Timeline 1908-1909

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1908        Jan 1, The 1st time-ball signifying new year was dropped at Times Square, NYC.
    (MC, 1/1/02)

1908        Jan 4, Angela Maria "Geli" Raubal, Austrian nude model, Hitler's cousin and lover, was born.
    (MC, 1/4/02)
1908        Jan 4, Antony Winkler Prins (70), writer (Grolier Encyclopedia), died.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1908        Jan 8, A subway linking New York’s Brooklyn and Manhattan opened.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1908        Jan 9, French philosopher and feminist Simone de Beauvoir was born in Paris.
    (AP, 1/9/08)
1908        Jan 9, Count Zeppelin announced plans for his airship to carry 100 passengers.
    (HN, 1/9/98)
1908        Jan 9, Italians reported that Somaliland was under siege by the Abyssinians.
    (HN, 1/9/98)

1908        Jan 11, The Grand Canyon National Monument was created with a proclamation by President Theodore Roosevelt. It became a national park in 1919.
    (AP, 1/11/08)

1908        Jan 12, A wireless message was sent long-distance for the first time from the Eiffel Tower in Paris.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1908        Jan 15, Edward Teller (d.2003), US physicist known as the "Father of the H-bomb," was born in Budapest. In 2001 he authored his "Memoirs."
    (HN, 1/15/99)(WSJ, 10/30/01, p.A21)(SFC, 9/10/03, p.A1)

1908        Jan 18, Jacob Bronowsky, British mathematician, cultural historian, was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1908        Jan 20, The Sullivan Ordinance barred women from smoking in public facilities in the United States.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1908        Jan 21, New York City's Board of Aldermen passed an ordinance that effectively prohibited women from smoking in public. two weeks later the measure was vetoed by Mayor George B. McClellan Jr.
    (AP, 1/21/08)

1908        Jan 22, Katie Mulcahey became the first woman to run afoul of New York City's just-passed ban on females smoking in public. Declaring, "No man shall dictate to me," Mulcahey served a night in jail after being unable to pay a $5 fine.
    (AP, 1/22/08)

1908        Jan 23, Edward Alexander MacDowell (b.1860), US composer (Indian Suite), died in NYC.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049692)

1908        Jan 24, This is considered the starting date of the Boy Scouts movement in England. Lt. General Robert S.S. Baden-Powell, had achieved fame as a hero in the Boer War and applied his methods of training British soldiers in South Africa in woodcraft and survival methods to young English boys in the early 1900s. The Boy Scouts of America was incorporated in 1910 and united with two previously existing organizations, the Sons of Daniel Boone, founded by Daniel Beard in 1905 and Ideals of the Woodcraft Indians, founded by Ernest Seton in 1902. The scout oath to be “morally straight" was added in the American version.
    (AP, 1/24/08)(HNQ, 11/12/01)(Econ, 6/1/13, p.28)

1908        Jan, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt created Pinnacles National Monument in California. The area was expanded in 2000 for the 7th time and covered 24,000 acres in San Benito and Monterey counties.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, p.C1)
1908        Jan, Dr. Rupert Blue held a mass meeting and called on the citizens of SF to support his war against bubonic plague. Gov. James Norris Gillet had warned that the city faced a general quarantine. In the following rat campaign an estimated 2 million rats were killed.
    (ON, 1/00, p.6,7)

1908        Feb 1, Movie producer and animator George Pal was born in Austria-Hungary.
    (AP, 2/1/08)
1908        Feb 1, Carlos I (44), King of Portugal (1889-1908), assassinated by mob.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1908        Feb 3, The US Supreme Court, in Loewe v. Lawlor, ruled the United Hatters Union had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act by organizing a nationwide boycott of Danbury Hatters of Connecticut.
    (AP, 2/3/08)

1908        Feb 11, Phillipe Dunne, screenwriter and director, was born. His films included "How Green Was My Valley."
    (HN, 2/11/01)

1908        Feb 12, The first round-the-world automobile race began in New York City. It ended in Paris the following July with the drivers of the American car, a Thomas Speedway Flyer, was declared the winner over teams from Germany and Italy. The Flyer was made by the E.R. Thomas Motor Co. of Buffalo, NY, was initially driven by Montague Roberts and George Schuster. Roberts dropped out in Wyoming. Schuster took over as captain and chief driver from San Francisco, which was reached on March 24.
    (AP, 2/12/08)(ON, 4/08, p.8,9)

1908        Feb 14, Russia and Britain threatened action in Macedonia if peace was not reached soon.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1908        Feb 17, Walter Lanier “Red" Barber, baseball announcer for the Cincinnati Reds, the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New York Yankees, was born in Columbus, Miss.
    (HN, 2/17/01)(AP, 2/17/08)

1908        Feb 18, The 1st US postage stamps in rolls were issued.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1908        Feb 24, Japan officially agreed to restrict immigration to the U.S.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1908        Feb 25, The 1st tunnel under Hudson River (railway tunnel) opened. The McAdoo Tunnel was completed March 8, 1904, but only officially opened on this date.
    (PCh, 1992, p.655)(MC, 2/25/02)

1908        Feb 27, Baseball’s sacrifice fly was adopted. It was repealed in 1931 and reinstated in 1954.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1908        Feb 27, The forty-sixth star was added to the U.S. flag, signifying Oklahoma’s admission to statehood.
    (HN, 2/27/98)

1908        Feb 29, The artist known as Balthus was born in Paris.
    (AP, 2/29/08)

1908        Mar 2, An international conference on arms reduction opened in London.
    (HN, 3/2/99)
1908        Mar 2, Gabriel Lippman introduced the new three-dimensional color photography at the Academy of Sciences.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1908        Mar 4, The New York board of education banned the act of whipping students in school.
    (HN, 3/4/98)
1908        Mar 4, A fire at Lake View School in Collinwood, Ohio, claimed the lives of 172 children and three adults.
    (AP, 3/4/08)

1908        Mar 5, Rex Harrison, actor (My Fair Lady), was born in Lancashire, England.
    (AP, 3/5/08)

1908        Mar 7, Anna Magnani, Italian actress (Awakening, Roma), was born in Rome.
    (AP, 3/7/08)
1908        Mar 7, Cincinnati Mayor Mark Breith stood before city council and announced that, "women are not physically fit to operate automobiles."
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1908        Mar 8, The House of Commons, London, turned down the women’s suffrage bill.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1908        Mar 11, Lawrence Welk, orchestra leader, was born in Strasburg, ND.
    (HN, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/12/02)

1908        Mar 12, The Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) launched their new airplane, called Red Wing, from a frozen lake near Hammondsport, NY. Pilot F.W. Baldwin rose 20 feet and flew 319 feet before crashing. Newspapers hailed the test as the “first public flight" in the US.
    (ON, 12/11, p.10)

1908        Mar 13, Walter Annenberg (d.2002), publisher (Triangle-TV Guide), Ambassador to GB, was born in Milwaukee, the 6th of 9 children.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)(AP, 3/13/08)
1908        Mar 13, Jerusalem’s inhabitants saw their first automobile owned by Charles Glidden of Boston.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1908        Mar 15, 1st performance of Maurice Ravel's "Rhapsodie Espagnole."
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1908        Mar 16 The Chinese released the Japanese steamship Tatsu Maru.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1908        Mar 19, Maryland banned Christian Scientists from practicing medicine unless they had a medical diploma.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1908        Mar 20, Frank Stanton, broadcasting pioneer and the president of CBS for 26 years, was born in Muskegon, Mich.
    (AP, 3/20/08)
1908        Mar 20, Michael Redgrave (d.1985), actor (Browning Version, Lady Vanishes), was born in Bristol, England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Redgrave)

1908        Mar 21, Frenchman Henri Farman carried a passenger in a bi-plane for the first time.
    (HN, 3/21/98)

1908        Mar 22, Louis L’Amour (d.1998), American author, was born in Jamestown, North Dakota. He wrote 116 western novels.
    (HN, 3/22/97)(USAT, 6/10/98, p.1D)(MC, 3/22/02)

1908        Mar 23, Joan Crawford, American actress, was born. She is best known for her role in Mildred Pierce.
    (HN, 3/23/99)
1908        Mar 23, In San Francisco Durham White Stevens (56), Japan’s foreign advisor to Korea, was shot by a Korean nationalist. Stevens died 2 days later from internal injuries. Chang In Hwan and Chun Myung Un had attacked Stevens as he approached the ferry landing. Chun was released from prison in June, 1908, and fled the country. Chang was convicted of 2nd degree manslaughter and sentenced to 25 years in prison. He was paroled after 10 years.
    (AH, 10/07, p.54-58)

1908        Mar 25, Bridget D'Oyly Carte, British theater and hotel director, was born.
    (MC, 3/25/02)
1908        Mar 25, David Lean (d.1991), British film director (Bridge on the River Kwai, Lawrence of Arabia), was born in Croydon, England.
    (HN, 3/25/01)(AP, 3/25/08)

1908        Mar 28, Automobile owners lobbied Congress, supporting a bill that called for vehicle licensing and federal registration.
    (HN, 3/28/98)

1908        Apr 2, Buddy Ebsen (d.2003), actor-dancer, was born in Belleville, Ill. He played Jed Clampett in the popular television series The Beverly Hillbillies.
    (AP, 4/2/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddy_Ebsen)

1908        Apr 5, Bette Davis (d.1989), film actress (Jezebel, All About Eve), was born. "Love is not enough. It must be the foundation, the cornerstone -- but not the complete structure. It is much too pliable, too yielding."
    (AP, 7/15/99)(HN, 4/5/01)
1908        Apr 5, Herbert von Karajan, Nazi, conductor (Berlin Philharmonic), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 4/5/02)
1908        Apr 5, George Schick, conductor (Chicago Symphony), was born in Prague, Czech.
    (MC, 4/5/02)
1908        Apr 5, Japanese Army reached the Yalu River as the Russians retreated.
    (HN, 5/5/97)

1908        Apr 7, Percy Faith, conductor (Summer Place), was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1908        Apr 11, Karel Ancerl, Czech conductor (Prague, Toronto), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)
1908        Apr 11, Leo Rosten, writer, humorist, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1908        Apr 12, Fire devastated the city of Chelsea, Massachusetts.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

1908        Apr 18, Joseph Keilberth, German conductor (Bayreuther Festspiele), was born.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1908        Apr 21, Arctic explorer Frederick A. Cook claimed to have discovered the North Pole a year ahead of Peary. Many historians suspect that neither explorer succeeded. The term "Dr. Cook weather" refers to an incident where Dr. Cook once left a chilly New York baseball game after which the city papers trumpeted; "Game called, even too cold for Dr. Cook." Cook's assertion was later proved false. [see Apr 6, 1909]
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.B8)(SFC, 10/2/99, p.A20)(MC, 4/21/02)

1908        Apr 25, Edward R. Murrow, war correspondent and newscaster, was born. He hosted See It Now and Person to Person. During World War II broadcast journalist Edward R. Murrow became known for opening his radio reports from London with the ominous-sounding "This is London." He later turned to television, becoming the host of a celebrity interview show called Person to Person, and was named head of the U.S. Information Agency in 1961.
    (HNQ, 3/29/99)(HN, 4/25/99)

1908        Apr 28, In SF a fire began just before midnight at a stable at 475 11th St. 48 horses belonging to F.M. Barrett, a lumber drayman, were killed.
    (SSFC, 4/27/08, DB p.58)

1908        Apr, The Wooster Company, a private water provider (Daly City, Ca.), allowed the first hydrants to be installed on its water system.
    (DCFD, Centennial, 2007)
1908        Apr, Hootch Simpson, a saloon keeper in Skidoo, Ca. (Death Valley), shot and killed Joe Arnold, the town banker. Simpson was hung and buried the next morning, but was dug up and re-hung for a newspaper reporter.
    (SSFC, 1/19/03, p.C5)

1908        May 2, The original version of the song "Take Me Out to the Ball Game," with music by Albert Von Tilzer and lyrics by Jack Norworth, was copyrighted by Von Tilzer's York Music Co. It sealed the popularity of Cracker Jacks, a popcorn candy.
    (AP, 5/2/08)(AH, 10/01, p.34)(WSJ, 3/22/08, p.W16)

1908        May 5, Rex Harrison, actor, was born. He starred in My Fair Lady.
    (HN, 5/5/99)
1908        May 5, Jacques Massu, French general (Algeria), was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1908        May 6, The Great White Fleet, sent by Pres. Roosevelt on an around-the-world voyage, arrived in SF. The fleet left San Francisco on July 7.
    (SFC, 5/6/08, p.B3)

1908        May 9, Dirk Fock became governor of Suriname.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1908        May 10, Carl Albert, speaker of the House of Representatives, was born.
    (HN, 5/10/98)
1908        May 10, The first Mother’s Day observance took place during church services in Grafton, W.Va., and Philadelphia. In 1997 Anna Jarvis of Philadelphia first proposed the idea that all mothers wear a carnation on the 2nd Sunday of May.
    (AP, 5/10/97)(SFC, 9/30/99, p.E5)

1908        May 12, George Bernard Shaw's "Getting Married," premiered in London.
    (MC, 5/12/02)
1908        May 12, Wireless Radio Broadcasting was patented by Nathan B. Stubblefield.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1908        May 14, 1st passenger flight in an airplane.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1908        May 20, Jimmy Stewart, actor, was born in Indiana, Pa. He is best remembered for his roles in "It's a Wonderful Life" and "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington."
    (WSJ, 5/20/97, p.A18)(HN, 5/20/99)(AP, 5/20/08)

1908        May 21, The Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) launched their 2nd airplane, called White Wing, equipped with aelerons, a mechanism proposed by Alexander Graham Bell, to steer the craft.  Pilot Glenn Curtiss flew over 1000 feet and landed safely.
    (ON, 12/11, p.10)
1908        May 21, The SF Chronicle reported that and quarantine had been lifted and that the remaining refugees in Lobos Square have been ordered to leave by June 1. Some 1,050 lived there in 394 cottages.
    (SSFC, 5/18/08, DB p.58)

1908        May 22, The SF Chronicle reported that US Army Pvt. William Bulwada had been found guilty and sentenced to 5 years in prison for having applauded for and shaken hands with anarchist Emma Goldman, pending approval by Gen. Funston.
    (SSFC, 5/18/08, DB p.58)
1908        May 22, The Wright brothers registered their flying machine for a U.S. patent.
    (HN, 5/22/98)

1908        May 23, John Bardeen, physicist, co-inventor of the transistor, was born.
    (HN, 5/23/01)
1908        May 23, Part of the Great White Fleet arrived in Puget Sound, Washington.
    (HN, 5/23/98)
1908        May 23, In the SF Bay Area John Morrell and his crew boarded their 485-foot airship in a field near Berkeley High School. The ship’s gas bag burst at 300-feet and the 20 men aboard plunged to the ground. 9 were seriosuly injured but no one died.
    (SFC, 10/11/14, p.C2)

1908        May 25, David Lean, British director (Lawrence of Arabia), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1908        May 25, Theodore Roethke (d.1963), American poet, was born in Saginaw, Mich.
    (AP, 5/25/08)(MT, Summer 01, p.3)
1908        May 25, In SF an ink thrower spoiled a gown worn by Mrs. J. Magnin of 1606 Jackson St. The ink thrower continued to strike over a dozen society figures, despite police efforts to catch him.
    (SSFC, 8/10/08, DB p.58)
1908        May 25, Argentina’s opera house Teatro Colon, modeled after Milan’s La Scala opened in Buenos Aires. In 2006 it closed for refurbishment. A 2008 finish date was missed and officials hoped to have it reopen in 2010.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.48)

1908        May 26, Robert Morley, British character actor, was born in Semley, England.
    (AP, 5/26/08)
1908         May 26, The first major oil strike in the Middle East took place as engineers working for British entrepreneur William Knox D'Arcy and led by George B. Reynolds hit a gusher more than 1,100 feet below ground in Masjid-i-Suleiman, Persia (Iran). The Anglo-Persian Oil Co. Struck oil in Iran.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)(AP, 5/26/08)
1908        May 26, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (b.1835), Indian founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam, died in Lahore. Ghulam Ahmad had declared that Jesus (or Isa) had survived crucifixion and migrated to Kashmir, where he died a natural death.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirza_Ghulam_Ahmad)

1908        May 27, Harold Rome (d.1993), American composer, lyricist, and writer for musical theater, was born in Hartford, Connecticut.
    (www.songwritershalloffame.org/exhibit_home_page.asp?exhibitId=238)

1908        May 28, Ian Fleming (d.1964), author of James Bond novels, was born in Mayfair, London. He also wrote the children’s book "Chitty Chitty Bang Bang" (1964).
    (HN, 5/28/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitty_Chitty_Bang_Bang)(AP, 5/28/08)

1908        May 30, Hannes Alfvén, Swedish, Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist, was born.
    (HN, 5/30/01)
1908           May 30, Mel Blanc (d.1989), voice of Bugs Bunny, Elmer Fudd, and Porky Pig in Warner Brothers cartoons, was born in San Francisco. When he died he had "That's All Folks" inscribed on his tombstone.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, Z1 p.8)(AP, 5/30/08)
1908        May 30, 1st federal workmen's compensation law was approved.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1908        May 31, Actor Don Ameche was born in Kenosha, Wis.
    (AP, 5/31/08)

