moore, the son of Potter's former
governess. A 2nd illustrated letter the same month later became ~ez_ldquo~The
Tale of Jeremy Fisher.~ez_rdquo~ The ~ez_ldquo~Tale of Peter Rabbit~ez_rdquo~ was published in
(HN, 9/4/00)(AP, 9/4/04)(Econ, 1/6/07, p.67)
1893 Sep 6, Floriano Vieira
Peixoto, acting president of Brazil, faced a rebellion by officers
of his navy led by Admiral Custodio Jose de Mello.
(ON, 12/06, p.11)
1893 Sep 7, The Rhine river was
officially closed for bathing. It had been determined the Rhine was
infected with cholera.
1893 Sep 9, Frances Cleveland,
wife of President Cleveland, gave birth to a daughter, Esther, in
the White House. It was the first time a president~ez_rsquo~s child was born
in the executive mansion.
1893 Sep 14, In Virginia the
Randolph-Macon Women~ez_rsquo~s College opened under Pres. William Waugh
Smith. The first session began with 36 boarding students and
1893 Sep 16, Albert
Szent-Gyorgyi, biochemist who isolated vitamin C, was born.
1893 Sep 16, More than 100,000
settlers ("Sooners") claimed land in the Cherokee Strip during the
first day of the Oklahoma land rush.
(AP, 9/16/97)(HN, 9/16/98)
1893 Sep 19, New Zealand became
the first nation to grant women the right to vote.
(SFC, 8/15/98, p.E4)(HN, 9/19/01)
1893 Sep 21, Frank Duryea drove
the 1st US made gas propelled car. [see Sep 22]
1893 Sep 22, Bicycle makers
Charles and Frank Duryea showed off the first American automobile
produced for sale to the public by taking it on a maiden run through
the streets of Springfield, Massachusetts.
1893 Oct 1, In the 3rd worst
hurricane in US history 1,800 people were killed in
1893 Oct 6, Nabisco Foods
invented Cream of Wheat.
1893 Oct 6, Ford Madox Brown
(b.1821), English painter, died in London. In 2010 Angela Thirlwell
authored ~ez_ldquo~Into the Frame: The Four Loves of Ford Madox Brown.~ez_rdquo~
(Econ, 3/13/10, p.87)(http://tinyurl.com/yhpg5ut)
1893 Oct 15, The NY Times
declared Coney Island ~ez_ldquo~Sodom-by-the-Sea~ez_rdquo~ for the thrilling rides
that let men and women clutch each other.
(Econ, 9/1/07, p.28)(http://tinyurl.com/39yjht)
1893 Oct 18, Lucy [Blackwell-]
Stone, US abolitionist and feminist, died.
1893 Oct 18, Charles F. Gounod,
French composer (Faust, Romeo et Juliette), died at 75.
1893 Oct 27, Hurricane hit the
US coast between Savannah, Ga., and Charleston, SC.
1893 Oct 27, Gustav Mahler
(1860-1911), Austrian composer, conducted a revised version of his
First Symphony at Hamburg's Ludwig Konzerthaus, still in its
1893 Oct 28, Peter Ilyich
Tchaikovsky conducted the first public performance of his Symphony
Number Six in B minor ("Pathetique") in St. Petersburg, Russia, just
nine days before his death.
1893 Oct 30, Charles Atlas,
[Angelo Siciliano], US bodybuilder, was born.
1893 Oct, Floriano Vieira
Peixoto, acting president of Brazil, contacted his ambassador in
Washington with instructions to buy a fleet of warships for a new
navy. Dr. Salvador de Mendonca soon authorized Charles R. Flint, an
American businessman, to purchase ships and weapons for Brazil. Over
the next 21 days Flint spent $1.5 million acquiring ships and guns
including the new Zalinski dynamite gun.
(ON, 12/06, p.11)
1893 Nov 6, Composer Peter
Ilyich Tchaikovsky died in St. Petersburg, Russia, at age 53. In
2000 Alexander Poznansky authored "Tchaikovsky Through Others~ez_rsquo~
(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.18)(AP, 11/6/97)(SFEC, 6/11/00, Par
1893 Nov 7, The state of
Colorado granted women residents the right to vote.
1893 Nov 7, In Barcelona,
Spain, 23 people including 9 women, were killed at Liceo Opera House
by a bomb thrown by anarchist Salvador Franch.
1893 Nov 13, Queen
Lili~ez_rsquo~uokalani met with Albert Willis, the new US Minister to Hawaii,
and refused pardon for the Provisional Government.
(ON, 11/02, p.7)
1893 Nov 20, The struggling
Western League of Professional Baseball Clubs, meeting in Detroit,
Michigan, elected Byron Bancroft Johnson (29), a former ballplayer
and Cincinnati sportswriter, as president. He had been recommended
by Charles Comiskey, a potential investor in the league and manager
of the National League~ez_rsquo~s Cincinnati Reds.
(ON, 6/09, p.10)
1893 Nov 22, M. Kaganovitsj
Kogan, people's commissioner for Stalin, was born.
1893 Nov 25, Joseph W. Krutch,
US naturalist, was born.
1893 Dec 2, Pauline C. Fryer
(b.1833), stage performer and Union spy during the Civil War, died
in San Francisco.
1893 Dec 5, 1st electric car
was built in Toronto. It could go 15 miles between charges.
1893 Dec 9, Auguste Vaillant
(b.1861) threw a nail bomb from the second row of the public gallery
in the Palais Bourbon into the chamber: 20 deputies were slightly
injured. A symbolic gesture, meant to wound rather than kill,
Vaillant was condemned to death, and guillotined February 5 1894.
The deputies use the event to suppress the anarchist press.
1893 Dec 12, Edward G.
Robinson, actor famous for gangster roles, was born.
1893 Dec 15, Anton Dvorak's
Symphony No. 9 in E-minor, Opus 95, "From the New World," was
performed during a "public rehearsal" at New York's Carnegie Hall
(the official world premiere was the next day).
1893 Dec 20, The 1st state
anti-lynching statute was approved in Georgia.
1893 Dec 23, The Engelbert
Humperdinck opera " Haensel und Gretel " was first performed, in
1893 Dec 24, Henry Ford
completed his 1st useful gas motor.
1893 Dec 25, Robert Leroy
Ripley, artist, author and radio broadcaster (Believe It or Not),
was born in Santa Rosa, Calif.
1893 Dec 26, Mao Tse-tung,
founding father of the People~ez_rsquo~s Republic of China (PM
1949-76), was born in Shaoshan.
(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.44)(HN, 12/26/98)(SFC, 8/24/99,
1893 Dorothy Rothschild Parker,
American author, was born. She observed that: "Most good women are
hidden treasures who are only safe because nobody looks for them."
(WUD, 1994, p.1049)
1893 Chaim Soutine (d.1943),
artist, was born in Minsk. He studied art in Vilnius and moved to
Paris. His work is seen in 3 distinct ways: as a crude primitive, as
a master continuing in the French tradition, and as a prophet who
helped form later painters.
(WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)
1893 Mary Jane West (aka Mae
West) was born in Brooklyn, NY. She wrote the plays "The Drag" and
"Sex" for which she was convicted on obscenity charges. She starred
in 8 Hollywood films. In 1997 Emily Wortis Leider wrote her
biography: "Becoming Mae West: The Shaping of an Icon."
(SFEC, 6/1/97, BR p.3)
1893 Gustave Caillebotte
(1848-1894), French Impressionist painter, completed ~ez_ldquo~Regatta at
Argenteuil,~ez_rdquo~ in oil on canvas.
(SFC, 6/1/13, p.E1)
1893 Mary Cassatt painted a
58-foot "Modern Woman" for the Women~ez_rsquo~s Building of the Chicago
(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)
1893 Cezanne painted "Rideau,
Cruchon, et Compotier" (Still Life With Curtain, Pitcher and Bowl of
Fruit). In 1999 it was auctioned for $60.5 million.
(SFC, 5/11/99, p.A3)(WSJ, 5/11/99, p.B4)
1893 Claude Monet created his
"water garden" at Giverney.
