Timeline 1902-1904

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1902        Jan 1, In Pasadena the 1st Rose Bowl football game was held and the Univ. of Michigan beat Stanford 49 to 0. The next Rose Bowl game was held 11 years later.
    (SFC, 9/25/99, p.A20)

1902        cJan 2, It was reported that the steamer Walla Walla had collided with the French bark Max of Havre off Cape Mendocino, Ca. The Walla Walla sank immediately with 141 passengers and crew as the Max limped away.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W2)

1902        Jan 4, The French offered to sell their Nicaraguan Canal rights to the U.S.
    (HN, 1/4/99)

1902        Jan 7, Imperial Court of China returned to Peking. The Empress Dowager resumed her reign.
    (HN, 1/7/01)

1902        Jan 8, Georgy M. Malenkov, Stalin's successor as head of CPSU, PM (1953-55), was born.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1902        Jan 9, Rudolph Bing, opera manager (NY Metropolitan Opera), was born.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1902        Jan 11, Maurice Durufle, French organist, composer, was born.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1902        Jan 17, Gideon Scheepers, South Africa Boer leader, was executed.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1902        Jan 18, The Isthmus Canal Commission in Washington shifted its support to Panama as the canal site.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1902        Jan 28, The Carnegie Institute was established in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 1/28/98)

1902        Jan 31, In the US it was tax freedom day, the day by which citizens met their financial obligations to the government. By 1999 it had shifted to May 10.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.7)
1902        Jan 31, A French soccer team played in England for the first time: Paris lost, 4-0, to Marlow FC.
    (HC, 2003, p.64)

1902        Jan, Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) made an assault on Masmak fort and recaptured Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1902        Feb 1, Langston Hughes, African-American poet, was born in Joplin, Mo. His books included ~ez_ldquo~Way Down South.~ez_rdquo~
    (HN, 2/1/99)(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.F3)
1902        Feb 1, U.S. Secretary of State John Hay protested Russian privileges in China as a violation of the "open door policy."
    (HN, 2/1/99)
1902        Feb 1, China's empress Tzu-hsi forbade binding woman's feet.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1902        Feb 4, Charles Lindbergh (d.1974), the first man to fly solo across the Atlantic (1927), was born in Detroit and grew up in Minnesota.
    (HN, 2/4/99)(www.charleslindbergh.com/history/index.asp)

1902        Feb 9, Doctor Doyen of Paris, performed a successful operation on Siamese twins from the Barnum and Bailey Circus.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1902        Feb 10, Walter Brattain, physicist, was born. He became one of the inventors of the transistor.
    (HN, 2/10/01)

1902        Feb 11, Police beat up universal suffrage demonstrators in Brussels.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1902        Feb 13, Georges Simenon, novelist, was born in Belgium.
    (HN, 2/13/01)(MC, 2/13/02)

1902        Feb 18, The opera "Hunchback of Notre Dame" premiered in Monte Carlo.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1902        Feb 19, Kay Boyle, short story writer ("The White Horses of Vienna"), was born.
    (HN, 2/19/01)
1902        Feb 19, Smallpox vaccination became obligatory in France.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1902        Feb 20, Ansel Adams, American photographer, was born in San Francisco. He was an American landscape photographer, especially of western wilderness and mountain panoramas. In 1996 Mary Street Alinder released her biography "Ansel Adams." Jonathon Spaulding released his "Ansel Adams and the American Landscape."
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, BR p.4)(HN, 2/20/99)

1902        Feb 21, Dr. Harvey Cushing, US brain surgeon, performed his 1st brain operation.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1902        Feb 22, A fistfight broke out in the US Senate. Senator Benjamin Tillman, a white supremacist, suffered a bloody nose for accusing his fellow South Carolina Senator John McLaurin of bias on the Philippine tariff issue.
    (HN, 2/22/98)(Econ, 6/30/12, p.35)

1902        Feb 27, John Steinbeck (d.1968), American novelist, was born in Salinas, Ca. He authored "The Grapes of Wrath," "Of Mice and Men" and "The Log from the Sea of Cortez." "A man, after he has brushed off the dust and chips of his life, will have left only the hard, clean question: Was it good or was it evil? Have I done well~ez_mdash~or ill?"
    (AP, 6/27/97) (SFEC, 6/21/98, DB p.67)(HN, 2/27/99)(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A21)
1902        Feb 27, Harry 'Breaker' Morant (1864-1902) and Peter Handcock were executed for the murder of 12 prisoners of war in the dying days of the Boer war. George Witton had his death sentence commuted because it contained serious errors. Morant, who volunteered to fight with the British in South Africa, was born in England but became well known in Australia as a poet and a horsebreaker. In 1980 the film ~ez_lsquo~Breaker~ez_rsquo~ Morant was produced in Australia. In 2010 Australia sent Britain a petition calling for posthumous pardons for Morant and Handcock. The petition argued the accused were denied the right to communicate with the Australian government or relatives after their arrest and during their trials and were refused an opportunity to prepare their cases.
    (AFP, 2/10/10)(www.awm.gov.au/people/267.asp)

1902        Feb, Dr. Walter Reed published his results on yellow fever. He concluded that: "The spread of yellow fever can be most effectually controlled by measures directed to the destruction of mosquitoes and the protection of the sick against the bites of these insects."
    (ON, 10/01, p.8)

1902        Mar 3, Isaac D. France van de Putte (79), Dutch premier (1866), died.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1902        Mar 4, The American Automobile Association was founded in Chicago.
    (AP, 3/4/98)(HN, 3/4/98)

1902        Mar 8, Louise Beavers, film actress, was born.
    (HN, 3/8/01)
1902        Mar 8, The 1st performance of Jean Sibelius' 2nd Symphony.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1902        Mar 9, Edward Durell Stone, US, architect (US Embassy, New Delhi), was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1902        Mar 9, Will Greer, actor (Grandpa Walton-The Waltons), was born in Frankfort, Ind.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1902        Mar 9, Alma Schindler (d.1964), daughter of landscape painter Emil Schindler, married composer Gustav Mahler (d.1911) in Vienna. He immortalized her in the first movement of his Symphony No. 6, and he dedicated Symphony No. 8 to her. After his death Alma became involved with Oskar Kokoschka, who painted her many times, most notably in "The Tempest" (1914; "Die Windsbraut"). In August 1915 she married the architect Walter Gropius. During her lifetime Alma Mahler became friends with numerous celebrated artists, including the painter Gustav Klimt (who made several portraits of her), composer Arnold Schoenberg, the writer Gerhart Hauptmann, and the singer Enrico Caruso. The composer Alban Berg dedicated his opera Wozzeck (1921) to her. In 1929 she married writer Franz Werfel.
    (MC, 3/9/02)(http://www.usc.edu/isd/archives/arc/libraries/feuchtwanger/exiles/werfel.html)

1902        Mar 10, The Boers scored their last victory over the British, capturing British General Methuen and 200 men.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1902        Mar 17, Bobby Jones was born. He was the first American golfer to win the U.S. and British championships in the same year in 1930.
    (HN, 3/17/99)

1902        cMar 19, Japan formed an alliance with England.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1902        Mar 20, France and Russia acknowledged the Anglo-Japanese alliance, but asserted their right to protect their interests in China and Korea.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1902        Mar 22, Great Britain and Persia agreed to link Europe and India by telegraph.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1902        Apr 23, Halldór Laxness, Nobel Prize-winning Icelandic novelist (The Fish Can Sing, Paradise Reclaimed), was born.
    (HN, 4/23/01)
1902        Mar 23, Kálmán Tisza (71), premier of Hungary (1875-90), died.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1902        Mar 24, Thomas E. Dewey, a governor of New York (1943-1955) and two-time Republican presidential nominee, was born in Owosso, Mich.
    (HN, 3/24/01)(AP, 3/24/02)

1902        Mar 25, Irving W. Colburn patented a sheet glass drawing machine.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1902        Mar 26, Cecil Rhodes (48), Prime Minister of Cape Colony (1890-96), died. [see Apr 4, 1902]
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1902        Mar 29, William Walton, composer (Troilus and Cressida, Wise Virgins), was born in England.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1902        Mar 30, Roberta Brooke Russell (d.2007) was born in Portsmouth, NH. In 1953 she married millionaire Vincent Astor (d.1959) and became a major philanthropist following his death.
    (SFC, 8/14/07, p.B5)

1902        Mar, Henry Ford (38) left the Detroit Automobile Company and soon found backers for the new Ford Motor Co., which incorporated in 1903.
    (ON, 3/03, p.1)

1902        Apr 2, Thomas L. Talley set up the first moving picture theater as part of a carnival in Los Angeles.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.10)(MC, 4/2/02)

1902        Apr 4, British financier Cecil Rhodes left $10 million in his will to provide scholarships for Americans at Oxford University in England. The first scholars were selected in 1903. In Rhodesia [later Zimbabwe] after Cecil John Rhodes, British imperialist, died at age 48 he was buried in a tomb in the Matopos Hills. He had co-founded De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., and built great railways through southern Africa. "So much to do, and so little time."
    (AP, 4/4/97)(SFC, 12/9/98, p.A25)(WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 7/2/00, Z1 p.2)

1902        Apr 5, Maurice Ravel's "Pavane pour une infante defunte," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1902        Apr 7, The Texas Fuel Co. was founded. It soon changed its name to the Texas Co. and eventually became Texaco.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1902        Apr 8, Josef Krips, conductor (London Symph 1954-63), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1902        Apr 10, South African Boers accepted British terms of surrender.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1902        Apr 11, Wade Hampton (1818), Confederate Civil War general and post-war governor of South Carolina (1877-1879), died. In 2008 Rod Andrew Jr. authored Wade Hampton: Confederate Warrior, Conservative Statesman.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 6/7/08, p.W9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wade_Hampton_III)

1902        Apr 13, Philippe de Rothschild, manager (Bordeaux Vineyard), was born in Paris.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1902        Apr 14, Menachem A. Schneerson, rebee (head of Lubavitcher Jews), was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1902        Apr 14, James Cash Penney (J.C. Penney) opened his first Golden Rule Store for clothes, shoes and dry goods in Kemmerer, Wyoming. It grew to a chain and was renamed J.C. Penney in 1913. By 1929 there were 1,395 stores in the chain.
    (www.jcpenney.net/company/history/milestn/milestn.htm)(AP, 4/14/97)

1902        Apr 18, Denmark became the 1st country to adopt fingerprinting to identify criminals.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1902        Apr 20, Radium was isolated as a pure metal by Curie and André-Louis Debierne through the electrolysis of a pure radium chloride solution. Pierre and Marie Curie had discovered the element in 1898.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radium)

1902        Apr 28, Johan Borgen, Norwegian novelist, was born.
    (HN, 4/28/01)
1902        Apr 28, A revolution broke out in the Dominican Republic.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1902        Apr 30, Debussy's opera "Pelleas et Melisande" premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1902        May 1, John Glover (85), English chemist (production sulfuric acid), died.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1902        May 2, "A Trip To The Moon," the 1st science fiction, was film released. The French film "Le Voyage Dans La Lune" (Voyage to the Moon) was a 14-minute silent film directed by Georges Melies. It displayed early efforts in trick photography to show a group of scientists traveling to the moon after being shot from a giant cannon.
    (WSJ, 3/19/98, p.R4)(MC, 5/2/02)

1902        May 3, Walter Slezak, actor (Bedtime for Bonzo, Inspector General), was born in Vienna.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1902        May 5, Bret Harte, American writer (b.1836), died in England. In 2000 Axel Nissen authored "Bret Harte: Prince and Pauper."
    (WUD, 1994, p.648)(SFEC, 9/3/00, BR p.6)(MC, 5/5/02)

1902        May 6, Harry Golden, Jewish humorist, writer (2 Cents Plain, Only in America), was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1902        May 6, Max Ophuls (d.1957), film director (La Ronde, Lola Montes), was born in the Rhine Valley of Jewish parents. He made films in Germany, France, Netherlands and the US.
    (SFEC, 9/5/99, DB p.50)(HN, 5/6/01)
1902        May 6, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Shoscombe Old Place."
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1902        May 6, British SS Camorta sank off Rangoon and 739 died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1902        May 6, There was a Zulu assault at Holkrantz, South-Africa.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1902        May 8, Mt. Pelee volcano, on the French Island of Martinique in the east W. Indies, blew its top and wiped out the town of St. Pierre. A pyroclastic flow killed  29-40 thousand people. In 1972 Jacques Petitjean Roget published a detailed report on the event. In 2002 Alwyn Scarth authored "La Catastrophe."
    (SFC, 8/13/01, p.A4)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)(NH, 10/02, p.76)

1902        May 10, Joachim Prinz, author, Rabbi of Berlin (1926-37), was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)
1902        May 10, David O. Selznick, film producer (Gone with the Wind, Rebecca), was born in Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (HN, 5/10/02)(MC, 5/10/02)

1902        May 12, Heinrich Kirchner, German sculptor, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)
1902        May 12, Over 125,000 miners in northeastern Pennsylvania called a strike and kept the mines closed all summer. An additional 18,000 bituminous workers struck in sympathy. Owners refused arbitration and Pres. Roosevelt intervened. [see Oct 3]
    (SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)(AH, 2/03, p.44)

1902        May 15, Richard Daley, mayor of Chicago through the 1960s and early 1970's, was born.
    (HN, 5/15/99)

1902        May 18, Meredith Willson (Wilson), composer and lyricist (The Music Man), was born in Mason City, Iowa.
    (HN, 5/18/01)(SSFC, 3/14/04, p.D12)

1902        May 20, The United States ended its three-year military presence in Cuba as the Republic of Cuba was established under its first elected president, Tomas Estrada Palma. Theodore Roosevelt had criticized the government~ez_rsquo~s sluggish withdrawal of disease-stricken US troops from Cuba.
    (HN, 5/20/98)(WSJ, 11/13/98, p.A1)(AP, 5/20/02)

1902        May 21, Marcel Breuer, Hungarian-born architect, was born.
    (HN, 5/21/01)

1902        May 25, Helvi Lemmikke Leiviska, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1902        May 29, Dutch State Mine law formed.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1902        May 31, The Boer War ended between the Boers of South Africa and Great Britain with the Treaty of Vereeniging. This effectively ended a 3-year uprising by the Boers, led by Louis Botha, commandant general of the Transvaal forces. Botha was a signatory at the peace conference. The combination of superior fire power and a brutal war of attrition launched by Lord Kitchener forced the Boers to give in. Kitchener burned the farms of Africans and Boers alike and collected as many as a 100,000 women and children in carelessly run and unhygienic concentration camps on the open veldt. Britain annexed Transvaal.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.289)(HN, 5/31/99)(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A21)(HNQ, 6/29/02)

1902        May, In Nicaragua the Momotombo volcano erupted.
    (ON, 1/00, p.2)

1902        Jun 2, 2nd statewide initiative and referendum law was adopted in Oregon.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1902        Jun 6, Jimmie Lunceford, bandleader, was born.
    (HN, 6/6/01)

1902        Jun 9, The 1st Automat restaurant opened at 818 Chestnut Street, Phila.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1902        Jun 15, Erik H. Erickson, Danish-born psychologist who wrote "Childhood and Society," was born.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1902        Jun 16, Barbara McClintock, geneticist (Nobel 1983), was born.
    (HN, 6/16/01)(MC, 6/16/02)
1902        Jun 16, George Gaylord Simpson, paleontologist, was born.
    (HN, 6/16/01)

1902        Jun 19, The US Senate voted in favor of Panama as the canal site. US support for a $40 million purchase was based on Congressional acceptance for a canal in Panama rather than Nicaragua, and the acquisition of land to serve as a canal zone.
    (HN, 1/18/99)(ON, 1/00, p.1)
1902        Jun 19, Guy Lombardo (d.11/5/1977) Canadian bandleader was born in London, Ontario. He played the sweetest music this side of heaven with his Royal Canadians and sold over 100 million records.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)
1902        Jun 19, John E E Dalberg, baron van Acton (69), English historian, died.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1902        Jun 23, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance for a 12 year duration.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1902         Jun 26, William P. Lear, American engineer and industrialist, was born.
    (HN, 6/26/01)

1902        Jun 28, John Dillinger, US bank robber (public enemy #1), was born.
    (MC, 6/28/02)
1902         Jun 28, Richard Rodgers (d.1979), American composer, was born.
    (HN, 6/28/01)(SFC, 4/22/02, p.D1)
1902        Jun 28, Congress passed the Spooner bill, authorizing a canal to be built across the isthmus of Panama. The US purchased a concession to build Panama canal from French for $40  million.
    (HN, 6/28/98)(MC, 6/28/02)

1902         Jul 1, William Wyler (d.1981), film director (The Best Years of Our Lives, Ben Hur), was born.
    (HN, 7/1/01)(SFC, 7/8/02, p.D2)
1902        Jul 1, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax."
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1902        Jul 2, John J. McGraw became manager of NY Giants and stayed for 30 years.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1902        Jul 4, Meyer Lansky (d.1983), mobster (Started numbers), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meyer_Lansky)
1902        Jul 4, Pres. Roosevelt officially ended the Philippine-American War. Estimates for the civilian people killed ranged from 250,000 to 1 million. Creighton Miller in 1982 published "Benevolent Assimilation," a comprehensive account of the conflict.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, Z1 p.1,4)(WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A6)(PC, 1992, p.642)

1902        Jul 17, Christina E. Stead, novelist and screenwriter who wrote "The Man Who Loved Women," was born.
    (HN, 7/17/98)
1902            Jul 17, Willis Carrier invented modern day air conditioning at the Sackett-Wilhelms Lithographing and Publishing Company in Brooklyn, NY. Carrier~ez_rsquo~s invention was used primarily to cool machines, not people. In 1928 the U.S. House of Representatives was air conditioned, followed shortly by the Senate, White House and Supreme Court.
    (PR Carrier Corp., 7/17/02)

1902        Jul 18, Charles W.J. Mengelberg, Dutch composer, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 7/18/02)   
1902        Jul 18, Jessamyn West, American author (The Friendly Persuasion), was born.
    (HN, 7/18/01)

1902        Jul 25, Eric Hoffer (d.1983), American longshoreman, philosopher and author of "In Our Time," was born: "Our present addiction to pollsters and forecasters is a symptom of our chronic uncertainty about the future. ... We watch our experts read the entrails of statistical tables and graphs the way the ancients watched their soothsayers read the entrails of a chicken." "It almost seems that nobody can hate America as much as native Americans. America needs new immigrants to love and cherish it." "We do not usually look for allies when we love. Indeed, we often look on those who love with us as rivals and trespassers. But we always look for allies when we hate."
    (AP, 5/21/97)(AP, 10/28/97)(AP, 5/23/98)(HN, 7/25/02)

1902        Jul 28, Kenneth Fearing, poet and novelist (The Big Clock), was born.
    (HN, 7/28/01)

1902        Jul 30, Anti-Jewish rioters attacked the funeral procession of Rabbi Joseph in NYC.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1902        Aug 3, Ray Block, orchestra leader (Ed Sullivan, Jackie Gleason), was born in France.
    (SC, 8/3/02)
1902        Aug 3, Habib Bourguiba, 1st president of Tunisia, was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)
1902        Aug 3, Judson Laire, actor, singer (Papa-Mama), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1902        Aug 8, Jean Y.Y. Tissot, French painter, illustrator, died.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1902        Aug 9, Edward VII was crowned king of England following the death of his mother, Queen Victoria.
    (SFEM, 1/26/97, p.40)(AP, 8/9/98)

1902        Aug 13, Felix Wankel, inventory of the rotary engine which bears his name, was born in Germany.
    (HN, 8/13/00)(MC, 8/13/02)

1902        Aug 19, Ogden Nash (d.1971), American author and humorist, was born in Rye, NY. Vanity, vanity, all is vanity/ That's any fun at all for humanity. "Winter comes but once a year, And when it comes it brings the doctor good cheer."
    (WUD, 1994 p.951)(AP, 10/24/97)(AP, 12/21/98)(HN, 8/19/00)(MC, 8/19/02)   