1908        May, Eugene V. Debs, the Socialist Party candidate for president in the US, began his national campaign in the courthouse square of Girard, Kansas. The town was the home of the national socialist newspaper "Appeal to Reason" edited by J.A. Wayland.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-16)

1908        Jun 4, Rosalind Russell (d.1976), actress (Mame, Take a Letter Darling), was born in Waterbury, Connecticut.
    (www.filmreference.com/Actors-and-Actresses-Ro-Sc/Russell-Rosalind.html)

1908        Jun 8, King Edward VII of England visited Czar Nicholas II of Russia in an effort to improve relations between the two countries.
    (HN, 6/8/98)

1908        Jun 10, Ernst B. Chain, German chemist, bacteriologist (penicillin, Nobel 1945), was born.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1908        Jun 12, Otto Skorzeny, German-Austrian SS colonel who led glider rescue of Mussolini, was born.
    (MC, 6/12/02)
1908        Jun 12, Lusitania crossed the Atlantic in record 4 days 15 hours (NYC).
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1908        Jun 13, Swimmer F. Riehl demonstrated a kite attached to himself before the crew of the battleship Connecticut in the SF Bay. It carried him through the water for more than half a mile.
    (SSFC, 6/8/08, DB p.58)
1908        Jun 13, Thomas Greene Wiggins (b.1849), a blind African-American piano player born into slavery, died in New Jersey. “Blind Tom" had become well known for his piano virtuosity. In 2014 Jeffery Renard Allen authored “Song of the Shank: A Novel," based on the life of Wiggins.
    (SSFC, 7/13/14, p.N1)(http://tinyurl.com/qhhzca6)

1908        Jun 18, William Howard Taft was nominated for president by the Republican national convention in Chicago.
    (AP, 6/18/08)

1908        Jun 21, Nikolai A. Rimsky-Korsakov (64), prolific Russian composer, orchestrator (Scheherazade, The Tsar's Bride, The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh), died in Lyubensk.
    (AP, 6/21/08)
1908        Jun 21, Mulai Hafid again proclaimed himself the true sultan of Morocco.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1908        Jun 24, The 22nd and 24th president (1893-1897) of the United States, Grover Cleveland, died in Princeton, N.J., at age 71. In 1988 Richard E. Welch authored "The Presidencies of Grover Cleveland."
    (SFEC, 1/12/97, Z 3 p.4)(AP, 6/24/97)(ON, 10/99, p.12)

1908        Jun 26, Shah Muhammad Ali’s forces squelched the reform elements of Parliament in Persia.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1908        Jun 29, American composer Leroy Anderson (d.1975), known for light orchestral pieces such as "The Typewriter" and "The Syncopated Clock," was born in Cambridge, Mass.
    (AP, 6/29/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leroy_Anderson)

1908        Jun 30, An explosion near the Tunguska River in Siberia incinerated some 300 sq. km. that encircled the impact of an estimated 60 meter diameter stony meteorite. It flattened some 40,000 trees over 900 sq. miles and caused damage equivalent to a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb. The explosion in Siberia, which knocked down trees in a 30-mile radius and struck people unconscious some 40 miles away, is believed by some scientists to be caused by a falling fragment from a meteorite.
    (NH, 9/97, p.85)(SFC, 3/12/98, p.A15)(HN, 6/30/98)(Econ, 12/23/06, p.123)

1908        Jun, Japanese immigration to Brazil began when 781 Japanese arrived on the ship Kasato Maru. Nearly 800 Japanese set sail on the "Kasato Maru" ship from Kobe in search of better living conditions and arrived at Santos Port only to find a grueling life working on farmland.
    (SFC, 7/4/00, p.A8)(AFP, 4/24/08)

1908        Jul 1, Estee Lauder, CEO of Estee Lauder's cosmetics, was born.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1908        Jul 2,     Thurgood Marshall (d.1993), first African-American US Supreme Court Justice, was born in Baltimore. He served on the US Supreme Court from 1967-1991. As a civil rights lawyer in the 1950s he maintained a confidential relationship with the FBI.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.A3)(HN, 7/2/98)(AP, 7/2/08)

1908        Jul 3, M.F.K. Fisher, food writer, was born.
    (HN, 7/3/01)
1908        Jul 3, In San Francisco the coroner and his deputies celebrated the opening of the new morgue at 368 Fell St.
    (SSFC, 6/29/08, DB p.58)
1908        Jul 3, Joel Chandler Harris (59), author and creator of Uncle Remus, died in Atlanta.
    (AP, 7/3/08)

1908        Jul 4, Glenn Curtiss flew a new airplane, called the June Bug, at a competition sponsored by Scientific American, for the first heavier than air machine to fly one kilometer. The Aero Club sent 22 members to Hammondsport, NY, to view the event. Curtiss easily covered the distance, angering the Wright Brothers, who felt that their patent was being infringed.
    (ON, 12/11, p.11)

1908        Jul 5, In Fairmont, West Virginia, a special day was organized by Mrs. Grace Golden Clayton, who wanted to celebrate the lives of the 210 fathers who had been lost in the Monongah Mining disaster several months earlier, on December 6, 1907. A general Father’s Day was organized in Spokane, Wa., on June 19, 1910.
    (AP, 6/19/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Father%27s_Day)

1908        Jul 6, Robert Peary's expedition sailed from NYC for north pole.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1908        Jul 7, Great White Fleet left SF Bay.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1908        Jul 7, The Democratic National Convention opened in Denver.
    (AP, 7/7/08)

1908        Jul 8, Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, businessman and philanthropist, was born in Bar Harbor, Maine. The liberal Republican served as governor of New York and then as vice president of the United States under Pres. Gerald Ford (1974-77).
    (AP, 7/8/08)

1908        Jul 9, Minor White, abstract photographer, was born.
    (HN, 7/9/01)

1908        Jul 10, William Jennings Bryan was nominated for president by the Democratic National Convention in Denver.
    (AP, 7/10/08)

1908        Jul 12, Milton Berle (d.2002), comedian, was born as Mendel Berlinger in New York City.
    (SFC, 3/28/02, p.A15)(AP, 7/12/08)
1908        Jul 12, The Missouri Gazette began publishing under Joseph Charless.
    (SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M5)

1908        Jul 14, The short film "The Adventures of Dollie," the first movie directed by D.W. Griffith, opened in New York.
    (AP, 7/14/08)

1908        Jul 18, Lupe Velez (d.1944), film star, was born in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Her over 40 films included “The Gaucho" (1927).
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0892473/)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=mArs7CMZYtg)

1908        Jul 22, Claire Falkenstein (1908-1997), sculptor and painter, was born to a pioneer family in Coos Bay, Or. Her father, Louis Frederick Falkenstein, was a timber executive.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A22)
1908        Jul 22,     Amy Vanderbilt (d.1974), American journalist, etiquette expert was born in New York City. "One face to the world, another at home makes for misery."
    (AP, 5/12/97)(AP, 7/22/08)

1908        Jul 23, In Turkey Ottoman Sultan Abdulhamid II (1842-1918) capitulated to the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)m which led a rebellion against the authoritarian his regime. The revolutionary organization was popularly known as the Young Turks. Since then, the term has been applied to other insurgent groups within organizations or political parties.
    (HNQ, 11/4/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Hamid_II)

1908        Jul 26, US Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte issued an order creating an investigative agency that was a forerunner of the FBI. Until this time Pinkerton had served as the America’s unofficial national law enforcement agency.
    (AP, 7/26/97)(ON, 7/06, p.12)
1908        Jul 26, Salvador Allende Gossens, Chile's last elected president (1970-73), was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1908        Jul 27, Joseph Mitchell (d.1996), writer for The New Yorker, was born. He pursued the "general of nuisance: flops, drunks, con-artists, panhandlers, gin-mill owners and their bellicose bartenders..." 
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A19)(HN, 7/27/01)

1908        Jul 30, An around the world automobile race ended in Paris. The American Thomas Speedway Flyer, was declared the winner over teams from Germany and Italy. In 1966 driver George Schuster authored “The Longest Auto Race." The restored Flyer was later displayed at the National Automobile Museum in Reno, Nevada.
    (ON, 4/08, p.10)(AP, 7/30/08)

1908        Jul, African-American Matthew Alexander Henson, born on August 8, 1866, and four Inuits accompanied U.S. Naval Commander Robert E. Peary on the third attempt to reach the North Pole. Henson became an Arctic expert during Peary’s first two failed expeditions. Henson’s strength, knowledge of the Eskimo language and dog driving skills made him an essential member of the team. Whether Peary’s party actually reached the North Pole or missed it by as much as 60 miles due to a navigational miscalculation remains controversial to this day.
    (HNPD, 8/8/98)

1908        Aug 3, Col. Allan Allensworth (1842-1914) filed the site plan for the first African-American town, Allensworth, California. Allensworth had purchased 800 acres in Tulare County along the Sante Fe rail line and planned a settlement to be governed, financed and operated by black people. The town flourished for a decade and then began to crumble. In 1976 it was transformed into a 240-acre state park.
    (HN, 8/3/98)(SFC, 1/8/07, p.A1)

1908        Aug 4, Bronson Howard (b.1842), playwright and Detroit-born founder of the American Dramatist’s Club, died in New Jersey.
    (www.theatredatabase.com/19th_century/bronson_howard_001.html)

1908        Aug 5, Miriam Rothschild, English scientist and writer, was born.
    (HN, 8/5/00)

1908        Aug 8, Arthur J. Goldberg (d.1990), labor lawyer, UN ambassador, Supreme Court justice (1962-65), was born in, Chicago, Illinois. He was instrumental in the merger of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations.
    (HN, 8/8/98)(AP, 8/8/08)

1908        Aug 11, Britain’s King Edward VII met with Kaiser Wilhelm II to protest the growth of the German navy.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1908        Aug 12, Henry Ford’s first Model T rolled off the assembly line. It’s later advertising slogan was "Gets Ya There, and Gets Ya Back." From when it was first put on the market in 1908 to when it was discontinued in 1927, some 15 million of the Ford Model T were built. The model T featured steering on the left side of the car for a better line of sight when passing other cars.
    (HN, 8/12/98)(SFEC, 11/8/98, Z1 p.8)(HNQ, 4/5/99)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)

1908        Aug 14, A race war broke out in Springfield, Illinois. Angry over reports that a black man had sexually assaulted a white woman, a white mob wanted to take a recently arrested suspect from the city jail and kill him. Most blacks had fled the city, but as the mob swept through the area, they captured and lynched a black barber, Scott Burton, who had stayed behind to protect his home. Rioting continued the next day leaving a total of two blacks and 5 whites dead and hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of property destroyed. Some 4,000 state militiamen were required to quell the riot, which helped inspire the creation of the NAACP the following year.
    (www.lib.niu.edu/1996/iht329622.html)(AP, 8/14/08)(WSJ, 1/20/08, p.A12)

1908        Aug 17, The San Francisco Bank of Italy opened new HQ at Clay and Montgomery.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1908        Aug 18, Edgar Faure (d.1988), thriller writer, PM of France (1952, 52-56), was born.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1908        Aug 20, The American Great White Fleet arrived in Sydney, Australia, to a warm welcome.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1908        Aug 22, Henri Cartier-Bresson, photographer, was born in Chanteloup, France.
    (HN, 8/22/00)(MC, 8/22/02)

1908        Aug 25, The National Association of Colored Nurses was formed.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1908        Aug 26, Tony Pastor (b.1837), singer and actor, died. He is considered to be the father of American vaudeville.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9058682/Tony-Pastor)

1908        Aug 27, Lyndon B. Johnson, the 36th president of the United States (1963-1969), was born near Stonewall, Texas.
    (AP, 8/27/97)(HN, 8/27/98)

1908        Aug 28, Roger Tory Peterson, author, was born. His work included the innovative bird book "A Field Guide to Birds."
    (HN, 8/28/00)

1908        Aug 30, Actor Fred MacMurray (d.1991) was born in Kankakee, Ill.
    (AP, 8/30/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_MacMurray)

1908        Aug 31, William Saroyan (d.1981), American writer, was born outside Fresno, Ca., to Armenian parents. "He was a prolific and bombastic writer who never threw anything away." He was a native of Fresno, Ca. and his unpublished materials, held by the Saroyan Foundation, were turned over to Stanford Univ. in 1996. His work included "The Human Comedy."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.36)(SFC, 5/23/96, p.A1)(WUD, 1994, p.1269)(HN, 8/31/00)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M1)

1908        Sep 1, The first railway in modern Saudi Arabia, the Hejaz railway from Jordan's border to Medina, reached Medina. This narrow gauge railway was shut down in 1915.
    (AP, 6/27/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Railways_Organization)

1908        Sep 3, James Barries "What Every Woman Knows," premiered in London.
    (MC, 9/3/01)
1908        Sep 3, Orville Wright began two weeks of flight trials that impressed onlookers with his complete control of his new Type A Military Flyer. In addition to setting an altitude record of 310 feet and an endurance record of more than one hour, he had carried aloft the first military observer, Lieutenant Frank Lahm.
    (HNPD, 9/16/98)

1908        Sep 4, Richard Wright (d.1960), novelist who wrote about the abuses of blacks in white society, best known for “Native Son" (1940), was born near Natchez, Miss.
    (SSFC, 8/12/01, DB p.61)(AP, 9/4/08)

1908        Sep 6, Paul Lavalle, bandleader, was born in Beacon, NY.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1908        Sep 7, Michael E. DeBakey,  heart surgery pioneer, was born in Lake Charles, La.
    (www.fact-index.com)

1908        Sep 9, Orville Wright made the 1st 1-hr airplane flight at Fort Myer, Va.
    (MC, 9/9/01)
1908        Sep 9, Russia grabbed part of Poland.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1908        Sep 12, Winston Churchill married Clementine Hozier.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1908        Sep 16, General Motors Holding Company was formed in Flint, Mich., by William Durant.
    (AP, 9/16/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_C._Durant)

1908        Sep 17, Orville Wright’s passenger on a test flight was Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge. They were circling the landing field at Fort Myer, Va., when a crack developed in the blade of the aircraft’s propeller. Wright lost control of the Flyer and the biplane plunged to the ground. Selfridge became powered flight’s first fatality, and Wright was seriously injured in the crash. But despite the tragic mishap, the War Department awarded the contract for the first military aircraft to Wright.
    (HNPD, 9/16/98)

1908        Sep 19, Gustav Mahler's 7th Symphony, premiered in Prague.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1908        Sep 20, Alexander Mitscherlich, German psychotherapist, was born.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1908        Sep 20, Pablo Martin Melitou de Sarasate y Navascuez, composer, died at 64.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1908        Sep 22, Bulgaria declared independence from Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1908        Sep 23, One of baseball's most famous blunders occurred in a game between the New York Giants and the visiting Chicago Cubs. With the score tied 1-1 in the bottom of the ninth and two runners out, the Giants batted in what should have been the winning run. However, Fred Merkle, who was on first base, began to leave the field apparently without bothering to tag second; the Cubs then claimed to have forced Merkle out. Merkle was eventually ruled out, negating the winning run and leaving the game tied. The Cubs won a rematch game on Oct. 8 and with it, the National League pennant; Chicago then went on to win the World Series.
    (AP, 9/23/08)

1908        Sep 26, An ad for the Edison Phonograph appeared in "The Saturday Evening Post". The phonograph offered buyers free records by both the Democratic and Republican US presidential candidates.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1908        Sep 30, David Oistrakh, violinist and professor at the Moscow Conservatory, was born in Odessa, Russia (Ukraine).
    (HN, 9/30/00)(MC, 9/30/01)
   
1908        Sep, Bones of the 10,000 year-old Bison bison antiquus were initially discovered by cowboy George McJunkin (1851-1922) in eastern New Mexico.
    (NH, 2/97, p.17)

1908        Oct 1, The Ford Model T, the first car for millions of Americans, hit the market. Each car cost $825. Over 15 million Model Ts were eventually sold, all of them black. The Model T automobile cost $850 when it was first introduced to the public. Ford lowered the price of automobiles—previously regarded as a toy of the rich—by maintaining control of raw materials and using new mass production techniques. The price of this two-seater, affectionately known as the "tin Lizzy," fluctuated over the years, dipping below $300 in 1924. Electric lights and an optional electric starter were among the few improvements over the years. The model was discontinued in 1927 after more 15,000,000 had been produced.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.56)(AP, 10/1/97)(HN, 10/1/98)(HNQ, 7/11/00)

1908        Oct 5, Joshua Logan, stage and film director ("Picnic," "Bus Stop," "South Pacific"), was born in Texarkana, Texas.
    (AP, 10/5/08)