(WSJ, 7/1/99, p.A21)
1893 Edvard Munch (1863-1944),
Norwegian artist, painted "The Scream." The red sky in the painting
was later said to have resulted from his views of the red skies over
Norway during the 1883 volcano explosion at Krakatoa. In 2012 an
1895 version sold for a record $119,922,500 at auction in New York
(AP, 12/10/03)(AP, 5/3/12)
1893 Camille Pissarro painted
"Place du Havre, Paris." It was the first of four urban scenes of
his lifetime and was painted from his hotel window across from the
St. Lazare train station.
1893 John Singer Sargent
painted his portrait of "Elizabeth Winthrop."
(SFC, 4/11/01, p.E1)
1893 Charles Frye and his wife
began their art collection at the Chicago World~ez_rsquo~s Fair where they
bought Edmond Louyot~ez_rsquo~s "Small Girl with Pigs." They added mostly
German or German-schooled works by painters such as Franz von Stuck,
Franz von Lembach, and others of the Munich Secession movement.
(WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)
1893 German artist Franz von
Stuck painted "Sin," a shocking work of a bare-breasted woman whose
shoulders were entwined with a gleaming-eyed snake.
(WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)
1893 Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Lew Wallace wrote
"The Prince of India."
(HT, 3/97, p.66)
1893 Charles Young wrote
"Lessons in Astronomy."
(NH, 10/98, p.87)
1893 Emile Zola completed the
last volume of "Les Rougon-Macquart," his saga of a French family
branching throughout society during the Second Empire.
(WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A13)
1893 Claude Debussy completed
his only opera: "Pelleas et Melisande." It was based on a symbolist
drama by Maeterlinck.
(SFEC,11/9/97, DB p.13)
1893 Mildred and Patty Hill
wrote a song called "Good Morning to All" as a welcome song
for schoolchildren. It later became the "Happy Birthday" Song with a
1935 copyright on the lyrics.
(SSFC, 10/5/03, Par p.24)
1893 Engelbert Humperdinck
composed his opera "Hansel and Gretel" with a libretto by his
sister, Adelheid Wette.
(WSJ, 10/27/98, p.A20)
1893 The SF Japanese Tea Garden
was built in Golden Gate Park as part of the 1894 Midwinter Fair. It
was designed by Makoto Hagiwara.
(SFC, 7/29/97, p.A6)(BS, 5/3/98, p.5R)(Ind,
1893 Chicago~ez_rsquo~s new Monadnock
Building carried its 17 stories on ground-floor walls 6 feet thick.
(SFC, 8/23/08, p.F4)
1893 The Field Museum of
Natural History opened in Chicago. It was founded during the World~ez_rsquo~s
Columbian Exposition and named after department store magnate
(WSJ, 8/30/04, p.A1)(SFC, 7/6/13, p.A10)
1893 The Chicago Stock
Exchange, designed by Louis Sullivan, was completed. It was
demolished in 1972.
(WSJ, 10/8/03, p.D6)
1893 Charlie Wacker, director
of the World's Columbian Exposition and a friend of Louis Glunz, was
instrumental in making Louis a bottler of Schlitz beer for the
1893 At the Chicago Exposition
Milton Hershey was impressed with an exhibition featuring
chocolate-making machinery from Germany and commented to his cousin,
Frank Snavely, "Caramels are only a fad. Chocolate is a permanent
thing." With that, Hershey decided to go into the chocolate
business, purchasing the German-made machinery and installing it at
his Lancaster Caramel Company in Pennsylvania. With the help of
expert chocolate makers, Hershey was soon producing
chocolate-covered caramels, called "novelties." In 1900, Hershey
sold the Lancaster Caramel Company for $1 million, but retained the
chocolate-making machinery. Soon thereafter, he launched the Hershey
Chocolate Company and built a town around it, Hershey, Pennsylvania.
1893 Farida Mazar Spyropoulos,
also performing under the stage name Fatima, appeared as Little
Egypt~ez_rdquo~ at the "Street in Cairo" exhibition on the Midway at the
World's Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago.
1893 F.W. Rueckheim introduced
a confection of popcorn, peanuts and molasses at the Columbian
Exposition in Chicago. It was given the name Cracker Jack in 1896.
(AH, 10/04, p.71)
1893 S.S. McClure (1857-1949),
an Irish immigrant, and John Sanborn Philips (1861-1949) founded
McClure~ez_rsquo~s Magazine, an American illustrated monthly periodical. The
magazine continued to 1929.
1893 There was a Parliament of
World Religions but it failed to develop a consensus and
(SFEC, 6/22/97, Z1 p.3)
1893 The Anti-Saloon League
formed in Ohio. It became national in 1895 when it merged with an
organization in Washington D.C.
(AH, 2/05, p.72)
1893 Swami Vivekananda was sent
to Chicago by his guru, Ramakrishna, from India to spread his
teachings on yoga.
(WSJ, 6/23/00, p.A1)
1893 Frederick Jackson Turner,
American historian, defined elements of the American character drawn
from the country~ez_rsquo~s encounter with the frontier: "that dominant
individualism... that buoyancy and exuberance which came with
freedom - these are the traits of the frontier, or traits called out
elsewhere because of the existence of the frontier."
(WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-12)
1893 Chatauqua, a nationwide
traveling lecture and entertainment program, came to Ashland,
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T3)
1893 The governor of Texas said
the "mission of the concealed deadly weapon is murder. To check it
is the duty of every self-respecting, law-abiding man."
1893 The baseball pitching
mound was moved back 5 feet to 60 feet 6 inches from home plate.
(WSJ, 4/2/99, p.W7)
1893 The US Supreme Court ruled
that the tomato must be considered a vegetable for purposes of trade
because it was used as a vegetable.
(SFC, 5/5/99, Z1 p.3)
1893 Lili~ez_rsquo~uokalani (1838-1917),
the last monarch of Hawaii, surrendered at gunpoint to American
(WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)
1893 A US commemorative
half-dollar featured Christopher Columbus.
(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)
1893 Buck Duke began buying up
farmland in rural New Jersey. His daughter Doris Duke died in 1993
and was said to be the richest woman in the world. In 2003 Duke
Farms opened 700 of 2,700 acres to the public.
(WSJ, 10/1/03, p.D9)
1893 Chicago was engulfed in
the Panic of 1893 after the close the World~ez_rsquo~s Columbian Exposition.
(Hem., 7/95, p.79)(CFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.89)
1893 Emma Goldman was jailed
for exhorting poor people to demand bread in the US.
(WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)
1893 The National Cordage Co.
was reorganized after the market panic as US Cordage.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, R46)
1893 Pickard China was
established in Edgerton, Wisconsin, by Wilder Austin Pickard, and
moved to Chicago in 1897. For some forty years the Pickard China
Studio, as the firm was then known, was a decorating company
specializing in hand painted art pieces, dessert and tea sets.
1893 Richard W. Sears adopted
the corporate name of Sears, Roebuck and Co. Sears had begun selling
watches in North Redwood, Minn. in 1886 and opened a Chicago
headquarters after hiring watchmaker Alvah C. Roebuck in 1887. In
1888 the 1st Sears catalog sold watches and jewelry.
(SFC, 11/18/04, p.A1)
1893 Otto H.L. Wernicke founded
the Wernicke Furniture Co. in Minneapolis, Minn., to manufacture his
patented elastic bookcases, later known as stackable bookcases. In
1897 he moved the business to Grand Rapids, Mich.
(SFC, 8/9/06, p.G3)
1893 Charles Duryea (1861-1938)
and his brother Jack were the first to successfully build a
gasoline-engine motor vehicle in Springfield, Mass.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1893 Henry D. Perky invented a
machine to make what he called "little whole wheat mattresses,"
later known as shredded wheat.
(SFC, 6/10/00, p.B3)
1893 Rudolph Diesel, German
engineer, developed his diesel engine.
(WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)
1893 The box kite was invented.
(SFC, 2/5/97, z-1 p.7)
1893 The first vasectomy was
(SFC, 8/16/97, p.E3)
1893 An oil field was
discovered in Los Angeles, California.
(SSFC, 10/29/06, p.F6)
1893 The San Andreas Fault in
California was detected.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.17)
1893 In San Francisco a 2-story
wooden building was built about this time at 1690 Post St. It was
owned by black businessman Charles Sullivan, who later rented the
downstairs storefront to James ~ez_ldquo~Jimbo~ez_rdquo~ Edwards, who then
started selling chicken and waffles. From 1950 to 1965 it became
Jimbo~ez_rsquo~s Bop City, a late-night hangout for jazz musicians. In 1980
the building was moved to 1712-1716 Filmore St. and became home to
Marcus Books. In 2014 Jimbo~ez_rsquo~s Bop City and Marcus Books were named
SF historic landmarks.