1902        Aug 22, Leni Riefenstahl, [Helene Bertha Amalie], actress, Hitler's favorite cinematographer (Triumph of the Will, Tiefland), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 8/22/02)
1902        Aug 22, President Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. chief executive to ride in an automobile in Hartford, Conn.
    (AP, 8/22/97)(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A20)
1902        Aug 22, The Cadillac Company formed from the Henry Ford Co. when Henry Ford left. Ford formed the Ford Motor Co. in 1903.
    (Wikipedia)

1902        Aug 23, Fanny Farmer, among the first to emphasize the relationship of diet to health, opened her School of Cookery in Boston.
    (HN, 8/23/00)
1902        Aug 23, Gold was discovered in Goldfield, Nv., near Tonopah. By 1907 Goldfield grew to 20,000 residents.
    (SFC, 8/31/02, p.A2)

1902         Aug 24, Fernand Braudel (d.1985), French historian, was born. He was one of the most important historiographers of the 20th century: "History may be divided into three movements: what moves rapidly, what moves slowly and what appears not to move at all."
    (AP, 9/5/97)(DT internet 11/28/97)

1902        Aug 31, Mathilde Wesendonk (73), German author and poetess, died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1902        Aug, In Japan Mount Izu-Torishima erupted and left 125 people dead.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A17)

1902        Fall, Emily Wolcott (b.1866), writer, began her first term at the Univ. of Michigan in the LSA program. That fall Michigan beat Ohio State 83-0.
    (MT, Fall ~ez_lsquo~96, p.12)

1902        Sep 1, The Austro-Hungarian army was called into the city of Agram to restore the peace as Serbs and Croats clashed.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1902        Sep 3, US Secret Service agent William Craig was killed when a speeding trolley car rammed into the open-air horse carriage carrying Pres. Theodore Roosevelt in Pittsfield, Mass.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Craig_%28Secret_Service%29)
1902        Sep 3, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Illustrious Client."
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1902        Sep 12, The Yacolt Fire burned 238,000 acres in Oregon and Washington and killed 38 people.
    (SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)

1902        Sep 17, U.S. troops were sent to Panama to keep train lines open over the isthmus as Panamanian nationals struggled for independence from Colombia.
    (HN, 9/17/98)
1902        Sep 17, US protested anti-Semitism in Romania.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1902        Sep 21, Allen Lake was born. He founded Penguin Books in 1935.
    (HN, 9/21/00)

1902        Sep 22, John Houseman, director, producer and actor, was born in Bucharest, Romania.
    (HN, 9/22/00)(MC, 9/22/01)
1902        Sep 22, A long-simmering feud between the Brooks and McFarland clans erupted into a bloody gunfight in the railroad town of Spokogee, Indian Territory, which is now Dustin, Oklahoma. Spokogee had sprung up in the path of the coming Fort Smith & Western Railroad. The Creek name meant "the exalted," or "near to God." The area around Spokogee was home to two feuding families, the Brookses and McFarlands. Willis B. Brooks, 48, was a well-known inhabitant of the Dogwood Settlement and one of the toughest men to be found in Indian Territory. He was a gunfighter from Alabama, by way of Texas. Jim McFarland, his chief adversary, had the reputation of being an outlaw and a killer. While the ribbon of steel inched its way toward Spokogee, the long-simmering feud between the warring families heated up and then erupted into a classic Western gunfight, settled with gun smoke, blood and lead.
    (HNQ, 8/25/01)

1902        Sep 23, John Wesley Powell (b.1834), US explorer and geologist, died. He led expeditions down the Green and Colorado rivers (1869 & 1871), through the Grand Canyon even though he had lost the lower part of his right arm in the Battle of Shiloh during the Civil War. Powell, a geographer and ethnologist, held a number of positions after resigning from the army in 1865, many for government agencies such as director of the U.S. Geographical Survey. [see 1891] In 2001 Donald Worster authored "A River Running West: the Life and Times of John Wesley Powell."
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, BR p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wesley_Powell)(ON, 5/02, p.5)


1902        Sep 26, Umberto "Albert" Anastasia, US gangster (fond of being shaved), was born.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1902        Sep 28, Ed Sullivan, television host, was born. He was also a newspaper columnist and radio host. "The Ed Sullivan Show" first aired in 1948.  His show had many debut acts including Lewis and Martin, Elvis, the Beatles and the Rolling Stones. [see Sep 28, 1901]
    (MC, 9/28/01)
1902        Sep 28, Emile Zola (b.1840), novelist (Nana, Germinal, J'accuse), died by asphyxiation in his Paris apartment at age 62. In 1895 he began taking photographs and took some 7,000 pictures before his death.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.C6)(MC, 9/28/01)

1902        Sep 29, Broadway impresario David Belasco reopened the Republic Theatre under his own name.
    (AP, 9/29/08)
1902        Sep 29, William McGonagall (b~1825), poet, died in Edinburgh, Scotland. He was mocked by literary critics and had food thrown at him during public readings. He died penniless and was buried in an unmarked grave. Critics later awarded him the "world's worst" label because of the crashing lack of subtlety in terms of rhyme, imagery, vocabulary or repetition. His most famous poem is about the Tay Bridge disaster of 1879, in which 75 people died. In 2008 35 broadsheets of his original poems were auctioned for $13,200.
    (AFP, 5/16/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McGonagall)(WSJ, 5/17/08, p.A1)

1902        Oct 3,    President Theodore Roosevelt met with miners and coal field operators in an attempt to settle the anthracite coal strike, then in its fifth month. The country relied on coal to power commerce and industry and anthracite or "hard coal" was essential for domestic heating. Pennsylvania miners had left the anthracite fields demanding wage increases, union recognition, and an eight-hour workday. As winter approached, public anxiety about fuel shortages and the rising cost of all coal pushed Roosevelt to take unprecedented action. The meeting failed to resolve differences. A presidential commission awarded the workers a 10% wage increase and a shorter work week. [see May 12] The miners returned to work on Oct 23.
    (LCTH, 10/3/99)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)(AH, 2/03, p.48)

1902        Oct 5, Ray Croc was born. He founded the McDonald~ez_rsquo~s hamburger franchise in 1955.
    (HN, 10/5/00)

1902        Oct 25, Henry Steele Commager (d.1998), American historian was born in Pittsburg, Pa. He wrote the fifty-five volume "Rise of the American Nation."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Steele_Commager)
1902        Oct 25, Santa Maria, Guatemala, was hit by an earthquake and about 6,000 died.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1902        Oct 26, Beryl Markham, aviator and writer, was born.
    (HN, 10/26/00)

1902        Oct 31, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Brazilian poet, journalist and short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 10/31/00)

1902        Nov 1, Nordahl Brun Greig, Norwegian writer, was born. He was a wartime hero during WWII.
    (HN, 11/1/00)
1902        Nov 1, Eugen Jochum, German conductor (Hamburg Orch), was born in Babenhausen, Bavaria.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1902        Nov 5, Strom Thurmond, (Sen-R-SC, 1955-2003), was born.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1902        Nov 16, A cartoon appeared in the Washington Star, prompting the Teddy Bear Craze, after President Teddy Roosevelt refused to kill a captive bear tied up for him to shoot during a hunting trip to Mississippi.
    (HN, 11/16/00)

1902        Nov 17, Lee Strasberg, acting coach and actor (And Justice for All), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 11/17/01)
1902        Nov 17, Eugene Paul Wigner, Hungarian-born mathematician and physicist, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in 1963.
    (HN, 11/17/00)(MC, 11/17/01)

1902        Nov 18, Brooklyn toymaker Morris Michton named the teddy bear after Teddy Roosevelt.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1902        Nov 22, Emanuel Feuermann, cellist (Chicago Symphony Orchestra), was born in Kolomea, Galicia.
    (MC, 11/22/01)
1902        Nov 22, A fire caused considerable damage to the unfinished Williamsburg bridge in New York.
    (HN, 11/22/98)
1902        Nov 22, Friedrich A. Krupp, cannon manufacturer, committed suicide.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1902        Nov 23, Dr. Walter Reed (51) died from a ruptured appendix in Washington DC. His experiments in Cuba had helped prove that yellow fever was transmitted by a mosquitoes. In 1982 William Bean, MD, authored "Walter Reed."
    (ON, 10/01, p.8)

1902        Nov 24, The first Congress of Professional Photographers convened in Paris.
    (HN, 11/24/98)

1902        Nov 25, Franz Lehar's opera "Wiener Fraueen," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1902        Dec 4, Charles Dow (b.1851), co-founder of the Wall Street Journal and inventor of the Dow Industrial averages, died in Brooklyn, NY.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-30)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_H._Dow)

1902        Dec 8, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. became Associate Justice on Supreme Court.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1902        Dec 9, Margaret Hamilton, character actress, was born in Cleveland, Oh. She became best known as the Wicked Witch in the Wizard of Oz (1939).
    (www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=3146)

1902        Dec 11, Matthias Hohner (b.1833), German clockmaker and harmonica manufacturer, died. He began making harmonicas in 1857. Exports to America began in 1862.
    (www.eharmonica.net/history.htm)

1902        Dec 13, The Committee of Imperial Defense held its first meeting in London.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1902        Dec 20, Max Lerner (d.1992), American columnist (NY Post) and public commentator, was born. His work included "America as a Civilization."
    (SFEC, 7/11/99, BR p.6)(MC, 12/20/01)

1902        Dec 22, Jacques-Philippe Leclerc, French WW II hero (liberator of Paris), was born.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1902        Dec 28, Mortimer J. Adler, American philosopher, educator and writer, was born. He helped design the "Great Books" program, which popularized the great ideas of Western civilization in 54 volumes.
    (HN, 12/28/99)

1902        Charles Lindbergh, US aviator, was born. In 1998 A. Scott Berg published the biography "Lindbergh."
    (WUD, 1994, p.832)(WSJ, 9/25/98, p.W6)

1902        John Steinbeck, US author, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1962. His work included "The Log from the Sea of Cortez." A biography of Steinbeck, "John Steinbeck" by Catherine Reef, was published in 1996. A CD-ROM version on "Of Mice and Men" was released in 1995. In 1996 a CD-ROM was released titled "The Pearl" & "The Red Pony" by Penguin Electronic; "The Grapes of Wrath" was also planned for release.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1392)(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T8)

1902        Raoul Dufy, fauve artist, painted "Nude on a Pink Sofa."
    (WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1902        Paul Gauguin created his painting "Primitive Tales."
    (WSJ, 4/12/04, p.D8)

1902        Artist Hamilton King painted a series of bathing beauties, flag girls, girls in period gowns and sketches used as cigarette premiums for Turkish Trophies, a brand produced by the American Tobacco Co. He painted another set in 1913.
    (SFC, 2/12/97, z1 p.6)

1902        Gustav Klimt painted "Portrait of Emilie Flöge."
    (WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)

1902        Monet made his painting "Waterloo Bridge."
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.10)

1902        Picasso painted "La Soupe," a picture of a mother offering a bowl of soup to her daughter. He also painted "Two Women at a Bar."
    (WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)

1902        Naum Gabo created his sculpture "Constructed Head No. 2." It was later acquired by Raymond D. Nasher of Dallas, Texas.
    (WSJ, 11/4/03, p.A1)

c1902        Aristide Maillol, sculptor, began his work "Night." It was completed around 1909.
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.B6)

1902        J.M. Barrie featured Peter Pan as a minor character in his book ~ez_ldquo~The Little White Bird.~ez_rdquo~
    (USAT, 9/2/04, p.2D)

1902        Anton Chekhov published his collected works.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.5)

1902        Joseph Conrad, born in Poland as Josef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, published his novella "The Heart of Darkness." It later inspired the film "Apocalypse Now."
    (SFC, 9/25/99, p.A20)

1902        Sir Arthur Conan Doyle published his book "Hound of the Baskervilles." A 1st edition copy with dust jacket sold at auction for $131,541 in 1998.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)

1902        S.W. Erdnase published "The Expert at the Card Table." The book revealed secrets behind card tricks and cheating techniques. The real identity of the author was a mystery.
    (WSJ, 8/16/00, p.A1)

1902        Henry James published "The Wings of the Dove."
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E1)

1902        William James published "The Varieties of Religious Experience," based on his 1901 Gifford Lectures at the Univ. of St. Andrews in Scotland. In 1999 it was rated the 2nd best work of non-fiction in the English language by the Modern Library.
    (WSJ, 11/11/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.C5)

1902        Rudyard Kipling published "Just So Stories."
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)

1902        V.I. Lenin~ez_rsquo~s What Is To Be Done? was published and espoused the need for a disciplined, centrally-directed revolutionary party. This work, along with several articles preceding it, comprised Lenin~ez_rsquo~s most distinctive contributions to Communist theory. His three key theoretical elements were: that the workers have no revolutionary consciousness and that their spontaneous actions will not lead to revolution; that consciousness must be brought to workers by intellectual leaders; and the revolutionary party must consist of full-time, disciplined, centrally-directed professionals capable of acting as one man.
    (HNQ, 3/22/99)

1902        Samuel Armstrong Nelson published his book: "The ABC of Stock Speculation."
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-38)

1902         Euclides da Cunha of Brazil wrote "Os Sertoes," (The Arid Region), translated into English as "Rebellion in the Backlands," on the 1893-1897 events at Canudos led by Antonio Conselheiro.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)

1902        "Garden Cities of Tomorrow" was published. John Papworth and Ebeneezer Howard were already on record as British theorists for planning new towns.
    (Hem., Nov.~ez_rsquo~95, p.91)

1902        Owen Wister (1860-1938) authored "The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains." In 1929 Paramount adopted it into a movie with Walter Huston and Gary Cooper. A TV series began in 1962.
    (AH, 10/02, p.18)

1902        The novel "The Four Feathers" by A.E.W. Mason, was published. It was set mainly in England and Ireland over the years 1882-1888 during England~ez_rsquo~s war in the Sudan and went on to inspire 7 films.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.D1)(http://www.stmoroky.com/reviews/books/4feather.htm)

1902        "The Lower Depths," a play by Maxim Gorky premiered in Moscow.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.B1)

1902        In New Hampshire the Mount Washington Resort was built. This was the site of the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference that created the Intl~ez_rsquo~ Monetary Fund. In 2009 Omni Resorts took over management of the historical landmark.
    (SSFC, 1/29/12, p.N5)

1902        In NYC the 21-story Flatiron Building (Fuller Bldg.) was built on a pie-slice of land at 23rd & 5th Ave. by architect Daniel Burnham with a French Beaux arts-style facade.
    (HT, 5/97, p.24)

1902        Barnum~ez_rsquo~s Animal Crackers were 1st produced. In 2002 Nabisco planned a 100 year b-day.
    (SSFC, 12/2/01, Par p.17)

1902        In Alaska Felix Pedro, an Italian miner, discovered gold northeast of Chenoa City. Miners surged in from the Fortymile and Klondike goldfields.
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, p.T7)

1902        The Society of American Magicians was formed at Martinka & Co. Magic supply House in NYC. The shop later became Flosso-Hornmann Magic.
    (SFC, 10/2/03, p.A19)

1902        In Wyoming James Cash Penney opened his first Golden Rule Store for clothes, shoes and dry goods in Kemmerer. It grew to a chain and was renamed J.C. Penney in 1913. By 1929 there were 1,395 stores in the chain.
    (WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)

1902        Ben Willis developed clothing for his Arctic explorations and founded Willis & Geiger Outfitters.
    (NH, 9/96, p.17)

1902        The first Audubon Society sanctuary was established at Cuthbert Lake, Florida, to protect egrets and herons from plume hunters.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.12)

1902        Charles Palmer Davis founded the Weekly Reader to help educate students on current events.
    (SSFC, 7/7/02, Par p.8)
1902        In Baltimore Babe Ruth entered St. Mary~ez_rsquo~s Industrial School for Boys at age 7. He was already smoking and drinking but was guided to adulthood by Brother Matthias.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)

1902        Goodwill Industries was founded to help the needy find and keep jobs.
    (SSFC, 6/23/02, Par p.12)

1902        Ideals of the Woodcraft Indians was founded by Ernest Seton.
    (HNQ, 7/1/98)

1902        Alfred Stieglitz founded the Photo-Secession.
    (Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)

1902        Ronald Ross (1857-1932), an English physician, won the Nobel Prize for his work on malaria. His story is part of the 1997 novel "The Calcutta Chromosome: A Novel of Fevers, Delirium and Discovery" by Amitav Ghosh. In 2003 Fiammetta Rocco authored "The Miraculous Fever Tree: Malaria and the Quest for a Cure That Changed the World."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1245)(SFEC,10/26/97, BR p.8)(WSJ, 8/26/03, p.D5)
1902        Emil Fischer won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He is considered as the founder of the science of carbohydrate chemistry.
    (SFC, 10/24/03, p.E4)

1902        Pieter Zeeman (b.1865), Dutch physicist (Zeeman effect), won the Nobel Prize. 
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1902        President Theodore Roosevelt said he would intervene in a coal strike: "I knew that this action would form an evil precedent, and that it was one which I should take most reluctantly." The strike settled without intervention.
    (HNQ, 12/23/02)

1902         The Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for protection of the President. Two operatives were assigned full time to the White House Detail.
    (http://www.ustreas.gov/usss/history.shtml)

1902        Oliver Wendell Holmes, a Harvard Law Professor, was appointed to the US Supreme Court. He served to 1932.
    (SFC, 9/25/99, p.A20)

1902        The US Newlands Act established the Bureau of Reclamation and began to enact some of the ideas of John Wesley Powell concerning control of water resources in 17 western states. Results included the Newlands Irrigation Project in Nevada~ez_rsquo~s Fallon area that diverted water from the Carson and Truckee Rivers to new farmland.
    (HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.128)(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)(SFC, 12/28/02, p.A20)

1902        Sedona, Arizona, was founded. It was named after Sedona Schnebly, the daughter of one of the 1st settlers, wealthy landowner T. Carl Schnebly and his wife.
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, p.C6)

1902        Walter and Ella Scott arrived in Barstow, Ca., using funds from Julian Gerard, a Manhattan banker and mining promoter. Scott had faked a gold mine in Death Valley. In 1904 Scott faked a theft and managed to get more funds from Albert Mussey Johnson, treasurer of the national Life Insurance Company in Chicago. Scott admitted his fraud in 1912.
    (ON, 3/04, p.7)
1902        The San Francisco Chronicle Blue Ribbon Cook Book was compiled by Annie R. Gregory with assistance from 1000 homekeepers.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, WB p.4)
1902        In SF the Dutch Windmill was built to pump water to a reservoir on Strawberry Hill in Golden Gate Park at a cost of $25,000. Quarry Lake (Lily Pond) was designed for Goldengate Park. It was restored in 1981.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.5)(SFC, 7/29/97, p.A7)(SFC, 8/13/01, p.A18)(SFC, 6/26/02, p.A18)
1902        In SF A MUNI substation was built at Turk and Fillmore.
    (SFC, 3/16/09, p.B2)
1902        In SF the 12-story building at One Kearny was built in a French Renaissance style. It was designed by William Curlett. In 1964 an addition, designed by Charles Moore, included new circulation systems and bathrooms. In 2009 a 10-story addition was completed on its other side.
    (SFC, 11/10/09, p.E1)
1902        The SF Conservatory of Flowers received its imperial philodendron from Brazil.
    (SFC, 9/16/03, p.A20)
1902        SF banned the sale of cemetery lots.
    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.A21)
1902        Former SF Mayor James Phelan filed a federal claim "for the water from the Tuolemne River, to be gathered by damming the mouth of the Hetch Hetchy Valley."
    (ON, 7/03, p1)

1902        In the US Oregon became the first of 23 states to allow voters to place issues on the ballot in the form of initiatives.
    (WSJ, 6/5/96, p.A14)