1908        Oct 6, Carol Lombard, American comedienne and actress who was nominated for an Oscar for My Man Godfrey, was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Lombard started during the silent movie era revealed herself to be a wonderful amusing and witty actress after the advent of the talkies and quickly became one of the top box office draws of the 1930's in such films as 'My Man Godfrey'. Clark Gable was married to Lombard. (My Man Godfrey, Mr. & Mrs. Smith, Made for Each Other).
     (HN, 10/6/98)(MC, 10/5/01)
1908        Oct 6, Sammy Price, jazz pianist, was born.
    (HN, 10/6/00)
1908        Oct 6, Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1908        Oct 10, The Chicago Cubs won Game 1 of the World Series with a 10-6 victory over the Detroit Tigers at Bennett Park.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

1908        Oct 11, The Chicago Cubs took a 2-0 lead in the World Series, defeating the visiting Detroit Tigers 6-1 at the West Side Grounds.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

1908        Oct 12, The Detroit Tigers beat the Chicago Cubs 8-3 in Game 3 of the World Series, played in Chicago.
    (AP, 10/12/08)

1908        Oct 13, The Chicago Cubs won Game 4 of the World Series, defeating the Detroit Tigers 3-0 to take a 3-1 Series lead.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
1908        Oct 13, Some 60 thousand British suffragists led by Emmeline Pankhurst, founder of the WSPU, gathered in Parliament Square the rush the House of Commons. 24 women and 13 men were arrested.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.8)

1908        Oct 14,  The E.M. Forster novel "A Room With a View" was first published.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
1908        Oct 14, The Chicago Cubs won the World Series as they defeated the Detroit Tigers in Game 5, 2-0, at Bennett Park.
    (AP, 10/14/08)

1908        Oct 15, John Kenneth Galbraith, economist, writer and diplomat, was born in Canada. His work included "A History of Economics" and "Affluent Society" (1958). He won the Hillman Award in 1958. In 2005 Richard Parker authored the biography “John Kenneth Galbraith: His Life, His Politics, His Economics."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)(HN, 10/15/00)(WSJ, 2/22/05, p.D10)

1908        Oct 16, The first airplane flight in England was made at Farnsborough, by Samuel Cody, a U.S. citizen.
    (HN, 10/16/98)

1908        Oct, Georgia’s nearly all-white electorate voted by a 2 to 1 margin to abolish its system of peonage as of March 1909.
    (WSJ, 3/29/08, p.W8)

1908        Nov 3, Republican William Howard Taft was elected the 27th president, outpolling William Jennings Bryan. James Sherman was the VP.
    (AP, 11/3/97)(HN, 11/3/98)(SFC, 10/1/99, p.B6)

1908        Nov 4, The Brooklyn Academy of Music opened in NYC.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1908        Nov 6, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid were killed. [see 1907 Bolivia]
    (MesWP)

1908        Nov 8, Victorien Sardou (77), French opera author (Madame Sans-Gene), died.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1908        Nov 12, Harry Blackmun (d.1999), later Supreme Court Justice, was born in Nashville, Ill., and grew up in St. Paul, Minn.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.A15)(AP, 11/12/08)

1908        Nov 13, In SF the corruption trial of Abe Reuf was interrupted by the shooting of Assistant District Attorney Francis J. Heney by Morris Haas, an ex-convict whom Heney had offended in a former graft trial. Heney was expected to survive. Haas committed suicide 2 days later.
    (SSFC, 11/9/08, DB p.58)

1908        Nov 14, Joseph McCarthy was born. He became an anti-Communist Senator from Wisconsin who gave the name "McCarthyism" to his communist witch-hunts. In 1999 William F. Buckley Jr. published "The Redhunter," a historical novel about Joe McCarthy.
    (HN, 11/14/98)(WSJ, 7/22/99, p.A24)
1908        Nov 14, Harrison Sallisbury, journalist for The New York Times, was born.
    (HN, 11/14/00)
1908        Nov 14, Oscar Strauss' musical "The Chocolate Soldier," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 11/14/01)
1908        Nov 14, Albert Einstein presented his quantum theory of light.
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1908        Nov 15, China's Empress Dowager Cixi died two weeks short of her 73rd birthday. In 2013 Jung Chang authored “Empress Dowager Cixi: The Concubine Who Launched Modern China."
    (AP, 11/15/08)(Econ, 11/30/13, p.84)

1908        Nov 16, Conductor Arturo Toscanini made his debut with the New York Metropolitan Opera as he led a performance of Verdi's "Aida."
    (AP, 11/16/08)

1908        Nov 17, Lydia Thompson (b.1838), English-born vaudeville actress, died.
    (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lydia_Thompson)

1908        Nov 18, Imogene Coca d.2001), later co-star with Sid Caesar of the 1950s "Your Show of Shows" TV program, was born in Philadelphia.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A29)(AP, 11/18/08)

1908        Nov 20, Alistair Cooke (d.2004), English journalist, who hosted "Masterpiece Theater," was born in Salford, England.
    (SFC, 3/31/04, p.A2)(AP, 11/20/08)

1908        Nov 21, Elizabeth G. Speare, writer of historical novels for children, was born.
    (HN, 11/21/00)

1908        Nov 22, Michael Balfour, historian, was born.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1908        Nov 24, Harry Kemelman, US detective author (rabbi omnibus), was born.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1908        Nov 25, The first issue of The Christian Science Monitor was published.
    (AP, 11/25/08)

1908        Nov 28, Claude Levi-Strauss, French anthropologist, was born.
    (HN, 11/28/98)
1908        Nov 28, 154 men died in a coal mine explosion at Marianna, Pa.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1908        Nov 29, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., later New York Congressman, was born in New Haven, Conn.
    (AP, 11/29/08)

1908        Nov 30, SF Police Chief William J. Biggy disappeared off a police boat in the SF Bay. The chief was last seen vomiting over the side of the launch. He had been under pressure since the shooting of prosecutor Francis J. Heney 2 weeks earlier. Biggy’s body was pulled from the bay 2 weeks later.
    (SSFC, 11/30/08, DB p.58)(SSFC, 12/14/08, p.54)(SFC, 2/17/09, p.A10)

1908        Dec 1, The US Dept. of Agriculture as of this day restricted opium imports to the US based on morphine content. Opium with under 3% morphine, which included opium for smoking, was restricted. This severely impacted the customs revenue in San Francisco and created an uproar in the city’s Chinatown. The law became effective as of April 1, 2009.
    (SSFC, 11/30/08, DB p.58)(SSFC, 3/15/09, DB p.50)
1908        Dec 1, The Italian Parliament debated the future of the Triple Alliance and asked for compensation for Austria’s action in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1908        Dec 2, Emp. Zxuan Tong (Aisingyoro Henry Puyi, 2 1/2 years old) ascended the dragon throne and became China's Last Emperor.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.A24)(MC, 12/2/01)

1908        Dec 3, Edward Elgar's 1st Symphony in A premiered.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1908        Dec 6, First flight of the Silverdart with Canadian JAD McCurdy at the controls.
    (HN, 12/6/98)

1908        Dec 9, A child labor bill passed German Reichstag forbidding work for children under age 13.
    (HN, 12/9/98)

1908        Dec 10, Oliver Messian, French composer, was born. His work included "Quartet for the End of Time."
    (HN, 12/10/00)

1908        Dec 12, Luis Peraza (d.1974), Venezuelan dramatist, was born.
    (www.dramateatro.arts.ve/ensayos/n_0011/milagros_santana_11.html)

1908        Dec 13, The Dutch took two Venezuelan Coast Guard ships.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1908        Dec 14, The first truly representative Turkish Parliament opened.
    (HN, 12/14/98)

1908        Dec 17, Willard Frank Libby, American chemist who won a Nobel Prize (1960) for his part in creating the carbon-14 method in dating ancient findings, was born.
    (HN, 12/17/98)(MC, 12/17/01)

1908        Dec 19, In Venezuela Gen. Juan Vicente Gomez (1857-1935) seized power from Pres. Cipriano Castro, while Castro was in Europe for medical treatment.
    (AP, 5/22/14)

1908        Dec 23, Yousuf Karsh, portrait photographer (Life Magazine), was born.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1908        Dec 26, Jack Johnson (1878-1946) of Texas knocked out Tommy Burns in Australia to become the 1st black world heavyweight boxing champion. He was not officially given the title until 1910 when he beat Jim Jeffries in Las Vegas. In 1913 Johnson fled the US because of trumped up charges of violating the Mann Act's stipulations against transporting white women across state lines for prostitution. Johnson held the title until 1915. In 1920 he returned to the US, was arrested and served a one year sentence in Leavenworth in Kansas, where he was appointed athletic director of the prison.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Johnson_(boxer))(ON, 4/09, p.7)

1908        Dec 28, Some 70,000-100,000 people died in the Messina earthquake in Sicily. The government hired a number of steamships, including the Florida, to ship survivors to America.
    (WUD, 1994, p.899)(WSJ, 2/8/99, p.A21)(http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/eqsmosde.html)

1908        Dec 29, A patent was granted for a 4-wheel automobile brake in Clintonville, Wisc.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1908        Dec 31, Simon Wiesenthal, survivor of the Nazi Holocaust who dedicated his life to tracking down former Nazis, was born.
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1908        Dec, The Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) took out patents on ailerons and in March 1809 the group disbanded.
    (ON, 12/11, p.11)

1908        Balthazar Klossowski was born in Paris. He later became known as the artist Balthus. In 1919 his mother, Baladine, moved with her 2 sons to Switzerland and became the lover of the German poet Rainier Maria Rilke, who became a mentor to the boy. In 1999 Nicholas Fox Weber published: "Balthus: A Biography."
    (WSJ, 10/28/99, p.A24)
1908        James Stewart, actor, was born.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, zone 1 p.2)
1908        Victor Vasarely, the father of op art, was born in Pecs, Hungary.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.128)

1908        Gutzon Borglum, American sculptor, unveiled a marble bust of Pres. Lincoln and an equestrian statue of Civil War Gen. Philip Sheridan.
    (ON, 2/11, p.10)

1908        Braque and Picasso began vying with one another in their artwork and ended up by teaching everyone to see the world in an entirely new way. Picasso created his oil painting "Three Women" this year.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.361)(SFC, 10/30/01, p.B1)

1908        Kees Van Dongen painted his seated nude "The Maid’s Bed."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)

1908        Natalia Goncharova, Russian artist, painted "Bleaching Linen" and  "Self Portrait With Yellow Lilies."
    (WSJ, 5/2/03, p.W6)(WSJ, 10/5/05, p.D14)

1908        Claude Monet made his last trip abroad to Venice with his wife Alice and made a number of paintings.
    (WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1908        Rene Lalique was making glass perfume bottles for Francois Coty.
    (SFC, 3/26/97, z1 p.7)

1908        James Nelson Barker created his dramatization of historical American life in “The Indian Princess," probably the first dramatic version of the story of Pocahontas. The operatic melodrama premiered in Philadelphia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2uwj9y)
1908        Arnold Bennet, English writer, published “the Old Wives’ Tale,“ later regarded as his finest novel.
    (WSJ, 8/22/08, p.W8)
1908        Elsa Bernstein (d.1949), Austrian-Jewish playwright (Ernst Rosmer), authored "Maria Arndt." The 1st English production was made in 2002.
    (WSJ, 3/11/02, p.A16)
1908        Walter H. Gaskell (1847-1914), English physiologist, published "The Origin of Vertebrates."
    (NH, 2/97, p.24)
1908        Hugo Gernsback (1884-1967) published his 1st edition of Modern Electrics. The purpose was to increase the popularity of science among the general public.
    (ON, 11/05, p.10)
1908        Kenneth Grahame (1859-1952) of Edinburgh, Scotland, wrote the classic British children’s book "Wind in the Willows." It was made into a movie in 1997.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 11/24/07, p.W8)
1908        Thomas Hiram Holding, Englishman, authored “The Camper’s Handbook."
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.87)
1908        George Trumbull Ladd, president of Yale Univ., authored “In Korea with Marquis Ito." Ladd endorsed Japan’s protectorate status over Korea whose people he described as hopelessly corrupt and incompetent.
    (AH, 10/07, p.57)
1908        Percival Lowell published the results of his observations of Mars titled: "Mars as the Abode of Life." He recorded no fewer than 180 canals.
    (Smith., 8/95, p.72)(NH, 10/96, p.74)
1908        The novel "Anne of Green Gables" by L.M. Montgomery was published.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)

1908        Free atonality commenced with the finale of the Second Quartet by Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951).
    (WSJ, 1/31/02, p.A16)

1908        Chicago’s Robie House, 5757 S. Woodlawn Ave., was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. It was completed in 1910.
    (WSJ, 10/22/04, p.W2)(www.wrightplus.org/robiehouse/robiehouse.html)

1908        The Berkeley, Ca., City Hall was built in a Beaux Arts style. In 1977 a new City Hall was completed. In 2002 voters rejected a bond to fix it and in 2007 it faced $35 million in renovation and retrofit costs.
    (SFC, 3/21/07, p.B1)

1908        Charles and Henry Greene designed a Pasadena, Ca., home for David and Mary Gamble (of Proctor and Gamble fame) in the Craftsman style. The Gamble House was later named a National Historic Landmark.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, p.T4)(http://gamblehouse.org/)
1908        John Spreckles, owner of the San Diego Union and San Diego Tribune newspapers, built a 12,751-square foot home in Coronado, Ca.
    (SFC, 7/19/11, p.A6)
1908        In Pacifica, Ca., SF attorney Henry Harrison McCloskey (d.1916) built a fortress to withstand earthquakes. In 1959 it was acquired by painting contractor Sam Mazza (d.2002) for $29,000, who turned it into a party palace. The structure dubbed Sam’s Castle was left to a foundation. In 2011 Bridget Oates authored “Sam’s Castle."
    (SFC, 8/13/11, p.A1,6)
1908        In San Francisco the 4-storey University Club was built at 800 Powell St.
    (SSFC, 3/29/15, p.C2)
1908        In San Francisco the classical-style building at 1 Montgomery St., designed by Willis Polk, was built. The 10 floors of offices above the base were removed in 1983 as part of a development trade-off that allowed a 38-story tower to rise to the west.
    (SSFC, 12/9/12, p.C4)
1908        In San Francisco the 3-story building at 556 Commercial St. was completed. It was designed by Charles M. Rousseau.
    (SSFC, 1/8/12, p.C2)
1908        In San Francisco the 6-story commercial building at 185 Post was built. In 2008 tt was remodeled veil of glass.
    (SSFC, 2/13/11, p.C2)
1908        In San Francisco a 7-story building draped in terra cotta was built at 20 California St. It was designed by C.A. Meusdorrfer.
    (SSFC, 2/9/14, p.C3)
1908        In San Francisco two banks were built at 456 Montgomery. In 1986 they were topped with a modern tower creating a 26 story structure.
    (SSFC, 7/22/12, p.C5)
1908        In SF the 12-story Crocker Bank went up at the Montgomery, Pine and Bush intersection. In the 1980s 10 floors were taken off to make air space for the Crocker Galleria.
    (SSFM, 10/12/02, p.13)
1908        In SF the 14-story Adam Grant Building was completed at 114 Sansome St. The Beaux Arts style building was designed by architects Howard & Galloway.
    (SSFC, 2/8/09, p.B3)
1908        In SF the Humboldt Bank building at 785 Market St. was completed. The 19-story building featured a Beaux-Arts style and dome by the Meyer & O’Brien architectural firm.
    (SFCM, 6/8/08, p.6)
1908        In San Francisco the 6-story Maskey Building, designed by Haves and Toepke, was completed. In 1983 it was demolished, but 4 of the façade’s 6 bays were restored as the front of a 6-story wing of an office tower at 48 Kearny St.
    (SSFC, 5/3/09, p.B2)
1908        In SF the triangular, 11-story Phelan building, designed by William Curlett, was built at 760-784 Market St.
    (SFC, 2/13/07, p.C3)(SSFC, 7/20/14, p.C2)
1908        In San Francisco a new Home Telephone building, designed by Coxhead & Coxhead, was built at 333 Grant St. It was declared a landmark in 1981 and in 2004 opened with 39 condominiums on the upper 6 floors.
    (SFC, 11/11/04, p.E1)
1908        In San Francisco the 10-story, Beaux-Arts style Sachs building was completed at 140 Geary St.
    (SSFC, 1/1/12, p.C2)
1908        In San Francisco St. Boniface Church was built on Golden Gate Ave.
    (SFC, 12/25/98, p.A26)
1908        In San Francisco the Cliff House bar Phineas T. Barnacle (PTB) was built. A new section was added in 1914.
    (SFC, 3/28/01, Food p.5)
1908        In San Francisco the 3-story First Chinese Baptist Church was built at 15 Waverly Place. It was designed by G.E. Burlingame and incorporated clincker bricks giving the structure a medieval air.
    (SSFC, 4/5/09, p.B2)
1908        In San Francisco the Pagoda Palace Theater opened on the corner or Powell and Union streets in North Beach. The theater closed in 1994 and remained vacant to 2009 when plans were approved for converting the building into condominium dwellings and a Mexican restaurant.
    (SFC, 1/9/09, p.B1)
1908        In San Francisco a Seth Thomas street clock was erected on Columbus. In 1977 it was moved across the street to 450 Columbus, in front of the new Matteucci & Co. jewelry store. In 1999 it was hit by a truck and crashed to the ground.
    (SFC, 10/19/99, p.A1,15)
1908        In San Francisco Southern Pacific built a hospital at Fell and Baker to treat employees. It was sold to Upjohn pharmaceuticals in 1968 and was later converted to senior housing.
    (SFC, 4/17/09, p.E8)
1908        The Murphy windmill in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park began pumping water as the largest of its kind in the world.
    (SFC, 3/18/05, p.F3)
1908        Guido Deiro was sent to the United States to introduce the "fizarmonica systema piano" at the Alaskan Exposition in Seattle, Washington and is credited with naming the instrument " piano accordion." His brother Pietro Deiro was the first to play the accordion in San Francisco.
    (www.guidodeiro.com)
1908        In SF the private Katherine Delmar Burke School was established in the Seacliff area.
    (SFC, 12/13/00, p.A17)
1908        In San Francisco the California Historical Society fell apart. It had earlier merged with the California Genealogical Society and prospective members had to produce a genealogical chart to qualify for membership.
    (SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.55)
1908         In San Francisco John’s Grill on Ellis St. was established.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, C1)
1908        In San Francisco the House of Shields bar at 39 New Montgomery St., opened and catered only to men. Service to women was allowed around 1972.
    (SSFC, 1/23/11, p.A2)
1908        James Casey got elected to the SF Board of Supervisors for the express purpose of fixing the roads. He induced Santa Clara, San Mateo and SF to pass resolutions asking that Mission St.-El Camino Real be made a state highway.
    (GTP, 1973, p.66)
1908        In San Francisco some 900 elderly men and women, many from the old Almshouse, moved into a newly rebuilt Relief Home for the Aged and Infirm, later rebuilt and renamed as  Laguna Honda Home.
    (SFC, 8/26/08, p.B5)
1908        In SF Hugh Lazzari founded the Lazzari Fuel Co. It grew to become the nation’s largest distributor of mesquite charcoal.
    (SFC, 3/5/01, p.A24)
1908        In SF the Emporium reopened at 841 Market St. It featured a new dome designed by Albert Pissis. The original was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake and subsequent fires. It closed in 1996, but the original facade was kept for the new Westfield San Francisco Centre, which opened in 2006.
    (Ind, 11/24/01, 5A)(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.D1)
1908        San Francisco's 1st drag bar opened.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.A1)
1908        Some 14,000 building permits were issued this year in SF as the city recovered from the 1906 earthquake.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.B3)
1908        Pacific Gas and Electric co. acquired a gas-making company in Daly City, Ca. Wastes contained lamp-black, a finely powdered carbon, and thick, sticky tars containing cancer-causing compounds.
    (SFC, 3/2/09, p.B1)
1908        In San Francisco the W.T. Garrett & Co. foundry created a 300-pound bell, one of the last produced by the firm, as a gift from the Borel family to Grace church, located at El Camino and Hwy. 92. In the 1950s the Hillbarn Theater moved to the church and used the bell to send audiences back to their seats after intermission. In 1968 the bell was moved to the theater’s permanent home on Hillsdale Blvd, Foster City. In 2004 the bell was stolen. In 2010 it was discovered at a scrap shop in San Leandro and returned to the theater.
    (SFC, 9/6/10, p.A1)
1908        San Francisco managed to eradicate its 2nd bubonic plague epidemic. By this year some 2 million rats were killed and 190 people left dead in the two epidemics that had spread over eight years.
    (SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)
1908        Gustave Niebaum, San Francisco multimillionaire, died.
    (SFEM, 10/31/99, p.27)

