Timeline 1912-1913

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1912        Jan 1, Kim Philby was born in India. He became a ringleader of a group of upper crust Englishmen who entered public service or, in many cases, the British Secret Service, then spied for the Soviets. Philby got away and spent his last years in Moscow.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Philby)
1912        Jan 1, A Massachusetts law reducing the work-week from fifty-six to fifty-four hours for women and children, went into effect. Workers struck spontaneously on Jan 12 when the mill owners reduced wages to coincide with the reduced work-week.
    (www.fortunecity.com/tinpan/parton/2/johngold.html)
1912        Jan 1, The Republic of China was formed with Sun Yat-Sen as president. Nationalist Party co-founder Song Jiaren began designing the institutions of the new democracy.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.68)

1912         Jan 3, Plans were announced for a new $150,000 Brooklyn stadium for the Trolley Dodgers baseball team.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1912        Jan 6, New Mexico became the 47th state of the US.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AP, 1/6/98)

1912        Jan 7, Charles Addams, cartoonist whose macabre Addams Family appeared in The New Yorker, was born.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1912        Jan 8, The South African Native National Congress was founded. It was renamed the African National Congress (ANC) in 1923. Sol Plaatje was one of the founders of the ANC.
    (SFC, 5/7/03, p.A20)(AFP, 1/1/12)(Econ, 8/25/12, p.38)

1912        Jan 9,  Colonel Theodore Roosevelt announced that he would run for president if asked.
    (HN, 1/9/01)
1912        Jan 9, The $18 million Equitable Life Assurance building in New York was destroyed by fire.
    (HN, 1/9/98)

1912        Jan 10, The World's first flying-boat airplane, designed by Glenn Curtiss (1878-1930), made its maiden flight at San Diego, Ca. The Curtiss Model D featured an electric starter. Curtiss had become the first licensed pilot in 1911.
    (www.aerofiles.com/chrono.html)(SFC, 8/5/00, p.B4)

1912        Jan 11, Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen beat Scott to the South Pole by five days. [see Dec 11,14,15]
    (HNQ, 7/22/98)

1912        Jan 12, In Lawrence, Mass., over 20,000 textile factory workers went on strike to protest wage cuts.
    (www.socialistworld.net/eng/2002/07/12history.html)

1912        Jan 13, A temp. of 40F (-40C), Oakland, Maryland, set a state record.
    (MC, 1/13/02)
1912        Jan 13, In Siam (Thailand) resentful army officers attempted a coup against King Vajiravudh (Rama VI).
    (Econ, 5/24/14, p.36)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_Revolt_of_1912)

1912        Jan 16, British explorer Robert Falcon Scott wrote in his diary after reaching the South Pole on January 16, 1912, "Great God this is an awful place and terrible enough for us to have labored to it without the reward of priority." Robert Scott, attempting to lead the first exploration party to the South Pole, wrote the passage after finding the black flag of Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen. Thoroughly demoralized, the five members of the Scott party died during their 800-mile trek back to their base camp. [see Jan 18]
    (HNQ, 7/22/98)

1912        Jan 18, The expedition of British Royal Navy Captain Robert Falcon Scott intended to be the first to reach the South Pole, but when they arrived they found a letter from Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, who had been there over a month earlier. Scott and his group had set out from a camp in Antarctica 81 days earlier, and on their way back, their supplies ran out. Scott wrote in a diary during the trek, which a search party discovered with the team's frozen bodies in November. Part of Scott's March 29 entry reads, "We shall stick it out to the end, but we are getting weaker, of course, and the end cannot be far." The team had made it to within 11 miles of the camp. Scott's diary ended with, "Last Entry: For God's sake look after our people." [see Jan 16]
    (AP, 1/18/98)(HNPD, 1/18/99)

1912        Jan 22, Second Monte-Carlo auto race began.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1912        Jan 28, Jackson Pollock (d.1956), "Jack the Dripper", expressionist painter (Lavender Mist), was born in Cody, Wyoming. Leader of the abstract expressionist school of art. He filled 2 sketchbooks between 1937-1939 and another from 1938-1941.
    (AHD, 1971, p.1015)(WSJ, 11/5/97, p.A20)(MC, 1/28/02)

1912        Jan 29, "Professor" Irwin Corey, comedian (Car Wash, Doc), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1912        Jan 30, Barbara Tuchman, U.S. historian best remembered for her book "The Guns of August," was born.
    (HN, 1/30/99)
1912        Jan 30, The British House of Lords opposed the House of Commons by rejecting home rule for Ireland.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1912        Jan, Alfred Wegener, German scientist, suggested that the continents had drifted to their present positions from the break-up of a single primeval super-continent. He said that the break up of Pangaea came at the end of the Mesozoic era.
    (DD-EVTT, p.22,189)(ON, 9/04, p.8)

1912        Feb 3, New U.S. football rules were set: the field was shortened to 100 yds.; touchdown became six points instead of five; four downs were allowed instead of three; and the kickoff was moved from midfield to the 40 yd. line.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1912        Feb 4, Erich Leinsdorf (d.1993), conductor, was born in Vienna, Austria. Leinsdorf earned a reputation for exacting standards. He published books and essays on musical matters and became a naturalized American citizen in 1942.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Leinsdorf)
1912        Feb 4, In San Francisco two horses were killed when a huge truck loaded with 45 tons of copper cable broke free on the steep grade of Steiner Street hill. 50 horses were pulling against the truck with 4 horses guiding when the cable broke.
    (SSFC, 2/5/12, DB p.42)

1912        Feb 6, Eva Braun, mistress (Adolph Hitler), was born.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1912        Feb 10, Dr. Joseph Lister, founder of sterile technique in surgical practice, died at age 85. In 1917 Sir Rickman John Godlee authored "Lord Lister."
    (ON, 7/00, p.9)

1912        Feb 11, SF Police Chief White delivered an ultimatum to the Chinese Consul General, Ow Young King, and two secretaries of the Chinese Six companies that they establish peace between the warring tongs or he would blockade white from entering Chinatown.
    (SSFC, 2/12/12, DB p.42)
1912        Feb 11, Rudolf Firkusny (d.1954), classical pianist (Julliard), was born in Napajedla, Czechoslovakia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Firku%C5%A1n%C3%BD)
1912        Feb 11, Roy Fuller, poet and novelist, was born.
    (HN, 2/11/01)

1912        Feb 12, China became a republic following the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty. Pu Yi (reign name Hsuan T'ung), the last Ch'ing (Manchu) emperor of China, abdicated. This marked the end of the Qing Dynasty. China adopted the Gregorian calendar.
    (HN, 2/12/01)(AP, 2/12/06)

1912        Feb 13, The Chinese imperial government acknowledged the new republic.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1912        Feb 14, Arizona became the 48th state of the Union, the final area of the continental United States to attain statehood.
    (AP, 2/14/98)(AP, 5/20/10)
1912        Feb 14, The 1st US submarines with diesel engines were commissioned at Groton, Ct.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1912        Feb 15, The Fram reached latitude 78ø 41' S, farthest south ever by ship.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1912        Feb 19, Stan Kenton, [Newcomb], jazz musician (Music 55), was born in Wichita, Ks.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1912        Feb 24, Italy bombed Beirut in the first act of war against the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1912        Feb 26, Coal miners struck in England. They settled on 03/01.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1912        Feb 27, Lawrence Durrell, English novelist and poet, was born. His books included "The Alexandria Quartet." In 1998 Ian MacNiven wrote the biography: "Lawrence Durrell."
    (WUD, 1994, p.443)(SFEC, 7/12/98, BR p.7)(HN, 2/27/01)

1912         Mar 1, Albert Berry completed the first in-flight parachute jump, from a Benoist plane over Kinlock Field in St. Louis.
    (HN, 3/1/98)
1912        Mar 1, Isabella Goodwin, 1st US woman detective, was appointed in NYC.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1912        Mar 4, The French council of war unanimously voted a mandatory three-year military service.
    (HN, 3/4/98)