1902        Artus and Anne Van Briggle founded the Van Briggle Pottery in Colorado Springs, Colo. Their Persian Rose glaze was produced from 1946-1968.
    (SFC, 9/7/05, p.G9)

1902        In Hawaii Walter Dillingham, son of Benjamin, took over the Oahu Railway and Land Co, and launched the Hawaiian Dredging and Construction Co. It later became the Dillingham Corp.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A19)
1902        Charles and Louisa Gay purchased a portion of the Gibson-Hayselden estate on Lanai, Ha., and within a few years became owners of most of the island. The Gays transitioned the ranches to cattle and mortgaged the property to William G. Irwin and Co. When Gay ran into financial trouble Irwin and partners foreclosed, took over the island and formed the Lanai Co.
    (SFC, 6/27/12, p.D6)

1902        George Draper Dayton started a dry goods store in Minneapolis that grew to become the Dayton Hudson chain. It was renamed Target in 1999. Kenneth Macke (1938-2008) led Dayton Hudson from 1983 to 1994.
    (SFC, 7/2/08, p.B7)

1902        The Crooksville China Co. of Crooksville, Ohio, began operations and continued to 1959. Their products included the Stinthal China brand name.
    (SFC, 8/20/08, p.G4)
1902        The Owen China Co. of Minerva, Ohio, was founded by Edward J. Owen. It was forced to close during the Depression in 1932.
    (SFC, 1/21/09, p.G4)

1902        National syndication of comic strips in newspapers originated when Hearst started selling the right to reproduce his strips in other newspapers.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3bqo2r)(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)

1902        Train service between New York and Chicago began. In 1995 Amtrak~ez_rsquo~s "Broadway Limited" service made its final run.
    (AP, 9/9/00)(MC, 9/9/01)

1902        Henry Leland reorganized Henry Ford Co. and renamed it Cadillac Motor Co.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(Sky, 9/97, p.97)

1902        The New Jersey Ralston Health Club run by Webster Edgerley merged with Purina Mills, a food manufacturer run by Will Danforth, to form the Ralston-Purina Co. Ralston Breakfast Food had been manufactured by Purina and its success led to the merger.
    (Arch, 5/04, p.32)

1902        In Buffalo, NY, the U.S. Hame Co. was formed as the result of a consolidation of two 19th century hame and saddlery manufacturers, the United Hame Co. of Buffalo, NY, and the Consolidated Hame Co. of Andover, New Hampshire. In 1917 it changed its name to USHCO and started making chassis for Ford and Chevrolet trucks.
    (www.coachbuilt.com/bui/u/us_body/us_body.htm)(SFC, 8/15/07, p.G7)

1902        Automobile disk brakes were patented.
    (WSJ, 12/6/00, p.A20)

1902        The first motorized buses were introduced.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1902        Charles R. Debevoise invented the brassiere, but the market rejected it. No early bra did well until elastic came out in 1913. [see May 30, 1889]
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.10)

1902        In Pittsburg, Texas, Rev. Burrell Cannon (d.1922), itinerant Baptist minister and inventor, built his Ezekial Airship and reportedly flew it for a short distance at a 12 foot altitude. The craft was destroyed on a rail car while enroute to the St. Louis World Fair.
    (WSJ, 11/20/02, p.A1)

1902        Caleb Bradham launched the Pepsi-Cola Co. from the backroom of his pharmacy in New Bern, N.C. He was awarded the Pepsi-Cola trademark in 1903. [see Jun 16, 1903]
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.B2)

1902        Parker Brothers brought table tennis to the US from Europe.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)

1902        Swift and Armour corporations came to Fort Worth, Texas, to build slaughter houses and meat packing plants.
    (HT, 4/97, p.48)

1902        James Heddon, bee-keeper and inventor, attached hook and line to wooden plugs in the shape of minnows, frogs and mice. His lures became prime collector items.
    (Hem, 8/95, p.96-97)

1902        The novelty Plato Clock was patented by Eugene Fitch of NYC. It resembled a lantern based on the story that Plato used a lantern-shaped clock while "looking for an honest man."
    (SFC, 9/21/98, Z1 p.8)

1902        The Wright Brothers built a glider based on their new aerodynamics tables. Efficiency was almost doubled and they made over 1,000 flights at Kill Devil Hills near Kitty Hawk, NC.
    (NPub, 2002, p.6)

1902        The Soufriere volcano erupted on St. Vincent and 1,680 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)

1902        Albert Bierstadt (b.1830), German-born American landscape painter, died. Grandiose images were his trademark.
    (WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A18)

1902        Charles Lewis Tiffany (1812-1902), founder of the Tiffany & Co. jewelry business, died. His son, Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933), made his name as an American painter, stained-glass artist, and glass manufacturer.
    (HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.22)(AHD, p.1344)(HN, 2/18/98)(WSJ, 8/4/98, p.A13)

1902        Emile Zola (b.1840), French novelist, died by asphyxiation in his Paris apartment. In 1895 he began taking photographs and took some 7,000 pictures before his death.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.C6)

1902        In Australia various governments met at Corowa on the Murray River, to try to secure their water supply.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.60)

1902        Ernst Wahliss purchased hundreds of original molds  of the defunct Imperial and Royal porcelain Manufactory in Vienna for use in his factory in Turn-Teplitz, Bohemia. From 1903- 1918 he and his sons produced porcelain with a ~ez_ldquo~crown~ez_rdquo~ mark and the word Turn above a shield with the initials EW and the word Vienna.
    (SFC, 8/3/05, p.G9)

1902        Arthur Balfour became the Prime Minister of Great Britain.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.122)
1902        The British enacted a law that froze the number of Irish pubs at the existing level to help reduce drinking.
    (WSJ, 3/17/99, p.A1)
1902        Britain passed a law against outdoor cremation.
    (AP, 7/12/06)
1902        In England the Greenwich Foot Tunnel, a passageway under the Thames that to the Royal Naval College, was constructed.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, p.T9)
1902        Arthur Keen created Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds Ltd., after acquiring Dowlais Iron in Wales and Nettlefolds. The company became the worlds largest producer of nails, nuts and bolts.
    (WSJ, 3/16/04, p.A8)
1902        John Furnivall (1878-1960), British Fabian socialist, arrived in Burma as an administrator. He left the colony in 1931 but returned in 1948 to advise its first post-independence  governments.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Sydenham_Furnivall)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.29)

1902      Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935), French chef, authored ~ez_ldquo~Le Guide Culinaire,~ez_rdquo~ a collection of some 5,000 recipes.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.141)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auguste_Escoffier)

1902        In Italy the Campanile in the Piazza San Marco in Venice collapsed.
    (HT, 5/97, p.24)

1902          The African Standard was inaugurated at the completion of the East African Railway from the Indian Ocean port of Mombasa to Lake Victoria. It was launched by A.M. Jeevanjee, a Karachi-born trader. Jeevanjee sold the paper in 1905 to two British businessmen, who changed the name to the East African Standard and in 1910 moved its headquarters to Nairobi. A few months before independence in 1963, the British-based Lonrho Group bought the newspaper. In 1977, it became a tabloid and the name was changed to the Standard. In 1995 Lonrho sold its controlling interest to the Standard Newspapers Group Limited, a company in which prominent Kenyan politicians are believed to have considerable interests. The name was changed back to the East African Standard.
    (AP, 11/15/02)

1902        In Malta the 6,000 year-old Hypogeum, a complex of rock-cut chamber tombs, was discovered.
    (SFEC, 9/17/00, p.T3)

1902        A massacre by Mexican federal troops, "the Battle of the Sierra Mazatan," killed about 150 Yaqui men, women and children. US anthropologist Ales Hrdlicka came upon some of the bodies while they were still decaying, hacked off the heads with a machete and boiled them to remove the flesh for his study of Mexico's "races." He sent the resulting collection to the New York museum. In 2009 Yaqui Indians buried their lost warriors after a two-year effort to rescue the remains from New York's American Museum of Natural History.
    (AP, 11/17/09)

1902        New Zealand adopted a new flag.
    (Econ, 11/1/14, p.40)
1902        The S.S. Ventnor sank off the northern New Zealand coast, bearing the exhumed bodies of 499 Chinese miners, some in wooden coffins and others in sealed zinc caskets. The captain and 12 crew members died, while other crew members made it ashore in lifeboats. Divers found the wreck in 2012.
    (AP, 11/25/14)

1902        In Peru US-owned Cerro de Pasco Corp. started to buy up mines in Cerro de Pasco and brought industrial mining, creating a boomtown. A half century later in 1956, the company turned to strip mining and started gouging the pit, which has since swallowed more than half the original urban center. State-run Centromin continued the pit expansion after a 1973 expropriation of the US company; Volcan since 1999.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

1902        Senegalese religious leader Sheikh Ahmadou Bamba, Islamic mystic and poet, returned to Touba and launched one of Senegal's main Muslim brotherhoods, the Mourides. The brotherhood went onto an informal, yet highly effective, global trading system based entirely on trust.
    (AP, 4/22/03)(Econ, 9/13/08, p.92)

1902        Saud ibn Abdul-Aziz, son of ibn-Saud and brother of Faisal was born. He ruled Saudi Arabia from 1953-1964.
    (www.geocities.com/saudhouse_p/alsaudf.htm)

1902        The Sudan Bookshop opened in Khartoum. Three British businessmen ran it in the early years before it passed into Sudanese ownership in the late 1960s, when Abdel Rahman took over as manager.
    (AFP, 2/10/12)

1902        Thailand annexed 3 southern provinces, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, that had been part of a Malay Muslim sultanate called the Kingdom of Pattani.
    (SFC, 1/23/04, p.A7)(Econ, 6/4/05, p.40)

1902-1904    Charles Ives composed his "Ragtime Dances."
    (WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A1)

1902-1932    Doulton pottery in Burslem produced Doulton Burslem wares. They used a lion and crown as an insignia. They made bone china from 1928-1957. China was stamped with a number indicating year of manufacture with "1" representing the year 1928.
    (SFC,12/17/97, Z1 p.16)

1902-1975    Frank Day, Native American Maidu painter. He depicted the customs of his tribe and his work included "Starwoman" (1975). He made some 200 paintings with tape-recorded interpretations and stories.
    (SFEM, 4/20/97, p.6)

1902-1977    Trevor Bardette (b.Nov 19, d.Nov 28 at 75), Actor, Wyatt Earp~ez_rsquo~s Old Man Clanton.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1902-1978    Harold Lasswell, American sociologist, declares that the communication theorist must always answer the question "Who says what to whom with what effect?"
    (V.D.-H.K.p.356)

1902-1984    Jessamyn West, American author: "I seem to be the only person in the world who doesn~ez_rsquo~t mind being pitied. If you love me, pity me."
    (AP, 9/18/00)

1902-1989     Sidney Hook, American philosopher and author. "Tolerance always has limits~ez_mdash~it cannot tolerate what is itself actively intolerant."
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1902-1994    Louis Nizer, American lawyer: "A man who works with his hands is a laborer; a man who works with his hands and his brain is a craftsman; but a man who works with his hands and his brain and his heart is an artist."
    (AP, 5/10/99)

1903        Jan 2, President Theodore Roosevelt closed a post office in Indianola, Mississippi for refusing to hire a black postmistress.
    (HN, 1/2/99)
1903        Jan 2, The first electronic message was sent across the 2,610 mile Pacific Cable from Honolulu to SF.
    (Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)

1903        Jan 3, The Bulgarian government renounced the treaty of commerce tying it to Austro-Hungarian empire.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1903        Jan 4, Topsy the elephant was poisoned electrocuted in Luna Park, Coney Island, NYC. The 10-foot elephant had killed 3 keepers over the last 2 years. Edison used the opportunity to demonstrate the lethal potential of alternating current, promoted by rival George Westinghouse.
    (Econ, 7/26/03, p.33)(Internet)

1903        Jan 6, George Pardee (1857-1941), former mayor of Oakland (1893-1895), was inaugurated as governor of California. Pardee served a single term to 1907.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Governors_of_California)(SFC, 1/8/09, p.B1)
1903        Jan 6, Maurice Abravanel, conductor and composer, was born in Saloniki, Greece.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1903        Jan 7, Alan Napier, actor (Alfred-Batman), was born in Birmingham, England.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1903        Jan 10, Argentina banned the importation of American beef, because of sanitation problems.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1903        Jan 11, Alan Patton, South African novelist who wrote "Cry, the Beloved Country," was born.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1903        Jan 18, Berthold Goldschmidt, German-British (opera) composer (Beatrice Cenci), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1903        Jan 19, Guglielmo Marconi broadcast the first transatlantic radio message from his station (Marconi Beach) on Cape Cod. It was beamed to King Edward of England from President Theodore Roosevelt. [see 1901]
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.44)
1903        Jan 19, L'Auto announced the first Tour de France. It was organized by Henri Desgrange (1865-1940). The new bicycle race began with 60 cyclists competing in a 2,500 kilometer, 19-day race.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Desgrange)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.73)

1903        Jan 21, International Theater (Majestic, Park) opened at 5 Columbus Circle in NYC.
    (MC, 1/21/02)
1903        Jan 21, Harry Houdini escaped from police station Halvemaansteeg in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1903        Jan 24, U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Herbert created a joint commission to establish the Alaskan border.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1903        Jan, The American League and the National League representatives met in Cincinnati and produced the rough outlines of a deal in which each would maintain independence, but coordinate schedules.
    (ON, 6/09, p.12)

1903        Feb 3, Edward F. Adams, editorial writer for the SF Chronicle, founded the SF Commonwealth Club as an open forum for the discussion of disputed questions.
    (SFC, 2/1/03, p.E4)(SSFC, 5/13/12, p.A14)

1903        Feb 11, Anton Bruckner's 9th Symphony premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/11/02)
1903        Feb 11, Congress passed the Expedition Act, giving antitrust cases priority in the courts.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1903        Feb 14, US Congress created the Department of Commerce and Labor to help stabilize the economy. It was divided into separate departments of Commerce and Labor in 1913.
    (HN, 2/14/98)(AP, 2/14/05)

1903        Feb 15, The 1st Teddy Bear was introduced in America by Morris & Rose Michtom.
    (440 Int~ez_rsquo~l., 2/15/99)

1903        Feb 16, Edgar Bergen, radio ventriloquist and comedian, was born in Chicago.
    (HN, 2/16/01)(MC, 2/16/02)
1903        Feb 16, At Pokegama, Minnesota, temperatures fell to a record state low of 59 degrees below zero.
    (SFC, 2/16/09, p.D10)

1903        Feb 19, The Austria-Hungary government decreed a mandatory two year military service.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1903        Feb 20, Pope Leo XIII celebrated 25 years as the Pope.
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1903        Feb 21, Anais Nin (d.1977), novelist (Winter of Artifice, House of Incense), was born in Paris: "People do not live in the present always, at one with it. They live at all kinds of and manners of distance from it, as difficult to measure as the course of planets. Fears and traumas make their journeys slanted, peripheral, uneven, evasive."
    (AP, 9/7/97)(MC, 2/21/02)
1903        Feb 21, The cornerstone laid for US army war college in Washington, DC.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1903        Feb 22, The US side of Niagara Falls ran short of water due to drought.
    (MC, 2/22/02)
1903        Feb 22, Hugo Wolf (b.1860), Austrian composer of Slovene origin, died. He is particularly noted for his German art songs, or Lieder.
    (WSJ, 3/27/07, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugo_Wolf)

1903        Feb 24, The United States signed an agreement acquiring a naval station at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. Pres. Roosevelt leased the site for 2,000 gold coins a year, about $4,080 in 2002.
    (AP, 2/24/98)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A7)

1903        Feb 26, Richard Gatling (b.1818), American inventor, died. The Gatling gun, an early type of machine gun, was named after him. In 2008 Julia Keller authored ~ez_ldquo~Mr. Gatling~ez_rsquo~s Terrible Marvel.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 6/3/08, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Jordan_Gatling)

1903        Mar 1, Leon Bismarck "Bix" Beiderbecke, jazz cornetist (In a Mist), was born in Iowa. [see Mar 10]
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1903         Mar 2, The Martha Washington Hotel opened for business in New York City. The hotel featured 416 rooms and was the first hotel exclusively for women.
    (HC, Internet, 2/3/98)

1903        Mar 3, president Theodore Roosevelt signed into law the Immigration Act of 1903, one day after its passage in Congress.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_Act_of_1903)
1903        Mar 3, North Carolina became the 1st state requiring registration of nurses.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1903        Mar 10, Leon Bismarck "Bix" Beiderbecke, jazz cornetist and composer, was born. [see Mar 1]
    (HN, 3/10/01)
1903        Mar 10, Harry Gammeter of Cleveland patented a multigraph duplicating machine.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1903        Mar 12, The Czar of Russia issued a decree providing for nominal freedom of religion throughout his territory.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1903        Mar 14, The Senate ratified the Hay-Herran Treaty which guaranteed the U.S. the right to build a canal at Panama. The treaty promised Colombia $10 million plus $250,000 annually for a zone 6 miles wide.
    (HN, 3/14/98)(ON, 1/00, p.2)
1903        Mar 14, The 1st national bird reservation was established in Sebastian, Florida.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1903        Mar 15, The British completed the conquest of Nigeria, 500,000 square miles are now controlled by the United Kingdom.
    (HN, 3/15/99)

1903        Mar 19, The U.S. Senate ratified the Cuban treaty, gaining naval bases in Guantanamo and Bahia Honda.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1903        Mar 20, Henri Matisse exhibited at the Salon des Independants.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1903        Mar 22, Niagara Falls ran out of water because of a drought. [see Feb 22]
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1903        Mar 23, The Wright brothers obtained an airplane patent.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1903        Mar 24, Adolf Butenandt, biochemist (Nobel 1939), was born.
    (HN, 3/24/01)(MC, 3/24/02)

1903        Mar 26, American Hotel opened in Amsterdam.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1903        Mar 28, Rudolf Serkin, pianist (Marlboro School of Music), was born in Eger, Bohemia.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1903        Mar 29, A regular news service began between New York and London on Marconi's wireless.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1903        Mar 31, New Zealand aviator Richard Pearse flew a self-made, bamboo-framed, mono-winged airplane in Waitohi.
    (NW, 3/17/03, p.20)

1903        Mar, Orville and Wilbur Wright first attempted to file a patent on their Flying Machine. This patent application, describing only the basic aerodynamics and control surfaces of the aircraft, not the engine, was turned down by the U.S. Patent Office for lack of clarity. [see 1906]
    (HNQ, 3/19/01)

1903        Apr 6, French Army Nationalists were revealed for forging documents to guarantee a conviction for Alfred Dreyfus, an officer accused of giving plans for France's defense to Germany.
    (HN, 4/6/99)

1903        Apr 9, Gregory Pincus, inventor of the birth control pill, was born.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1903        Apr 10, Clare Boothe Luce  (d.1987) was born. She was an author, diplomat, member of Congress and served as the U.S. ambassador to the Vatican. She allegedly said: "No good deed goes unpunished."
    (HN, 4/10/98)(AP, 6/2/99)

1903        Apr 14, Dr. Harry Plotz in NYC discovered a vaccine against typhoid.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1903        Apr 15, Erich Arendt, writer, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1903        Apr 15, John Williams, actor (Niles-Family Affair, Dial M for Murder), was born in England.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1903        Apr 17, Gregor Piatigorsky, cellist, was born in Ekaterinoslav, Russia.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1903        Apr 19, Eliot Ness, Treasury agent, was born. He fought for prohibition in Chicago, Ill.
    (HN, 4/19/99)

1903        May 2, Benjamin Spock, pediatrician, author and activist, was born. His book, "Common Sense of Baby and Child Care" sold 30 million copies.
    (HN, 5/2/99)

1903        May 3, Bing Crosby (d.1977), singer and actor, was born in Tacoma, Wa. as Harry Lillis. The family soon moved to Spokane where he grew up. He sang "White Christmas" and starred in Holiday Inn
    (HN, 5/3/99)(SSFC, 1/21/01, BR p.10)