1908        In Detroit, Mich., Wayne’ State’s Old Main was expanded with a back wing for gymnasiums, laboratories and shops.
    (WSUAN, Winter 1997, p.7)
1908        On the East Side of Detroit St. George's Lithuanian parish on Westminster Avenue was organized by Father Casimir Valaitis (1864-1941) and the St. George Society. In 1949 a new site was selected, due to newly planned freeway, on Schaefer Road, near Grand River Avenue. Because of the fact that St. George's was then being used as a 'Mission’, Chancery personnel chose "Divine Providence" was their new name. A new freeway against forced a move and on Nov 23, 1973, a new church was dedicated at West Nine Mile and Beech Roads, in the western suburb of Southfield.
    (www.lithuanian-american.org/bridges/iss799/detroit.html)

1908        The Goldfield Hotel was completed in Goldfield, Nevada, to accommodate a gold-mining frenzy. In 2004 the hamlet had shrunk to 356 people from 25,000 at its peak.
    (WSJ, 12/7/04, p.A1)

1908        In Pennsylvania the Rotunda Building in Philadelphia opened as the Girard Trust. It was built as a replica of the Pantheon in Rome. In 2000 it was converted from a bank into a Ritz-Carlton Hotel.
    (SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P4)

1908        In Fort Worth, Texas, the Cowtown Coliseum was built.
    (HT, 4/97, p.49)

1908         The Hydrox cookie was created by a company that became Sunshine Biscuits Inc. Keebler acquired Sunshine in 1996 and Kellogg acquired Keebler in 2001. In 2003 Kellogg stopped making the Hydrox cookie.
    (WSJ, 1/19/08, p.A10)

1908        Mary Baker Eddy founded the Christian Science Monitor in Boston.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.A17)

1908        Olive Dame Campbell came to the Appalachian Mountains with her minister husband and began researching the local music. Her music collection was published in 1915 by English musicologist Cecil Sharp. Their work laid the basis for the John C. Campbell Folk School in Brasstown N.C.
    (WSJ, 6/7/01, p.A20)

1908        Pierre Cartier, a French jeweler, acquired the blue Hope Diamond.
    (THC, 12/3/97)

1908        The French dip sandwich got its start at Phillipe’s Original Sandwich Shop in Los Angeles.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T3)

1908        Willis & Geiger outfitted Teddy Roosevelt for journeys to Alaska and Africa.
    (NH, 9/96, p.17)

1908        The first organized dog-sled race in Alaska was a 408 mile roundtrip from Nome to Candle
    (Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.37)

1908        The Chicago Cubs won the Baseball World Series.
    (Hem., 4/97, p.103)

1908        The Univ. of Pittsburgh introduced the 1st football jerseys with numbers on the back. Coach Amos Alonzo Stagg of the Univ. of Chicago instituted numbered jerseys for football players in 1913.
    (SFC, 10/1/99, p.B6)(SFEC, 12/5/99, Z1 p.5)

1908        The Vanderbilt Cup was won by the Old 16, the first American car to win an int’l. racing competition.
    (WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)

1908        The marathon of the Olympic Games was changed from 24 to 26 miles so that the finish line would fall in front of the Royal Box in England. The length was set at 26 miles 385 yards.
    (SFEC, 1/9/00, Z1 p.2)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.81)
1908        The US won a gold medal in the men’s metric mile.
    (WSJ, 9/12/00, p.A24)
1908        At the Olympic games in England, Russia objected to separate medal totals and flag-flying for athletes from Finland, die to its control over Finland. The Finns marched with no flag.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)

1908        Pres. Teddy Roosevelt criticized the courts for interpreting the Sherman Antitrust Act narrowly, and urged more federal supervision pf corporations.
    (WSJ, 1/14/08, p.R2)
1908        Pres. Theodore Roosevelt established the Lower Klamath Refuge in northern California and southern Oregon as the nation’s first preserve set aside for waterfowl.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_Klamath_National_Wildlife_Refuge)(SFC, 4/21/12, p.A10)
1908        Pres. Roosevelt formally established the National Bison Range in Montana.
    (ON, 3/02, p.9)
1908        The US banned the L’Asino (The Donkey), an Italian anticlerical satirical publication founded in Rome, on the grounds that it was pornographic.
    (SFC, 11/22/14, p.C4)

1908        American battleships of the Great White Fleet visited San Francisco on their "round-the-world cruise to show Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick." Fort Baker under Gen. Frederick Funston was opened to the public to view the fleet’s entry.
    (The Park, Summer "95)

1908        The National Child Labor Committee estimated that one of every four miners was a child between the ages of 7 and 16. Lewis W. Hine photographed young Pennsylvania coal miners, who worked from dawn to dusk. Early-20th-century reformers crusaded against many social problems caused by America's rapid industrialization and urbanization, including child labor. Teacher-turned-photographer Lewis Hine documented industrial child labor for the National Child Labor Committee. Disguised to evade suspicious employers, Hine captured some of the most powerful images in the history of documentary photography.
    (HNPD, 2/19/99)

1908        The US Supreme Court ruled that player-piano rolls based on copyrighted music are not a copyright violation but a piece of machinery. [see 1909]
    (SFC, 4/8/02, p.E1)

1908        A Chicago Auto Show was held. Walter P. Chrysler saw his first "Locomobile" at the show.
    (WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A20)

1908        Marquis Mills Converse founded the Converse shoe company. In 1917 the All-Stars basketball shoe was introduced. In 1923 it was renamed the Chuck Taylor All-Star. In 2003 the company was sold to Nike.
    (WSJ, 7/10/03, p.A6)

1908        William Crapo Durant (1861-1947) a salesman who founded GM with 25 companies incorporated General Motors and acquired Buick, Oldsmobile and Oakland, which would later be renamed Pontiac. He was not a good manager and was kicked out from GM in 1920. He then started Durant Motors, but with no success.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1908        Frederic J. Fisher (1878-1941) and his brother Charles (1880-1963) established the Fisher Body Co. They sold their operations to GM in 1926.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1908        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1908 Ford Model T as the number 8 favorite car. The Model T was the first car to feature interchangeable parts.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 3/15/97, p.E3)

1908        Sears, Roebuck & Co. introduced self-built house kits in a specialty catalog.
    (WSJ, 10/31/05, p.B1)

1908        Gideon Sundback, Swedish-born engineer working for the Automatic Hook and Eye Co. of Hoboken, New Jersey, designed a new fastener, the “Plako," for use in the placket of a woman’s skirt.
    (ON, 7/04, p.5)

1908        William Henry Hoover, an inventive janitor and founder of the Hoover Vacuum Co., produced the Model O, the first commercially successful portable electric vacuum cleaner. The Hoover Historical Center in North Canton, Ohio, was devoted to carpet-cleaning history.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T3)

1908        Svante Arrhenius, Swedish chemist, proposed the idea of "panspermia," the idea that our solar system was inoculated with living organisms from outside the galaxy.
    (PacDis, Winter ’97, p.34)

1908        George Ellery Hale, American astronomer, studied the Zeeman effect from sunspots, which were splits in the Fraunhofer lines, and always observed when a line spectrum was placed between the poles of a strong electromagnet.
    (SCTS, p.92)

1908        F.B. Taylor, American geologist, proposed that the rifting and displacement of the continents had caused the circum-Pacific ring to form and the Tethyan ranges to be pushed up. He attributed the action to the supposed capture of the moon from outer space in the Cretaceous period.
    (DD-EVTT, p.188)

1908        Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes, Dutch physicist, was the first to liquefy helium. He cooled helium gas to below its boiling point of -269°C, just 4 degrees above absolute zero. Three years later he observed the resistance of mercury vanished when it was cooled by liquid helium, thus discovering superconductivity.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A15)(Econ, 12/3/11, TQ p.20)

1908        Jacques Brandenberger, a Swiss chemist, came up with cellophane when he tried to invent a stain-proof tablecloth. [2nd source says 1912]
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.E5)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)

1908        Monosodium glutamate (MSG) was isolated from seaweed. Japanese chemist Kikunae Ikeda identified umami, a taste imparted by glutamic acid and associated with monosodium glutamate. Umami was later recognized as a fifth fundamental taste.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.E3)(Econ, 1/31/15, p.71)

1908        The Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration was established as the world's first MBA program. It had a faculty of 15 with 33 regular students and 47 special students.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.68)(www.hbs.edu/about/history.html)

1908        Beaulieu Vineyard in Napa Valley inked a long term contract to provide altar wine to the Catholic archdiocese of San Francisco.
    (SFC, 10/10/08, p.F3)
1908        Argentine ants were 1st noticed in California. They had reached New Orleans by 1891 and became successful because their colonies did not fight each other and their nests contained multiple queens and males.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A1)
1908        Some 14,000 building permits were issued this year in SF as the city recovered from the 1906 earthquake.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.B3)

1908        The Dry Tortugas, west of Key West, Florida, was declared protected bird preserve and feeding ground.
    (NH, 4/97, p.37)

1908        The Wichita National Bison Range opened in Oklahoma and received 15 bison from New York.
    (ON, 3/02, p.9)

1908        An Italian expedition on Crete discovered a terra cotta artifact with an unknown script. It was dated to about 1700 BC and became known as the Phaistos Disc (Phaestos Disc). [see 1600 BCE]
    (SSFC, 2/22/04, p.M6)

1908        Edward H. Thompson explored the sacred well at Chichen Itza in the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula using deep-sea diving equipment.
    (NH, 11/96, p.47)

1908        Avrom Goldfadn (b.1840), poet, playwright and composer, died in NYC. He is known as the Father of Yiddish theater.
    (http://yiddish.haifa.ac.il/tmr/tmr09/tmr09007.htm)

1908        Belle Gunness (48), reportedly died in a fire at her farm in Laporte, Indiana. Many locals believed Gunness, dubbed Lady Bluebeard, staged her death and had killed at least 25 people before the fire.
    (AP, 4/27/08)

1908        John T. Wilson, the founder of the Brotherhood of Maintenance of Ways Employees, was shot and killed in a family dispute. The union workers maintained railroad tracks.
    (WSJ, 10/27/97, p.B1)

1908        Ernest Shackleton's polar exploration team established a staging platform to Antarctica at Cape Royds, Ross Island. A prefab cabin was built big enough for 15 men.
    (WSJ, 3/30/05, p.D12)

1908        Helena Rubinstein, following her success in Australia, moved to London and opened a beauty salon.
    (SFEM, 8/23/98, p.29)
1908        The first advertising lights came on at London’s Piccadilly Circus.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.62)
1908        The great Piltdown skull and mandible hoax began in England when a worker discovered a large skull fragment in a shallow gravel pit along a drive to Barkham Manor near the town of Piltdown. He gave the fragment to Charles Dawson, a lawyer and amateur paleontologist who was managing the property. [see 1912]
    (RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.30)(PacDisc, Spring ‘96, p.15)

1908        In Cambodia the seaside town of Kep (Kep-sure-Mer) was founded during the French colonial era. It was all but destroyed during the civil strife of the 1970s.
    (SSFC, 8/31/08, p.E4)

1908        Assiniboine Park was built in Winnipeg, Canada.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C6)

1908        King Leopold II (d.1909) turned the Congo over to Belgium for a large sum of money. It was later estimated that the population of Congo dropped by 10 million people during the period of Leopold’s rule and its immediate aftermath. In 1998 Adam Hochschild published "King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)

1908        In Cairo, Egypt, the Café Riche was founded on Talaat Harb Street, 2 blocks from Tahrir Square, and became a sanctuary for observers of Egyptian public life.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.85)

1908        Robert Schreiber founded Les Echos as a marketing brochure. It grew to become France's premier financial and corporate newspaper.
    (www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Groupe-Les-Echos-Company-History.html)

1908        India’s fist steel mill was built in the tribal state of Jharkhand.
    (Econ, 1/19/13, p.48)

1908        Archie Lindo (d.1990), Jamaican playwright, was born.
    (http://tinyurl.com/389252)

1908        Neutral Moresnet, a territory between Belgium and Germany, nearly adopted Esperanto as its official tongue. The tiny Belgian-Prussian condominium existed from 1816 to 1920. The former territory later became know as the Belgian city of Kelmis.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.50)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutral_Moresnet)

1908        In Namibia diamonds were discovered at Luderitz, a German trading post and fishing town.
    (SSFC, 12/8/13, p.N4)

1908        Scotland’s Johnny Walker whiskey began using a striding man, drawn by cartoonist Tom Browne, on its label. This became one of the world’s first  globally established advertising icons.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.54)(www.johnniewalker.com/en-us/timeline/)

1908        Hussein (1854-1931) became Emir of Mecca and continued to 1917 when he proclaimed himself King of Hejaz, which received international recognition. He initiated the Arab Revolt in 1916 against the increasingly nationalistic Ottoman Empire during the course of the First World War.
    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussein_bin_Ali,_Sharif_of_Mecca)

1908-1950    Cesare Pavese, Italian novelist: "The only joy in the world is to begin."
    (AP, 3/16/99)

1908-1965     Edward R. Murrow, American broadcast journalist: "Most of us probably feel we couldn’t be free without newspapers, and that is the real reason we want the newspapers to be free."
    (AP, 2/26/98)

1908-1969    Daisy and Violet Hilton were Siamese twins who performed during the 20s, 30s and 40s. The 1997 Broadway production "Side Show," written by Bill Russell and composed by Henry Krieger, was based on their lives.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, DB p.35,37)

1908-1979    Nelson A. Rockefeller, politician and Standard Oil heir. His biography was written in 1996 by Cary Reich: The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller: Worlds to Conquer 1908-1956.
    (WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A21)