1912        Mar 5, The Italians became the first to use dirigibles for military purposes, using them for reconnaissance flights behind Turkish lines west of Tripoli.
    (HN, 3/5/98)
1912        Mar 5, Spanish steamer "Principe de Asturias" sank NE of Spain and 500 died.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1912        Mar 7, Roald Amundsen announced the discovery of the South Pole [see Dec 14, 1911].
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roald_Amundsen)
1912        Mar 7, French aviator, Heri Seimet flew non-stop from London to Paris in three hours.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1912        Mar 10, In China Yuan Shikai (b.1859) succeeded Sun Yat-Sen as President of the Republic of China.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Shikai)

1912        Mar 12, Juliette Gordon Low organized the Girl Guides, which later became the Girl Scouts of America, at the 1848 Andrew Low House in Savannah, Ga. The US Congress chartered the Girl Scouts in 1950.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.T5)(USAT, 3/23/04, p.1D)(AP, 3/12/08)
1912        Mar 12, Capt. Albert Berry performed the 1st parachute jump from an airplane.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1912        Mar 14, An anarchist named Antonio Dalba unsuccessfully attempted to kill Italy’s King Victor Emmanuel III in Rome.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1912        Mar 16, Thelma Catherine Patricia Ryan Nixon, first lady (1968-75) to Richard Nixon, was born in Ely, Nevada.
    (HN, 3/16/01)(MC, 3/16/02)
1912        Mar 16, In San Francisco the Chinese tong war reopened as 4 Ho Sing gunmen opened fire at the 730 Jackson street liquor store of Cham Kok, the president of the Suey Sing tong.
    (SSFC, 3/11/12, DBp.42)

1912        Mar 19, Adolf Galland, German Luftwaffe pilot and youngest German General at the age of 33, was born.
    (HN, 3/19/99)

1912        Mar 21, Peter Bull, actor, author (Executioner, Tom Jones, Dr. Strangelove), was born.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1912        Mar 22, Karl Malden (d.2009), later film and TV star, was born as Mladen Sekulovich in Chicago.
    (AP, 7/2/09)(SFC, 7/1/09, p.A8)

1912        Mar 23, Werner von Braun, rocket expert (I Aim at the Stars), was born in  Wirsitz, Germany. He led the development of the V-2 rocket during World War II.
    (HN, 3/23/99)(SS, 3/23/02)
1912        Mar 23, Dixie Cup was invented.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1912        Mar 24, The “Bread and Roses” textile workers strike in Lawrence, Mass., ended. Mill owners, fearing that government intervention and investigation would jeopardize the high tariff on woolens, had finally agreed to bargain. Offers of pay increases from five to twenty-five percent, time-and-a-quarter for overtime, and no discrimination against strikers led to the end of the strike.
    (www.fortunecity.com/tinpan/parton/2/johngold.html)

1912        Mar 27, James Callaghan (d.2005), British prime minister (1976-1979), was born in Portsmouth, England.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.A21)
1912        Mar 27, The first cherry blossom trees, a gift from Japan, were planted in Washington, D.C. First Lady Helen Herron Taft and the Viscountess Chinda, wife of the Japanese ambassador, planted two Yoshina cherry trees on the northern bank of the Potomac Tidal Basin, near the Jefferson Memorial. The event was held in celebration of a gift, by the Japanese government, of 3,020 trees to the US government for planting along Washington's Potomac River.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1912        Mar 28, San Francisco women began voting for the first time.
    (SSFC, 3/25/12, DB p.42)

1912        Mar 29, The U.S. sent rifles to the Mexican ambassador in Mexico City and readied U.S. ships to transport troops to fight the rebels.
    (HN, 3/29/98)
1912        Mar 29, Capt. Robert F. Scott, British pole explorer, storm-bound in a tent near South Pole, made a last entry in his diary: "Last entry. For God's sake look after our people."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Falcon_Scott)

1912        Mar 30, The Treaty of Fez was signed. Sultan Abdelhafid made Morocco a French protectorate, resolving the Agadir Crisis of July 1, 1911.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Fez)

1912        Mar, The Univ. of Michigan Board of Regents voted to accept specific color shades of maize and azure blue as filed by Professor Warren P. Lombard.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.11)

1912        Apr 2, Titanic underwent sea trials under its own power.
    (MC, 4/2/02)
1912        Apr 2, Sun Yet Sen formed the Kuomintang-Party in China.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1912        Apr 3, Calbraith Perry Rodgers (b.1879), American pioneer aviator, crashed and was killed while flying over the ocean near Long Beach, Ca.
    (ON, 10/06, p.12)

1912        Apr 4, A Chinese republic was proclaimed in Tibet.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1912        Apr 6, Cadillac adopted an electric self-starter. Charles Franklin Kettering (1876-1958), as president of Delco, introduced the electric-starter on the 1912 Cadillac.
    (www.todayinsci.com/4/4_06.htm)(http://local.aaca.org/bntc/mileposts/1912.htm)

1912        Apr 8, Sonja Henie (d.1969), ice skater, actress (Olympic-gold-1928,32,36), was born in Oslo, Norway. Henie won 10 consecutive world championships.
    (MC, 4/8/02)(SSFC, 10/5/03, Par p.2)
1912        Apr 8, Steamers collided in Nile, drowning 200.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1912        Apr 10, The 66,000 ton RMS Titanic left port from Southampton, England, on its ill-fated maiden voyage with 2,223 people.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.16)(SFEC, 12/8/96, BR p.6)(AP, 4/10/97)
1912        Apr 10, The first wireless transmission was received on an airplane.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1912        Apr 12, Clara Barton (b.1821), the founder of the American Red Cross, died at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland at age 90.
    (ON, 8/12, p.12)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clara_Barton)

1912        Apr 13, Royal Flying Corps formed (later RAF).
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1912        Apr 14, The British liner Titanic, on her maiden voyage and hailed as ‘the unsinkable ship,’  collided with an iceberg in the North Atlantic and began sinking.
    (AP, 4/14/97)(HN, 4/14/99)

1912        Apr 15, Kim Il Sung, North Korea's communist founder and leader (1948-1994), was born.
    (AP, 7/8/97)(WSJ, 6/26/97, p.A14)(SSFC, 3/17/02, p.A22)
1912        Apr 15, At 2:20 a.m., two hours and 40 minutes after impact, the luxury liner RMS Titanic sank in the North Atlantic Ocean off Newfoundland with the loss of about 1,522 lives. About 1,500 [1517] people died. Because there were lifeboats for only half those on board, only 705 passengers and crew survived the disaster. Among the survivors was J. Bruce Ismay, president of the White Star Line, who telegraphed his New York office, "Deeply regret advise you Titanic sank this morning after collision with iceberg, resulting in serious loss of life. Full particulars later." Nearly a third of the passengers died. The ship’s band played the waltz “Songe d’Automne” as it sank. The accident killed 1,523 [1503] people and 705 survived. By 1996 only 8 were still alive. Nearly 60% of the first-class passengers survived. There were 214 staff members of the 685 survivors. It was later discovered that Harland & Wolff, the ship’s builder, had used a lower quality rivet on the ship that likely contributed to the rapid sinking. The last night on the ship was described by Rick Archbold and Dana McCauley in their book: “Last Dinner on the Titanic.” The steamer Carpathia rescued 705 of the 2,358 people onboard. Prof. Steven Biel of Brandeis Univ. wrote “A Cultural History of the Titanic” in 1997.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.16)(SFC, 9/22/96, Par p.25)(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A1)(SFC, 4/14/97, p.E8)(SFC, 4/19/97, p.A3)(SFEC,12/797, DB p.37)(SFC, 4/15/08, p.A6)

1912        Apr 16, Harriet Quimby became the first woman to fly solo across the English Channel.
    (AP, 4/16/97)

1912        Apr 19, Glenn T. Seaborg, first head of Atomic Energy Commission, was born. He won a Nobel Prize in 1951 for co-discovering Plutonium.
    (HN, 4/19/97)(MC, 4/19/02)