1903        May 5, James Beard (d.1985), US culinary expert, author (Delights & Prejudices), was born in Portland, Ore.
    (http://members.localnet.com/~jgeorge/jbeard.htm)

1903        May 8, Joseph Desire Fernandel, comedian (Grand Chef), was born in Marseilles, France.
    (MC, 5/8/02)
1903        May 8, Paul Gauguin (b.1848), French born painter, died at his home on the Marquesas Islands. He was buried at Atuona on Hiva Oa Island.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C9)

1903        May 12, Lennox R.F. Berkeley, British composer (Castaway), was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1903        May 13, The Dewey Memorial in Union Square, San Francisco, was dedicated by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt. Robert Aitken sculpted the 12-foot statue of Victory that stood atop an 83-foot column. Alma deBretteville, later Alma Spreckels, posed as the model.
    (SSFC, 5/11/03, p.D1)

1903        May 17, James "Cool Papa" Bell, baseball player, was born.
    (HN, 5/17/01)

1903        May 19, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson bet $50 that he could cross the US from San Francisco in his $2,500 Winton touring car. He and his mechanic reached NYC July 26.
    (SFC, 6/16/03, p.A1)

1903        May 23, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson set off to cross the US from San Francisco in his $2,500 Winton touring car with his mechanic Sewell Croker. They reached NYC July 26.
    (SFC, 6/16/03, p.A1)(SFC, 6/18/03, p.A23)(ON, 9/04, p.10)

1903        May 24, Arthur Vineberg, Canadian heart surgeon, was born.
    (HN, 5/24/01)

1903        May 26, Estes Kefauver, senator from Tennessee, was born. He wanted the Democratic nomination for president against John Kennedy.
    (HN, 5/26/99)
1903        May 26, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of 3 Gables."
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1903        May 29, Bob Hope (d.2003), US comedian, was born as Leslie Townes Hope in Eltham, England.
    (SFC, 5/28/97, p.D5)(AP, 5/29/05)

1903        May 30, Countee Cullen, American poet, was born.
    (HN, 5/30/01)

1903        May 31, It was reported that the Coast Limited train out of SF plunged down a 50-foot embankment near Santa Barbara and injured over 40 people with an untold number killed.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W2)

1903        May, In Britain the House of Commons passed a resolution urging that Congo natives be governed with humanity. Also the British consul in the Congo, Roger Casement, was asked to travel to the interior and report on conditions there.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.8)

1903        Jun 2, Robert Morris Page, physicist, inventor of pulse radar, was born.
    (HN, 6/2/01)

1903        Jun 6, Composer Aram Khachaturian was born in Tiflis, Russia.
    (AP, 6/6/03)

1903        Jun 7, Professor Curie revealed the discovery of Polonium. [see 1898]
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1903        Jun 11, The San Francisco Board of Supervisors enacted Section 538 of the Police Code forbidding youngsters under 21 from congregating in groups between 8 p.m. and daylight the following morning. On Nov 13, 1962, Municipal Judge Leland Lazarus ruled Section 538 unconstitutional.
    (SSFC, 11/11/12, DB p.46)
1903        Jun 11, King Alexander and Queen Draga of Belgrade were assassinated by 28 members of the Serbian army. The remains of their corpses were thrown out of a palace window. Peter Karageorgevic was later elected to replace him.
    (AP, 6/11/03)(Econ, 3/29/14, p.90)

1903        Jun 13, Harold "Red" Grange, football's Galloping Ghost, was born. He became an All-American football running back for the University of Illinois and went on to a professional career in Chicago and New York.
    (HN, 6/13/99)

1903        Jun 15, Barney Oldfield (1878-1946), race car driver, drove a Ford 999 at a record mile per minute.
    (Ind, 10/6/01, 5A)

1903        Jun 16, Ford Motor Co. was incorporated.
    (AP, 6/16/98)
1903        Jun 16, Pepsi Cola company formed. [see 1902]
    (MC, 6/16/02)
1903        Jun 16, Roald Amundsen (31) departed Christiana (later Oslo), Norway, aboard Gjřa with a crew of 6 to search for the Northwest Passage. They reached California in the fall of 1905.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.765)(Ind, 4/27/02, 5A)

1903        Jun 17, Joseph-Marie Cassant (b.1878), a French monk, died. He frequently meditated about Jesus on the cross. In 2004 he was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
    (AP, 10/3/04)(www.vatican.va/news_services)

1903        Jun 18, 1st transcontinental auto trip began in SF and arrived in NY 3-months later. [see Jul 26]
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1903        Jun 19, Henry Louis Gehrig (d.6/22/1941) was born in New York City. He became first baseman for the New York Yankees and started 2,130 games consecutively: HALL OF FAMER; MVP '36; 7x World Series; .341 avg., 493 HRs; 2,721 hits, 1,990 RBIs. He died of a muscle wasting disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, now known by his name.
    (HN, 6/19/99)
1903        Jun 19, The young school teacher, Benito Mussolini, was placed under investigation by police in Bern, Switzerland.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1903        Jun 21, Al[bert] Hirschfield, cartoonist (NINA, NY Times), was born in St Louis, Mo.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1903        Jun 22, John Dillinger, one of America~ez_rsquo~s "Most Wanted" gangsters, was born in Indianapolis, Indiana.
    (YarraNet, 6/22/00)
1903        Jun 22, George White, a black resident of Delaware, was lynched.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1903        Jun 25, George Orwell (d.1950), English novelist, essayist and critic, was born in India as Eric Arthur Blair. He took his pen name in 1932. His books included "Animal Farm" (1945) and "1984" (1949), which attacked totalitarianism. "Each generation imagines itself to be more intelligent than the one that went before it, and wiser than the one that comes after it."
    (HN, 6/25/99)(AP, 9/23/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Orwell)
1903        Jun 25, Marie Curie announced her discovery of radium. [see Apr 20, 1902]
    (HN, 6/25/01)

1903        Jun 29, The British government officially protested Belgian atrocities in the Congo. Missionaries, such as William Sheppard of Virginia, had provided information that soldiers of Leopold~ez_rsquo~s private army turned over the right hand of villagers they had killed in order to account for their used bullets. Leopold~ez_rsquo~s 19,000 man private army held hostage the wives of workers to force men to work.
    (HN, 6/29/98)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7,8)

1903         Jul 1, Amy Johnson, English aviator, was born.
    (HN, 7/1/01)
1903        Jul 1, The 1st Tour de France bicycle race began.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tour_de_France)

1903        Jul 2, Lord Alex Douglas-Home, British PM (1963-64), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1903        Jul 2, Olav V, King of Norway (1957), was born in England.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1903        Jul 3, The first cable across the Pacific Ocean was spliced between Honolulu, Midway, Guam and Manila. Teddy Roosevelt placed the atoll of Midway Island under Navy supervision. The Commercial Pacific Cable Co. (later AT&T) set cable across the Pacific via Midway Island and the first around the world message was sent. The message took 9 minutes to circle the globe. [see Jul 4]
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.T5)(HN, 7/3/98)

1903        Jul 4, Pacific Cable (SF, Hawaii, Guam, Philippines) opened. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt opened the first Pacific communications cable by sending a message around the world. Roosevelt sent a message around the world, and the message came back to him in 12 minutes. [see Jul 3]
    (Maggio, 98)(HNQ, 7/6/01)

1903        Jul 14, Irving Stone, biographical novelist, was born.
    (HN, 7/14/01)

1903        Jul 17, James Abbott McNeil Whistler (b.1834), American-born expatriate painter famous for painting his mother (1872), died.
    (www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/art.asp?aid=652)(ON, 4/03, p.9)

1903        Jul 20, Pope Leo XIII died. He served 25 years, four months and 17 days.
    (AP, 10/15/03)

1903        Jul 21, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson arrived in Cleveland with his mechanic Sewell Croker escorted by a fleet of new Winton automobiles. They were enroute to NYC from San Francisco in a $2,500 Winton touring car.
    (ON, 9/04, p.10)

1903        Jul 23, The Ford Motor Company sold its first automobile, the Model A.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1903        Jul 25, In San Francisco Layman~ez_rsquo~s Folly, the German-style castle built on Telegraph Hill in 1883 by entrepreneur Frederick Layman, was destroyed by fire.
    (http://beta.shapingsf-wiki.org/index.php?title=Layman%27s_Folly)(SFC, 11/27/00, p.A18)(SFC, 3/8/14, p.C2)

1903        Jul 26, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson of Vermont and his mechanic Sewell Croker arrived in NYC completing the first cross-country automobile trip in 63 days after leaving SF. On July 26, 2003 Peter Kesling and Charlie Wake completed a rerun of the original trip.
    (WSJ, 7/19/02, p.W9)(WSJ, 5/7/03, p.B1)(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A2)(ON, 9/04, p.12)

1903        Aug 4, Cardinal Giuseppe Sarto of Venice was elected Pope Pius X.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1903        Aug 7, Louis Leakey, anthropologist, archeologist and paleontologist, was born in Kenya. He believed that Africa was the cradle of mankind.
    (HN, 8/7/98)(Internet)

1903        Aug 14, John Ringling North, circus director (Ringling Bros), was born in Baraboo, Wisc.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1903        Aug 19, James Gould Cozzens (d.1978), US novelist, was born in Chicago. His novels included  "Farewell to Cuba" and "Guard of Honor" for which he won a 1949 Pulitzer.
    (MC, 8/19/02)(Internet)

1903        Aug 23, William Primrose, violist (Method for Violin & Viola), was born in Glasgow, Scotland.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1903        Aug 28, Bruno Bettelheim (d.1990), Austrian-US psychologist, psychoanalyst and educator, was born. His book included "Love is not Enough" and "Uses of Enchantment."
    (HN, 8/28/98)

1903        Aug 31, Arthur Godfrey, radio and television personality, was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1903        Aug 31, Bernard Lovell, radio astronomer, founded Jodrell Bank, was born in England.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1903        Sep 8, Between 30,000 and 50,000 Bulgarian men, women and children were massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1903        Sep 13, Claudette Colbert (d.1996), actress, was born in France as Lily Claudette
Chauchoin. She won an Oscar for "It Happened One Night."
    (HN, 9/13/00)(www.concise.britannica.com)

1903        Sep 17, Turks destroyed the town of Kastoria in Bulgaria, killing 10,000 civilians.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1903        Sep 20, It was reported that a deputy US marshal committed suicide and that 3 SF deputy sheriffs were arrested over bribes paid by the Chinese to sidestep the anti-Chinese Exclusion Act and gain entry into the US.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W2)

1903        Sep 21, The 1st cowboy film, "Kit Carson," premiered in US.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1903        Sep 22, Italo Marchioni applied for a patent for pastry cornets to hold ice cream and was granted the patent on Dec 13, 1903. Ice cream cones were popularized in the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair.
    (HN, 5/2/98)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)(MC, 9/22/01)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C3)

1903        Sep 25, Mark Rothko (d.1970), [Marcus Rothkovich] US émigré painter (Green on Blue), was born in Dvinsk, Russia, later Daugavpils, Latvia. His family moved to Portland, Ore. in 1913. His work included "Subway" (1936/1939), "Street Scene" (1936/1938), "Untitled" (1942), "Untitled" (1942/1943), "Phalanx of the Mind" (1945), "The Source" (1946), "Sacrificial Moment" (1946), "Number 18" (1948), and "Untitled" (1945-1946).
    (V.D.-H.K.p.362)(SFC,1/21/97, p.B1,2)(AP, 11/11/03)

1903        Sep 29, Greer Garson (d.1996), Hollywood actress, was born in County Down, Northern Ireland. [see 1903-1996] She won a best actress Oscar for her role in Mrs. Miniver (1942), and also starred in Madame Curie (1943), Pride and Prejudice (1940).
    (SFC, 4/7/96, p.B-5)

1903        Oct 1, The Pittsburgh Pirates defeated the home team Boston Pilgrims (Red Sox), 7-3, in the first World Series game. Boston, however, went on to win the series, five games to three.
    (AP, 10/1/03)

1903        Oct 4, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Austrian Nazi (SS/SD) and successor to Reinhard Heydrich, was born. He was hanged in 1946.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1903        Oct 10, Philippe Bunau-Varilla met with Pres. Roosevelt in Washington and told him that a group in Panama was planning a rebellion. He asked that the US prevent any Colombian troops from landing to break the rebellion, but received no specific answer.
    (ON, 1/00, p.2)
1903        Oct 10, Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928), British suffragist, and her daughter Christabel (23) founder the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU).
    (ON, 10/2010, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmeline_Pankhurst)

1903        Oct 13, Victor Herbert's "Babes in Toyland," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/13/01)
1903        Oct 13, Boston defeated Pittsburgh in baseball~ez_rsquo~s first World Series. In 2003 Roger I. Abrams authored "The First World Series and the Baseball Fanatics of 1903;" Louis P. Masur authored "Autumn Glory: Baseball's First World Series;" and Bob Ryan authored "When Boston Won the World Series."
    (WSJ, 7/8/96, p.A8)(HN, 10/13/98)(WSJ, 3/28/03, p.W9)(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.M6)

1903        Oct 17, Nathanael West, novelist and screenwriter, was born. His work included "Miss Lonely Hearts" and "The Day of the Locust."
    (HN, 10/17/00)

1903        Oct 18, Ambrose Thibodeaux, Cajun accordionist, was born.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1903        Oct 19, Vittorio Giannini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1903        Oct 20, The Joint Commission, set up on January 24 by Great Britain and the United States to arbitrate the disputed Alaskan boundary, ruled in favor of the United States. The deciding vote was Britain~ez_rsquo~s, which embittered Canada. The United States gained ports on the panhandle coast of Alaska.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(HN, 10/20/98)

1903        Oct 22, George Beadle, American biologist, was born.
    (HN, 10/22/98)

1903        Oct 28, Evelyn Waugh (d.1966), English novelist, was born in London. Waugh served in WWII as a SAS Commando. He wrote "Decline and Fall" and "Brideshead Revisited." "News is what a chap who doesn't care much about anything wants to read. And it's only news until he's read it. After that it's dead."
    (AP, 3/29/99)(HN, 10/28/99)(MC, 10/28/01)

1903        Nov 2, The Daily Mirror of London began operating as the first tabloid newspaper.
    (WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)(http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/lofiversion/index.php/t6351.html)

1903        Nov 3, Walker Evans, photographer, was born.
    (HN, 11/3/00)
1903        Nov 3, There was a Revolution in Panama composed of Panamanian fired departments and some 500 Colombian mercenary troops purchased for some $100,000 by Philippe Bunau-Varilla~ez_rsquo~s Panama Canal Company. The US created Panama so that a canal could be built and maintained
    (HFA, '96, p.42)(SFC, 6/2/97, p.A8)(AP, 11/3/97)(ON, 1/00, p.2)

1903        Nov 4, After a one-day coup, in which an American warship offshore prevented Columbia from quelling the revolt and the only casualty was a Chinese shopkeeper and a donkey, Panama declared her independence. A jubilant President Theodore Roosevelt recognized the new republic three days later. The Panama Canal, a cornerstone of Roosevelt's aggressive foreign policy, was completed in 10 years.
    (HNPD, 11/18/98)(ON, 1/00, p.3)

1903        Nov 6, Panama declared its independence from Colombia.
    (ON, 1/00, p.3)

1903        Nov 7, Konrad Lorenz, pioneering zoologist, was born.
    (HN, 11/7/00)
1903        Nov 7, President Theodore Roosevelt recognized the new Panama republic.
    (HNPD, 11/18/98)(ON, 1/00, p.3)

1903        Nov 9, Gregory Pincus, inventor (birth control pill), was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1903        Nov 12, The Lebaudy brothers of France set an air-travel distance record of 34 miles in a dirigible.
    (HN, 11/12/98)

1903        Nov 13, Camille Pissarro (b.1830), French impressionist born in St. Thomas, Dutch West Indies, died in Paris.
    (WSJ, 1/14/97, p.A16)(www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/pissarro/)

1903        Nov 15, Eugen d'Albert's opera "Tiefland," premiered in Prague.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1903        Nov 16, V. Herbert's and H. Smith's musical "Babette," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1903        Nov 17, Vladimir Lenin~ez_rsquo~s efforts to impose his own radical views on the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party split the Party into two factions, the Bolsheviks, who supported Lenin, and the Mensheviks. The followers of the Marxist revolutionary line espoused by V.I. Lenin called themselves the majority, or Bolsheviks, and referred to their rivals as the minority, or Mensheviks. The Mensheviks took a less radical position, seeking cooperation with middle-class parties. The two factions grew into separate parties, with Bolshevism becoming the strategy that led to the overthrow of Russian czarism and the establishment of soviet power in the revolutions of 1917. The Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Russian Communist Party in 1918 and the word Bolshevik was finally dropped from the official title of the Soviet Communist Party in 1956.
    (HN, 11/17/98)(HNQ, 3/17/00)

1903        Nov 18, The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed, granting the United States a strip of land across the Isthmus of Panama and the right to build and fortify the Panama Canal. Building an interoceanic canal was not a new idea at the turn of the 20th century, but U.S. acquisition of California in 1848 and territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean after the Spanish-American War made the canal crucial to American foreign policy. In January 1903, the Hay-Herran Treaty with Colombia--Panama was a part of Colombia--would have given the United States the land and the right to build a canal across Panama, but Colombia refused to ratify the treaty. Subsequently, Panamanian rebels--encouraged by American agents--rose against Colombia on November 3, 1903. After a one-day coup, in which an American warship offshore prevented Colombia from quelling the revolt and the only casualty was a donkey, Panama declared her independence. A jubilant President Theodore Roosevelt recognized the new republic three days later. The Panama Canal, a cornerstone of Roosevelt's aggressive foreign policy, was completed in 10 years.
    (HNPD, 11/18/98)(ON, 1/00, p.3)

1903        Nov 19, Carrie Nation attempted to address Senate.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1903        Nov 20, In Cheyenne, Wyoming, 42-year-old hired gunman and stock detective Tom Horn was hanged for the 1901 murder of Willie Nickell (14). Horn had made a controversial confession to U.S. Deputy Marshal Joseph S. LeFors that was pivotal in the conviction.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1903        Nov 23, Singer Enrico Caruso made his American debut at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, appearing as the Duke of Mantua in "Rigoletto."
    (AP, 11/23/97)

1903        Nov 24, Clyde Coleman of NYC patented an automobile electric starter.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1903        Nov 25, In San Francisco Alexander Garnett shot and killed Major J.W. McClung at the Palace Hotel apartment of Mrs. Lillian Hitchcock Coit. Coit soon left the city and spent the next 6 years in Paris. Garnett was convicted and sentenced to 15 years at San Quentin, but only began serving time in 1909 following an appeal and restoration of records due to the 1906 fire.
    (SSFC, 9/13/09, DB p.46)

1903        Nov 29, Inquiry into U.S. Postal Service demonstrated the government had lost millions in fraud.
    (HN, 11/29/98)

1903        Dec 1, "The Great Train Robbery," the 1st Western film, was released. Edwin S. Porter, a cameraman for Thomas Edison~ez_rsquo~s production company, revived flagging interest in motion pictures with the 12-minute movie that introduced three great American traditions~ez_mdash~editing, the chase scene and the Western. Prior to Porter~ez_rsquo~s landmark movie, moving pictures were non-narrative, with one long shot recording an actual event. The Great Train Robbery, with a series of 14 scenes of bandits robbing a railway station and ultimately paying the price for their misdeeds, developed multiple plot lines simultaneously by cutting and splicing film. Moviegoers screamed when the scene of an outlaw shooting directly into the camera was shown.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Train_Robbery_%28film%29)

1903        Dec 2, The play ~ez_ldquo~Kuolema~ez_rdquo~ (Death), a drama by Finnish writer Arvid Järnefelt, was first performed. It included incidental music by Jean Sibelius. The opening number, Valse Triste (Sad Waltz), was later adapted into a separate concert piece.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuolema)