1908-1975    Louis Jordan, band-leader-vocalist-saxophonist, his autobiography was published in 1994 by John Chilton (U-M Press). He performed from the mid-20s to the mid-50s in a bouncy, humorous, smoothly polished style.
    (MT, 10/94, U-M Press, p.14)

1908-1981     William Saroyan: "In the time of your life, live—so that in that wondrous time you shall not add to the misery and sorrow of the world, but shall smile to the infinite variety and mystery of it."
    (AP, 10/25/97)

1908-1984     Sylvia Ashton-Warner, New Zealander author and educator: "Love has the quality of informing almost everything—even one’s work."
    (AP, 4/18/98)

1908-1986     Harriette Arnow, American author: "If a religion is unpatriotic, it ain’t right."
    (AP, 5/5/97)

1908-1990    Pauline Frederick, American broadcast journalist: "When a man gets up to speak, people listen, then look. When a woman gets up, people look; then, if they like what they see, they listen."
    (AP, 3/4/01)

1908-1990    George Giusti, Italian graphic artist, influenced by Paul Klee. He believed that "art does not reproduce the visible, it makes visible." He was born in Milan and moved to the US in 1939. He designed numerous covers for Fortune, Graphis, and Holiday magazine covers.
    (Hem., Oct. ‘95, p.13)

1908-1993    Thurgood Marshall, American jurist. He was the first Negro appointed to the US Supreme Court (1967).
    (HFA, ‘96, p.32)(AHD, 1971, p.801)(SFC, 12/3/96, p.A3)

1908-1996    General Witold Urbanowicz, Polish fighter ace. He destroyed 28 German and Japanese fighter planes and fought in combat over Poland, in the Battle of Britain and in China.
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.A20)

1908-1998    Martha Gellhorn, war correspondent and novelist, was born in St. Louis. She married Ernest Hemingway in 1940. Her books included "The Honeyed Peace," "The Trouble I’ve Seen," and "Travels with Myself and Another" (1979).
    (SFC, 2/17/98, p.B8)

1908-1998    Silvio Caldas, one of Brazil’s best-loved singers, sang in a deep, husky voice. He recorded over 500 records and his favorite was "Chao de Estrelas" by Orestes Barbosa.
    (SFC, 2/5/98, p.A21)

1909        Jan 1, Barry Goldwater (d.1998), Republican senator for Arizona and presidential contender, was born in Phoenix, son of Baron and Josephine Goldwater. His grandfather was an immigrant Polish peddler and founder of the Goldwater department store chain.
    (SFC, 5/30/98, p.A3)(MC, 1/1/02)

1909        Jan 3, Victor Borge (d.2000 at 91), musical humorist, was born as Borge Rosenbaum in Copenhagen. In 1953 he opened his "Comedy in Music" at the Golden Theater on Broadway and played for 849 performances .
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.B5)(440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1909        Jan 9, The Silver Dart made the 1st manned flight in Canada. It was funded by the Aerial Experiment Association, founded by Alexander and Mabel Bell.
    (ON, 1/03, p.5)
1909        Jan 9, A Polar exploration team led by Ernest Shackleton reached 88 degrees, 23 minutes south longitude, 162 degrees east latitude. They were 97 nautical miles short of the South Pole, but the weather is too severe to continue.
    (HN, 1/9/01)

1909        Jan 15, In San Francisco police arrested Miss Frances Smith, attired in a jaunty sailor costume, and Miss May Burke as they strolled down Montgomery street. Smith was charged with masquerading in male attire and Burke was charged with vagrancy.
    (SSFC, 1/10/10, DB p.42)

1909        Jan 16, Ethel Merman, U.S. singer and actress, was born. She was known as the "Queen of Broadway." [2nd source says 1908]
    (HN, 1/16/99)(MC, 1/16/02)
1909        Jan 16, One of Ernest Shackleton's polar exploration teams reached the Magnetic South Pole.
    (HN, 1/16/00)

1909        Jan 18, Robert Stroud (1890-1963), who later gained fame as the Birdman of Alcatraz, killed a bartender in Alaska. Barman F. K. "Charlie" Von Dahmer had viciously raped and beat  his friend, Kitty O’Brien (36), a prostitute and dance-hall entertainer. Stroud later knifed a fellow prisoner and was transferred to Leavenworth prison where he murdered a guard in the prison dining hall.
    (SSFC, 4/15/12, DB p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Stroud)

1909        Jan 21-22, An earthquake in Morocco's northern region, near Tetouan, killed up to 100.
    (AP, 2/25/04)

1909        Jan 22, Hariette Lake (aka Ann Sothern, d. 2001), film and TV actress, was born in Valley City, North Dakota.
    (SFC, 3/17/01, p.A23)
1909        Jan 22, U Thant, Secretary General of United Nations General Assembly (1962-1972), was born in Burma. He played a major role in the Cuban crisis.
    (HN, 1/22/99)(MC, 1/22/02)

1909        Jan 23, The steamship Florida, with 850 Italian immigrant passengers, collided off Long Island with the luxury liner Republic, a steamship under Captain Sealby of the White Star Line. Jack Binns (26), a Marconi telegraph operator on the Republic, sent and received messages for hours into the crises and helped save 550 Republic passengers plus 192 crew. Only 6 people died in the collision. The event was made into a 1999 TV documentary "Rescue at Sea" as part of the American Experience PBS series.
    (WSJ, 2/8/99, p.A21)(ON, 7/04, p.6)

1909        Jan 28, The United States ended direct control over Cuba.
    (AP, 1/28/98)

1909        Feb 1, U.S. troops left Cuba after installing Jose Miguel Gomez as president.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1909        Feb 3, Simone Weil (d.1943), French philosopher, member of the French resistance in WWII, was born. "All sins are attempts to fill voids." "Man alone can enslave man."
    (HN, 2/3/01)(AP, 12/10/97)(AP, 8/23/98)
1909        Feb 3, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt signed Executive Order 1019 which established a bird sanctuary of some of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
    (SFC, 6/15/06, p.A2)(www.fws.gov/refuges/profiles/index.cfm?id=12526)

1909        Feb 4, California law segregated Japanese schoolchildren.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1909        Feb 5, Hendrik Baekeland, Belgian-born inventor, presented a paper to the NY chapter of the American Chemical Society entitled: “The Synthesis, Constitution, and Uses of Bakelite."
    (ON, 9/05, p.12)

1909        Feb 9, Dean Rusk, was born. He was Secretary of State (1961-1969) under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
    (HN, 2/9/99)(MC, 2/9/02)
1909        Feb 9, The 1st US federal legislation prohibiting narcotics was directed at opium.
    (MC, 2/9/02)
1909        Feb 9, In San Francisco Louis’s Fashion Restaurant opened at 73 Sutter St. It had begun operations under Louis Besozzi in 1898, but was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake. The new resaturant came to be called The Fly Trap due to fly paper rolls hung from the ceiling. Operations continued to 1963.
    (SSFC, 7/21/13, p.42)
1909        Feb 9, France agreed to recognize German economic interests in Morocco in exchange for political supremacy.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1909        Feb 12, The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded by 60 people gathered in NYC to discuss recent race riots and how to fight discrimination. They were initially known as the National Negro committee and signed a proclamation known as “The Call." It was based on the Niagara movement of 1905. Mary White Ovington (1865-1951) was one of the founders.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)(SFEC,12/797, BR p.6)(AP, 2/12/98)(SFC, 2/12/09, p.A1)

1909        Feb 15, In San Francisco anarchist Emma Goldman spoke to large audiences in Lyric Hall, at Turk and Larkin streets. She gave 2 lectures: “The Devil Exonerated" and “The Psychology of Violence."
    (SSFC, 2/15/09, DB p.50)

1909        Feb 16, The SF Citizens Health Committee declared SF free of bubonic plague.
    (ON, 1/00, p.7)
1909        Feb 16, 1st subway car with side doors went into service in NYC.
    (MC, 2/16/02)
1909        Feb 16, Serbia mobilized against Austria and Hungary.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1909        Feb 17, Marjorie Lawrence, soprano (Venus-Tannhauser), was born in Australia.
    (MC, 2/17/02)
1909        Feb 17, A government commission reported that the tobacco industry was controlled by six men with 86 firms that were worth $450 million.
    (HN, 2/17/98)
1909        Feb 17, Apache chief Geronimo died of pneumonia at age 80, while still in captivity at Fort Sill, Okla.
    (HN, 2/17/99)

1909        Feb 18, Wallace Stegner, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist (Angle of Repose), was born.
    (AP, 2/18/01)

1909        Feb 20, F.T. Marinetti (1876-1944), Italian poet, published the 1st Futurist Manifesto in the Paris newspaper Le Figaro. It included statements such as “We want to glorify war - the only cure for the world…" and We intend to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and fearlessness."
    (www.unknown.nu/futurism/)(SFEC, 1/3/99, DB p.27)(WSJ, 10/23/08, p.A15)(Econ, 2/22/14, p.71)

1909        Feb 22, The Great White Fleet returned to Norfolk, Va., from an around-the-world show of naval power. 1st US fleet to circle the globe.
    (HN, 2/22/98)(MC, 2/22/02)

1909        Feb 23, Shrove Tuesday. The Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Society, the 1st African-American Mardi Gras organization, first marched in the New Orleans Mardi Gras parade. Members had marched in the Mardi Gras as early as 1901, but their first appearance as Zulus came in 1909, with William Story as King.
    (www.mardigras.org/Calc.html)(http://tinyurl.com/ylqbwbj)

1909        Feb 24, August Derleth, writer (Still is the Summer Night, The Shield of the Valiant), was born.
    (HN, 2/24/01)

1909        Feb 26, Diplomats gathered in Shanghai agreed to set up the International Opium Commission. This was the first international effort to ban trade in a narcotic drug.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.15)

1909        Feb 27, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt established the Farallon Islands, 28 miles off the coast of San Francisco, as a wildlife refuge.
    (SFC, 2/17/05, p.A1)(www.theodoreroosevelt.org/life/conFedBird.htm)

1909        Feb 28, Stephen Spender (d.1995), English poet, critic, was born.
    (HN, 2/28/01)(Econ, 6/19/04, p.81)
1909        Feb 28, President Roosevelt became the first U.S. president to visit the Austrian embassy.
    (HN, 2/28/98)
1909        Feb 28, The earliest Women’s Day observance, organized by the Socialist Party of America, was held in NYC. Some 15,000 women marched demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights.
    (http://tinyurl.com/qc3544w)

1909        Mar 1, David Niven, actor (Casino Royale, Eye of the Devil), was born in Kirriemuir Angus, Scotland.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1909        Mar 1, 1st US university school of nursing established, University of Minnesota.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1909        Mar 2, Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy asked Serbia to set no territorial demands.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1909        Mar 4, Harry Helmsley (d.1997), billionaire New York landlord (Empire State Building), was born in NYC.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Helmsley)(http://tinyurl.com/ropqy)

1909        Mar 8, Anthony Donato (d.1990), composer, was born in Nebraska.
    (http://findingaids.library.northwestern.edu/catalog/inu-ead-nua-archon-688)
1909        Mar 8, An F4 tornado hit Brinkley, Arkansas, killing 49 people. It was but one of 7 to touch down on the state this day.
    (SSFC, 3/8/09, p.C10)
1909        Mar 8, Hinton Rowan Helper (b.1829) of North Carolina, writer and former US consul in Buenos Aires (1861-1866), blocked the door of his Washington, DC., rooming house, turned on the gas and asphyxiated himself.
    (SFC, 6/20/15, p.C2)
1909        Mar 8, Pope Pius X lifted the church ban on interfaith marriages in Hungary.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1909        Mar 4, President Taft was inaugurated as 27th President during a 10" snowstorm.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1909        Mar 4, US prohibited the interstate transportation of game birds.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1909        Mar 6, Gerhart Hauptmann's "Griselda," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1909        Mar 8, Anthony Donato, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)
1909        Mar 8, An F4 tornado hit Brinkley, Arkansas, killing 49 people. It was but one of 7 to touch down on the state this day.
    (SSFC, 3/8/09, p.C10)
1909        Mar 8, Pope Pius X lifted the church ban on interfaith marriages in Hungary.
    (HN, 3/8/98) 

1909        Mar 10, Kathryn McLean (Forbes), author (Mama's Bank Account), was born.
    (HN, 3/10/01)           

1909        Mar 18, Einar Dessau of Denmark used a short-wave transmitter to converse with a government radio post about six miles away in what is believed to have been the first broadcast by a "ham" operator.
    (AP, 3/18/97)

1909        Mar 23, Theodore Roosevelt began an African safari sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society.
    (HN, 3/23/98)
1909        Mar 23, British Lt. Shackleton found the magnetic South Pole.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1909        Mar 24, John Millington Synge (b.1871), Irish dramatist and poet, died in Dublin. He is best known for his play “The Playboy of the Western World," which caused riots during its opening run at the Abbey Theatre.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Millington_Synge)

1909        Mar 26, August Strindberg's "Bjalb-jarle-ti" premiered in Stockholm.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1909        Mar 26, Russian troops invaded Persia to support Muhammad Ali as the Shah in place of the constitutional government.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1909        Mar 28, Nelson Algren (d.1981, novelist (The Man with the Golden Arm, A Walk on the Wild Side), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Algren)

1909        Mar 30, The Queensboro Bridge, the first double decker bridge, opened and linked the New York boroughs of Manhattan and Queens.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(HN, 3/30/98)

1909        Mar 31, Gustav Mahler conducted the NY Philharmonic for 1st time.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1909        Apr 1, A US federal opium law went into effect. In SF Internal Revenue agents prepared for the law by seizing and destroying all the opium cans they find in the Chinese quarter.
    (SSFC, 3/15/09, DB p.50)
1909        Apr 1, Eddie Duchin, society pianist, bandleader (Eddie Duchin Orch), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1909        Apr 1, The ornate Italian style embassy building at 2600 16th St. in Washington DC was completed. It was designed by George Oakley Totten Jr. under the direction of Mrs. Henderson, wife of Sen. John B. Henderson. It was constructed by the George A. Fuller Co. In 1924 it was sold to the Lithuanians and became their foreign embassy.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)

1909        Apr 6, 1st credit union formed in US.
    (MC, 4/6/02)
1909        Apr 6, Explorers Robert E. Peary, Matthew A. Henson and four Inuits became the first men to reach the North Pole along with 4 Eskimos. Peary used Ellesmere Island as a base for his expedition to the North Pole. The north coast of Ellesmere lies just 480 miles from the Pole. He was accompanied by Matthew Henson, an African-American, who had spent 18 years in the Arctic with Peary. The claim was disputed by skeptics and in 1988 the original navigational records were uncovered from the dog-sled voyage indicating that Peary probably never got closer than 121 miles from the North Pole. In 1989 the Navigation Foundation upheld that Peary reached the North Pole.
    (NG, 6/1988, 754, 757)(SFC, 8/18/96, p.B8)(SFC, 10/2/99, p.A20)(AP, 4/6/08)(SFC, 9/11/08, p.B4)
1909        Arctic explorer Frederick A. Cook claimed to have discovered the North Pole a year ahead of Peary. Many historians suspect that neither explorer succeeded. The term “Dr. Cook weather" refers to an incident where Dr. Cook once left a chilly New York baseball game after which the city papers trumpeted; “Game called—even too cold for Dr. Cook." Cook's assertion was later proved false.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.B8)(SFC, 10/2/99, p.A20)

1909        Apr 10, Algernon Charles Swinburne (b.1837), English poet, died.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1909        Apr 11, Tel Aviv began as a suburb of Jaffa. While Palestine was still under Ottoman rule, sixty-six Jewish families took possession of lots in Karm al-Jabali, on the northern outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa near the Mediterranean coast amidst dunes, vineyards, and orchards. There they established a “garden suburb" called Ahuzat Bayit (“Homestead"), which in 2010 was renamed Tel Aviv, or Hill of Spring.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tel_Aviv)(http://tinyurl.com/l8ymtod)(Econ, 2/7/15, p.78)

1909        Apr 13, Eudora Welty (d.2001), Southern writer, was born in Jackson, Miss. Her books included  “Delta Wedding" and “The Optimist's Daughter" (1972). In 1998 Ann Waldron published "Eudora Welty: A Writer’s Life."
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, BR p.4)(SFEC, 12/6/98, BR p.8)(HN, 4/13/01)
1909        Apr 13, William Edgar Geil (1865-1925), travel writer from Doylestown, Pa., returned to the US following his 2nd trip to China. He had traveled 1800 miles along the Great Wall of China gathering notes and photos, which he soon published in a 393-page volume titled “The Great Wall of China."
    (ON, 2/09, p.10)(http://tinyurl.com/dhtulo)
1909        Apr 13, In Turkey a counter-coup, led by a certain Dervish Vahdeti, began Istanbul and continued for a few days. It was put down by Hareket Ordusu (The Army of Action) constituted with troops stationed in the Balkans, which rapidly departed from Salonika. Among the officers who entered the capital was a young captain named Mustafa Kemal. 74 soldiers were killed in the incident. The “March 31" incidents actually started on 13 April 1909, a day corresponding to 31 March 1325 in the Rumi calendar in use at the time in Turkey for official timekeeping.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/31_March_Incident)