(SFC, 1/30/14, p.D3)
1893 In San Francisco the
cascade at Stow Lake in Golden Gate Park was first turned on. In
1894 it was dedicated and named Huntington Falls after Collis P.
Huntington, who contributed $25,000 for the project. The falls
collapsed in 1962 and were turned off for 22 years.
(Ind, 10/28/00, 5A)(SSFC, 6/7/09, DB p.46)
1893 In San Francisco Fr.
Edward Allan, SJ (1849-1911) took over the administration of St.
(GenIV, Winter 04/05)
1893 Chicago's Mayor Carter
Harrison was killed, the 1st US mayor shot in a political killing.
(SFC, 11/28/03, p.E2)
1893 Francis Parkman (b.1823),
American historian, died. His work covered in part France's struggle
for possession of North America.
(WUD, 1994, p.1049)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)
1893 Antonio Vicente Mendes
Maciel, aka Antonio Conselheiro, founded the settlement of Canudos
in the "certao" region of Bahia, Brazil. He was a charismatic
religious leader and established an independent community of some
25,000. the movement favored the deposed monarchy and was crushed by
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)(Econ, 1/10/04, p.74)
1893 John Tyndall, British
physicist, died from an overdose of chloral given to him by his
young wife, Louise, who mixed up the chloral (a small dose for
insomnia at night) with his normal big dose of magnesia (for his
indigestion in the morning). "Yes, my poor darling," he said, "you
have killed your John." Tyndall appreciated the powerful effect that
carbon dioxide had on the Earth and even suggested that it might be
the explanation for the ice ages.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.28)
1893 The Durand line, drawn by
British diplomat Sir Mortimer Durand, fixed the borders of
Afghanistan with British India, splitting Pushtun tribal areas and
leaving half of these Afghans in what is now Pakistan. The agreement
was first signed by Sir Mortimer Durand and Abdur Rahman Khan, the
ruler of Afghanistan.
p.44)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.34)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.18)
1893 The first electric bread
toasters were made in England about this time.
(SFC, 1/23/08, p.G4)
1893 Lord Stanley, the 6th
governor general of Canada, established the Stanley Cup. It was
presented to the champion hockey league team. The Stanley Cup, the
trophy of professional ice hockey~ez_lsquo~s championship, is named for
Frederick Arthur, Lord Stanley of Preston, governor general of
Canada. The trophy was first played for in 1893-94 and was won by
the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association team. Since 1917, it has
gone to the winner of the National Hockey League playoffs.
(WSJ, 9/6/96, p.A1)(HNQ, 7/28/00)
1893 China~ez_rsquo~s Empress Dowager
Cixi bestowed on a doctor in the imperial household the right to
collect a prized medicinal herb on the Diaoyu islands, known to
Japan as the Senkaku islands.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.53)
1893 The baronial-style Royal
Victoria Hospital was built in Montreal, Canada, through the
financial donations of Scottish immigrants: the cousins Donald
Smith, 1st Lord Strathcona, and George Stephen, 1st Lord Mount
1893 France began colonizing
West Africa and Timbuktu came under French rule until Mali became
independent in 1960.
1893 The first automobile
license plates were issued in Paris, France. The first
American city to require drivers to be licensed and register their
vehicle was Boston.
1893 The Royal Hong Kong Police
set up a police training school for its British led force.
(WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A12)
1893 The Kresty Prison in St.
Petersburg, Russia, was built to hold political prisoners. In 2001
some 8,800 men were crammed into it with as many as 14 men per cell.
(SFC, 5/23/01, p.A10)
1893 The Russalka, a 19th
century ironclad, Russian vessel sank in the Baltic Sea with 177
sailors aboard. In 2003 it was discovered off the Finnish coast.
1893 Many Russian pilgrims for
the ceremony of the Holy Fire Shrine at the Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem died in a snowstorm north of Jerusalem.
(Econ, 12/16/06, p.61)
1893 Mohandas Gandhi (24) moved
to South Africa to work as a legal advisor to an Indian businessman.
(ON, 9/03, p.1)
1893 Johan August Strindberg
(43), Swedish writer, married Frida Uhl (20), the daughter of a
renowned Viennese theater critic and newspaper editor. The marriage
lasted 4 years. In 2000 Monica Strauss authored "Cruel Banquet: The
Life and Loves of Frida Strindberg."
(SFEC, 8/13/00, BR p.3)
1893 Vietnam~ez_rsquo~s highland town of
Dalat was founded as a retreat from the tropical coast.
(WSJ, 1/3/06, p.A14)
1893-1894 During the economic crisis of 1893-94,
groups of jobless men organized into so-called "armies" with their
leaders referred to as "generals."
1893-1894 Clarence Bloomfield Moore excavated 83
Indian mounds in Florida using his steamer Gopher of Philadelphi as
a research station.
(AM, 7/00, p.56)
1893-1897 Grover Cleveland became the 24th
President of the US.
(A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)
1893-1897 Adlai Ewing Stevenson (b.Oct 23, 1835)
(D) served as 23rd VP.
1893-1899 Fred Holland Day and Herbert Copeland
founded the avant-garde publishing house Copeland & Day. [see
(Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)
1893-1924 Henry Cabot Lodge was the Republican
senator from Massachusetts.
(SFC, 5/7/96, p.A-6)
1893-1932 Helen Hathaway, American writer: "More
tears have been shed over men's lack of manners than their lack of
1893-1935 Huey P. Long, American politician: "It
ain~ez_rsquo~t enough to get the breaks. You gotta know how to use ~ez_lsquo~em."
1893-1939 Ernst Toller, German poet and
dramatist: "History is the propaganda of the victors."
1893-1944 Israel Joshua Singer, brother of Isaac
Bashevis Singer, wrote realistic novels of in the mainstream Yiddish
(WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)
1893-1952 Fulton Oursler, American journalist and
author: "We crucify ourselves between two thieves: regret for
yesterday and fear of tomorrow."
1893-1962 Elbert Botts, Caltrans chemist, died. He
invented the "Botts dots," highway lane markers that were first
installed in California in 1966.
(SFC, 1/18/97, p.A15)
1893-1963 Evelyn Scott, American author: "I
realized a long time ago that a belief which does not spring from a
conviction in the emotions is no belief at all."
1893-1967 Charles Burchfield, American painter. He
looked for essences in nature and saw a "Buzzing, blooming confusion
of energies." He was the nearest American painter to the style of
1893-1970 Vera Brittain, British author: "Politics
are usually the executive expression of human immaturity."
1893-1973 Samuel Nathaniel Behrman, American
author and dramatist: "There are two kinds of people in one~ez_rsquo~s life
-- people whom one keeps waiting~ez_mdash~and the people for whom one waits."
1893-1976 Mao Tse Tung was born on Dec 26. He led
the Chinese Communists to victory over the Nationalists of Chiang
Kai-shek . He was Chairman of the Party from 1943-1976 and Chairman
of the People~ez_rsquo~s Republic of China from 1949-1959.
(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.44)(WUD, 1994, p. 874)
1893-1977 Gen. Lewis B. Hershey, Selective Service
director: "A boy becomes an adult three years before his parents
think he does, and about two years after he thinks he does."
1893-1990 Dr. Karl Menninger, American
psychiatrist: "I never could see why people were so happy about
Dickens~ez_rsquo~ ~ez_lsquo~A Christmas Carol~ez_rsquo~ because I never had any confidence that
Scrooge was going to be different the next day."
1893-1991 Martha Graham, American modern dance
pioneer: "Censorship is the height of vanity." [see 1893-1991]
1893-1996 Geoffrey Dearmer, poet and BBC radio
editor. He fought during WW I at Gallipoli and the Somme and wrote
the poems "The Sentinel" and "The Somme."
(SFC, 8/20/96, p.A18)
1894 Jan 7, One of the earliest
motion picture experiments took place at the Thomas Edison studio in
West Orange, N.J., as comedian Fred Ott was filmed sneezing.
1894 Jan 8, Fire caused serious
damage at the World~ez_rsquo~s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
1894 Jan 9, The "Edison
Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze" was released in movie theaters.