1903        Dec 4, Alfred Leslie Rowse (d. 10/3/97), Shakespeare scholar and authority on Tudor England, was born in St. Austell, England. He authored 90 volumes of history, poetry and biography. His best seller was "A Cornish Childhood." He asserted that the "Dark Lady" in Shakespeare~ez_rsquo~s sonnets was the Italian poet Emilis Bassano Lanier.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.D10)(MC, 12/4/01)

1903        Dec 8, Zoltan Szekely, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/8/01)
1903        Dec 8, Samuel P. Langley~ez_rsquo~s man-carrying Great Aerodrome collapsed right after takeoff from a houseboat on the Potomac River.
    (www.nasm.si.edu/research/arch/findaids/langley/langley_sec_6.html)
1903        Dec 8, Herbert Spencer (b.1820), English philosopher, died. He was later considered to be the father of Social Darwinism. He is best known for coining the phrase "survival of the fittest," which he did in ~ez_ldquo~Principles of Biology~ez_rdquo~ (1864).
    (WSJ, 1/9/09, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Spencer)

1903        Dec 9, The Norwegian parliament voted unanimously for female suffrage.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1903        Dec 10, Mary Norton, English children's author, was born. Her work included "Bedknobs and Broomsticks."
    (HN, 12/10/00)

1903        Dec 13, Italo Marconi received a patent for the ice cream cone in NJ. [see Sep 22, 1903]
    (MC, 12/13/01)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C3)

1903        Dec 14, William Ennis became the 1st cop to die in electric chair.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1903        Dec 15, The British Parliament placed a 15-year ban on whale fishing in Norway.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1903        Dec 17, Erskine Caldwell, U.S. novelist, was born.
    (HN, 12/17/98)
1903        Dec 17, The Wright brothers' Flyer I flew for 12 seconds in the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The brothers were the sons of a Dayton, Ohio, bishop (Church of the United Brethren). Orville Wright made the first powered, controlled and sustained flight. Orville, lying prone at the plane's controls, flew a distance of 120 feet in 12 seconds. Wilbur ran beside Flyer's wing tip until it was airborne to keep the wing from dragging in the sand. Four sustained flights were made on this day. The 4th flight lasted fifty-nine seconds. The momentous events of that day received little press attention, since the reticent Wright brothers feared their ideas would be stolen by rival aviators. It was not until 1908, after making many refinements to their flying machine, that the Wrights embarked on a series of public demonstrations that finally earned them worldwide acclaim. A one-hour PBS documentary covered their life as part of "The American Experience."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)(AP, 12/17/97)(HNPD, 12/17/98)(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D3)(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D3)(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.B8)

1903        Dec 19, The Williamsburg suspension bridge opened between Brooklyn and Manhattan.
    (MC, 12/19/01)
1903        Dec 19, Heinrich Lienhard (b.1822), Swiss immigrant to the United States, died in Illinois. His reminiscences for the years 1822 to 1850 are an important historical source re California Trail and Sutter's Fort in California from 1846 to 1850.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Lienhard)

1903        Dec 28, John Von Neuman, Hungarian-born mathematician, was born. He gave to the mathematics community the new axiomatic foundation for set theory and high-speed calculations.
    (HN, 12/28/99)

1903        Dec 30, The Iraquois Theater Fire of Chicago killed 602 people. Matinee patrons for "Mr Bluebeard" panicked despite efforts by comedian Eddie Foy (47) to calm the crowd. In 2003 Anthony P. Hatch authored "Tinder Box," an account of the fire.
    (HFA, '96, p.70)(AP, 12/30/97)(PCh, 1992, p.652)(WSJ, 3/28/03, p.W9)

1903        Zora Neale Hurston (d.1960), black author, was born.
    (SFC, 4/5/96, p.D-1)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.C8)

1903        The Burlington Magazine, a journal of art history, was founded in Britain. In 2003 Michael Levy edited "The Burlington Magazine: A Centenary Anthology," with articles by a roster of legendary art historians.
    (WSJ, 5/29/03, p.D8)

1903        George Gustav Heye, NY banker, began collecting American Indian cultural material.
    (Hem, Mar. 95, p.19)

1903        The Salon d~ez_rsquo~Automne in France featured the post-Impressionist, Fauves, and the avant-garde artists of the late 19th century. [see 1905]
    (Calg. Glen., 1996)

1903        The Shanameh by Firdawsi as commissioned by Shah Tahmasp in the 1520s was transferred to the Baron de Rothschild. In 1959 it was transferred to A.A. Houghton of the Corning Glass family.
    (WSJ, p. A-18, 10-13-94)

1903        Picasso painted the "Seated Woman," a gouache from his Blue Period. He also painted "La Vie."
    (WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6)(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A12)

1903        Picasso painted "Angel Fernandez de Soto," a portrait of a sneering, dissolute youth, a bar pal of the artist in Barcelona, Spain. The painting was to go on auction and expected to fetch as much as $10 mil. The painting sold for 29.2 mil on 5/8/95.
    (WSJ, 4/27/95, p.C-1)(WSJ, 5/9/95, p.B-6)

1903        Alfred Stieglitz published the first edition of "Camera Work," which included the quote: Followers manage to make of the footpaths of great men a wide road."
    (WSJ, 1/28/99, p.A16)

1903        Mary Austin published her account of the high desert: "The Land of Little Rain."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ~ez_lsquo~95, p.77)

1903        Robert Erskine Childers (1870-1922), British author, wrote his spy novel ~ez_ldquo~The Riddle of the Sands.~ez_rdquo~ The Irish nationalist was executed by the authorities of the nascent Irish Free State during the Irish Civil War.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.81)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Riddle_of_the_Sands)

1903        W.E.B. Du Bois published "The Souls of Black Folk," in which he asked ~ez_ldquo~How does it feel to be a problem?~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 4/29/03, A16)(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.M3)

1903        Sven Hedn published "Central Asia and Tibet."
    (NH, 5/96, p.68)

1903        Henry James (1843-1916), England-born US novelist, writer and critic, authored his novel ~ez_ldquo~the Ambassadors.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 10/25/08, p.W8)

1903        Helen Keller published her book "The Story of My Life." It was later named one of the 100 most important books of the 20th century by the NY Public Library.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.3)

1903        Mary Roberts Rinehart, mystery writer, published 45 stories in her first year of writing.
    (SFC, 2/12/00, p.B3)

1903        Frederick R. Swift authored "Florida Fancy."
    (AM, 7/00, p.56)

1903        W.C. Handy met a guitar player at a railroad station in Tutwiler, Mississippi, who pressed a knife a the strings of his guitar and sang "Goin where the Southern cross~ez_rsquo~ the Dog."
    (NH, 9/96, p.53)

1903        In NYC the Manhattan Bridge opened.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, p.T4)
1903        The New Amsterdam Theater on 42nd St. in New York City, home of the legendary Ziegfeld Follies, was constructed by Herts and Tallant. It was renovated in 1997 for $34 million by the Walt Disney Co.
    (WSJ, 4/3/97, p.A16)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E1)
1903        The Gardner Museum was built at the edge of the muddy Fens. Isabella Stewart Gardner (d.1924) decreed that no changes be made to her museum.
    (WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)
1903        The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) opened its first building at 10 Broad St.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.D2)

1903        Du Pont established the Experimental Station for research in Wilmington.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)

1903        Former outlaws Cole Younger and Frank James teamed up to tour Tennessee in their own Wild West Show.
    (SFC, 12/29/96, zone 1 p.2)

1903        In Detroit the Gem Theater was constructed. In 1997 the 2,750 ton building was moved 5 blocks through downtown to make room for a new ballpark. It set a new record as the heaviest building moved.
    (SFC,10/23/97, p.A17)

1903        The Scripps Institute of Oceanography was founded in the boathouse of the Hotel Del Coronado in San Diego, Ca.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, p.A17)
1903        The Greenlawn cemetery, also called Old Fellows Cemetery, was established in Lawndale (Colma), Ca.
    (GTP, 1973, p.45)(www.colmahistory.org/History.htm)
1903        Hollywood High School was built. In 1991 principal Jeanne Hon conceived of a school museum for memorabilia.
    (WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-12)
1903        The Merchants Exchange Building at 465 California St. was designed by Willis Polk.
    (SFC, 4/7/97, p.E3)
1903        In SF the Mercantile Building at Third and Mission was completed.
    (SFC, 8/1/08, p.A12)
1903        Some Noe Valley homes of San Francisco were built astride the former Precita Creek. The stream ran along the foot of Bernal Heights. Precita means ~ez_ldquo~condemned to hell~ez_rdquo~ in Spanish.
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/14/14, p.C2)
1903        In San Francisco construction began on the new Mary~ez_rsquo~s Help Hospital on Guerrero St. but was 1906 earthquake pushed back the opening to 1912.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)
1903        Dr. Rupert Blue reported that the bubonic plague epidemic had been confined to the 24 blocks of San Francisco~ez_rsquo~s Chinatown and that the district was now plague-free and plague-proof. Blue had replaced Joseph Kinyoun as the federal official charged with fighting the epidemic.
    (ON, 1/00, p.6)(SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)

1903        The hot fudge sundae was first served.
    (SFC, 3/7/98, p.E3)

1903        J.L. Kraft started a cheese business. In 2005 Kraft was the largest food company in the US and spent some $90 million annually on advertising directly to children.
    (WSJ, 10/31/05, p.A1)

1903        Flinders Petrie was awarded the Lucy Wharton Drexel Medal for Archeological Achievement from the Univ. of Pennsylvania for his work in Egypt.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.19)

1903        Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927), Swedish scientist, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lxu4w)
1903        Bjornstjerne Martinus Bjornson won the Nobel Prize in literature.
    (SFC, 10/10/01, p.B8)
1903        Randal Cremer (b.1838), British trade unionist, pacifist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 3/18/02)
1903        Pierre and Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of radioactivity.
    (SSFC, 11/28/04, p.4)

1903        Pres. Theodore Roosevelt set aside the 5 acres of Pelican Island off the east coast of Florida to protect pelicans and other birds from hunters. This began the wildlife refuge system that grew to 537 national wildlife refuges in 2001.
    (SFC, 2/8/01, p.A2)

1903        There was a stock market panic this year as Pres. Teddy Roosevelt began to establish himself as the first great "trust buster."
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.B2)

1903        A skeptical English-born journalist suggested that American baseball is a form of rounders, a British children~ez_rsquo~s game.
    (Econ, 8/10/13, p.29)

1903        The first Key System trains, established by Francis Marion Smith, began running from downtown Berkeley, Ca., to the Oakland pier.
    (SFC, 3/22/14, p.D2)
1903        The SF Bay Area Realty Estate Syndicate, created by Francis Marion Smith and partner Frank C. Havens, built the Idora Park amusement center near 56th Street and Telegraph Ave. in Oakland, Ca. It was torn down in 1929.
    (SFC, 3/22/14, p.D2)

1903        Hawaii~ez_rsquo~s popularly elected territorial legislature first petitioned to become a state and repeated the request at least 17 times. [see 1919]
    (HNQ, 2/23/02)

1903        The first Crayolas were red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown and black. [2nd source says 1902]
    (SFEC, 10/4/98, Z1 p.8)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.10)

1903        King C. Gillette replaced the cut-throat razor with his safety razor blade.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.111)

1903        Henry Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Co. and sold the first Model A.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1903        F. Stuart Foote founded the Imperial Furniture Co. in Grand Rapids, Mich. The company was sold in 1954.
    (SFC, 12/26/07, p.G3)

1903        William Harley and the 3 Davidson brothers: Arthur (20), Walter and William (21), started out in a Milwaukee basement to produce their first motorized bike. In 1999 Brock Yates published "Outlaw Machine: Harley-Davidson and the Search for the American Soul."
    (WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W6)(NW, 7/22/02, p.60)

1903        Buick Motors was established.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1903        The Red Spot Paint & Varnish Co. was established in Evansville, Ind.
    (WSJ, 12/20/96, p.A1)

1903        The Buffalo Pottery Company opened in Buffalo. It was established by the Larkin Co., a soap manufacturer, to make premiums for its customers.
    (SFC, 7/1/98, Z1 p.6)

1903        The Hearst Corp. launched its first magazine, Motor.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1903        The Postal car was equipped with a heater.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1903        The 1st trolley with an electric 3rd rail was installed in Scranton, Pa.
    (SFEC, 9/26/99, p.B8)

1903        Walter Sutton, American cytologist, suggested that the Mendelian elements of heredity lay on the chromosomes.
    (NH, 6/01, p.32)

1903        Major silver and gold deposits were found at Goldfield, Nevada.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)

1903        John Muir influenced the conservation policy of President Theodore Roosevelt during a 1903 camping trip to Yosemite. Naturalist and forest conservation advocate, Muir was largely responsible for the establishment of national parks such as Sequoia and Yosemite. After graduating from the University of Wisconsin, Scottish immigrant Muir worked on mechanical inventions, but when an industrial accident blinded him in one eye, he abandoned that career and devoted himself to nature. As early as 1876, Muir encouraged the federal government to establish a forest conservation program. The Sequoia and Yosemite parks were created in 1890 and two eloquent articles by Muir swayed public opinion in favor of federally protected national forests.
    (HNPD, 1/2/99)

1903        Andrew Carnegie donated $1.5 million for the construction of 2 dozen libraries in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    (Econ, 2/14/09, p.40)

1903        The Adirondack Fire in NY state burned some 637,000 acres.
    (SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)

1903        Frederick Law Olmsted, the architect of Central Park in NYC, died at the McLean Asylum in Waverly, Mass. In 1999 Witold Rybczynski authored the biography: "A Clearing in the Distance: Frederick Law Olmsted and America In the Nineteenth Century." Olmsted~ez_rsquo~s hand appears in such places as: Brooklyn's Prospect Park, Boston's Back Bay Fens, Louisville's park system, Detroit's Belle Isle, Montreal's Mount Royal, Buffalo's parks, Chicago's Riverside, Oakland's Mountain View, Washington's Capitol grounds, and the Stanford Univ. campus.
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W5)(WSJ, 5/26/99, p.A20)

1903        Taxonomists renamed Brontosaurus, the genus name of a sauropod dinosaur, as Apatosaurus after it was discovered that two different names referred to the same dinosaur.
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.81)

1903        Herbert Spencer (b.1820), English philosopher, died. His work included "Social Statics" in which he coined the phrase "survival of the fittest" and described social inequality as a natural outgrowth of competition.
    (WSJ, 2/1/00, p.B1)(WUD, 1994, p.1368)

1903        In Belarus Jews made history by being the first to resist a pogrom, defending 26 synagogues and prayer houses.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

1903        In Belgium Congo Samuel Verner, an American missionary and explorer, purchased Ota Benga, a young pigmy enslaved by another tribe. He was under contract to the St. Louis Fair to bring several Pygmies to America for a living display of the stages of evolution. After the fair Benga ended up at the Bronx Zoological Park where he was displayed with monkeys. In 1910 Benga moved to a Baptist seminary in Lynchburg, Va. In 1916 Benga committed suicide.
    (WSJ, 2/6/06, p.B1)

1903        In England the National Art Collections Fund, the leading independent art charity, was founded.
    (SFC, 12/26/96, p.4)
1903        The Commonwealth Naturalization Act excluded all non-Europeans from the right to apply for naturalization, or from bringing spouses and children into the country. Britain passed legislation restriction immigration.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, p.63)(http://tinyurl.com/25dmgfa)
1903        In England a skeleton of a man, 9,000 years old, was discovered in the underground caves at Cheddar, 130 miles west of London.
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A8)
1903        London gin distiller George Gilbey began selling aristocrats do-it-yourself gadgets to carbonate tap water.
    (SFC, 7/9/11, p.D2)

1903        China~ez_rsquo~s Tsingtao Brewery was set up by German brewers.
    (Econ, 5/31/14, SR p.14)

1903        In France Count Hallez d~ez_rsquo~Arros founded his Society of Heraldic Faience of Pierrefonds. The society~ez_rsquo~s pottery used a ~ez_ldquo~P~ez_rdquo~ and ~ez_ldquo~H~ez_rdquo~ mark and became well-known for its crystalline glazes.
    (SFC, 10/19/05, p.G2)

1903        The Gresham Palace Hotel was completed in Budapest, Hungary.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.81)

1903        In India 110 the five-star Taj Mahal Palace and Tower was built in Bombay (later Mumbai).
    (AP, 11/27/08)

1903        English Col. Francis Younghusband (1863-1942) marched off from Darjeeling, India, with 1,000 British and Indian soldiers, 7,000 mules and 4,000 yaks to invade Tibet.
    (SSFC, 7/15/07, p.G5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Younghusband)

1903        Rasputin, the Russian monk and confidant of the Romanovs, came to St. Petersburg as an ascetic holy man and claimed to be inspired by visions of the Virgin Mary.
    (WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-15)
1903        The Kishinev pogrom in Odessa, Russia set Vladimir Jabotinsky afire with the Jewish cause and placed him on a Zionist path. His biography: "Lone Wolf" by Shmuel Katz was published in Hebrew in 1993 and in English in 1996.
    (WSJ, 4/22/96, p.A-20)
1903        In Russia Nicholas Kornilowisch discovered microscopic structure in insect muscle tissue in amber.
    (PacDis, Winter/~ez_rsquo~97, p.12)

1903-1906    The United Shoe Manufacturing Plant was built. It was pioneering reinforced concrete structure in Beverly, Mass., devised by the engineer Ernest L. Ransome. He patented a way to embed twisted square iron rods in concrete.
    (WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A16)

1903-1907    William Randolph Hearst served two terms in Congress.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1903-1909    In SF infantry barracks were built on Ruger St. in the Presidio to provide quarters for troops being shipped to cover the US expansion into the Pacific.
    (G, Spring/98, p.5)

1903-1966    Michael O~ez_rsquo~Donovan (aka Frank O~ez_rsquo~Connor), Irish writer, was born in Cork. His work included "The Big Fellow: Michael Collins & The Irish Revolution."
    (SFEM, 5/24/98, p.11)

1903-1968     Tallulah Bankhead, American actress: "The only thing I regret about my past is the length of it. If I had to live my life again, I~ez_rsquo~d make the same mistakes, only sooner."
    (AP, 5/28/97)

1903-1972    Joseph Cornell, a homebody artist. He made elaborate shadow boxes often using astronomical themes. Three of his works are owned by the Whitney Museum of American Art. His work included "Soap Bubble Set" (1936), and "Garbo: The Crystal Mask" (c1939-40). In 1997 Deborah Soloman wrote "Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell."
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-13)(SFEC, 4/27/97, BR p.9)

1903-1974    Cyril Connolly, British critic: "We fear something before we hate it. A child who fears noises becomes a man who hates  noise."
    (AP, 6/16/00)

1903-1975    Walker Evans, American photographer, became famous for his pictures of the Great Depression.
    (WSJ, 3/31/00, p.W16)

1903-1981     Harry Lewis Golden, American author, editor and publisher: "The imperceptible process of age has a point which, once passed, cannot be retraced. I knew I had passed that point and was getting old the day I noticed that all the cops looked so young."
    (AP, 10/10/97)

1903-1986    Candido Jacuzzi was an Italian immigrant who manufactured hydraulic pumps. He adopted a pump to create a hydro massage for his son who suffered from rheumatoid arthritis. This started the hot tub business.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, Z1 p.8)

1903-1988     Alan Paton, South African author: "The tragedy is not that things are broken. The tragedy is that they are not mended again."
    (AP, 7/7/98)

1903-1990    Malcolm Muggeridge, British author and commentator: "It is only believers in the Fall of Man who can really appreciate how funny men are."
    (AP, 6/11/99)

1904        Jan 2, U.S. Marines were sent to Santo Domingo to aid the government against rebel forces.
    (HN, 1/2/99)
1904        Jan 2, James Longstreet (b.1821), Confederate general, died in Georgia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Longstreet)