1912        Apr 20, Boston’s Fenway Park, home to Boston Red Sox, opened with its first official baseball game.
    (SFC, 3/8/12, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenway_Park)
1912        Apr 20, Bram Stoker, Irish theater manager, writer (Dracula), died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1912        Apr 21, Marcel Camus, French film director (Black Orpheus), was born.
    (HN, 4/21/01)

1912        Apr 22, At the urging of Pres. Taft the Chamber of Commerce of the USA was established at a Washington hotel by a gathering of 700 delegates from 44 states. The represented 324 voluntary organizations.
    (Econ, 4/21/12, p.77)

1912        Apr 25, Gladys L. Presley, mother of Elvis Presley, was born.
    (HN, 4/25/98)

1912        Apr 28, Odette Hallowes, British secret agent in France, was born. She was later captured and tortured by the Gestapo.
    (HN, 4/28/99)

1912        Apr 30, Eve Arden (Eunice Quedens), actress, was born.
    (HN, 4/30/01)

1912        Apr, The Arthur Conan Doyle novel "The Lost World" began running in serial form in The Strand magazine.
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.18)

1912        May 2, Axel Springer, German newspaper magnate, was born.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1912        May 3, May Sarton, poet and writer, was born.
    (HN, 5/3/01)

1912        May 4, More than ten thousand women and about a thousand men marched down Fifth Avenue in NYC to support woman's suffrage.
    (NYT, 5/5/1912, p1)

1912        May 5, The Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda began publishing. Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili took the name Stalin, meaning "man of steel," about the time he helped found the Russian Communist newspaper Pravda.  Stalin specialized in writing about national minorities in Russia and went on to become editor of Pravda.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(HN, 12/21/98)(HNQ, 4/6/00)

1912        May 7, Columbia University approved plans for awarding the Pulitzer Prize in several categories. The award was established by Joseph Pulitzer.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1912        May 11, Phil Silvers, comedian and actor, was born. He stared on TV's "Sergeant Bilko."
    (HN, 5/11/99)

1912        May 12, The Beverly Hills Hotel opened. In 1987 it was acquired by the Sultan of Brunei. He closed it down for a $100 million remodel in 1992 and it reopened in 1995.
    (WSJ, 5/11/01, p.W6)(SSFC, 5/27/12, p.H5)

1912        May 13, Gil Evans, jazz pianist and composer, was born.
    (HN, 5/13/01)
1912        May 13, In San Francisco aviator Roy Francis and artist Phil Rader made a 36 minute flight over the city.
    (SSFC, 5/13/12, p.42)
1912        May 13,  The Royal Flying Corps was established in England. It was the predecessor of the Royal Air Force.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/99)

1912        May 14, Johan August Strindberg (b.1849), Swedish novelist, dramatist and essayist, died. In 1985 Michael Meyer authored a Strindberg biography.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1407)(SFC, 8/10/00, p.D2)(MC, 5/14/02)

1912        May 15, Ty Cobb rushed a heckler at a NY Highlander game and was suspended.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1912        May 16, Studs Terkel American author, was born. He wrote The 'Good War.' "Take it easy, but take it."
    (AP, 5/16/98)(HN, 5/16/99)

1912        May 17, Archibald Cox was born. He was the special prosecutor in the Watergate hearings who was fired by President Richard Nixon.
    (HN, 5/17/99)

1912        May 18, Richard Brooks, director (Blackboard Jungle, In Cold Blood), was born in Philadelphia, PA.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1912        May 18, Georg von Opel, German auto manufacturer, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1912        May 18, Maurits Binger established 2 Dutch movie companies.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1912        May 20, Joseph Proce, 3rd victim of NYC's Zodiac killer, was born.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1912        May 25, Eddie Maxwell, singer (Yes We Have No Bananas), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1912        May 26, Jay Silverheels (d.1980) was born as Harold J. Smith on the Six Nations Indian Reservation, Brantford, Ontario, Canada. He was the son of a Mohawk Indian chief and became an actor who portrayed Tonto on "The Lone Ranger."
    (www.imdb.com)

1912        May 27, John Cheever (d1982), Pulitzer Prize winning writer was born. His work included "The Wapshot Chronicle" and "The World of Apples."
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.13E)(HN, 5/27/01)

1912        May 28, Patrick White, Australian writer (The Tree of Man, The Eye of the Storm), was born.
    (HN, 5/28/01)

1912        May 29, John Hanlo, Dutch poet (Go to the Mosque), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1912        May 29, Curtis Publishing fired 15 young women for dancing the "Turkey Trot" during their lunch break.
    (SC, 5/29/02)   

1912        May 30, U.S. Marines were sent to Nicaragua to protect American interests.
    (HN, 5/30/99)
1912        May 30, Wilbur Wright (b.1867), aeronautical inventor, died of a typhoid infection.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1647)(ON, SC, p.4)

1912        May, The first US feature film, Oliver Twist, was released.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A22)   

1912         May, Albanians rose against the Ottoman authorities and seized Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia).
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Jun 4, Massachusetts passed the 1st US minimum wage law.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1912        Jun 5, US marines invaded Cuba (3rd time).
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1912        Jun 6, In Alaska the Novarupta volcano began erupting 6 miles from Mount Katmai. When the eruption stopped on June 9th, the ash cloud had spread across southern Alaska. This was later recognized as the most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century. Crops withered across Canada and the US that summer under skies shrouded with volcanic ash. 
    (http://geology.com/novarupta/)(Hem, 4/96, p.78)

1912        Jun 7, US army tested the 1st machine gun mounted on a plane.
    (SC, 6/7/02)
1912        Jun 7, Pope Pius X issued the encyclical: "On the Indians of South America."
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1912        Jun 9, Convict H.A. Lynwood was killed at San Quentin Penitentiary after prisoners demonstrated for a 2nd day over the quality of food being served.
    (SSFC, 6/10/12, DB p.42)

1912        Jun 17, Wessel Couzijn, sculptor, cartoonist (Auschwitz-monument), was born.
    (MC, 6/17/02)
1912        Jun 17, The German Zeppelin SZ 111 burned in its hanger in Friedrichshafen.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1912        Jun 18, Glen Morris, Olympic champion, actor (Tarzan), was born in MO.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1912        Jun 19, A new labor law is passed by Congress, extending the 8-hour working day to all workers under federal contract.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)

1912        Jun 21, Mary McCarthy, American novelist whose works include "Memories of Catholic Girlhood" and "The Group," was born.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1912        Jun 23, Alan M. Turing (d.1954), English mathematician and pioneer of computer theory, was born. He cracked the Enigma code in World War II that was used by the Germans to communicate with their submarines. A play by Hugh Whitemore titled "Breaking the Code," tells his story. It was shown as a TV film on Masterpiece Theater in 1997.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.349)(SFC, 1/31/97, p.D3)(HN, 6/23/01)

1912        Jun 24, Norman Cousins (d.1990), editor of the Saturday Review, was born. He wrote "Anatomy of an Illness as Perceived by the Patient."  "History is an accumulation of error."
    (AP, 4/22/97)(HN, 6/24/99)
1912        Jun 24, The San Francisco Board of Supervisors authorized  Library Trustees to erect a library building in the Civic Center using $75,000 tendered for this purpose 11 years earlier by Andrew Carnegie.
    (SSFC, 6/24/12, DB p.42)