1894 Jan 9, Georges Feydeau's
"Un Fil a la Patte," ("Cat Among the Pigeons") premiered in Paris.
1894 Jan 27, The privately
financed Mid-Winter International Exposition opened in San
Francisco~ez_rsquo~s Golden Gate Park. It featured an Electric Tower, a Fine
Arts Building and a Royal Pavilion. The Tennis courts were situated
at their current site. It was the result of a campaign led by
Michael de Young, founding publisher of the SF Chronicle. The
Egyptian-styled fine arts building became the M.H. de Young Memorial
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.4)(SFC, 7/29/97,
p.A5,6)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.A22)(SFC, 7/5/14, p.C2)
1894 Jan 30, Boris III
(d.1943), czar of Bulgaria (1918-43), was born.
(SFC, 9/6/00, p.A10)(MC, 1/30/02)
1894 Jan 30, Pneumatic hammer
was patented by Charles King of Detroit. [see May 19, 1892]
1894 Jan, US Rear Admiral
Andrew Benham led a fleet of US Navy ships into the harbor of Rio de
Janeiro escorting American merchants ships. The outgunned Brazilian
rebel fleet made no serious challenge.
(ON, 12/06, p.12)
1894 Jan, The "Prayer Book
Cross" sculpture, a sandstone copy of a Celtic cross, was made for
San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s Mid-Winter Fair and remained in Golden Gate Park.
The cross was built to commemorate a June 23, 1579, sermon given
somewhere around Point Reyes by Francis Fletcher, the chaplain of
the Golden Hind, the first-ever Protestant service in North
(SFC, 6/12/99, p.A20)(SFC, 8/10/13, p.C3)
1894 Jan, San Francisco
quarrymen George and Harry Gray caused a rock slide that crushed a
duplex at 312˝ and 314˝ Vallejo St.
(SFC, 2/22/14, p.C3)
1894 Jan, The Japanese Tea
Garden in San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s Golden Gate Park was designed for the
Mid-Winter Exposition by Makoto Hagiwara, inventor of the fortune
(SFC, 2/26/99, p.A24)
1894 Feb 3, Norman Rockwell,
artist and illustrator, was born. He painted scenes of small-town
America. Most of his work appeared in the Saturday Evening Post.
1894 Feb 4, Antoine J "Adolphe"
Sax (b.1814), Belgium-born instrument maker (saxophone), died in
Paris. In 2005 Michael Segell authored ~ez_rdquo~The Devil~ez_rsquo~s Horn: The Story
of the Saxophone, From Noisy Novelty to King of Cool.~ez_rdquo~
1894 Feb 7, The US House of
Representatives passed a resolution that prevented the sending of US
troops to Hawaii to restore Queen Lili~ez_rsquo~uokalani.
(ON, 11/02, p.7)
1894 Feb 8, The US Enforcement
Act was repealed making it easier to disenfranchise blacks.
1894 Feb 10, Harold MacMillan,
British prime minister from 1957 to 1963, was born.
(HN, 2/10/97)(HN, 2/10/99)
1894 Feb 12, In Paris, France,
anarchist Emile Henry hurled a bomb into the Cafe Terminus killing
one and injuring twenty.
1894 Feb 13, In Brazil peace
talks between Pres. Peixoto and navy rebels broke down completely
when Admiral Saldanha da Gama led a landing party that stormed a
republican fort at Nictheroy on the Guanabara Bay opposite from Rio
de Janeiro. The rebels were driven back.
(ON, 12/06, p.12)
1894 Feb 14, Jack Benny
(d.1974), comedian, radio and television performer... and violinist,
was born as Benjamin Kubelsky in Waukegan, Ill: "Age is strictly a
case of mind over matter. If you don't mind, it doesn't matter."
(HN, 2/14/01)(AP, 2/14/08)
1894 Feb 14, Mary Lucinda
Cardwell Dawson, was born. She founded the National Negro Opera
Company (NNOC) and was appointed to President John F. Kennedy's
National Committee on Music.
1894 Feb 20, Curt Richter,
biologist, was born.
1894 Feb 25, Meher Baba,
spiritual leader, was born.
1894 Feb 28, Ben Hecht
(d.1964), American author and screenwriter, was born. "There~ez_rsquo~s one
thing that keeps surprising you about stormy old friends after they
die - their silence."
(AP, 11/17/00)(HN, 2/28/01)
1894 Mar 3, The first Greek
newspaper in America was published on this day. It was known as the
"New York Atlantis".
(HC, Internet, 3/3/98)(SC, 3/3/02)
1894 Mar 3, British PM William
Gladstone submitted his resignation to Queen Victoria, ending his
fourth and final premiership. Gladstone was later quoted as saying
this year: ~ez_ldquo~Do not let me be told that one nation has no authority
over another. Every nation, and if need be every human being, has
authority on behalf of humanity and justice.~ez_rdquo~
(AP, 3/3/08)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.98)
1894 Mar 4, There was a great
fire in Shanghai; over 1,000 buildings were destroyed.
1894 Mar 8, NY passed the 1st
state dog license law. [see Mar 10]
1894 Mar 10, New York Gov.
Roswell P. Flower signed the nation's first dog-licensing law. The
license fee was $2, renewable annually for $1.
1894 Mar 12, Edward W. White
(1845-1921) was sworn in as associate Justice on the US Supreme
Court. He became Chief Justice in 1910.
1894 Mar 12, Coca-Cola was sold
in bottles for the first time.
1894 Mar 13, The Dynamite
Squadron of ships, purchased and outfitted in the US, steamed into
the harbor of Rio de Janeiro. Rebel sailors immediately surrendered
in exchange for safe passage to Argentina aboard Portuguese
warships. The rebellion ended a weeks later when the rebel flagship,
Aquidbada, was captured off Desterro by the American crew of the
Nictheroy, the former Morgan steamship El Cid.
(ON, 12/06, p.12)
1894 Mar 16, The opera "Thais,"
composed by Jules Massenet, premiered in Paris. The libretto was by
Louis Gallet. It was based on a novel by Anatole France. The heroine
is a 4th century Egyptian courtesan.
(AP, 3/16/00)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 12/19/02,
1894 Mar 17, US and China
signed a treaty preventing Chinese laborers from entering US. The
Chinese government abandoned its migrant workers in exchange for a
profitable trade deal with the US.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.610)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M5)
1894 Mar 19, Jackie "Moms"
Mabley, comedienne (Merv Griffin Show), was born in Brevard, SC.
1894 Mar 20, Lajos Kossuth
(91), Hungarian freedom fighter, president (1849), died.
1894 Mar 22, Hockey~ez_rsquo~s first
Stanley Cup championship game was played; the home team Montreal
Amateur Athletic Association defeated the Ottawa Capitals, 3-1. [see
1894 Mar 24, Underwriters
Laboratories (UL), an independent product safety certification
organization, conducted its first test on non-combustible insulation
material after founder William Henry Merrill opened the Electrical
Bureau of the National Board of fire Underwriters.
1894 Mar 25 Jacob S. Coxey
began leading an "army" of unemployed from Massillon, Ohio, to
Washington, D.C., to demand help from the federal government.
Coxey advocated, as a way to provide jobs and increase the amount of
money in circulation, a public works program of road construction
and local improvements to be financed by the issuance of $500
million in legal tender notes. Coxey's Army of unemployed disbanded
when Coxey and two other leaders were arrested for trespassing on
the White House lawn in 1894.
(AP, 3/23/97)(HNQ, 8/24/99)
1894 Apr 1, The manufacture and
sale of Kinetoscopes and films were assigned to the Edison
Manufacturing Company, thus moving them out of the experimental
laboratory. The Kinetograph Department, a new division in the Edison
Company, was launched.
1894 Apr 5, 11 strikers were
killed in riot at Connellsville, Penn.
1894 Apr 5, Start of Sherlock
Holmes' "Adventure of Empty House."
1894 Apr 14, Thomas Edison made
his first public showing of the kinetoscope. The first Kinetoscope
Parlor opened in New York City where you could view moving film
through a magnifying lens. Thomas Edison invented the Kinetograph in
1889, a cinema camera that utilized celluloid roll film that had
been developed by George Eastman in 1888. The Kinetoscope, developed
by Edison in 1891, was a peephole viewer in which the developed film
moved continuously under a magnifying glass. The Cinematographe and
Vitascope were later machines that actually projected images onto a
screen. The Stroboscope and Phenakistoscope were devices developed
in 1832, pre-dating photography, that attempted to show apparent
motion from a series of drawings on a revolving disc.