1904        Jan 4, The US Supreme Court, in Gonzalez v. Williams, ruled that Puerto Ricans were not aliens and could enter the US freely; however, the court stopped short of declaring them US citizens.
    (AP, 1/4/08)

1904        Jan 5, American Marines arrived in Seoul, Korea to guard U.S. legation there.
    (HN, 1/5/99)

1904        Jan 6, A Japanese railway in Korea refused to transport Russian troops.
    (HN, 1/6/99)

1904        Jan 7, The Marconi International Marine Communication Company, Limited, of London announced that the telegraphed letters ~ez_ldquo~C-Q-D~ez_rdquo~ would serve as a maritime distress call. It was later replaced by ~ez_ldquo~S-O-S~ez_rdquo~.
    (AP, 1/7/07)

1904        Jan 8, Pope Pius X banned low cut dresses in the presence of churchmen.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1904        Jan 9, George Balanchine, dancer, choreographer, ballet producer, was born. [see Jan 22]
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1904        Jan 10, Ray Bolger, actor, dancer (Scarecrow-Wizard of Oz), was born in Dorchester, Mass.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1904        Jan 11, British troops massacred 1,000 dervishes in Somaliland.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1904        Jan 12, Anxious Germans opened fire on Ovaherero at Okahandja. The Herero people of Southwest Africa (Namibia) had risen in rebellion against German colonial rule. The deadly Deutsche Schutzruppe ~ez_ldquo~peacekeeping regiment~ez_rdquo~ quelled the tribes. They eventually annihilated 75% of the Herero and Nama peoples. In 1981 Jon M. Bridgeman authored ~ez_ldquo~The Revolt of the Hereros.~ez_rdquo~
    (www.umich.edu/news/MT/NewsE/10_05/steinmetz.html)(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.E5)

1904        Jan 18, Henri-Georges Adam, French etcher, painter, sculptor (Grand Nude), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)
1904        Jan 18, Cary Grant (d.1986), U.S. actor, was born in England. He was famous for his roles in "Gunga Din," "Bringing Up Baby," "The Philadelphia Story" and "North by Northwest."
    (HN, 1/18/99)(MC, 1/18/02)

1904        Jan 19, James Winston Watts, surgical developer (Frontal Lobotomy), was born.
    (MC, 1/19/02)
1904        Jan 19, A team of oil drillers led by George Reynolds and funded by English millionaire William Knox D~ez_rsquo~Arcy, struck oil at Chiah Surkh, Persia, but by March the volume dwindled to an unprofitable trickle.
    (ON, 8/08, p.2)

1904        Jan 22, George Balanchine, composer, choreographer, was born. [see Jan 9]
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1904        Jan 25, J.M. Synge's "Riders to the Sea," premiered in Dublin. [see Feb 25]
    (MC, 1/25/02)
1904        Jan 25, Two-hundred (179) coal miners were entombed in an explosion in Cheswick, Pennsylvania.
    (HN, 1/25/99)(MC, 1/25/02)

1904        Jan 27, Willie Vanderbilt (1878-1944) reached 92.3 mph in his new German motorcar at the Daytona Beach Road Course at Ormond Beach, Florida, establishing a new land speed record. He was the 2nd child and first son of William Kissam Vanderbilt and Alva Erskine Smith.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.122)(www.racechase.com/ftopic254.html)

1904        Jan 29, The 1st athletic letters were given to the Univ. of Chicago football team.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1904        Feb 1, S.J. (Sidney) Perelman, author, humorist (Monkey Business, Horse Feathers, One Touch of Venus, Strictly from Hunger, Westward Ha!) was born in Brooklyn.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)(MC, 2/1/02)
1904        Feb 1, Enrico Caruso recorded his first sides for Victor Records. He did ten songs in the session for $4,000.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)

1904        Feb 3, Colombian troops clashed with U.S. Marines in Panama.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1904        Feb 4, MacKinlay Kantor, novelist (Andersonville), was born in Webster City, Iowa.
    (MC, 2/4/02)
1904        Feb 4, Russia offered Korea to Japan and defended its right to occupy Manchuria.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1904        Feb 5, The American occupation of Cuba ended.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1904        Feb 6, Japan's foreign minister severed all ties with Russia, citing delaying tactics in negotiations over Manchuria.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1904        Feb 7, A fire in Baltimore raged for about 30 hours and destroyed more than 1,500 buildings over 80 blocks. The fired caused an estimated $80 million in damages.
    (AP, 2/7/97)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A23)(MC, 2/7/02)

1904        Feb 8, The Russo-Japanese War began. In a surprise attack at Port Arthur, Korea, the Japanese disabled seven Russian warships. During the war, Russia suffered a series of stunning defeats to Japan; the fighting ended with an agreement mediated by President Theodore Roosevelt, who went on to win the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
    (HN, 2/7/97)(AP, 2/8/04)

1904        Feb 9, Japanese troops landed near Seoul, Korea, after disabling two Russian cruisers.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1904        Feb 10, Russia and Japan declared war on each other.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1904        Feb 11, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed strict neutrality for the U.S. in the Russo-Japanese War.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1904        Feb 14, The "Missouri Kid" was captured in Kansas.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1904        Feb 16, George Keenan, U.S. diplomat, was born in Milwaukee. He became a historian and proposed the policy of "containment" for dealing with the Soviet Union.
    (HN, 2/16/99)

1904        Feb 17, The original two-act version of Giacomo Puccini's opera "Madame Butterfly" was poorly received during its world premiere at La Scala, Milan.
    (AP, 2/17/08)

1904        Feb 20, Alexei Kosygin, Soviet Premier, was born.
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1904        Feb 23, William Shirer, was born. He was a CBS broadcaster and wrote "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich."
    (HN, 2/23/99)
1904        Feb 23, US acquired control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10 million.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1904        Feb 23, Japan guaranteed Korean sovereignty in exchange for military assistance.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1904        Feb 25, J.M. Synge's play "Riders to the Sea" opened in Dublin. [see Jan 25]
    (HN, 2/25/01)

1904        Feb 27, James T. Farrell (d.1979), author (Young Lonigan), was born. In 2004 Robert K. Landers authored "The Life and Times of James T. Farrell."
    (HN, 2/27/01)(SFC, 2/26/04, p.E1)

1904        Feb 28, Vincent d'Indy's 2nd Symphony in B premiered.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1904        Feb 29, Jimmy Dorsey (d.1957), orchestra leader, was born in Shenandoah, Pa.
    (HN, 2/29/00)(AP, 2/29/04)

1904         Mar 1, Glenn Miller (d.1944), big band leader of the 1930s and 1940s, was born in Clarinda, Iowa.
    (AP, 3/1/04)

1904        Mar 2, Henry Dreyfuss, industrial designer of everything from telephones to the interior of the Boeing 707, was born.
    (HN, 3/2/01)
1904        Mar 2, Theodor Seuss Geisel [Dr. Seuss] was born in Springfield, Mass. He was the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of "The Cat in the Hat," "Green Eggs and Ham," "The Grinch Who Stole Christmas" and other children's books.
    (HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(HN, 3/2/99)(SSFC, 5/26/02, Par p.8)
1904        Mar 2, "Official Playing Rules of Professional Base Ball Clubs" was adopted.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1904        Mar 2, Gabriele d'Annunzio's "La figlia di Iorio" premiered in Milan.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1904        Mar 4, George Gamow, nuclear physicist, cosmologist, writer (1, 2, 3...'infinity'), was born.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1904        Mar 4, Ding Ling, Chinese writer and women's rights activist, was born.
    (HN, 3/4/01)
1904        Mar 4, Russian troops began to retreat toward the Manchurian border as 100,000 Japanese advanced in Korea.
    (HN, 3/4/98)

1904         Mar 7, Reinhard Heydrich, German SS Leader and Architect of the "final solution," was born.
    (HN, 3/7/98)
1904        Mar 7, The Japanese bombed the Russian town of Vladivostok.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1904        Mar 8, The Bundestag in Germany lifted the ban on the Jesuit order of priests.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1904        Mar 15, Three hundred Russians were killed as the Japanese shelled Port Arthur in Korea.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1904        Mar 19, John J. Sirica, U.S. Federal Judge, ruled on Watergate issues, was born.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1904        Mar 20, B.F. Skinner, American psychologist, was born.
    (HN, 3/20/01)

1904        Mar 22, The first color photograph was published in the London Daily Illustrated Mirror.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1904        Mar 24, Vice Adm. Tojo sank seven Russian ships as the Japanese strengthened their blockade of Port Arthur.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1904        Mar 26, Joseph Campbell, folklorist and writer, was born.
    (HN, 3/26/01)

1904        Apr 3, Iron Eyes Cody, actor (Black Gold, Ernest Goes to Camp), was born in Tulsa, OK.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1904        Apr 8, Britain and France signed a series of agreements dubbed the entente cordial. It marked the end of almost a century of intermittent conflict between the two nations and their predecessor states. The Entente cordiale, along with the Anglo-Russian Entente and the Franco-Russian Alliance, later became part of the Triple Entente among the UK, France, and Russia.
    (Econ, 3/26/11, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entente_cordiale)

1904        Apr 13, In Pensacola, Fl., an explosion on the US battleship Missouri killed 29 men and injured 5 men, of whom 2 died later.
    (SFC, 4/15/06, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/6hkedu)

1904        Apr 14, Sir John Gielgud, actor, was born.
    (HN, 4/14/98)
1904        Apr 14, George Bernard Shaw's "Candide," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1904        Apr 15, Arshile Gorky (d.1948), artist, was born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in Eastern Turkey. (The actual year was between 1902 and 1905). He came to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky.
    (WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arshile_Gorky)

1904        Apr 16, Lily Pons, soprano diva, was born in Draguignan, France.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1904        Apr 19, Much of Toronto was destroyed by fire.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1904        Apr 22, J. Robert Oppenheimer, head of the Manhattan (Atomic-bomb) Project, was born.
    (HN, 4/22/98)

1904        Apr 23, The American Academy of Arts and Letters was founded.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

1904        Apr 24, Willem de Kooning (d.1997), abstract impressionist artist, was born in Rotterdam.
    (SFC, 3/20/97, p.A1,6,E1)(HN, 4/24/01)
1904        Apr 24, Friedrich Siemens (77), German industrialist, died.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1904        Apr 26, William "Count" Basie, jazz pianist (Policy Man, Blazing Saddles), was born. [see Aug 21]
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1904        Apr 27, Cecil Day-Lewis, Irish poet, father of actor Daniel Day-Lewis, was born.
    (HN, 4/27/01)

1904        Apr 30, At 1:06 p.m. President Theodore Roosevelt officially opened the St. Louis World~ez_rsquo~s Fair commemorating the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase. Although the Fair was originally scheduled to open in 1903, the opening was delayed for a year while the elaborate fairgrounds were completed. Visitors were awed by 142 miles of exhibits shown in palatial buildings like Festival Hall the centerpiece of the fair boasting an auditorium seating 3,500 and the largest pipe organ in the world. Other wonders seen at the St. Louis World~ez_rsquo~s Fair were the Liberty Bell, ice cream cones. Food vendors, Arnold Fornachou (ice cream) and Ernest Hamwi (sweet, rolled wafers), collaborated for the ice cream cones. In 1903 Italo Marconi received a patent for pastry cornets to hold ice cream. Charles Menches sold ice cream at the fair and an anonymous Syrian sold the zalabia pastry in the next booth.
    (HN, 5/2/98)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)(SFC, 6/24/00, p.B3)
1904        Apr 30, The St. Louis World~ez_rsquo~s Fair popularized the all-American hamburger. The fair lasted 7 months and inspired the phrase "Meet Me in St. Louis." Cass Gilbert designed the art museum in Foret park, the only building left over from the fair. At the Louisiana Purchase Exposition the temperatures in St. Louis soared and hot-tea vendor Richard Blechynden began pouring his tea over ice thus the invention of iced-tea. The fair popularized sausage in a bun, the hot dog with prepared mustard and the ice cream cone.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 11/17/96, Par p.19)(SFC, 10/12/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 4/19/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C3)
1904        Although invented in Waco, Texas in the 1880s, Dr Pepper first received national exposure at the St.  Louis World's Fair.
    (HNQ, 10/25/00)

1904        May 1, Antonin Dvorak (b.1841), Czech composer (Slavonic Dances, New World Symphony), died at age 62. He spent 1892-1895 in the US as an honored guest. In 2002 Michael B. Beckerman authored "New Worlds of Dvorak: Searching in America for the Composer~ez_rsquo~s Inner Life."
    (MC, 5/1/02)(SSFC, 1/19/03, p.M5)

1904        May 4, The United States took over construction of the Panama Canal.
    (AP, 5/4/08)

1904        May 5, Denton True Young (Cy Young) of the Boston Red Sox pitched the American League's first perfect game as the Boston Red Sox defeated the Philadelphia Athletics, 3-0.
    (SFC, 9/27/99, p.A23)(AP, 5/5/04)

1904        May 8, U.S. Marines landed in Tangier to protect the Belgian legation.
    (HN, 5/8/98)
1904        May 8, Eadweard J. Muybridge (b.1830 as Edward Muggeridge), English photographer, died in England. He had spent much of his life in the USA and is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion which used multiple cameras to capture motion, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadweard_Muybridge)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.122)

1904        May 10, Henry Morton Stanley (b.1841 as John Rowlands), Welsh-born British explorer, died in London. In 2007 Tim Jeal authored ~ez_ldquo~Stanley: The Impossible Life of Africa~ez_rsquo~s Greatest Explorer.~ez_rdquo~
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Morton_Stanley)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.90)

1904        May 11, Andrew Carnegie donated $1.5M to build a peace palace.
    (MC, 5/11/02)
1904        May 11, Salvador Dali (d.1989), surrealist painter, was born in Figueres, Spain.
    (HN, 5/11/98)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T4)

1904        May 14, The first Olympic games to be held in the United States opened in St. Louis. Some 1,500 athletes competed from 13 countries. The US won 80 of 100 gold medals. At the Olympics the game of golf was played for the last time due to lack of general appeal. The 3rd modern Olympics were held at the St. Louis World~ez_rsquo~s Fair. A separate competition was held for ~ez_ldquo~uncivilized tribes~ez_rdquo~ in what was billed as ~ez_ldquo~Anthropology Days.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.4)(AP, 5/14/97)(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)(PCh, 1992, p.658)(WSJ, 8/11/04, p.B1)

1904        May 17, Maurice Ravel's "Sheherezad," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1904        May 18, Jacob K. Javits, US Senator-R-NY, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1904        May 18, Brigand Raizuli kidnapped American Ion H. Perdicaris in Morocco.
    (HN, 5/18/98)

1904        May 21, Fats Waller (d.1943), [Thomas Wright], jazz singer, composer (Ain't Misbehavin'), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1904        May 25, Kurt George Hugo Thomas, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1904        May 29, Robert Knox, bacteriologist, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1904        Jun 2, Johnny Weissmuller, American gold-winning Olympic swimmer (1924), was born. He portrayed Tarzan in the movies.
    (HN, 6/2/99)(SC, 6/2/02)

1904        Jun 3, Charles R. Drew (d.1950), American black surgeon, was born. He invented blood plasma banks. He helped develop methods to preserve blood plasma and protested the US Army~ez_rsquo~s policy of segregating donated blood by race. While working on his doctorate at Columbia University, Drew researched ways to use and preserve blood plasma for use in transfusion. He quickly became a leading authority on "blood banks" and oversaw programs in the U.S. and Britain in the early years of World War II. He left this enterprise when the armed forces insisted on storing the blood plasma of blacks and whites separately. Taking jobs at Howard University and Freedman's Hospital in Washington, DC, he worked as an educator until his untimely death in a car accident in 1950.
    (SFC,11/12/97, p.A3)(HN, 6/3/00)(HNQ, 2/7/01)

1904        Jun 4, Alvah Bessie, screenwriter and novelist, was born.
    (HN, 6/4/01)

1904        Jun 6, The National Tuberculosis Association was organized in Atlantic City, NJ.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1904        Jun 8, U.S. Marines landed in Tangiers, Morocco, to protect U.S. citizens.
    (HN, 6/8/99)

1904        Jun 11, German General Lothar von Trotha arrived in SW Africa (later Namibia) to take over from the colonial Governor, Theodor Leutwein, the direction of a campaign to quell a native uprising.
    (www.umich.edu/news/MT/NewsE/10_05/steinmetz.html)

1904        Jun 15, A fire erupted aboard the steamboat General Slocum, owned by the Knickerbocker Steamboat Co., in New York City~ez_rsquo~s East River and some 1,021 people died. The ship carried a congregation of a German church on its annual picnic. Capt. William van Schaick (1837-1927) was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to 10 years in Sing Sing. He was pardoned by Pres. Taft in 1911.
    (AP, 6/15/97)(www.newyorkhistory.info)(ON, 2/06, p.9)

1904        Jun 16, Bloomsday. The 1922 novel ~ez_ldquo~Ulysses~ez_rdquo~ by James Joyce was set on this day. It charts the wanderings of Leopold Bloom and Stephen Dedalus among Dublin streets and beaches, museums and galleries, pubs and brothels through the ebb and tide of their memories and emotions. The "same day that the penniless and Myopic Jimmy Joyce (22) first walked out with the redheaded chambermaid Nora Barnacle," (20) who became his Molly Bloom. In 1988 Brenda Maddox authored "Nora: The Real Life of Molly Bloom."
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C6)(SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)(AP, 6/14/04)

1904        Jun 17, Ralph Bellamy, actor (Air Mail, Dive Bomber, Trading Places, Sunrise at Campobello, Winds of War, War and Remembrance), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1904        Jun 26, Peter Lorre, actor, was born. He starred in Casablanca and "M."
    (HN, 6/26/99)

1904        Jun 27, The 2nd Fastnet Lighthouse was completed off of southwest Ireland.
    (www.cil.ie/flat_areaEQLlighthousesAMPLighthouseIDEQL18_entry.html)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.98)

1904        Jun 28, Blind-deaf student Helen Keller graduated with honors from Radcliffe College. [See Sep 1]
    (AP, 6/28/04)

1904        Jun 29, In Indonesia Mount Lewotobi on Flores Island erupted.
    (SFC, 7/10/99, p.A9)

1904        Jun 30, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that a property on Calhoun St. belonging to a Mrs. Burdett had been destroyed by blasting by quarrymen George and Harry Gray. Their blasting had erased a stretch of Calhoun St. and left a sheer precipice 125 feet high.
    (SFC, 2/22/14, p.C3)

1904        Jul 5, Ernst Mayr, biologist, was born in Germany. He emigrated to the US in 1931. Mayr helped define the concept of species as a group of interbreeding populations. He helped found the modern evolutionary synthesis with Theodosius Dobzhansky, Julian Huxley and George Gaylord Simpson, that brought together a genetic understanding of how species adopt to their environment.
    (NH, 5/97, p.8)(SFC, 7/5/04, p.A6)

1904        Jul 12, Pablo Neruda (d.1973), Chilean poet and political activist (Residence on Earth-Nobel 1971), was born as Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto in Parral, Chile.
    (HN, 7/12/01)(SFC, 7/15/04, p.E11)

1904        Jul 14, Isaac Singer (1991), Polish-born American author (Enemies-Nobel 1978), was born. "God is the sum of all possibilities." "When you betray somebody else, you also betray yourself."
    (AP, 3/30/97)(AP, 6/4/99)(HN, 7/14/01)(MC, 7/14/02)

1904        Jul 15, Dorothy Fields, songwriter, was born.
    (HN, 7/15/01)
1904        Jul 15, Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (44), Russian writer (Uncle Vanya), died of tuberculosis. Chekhov wrote his play "The Cherry Orchard" in this year. In 1998 Donald Rayfield published "Anton Chekhov: A Life." An assay of his plays was written by Maurice Vallency: "The Breaking string." Vladimir Nabokov examined his short stories in "Lectures on Russian Literature." In 1988 V.S. Pritchett wrote a biography. In 1998 Philip Callow published "Chekhov: The Hidden Ground," and Donald Rayfield published "Anton Chekhov: A Life." In 1999 Peter Constantine translated and published "Undiscovered Chekhov: Thirty-Eight New Stories."
    (WUD, 1994, p.252)(WSJ, 11/5/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.8)(SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.6)(MC, 7/15/02)