1909        Apr 17, In San Francisco 5 bodies were recovered and probably eight or ten others buried in the ruins of an early morning fire which destroyed the St. George hotel, a lodging house for laborers at Howard and Eighth streets, and eight other small buildings.
    (www.gendisasters.com/data1/ca/fires/sanfrancisco-stgeorgehotelfire1909.htm)

1909        Apr 18, Joan of Arc was declared a saint.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1909        Apr 19, The new Orpheum Theater opened in San Francisco, Ca.
    (SSFC, 3/8/09, DB p.45)
1909        Apr 19, In Persia Howard Baskerville (b.1885), an American Presbyterian preacher, was shot dead while trying to break the siege of Tabriz as a defender of the new Iranian constitution.
    (Econ, 7/17/10, p.87)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Baskerville)

1909        Apr 21, Rollo May, psychologist, was born.
    (HN, 4/21/01)

1909        Apr 27, In Turkey April 27 Reshad Efendi, the brother of Sultan Abdulhamid II, was proclaimed Sultan Mehmed V.
    (HN, 4/27/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Hamid_II)

1909        Apr 29, Tom Ewell, [S Yewell Tompkins], actor (Tom Ewell Show, 7 Yr Itch), was born in Ky.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1909        Apr 30, Juliana, queen of the Netherlands, was born. She fled during the Nazi occupation and abdicated in favor of her daughter Beatrix.
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1909        Apr, The Texas Sugar Land prison facility began operations. It was basically a plantation owned by Imperial Sugar which leased inmate workers from the state. The prison shut down in 2011 saving the state about $12.4 million in annual costs.
    (SFC, 9/1/11, p.A11)(http://offthekuff.com/wp/?p=39004)

1909        May 1, Walter Reed Hospital opened in Washington DC as an 80-bed Army medical center. It closed in 2011 and operations were moved to facilities in Maryland and Virginia.
    (SFC, 8/26/05, p.A13)(SFC, 7/28/11, p.A4)

1909        May 5, Carlos Baker, biographer, was born.
    (HN, 5/5/01)

1909        May 7, Edwin Herbert Land, inventor of the Polaroid Land Camera, was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)

1909        May 9, In San Francisco 135 delegates of the anti-Japanese Laundry League took steps at a convention at Golden Gate Hall, 222 Van Ness Ave., to boycott all Japanese enterprises on the Pacific Coast.
    (SSFC, 5/10/09, DB p.50)

1909        May 10, Maybelle Carter, country singer (Johnny Cash Show), was born in Nickelsville, Va.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1909        May 13, A. Kopff discovered asteroid #681, Gorgo.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)

1909        May 14, Texan Samuel Franklin Cody became the first to make a powered airplane flight beyond one mile in the United Kingdom. Cody, no relation to William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody, used his name and talents to create his own "Wild West" show that toured Europe. Despite the fact he could read nor write, Cody designed a series of kites, including a huge man-lifting version that could be used for battle reconnaissance. Cody built a large biplane for the British army, which he flew beyond a mile on May 14, 1909. His second flight of the day crashed. Cody died in 1913 when another of his planes broke apart in midair.
    (HNQ, 3/12/99)

1909        May 15, James Mason, actor (The Desert Fox, Lolita, Bloodline, Boys From Brazil), was born in England.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1909        May 17, White firemen on Georgia RR struck to protest the hiring of blacks.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1909        May 18, George Meredith (81), English poet, writer (Diana of Crossways), died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1909        May 18, Isaac M F Albéniz (48), Spanish pianist, composer, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1909        May 19, San Francisco Mayor Edward Taylor wrote a letter to Pres. Taft testifying to the valuable aid of the federal government in the city’s recent campaign against bubonic plague.
    (SSFC, 5/31/09, DB p.50)

1909        May 21, Sister Maria Innocentia Hummel, artist, was born.
    (HN, 5/21/01)

1909        May 29, Neil R[onald] Jones, US sci-fi author (Space War, Twin Worlds), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1909        May 30, Benny Goodman was born. He became a great clarinet player, and big band leader and was known as the "King of Swing."
    (HN, 5/30/99)

1909        May 31, The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) held its first conference at the United Charities Building in NYC.
    (HN, 5/31/98)(MC, 5/31/02)

1909        May, Biograph released the 11 minute film “Resurrection" directed by D.W. Griffith (34). It featured Florence Lawrence and was based on the novel by Leo Tolstoy.
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0001016/)(ON, 4/06, p.6)

1909        Jun 1, Pres. William Howard Taft touched a key in Washington, DC, sending a signal to Seattle, opening the Alaska-Yukon Pacific Expo at the Seattle World’s Fair, as well as a signal to NYC initialing the New York to Seattle Automobile Race.
    (AH, 6/03, p.18)
1909        Jun 1, Guido Deiro, European vaudeville star, introduced the "fizarmonica systema piano" at the Alaskan Exposition in Seattle, Washington. He was contracted by the Ranco Antonio Accordion Company of Italy and is credited with naming the instrument " piano accordion." His brother Pietro Deiro was the first to play the accordion in San Francisco.
    (www.guidodeiro.com)

1909        Jun 6, Isaiah Berlin (d.1997) was born in Riga. He became a professor at Oxford and wrote numerous essays on the history of political ideas and concepts of liberty. The family moved to Britain in 1919.
    (SFC,11/6/97, p.C14)

1909        Jun 7, Virginia Apgar, American physician and medical researcher, was born.
    (HN, 6/7/01)
1909        Jun 7, Peter Rodino, Congressman from New York, was born. He served as chairman of the Watergate hearings.
    (HN, 6/7/99)
1909        Jun 7, Jessica Tandy, actress (Birds, Cocoon, Batteries Not Included), was born in London.
    (SC, 6/7/02)
1909        Jun 7, Cleveland Industrial Exposition opened.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1909        Jun 10, An SOS signal was transmitted for the first time in an emergency as the Cunard liner SS Slavonia was wrecked off the Azores.
    (HN, 6/10/99)

1909        Jun 14, Burl Ives, folk singer, actor (Cat on a Hot Tin Roof), was born in Hunt, Ill.
    (MC, 6/14/02)

1909        Jun 16, Jim Thorpe made his pro baseball pitching debut for Rocky Mount (ECL) with a 4-2 win. This later caused him to forfeit his Olympic medals.
    (MC, 6/16/02)
1909         Jun 16, In San Francisco the Gjoe, explorer Roald Amundsen’s converted herring boat, was passed as a gift to the people of San Francisco. He had used the vessel to cross the Northwest Passage in 1905 and had arrived in SF in 1906. In 1972 the Gjoe was returned to Norway and a commemorative sculpture was left next to the Beach Chalet at Ocean Beach.
    (Ind, 4/27/02, 5A)(SSFC, 6/14/09, DB p.50)

1909        Jun 20, Errol Flynn, actor who starred in "The Adventures of Robin Hood" and "Captain Blood" among many other movies, was born.
    (HN, 6/20/98)
1909        Jun 20, The first honeymoon in a balloon.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.32)

1909        Jun 22, In San Francisco customs inspectors seized 149 tins of opium, evidently smuggled in since a law prohibiting possession of opium for smoking went into effect in April. 16 tins ere found at in the basement of Mow Lee’s store at 76 Dupont St. The rest was found at a Chinese lodging house at 704 Jackson St. 
    (SSFC, 6/21/09, DB p.50)

1909        Jun 23, A Ford Model T crossed the finish line in the NYC to Seattle Automobile Race after 22 days and 55 minutes to claim the Guggenheim Cup and a $2,000 first prize. A Shamut came in 17 hours later to win the 2nd-place prize of $1500. An Acme car came in on June 29 to claim a $1000 3rd prize. The Ford was later disqualified for having switched engines enroute.
    (AH, 6/03, p.23)

1909        Jun 24, Milton Katims, conductor, violist (NBC Orchestra), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1909        Jun 26, Col. Tom Parker, Elvis Presley's manager, was born. He was never a colonel.
    (HN, 6/26/99)

1909        Jun 27, Gianandrea Gavazzeni, composer, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 6/27/02)

1909         Jun 28, Eric Ambler, British mystery writer (The Dark Frontier, Uncommon Danger), was born.
    (HN, 6/28/01)

1909        Jul 1, In England Indian army officer Sir Curzon Wyllie (b.1848) was shot dead on a Kensington street by Indian student revolutionary Madan Lal Dhingra. Vinayak Savarkar was suspected of encouraging Dhingra.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hutt_Curzon_Wyllie)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.57)

1909        Jul 2, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch of the BASF company succeeded in combining nitrogen from the air with hydrogen from coal to make ammonia.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.29)

1909        Jul 3, Stavros Niachos, Greek shipping magnate, was born.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1909        Jul 5, Andrei Gromyko, diplomat, USSR President (1985-89), was born. [see Jul 18]
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1909        Jul 8, The 1st official evening baseball game was played in Grand Rapids. Mich. Grand Rapids defeated Zanesville 11 to 10. In 2000 David W. Anderson authored "More than Merkle: A History of the Best and Most Exciting Baseball Season in Human History."
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A20)(SFEC, 4/16/00, Par p.18)

1909        Jul 11, Simon Newcomb, celestial mechanics authority, died.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1909        Jul 12, "Curly" Joe DeRita (Joseph Wardell) (The Three Stooges: The Outlaw is Coming, Snow White and the Three Stooges, Have Rocket, Will Travel; died July 3, 1993), was born.
    (MC, 7/12/02)
1909        Jul 12, In San Francisco the New Chutes opened to the public in the block surrounded by Fillmore, Turk, Eddy and Webster. Amusements included a artificial lake that receives boats from chutes. Fortune tellers, shooting galleries and other attractions led to the Flea Theater.
    (SSFC, 7/12/09, DB p.42)

1909        Jul 17, Glenn Curtiss entered and won the Scientific American trophy for a 2nd year by flying a total of 25 km. in 12 circuits on Long Island. His Golden Flier was sponsored by the Aeronautic Society of New York.
    (ON, 12/11, p.11)

1909        Jul 18, Andrei Gromyko, USSR diplomat and President (1985-89), was born. [see Jul 5]
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1909        Jul 25, Draugas, "The Friend," a Lithuanian newspaper, began publishing in Chicago.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)
1909        Jul 25, French aviator Louis Bleriot (1872-1936) made the first crossing of the English Channel from Calais to the grounds of Dover Castle in a powered aircraft, winning a £1,000 prize offered by the London Daily Mail. Piloting his Type XI monoplane at an average of 39 miles per hour, Blériot made the trip of 23.2 miles in just under 36 minutes.
    (AP, 7/25/97)(HNPD, 7/25/98)(ON, 6/07, p.9)

1909        Jul 26, The SS Waratah left Durban, South Africa, with 211 passengers and crew. The steamship, enroute from Melbourne to London, was due in Cape Town 3 days later, but never arrived.
    (Econ, 9/19/09, p.94)

1909        Jul 27, Gianandrea Gavazzeni, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 7/27/02)
1909        Jul 27, Orville Wright tested the U.S. Army's first airplane, flying himself and a passenger for 1 hour, 12 minutes and 40 seconds over Fort Myer, Virginia.
    (AP, 7/27/97)(HN, 7/27/02)(MC, 7/27/02)

1909        Jul 28, Malcolm Lowry, novelist (Under the Volcano), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1909        Jul 29, Chester Himes, author (Cotton Comes to Harlem, If He Hollers, Let Him Go), was born.
    (HN, 7/29/01)

1909        Jul 30, C. Northcote Parkinson (d.1993), historian and author, was born. Author of Parkinson's Law: "Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion."
    (HN, 7/30/01)(AP, 3/10/02)

1909        Jul, Imprisoned English suffragette Marion Dunlop refused to eat. Prison officials, afraid that she might die and become a martyr to her cause, released her. Soon after, so many suffragettes had adopted the same tactics that prison authorities began force-feeding the women. Mary Leigh told her own story of being force-fed in the September 1909 edition of The Suffragette. The hunger strike was one of the most formidable weapons in the arsenal of suffragettes in Britain and America. [see Sep, Mary Leigh]
    (HNPD, 10/23/98)

1909        Aug 2, The 1st Lincoln head pennies were minted. It was 95% copper and was the first US coin to depict the likeness of a president.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, Par p.21)(SFC, 12/29/96, Z1 p.2)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)
1909        Aug 2, The Wright Flyer was formally accepted by the US Army in exchange for $30,000. It was designated Signal Corps Airplane No. 1, the world’s first military airplane.
    (www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Wright_Bros/Military_Flyer/WR11.htm)

1909         Aug 3, Walter Van Tilberg, Western novelist, was born. He wrote "The Ox-Bow Incident."
    (HN, 8/3/00)

1909        Aug 4, Baseball umpire Tim Hurst instigated a riot by spitting at A's 2nd baseman Eddie Collins, who had questioned a  call. This lead to Hurst's banishment.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1909        Aug 7, US issued the 1st Lincoln penny. [see Aug 2]
    (MC, 8/7/02)
1909        Aug 7, Alice Huyler Ramsey (22) arrived in San Francisco on a ferry boat after driving a 1909 Maxwell Model DA across the country. She had left New York on June 9 on the first ever cross-country trip by a woman.
    (SFC, 7/10/09, p.D3)

1909        Aug 8, In Australia Sister Mary MacKillop (b.1842) died. She had founded the Sisters of St Joseph at age 24 and spent her life educating the poor and taking learning to the harsh Outback. In 2009 Pope Benedict XVI recognized a miracle in which she apparently cured a woman of cancer, paving the way to making her Australia’s first saint.
    (AFP, 12/20/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_MacKillop)

1909        Aug 10, George W. Crockett, first African-American lawyer with the U.S. Department of Labor, was born.
    (HN, 8/10/98)
1909        Aug 10, Leo Fender, inventor of the first mass-produced electric guitar, was born.
    (HN, 8/10/00)

1909        Aug 11, The SOS distress signal was first used by an American ship, the Arapahoe, off Cape Hatteras, N.C.
    (AP, 8/11/97)

1909        Aug 19, The Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened with a 2.5 mile race track. It was founded in 1906 and the 1st 500 race was held in 1911.
    (MC, 8/19/02)(Internet)

1909        Aug 21, C. Dillon Douglas, US Secretary of Treasury (1961-65), was born in Geneva, Switz.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1909        Aug 24, Workers started pouring concrete for Panama Canal.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1909        Aug 25, Ruby Keeler, dancer (Dames, 42nd Street), was born in Halifax, NS.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1909        Aug 28, American Glenn Curtiss won the James Gordon Bennett Cup at the first major international air show held in Rheims France.
    (www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Wright_Bros/Patent_Battles/WR12.htm)

1909        Aug 31, The A.J. Reach Co. patented the cork-centered baseball.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1909        Sep 6, American explorer Robert Peary sent word that he had reached the North Pole five months earlier. [see Apr 6]
    (AP, 9/6/97)

1909        Sep 7, Elia Kazan (d.2003) was born as Alia Kazanjoglous in Constantinople to Anatolian Greek parents. Kazan became a producer, screenwriter and director who won directing Oscars for "Gentleman’s Agreement" and "On the Waterfront."
    (HN, 9/7/98)(AP, 9/29/03)(SFC, 9/29/03, p.A18)

1909        Sep 9, San Francisco held a parade in honor of its work horses. Some 2000 horses and 986 drivers paraded down Market Street before thousands of spectators.
    (SSFC, 9/6/09, p.46)
1909        Sep 9, Kwame Nkrumah, communist and premier of the Gold Coast and president of Ghana (1960-66), was born.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1909        Sep 13, Herbert Berghof, actor (Belarus File), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1909        Sep 14, The Tootsie Roll trade-mark was registered. The application by NYC candy makers Hirschfeld and Stern & Saalberg stated that “Tootsie" had been used in association with the candy since September 1908. Leo Hirshfield had invented  Bromangelon Jelly Powder around 1895.
    (http://candyprofessor.com/tag/leo-hirshfield/)

1909        Sep 22, David Reisman, sociologist, was born. He authored "The Lonely Crowd."
    (HN, 9/22/00)
1909        Sep 22, In Oakland, Ca., Fung Joe Guey made the first West Coast flight of a heavier than air motor driven airplane at Piedmont Heights. He flew for half a mile some 15-feet above the ground.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W3)

1909        Sep 25, The first National Aeronautic Show opened at Madison Square Garden.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1909        Sep 28, Al Capp (Alfred Gerald Caplin), cartoonist, was born in New Haven, Ct. From 1934 until 1977, Capp wrote and drew the cartoon, "Li’l Abner", with its cast of wonderful characters, Mammy and Pappy Yokum, their son Abner, the lovely Daisy Mae, Fearless Fosdick and the lovable Schmoos. Al Capp even invented a holiday, Sadie Hawkins Day. "Don't be a pal to your son. Be his father. What child needs a 40-year-old for a friend?" 
    (HN, 9/28/98)(AP, 11/11/99)(MC, 9/28/01)