(HN, 4/14/98)(HNQ, 2/17/00)
1894 Apr 17, Nikita S
Khrushchev, Soviet premier (1958-64) during the Cold War, was born.
1894 Apr 19, Jules Massenet's
opera "Werther," premiered in NYC.
1894 Apr 21, George Bernard
Shaw's "Arms & the Man," premiered in London.
1894 Apr 26, Rudolf Hess, Nazi
leader, was born. He was the Hitler deputy who flew to England to
negotiate an Anglo-German treaty.
(HN, 4/26/99)(MC, 4/26/02)
1894 Apr 29, The Commonweal of
Christ, called Coxey's Army, arrived in Wash, DC, 500 strong to
protest unemployment; Coxey was arrested for trespassing at Capitol.
1894 Apr 30, Giuseppe Farnara
and Francis Polti were convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison
for attempted terrorism in London.
(Econ, 5/3/08, p.65)
1894 May 10, Dimitri Tiomkin,
composer (Academy Award 1954- High and Mighty), was born in Russia.
1894 May 11, Martha Graham,
choreographer (Appalachian Spring), was born in Allegheny, Penn.
1894 May 11, Mari Sandoz,
writer and biographer (Crazy Horse), was born.
1894 May 11, Workers at the
Pullman Palace Car Company in Illinois went on strike. The American
Railway Union, led by Eugene Debs, subsequently began a boycott of
Pullman that blocked freight traffic in and out of Chicago. Pullman
had cut wages due to the recession but left high rents in his
company town. Mail cars were coupled to Pullman cars and Pres.
Cleveland ordered federal troops onto the trains to insure the
delivery of mail. Illinois Gov. John Peter Altgeld opposed
Cleveland~ez_rsquo~s plans. 34 union workers were killed when federal troops
(AP, 5/11/97)(SFC, 12/3/98, p.A3)(SFC, 10/4/02,
1894 May 14, Fire in Boston
bleachers spread to 170 adjoining buildings.
1894 May 15, Katherine Anne
Porter (d.1980), American author, was born. She is best remembered
for her book "Ship of Fools." "Love must be learned, and learned
again and again; there is no end to it. Hate needs no instruction,
but wants only to be provoked." "I do not understand the world, but
I watch its progress."
(AP, 1/25/98)(AP, 3/4/99)(HN, 5/15/99)
1894 May 21, In France
anarchist Emile Henry (22) went to the guillotine, his last words
being: ~ez_ldquo~Courage camarades! Vive l'anarchie!~ez_rdquo~
1894 May 25, Dirk Vansina,
Flemish playwright (Verschaeve Gives Evidence), was born.
1894 May 27, (Samuel) Dashiell
Hammett (d.1961), detective writer was born in Maryland. His work
include "The Maltese Falcon," "The Continental Op," and "The Dain
(WUD, 1994, p.641)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A15)(HNPD,
1894 May 29, Bea Lillie, comic
actress, was born.
1894 May 29, Josef von
Sternberg, film director (Blue Angel), was born.
1894 May 31, Fred Allen [John
Florence Sullivan], American comedian, was born.
1894 May 31, The US Senate
passed a resolution encouraging Hawaii to establish its own form of
government without interference from the US.
(ON, 11/02, p.7)
1894 May 31, Victor Horsley,
medical researcher, published a report in Nature indicating that
cats shot through the head stop breathing and that resuscitative
efforts helped them survive.
(WSJ, 8/21/96, p.A15)
1894 Jun 4, Blanch Knopf,
publishing CEO (Knopf), was born.
1894 Jun 8, Erwin Schulhoff
(d.1942), composer, was born in Prague. He composed a body of
jazz-inspired music that included "Rag Music" and "String Quartet
No. 1." http://www.fuguemasters.com/schulhoff.html
(WSJ, 3/14/97, p.A11)
1894 Jun 13, Mark Van Doren
(d.1972), American poet, writer and educator, was born. "There are
two statements about human beings that are true: that all human
beings are alike, and that all are different. On those two facts all
human wisdom is founded."
(AP, 5/30/00)(HN, 6/13/01)
1894 Jun 17, 1st US
poliomyelitis epidemic broke out in Rutland, Vermont.
1894 Jun 20, George Delacorte,
philanthropist, publisher (Dell Books), was born in NYC.
1894 Jun 23, Edward VIII [Duke
of Windsor], King of England, was born. He abdicated his throne for
American Wallis Simpson.
1894 Jun 23, Alfred Kinsey,
zoologist and sociologist, was born.
1894 Jun 24, Sadi Carnot
(b.1837), French Pres. (1887-1894), was assassinated by an Italian
(AH, 10/01, p.25)(NG, 11/04,
1894 Jun 26, The American
Railway Union with 125,000 workers, led by Eugene Debs, called a
general strike in sympathy with Pullman workers that blocked freight
traffic in and out of Chicago. [see May 11]
(AP, 6/26/97)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)
1894 Jun 26, Karl Benz of
Germany received a US patent for a gasoline-driven auto.
1894 Jun 28, Labor Day was
established as a holiday for federal employees on the first Monday
of September. The U.S. Congress passed an act making the first
Monday in September a legal holiday.
(AP, 9/5/97)(HNPD, 9/5/98)
1894 Jun 30, Gavrilo Princip,
Bosnian assassin (arch-duke Franz Ferdinand), was born.
1894 Jun 30, Korea declared
independence from China and asked for Japanese aid.
1894 Jul 2, Andre Kertesz,
photographer, was born.
1894 Jul 2, The US Government
obtained an injunction against striking Pullman Workers.
1894 Jul 4, San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s
Mid-Winter Fair at Golden Gate Park closed down. More than 1.3
million people had attended.
(Ind, 10/28/00, 5A)(SFC, 7/5/14, p.C2)
1894 Jul 4, The Provisional
Government under Judge Stanford B. Dole declared Hawaii a republic.
(HN, 7/4/98)(ON, 11/02, p.7)
1894 Jul 4, Elwood Haynes
successfully tested one of 1st US autos at 6 MPH.
1894 Jul 9, Dorothy Thompson,
journalist, writer and radio commentator, was born.
1894 Jul 16, Many negro miners
in Alabama were killed by striking white miners.
1894 Jul 17, Georges Lemaitre,
Belgian astronomer, was born.
1894 Jul 18, Charles Marie
Leconte de Lisle (born 1818), French poet, died.
(MC, 7/18/02)(WUD, 1994, p.817)
1894 Jul 20, 2000 federal
troops were recalled from Chicago with the end of the Pullman
1894 Jul 22, The first major
automobile race with prizes and a promoter was organized as a
reliability trial by Le Petit Journal of Paris. It took place on the
78-mile route between Paris and Rouen, France [see Aug 30, 1867].
1894 Jul 23, Japanese troops
took over the Korean imperial palace in Seoul.
(AP, 7/23/97)(HN, 7/23/98)
1894 Jul 25, Walter Brennan,
actress (Real McCoys, At Gun Point), was born in Swampscott, Mass.
1894 Jul 25, Japanese forces
sank the British steamer Kowshing which was bringing Chinese
reinforcements to Korea.
1894 Jul 26, Aldous L. Huxley
(d.1963), author (Brave New World), was born in Surrey, England.
"Most human beings have an almost infinite capacity for taking
things for granted." "Parodies and caricatures are the most
penetrating of criticisms."
(AP, 7/13/97)(AP, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)
1894 Aug 1, The First
Sino-Japanese War erupted, the result of a dispute over control of
Korea; Japan's army routed the Chinese.
1894 Aug 16, George Meany, the
first president of the AFL-CIO, was born in New York City.
1894 Aug 16, Indian chiefs from
the Sioux & Onondaga tribes met to urge their people to renounce
Christianity and return to their old Indian faith.
1894 Aug 18, US Congress
established the Bureau of Immigration.
1894 Aug 24, Congress passed
the first graduated income tax law, which was declared
unconstitutional the next year. It imposed a 2% tax on incomes over
$4000. The Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional. [see Aug 27]
(WSJ, 3/11/98, p.A20)(HN, 8/24/98)
1894 Aug 27, The US Congress
passed the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act, providing for a graduated
income tax that was down by the Supreme Court May 20, 1895. Pres.