1904        Jul 18, Hiram Washington Hayden (b.1820), American inventor, died in Massachusetts. In 1851 he had patented a design for brass kettles.
    (SFC, 6/11/08, p.G3)(http://tinyurl.com/5trd82)

1904        Jul 21, After 13 years, the 4,607-mile Trans-Siberian railway was completed. [see Jul 31]
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1904        Jul 23, By some accounts, the ice cream cone was invented by Charles E. Menches during the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis. [see Sep 22, 1903]
    (AP, 7/23/99)

1904        Jul 31, The Trans-Siberian railroad connecting the Ural mountains with Russia~ez_rsquo~s Pacific coast, was completed. [see Jul 21]
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1904        Aug 6, The Japanese army in Korea surrounded a Russian army retreating to Manchuria.
    (HN, 8/6/98)

1904        Aug 7, Ralph Bunche (d.1971), US diplomat and the first African-American Nobel Prize winner (1950), was born. "There are no warlike peoples- just warlike leaders."
    (HN, 8/7/98)(AP, 12/7/99)(MC, 8/7/02)

1904        Aug 9, Friedrich Ratzel (59), German social-geographer (Lebensraum), died.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1904        Aug 10, Angelo G. Roncalli, later Pope John XXIII, became a priest.
    (MC, 8/10/02)
1904        Aug 10, Dutch newspaper Volk fired gay journalist Jacob de Cock.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1904        Aug 11, German General Lothar von Trotha defeated the Hereros tribe near Waterberg, South Africa.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1904        Aug 12, Aleksei N. Romanov, son of tsar Nicolas II, was born.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1904        Aug 14, The cattle-herding Hereros, a tribe of Southwest Africa (later Namibia), became the first genocide victims of the 20th century. Kaiser Wilhelm II had sent General Lothar von Trotha to put down a Herero uprising along with the groups of rebellious Khoikhoi. Trotha drove the Hereros into the desert and then issued a formal "extermination order" (Schrecklichkeit) authorizing the slaughter of all who refused to surrender. Out of some 80,000 Hereros, 60,000 died in the desert. Of the 15,000 who surrendered, half of those died in prison camps. Some 9,000 escaped to neighboring countries. In 2004 a senior German government official apologized for the genocide during a ceremony in Namibia marking the 100th anniversary of the uprising. In 2005 a German minister acknowledged violence by German colonial powers and admitted that following uprisings, the surviving Herero, Nama and Damara were interned in camps and put to forced labor of such brutality that many did not survive.
    (www.umich.edu/news/MT/NewsE/10_05/steinmetz.html)(HNPD, 4/14/99)(AP, 8/14/04)(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.E5)

1904        Aug 16, NYC began building the Grand Central Station.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1904        Aug 18, [Francis] Max Factor (d.1996), cosmetics manufacturer (Max Factor), was born. His father, Max Factor (d.1938), was born in Lodz, Russia, in 1877 and came to the US with his family in 1902.
    (MC, 8/18/02)(Internet)

1904        Aug 20, Dublin~ez_rsquo~s Abbey Theatre was founded, an outgrowth of the Irish Literary Theatre founded in 1899 by William Butler Yeats and Lady Gregory.
    (HN, 8/20/00)

1904        Aug 21, William "Count" Basie, American band leader and composer, was born. [see Apr 26]
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1904        Aug 22, Deng Xiaoping (d.1997), Chinese leader from 1977 to 1987, was born in Sichuan province. He held nominal leadership position until his death.
    (HN, 8/22/00)(AP, 8/22/04)

1904        Aug 24, In the field battle at Liaoyang, China, some 200,000 Japanese faced 150,000 Russians. The Japanese defeated the Russians in October.
    (MC, 8/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.654)

1904        Aug 26, Christopher Isherwood, English novelist and playwright, was born. He wrote "Goodbye to Berlin" (Berlin Stories), the inspiration for the play "I am a Camera" and the musical and film "Cabaret." [1906 also given as birth year]
    (WUD, 1994 p.755)(HN, 8/26/00)

1904        Aug 29,  Werner Forssman, German urologist, was born. He was the first to catheterize his own heart and won a Nobel prize in 1956.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1904        Sep 1, Helen Keller with the faithful help of teacher Annie Mansfield Sullivan, graduated cum laude from Radcliffe College at age 24. This accomplishment was particularly remarkable because Keller had lost both sight and hearing at age 2 after contracting scarlet fever. Sullivan, who broke through Helen~ez_rsquo~s childhood isolation to teach her Braille and sign language, accompanied Helen to every class at Radcliffe, spelling lectures and books into her hand. After graduation, Keller embarked on a career of writing on behalf of woman suffrage, socialism and the rights of the handicapped. Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968, 32 years after the death of her beloved teacher, Annie Sullivan.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.3)(HNPD, 9/3/98)

1904        Sep 2, Set Svanholm, tenor (Met Opera and London Convent Garden), was born in Vesteras, Sweden.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1904        Sep 4, Dali Lama signed a treaty allowing British commerce in Tibet.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1904        Sep 9, Mounted police were 1st used in NYC.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1904        Sep 11, The battleship Connecticut, launched in New York, introduced a new era in naval construction.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1904        Sep 15, Wilbur Wright made his 1st controlled half-circle while in flight with Flyer II. On Sep 20 he flew a full circle for the first time.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pkwd37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wright_Flyer_II)

1904        Sep 18, In East London Jewish anarchists on Brick Lane pelted Ultra-Orthodox worshippers with bacon sandwiches on Yom Kippur.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3x7moee)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.17)

1904        Sep 19, Bergen Baldwin Evans (d.1978), American educator and author who wrote the "Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage," was born in Ohio. "Freedom of speech and freedom of action are meaningless without freedom to think. And there is no freedom of thought without doubt."
    (AP, 8/11/98)(HN, 9/19/98)(MC, 9/19/01)
1904        Sep 19, Gen. Nogi's assault on Port Arthur: 16,000 Japanese casualties.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1904        Sep 20, Orville and Wilbur Wright flew a circle in their Flyer II.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1904        Sep 21, Exiled Nez Perce leader Chief Joseph died in Washington state reportedly of a "broken heart." In 1984 ~ez_ldquo~Chief Joseph~ez_rsquo~s Own Story~ez_rdquo~ was published.
    (HN, 9/21/98)(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)

1904        Sep 24, Sixty-two died and 120 were injured in head-on train collision in Tennessee.
    (HN, 9/24/98)

1904        Sep 25, A New York City police officer ordered a female passenger in an automobile on Fifth Avenue to stop smoking a cigarette. A male companion was arrested and later fined two dollars for "abusing" the officer.
    (AP, 9/25/98)

1904        Sep 26, GB Shaw's "How He Lied to Her Husband," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 9/26/01)
1904        Sep 26, Lafcadio Hearn (b.1850), Greece-born, Irish-American travel writer, died in Japan. He moved to Japan in 1890 and is especially well-known for his collections of Japanese legends and ghost stories, such as ~ez_ldquo~Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things~ez_rdquo~ (1904). In 2009 Christopher Benfey edited ~ez_ldquo~Lafcadio Hearn: American Writings.~ez_rdquo~
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lafcadio_Hearn)

1904        Sep 28, A woman was placed under arrest for smoking a cigarette on New York~ez_rsquo~s Fifth Avenue.
    (HN, 9/28/98)

1904        Oct 1, Vladimir Horowitz, Russian-born American virtuoso pianist, was born in Kiev, Ukraine.
    (HN, 10/1/98)(MC, 10/1/01)
1904        Oct, 1, Forty orphans (aged 2-6), shipped west  in the company of nuns by a New York Foundling Hospital, arrived at the Arizona copper mining towns of Clifton and Morenci. Anglo townspeople opposed their adoption by Mexican American citizens, terrorized the adopting families and took some of the children for themselves. In 1999 Linda Gordon authored "The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction;" Linda Peavy and Ursula Smith authored "Frontier Children," which described the "orphan train" plan to transport poor city-bred children to a healthier life out west.
    (SFEC, 1/9/00, Par p.6)

1904        Oct 2, Graham Greene (d.1991), British author, was born. His work included "The Power and the Glory," "The Heart of the Matter" and "Ministry of Fear," which was made into a 1940s movie by Fritz Lang. "I didn't invent the world I write about- it's all true." In 2004 Norman sherry concluded his 3-volume biography: ~ez_ldquo~The Life of Graham Greene.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.44)(AP, 4/3/00)(HN, 10/2/00)(SFC, 10/2/04, p.E1)
1904        Oct 2, General Lothar von Trotha: ~ez_ldquo~I, the great General of the German soldiers, send this letter to the Herero people (SW Africa-Namibia). The Herero are no longer German subjects... The Herero nation must...leave the country. If they do not leave, I will force them out with the Groot Rohr (cannon). Every Herero, armed or unarmed...will be shot dead within the German borders. I will no longer accept women and children, but will force them back to their people or shoot at them.~ez_rdquo~
    (www.umich.edu/news/MT/NewsE/10_05/steinmetz.html)

1904        Oct 4, 1st day of NYC subway, 350,000 people rode the 9.1 mile tracks. [see Oct 24, 27]
    (MC, 10/4/01)
1904        Oct 4, Frederic Auguste Bertholdi, French sculptor (Statue of Liberty), died.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1904        Oct 7, Isabella Bird Bishop (b.1831), English explorer, writer, and natural historian, died in Edinburgh. Her books included the 2-volume work ~ez_ldquo~Korea and Her Neighbors~ez_rdquo~ (1898).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_Bird)(Econ, 10/26/13, SR p.10)

1904        Oct 8, James Joyce and Nora Barnacle left together for Switzerland for a job in a Berlitz school that never materialized. They continued on to Pola and then to Trieste where he wrote most of "The Dubliners."
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.69)

1904        Oct 13, Sigmund Freud's "The Interpretation of Dreams" was published.
    (HN, 10/13/00)

1904        Oct 16, The Russian Baltic fleet under Rear-Admiral Zinovi Rozhestvensky departed to lift the Japanese blockade at Port Arthur, Manchuria.
    (ON, 5/04, p.6)

1904        Oct 17, Amadeo Peter Giannini (d.1949) founded the Bank of Italy, the predecessor to the Bank of America, on the Montgomery block in SF.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.B4)(SSFC, 10/24/04, Par p.5)

1904        Oct 18, A.J. Liebling (d.1963), American journalist and author, was born. "People everywhere confuse/ What they read in newspapers with news."
    (AP, 4/12/97)(HN, 10/18/00)
1904        Oct 18, Mahler's 5th symphony premiered in Cologne.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1904        Oct 20, Bolivia and Chile signed a treaty ending the War of the Pacific. The treaty recognized Chile's possession of Bolivia's nitrate-rich coastal province of Antofagasta, but provided for construction of a railway to link La Paz, Bolivia, to Arica on the coast.
    (HN, 10/20/98)(Econ, 12/6/03, p.34)

1904        Oct 21, Panamanians clashed with U.S. Marines in Panama in a brief uprising.
    (HN, 10/21/98)

1904        Oct 22, The Russian Baltic fleet mistakenly fired on British fishing ships near Dogger Bank killing 2 fishermen. The fleet was in fear of Japanese torpedo boats.
    (ON, 5/04, p.7)

1904        Oct 24, Moss Hart (d.1961), American playwright, director and librettist, was born in NY.
    (WUD, 1994, p.648)(AP, 8/18/98)(HN, 10/24/00)
1904        Oct 24, The 1st NY subway opened. [see Oct 4, 27]
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1904        Oct 27, The first rapid transit subway, the IRT (Interborough Rapid Transit), was inaugurated in New York City. It ran from the Brooklyn Bridge uptown to Broadway at 145th Street with a fare of one nickel. [see Oct 4, 24]
    (AP, 10/27/97)(HN, 10/27/98)

1904        Oct 28, In NYC the City Hall station subway station opened. The station closed in 1945 when subway cars moved their doors to the center, because this created a dangerous gap between the exit point on the train and the platform.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_Hall_%28IRT_Lexington_Avenue_Line%29)
1904        Oct 28, The St. Louis, Missouri, police tried a new investigation method~ez_mdash~fingerprints.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

1904        Nov 1, George Bernard Shaw's "John Bull's Other Island," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1904        Nov 4, Harvard Stadium became the 1st stadium built specifically for football.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1904        Nov 8, Theodore Roosevelt (R) defeated Alton B. Parker (D) in US presidential elections. Roosevelt had succeeded the assassinated William McKinley.
    (HN, 11/6/98)(AP, 11/8/04)

1904        Nov 9, 1st airplane flight to last more than 5 minutes.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1904        Nov 11, Alger Hiss, State Department official who hid papers in a pumpkin, was born.
    (MC, 11/11/01)
1904        Nov 11, The Harcourt Building in Boston, which housed the new photography studio of Fred Holland Day, burns down. He lost decades of work and a priceless collection of other people~ez_rsquo~s work.
    (Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)

1904        Nov 15, King C. Gillette patented his Gillette razor blade.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1904        Nov 17, Isamu Noguchi, sculptor (1963 Fine Arts Medal), was born.
    (MC, 11/17/01)
1904        Nov 17, George Cohan's musical "Little Johnny Jones," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1904        Nov 21, Coleman Hawkins, jazz saxophonist, was born.
    (HN, 11/21/00)
1904        Nov 21, Motorized omnibuses replaced horse-drawn cars in Paris.
    (HN, 11/21/98)

1904        Nov 23, Russo-German talks broke down because of Russia's insistence to consult France.
    (HN, 11/23/98)

1904        Nov 27, A German colonial army defeated Hottentots at Warmbad in Southwest Africa (later Namibia).
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1904        Nov 28, Nancy Mitford, English author (Love in a Cold Climate), was born. The eldest of 7 Mitford children was born to Lord and Lady Redesdale. In 2001 Mary S. Lovell authored "The Sisters: The Saga of the Mitford Family." Jessica Mitford, author of "The American Way of Death" (1963) died in 1996.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.M1)(MC, 11/28/01)
1907        Nov 28, Alberto Moravia, Italian novelist, novelist, was born. His work included "The Conformist" and "Conjugal Love."
    (HN, 11/28/00)
1904        Nov 28, The pivotal capture by the Japanese of 203 Meter Hill overlooking Port Arthur occurred during the bloodiest battle of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. The battle of November 28-December 5, 1904, resulted in Japanese forces taking the strategic 203 Meter Hill, allowing them to bombard and sink the Russian fleet in the harbor at Port Arthur.  Russia surrendered the city of Port Arthur to Japan on January 1, 1905.
    (HNQ, 9/20/99)

1904        Dec 1, The Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis closed after seven months and some 20 million visitors.
    (AP, 12/1/04)

1904        Dec 5, Japanese destroyed Russian fleet at Port Arthur in Korea.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1904        Dec 6, Theodore Roosevelt confirmed the Monroe-doctrine (Roosevelt Corollary).
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1904        Dec 9, Von Schlieffen order von Trotha to pardon all Ovaherero, after tens of thousands had perished in the desert,  except those who were "directly guilty and the leaders.~ez_rdquo~
    (www.umich.edu/news/MT/NewsE/10_05/steinmetz.html)

1904        Dec 10, Charles M. Schwab incorporated a revamped Bethlehem Steel. As president of US Steel he had acquired the Pennsylvania steel maker in 1901. Schwab resigned his position at US Steel to run Bethlehem Steel. In 2008 Kenneth Warren authored ~ez_ldquo~Bethlehem Steel: Builder and Arsenal of America.~ez_rdquo~
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A15)

1904        Dec 16, Japanese warships quit Port Arthur in order to cut off the Russian Baltic fleet~ez_rsquo~s advance.
    (HN, 12/16/98)

1904        Dec 18, George Stevens, American director (Alice Adams, Penny Serenade), was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1904        Dec 24, Herbert D Riley, US vice-admiral (WW II, Guadalcanal, Okinawa), was born.
    (MC, 12/24/01)
1904        Dec 24, German SW Africa abolished the slavery of young children.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1904        Dec 27, Duke of York Theatre opened in London with the 1st performance ~ez_ldquo~Peter Pan: The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up,~ez_rdquo~ a dream-play written by J.M. Barrie.
    (SFC, 1/10/04, p.D1)(www.amrep.org/past/peter/peter1.html)

1904        Dec 28, Farmers in Georgia burned two million bales of cotton to prop up falling prices.
    (HN, 12/28/98)
1904        Dec 28, The 1st daily wireless weather forecasts were published in London.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1904        Dec 30, Dmitri B. Kabalevsky, composer, was born in St Petersburg, Russia.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1904        Dec 31, Nathan Milstein, concert violinist, was born in Odessa, Russia.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1904        Alexandrina Maria da Costa of Portugal (d.1955) was born. She became a lay Salesian cooperator and according to the Vatican lived the last 13 years of her life eating only the bread and wine of Communion. She was beatified in 2004.
    (AP, 4/25/04)

1904        Paul Cezanne, French painter, declared that he wanted "to do Poussin over from nature," by which he meant that he hoped to transport Poussin~ez_rsquo~s ancient gods and lucid geometries into a breezy impressionist outdoors. Cezanne began his painting "Nature Morte: Rideau a Fleur et Fruits," (Still Life with Flowered Curtain and Fruit). In 1997 it sold for $50 million to Ronald Lauder, chairman of Estee Lauder Int~ez_rsquo~l. Cezanne completed his oil on canvas "Fillette a la Poupee."
    (WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 1/31/97, p.B1)(SFC, 3/31/01, p.E12)

1904        Matisse painted his pointillist "Luxe, Calme et Volupte."
    (WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A20)

1904        Claude Monet painted "Water Lilies." The work was acquired by art-dealer Paul Rosenberg and then stolen by the Nazis and put into the collection of Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. After the war it reverted to the French government. In 1998 the Rosenberg family again laid claim.
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.A2)

1904        Picasso painted the "Christ of Montmartre" in watercolor and the "Portrait of James Sabarte" during his Blue Period. He also did "The Couple."
    (WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6)(WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A8)(SFC, 3/29/97, p.E1)

1904        John Singer Sargent painted "An Artist in His Studio," which showed his friend Ambroglio Raffele.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)

1904        Jack London worked as a war correspondent in the Russo-Japanese War. London was among the contingent of reporters representing the Hearst newspapers. He was on his first news assignment and had no experience as a reporter, but the 28-year-old writer had already received world acclaim for his novel "The Call of the Wild" and other stories about the 1897 Klondike gold rush.
    (HNQ, 12/14/99)

1904        George Bernard Shaw wrote his play "John Bull~ez_rsquo~s Other Island," a study of the Irish problem.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

1904        Arthur Brown authored ~ez_ldquo~New Forces in Old China: An Unwelcome But Inevitable Awakening.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 6/25/11, SR p.3)

1904        G.K. Chesterton authored his novel "The Napoleon of Notting Hill."
    (NW, 8/20/01, p.56)

1904        Joseph Conrad wrote his novel "Nostromo."
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.C1)

1904        Black cowboy, Deadwood Dick, wrote his autobiography.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.18)

1904        Ernst Haeckel published "Kunstformen," one hundred lithographic plates that included depictions of single-celled organisms, plants and animals.
    (NH, 12/98, p.58)

1904        Hermann Hesse (26) published his first novel, "Peter Camenzind." in 1904 when he was 26.  The story of an unsuccessful and dissipated writer was
    (iUniv. 7/2/00)

1904        Jack London (1876-1916) authored ~ez_ldquo~Sea Wolf,~ez_rdquo~ a thrilling epic of a sea voyage and a complex novel of ideas.
    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.70)(www.online-literature.com/london/sea_wolf/)