1912        Jun 26, Gustav Mahler's 9th Symphony premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1912        Jun 27, Audrey Christie, actress (Dorothy-Fair Exchange), was born in Chicago, Ill.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1912        Jun 28, Sergiu Celibidache, Romanian conductor, was born.
    (MC, 6/28/02)
1912        Jun 28, Karl F. von Weisacker, German physicist, philosopher, was born.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1912        Jun 29, John Toland, US political writer (Adolf Hitler, Rising Sun, Pulitzer 1971), was born.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1912        Jun 30, Belgian workers struck to demand universal suffrage.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1912         Jul 1, Drama critic Harriet Quimby (b.1875) took a passenger up in her new Blériot monoplane from Boston to fly over Dorchester Bay at the Harvard-Boston Aviation Meet. As she descended for landing, the plane went into a dive and, without seat belts, she and her passenger were thrown out into the shallow water of the bay, where they struck the muddy bottom and were crushed to death. Quimby was the first American to receive a pilot's license (1911) and was the first woman to solo across the English Channel (1912). Her interest in flight was piqued at an aviation meet in 1910.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Quimby)(HNPD, 7/31/98)(ON, 1/00, p.11)

1912        Jul 2, In San Francisco Mary’s Help Hospital opened at 145 Guerrero St. It was made possible by a bequest from Catherine Birdsall Johnson (d.1893).
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1912        Jul 3, Elizabeth Taylor, novelist and short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 7/3/01)

1912        Jul 4, Detroit Tiger George Mullen no-hits St Louis Browns, 7-0.
    (Maggio, 98)
1912        Jul 4, Jack Johnson TKOd Jim Flynn in 9 for heavyweight boxing title.
    (Maggio, 98)

1912        Jul 15, British National Health Insurance Act went into effect.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1912        Jul 16, A Naval torpedo, launched from an airplane, was patented by B.A. Fiske.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1912        Jul 17, Art Linkletter, radio and television personality, was born.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1912        Jul 14, Woodrow Wilson "Woody" Guthrie, American folk singer, was born. Woody Guthrie (d.1967) was born in Okemah, Okla.
    (HN, 7/14/98)(SFC, 11/27/98, p.C11)

1912        Jul 25, The Comoros were proclaimed to be French colonies.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1912        Jul 30, Emperor Meiji died. Under Meiji the country had moved from a preindustrial state to a leading modern power. His son Yoshihito followed his father to the throne. With him the Meiji era ended officially and the Taisho era began.
    (WSJ, 8/30/00, p.A24)(www.artelino.com/articles/emperor_meiji.asp)

1912        Jul 31, Milton Friedman (d.2006), Nobel Prize winning economist (1976), was born. He became the premier spokesman for the monetarist school of economics. He argued that changes in money supply precede changes in the overall economic conditions. He argued that all social welfare programs should be replaced with a negative income tax. He held that there was a natural rate of unemployment that depended on the given economic structure.
    (HN, 7/31/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1912        Aug 4, The 1st detachment of American forces requested by President Diaz, arrived at Managua, Nicaragua, from Corinto. It was a handful of seamen from the USS ANNAPOLIS.
    (http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/usmcnic3.html)

1912        Aug 7, The Progressive Party nominated Theodore Roosevelt for president. Ex-President Theodore Roosevelt had stormed the Republican convention but failed to wrest the nomination from William Howard Taft. He then founded his own, short-lived, Progressive Party. The party split allowed Taft to win the election.
    (WSJ, 6/5/96, p.A12)(AP, 8/7/97)(SFEC, 3/5/00, p.D8)

1912        Aug 10, Leonard Woolf, English man of letters, married writer Virginia Duckworth (b.1882). Virginia Woolf committed suicide in 1941.
    (WSJ, 12/17/05, p.P13)(www.online-literature.com/virginia_woolf/)

1912        Aug 11, Moroccan Sultan Mulai Hafid abdicated his throne in the face of internal dissent. Most of the country became a French protectorate with Spain taking the northern fifth.
    (HN, 8/10/98)(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T11)(AP, 5/17/03)

1912        Aug 12, Jane Wyatt, actress (Father Knows Best, Star Trek), was born in Campgaw, NJ.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1912        Aug 13, Ben Hogan, American golfer (US Open 1950, 51, 53), was born in Dublin, Tx.
    (HN, 8/13/00)(MC, 8/13/02)
1912        Aug 13, Jan Peeters, Dutch water colors painter, monumental artist, was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)
1912        Aug 13, Jules E.F. Massenet (70), French opera composer (Werther, Manon),  died.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1912        Aug 14, The US Public Health Service was established under the Dept. of the Treasury by the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service Act (37 Stat. 309).
    (http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/090.html)

1912        Aug 14, The JUSTIN, carrying a US battalion of 354 men and its equipment, arrived at Corinto, Nicaragua, and anchored near the Annapolis. US forces remained until 1925.
    (http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/usmcnic3.html)

1912        Aug 15, Julia Child (d.2004), American chef and television personality, was born as Julia Carolyn McWilliams in Pasadena, Calif. Her 90th B-day party was held in SF on Aug 1, 2002.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, BR p.5)(SFC, 10/20/99, Z1p.4)(HN, 8/15/00)(SFCM, 9/1/02, p.33)

1912        Aug 16, Virginia executed Virginia Christian (b.1895) in the electric chair. Christian, an African-American maid, was convicted for the murder of her white employer Mrs. Ida Virginia Belote (72), a white woman, in her home at Hampton on March 18.
    (AFP, 9/21/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Christian)

1912        Aug 19, Percy Aldridge Grainger's "Shepherd's Key," premiered.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1912        Aug 20, The US Plant Quarantine Act went into effect.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1912        Aug 20, William Booth, English minister, founder (Salvation Army), died.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1912        Aug 21, Mr. Carter-Cotton was chosen as 1st chancellor of Univ. of British Columbia.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1912        Aug 23, Gene Kelly, dancer and actor who starred in "An American in Paris" and "Singing in the Rain," was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as Eugene Curan. Kelly debuted on Broadway in 1938 musical "Pal Joey" and in the film "For Me and My Gal" four years later
    (HN, 8/23/98)(MC, 8/23/02)

1912        Aug 24, US passed an anti-gag law giving federal employees the right to petition government.
    (MC, 8/24/02)
1912        Aug 24, By an act of Congress, Alaska was given a territorial legislature of two houses.
    (HN, 8/24/98)
1912        Aug 24, NYC held a ticker tape parade for Jim Thorpe and victorious US Olympians.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1912        Aug 25,  An aircraft recovered from a spin for the 1st time.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)
1912        Aug 25,  Different nationalities battled with each other in Macedonia.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1912        Aug 27, Edgar Rice Burroughs’s "Tarzan of the Apes" first appeared in a magazine. Burroughs (d. 1950 at 74) wrote "Tarzan of the Apes" for The All-Story Magazine and received $700.
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.E2)(SFEC, 5/9/99, Par p.8)(HN, 8/27/00)

1912        Apr 29, Henri Poincare (d.1912), French mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, died. He investigated the idea of space and led to the notion that space is too complex for mathematics. In 2002 Russian mathematician Grigory Perelman solved the 1904 Poincare Conjecture. In 2007 Donal O’Shea authored “The Poincare Conjecture.”
    (V.D.-H.K.p.272)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Poincar%C3%A9)

1912        Aug 31, Ramon Vinay, operatic tenor and baritone, was born.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1912        Aug, The paving of County Road along the Peninsula between South SF and Burlingame was begun. Highway Commission Chairman Burton Towne formally broke ground on El Camino Real near San Bruno Ave.
    (Ind, 2/6/99, p.5A)(SFC, 8/3/12, p.A10)
1912        Aug, Nellie Schmidt of Alameda became the 1st woman to swim across the SF Bay. She crossed from the Vallejo St. wharf to Oakland in 3 hours and 6 minutes. F.M. Riehl (72), the 1st man to swim across in 1872, coached her.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W4)

1912        Sep 1, Samuel Coleridge-Taylor (b.1875), Afro-British composer, died.
    (http://chevalierdesaintgeorges.homestead.com/Song.html#16)

1912        Sep 3, World's 1st cannery opened in England to supply food to the navy.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1912        Sep 4, Alexander Liberman, editor, painter and photographer (639), was born.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1912        Sep 5, John Cage (d.1992), inventive composer, writer, philosopher, and artist, was born. [2nd source says Sep 15] "The highest purpose is to have no purpose at all."
    (HN, 9/5/98)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)(AP, 6/20/00)