1909        Sep, Suffragette Mary Leigh told her own story of being force-fed in the September edition of The Suffragette. "On Saturday afternoon the wardress (female prison guard) forced me onto the bed and two doctors came in. While I was held down a nasal tube was inserted. It is two yards log, with a funnel at the end...The end is put up the right and left nostril on alternative days. The sensation is most painful--the drums of the ears seem to be bursting and there is a horrible pain in the throat and the breast. The tube is pushed down 20 inches. I am on the bed pinned down by wardresses, one doctor holds the funnel end, and the other doctor forces the other end up the nostrils. The one holding the funnel end pours the liquid down--about a pint of milk...egg and milk is sometimes used." [see July, Marion Dunlop]
    (HNPD, 10/23/99)

1909        Sep, An air show was held in Brescia, Italy. In 2002 Peter Demetz authored "The Air Show at Brescia, 1909."
    (WSJ, 11/15/02, p.W10)

1909        Oct 2, Orville Wright set an altitude record, flying at 1,600 feet. This exceeded Hubert Latham’s previous record of 508 feet.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1909        Oct 3, Herblock (Herbert Block, d.2001), political cartoonist, was born.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1909        Oct 4, The Cunard liner "Lusitania" crossed  the Atlantic in four days, 15 hours and 52 minutes.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1909        Oct 6, Pres. William Taft visited San Francisco.
    (SSFC, 10/4/09, p.50)

1909        Oct 9, Jacques Tati, French actor and director, was born.
    (HN, 10/9/00)

1909        Oct 13, Herblock (Herbert Lawrence Block), multiple Pulitzer Prize-winning political cartoonist, was born.
    (HN, 10/13/00)

1909        Oct 16, Carl Laemmle, director of the Independent Motion Pictures Company of America (IMP) confirmed that he had stolen Florence Lawrence, the “Biograph Girl," from his competitor.
    (ON, 4/06, p.6)

1909        Oct 26, General Oliver Otis Howard (b.1830), former Union Civil War commander, co-founder of Howard Univ., and Indian Commissioner, died in Burlington, Vermont. His books included “My Life and Experiences among Our Hostile Indians" (1907).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_O._Howard)
1909        Oct 26, Hirobumi Ito (b.1841), Japan’s resident general in Seoul, was gunned down in Harbin in Russian-controlled Manchuria by Korean nationalist Chang Ahn Gun (aka Ahn Jung-geun).
    (http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/INV_JED/ITO_HIROBUMI_PRINCE_1841_1909_.html)(Econ, 11/23/13, p.48)

1909        Oct 28, Francis Bacon, English artist, was born. He painted expressionist portraits.
    (HN, 10/28/00)

1909        Oct, Britain’s Secret Service Bureau, the first incarnation of the Security Service, was established in to combat Imperial Germany's espionage operations in the United Kingdom. Captain Vernon G.W. Kell of the South Staffordshire Regiment and Captain Mansfield Cumming of the Royal Navy were nominated to head the new Bureau. In 1914 it came under the branch known as MO5, which was subdivided into eight sub-sections. Its chief, Major Vernon Kell, was given responsibility for MO5(g). It was renamed as MI5 in January 1916 and was incorporated into a new Directorate of Military Intelligence.
    (www.mi5.gov.uk/output/origins.html)

1909        Nov 1, In San Francisco a ban on cows went into effect, except for a narrow district that was set apart for handling cattle to be slaughtered. A new ordnance made it unlawful to keep more than 2 cows and provided that when 2 cows are kept within city limits, at least an acre of land must be provided for their pasturage.
    (SSFC, 3/22/09, DB p.50)

1909        Nov 3, James "Scotty" Reston, New York Times reporter, editor and columnist, was born in Clydebank, Scotland.
    (HN, 11/3/00)(MC, 11/3/01)

1909        Nov 4, Opera "Il Segreto di Susanna" was produced in Munich.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1909        Nov 8, Katherine Hepburn, American actress, was born. She won four Oscars. Her movies included "Bringing Up Baby," "The Philadelphia Story" and "The African Queen."
    (HN, 11/8/00)
1909        Nov 8, In San Francisco a street naming commission, appointed by Mayor Edward Taylor, submitted a report that recommended changing numbered avenues in the Richmond and Sunset to Spanish names in alphabetical order. Western neighborhoods opposed the suggestions and after some effort compromises were adopted.
    (SFC, 6/21/14, p.C1)
1909        Nov 8, Alberto Erede, Italian conductor, was born.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1909        Nov 10, Ludvig Schytte (61), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1909        Nov 11, Robert Ryan, actor (Billy Budd, Dirty Dozen, Longest Day), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 11/11/01)
1909        Nov 11, Construction began on the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
    (HN, 11/11/98)
1909        Nov 11, J.M. Synge's "Tinker's Wedding," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1909        Nov 13, Eugene Ionesco, Romanian-born dramatist, was born. His work included "The Bald Soprano" and "Rhinoceros." [see Nov 26, 1909 and Nov 26, 1912]
    (HN, 11/13/00)
1909        Nov 13, In Pennsylvania the Cherry Mine disaster killed 259 men and boys. In 2002 Karen Tintori authored “Trapped: The 1909 Cherry Mine Disaster."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1909_Cherry_Mine_disaster)(AH, 2/03, p.61)

1909        Nov 14, In San Francisco Yee Yup was shot down by Gee Gong, a former employee in the laundry of the dead man. The On Yicks have now killed 4 members of the Yee family, while the Yee family have but one death to their credit. It was feared that the murder would escalate family rivalries in Chinatown.
    (SSFC, 11/15/09, DB p.46)

1909        Nov 15, M. Metrot took off in a Voisin bi-plane from Algiers, making the first manned flight in Africa.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1909        Nov 18, John Herndon Mercer [Johnny Mercer] (d.1976), songwriter, was born in Savannah, Ga. John Herndon Mercer died on Jun 25, 1976, and was buried in Boneventure Cemetery in Savannah, Ga.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.T5)(HN, 11/18/00)
1909        Nov 18, US invaded Nicaragua and later overthrew Pres Zelaya.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1909        Nov 19, Peter Drucker, management guru, was born. His work led to business questions and answers that came to be known as "the theory of the business."
    (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.A20)

1909        Nov 22, The Wright brothers formed a corporation for the commercial manufacture of airplanes. Cornelius Vanderbilt and other financiers backed them with one million dollars.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7ymq7rq)(ON, 12/11, p.11)

1909        Nov 24, Some 15,000 shirtwaist workers walked out of the factories in NYC, with more joining the strike the following day. The strike lasted until February 1910 and ended in a "Protocal of peace" which allowed the strikers to go back to work and met the demands of the workers, which included better pay, shorter hours, and equal treatment of workers who were in the union and workers who were not.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_shirtwaist_strike_of_1909)

1909        Nov 26, Eugene Ionesco (d.1994), Romanian-born French dramatist, was born. [see Nov 13, 1909 and Nov 26, 1912]
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1909        Nov 27, James Agee, Pulitzer Prize-winning author, was born. His work included "A Death in the Family."
    (HN, 11/27/00)
1909        Nov 27, U.S. troops land in Bluefields, Nicaragua, to protect American interests there.
    (HN, 11/27/99)

1909        Nov, Mohandas Gandhi returned to South Africa from a trip to England to lobby the government to help repeal the Registration Act. He founded a communal farm named "Tolstoy" to help support a few members of his Satyagrahi movement.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1909        Dec 1, President Taft severed official relations with Nicaragua’s Zelaya government, and declared support for the revolutionaries.
    (HN, 12/1/98)
1909        Dec 1, The 1st Israeli kibbutz, Deganya Alef, a collective agricultural settlement, was founded in Palestine.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(MC, 12/1/01)

1909        Dec 2, J.P. Morgan acquired majority holdings in Equitable Life Co. This was the largest concentration of bank power to date.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1909        Dec 5, George Taylor made the first manned glider flight in Australia in a glider that he designed himself.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1909        Dec 7, Dr. Leo H. Baekeland patented Bakelite, the 1st completely synthetic plastic thermosetting plastic. [see 1907]
    (HNQ, 5/8/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(MC, 12/7/01)

1909        Dec 9, Douglas Fairbanks Jr, actor (Ghost Story), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 12/9/01)
1909        Dec 9, The 1st US monoplane was flown by Henry W. Walden at Long Island, NY.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1909        Dec 10, Red Cloud, Sioux Indian chief, died.
    (MC, 12/10/01)

1909        Dec 12, Mildred Linton (d.2003) was born in Ottumwa, Iowa. She became a film star in the 1930s under the name Karen Morley.
    (SFC, 4/21/03, p.B5)

1909        Dec 14, Edward L. Tatum, American molecular geneticist (Nobel 1958), was born.
    (MC, 12/14/01)
1909        Dec 14, The Labor Conference in Pittsburgh ended with a "declaration of war" on U.S. Steel.
    (HN, 12/14/98)

1909        Dec 15, San Francisco’s Palace Hotel re-opened. It had survived the 1906 earthquake but was gutted by the following fire.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C4)(SFC, 8/22/09, p.A10)

1909        Dec 19, U.S. socialist women denounced suffrage as a movement of the middle class.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1909        Dec 28, The first manned, controlled, powered flight in the whole continent of Africa and the entire southern hemisphere was successfully carried out by the Frenchman Albert Kimmerling (d.6/12/1912) at East London, South Africa using a Voisin bi-plane.
    (http://tinyurl.com/o7cropv)

1909        Dec, Whitcomb Judson died in Muskegon, Michigan.
    (ON, 7/04, p.5)

1909        Dec, Frederic Remington (b.1861), American Western painter and sculptor, died. His work included "The Fight for the Water Hole," "The Call for Help" (1908), and "Shotgun Hospitality" (1908).
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(HN, 10/4/00)

1909        Robert Lewis (d.1997), director and teacher of actors, was born in Brooklyn.
    (SFC,11/25/97, p.A22)

1909        Walter Van Tilburg Clark, American Western novelist, was born. His work included "The Ox-Bow Incident."
    (WUD, 1994 p.272)(SFC, 4/8/00, p.A23)

1909        Peter Drucker, management analyst, was born in Austria and grew up in Vienna. A summary of his work by Jack Beatty, "The World According to Peter Drucker," was published in 1998.
    (WSJ, 1/12/98, p.A19)

1909        Anthony Tudor, choreographer, was born in London. His work added a human dimension to the most demanding movement.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)

1909        Jazz saxophonist Lester Young (d.1959), aka "Prez," was born in Mississippi.
    (SFC, 4/14/01, p.B3)

1909        Matisse made his bronze "Head of Fernande."
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1909        George Bellows (1882-1925) painted "Stag at Sharkeys," depicting a pair of boxers. He also did "Pennsylvania Station Excavation."
    (WSJ, 8/21/02, p.D8)(WSJ, 9/24/02, p.D8)

1909        Marc Chagall painted "The Red Nude," an early work with touches of Fauvism.
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)

1909        Adolf Hitler painted a series of views around Linz, Austria, including the watercolor "Mountain Chapel."
    (WSJ, 7/24/02, p.D12)

1909        Henri Matisse painted “Dance," commissioned for the stairwell of a Moscow mansion.
    (WSJ, 12/7/04, p.D11)

1909        Rose Cecil O’Neill (1874-1944), illustrator, drew the 1st Kewpie doll for an issue of Ladies Home Journal. By 1911 they were being produced as dolls and figurines.
    (www.lambiek.net/oneill_rose.htm)(SFC, 5/14/08, p.G6)

1909        The Musicalist movement in art began with the work of Russian artist Wassily Kandinsky.
    (Exc, 6/96, p.118)

1909        Picasso sculpted the head "Fernande," the first cubist sculpture. His paintings this year included "Femme Nue," which featured his lover Fernande Olivier and “Houses on the Hill" (Horta de Ebro).
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.42)(WSJ, 2/12/99, p.W9)(WSJ, 5/13/04, p.D10)

1909        John Sloan, American painter, painted Chinese Restaurant.
    (WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)

1909        Norman Angell (1872-1967), English journalist, authored “Europe's Optical Illusion," in which he argued that war was going out of fashion due to the growing integration of the global economy. In 1910 it was expanded and retitled as “The Great Illusion."
    (www.flipkart.com/great-illusion-sir-norman-angell/1602069387-gtx3f30mib)

1909        Jean Cocteau (19) published his 1st book of poems: "La Lampe d'Aladin."
    (SFC, 10/6/03, p.D8)

1909        Ferenc Molnar (1878-1952), Hungarian dramatist and writer, wrote “Liliom," which later was turned into the musical “Carousel" (1945). During WWII he emigrated to the US.
    (SFC, 12/31/08, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferenc_Molnar)

1909        George Bernard Shaw wrote his comedy play "Misalliance." His play "Pygmalion" was first produced.
    (WSJ, 9/18/96, p.A16)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A3)

1909        Sergei Bulgakov (1871-1944), Russian philosopher and economist, authored “Vekhi," in which he describes the sorry state of the Russian intelligentsia.
    (Econ, 8/9/08, p.25)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Bulgakov)

1909        Francis Hodgson Burnett wrote the classic children’s story "The Secret Garden." It was published in 1910.
    (SFC, 11/18/96, p.E1)(SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)

1909        Louis Dollo (1857-1931), Belgian paleontologist, wrote "La Paleontologie Ethologique." Dollo’s law: complex physical features lost during evolution are seldom regained.
    (NH, 6/96, p.24)(NH, 4/1/04, p.12)

1909        Freud authored his speculative monograph on Leonardo da Vinci and invented psychobiography.
    (SFC, 8/30/03, p.D6)

1909        Maria Montessori (1870-1952) authored her first book, “The Montessori Method," to explain the origins and applications of her educational theories.
    (ON, 3/07, p.5)

1909        Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), English writer, authored the children’s novel “The Tale of Ginger and Pickles." The book tells the story of shopkeepers Ginger, a tomcat, and Pickles, a terrier. Margaret Thatcher later regarded it as the only business book worth reading.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tale_of_Ginger_and_Pickles)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.65)

1909        The Ballet Russes of Serge Diaghilev exploded onto the stage of the Chatelet in Paris.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)

1909        Webern composed his "Five Movements for String Orchestra."
    (WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)

1909        Sophie Tucker, cabaret singer, appeared in the Ziegfeld Follies.
    (SFC, 3/13/97, p.E3)

1909        A new Alcatraz lighthouse was built. The 1854 original was removed to make way for the Alcatraz Prison.
    (SFC, 6/2/04, B1)
1909        In San Francisco the Renaissance revival-style Addison Head Building was built at 201 Post. It was designed by William Curlett.
    (SSFC, 12/16/12, p.C4)
1909        In San Francisco colonial revival houses were built in the Presidio for non-commissioned officers along Ord and Riley avenues.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, WB p.4)
1909        The 1,300-seat Columbia Theater was constructed in SF and named after a major venue destroyed by the 1906 earthquake. It was designed by Walter Bliss and William Faville, who also designed the St. Francis Hotel. In 1928 it was renamed the Geary Theater. It was badly damaged in the 1989 earthquake. It opened in 1910 with “Father and the Boys."
    (WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)(SFC, 10/21/04, p.A15)(SFC, 9/15/06, p.E2)
1909        In SF the City of Paris department store was built on Geary St. facing Union Square. The site was taken over by Nieman Marcus in 1974.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)
1909        In San Francisco the 4-story Hugo building was built at 200 Sixth St. It was designed by Theo W. Lenzen. In 1988 the residential hotel went empty. In 1997 Brian Goggin installed his “Defenstration" artwork featuring furniture apparently tumbling from the building’s windows. In 2009 San Francisco used eminent domain to acquire the property and planned demolition for new low-income housing.
    (SSFC, 9/20/09, p.C2)
1909        The Hearst Building in SF was constructed at Market and Third. It was remodeled in 1937 by Julia Morgan.
    (SFC, 8/15/05, p.C5)
1909        In SF the cornerstone of the Odd Fellows building at Seventh and Market St. was laid. The fraternal organization had arrived in California in 1849.
    (SFC, 11/28/00, p.A21)
1909        In SF a building on Stockton St. was erected to house the western headquarters of Metropolitan Life Insurance. In 1990 the Ritz-Carlton Hotel opened there.
    (SFC, 9/10/98, p.B1,4)
1909        The SF 1863 Cliff House was rebuilt after a 1907 fire. Emma Sutro Merritt, the daughter of Adolph Sutro, chose a smaller neoclassic design which lasted to the present.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.B1)(SFC, 4/14/99, Z1 p.4)
1909        In SF the 198,000 sq. ft. Haslett Warehouse near Beach and Hyde was completed by the California Fruit Canners Assoc. to hold loads of canned goods.
    (SFC, 10/17/00, p.A24)
1909        In SF the Mission Park Congregational Church was built at 601 Dolores St. It later became the Norwegian Lutheran Church. It went out of commission as a church in 2005 and was purchased in 2007 by businessman Siamak Akhavan, who renovated it and put it up for sale in 2010 for $7.49 million. In 2011 it was sold for $6.6 million as the new home for Children’s Day middle schoolers.
    (SFC, 6/4/10, p.D2)(SFC, 5/5/11, p.D6)
1909        In SF the First Baptist Church was built at Waller and Octavia. It was the 5th building of the congregation that dated back to 1849.
    (SFC, 11/18/99, p.A22)
1909        In SF St. Mary’s Cathedral was rebuilt and rededicated.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C3)
1909        In San Francisco a 6-story department store, designed by George A. Applegarth, was built at 1019 Market St. The Greek revival structure was framed by Corinthian columns.
    (SSFC, 11/22/09, p.C2)
1909        In San Francisco the 6-story Goldberg Bowen building was built at 250 Sutter St.
    (SSFC, 1/2/11, p.C3)
1909        Patrick H. McCarthy (d.1933), standard-bearer of the Union Labor Party, was elected mayor of San Francisco.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.C3)
1909        The SF Board of Directors suggested changing all the numbered avenues of the Richmond District to streets named after Hispanic leaders.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1909        SF outlawed slot machines, despite collecting some $200,000 a year in taxes from 3,200 machines.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, SR p.10)
1909        John H. Eagal, manager of the automobile department of the Studebaker, San Francisco branch, said “The future of the electric automobile is assured… The past few months have seen an increase in demand for the electric cars that has been surprising to manufacturers all over the country." Studebaker sold battery-powered cars from 1902 to 1912.
    (SSFC, 1/10/10, DB p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studebaker_Electric)
1909        The Point Cabrillo lighthouse was built north of Mendocino in northern California. The Coast Guard retired the fog signal 1972.
    (SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G10)