Grover Cleveland enacted the tax to cope with the deficit.
(AP, 8/27/99)(WSJ, 9/25/02, p.D8)
1894 Aug 28, Karl Boehm,
Austrian conductor, was born. Famed for his interpretations of
Wagner and Beethoven.
1894 Sep 1, By an act of
Congress, Labor Day was declared a national holiday.
(WSJ, 9/25/95, p.A-1)(HN, 9/1/99)
1894 Sep 1, The Great Hinckley
Fire destroyed Hinckley, Minn., and five other communities and
killed over 400 people.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)(AP, 9/1/08)
1894 Sep 3, Richard Niebuhr,
theologian, was born.
1894 Sep 4, Some 12,000 tailors
in New York City went on strike to protest the existence of
1894 Sep 13, J.B. Priestley
(d.1984), British novelist and playwright, was born. "The weakness
of American civilization, and perhaps the chief reason why it
creates so much discontent, is that it is so curiously abstract. It
is a bloodless extrapolation of a satisfying life. ... You dine off
the advertiser's 'sizzling' and not the meat of the steak."
(AP, 9/13/98)(HN, 9/13/00)
1894 Sep 13, Alexis-Emmanuel
Chabrier, French composer (Espana, L'etoile), died at 53.
1894 Sep 15, Jean Renoir
(d.1979), French film director, was born. He was the son of Pierre
Renoir (1841-1919), the impressionist painter. His work included
"Grand Illusion" and "The Rules of the Game." "When a friend
speaks to me, whatever he says is interesting."
(HN, 9/15/00)(AHD, p.1215)(AP,
1894 Sep 15, Japan defeated
China in the Battle of Ping Yang (Pyongyang).
1894 Sep 19, Rachel Field,
novelist and playwright who wrote "All This and Heaven Too" and "And
Now Tomorrow," was born.
1894 Sep 24, E. Franklin
Frazier, first African-American president of the American
Sociological Society, was born.
1894 Sep, Guglielmo Marconi,
Italian engineer, built his first radio equipment. By the end of
this month he could flit a switch and make a bell ring at the other
end of his attic workspace. Originally, radio or radiotelegraphy was
called 'wireless telegraphy', which was shortened to 'wireless'. The
prefix radio- in the sense of wireless transmission was first
recorded in the word radioconductor, coined by the French physicist
Edouard Branly in 1897.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(ON, 11/99,
1894 Sep, A major fire in
Wisconsin burned several million acres.
(SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)
1894 Oct 14, e.e. cummings
(d.1962), American poet, was born. "To be nobody but myself~ez_mdash~in a
world which is doing its best, night and day, to make you everybody
else~ez_mdash~means to fight the hardest battle which any human being can
fight, and never stop fighting."
(AP, 10/14/98)(HN, 10/14/98)
1894 Oct 15, Captain Alfred
Dreyfus (1859-1935), a Jewish army officer in France, was arrested
for allegedly betraying military secrets to Germany.
1894 Oct 17, Ohio national
guard killed 3 lynchers while rescuing a black man.
1894 Oct 20 (OS), Alexander III
(b.1845), Russian tsar (b.1881-94), died in Livadia, Crimea.
(MT, Fall/03, p.12)(www2.sptimes.com)
1894 Oct 24, J. Anthony Froude
(b.1818), English historian, died. In 2005 Julia Markus authored ~ez_ldquo~J.
Anthony Froude: The Last Undiscovered Great Victorian.~ez_rdquo~
1894 Oct 29, The opera ~ez_ldquo~Rob
Roy~ez_rdquo~ opened at the Herald Square Theater, NYC. The old Waldorf Hotel
was near Herald Square and soon produced the Rob Roy drink, Scotch
whisky and sweet vermouth.
1894 Oct 30, Peter Warlock,
composer, was born as Philip Heseltine.
1894 Oct 30, Daniel Cooper
patented a time clock.
1894 Nov 1, A vaccine for
diphtheria was announced by Dr. Roux of Paris.
1894 Nov 5, Richard Strauss'
"Till Eulenspiegel," premiered.
1894 Nov 6, The Tammany Hall
officials lost. It had been a powerful Democratic political
organization in NYC, founded in 1879 as a fraternal benevolent
society. The name is based after a Delaware Indian Chief, Tamanen or
Temmenund, later facetiously canonized as patron saint of the US.
(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.42)
1894 Nov 16, 6,000 Armenians
were massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.
1894 Nov 18, 1st Sunday
newspaper color comic section published in the NY World.
1894 Nov 20, Anton Rubinstein
(64), Russian composer (Dmitri Donskoi), died.
1894 Nov 26, Norbert Weiner,
American mathematician who is considered the father of automation
(cybernetics), was born.
(HN, 11/26/98)(MC, 11/26/01)
1894 Nov, Swami Vivekananda
founded the Vedanta Society in NYC. It was the first Hindu
organization intended to attract American adherents.
1894 Dec 3, Robert Louis
Stevenson (b.1850), Scottish-American writer, died in Samoa. He was
the author of such works as "Treasure Island," "Dr. Jekyll and Mr.
Hyde," "The Master of Ballantrae," "The Silverado Squatters,
"Kidnapped" and "Travels with a Donkey." In 2005 Clair Harman
authored ~ez_ldquo~Robert Louis Stevenson: A Biography.~ez_rdquo~
(Smith., 8/95, p.51-58)(AP, 12/3/97)(Econ,
1894 Dec 5, Georges Feydeau's
"L'Hotel du Libre Echange," premiered in Paris.
1894 Dec 8, James Thurber
(d.1961), American humorist, writer and editor, best known for "The
Secret Life of Walter Mitty," was born. "You can fool too many of
the people too much of the time." "It is better to know some of the
questions than all of the answers."
(AP, 10/22/98)(HN, 12/8/98)(AP, 1/1/99)
1894 Dec 9, Jules Regnault
(b.1834), French economist, died. He first suggested a modern theory
of stock price changes in Calcul des Chances et Philosophie de la
1894 Dec 17, Arthur Fiedler,
conductor (Boston Pops), was born in Boston, Mass.
1894 Dec 22, Debussy's "Prelude
l'apres-midi d'un faune," premiered.
1894 Dec 22, French army
officer Alfred Dreyfus was fraudulently convicted of treason in a
court-martial that triggered worldwide charges of anti-Semitism.
Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery captain on the General Staff, was
accused of passing secret French military documents to the German
embassy in Paris. Dreyfus was eventually vindicated. [see 1906]
(WSJ, 4/22/96, p.A-20)(AP, 12/22/97)
1894 Dec 26, Antonio Molina,
composer, was born.
1894 Dec 30, Amelia Jenks
Bloomer (76), suffragist, died in Council Bluffs, Iowa; she had
gained notoriety for wearing a short skirt and baggy trousers that
came to be known as "bloomers."
1891 Dec, In San Francisco
Salvation Army Capt. Joseph McFee used a large crab pot for the 1st
time at the Market St. ferry landing to solicit food for a charity
Christmas dinner to feed poor dockworkers and sailors. The
organization had come to the US in 1880.
(SFC, 12/1/04, p.A1)
1894 Dec, An uprising in
Eritrea was swiftly put down by the Italians. Italian troops under
Gen. Oreste Baratieri then marched south from Eritrea and seized the
northwestern Agame region of Ethiopia.
(ON, 2/11, p.7)
1894 Roland Paris, Austrian
sculptor, was born. He specialized in satirical bronzes and was a
student of Henry van de Velde, one of the founders of the Bauhaus.
(SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)
1894 Paul Gauguin painted
"Breton Village in the Snow."
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)
1894 Frederic Leighton began
his painting "Flaming Jane." It was completed in 1895.
(WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W10)
1894 Monet completed his
painting "Cathedral at Rouen (La Cour d~ez_rsquo~Albane)."
(SFC, 7/11/01, p.D1)
1894 Edouard Vuillard
(1868-1940), French artist, painted his ~ez_ldquo~Landscape of the
Ile-de-France~ez_rdquo~ about this time.
(SFC, 3/29/14, p.E5)
1894 A German-Swiss-Austrian
consortium founded Banca Commerciale Italiana.