1912        Sep 7, French aviator Roland Garros set an altitude record of 13,200 feet.
    (HN, 9/7/98)

1912        Sep 9, Kurt Sanderling, conductor (E Berlin Symph 1960-77), was born in Arys, Germany.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1912        Sep 10, In France J. Vedrines became the first pilot to break 100 m.p.h. barrier.
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1912        Sep 14, The United States government notified Nicaragua that it would protect American lives and property there and uphold the government against rebels.
    (MC, 9/14/01)(http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/usmcnic3.html)

1912        Sep 21, Chuck Jones, animator and director of Warner Brothers cartoons Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck, was born.
    (HN, 9/21/00)(MC, 9/21/01)

1912        Sep 23, Mack Sennett's first Keystone Cops short subject "Cohen collects a Debt", a split-reel of two comedies starring Mabel Normand and Ford Sterling, was released.
    (AP, 9/23/97)(HN, 9/23/01)

1912        Sep 27, W C Handy published "Memphis Blues," the 1st Blues Song. [see Sep 28]
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1912        Sep 28, W.C. Handy’s "Memphis Blues" was published. It was the first published blues composition. [see Sep 27]
    (HN, 9/28/98)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1912        Sep 28, The SS Kichemaru disappeared in a storm off the Japanese coast and 1,000 died.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1912        Sep 30, The Columbia School of Journalism opened in NYC. Joseph Pulitzer bequeathed $2 million to start the school.
    (ON, 4/03, p.2)

1912        Oct 4, Gen. Zeledon, Nicaraguan opponent of US occupation, was executed.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1912        Oct 8, Montenegro declared war on Turkey beginning the 1st Balkan War. Balkan League members followed Montenegro 10 days later. [see Oct 18]
    (http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/bravo/balkan1912.htm)

1912        Oct 14, Theodore Roosevelt, former president and the Bull Moose Party candidate, was shot at close range by anarchist William Schrenk while greeting the public in front of the Hotel Gilpatrick in Milwaukee while campaigning for the presidency. He was saved by the papers in his breast pocket and still managed to give a 90 minute address in Milwaukee after requesting his audience to be quiet because "there is a bullet in my body." Schrenk was captured and uttered the now famous words  "any man looking for a third term ought to be shot."
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)(AP, 10/14/97)(WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)(HN, 10/14/98)(MC, 10/14/01)

1912        Oct 17, John Paul I, [Albino Luciano], 263rd Roman Catholic pope (1978), was born.
    (MC, 10/17/01)
1912        Oct 17, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declared war on Turkey. [see Oct 18]
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1912        Oct 18, The First Balkan War broke out between the members of the Balkan League-- Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro--and the Ottoman Empire. A small Balkan War broke out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of the Balkan Peninsula. Austria-Hungary’s 1908 annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spurred Serbian efforts to form the Balkan alliance with its neighbors.  As a result of the war on Turkey, Serbia doubled its territory with the award of Northern Macedonia. Albanian leaders affirmed Albania as an independent state. [see Oct 8]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.290)(CO, Grolier’s/ Albania)(HN, 10/18/98)(HNQ, 3/27/99)(www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Oct 21, Georg Solti, conductor (Fidelio), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1912        Oct 26, By an executive order Delaware was represented by the first star and Delaware was represented by the top stripe of the American flag. Delaware was the first of the 13 colonies to ratify the Constitution, on Dec. 7, 1787. It was thus assigned the top of the 13 stripes and the first of the then 48 stars by an executive order signed by President William Howard Taft. Each subsequent stripe was then assigned to the colonies in the order in which they ratified the Constitution. The first 13 stars (from left to right) also represent the order in which the colonies ratified, and are then followed by the rest of the states in the order in which they were admitted into the Union.
    (HNQ, 1/6/00)

1912        Oct 28, Richard Doll, English epidemiologist, was born. He established a link between tobacco smoke and cancer.
    (HN, 10/28/00)

1912        Oct, A film of "Richard III" directed by James Keane with Frederick Warde was the 2nd feature film produced in the US. A complete copy was discovered in 1996. It came 5 months after the first feature, a version of "Oliver Twist," released in May.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A22)   
1912        Oct, Fighting against Turkish dominion began throughout Macedonia.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1912        Nov 3, Alfredo Stroessner (d.2006), dictator of Paraguay (1954-89), was born.
    (SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10)
1912        Nov 3, The first all metal plane was flown near Issy, France, by pilots Ponche and Prinard.
    (HN, 11/3/98)

1912        Nov 4, Arizona and Kansas granted women the right to vote. Wisconsin voted against suffrage for women.
    (HN, 11/5/98)(http://library.wisc.edu/etext/WIReader/WER0124-12.html)

1912        Nov 5, Democrat Woodrow Wilson was elected the 28th president, defeating Progressive Republican Theodore Roosevelt and incumbent Republican William Howard Taft. Wilson had served as the president of Princeton Univ. In 2004 James Chace authored “1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft & Debs – The election that Changed the Country.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.216)(AP, 11/5/97)(HN, 11/5/98)(WSJ, 2/8/99, p.A21)(WSJ, 5/11/04, p.D12)
1912        Nov 5, Bulgarian troops in Constantinople blockaded drinking water.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1912        Nov 6, Mykola Vytalyevich Lysenko (70), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1912        Nov 9, The football team of Pennsylvania’s Carlisle Indian School, with running back Jim Thorpe, defeated the Army team, with Dwight D. Eisenhower as linebacker, 27-6. In 2007 Sally Jenkins authored “The Real Americans: The Team That Changed a Game, a People, a Nation.”
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P9)(www.footballfoundation.com/news.php?id=242)

1912        Nov 11, Joseph Wieniawski (75), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1912        Nov 12, Robert Scott's diary and dead body were found in Antarctica.
    (MC, 11/12/01)
1912        Nov 12, Jose Canalejas Y Mendez (b.1854), premier of Spain, was assassinated by anarchist Manuel Pardinas.
    (www.historia-es.com/usa/c_07_b02.htm)

1912        Nov 14, Barbara Hutton, heiress (Woolworth), was born.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1912        Nov 18, Cholera broke out in Constantinople.
    (HN, 11/18/98)

1912        Nov 24, Garson Kanin, writer and director, was born. His work included "Born Yesterday."
    (HN, 11/24/00)
1912        Nov 24, Austria denounced Serbian gains in the Balkans; Russia and France backed Serbia while Italy and Germany backed Austria.
    (HN, 11/24/98)

1912        Nov 25, Johannes D. De Jong, Frisian poet and photographer (Kar £t twa), was born.
    (MC, 11/25/01)
1912        Nov 25, American College of Surgeons incorporated in Springfield, Ill.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1912        Nov 26, Eric Sevareid, American broadcast journalist, was born.
    (HN, 11/26/98)
1912        Nov 26, Eugene Ionesco, dramatist (Rhinoceros), was born in Slatina, Romania. [see Nov 13 and Nov 26, 1909]
    (WUD, 1994 p.750)(MC, 11/26/01)

1912        Nov 27, David Merrick, [Margulois], Broadway producer (Hello Dolly), was born in Hong Kong.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1912        Nov 28, Albanian delegates at Vlora declared the independence of Albania and established a provisional government. This marked Albania’s Independence Day.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.H3)

1912        Nov 30, Gordon Parks, black artist, photographer, and author of "The Learning Tree," was born in Fort Scott, KS. He directed the film “Shaft” in 1971.
    (HN, 11/30/98)(www.britannica.com)

1912        Dec 1, Minoru Yamasaki, architect (World Trade Center, NY), was born.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1912        Dec 2, Henry Armstrong, the only boxer to hold three titles simultaneously, was born.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1912        Dec 3, Turkey, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece & Bulgaria signed a weapons pact.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1912        Dec 4, An armistice was signed to end the First Balkan War. Following several victories over the Ottoman army, coalition forces occupied Macedonia and forced the Ottoman Empire to seek an armistice.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1912        Dec 5, Italy, Austria, and Germany renewed the Triple Alliance for six years.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1912        Dec 9, Thomas P. "Tip" O’Neill, Speaker of the House of Representatives, was born.
    (HN, 12/9/98)