1909        In NYC the Metropolitan Life Insurance Tower was completed. The 50-story building was the tallest in the world for 4 years. It copied the Campanile in the Piazza San Marco in Venice that collapsed in 1902.
    (HT, 5/97, p.24)

1909        Florence Nightingale Graham (b.1878) reopened a NYC 5th Ave beauty salon and developed her own Venetian line of beauty preparations, following a failed partnership. She took the name of Elizabeth Arden.
    (SFEM, 8/23/98, p.29)

1909        John H. Roth, the oldest ceramic pictorial souvenir firm, was founded in Peoria, Ill.
    (SFC, 7/3/96, z-1 p.7)

1909        Harry V. Warehime established Hanover Pretzel Company in Pennsylvania with a single recipe, Hanover Olde Tyme Pretzels.
    (http://factorytoursusa.com/full.htm)
1909        In Hershey, Pennsylvania, Milton Hershey and his wife Catherine established the Milton Hershey School for the "maintenance, support and education of as many poor, white orphan boys as it could afford." The racial restriction ended in 1970. By 2002 the 1200-student school had an endowment of some $5.4 billion.
    (WSJ, 8/12/99, p.A1)(SFC, 7/26/02, p.B3)

1909        In California Stanley Ketchell, middleweight champion, fought with Jack Johnson, the first Negro heavyweight world’s champion in Daly City. Johnson knocked Ketchell out.
    (GTP, 1973, p.58)

1909        The Pittsburgh Pirates, led by pitcher Honus Wagner, defeated the Detroit Tigers 4-3 in the World Series. This marked the last world series appearance by Ty Cobb.
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A20)
1909        The America Tobacco Company issued its T-206 baseball card collection, the first to be done in color. New cards continued to be issued through 1911.
    (AH, 6/03, p.50)

1909        Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), Italian engineer, won the Nobel Prize for physics for his invention of wireless telegraphy.
    (ON, 11/99, p.10)(MC, 7/20/02)

1909        Sigmund Freud‘s only visit to the United States was to accept an honorary degree at Clark University. G. Stanley Hall, the president of the university in Worcester, Massachusetts, had invited Freud to "[set] forth your own views" in a series of lectures at a conference honoring Clark‘s 20th anniversary. Following a visit to New York City, Freud delivered five lectures at Clark, all of them in German. He then went on to visit Niagara Falls and the Adirondacks before returning to Europe.
    (HNQ, 6/4/00)

1909        Evelyn Walsh McLean (d.1947) bought the blue Hope Diamond from Pierre Cartier for $180,000.
    (THC, 12/3/97)

1909        US Federal taxes were imposed on corporate income.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3c45eg)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.61)
1909        Congress proposed the 16th Amendment to the Constitution, which proposed an income tax. It was ratified in 1916.
    (WSJ, 6/4/03, p.B1)
1909        US Congress passed a royalties law that required radio broadcasters to pay composers but not performers.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, p.74)

1909        A US federal copyright law was passed that allowed composers and music publishers to demand royalty payments for any public performance of copyrighted material. Protection was extended to player-piano rolls and the phonograph.
    (WSJ, 8/21/96, p.A8)(SFC, 4/8/02, p.E1)
1909        The US Supreme Court upheld the first criminal conviction in federal court of a company, the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad, for cutting prices. This established three principles: that a company need not have any evil intention to be guilty; that it is responsible for the action of its employees; and that it can be prosecuted as if it were a person.
    (Econ, 8/30/14, p.22)

1909        The US Naval Postgraduate School was established. It relocated to Monterey, Ca. in 1951.
    (SFC, 1/16/98, p.A10)
1909        Patrick H. McCarthy (d.1933), standard-bearer of the Union Labor Party, was elected mayor of San Francisco and continued to 1911.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.C3)
1909        The SF Board of Directors suggested changing all the numbered avenues of the Richmond District to streets named after Hispanic leaders.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1909        SF outlawed slot machines, despite collecting some $200,000 a year in taxes from 3,200 machines.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, SR p.10)
1909        San Francisco staged a 5-day Portola Festival that attracted some 400,000 visitors.
    (SSFC, 2/15/15, p.P4)
1909        John H. Eagal, manager of the automobile department of the Studebaker, San Francisco branch, said “The future of the electric automobile is assured… The past few months have seen an increase in demand for the electric cars that has been surprising to manufacturers all over the country." Studebaker sold battery-powered cars from 1902 to 1912.
    (SSFC, 1/10/10, DB p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studebaker_Electric)
1909        In the San Francisco Bay a minefield was laid north of the Presidio wharf over a period of 4 months to protect the San Francisco harbor.
    (SSFC, 10/11/09, DB p.46)
1909        California became its own Jesuit province becoming fully independent from Turin. The Province boundaries expanded to encompass all of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)(www.jesuitscalifornia.org/Page.aspx?pid=272)
1909        California made betting on horses illegal.
    (Ind, 8/17/02, 5A)
1909        California became the 3rd state to enact eugenics-related laws.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D1)
1909        California legalized the sterilization of convicted sodomites.
    (SSFC, 5/11/08, Books p.4)
1909        The California State Automobile Association produced its first road map. In 2008 it planned to stop production of paper maps and shift to digital technology.
    (SFC, 5/27/08, p.D1)
1909        In San Jose, Ca., Charles David Herrold (d.1948 at 72), owner of Herrold’s College of Wireless and Engineering, broadcast his first voice transmissions. By 1912 San Jose Calling began regularly broadcasts of music and entertainment. The station later became KQW and then KCBS.
    (SSFC, 4/5/09, p.A2)

1909        St. Cloud, Florida, was founded as a colony for Union veterans. Some prominent investors from Washington, D.C., doing business as the Seminole Land Investment Company, secured a purchase option on 32,000 acres of land on the southern shore of East Lake Tohopekaliga in Osceola County, Florida. In response to advertisements in the National Tribune, the nationally distributed newspaper of the Grand Army of the Republic (a large organization for Union veterans commonly called the GAR), more than 1,000 former soldiers in blue bought land in St. Cloud sight unseen. For $50, soon raised to $100, a veteran could purchase a house lot in the city and five acres in the countryside.
    (HNQ, 6/30/01)

1909        Women workers in New York City’s shirtwaist industry went on strike for better wages, working conditions and union recognition. The strike is described in the 1996 book "We Shall Not Be Moved: The Women’s Factory Strike of 1909." by Joan Dash.
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, BR p.10)

1909        The Oregon Caves in the Siskiyou Mountains was set aside as one of the first national monuments.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.17)

1909        Texas A&M Univ. began its bonfire tradition as part of the lead-up to the annual football match with archrival Univ. of Texas in Austin.
    (SFC, 11/19/99, p.A21)

1909        Virginia executed 17 people.
    (SFC,12/15/97, p.A1)

1909        Theodore Vail of AT&T found encouragement in the Lee DeForest’s recent invention of the Audion, a precursor of the electronic vacuum tube, and promised transcontinental service to all telephones in time for the 1914 Panama-Pacific Exposition.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.215)

1909        John Moody began publishing his annual railroad bond ratings.
    (Econ, 3/26/05, p.67)
1909        The Central Pacific Railroad finally paid off its 30-year bonds issued in 1863.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)

1909        The first rural mile of concrete road was paved in the Detroit area at a cost of $13,534.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1909        The San Francisco Murphy Door & Bed Company created the first "concealed bed." [see 1900]
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A20)

1909        GM acquired Cadillac.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1909        Montgomery Ward went public as profits reached $1 million for the 1st time.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.A12)

1909        The Public Cup Vendor Co. was incorporated to produce paper cups. By 1919 it was named the Dixie Cup Co.
    (SFC, 4/4/07, p.G2)

1909        The Wright brothers sold a Military Flyer to the Signal Corps for $30,000.
    (WSJ, 5/20/03, p.D5)

1909        Konstantin S. Merezhovsky, biologist, argued that the chloroplasts in plant cells evolved from symbionts of foreign origin and coined the term "symbiogenesis" to describe the merger of different kinds of life forms into new species.
    (NH, 6/01, p.40)

1909        The word geriatric was coined.
    (SFC, 8/24/96, p.E3)

1909        Wilhelm Johanssen, Danish botanist, coined the word "gene."
    (NH, 6/01, p.30)

1909        The Burgess Shale was discovered by the geologist Charles D. Walcott. The shale contained fossils dating back to the Cambrian, 514 million years.
    (NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, R. Gore, p.125)

1909        Earl Douglass discovered dinosaur bones in eastern Utah.
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, p.T8)

1909        Edward Henry Harriman (b.1848), American financier and railway magnate, died. In 2000 Maury Klein authored "The Life and Legend of E.H. Harriman."
    (WUD, 1994, p.648)(WSJ, 3/21/00, p.A24)

1909        The Polar exploration team led by Ernest Shackleton abandoned its Antarctic expedition as winter ice formed and left behind 5 crates of whiskey and brandy. An Antarctic Heritage Trust team found the crates in 2006. One crate, labeled Mackinlay's whisky, was recovered in 2010 and shipped to New Zealand for testing.
    (AP, 7/22/10)

1909        Carlos Chagas (1879-1934), a Brazilian doctor, described how a fatal infection, that became known as Chagas disease, was transmitted as a single cell parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, carried by insects that typically bite their sleeping victims on the face. In 1921 Chagas won the Nobel Prize in Medicine. In 2010 scientists at UC San Francisco reported the development of a protease inhibitor, K777, which appeared to kill the parasite.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Chagas)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.36)(SSFC, 2/14/10, p.A20)

1909        Selfridges, one of London’s great department stores, was completed with a façade of 22 pillars.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.106)
1909        Woolworths was founded in Liverpool. In 2008 it began a closing-down sale just before Christmas after accountants Deloitte were appointed as administrators.
    (AFP, 12/11/08)
1909        The first roundabout, a one-way gyratory for car management not to circumvent a monument, was intoduced in England’s Letchworth Garden City. By 2013 there were some 60,000 around the world.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.16)
1909        In Britain Lloyd George’s People’s Budget raised income taxes and inheritance taxes at the top to fund basic pensions as well as unemployment and health insurance for workers.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, SR p.8)
1909        Englishman Henry Frederick Stanley Morgan (1981-1959) made his first 3-wheel car. In 1912 his company became the Morgan Motor Company Ltd.
    (SSFC, 12/25/11, p.D3)(www.morgandc.com/History/HistoryPage.htm)

1909        Canada and the US signed a Boundary Waters Treaty that set up an Int’l. Joint Commission to deal with water disputes. Water was allowed to exit Lake Superior through locks, power plants and gates on the St. Marys River, but in amounts strictly regulated under the 1909 pact with Canada.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.34)(AP, 8/3/07)

1909        An earthquake occurred in the Balkans. A. Mohorovicic, a Croatian seismologist, discovered a boundary between the mantle and the crust. It is called the Mohorovicic boundary or simply the Moho, lying at about 20 miles below the surface. The crust is less rigid than the deep mantle and is penetrated by many irregularities.
     (DD-EVTT, p.78-79)

1909        In France the physicist Georges Claude perfected the neon tube and patented a long lasting electrode that he developed for it. 2 English chemists had discovered neon in 1898.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)
1909        Coco Chanel opened her 1st shop, a millinery, in Paris.
    (WSJ, 10/13/03, p.A1)

1909        Wilhelm Maybach, German engineer and industrialist, organized a company with his son Carl to build aircraft engines, including power plants for the Zeppelin airships.
    (HNQ, 8/28/00)

1909        Italian futurists distributed their first manifesto. F.T. Marinetti (1876-1944) published the 1st Futurist Manifesto.
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, DB p.27)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E1)

1909        In Japan Michio Suzuki started a loom works. The company made its first motorcycle in 1954.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1909        Scouting first came to Lithuania, as part of tsarist Russia. The indigenous Lithuanian Scout movement began in 1918, when the first Scout troop was founded in Vilnius by Scouter Petras Jurgela. In 1922, the first Scout General Assembly united the Lithuanian Scout Movement into the Scout Association of Lithuania. In 1924, the Scout Association of Lithuania was registered as a member of the World Bureau. Lithuania was a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1923 to 1940.
    (www.experiencefestival.com/world_federation_of_independent_scouts)

1909        The legendary Jesus Malverde, a Mexican Robin Hood who rode the hills around Culiacan in Sinaloa State, was supposedly hanged by the government and left to rot. The legendary crime figure became revered as a saint by many of the country's drug traffickers. In 2007 housewife Maria Alicia Pulido Sanchez built him a shrine in Mexico City after her son Marcos Abel recovered from injuries he suffered in a December 2005 car crash in just three days when she prayed to a Malverde statue a friend had given her.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.A14)(AP, 1/23/07)

1909        In Palestine mostly Russian socialist idealists of the Zionist movement set up an armed group, Hashomer, to protect their new farms and villages from Arab marauders.
    (Econ, 1/10/09, p.9)

1909        Sergei Bulgakov (1871-1944), Russian philosopher and economist, authored “Vekhi," in which he describes the sorry state of the Russian intelligentsia.
    (Econ, 8/9/08, p.25)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Bulgakov)

1909        Siam (later Thailand) annexed the sultanate of Pattani.
    (Econ, 5/5/12, p.41)

1909        Abdullah Hassan, the “Mad Mullah" of Somaliland, waged jihad against local tribesmen who had accepted British rule. He slaughtered a third of the territory’s inhabitants.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.20)

1909        Selma Lagerdorf (1858-1940), Swedish novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma_Lagerl%C3%B6f)

1909-1912    The E.I. Horsman Co., a New York City doll company, made Billiken dolls. The doll was like a teddy bear with the head of a Chinese deity.
    (SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)

1909-1913    William Howard Taft became the 27th President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)

1909-1914    Alfred Colley Ltd. was a pottery manufacturer in Staffordshire. They made a China pattern named Lusitania after an ancient Roman province on the Iberian peninsula.
    (SFC, 6/3/98, Z1 p.6)

1909-1917    T.S. Eliot wrote a number of bawdy poems that were compiled and with extensive remarks in 1996 by Christopher Ricks in "Inventions of the March Hare: Poems 1909-1917."
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)

1909-1918    Mehmed V succeeded Abdul Hamid II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1909-1929    German and British expeditions in Tendaguru of present day Tanzania, unearth Jurassic dinosaurs as similar and impressive as those found in North America.
    (T.E.-J.B. p.25)

1909-1959    Errol Flynn, American actor: "It isn't what they say about you, it's what they whisper."
    (AP, 2/1/99)

1909-1984    Anna Swir, Polish poet. "A poet should be as sensitive as an aching tooth."
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, DB p.8)

1909-1986    Jacques Gelman, Russian born movie producer. He produced movies in Mexico that starred the popular comic, Cantinflas. Between the wars he emigrated to Berlin and then to Paris where he founded a film distribution company and later settled in Mexico. In Paris he began collecting art. In Mexico he collected and commissioned work by Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, and Rufino Tamayo.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.18)

1909-1991    Edwin H. Land, American inventor (Polaroid cameras): "If you are able to state a problem, it can be solved."
    (AP, 3/1/00)

1909-1993    Nguyen Gia Tri, Vietnamese artist, worked using the laborious lacquer on wood technique.
    (SFC, 6/8/96, p.E1)

1909-1994    Clement Greenberg, American art critic. In 1998 Florence Rubenfeld published the biography: "Clement Greenberg: A Life." He held T.S. Eliot’s controversial precept, a "belief in the long-term objectivity of taste."
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, BR p.9)

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