(Econ, 5/21/05, Survey p.13)
1894-1895 Edvard Munch (1863-1944), Norwegian
artist, painted "Madonna." In 2004 it was stolen from the Oslo Munch
(WSJ, 8/24/04, p.D8)
1894 Le Douanier Rousseau
painted "War, or the Ride of Discord."
(WSJ, 2/3/00, p.A24)
1894 George Curzon authored
"Problems of the Far East."
(WSJ, 6/11/03, p.D10)
1894 John Muir produced his
book: "The Mountains of California."
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ~ez_lsquo~95, p.77)
1894 H. Bower published his
"Diary of a Journey Across Tibet."
(NH, 5/96, p.68)
1894 John Dewey published "The
Psychology of Infant Language."
(MT, Fall. ~ez_lsquo~97, p.17)
1894 George Du Maurier authored
"Trilby," most likely the best selling novel of the 19th century. In
it he introduced the satanic character of Svengali, a Jewish
mesmerist. In 2000 Daniel Pick authored "Svengali~ez_rsquo~s Web," a study of
the connection between hypnotism and anti-Semitism
(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)
1894 The Christian Science
Mother Church was built in Boston, USA.
(SFC, 12/10/95, p.T-5)
1894 The Church of the Holy
Ghost was built by Portuguese immigrants on Maui.
(SSFC, 8/24/03, p.C6)
1894 Waterman Gymnasium was
built at the Univ. of Michigan and named after Joshua W. Waterman, a
major contributor. He had intended that the money be used for the
women of the university as well as the men. Waterman gym was
constructed for $62,000. It was demolished in the spring of 1977 to
make way for an addition to the chemistry buildings.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.15,16)
1894 The National Guard Armory
at Glen Falls, NY, was built. In 2009 it was put up for sale.
(SSFC, 10/25/09, p.A20)
1894 The Secret Service began
informal part-time protection of President Cleveland.
1894 Dr. John Harvey Kellogg of
Battle Creek, Mich., filed for a patent for ~ez_ldquo~flaked cereals and
[the] process of preparing same.~ez_rdquo~ search for the perfect food
led to the development of breakfast food flakes made of wheat called
Granose. Will Keith Kellogg, John's brother, improved on the Granose
idea and founded the W.K. Kellogg Company in 1906.
(HNPD, 2/26/99)(SFEC, 8/15/99, p.A4)(ON, 2/05,
1894 The US began keeping
records on the weather.
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A1)
1894 Louisiana extended the
Separate Car Act to include train station waiting rooms. The
Legislature in this year also passed a law prohibiting interracial
(ON, 11/03, p.5)
1894 Artist Solly Walter called
upon bodybuilder Eugene Sandow, who juggled dumbbells and lifted
horses for the Midwinter Fair at Golden Gate Park, to serve as a
model for his lecture: "The Relation of Muscle to Art."
(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.35)
1894 In San Francisco a wood
frame structure was erected at 573-575 Castro St. It later became
the camera shop of Harvey Milk and was voted for landmark status in
(SFC, 2/25/00, p.A21)
1894 Beer town in San Francisco
was a Richmond district neighborhood built to serve patrons of the
Midwinter Fair in GG Park.
(SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A15)
1894 San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s Old St.
Mary~ez_rsquo~s began to run under the direction of the missionary Paulist
(SFC, 4/7/96, p.B-10)
1894 In San Francisco the
Mission of the Good Shepherd, a resettlement home for newly arrived
and indigent Americans, was begun. It was later renamed the Canon
Kip Community House after Rev. William Kip, grandson of the first
Episcopal Bishop of California.
(SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)
1894 In San Francisco the
30-foot-tall Pioneer Monument was erected at Hyde and Grove streets.
It was a historic tableau of life in early California. The monument
was later moved a block up on Hyde to make room for the new SF Main
(SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-13)
1894 In San Francisco the new
YMCA building at Mason and Ellis was completed. It was dedicated in
1903 when the debt was paid off.
(SFC, 5/13/99, p.A21)
1894 Adolph Sutro (1830-1898)
was elected as the 24th mayor of SF. He served to Jan 3, 1897.
1894 The SF Mint struck 24
Liberty dimes (1894-S). Philadelphia minted 1.3 million and New
Orleans produced 720,000. The SF dimes were produced by the mint
director as a special gift for visiting big shots. In 1980 a SF
minted 1894-S dime sold for $160,000. In 2007 an 1894-S dime sold
for $1.9 million.
(SFC, 9/23/05, p.F3)(SFC, 7/27/07, p.A11)
1894 The SF Bay ferry steamer
Sausalito was launched from the Fulton Iron Works in San Francisco.
The ship was retired in 1933 and in 1934 became the clubhouse of the
Sportsmen Yacht Club in Antioch, Ca.
(SFC, 11/30/05, p.B1)
1894 In San Francisco the
Woodward~ez_rsquo~s Gardens amusement park, opened in 1866, closed. Many of
its curiosities were moved to Sutro Baths, which opened in 1896.
(SFC, 10/30/12, p.E6)
1894 The city of Palo Alto,
Ca., was founded.
(SFC, 11/26/96, p.D5)
1894 The Mountain Copper Co. of
Great Britain bought the Iron Mountain Mine north of Redding,
California, and developed it into the only big copper producer on
the Pacific Coast. The exposure of a large concentration of pyrite
to oxygen water and bacteria created a poisonous runoff that ran
into the Sacramento River. The mind was abandoned in 1966 but by the
1980s tons of acidic water still flowed into the river. The site
became known as one of the most polluted places on Earth. In 2004
the EPA built the Slip Rock Creek Retention Dam to capture most of
the toxic sludge. EPA management costs in 2010 were estimated at
$200 million over the next 30 years.
p.A13)(SSFC, 8/29/10, p.A15)
1894 Helena became the capital
(HIR, 9/11/97, p.5A)
1894 Wheeling Gaunt, a former
slave, bequeathed 9 acres of land to the village of Yellow springs,
Ohio, with the stipulation that the "poor worthy widows" of the town
receive 25 lbs. of flour every Christmas.
(WSJ, 12/4/96, p.B1)
1894 Lord Francis Henry Hope,
owner of the Hope Diamond, went bankrupt and sold the diamond for
1894 The Denver Press Club was
founded. In 1996 it was the longest continually operating press
(SFC, 10/24/96, p.A2)
1894 Cattlemen on the Roan
Plateau of Colorado drove some 4,000 sheep of cliffs in a clash
known as the Peach Day Massacre. This was such an outrage that the
state legislature passed the Rees-Oldman Act to divide up Roan
Plateau grazing rights between cattle and sheep operators.
Conflicts between cattle and sheep operators continued for several
decades well into the 1930~ez_rsquo~s. It was later found that some 5.5
trillion cubic feet of natural gas rested beneath the plateau.
(USAT, 3/5/04, p.6A)(Internet)
1894 Milton Hershey (1857-1945)
founded Hershey Foods in Pennsylvania. He built an industrial town
near where he was born and named it after himself.
(WSJ, 7/26/02, p.B1)(SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D1)(Econ,
1894 The Pope Manufacturing Co.
built a bicycle with Colt six-shooters fixed to the seat and 2 Colt
repeating carbines fixed to the handlebars. It was called the
Columbia Army Cycle and built on a contract bid against the horse.
The horse won.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, zone 1 p.4)
1894 The Forbes Silver Co. was
organized as a division of the Meriden Brittania Co. of Meriden,
Conn. It became part of Int~ez_rsquo~l. Silver in 1898.
(SFC, 8/5/98, Z1 p.3)
1894 Louis Comfort Tiffany
(1848-1933) made his first lamps.
(SFC, 5/26/99, Z1 p.6)
1894 Percival Lowell
(1855-1916), American astronomer, built a private observatory in
Flagstaff, Arizona and commenced a decade long series of
observations with emphasis on Mars. He "confirmed" water filled
canals and proclaimed Mars the home of an advanced civilization.