1912        Dec 12, Henry Armstrong, American boxer, was born.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1912        Dec 14, Louis Botha resigned as South Africa's premier.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1912        Dec 18, In the famous Piltdown Man Forgery amateur archaeologist Charles Dawson announced the discovery of two skulls from the Piltdown Quarry in Sussex, England. They appeared to belong to a primitive hominid and ancestor of man. Also found was a canine tooth, a tool carved from an elephant's tusk, and fossil teeth from a number of prehistoric animals. Dawson enlisted the help of vertebrate paleontologist Arthur Smith Woodward. They christened it Eoanthropus dawsoni and on this day they announced their find to the Geological Society of London. A 1996 book "Unraveling Piltdown" by John Evangelist Walsh labeled Dawson as the perpetrator of the hoax. The missing link was later determined to be only 600 years old. The fossils had been doctored to look and test to be older. In 2012 Miles Russell authored “The Piltdown Man Hoax: Case Closed.” [see 1908, 1913, 1953, 1955 & 1983]
    (PacDisc, Spring ‘96, p.15)(SFEC, 9/22/96, BR p.9)(SSFC, 12/16/12, p.A23)

1912        Dec 20, J. Hartley Manners' "Peg O' My Heart" premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1912        Dec 22, Claudia "Lady Bird" Johnson, wife of President Lyndon Baines Johnson, was born.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1912        Dec 23, The 1st "Keystone Kops" film, titled "Hoffmeyer's Legacy," was produced.
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1912        Dec 23, The Aswan Dam in Egypt began operation.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1912        Dec 25, Italy landed troops in Albania to protect its interests during a revolt there.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1912        Dec 28, The SF Mayor James Rolph piloted the city-owned Municipal Railway’s first streetcar. The Geary Street Line, from Geary and 39th to Kearney and Market, was the 1st municipally built railway in the US to compete with the private United Railroads. The double-ended streetcar was built by W.L. Holman Car Co. of SF. Service began the next day.
    (www.streetcar.org/mim/streetcars/fleet/antique/1/index.html)(SSFC, 4/15/07, p.B5)(SFC, 4/14/09, p.B1)

1912        Dec, Ambassadorial conference opened in London and discussed Albania's fate.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Charles Samuel Adams, American cartoonist of the Macabre, was born.
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)

1912        Dr. Barnes went to Paris a tried to buy the prize Picasso paintings held by Gertrude Stein. She declined to sell. [see 1872-1951, Barnes]
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.84)

1912        Arthur G. Dove painted his pastel on canvas: "Plant Forms."
    (WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)

1912        Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), French painter, painted his "Nude Descending a Staircase, No.2." It caused a sensation at the 1913 Armory Show.
    (WSJ, 12/2/96, p.A16)

1912        Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) painted "Adele Bloch-Bauer II.” An earlier portrait Adele Bloch-Bauer was made in 1907. In 2012 Anne-Marie O’Connor authored “The Lady in Gold: The Extraordinary Tale of Gustav Klimt’s Masterpiece, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer.”
    (SSFC, 3/18/12, p.F5)

1912        Piet Mondrian made his semi-abstract "Flowering Trees."
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.E1)

1912        Picasso added a found commercial object to one of his paintings and created the first collage.
    (WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A16)

1912        Egon Schiele, Austrian expressionist, painted "Portrait of Wally."
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.A7)

1912        John Singer Sargent painted "Spanish Fountain."
    (WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

c1912        E.J. Bellocq, photographer, made 89 glass negatives of prostitutes in the Storyville district of New Orleans. They were published in 1996 in the book: "Bellocq: Photographs from Storyville" with text by John Szarkowski.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, BR p.6)

1912        Mary Antin (1881-1949), Russian-born immigrant (1894), authored “The Promised Land.” The book was highly successful and was used in Civic courses in US schools until 1949.
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W8)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAantin.htm)

1912        Dot Babb authored “In the Bosom of the Comanchos,” an account of his and his sister’s life as captive children among the Comanches.
    (AH, 6/07, p.64)

1912        Max Beerbohm (1872-1956), English essayist, published “A Christmas Garland,” a collection of 17 poetic parodies with a Christmas theme.
    (www.amazon.com/Christmas-Garland-Max-Beerbohm/dp/0300058098)

1912        Theodore Dreiser authored “The Financier,” the 1st book of his “Trilogy of Desire,” an Iliad of American capitalism.
    (WSJ, 9/16/06, p.P10)

1912        Zoeth Eldredge authored “The Beginnings of San Francisco.”
    (SFC, 2/19/11, p.A10)

1912        Christine Frederick authored “The New Housekeeping: Efficiency Studies in Home Management,” in the Ladies Home Journal. She argued that servants should get overtime and bonuses for mastering new tasks.
    (http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/progress/text4/frederick.pdf)

1912        Sigmund Freud authored "Totem and Taboo."
    (WSJ, 5/5/06, p.A16)

1912        American poet Robert Frost and his family moved to England because he could not find a publisher for his poems in the United States. He was greatly admired by the English poets. He returned to the United States three years later, and became one of the country's most important poets, receiving four Pulitzer Prizes for his poetry. In 1961, John F. Kennedy invited Frost to read a poem at his inauguration.
    (HNQ, 12/27/98)

1912        Zane Grey (1872-1939) authored his novel “Riders of the Purple Sage.”
    (SFC, 7/25/09, p.C4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zane_Grey)

1912        Herbert Hoover, mining engineer and future US president, translated "De Re Metallica,"  by German mineralogist Georgius Bauer (Agricola, 1494-1555). It described mining, smelting, and chemistry.
    (WSJ, 7/29/06, p.P8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Agricola)

1912        Algot Lange, the son of an opera singer, authored “In the Amazon Jungle.” In 1910 he had gone on an adventure in the upper Amazon between Brazil and Peru and only survived with the aid of Mangeroma cannibals.
    (WSJ, 4/28/07, p.P8)

1912        James Loeb, retired banker, began his Loeb Classical Library. Together with publisher William Heinemann they put out classical selections in translation along with original Greek or Latin text. In 2006 a 500th title in the series: “A Loeb Classical Library Reader.”
    (WSJ, 4/8/06, p.P9)

1912        Thomas Mann wrote his novella "Death in Venice." In 1971 it was made into a film by Luchino Visconti.
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-5)(SFEC, 4/6/97, DB p.55)

1912        Harriet Monroe, former Chicago Tribune art critic, founded the monthly Poetry Magazine. In 2002 Ruth Lilly (87), great-grandchild of Eli Lilly, gave the magazine a $100 million endowment.
    (SFC, 11/19/02, p.A3)

1912        Valentine de Saint-Point (1875-1953), French artist, authored “Manifesto of Futurist Woman.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentine_de_Saint-Point)

1912        Morgan Shuster, American financial expert, authored “The Strangling of Persia.” He describes his failed efforts to introduce virtuous financial practices in Iran in the face of British and Russian barriers.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.W8)

1912        The novella “Hadji Murad” by Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) was published. Murad (d.1852) was an important Chechen leader during the resistance of the Caucasian peoples in 1711-1864 against the Russian Empire's seizure of the region.
    (http://tinyurl.com/js9od)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadji_Murad)

1912        Wilfrid M. Voynich, an antiquarian book dealer, bought a number of medieval manuscripts from an undisclosed location in Europe. Among these was an illustrated manuscript codex of 234 pages, written in an unknown script. The manuscript was later donated to Yale Univ. [see Jan 20, 1612]
    (www.voynich.nu/s_intro.html)