1904        Clarence E. Mulford created Hopalong Cassidy, a cowboy-hero who appeared in a series of popular stories and novels. In print, the character appears as a rude, rough-talking "galoot". Beginning in 1935, the character, played by William Boyd, was transformed into the clean-cut hero of a series of 66 immensely popular films, only a few of which were based on Mulford's works.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hopalong_Cassidy)

1904        Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936), writer, political philosopher and lecturer, muckraking author published "The Shame of the Cities." He was hailed as an "American Socrates" because he raised rather than answered questions and jolted his audiences into awareness. He was a leader of the form of journalism that won the sobriquet "muckraking" from Theodore Roosevelt. Steffens sought to reveal the shortcomings of the popular dogmas that equated economic success with moral worth and national progress with individual self-interest.
    (HNQ, 10/4/98)

1904        Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), journalist, published the 2-volume "History of the Standard Oil Company." It revealed the illegal means used by John D. Rockefeller to gain a monopoly and control oil prices and began as a series in McClure's Magazine in 1902. This led to a federal investigation and the 1911 order by the Supreme Court for the breakup of Standard Oil.
    (WSJ, 12/15/98, p.B1)(WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(HNQ, 6/22/00)

1904        Max Weber (1864-1920), German sociologist and political economist, authored "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism." Weber wrote "the modern man is in general, even with the best will, unable to give religious ideas a significance for culture and national character which they deserve." Weber visited the US in this year.
    (WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)(WSJ, 8/19/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10)

1904        Edith Wharton wrote "Italian Villas and Their Gardens."
    (WSJ, 12/9/97, p.A20)

1904        Isadora Duncan performed at the Bayreuth Festival at the invitation of Cosima Wagner. She danced in the Act 1 orgy of Wagner's "Tannhauser."
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)

1904        Leos Janacek composed his realist opera "Jenufa."
    (WSJ, 5/19/98, p.A20)

1904        Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Larkin Building in Buffalo, NY. It was demolished in 1950. His Darwin Martin house was built in this year for an official of the Larkin company.
    (WSJ, 8/20/03, p.D12)

1904        In Chicago Orchestra Hall was built.
    (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)
1904        Near Chicago the Ravinia Festival was founded as a high-class amusement park designed to increase ridership for a railroad company. It became a center for summertime opera but folded during the depression in 1931. It re-opened in 1936 as the summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
    (WSJ, 8/17/98, p.A12)

1904        In NYC the New York Times moved into a new building at Longacre Square. Publisher Adolph Ochs persuaded the mayor to rename the intersection Times Square.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.8)(ON, 6/07, p.12)
1904        The Jewish Museum of NYC was founded and housed at the Jewish Theological Seminary on 122nd St. and Broadway. In 1944 Frieda Schiff Warburg gave her chateau-style mansion at 1109 Fifth to the museum, which re-opened there in 1947.
    (WSJ, 7/6/04, p.D5)

1904        The reference here depicts a map of Detroit neighborhoods in 1904 by ethnicity.
    (www.edcopublishing.com/activities/MOM55_57.pdf)
1904        Silas Farmer, historiographer of the City of Detroit, created an Industrial Map of Detroit.
    (www.famousamericans.net/johnfarmercartographer/)

1904        The Irish Abbey Theater opened. John Millington Synge had his plays performed there and in the same year met with James Joyce in Paris.
    (WSJ, 12/6/95, p.A-18)

1904        The Victorian Gardens Inn in Elk, California, started as a sheep ranch on Mallow Creek.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, T3)
1904        The Woodlawn Memorial Park non-denominational cemetery was established in Lawndale (Colma), Ca.
    (www.colmahistory.org/History.htm)

1904        Mary McLeod Bethune, a black American, founded Bethune-Cookman College.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.5)

1904        The National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis was founded. It later became the American Lung Association.
    (WSJ, 4/14/99, p.A1)

1904        Alexander Graham Bell, scientist and inventor, escorted the remains of James Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian Institution, to the United States for interment in the original Smithsonian building.  Smithson was an English scientist who bequeathed his entire estate to the United States to found an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, to be named the Smithsonian Institution. Smithson, who had the mineral smithsonite (carbonate of zinc) named for him, was born in 1765 and died in 1829.
    (HNQ, 6/26/99)

1904        Arthur Eliot, a Boston publisher, began distributing price quotes on unlisted US stocks. In 1913 he joined with a competitor to form the National Quotation Bureau. Their quotes were distributed on pink sheets of paper and came to be called the Pink Sheets.
    (WSJ, 12/17/05, p.B6)
 
1904        Englishman Edmund Morel journeyed to the US and encouraged the formation of an American Congo Reform Association. Its first president was Dr. G. Stanley Hall, president of Clark Univ.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.11)

1904        A tea merchant began to send sales samples in little muslim sacks that customers put whole into hot water and started the tea bag phenomena.
    (SFC, 7/19/97, p.E4)

1904        Roger Babson (1875-1967), investment advisor, founded his ~ez_ldquo~Office of Roger W. Babson.~ez_rdquo~ Babson was later famed for predicting ~ez_ldquo~The Great Wall Street Crash~ez_rdquo~ in 1929 and for prior positioning of his clients~ez_rsquo~ assets. On September 5, 1929, he gave a speech saying, "Sooner or later a crash is coming, and it may be terrific." Later that day the stock market declined by about 3%. This became known as the "Babson Break". The Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression soon followed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Babson)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.88)(www.babson.com/)

1904        Sun Manufacturing moved from Greenfield, Ohio, to Columbus, Ohio, and manufactured coffee mills there until about 1920.
    (SFC, 2/7/07, p.G7)

1904        In San Francisco an allegorical sculpture honoring Pres. McKinley showed a figure holding a palm branch in one hand and a sword in the other was erected in Golden Gate Park.
    (SFC, 8/29/13, p.D1)
1904        In San Francisco the St. Francis Hotel overlooking Union Square was built based on an H-shaped design plan by Bliss and Faville. A third wing was soon added and a 4th wing came in 1913. In 1972 a multi-story modern tower, designed by William L. Pereira Assoc., was added.
    (SFEM,11/23/97, p.24)
1904        In San Francisco Pershing Hall was built in the Army Presidio as quarters for single officers. In 2012 it was converted Inn at the Presidio, a 22-room hotel operated by Waterford Hotels and Inns of San Mateo.
    (SFC, 1/6/12, p.D1)
1904        In San Francisco a 5-story building was completed for the Folger Coffee Co. at 101 Howard St. It survived the 1906 earthquake due to wooden piles driven 40 feet into the bay fill below.
    (SSFC, 12/27/09, p.C2)
1904        In San Francisco the 4-story, Mission Revival-style apartment building at 2300 Market Street was built.
    (SSFC, 6/26/11, p.C2)
1904        In San Francisco construction began on the 8-story Grant Building, designed by Newton Tharp, at 1095 Market St. on the corner of 7th. In 2014 New York real estate developer Synapse Capital purchased the building and planned to convert it into a 200-room micro-apartments hotel in partnership with London~ez_rsquo~s Yotel.
    (SFC, 11/28/00, p.A21)(SFC, 6/6/14, p.A11)
1904        Lumber baron R.A. Vance built mansion at 2400 Fulton St. in San Francisco. In 1968 it was purchased by the Jefferson Airplane rock group.
    (SSFC, 1/30/11, DB p.42)
1904        In San Francisco the 10-story Atlas Building was completed at 604 Mission St.
    (SSFC, 11/13/11, p.C2)
1904        Julia Morgan (1872-1957) became the first woman to receive a California architectural license.In 2014 she became the first woman to receive the annual Gold Medal awarded by the American Institute of Architects.
    (SFC, 6/27/14, p.A1)
1904        From 1904 to about 1940, the San Francisco roadhouse at 1536 La Playa, known as the Breakers, the Crest, and, finally, Mendell's, entertained guests who ate, drank, and danced underneath a fantastic fabric of garish, glimmering sea life. In the carriage house next door to the south, customers stabled their horses and parked their bicycles, motorcycles, and automobiles.
    (http://www.outsidelands.org/breakers.php)
1904        The Riverside County Courthouse was built. It was designed by Franklin Pierce Burnham and inspired by the beaux arts movement.
    (SFC, 4/13/02, p.A17)
1904        A power plant was built on Eureka~ez_rsquo~s Humboldt Bay shore.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.C10)
1904        In Marin the West Point Inn on Mount Tamalpais was built as a stopover for passengers on the old Bolinas stagecoach.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T4)(SFC, 6/25/04, p.F8)
1904        Pope Pius X gave papal permission for Los Angeles to construct a Cathedral. The permit was not made use of until 1997 with the planned construction of Our Lady of the Angels.
    (SFC, 2/18/96, p.A11)
1904        California~ez_rsquo~s Wells Fargo merged with the Nevada Bank, owned by Isaias Hellman, making it one of the West~ez_rsquo~s largest financial institutions.
    (SSFC, 11/30/08, Books p.3)
1904        Radio PH of the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company began broadcasting from the Old Palace Hotel in SF.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A14)
1904        Big Basin State Park was opened to campers.
    (Ind, 4/24/99, p.5A)
1904        Samuel Sebastiani purchased a winery in Sonoma.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.CA1)
1904        California~ez_rsquo~s population was around 1.4 million. 14% of US homes had a bathtub, 8% had telephones and the total number of US cars was around 8,000.
    (SFC, 6/25/04, p.F8)
1904        Mary Ellen Pleasant ("Mammy") died after years of work on the Underground Railroad and in civil rights.
    (SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15,18)

1904         Elizabeth J. Magie (1866-1948), American game designer, patented the Landlord~ez_rsquo~s Game. In Oct 1929 Ruth Hoskins brought a version to Atlantic City, where she refined the rules and street names. It was later introduced to George Darrow who began selling it commercially as Monopoly in 1933. 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Magie)(WSJ, 2/3/05, p.W12)

1904        Israel Waldbaum began selling butter and eggs in Brooklyn, New York. By the 1980s the operation had grown to 140 supermarkets and was sold to A&P.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)

1904        Ivan P. Pavlov (d.1936), Russian physiologist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1904        The Roosevelt Corollary transformed the Monroe Doctrine from one of nonintervention by European powers in Western Hemispheric affairs to one of intervention by the U.S. Reflecting Roosevelt's "Big Stick" philosophy, the president stated in 1904: "Chronic wrongdoing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power."
    (HNQ, 1/4/99)

1904        Alton B. Parker, aka "the Sphinx" or "the Mummy" or "the enigma from New York," ran as a Democrat against Theodore Roosevelt.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.E8)

1904        Silas Swallow was the US presidential candidate for the Prohibition Party. The Anti-Saloon League spearheaded 20th-century prohibitionism and invented modern interest-group politics.
    (SFC, 8/23/97, p.E3)(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A28)

1904        American Tobacco merged with its holding company, Continental Tobacco Co.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1904        The Maxwell-Briscoe Motor Car Co. was formed. It would later become Chrysler Corp.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1904        Charles S. Rolls became the selling agent for cars made by F. Henry Royce.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1904        Cleveland Cap Screw introduced the first two-piece engine valve production process based a design by welder Charles Thompson.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.66)

1904        Otto H.L. Wernicke joined his Michigan furniture business with the Ohio Globe Files Co. to form the Globe-Wernicke Co. Around 1905 Wernicke Furniture purchased the Fred Macey Furniture Co. and began making stackable bookcases. Globe-Wernicke sued Macey in 1906 for using its patents. After years of litigation Globe lost.
    (SFC, 8/9/06, p.G3)

1904        Glenn Curtiss, a motorcycle builder in Hammondsport, NY, began making gasoline-burning aircraft engines for dirigibles that San Francisco daredevil Thomas Scott Baldwin was building in California. Baldwin flew a 54-foot dirigible equipped with a motorcycle engine and is credited with for building the first successful American dirigible.
    (ON, 12/11, p.10)(SFC, 10/11/14, p.C2)

1904        Uranium became recognized as an energy source.
    (WSJ, 3/18/05, p.C1)

1904        A fast-spreading fungus was discovered that almost wiped out the American chestnut trees, which could grow to a height of 100 feet and a diameter of 8 feet or more. In 2006 a surviving stand was found near Warm Springs, Georgia.
    (AP, 5/19/06)

1904        Henri Poincare, French mathematician, posited a problem in topology that in 2000 became one of 7 ~ez_ldquo~millennium prize problems.~ez_rdquo~ In 2003 a solution was proposed by Dr. Grigori Perelman of Russia. In 2006 a 328-page book was published that explained Perelman~ez_rsquo~s 22 page solution.
    (WSJ, 7/21/06, p.A9)

1904        R.H. Curtis, British astronomer, proved that the brighter component of Castor is a binary star with a period of 9 days.
    (SCTS, p.163)

1904        The Berringer Crater was discovered and understood to be a meteor impact crater dated back 25-50,000 years. The crater is ž of a mile wide and 640 feet deep and is estimated to have resulted from a meteor of about 100 feet in diameter.
    (TMP, KCTS, 1987)

1904        The Weerdinge Couple, 2 men, were found in a Holland bog and dated from 160BC ~ez_ndash~ 220AD.
    (AM, 7/97, p.66)

1904        After a mine disaster near Pittsburgh killed 178 people, industrialist Andrew Carnegie established a fund to honor rescuers known as the Carnegie Hero Fund.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.C-8)(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.B1)

1904        Luigi Palma di Cesnola, American Consul to Cyprus (1865) and artifact collector, died. In 1971 Elizabeth McFadden authored her Cesnola biography: "The Glitter and the Gold." In 2000 Anna G. Marangou authored "The Consul Luigi Palma di Cesnola (1832-1904): Life and Deeds."
    (AM, 7/00, p.60)

1904        Nez Perce Chief Joseph died, reportedly of a broken heart.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)

1904        Agnes Wilson (b.1832), painter, died. She arrived in SF with the gold Rush in 1850 and taught painting to her son, Charles Theller Wilson (b.1855). Agnes is California~ez_rsquo~s earliest know woman artist.
    (SFCM, 10/28/01, p.20)

1904        In Australia the first regional art gallery in New South Wales was built at Broken Hill.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.94)

1904        British writer Hector Hugh Munro, aka Saki (1870-1916), authored his short story ~ez_ldquo~Reginald on Besetting Sins: The Woman Who Told the Truth.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.47)
1904        The London Symphony Orchestra was formed.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.82)
1904        William and Gilbert Foyle founded Foyle's bookstore. They began by selling their textbooks after failing the entrance exam for the civil service.
    (SFC, 6/11/99, p.D6)
1904         John William Strutt (1842-1919), 3rd Baron Rayleigh and British physicist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies.
    (www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1904/)
1904        In England the Grand Pier opened at Weston-super-Mare on the northern Somerset coast and stretched a quarter of a mile (400 meters) into the Bristol Channel. The theatre pavilion on the Grand Pier was destroyed by fire in 1930 and rebuilt, opening three years later. In 2008 another fire destroyed the pier.
    (AFP, 7/28/08)
1904        The Congo Reform Association was born following the return of Roger Casement from the Congo and his meeting with Edmund Morel.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)
1904        The British Rover Motor Car Company was founded.
    (SSFC, 11/22/09, p.H1)
1904        Christopher Dresser (b.1834), English designer, died. In 1876 he became the 1st European designer to visit Japan.
    (WSJ, 4/6/04, p.D4)

1904        Canada's North West Mounted Police force was renamed the Royal North West Mounted Police by King Edward VII. With the incorporation of the federal organization called the Dominion Police in 1920, the name Royal Canadian Mounted Police was adopted.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HNQ, 5/5/98)
1904        In Victoria, British Columbia, Jennie Butchart began a garden of peas and roses. The garden grew to 55 acres of flower beds and became world famous.
    (SSFC, 5/30/04, p.D7)

1904        In Denmark a new law forced the people to stick with the names they had, as opposed to the previous system where people where named after their fathers first name.
    (WSJ, 3/17/98, p.A1)
1904        Denmark and Sweden issued the first Christmas seals to raise money to fight tuberculosis.
    (SFEC, 12/13/98, Z1 p.10)

1904        Ernesto Schiaparelli, Italian Egyptologist, discovered the tomb of Queen Nefertari, wife of Ramses II, in the sands of Luxor~ez_rsquo~s Valley of the Queens. The 3,000 year old tomb is later restored and opened to the public on 11/4/95.
    (V. Sun, 11/3/95, p.A-20)

1904        In Germany the O&M Hausser toy company was founded in Ludwigsberg. They used they "Elastolin" trade name for small composition figures that included soldiers of various countries.
    (SFC, 1/13/99, Z1 p.6)

1904        In Guatemala the Postal Code created the General Administration of Mail and Telegraphs (GAMT). The system grew to become very inefficient and in the 1980s private delivery businesses began to spring up.
    (WSJ, 6/5/98, p.A15)

1904        Iceland won home rule.
    (DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)

1904        In Italy Prince Piero Ginori Conti invented the first geothermal power plant in 1904, at the Larderello dry steam field.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.70)(http://geothermal.marin.org/geopresentation/sld050.htm)

1904        In Japan Nippon Toki Kaisha Ltd. began manufacturing Noritake porcelain.
    (SFC, 3/3/99, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 11/9/05, p.G9)

1904        Panama adopted the US dollar as its currency.
    (WSJ, 1/18/98, p.A1)

1904        The eastern Samoan islands became territories of the United States and later became known as American Samoa. The western islands became known as Western Samoa (later the Independent State of Samoa), passing from German control to New Zealand in 1914. New Zealand administered Western Samoa under the auspices of the League of Nations and then as a UN trusteeship until independence in 1962. Western Samoa was the first Pacific Island country to gain its independence.
    (www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/1842.htm)

1904        In South Africa Soweto (an acronym for southwest townships) was established as a separate, African-only district.
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, p.T4)

1904        In Thailand the Siam Society, a bastion of Thai culture, was founded.
    (WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A16)

1904-1905    Japan goes to war against Russia.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1904-1911    Leonard Sidney Woolf (1880-1969) served in the Ceylon Civil Service. He later authored ~ez_ldquo~The Village in the Jungle,~ez_rdquo~ a novel based on his time in Sri Lanka. In 2006 Victoria Glendinning authored ~ez_ldquo~Leonard Woolf: A Life.~ez_rdquo~
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Woolf)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.93)
1904-1911    In Kenya a deal between the British and the Masai forced the pastoral people from their land in the western Rift Valley.
    (WSJ, 1/30/08, p.A18)

1904-1967     J. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist: "In some sort of crude sense which no vulgarity, no humor, no overstatement can quite extinguish, the physicists have known sin; and this is a knowledge which they cannot lose." "As long as men are free to ask what they must, free to say what they think, free to think what they will, freedom can never be lost, and science can never regress."
    (AP, 7/16/97)(AP, 1/26/98)

1904-1968    George Gamow, physicist and writer. He popularized the idea of The Big Bang.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.335)

1904-1971     Margaret Bourke-White, American photojournalist: "A burning purpose attracts others who are drawn along with it and help fulfill it."
    (AP, 5/18/98)

1904-1972    Betty Smith, American author: "I can never give a 'yes' or a 'no.' I don't believe everything in life can be settled by a monosyllable."
    (AP, 2/19/99)

1904-1980    Cecil Beaton, English fashion photographer and costume designer: "The truly fashionable are beyond fashion."
    (AP, 7/5/00)

1904-1980    Louis Kronenberger, American author: "The trouble with our age is all signposts and no destination."
    (AP, 4/27/99)

1904-1984    Reverend Karl Rahner, Austrian theologian: "The theological problem today is to find the art of drawing religion out of a man, not pumping it into him."
    (AP, 6/26/99)

1904-1990    Marya Mannes, American critic: "An American who can make money, invoke God, and be no better than his neighbor, has nothing to fear but truth itself."
    (AP, 11/13/99)

1904-1993     William L. Shirer, American author and journalist: "History must speak for itself. A historian is content if he has been able to shed more light."
    (AP, 1/10/98)

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