(Smith., 8/95, p.72)(SFC, 11/29/96,
1894 W.W. Campbell and Edward
Barnard of Lick Observatory in California detected no water vapor on
Mars and said that the canals were optical illusions.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)
1894 William Harris, US
Education Secretary, lamented that American children~ez_rsquo~s class time
was reduced from 193.5 to 191 days.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D1,10)
1894 The Regents of the Univ.
of Michigan declared that: ~ez_lsquo~Henceforth in the selection of
professors and instructors and other assistants in instruction in
the University, no discrimination be made in selection between men
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.13)
1894 The Bonaparte collection
of some 14,000 books on linguistics was sold to the Newberry Library
in Chicago from a London bookseller. Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte
(1813-1891), linguist, had amassed the collection.
(DrEE, 9/28/96, p.4)
1894 The Decatur Fairest Wheel
Works of Decatur, Ill., made its first "Fairest Wheel," a glass
wheel with a wood framed glass coin box that dispensed cigars for
(SFC, 3/31/99, Z1 p.6)
1894 A great fire swept through
(ON, 11/06, p.11)
1894 A fireball was seen
streaking across the skies of southern Nevada. 14 years alter a
prospector found a 1.45 kg meteorite that was named the Quinn Canyon
1894 Norton Bush (b.1834),
artist, died in Oakland. He came to SF in 1853 established a studio
and made many trips to South America to make sketches for tropical
(SFCM, 10/28/01, p.20)
1894 Andrew Clemens (b.1857),
deaf sand artist, died. He created pictures in attractive bottles
using natural color sands from Iowa.
(SFC, 5/24/06, p.G3)
1894 George Dickel, producer of
Cascade Tennessee Whisky, died. His widow and relatives renamed the
whiskey after him.
(SFC, 2/04/04, p.D2)
1894 In Britain William
Harcourt introduced the estate duty to replace 5 death duties.
1894 In England the Manchester
Ship Canal opened in an effort to bypass Liverpool~ez_rsquo~s port with a
more direct water route from the Mersey to central Manchester.
(Econ, 4/19/14, p.49)
1894 The plague in China
reached its port cities and began to circle the globe. In Hong Kong
it killed some 10,000 people. Dr Alexander Yersin, a French
bacteriologist sent to Hong Kong by the Institute Pasteur, found in
the buboes of the plague victims "a swarm of microbes, all similar
in appearance...short bacilli with rounded ends."
(NG, 5/88, p.684)
1894 Prince Henri d~ez_rsquo~Orleans
(1822-1897) published a book of his journey through France~ez_rsquo~s empire.
His account soured over the northern coastline of Vietnam, where red
tape interfered with exploitation of the area~ez_rsquo~s coal reserves.
In 1897 Emile Roux authored ~ez_ldquo~Searching for the Sources of the
Irrawaddy: With Prince Henri D'Orleans from Hanoi to Calcutta
1894 French poet Pierre Louys
(1870-1925) authored ~ez_ldquo~The Songs of Bilitis~ez_rdquo~ (1894) a book of lesbian
1894 French Baron Pierre de
Coubertin proposed an international Olympics competition to be held
every 4 years in a different nation to emphasize int~ez_rsquo~l. peace and
(WSJ, 7/19/96, p.R16)
1894 In south-west France a
paleolithic figurine was discovered. It became known as the Venus of
(Econ, 10/20/12, p.78)
1894 In Germany the Zum
Auspannen der Pferde (Z.A.D.P.) was founded by Sophie von Sell as a
society to honor the ex-chancellor Bismarck by unharnessing his
horses and drawing his carriage on his return to Berlin after being
dismissed by Wilhelm II.
(BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed.p.107)
1894 Heinrich Hertz (b.1857,
German physicist, died of blood poisoning. He was the first person
to broadcast and measure radio waves.
(WUD, 1994, p.666)(USAT, 2/13/97, p.4B)
1894 The town of Copan Ruinas
was founded in Honduras.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.29)
1894 The British introduced the
Land Acquisition Act in India in order to build railroads and
canals. It obliged private owners to part with land required for a
(Econ, 8/30/08, p.63)
1894 In Mali Touareg nomads
first rebelled against the French and were bloodily suppresed.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.58)
1894 In Mexico Edward Herbert
Thompson, American consul, purchased land in the Yucatan that
contained the ruins of the Mayan city of Chichen Itza.
(ON, 5/02, p.6)
1894 A disastrous breach of
Dutch coastal defenses occurred.
1894 New Zealand passed the
world's first minimum wage law.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1894 A ship of the Tsar~ez_rsquo~s navy
visited Tokyo on the occasion of the 25th wedding anniversary of
Emperor Meiji. It was the last Russian ship to visit until 1997.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A12)
1894 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
visited Klosters, Switzerland, and predicted that skiing would grow
in popularity: "I am convinced that the time will come when hundreds
of Englishmen will come to Switzerland for the skiing season."
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.76)
1894-1895 Webster Edgerly, head of the Ralston
movement, bought up large chunks of farmland in central New Jersey~ez_rsquo~s
Hopewell Valley. The name of the movement was an acronym for his 7
principles for living: regime, activity, light, strength,
temperation, oxygen and nature. His plan was to build the City of
Ralston, a utopian community based on his 7 principles.
(Arch, 5/04, p.31)
1894-1895 Japan went to war against China.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1894-1896 Thousands of Armenians were massacred by
the Turks after attempts for autonomy and self-defense failed. This
issue was then referred to as the "Armenian Question."
(Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)
1894-1896 Sir Mackenzie Bowell, Conservative
Party, became the 5th prime Minister of Canada.
(CFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.81)
1894-1956 Fred Allen, American comedian:
"Television is a triumph of equipment over people, and the minds
that control it are so small that you could put them in a gnat~ez_rsquo~s
navel with room left over for two caraway seeds and an agent~ez_rsquo~s
1894-1956 Lawrence D. Bell, American aircraft
manufacturer: "Show me a man who cannot bother to do little things
and I~ez_rsquo~ll show you a man who can not be trusted to do big things."
1894-1961 Dorothy Thompson, American journalist
and author: "It is not the fact of liberty but the way in which
liberty is exercised that ultimately determines whether liberty
itself survives." "When liberty is taken away by force, it can be
restored by force. When it is relinquished voluntarily by default,
it can never be recovered."
1894-1964 Norbert Wiener, American mathematician:
"A conscience which has been bought once will be bought twice."
1894-1966 Abbe Georges Lemaitre, Belgian
physicist, author of the theory of an expanding universe begun in
the explosion of a primeval atom.
1894-1971 T.V. Soong, Chinese financier and
government official. He was an official for the Chinese Nationalist
government from 1927-1949. In 1923 he financed the Nationalist party
of Sun Yat-Sen, his brother-in-law, and established the Central Bank
of China. The bank became the government treasury in 1924 when Soong
was appointed minister of finance. Chiang Kai-shek was another
brother-in-law to Soong, and appointed him minister of foreign
affairs in 1942. He invested heavily in foreign stock and moved to
San Francisco in 1949 when mainland China was captured by the
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)
1894-1975 Jackie "Moms" Mabley, American singer
and comedian: "The teen-agers aren~ez_rsquo~t all bad. I love ~ez_lsquo~em if nobody
else does. There ain~ez_rsquo~t nothing wrong with young people. Jus~ez_rsquo~ quit
lyin~ez_rsquo~ to ~ez_lsquo~em."
1894-1977 Lester Markel, American editor: "What
you see is news, what you know is background, what you feel is
1894-1980 George Meany, American labor leader: "The most persistent
threat to freedom, to the rights of Americans, is fear."
1894-1981 Paul Green, American playwright. He
received the Pulitzer Prize in 1926 for "In Abraham~ez_rsquo~s Bosom." He is
best known as the godfather of outdoor drama and the art form called
theater of the people, symphonic dramas for out door amphitheaters.
(WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)
1894-1984 Brooks Atkinson, American drama critic:
"The most fatal illusion is the settled point of view. Since life is
growth and motion, a fixed point of view kills anybody who has one."
1894-1985 Susan Ertz, American author. "Millions
long for immortality who do not know what to do with themselves on a
rainy Sunday afternoon."
1894-1985 Robert Nathan, American author and
composer: "Love hath no physic for a grief too deep."
1894-1988 Adela Rogers St. Johns, American
journalist: "Happiness is a sort of atmosphere you can live in
sometimes when you're lucky. Joy is a light that fills you with hope
and faith and love."
1894-1991 Martha Graham, modern dance pioneer: "No
artist is ahead of his time. He is his time. It is just that others
are behind the time." [see 1893-1991]