1912        H.G. Wells wrote his novel "Marriage."
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.B12)

1912        Edith Wharton authored her novel "The Reef."
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.8)

1912        The book "Sinking of the Titanic: The World’s Greatest Sea Disaster," was published.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)

1912        Florence Lawrence and her director-husband Harry Solter created their own Victor Film Studio in Fort Lee, New Jersey.
    (ON, 4/06, p.6)

1912        Vaslav Nijinsky created the ballet "Afternoon of a Faun."
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)

1912        Buddy Gilmore, drummer with the Jim Europe Band, established drummers in the dance music of the era. The group recorded on Victor Records. His work was later described in the biography "A Life in Ragtime" by Reid Badger.
    (SFEM, 10/5/97, p.9)

1912        The song "Ragtime Cowboy Joe" was written.
    (BAAC, 8/97, p.1)

1912        Frieda (von Richthofen) Weekley left her husband and three children after 12 years of marriage to live with D.H. Lawrence. She was 32, the daughter of a Prussian baron from Metz, and Lawrence was 26, a collier’s son, who was seeking a lecturing position from Earnest Weekley, his former English teacher.
    (WSJ, 5/15/95, p. A-16)

1912        Gertrude Stein went to Avila, Spain, and was inspired to a new style of writing.
    (WSJ, 2/1/96, p.A-16)

1912        Gilbert "Broncho Billy" Anderson and George Spoor, Chicago movie producers moved their Essanay movie studios to Niles, Ca., and over the next 4 years produced some 350 one-reel films that included "The Tramp" with Charlie Chaplin.
    (SFC, 12/31/99, p.A1,6)(SFC, 9/9/06, p.B3)(SFC, 4/10/09, p.E8)

1912        Raynal Bolling (1887-1918), who made his money as a lawyer for US Steel, hired an architect to build an English-style mansion in Greewnwich, Connecticut. His Greyledge mansion was demolished in 2007 by Spencer Lampert, hedge fund director for Tudor Investment Corp.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A6)

1912        The SF carousel in Golden Gate Park was crafted by dedicated blacksmiths. it underwent restoration in the 1980s.
    (SFC, 12/28/96, p.A24)
1912        Harriet Pullman Carolan and her husband Francis purchased 554 acres in Hillsborough, CA., and proceeded with plans to build a mansion inspired by the 17th century French châteaux, Vaux le Vicomte. The 98-room mansion, the Carolands Chateau, was completed in 1915, but the couple separated in 1917 and she seldom visited. By 1997 it was falling into disrepair and plans were proposed to turn it into a 15-unit condo.
    (SFC, 8/19/97, p.A13,17)
1912        In San Francisco the Geary, Park and Ocean cable car lines closed.
    (SFC, 2/8/14, p.C1)

1912        Baseball stadiums Fenway Park in Boston and Tiger Stadium in Detroit were built.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, zone 1 p.6)(SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)

1912        Chicago meatpackers built Market Square. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the first planned shopping center in the US.
    (Hem., 7/96, p.26)

1912        In Buffalo, NY, St. Gerard’s church was built by Italian immigrants and modeled after St. Paul Outside the Walls, a Renaissance-style basilica in Rome. it was closed in January 2008 as part of a diocese-wide restructuring. In 2010 a Roman Catholic parish in an affluent northern suburb of Atlanta began raising $16 million to import the closed church.
    (AP, 5/29/10)

1912        In Tacoma, Washington, the Tudor-Gothic Thornewood Castle was completed using 500-year-old bricks from Wales. It was built to the specifications of Mr. Chester Thorne, one of the founders of the Port of Tacoma as a gift for his bride, Anna. It was later converted to a bed and breakfast hotel.
    (SSFC, 9/22/13, p.M2)(www.thornewoodcastle.com/history.htm)

1912        Prizes were added to boxes of Cracker Jacks.
    (www.tias.com/mags/cjca/cjcahistory.htm)(AH, 10/01, p.34)
1912         National Biscuit, later Nabisco, came up with the Oreo cookie.
    (WSJ, 1/19/08, p.A10)

1912        The International Amateur Athletic Federation was founded by 17 national athletic federations who saw the need for a governing authority, for an athletic program, for standardized technical equipment and world records.
    (www.iaaf.org/insideIAAF/history/index.html)

1912        A young George S. Patton was a 5th place finisher in a Military Pentathlon.
    (WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)

1912        At the Stockholm Olympics Native American Jim Thorpe won gold medals in the decathlon and pentathlon.
    (HT, 4/97, p.18)

1912        Alexis Carrel (b.1873), French surgeon and biologist, won a Nobel Prize for the development of blood vessel suture technique.
    (HN, 6/28/99)(MC, 6/28/02)
1912        Gerhart Hauptmann (b.1862), German author (Before Dawn) won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
1912        US Sec. of State Elihu Root won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SSFC, 8/15/04, p.D11)

1912        The US banned the drink absinthe. Lawmakers thought the chemical thujone, found in one of the spirit’s main ingredients, wormwood, made people crazy or homicidal. This theory was later dismissed and the ban was lifted in 2007.
    (WSJ, 12/24/96, p.A6)(SFC, 3/21/08, p.F4)

1912        Services began in Bethlehem Chapel of the unfinished National Cathedral in Washington DC, fulfilling the vision of DC planner Pierre L’Enfant, who had called for a church for national purposes. Construction had begun in 1907 and continued for 83 years.
    (AH, 4/07, p.31)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_National_Cathedral)

1912        The Supreme Court in Cincinnati vs. Louisville & N.R. Co. extended the concept of eminent domain to include intangibles, including "a charter, or any kind of contract."
    (Wired, 10/96, p.133)

1912        Engraver George T. Morgan is believed to have produced 5 Liberty Head V nickels at the Philadelphia Mint with a 1913 stamped date. In 2004 one sold for $3 million.
    (WSJ, 5/20/04, p.C1)(SFC, 4/27/13, p.A4)

1912        The 1912-1913 "Money Trust" investigations were spearheaded by Wall Street lawyer-turned-reformer Samuel Untermeyer.
    (WSJ, 8/1/03, p.W10)

1912        The Radio Act of this year was the first US law to license operators.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)

1912        Frank Taussig (1859-1940), former president of the American Economic Association (1904-1905) and Harvard professor, stated: “We must accept the consumer as the final judge.”
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9071417)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.76)

1912        Dr. Rupert Blue at age 45 became the US Surgeon General and served under 2 presidents to 1920. He had led the bubonic plagued eradication program in SF between 1901-1908.
    (ON, 1/00, p.7)

1912        About this time Fred H. Bixby purchased the 8,580-acre Cojo Ranch in California’s Santa Barbara County. In 1939 he acquired the adjacent 15,814-acre Jalama Ranch. The properties included 9 miles of coastline and in 2007 sold for about $155 million.
    (WSJ, 1/12/07, p.W10)

1912        AT&T engineers produced the vacuum tube and made possible Theodore Vail’s prediction of transcontinental phone service by 1914. High power vacuum tubes were used to amplify voice signals over electric noise.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.215)(SFEC,12/14/97, p.A12)

1912        The 42-ton Dixiana No. 1 Shay steam engine at Roaring Camp, Ca., was built.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-3)

1912        On the West Coast maritime Radio PH had its transmitter relocated from SF to Bolinas and its receiver to Tomales Bay under the Marconi Co.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A14)

1912        Du Pont was forced to give up a big piece of its explosives business due to government trust busting but kept its military line and became the chief supplier to the Allies in WW I.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)

1912        The Hearst Corp. acquired Harper's Bazaar fashion magazine, and Motor Boating and Sailing magazine.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1912        Standard Oil established America’s first gas station in Cincinnati.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.67)

1912        The Durable Toy & Novelty Co. began making toy registering banks about this time. Its office was in NYC and its factory in Cleveland, Ohio.
    (SFC, 4/2/08, p.G2)

1912        Eric B. Savage incorporated his M.W. Savage Factories in Minneapolis. His was one of the first mail-order furniture houses.
    (SFC, 5/9/07, p.G7)

1912        Standard Cordage Co. was liquidated.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R46)

1912        Harry C. Heath (d.1962) invented a new siren capable of an instant blast. It was refereed to as the 1st-ever electric siren. A Heath-designed siren was used in the SF Ferry Building from 1918-1972.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A22)

1912        The synthetic resin PVC, polyvinyl chloride, was first produced.
    (SFC, 8/5/98, Z1 p.3)

1912        Casimir Funk, a Polish-American scientist, suggested that dietary deficiencies in substances that he named "vitamins" might cause such diseases as beriberi, rickets, pellagra, sprue and others.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.4)

1912        The 25,000 acre National Elk Refuge was established outside of Jackson Hole, Wyoming.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.C7)

1912        California farmers in Butte County began raising rice in the wet lowlands of the Sacramento Valley, a Japanese variety imported from Texas.
    (SFC, 5/22/96, zz-1)(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.C10)
1912        The cooperative California Associated Raison Co. was formed in the Central Valley to produce, process and market raisins. The Sun-Maid brand name was launched in 1915. In 1916 a portrait of Lorraine Collett of Fresno became the company’s trademark.
    (SSFC, 4/23/06, p.F1)(www.sunmaid.com/about/our_history.html)

1912        Mabel Hubbard Bell, the wife of Alexander Graham Bell, and Margaret Wilson, the daughter of Pres. Woodrow Wilson, formed the American Montessori Association to expand the educational methods of Italian Dr. Maria Montessori.
    (ON, 3/07, p.5)

1912        The U of Mich. established a separate graduate school that in 1935 was named for Horace H. Rackham for a financial contribution.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.19)

1912        The College Art Association of art teachers and art scholars began holding annual conferences.
    (WSJ, 3/13/00, p.A44)

1912        Grasshoppers swept across Tulsa, Okla. People raked them up and sold them as chicken feed.
    (SFC, 5/23/98, p.C3)

1912        The mitten crab was first identified in Europe.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.6)

1912        Katmai volcano in southwest Alaska erupted. E.G. Zeis later studied the volcanic gases emitted from the volcano for years after the eruption and measured significant quantities of hydrogen fluoride, one of the chemicals said to cause depletion of ozone. Scientists visited the site in 1914 and dubbed it: "The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes."
    (WSJ, 1/12/95, A-17)

1912        General William Booth (b.1829), the founder and leader of the Salvation Army, died.
    (HNQ, 3/13/00)

1912        Karl May (b.1842), German author of US Western novels, died. A third of his 80 books were set in the American West and included "Son of the Bear Hunter," "The Spirit of Llano Estacado" and the 4 Winnetou novels.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A1)

1912        A small Balkan War broke out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of the Balkan Peninsula.   
    (V.D.-H.K.p.290)(Compuserve Online, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)

1912        In Australia the Vlaming Head Lighthouse was built on the North West Cape.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.T4)
1912        Australian pioneers diverted the waters of the Murrumbidgee River to create one of the biggest irrigation projects in the country.
    (Econ, 12/11/10, p.54)
1912        The Australian Antarctic Expedition of 1911-1914 began using an airplane to tow gear onto the ice in preparation for their sledging journeys. The plane, the first from France's Vickers factory, had not been seen since the mid-1970s, when researchers photographed the steel fuselage nearly encompassed in ice. Australian researchers stumbled on remains of the plane on Jan 1, 2010.
    (AP, 1/2/10)

1912        In Belgium Jean Neuhaus Jr. took an empty chocolate shell and filled it with rich creations developed by his pharmacist granddad and perfected by his father. Thus was born the praline.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T9)

1912        The British Royal Navy E-class submarine entered service.
    (SSFC, 1/2/05, p.E3)
1912        Workmen in London, England stumbled on the stock of a 17th century goldsmith when they broke through the wooden floor of a building in Cheapside. The whole lot was purchased by the London Museum. In 2013 the complete Cheapside Hoard was put on display.
    (Econ, 10/12/13, p.98)

1912        The Imperial Theater in Montreal, Canada, was built.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A14)
1912        In Canada the 1st Calgary Stampede began as a rodeo organized by American Guy Weadick, a trick roper.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)
1912        Dofasco was founded in Canada as the Dominion Steel Casting Co. to make railway parts. In 2006 it accepted a bid by Arcelor, a European steel giant.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.36)

1912        In France the Archbishop of Paris stated that "Christians must not tango."
    (SFEC,11/30/97, Z1 p.3)
1912        The Saint Nicholas Cathedral in Nice, with its two pointed spires and five crucifix-topped onion-shaped domes, was built under Nicholas II, nearly 50 years after his grandfather, Alexander II, bought the land it sits on.
    (AP, 1/20/10)
1912        Helena Rubinstein, following her success in Australia and London opened a beauty salon in Paris.
    (SFEM, 8/23/98, p.29)
1912        The 1st neon sign illuminated the Palais Coiffeur, a Parisian beauty shop.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T6)
1912        France chose Casablanca as the capital of its “protectorate” over Morocco.
    (SSFC, 11/18/12, p.G5)

1912        German psychologist William Stern introduced the term "intelligence quotient" and abbreviation "IQ."
    (WSJ, 7/18/97, p.A15)
1912        Heinrich Muller and Heinrich Schreyer started the Schreyer & Co. toy company in Nuremberg, Germany. The name was shortened to Schuco in the 1920. They began making “Yes/No” toys in 1921 and after WWII these were called “Tricky” toys.  In 1999 Schuco became part of the Simba Dickie Group.
    (SFC, 4/23/08, p.G6)
1912        Wilesco Schroeder Co. of Ludenscheid, Germany, was founded by Wilhelm Schroeder to manufacture aluminum utensils and carving sets. By the 1960s it expanded to produce toy tractors and fire engines.
    (SFC, 11/1/06, p.G2)
1912        Merck chemists in Germany introduced methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), a euphoria-producing psychedelic. Documents from the time showed that MDMA emerged during the company's efforts to develop a potentially life-saving medicine that would help blood to clot. It later became known as "ecstasy."
    (SFC, 6/16/10, p.A10)(www.mdma.net/merck/history-ecstasy.html)

1912        Greece acquired Crete.
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)

1912        The Mayan site of Xultun (Guatemala) was first discovered. In 2010 paintings were discovered at the site dating to around 800. Figures were captioned as "Older Brother Obsidian," or "Senior Obsidian," and "Younger Brother Obsidian," or perhaps "Junior Obsidian."
    (www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-18018343)

1912        In Japan the Sumitomo Bank was founded.
    (WSJ, 10/15/99, p.A1)

1912        Pancho Villa, a former bandit, returned to Mexico from the US with a tiny band of men that he built into the "Division del Norte."
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)

1912        After the fall of the Manchu dynasty, Mongol princes, supported by tsarist Russia, declared the independence of Mongolia from China.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1912        In India the film “Pundalit,” the first result of an Indian’s use to tell a story, opened in Bombay. An ad for the film survived, but the film itself was lost.
    (Econ, 12/2/06, p.87)
1912        In India British colonial rulers shifted their base from Calcutta to New Delhi.
    (AFP, 2/18/12)

1912        Kim Il Sung was born in Pyongyang, N. Korea. He ruled the country from 1948 to 1994.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, H. Edward Kim, p.259)

1912        Managua, Nicaragua, was destroyed by civil war.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1912        Engineers dammed the Chagres River to create the Panama Canal’s main water supply. The submerged town of Matachin ("kill the Chinese") had been named after hundreds of Chinese railway workers committed suicide over a period of several months.
    (SSFC, 10/20/02, p.C5)
1912        Panama Canal workers rioted on Independence Day.
    (SFC, 3/3/09, p.E10)

1912        The Pushkin Museum opened in Moscow. It was scheduled to close in 2009 for a $380 million upgrade to be completed in 2012.
    (WSJ, 5/21/08, p.D9)

1912        In South Africa Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (d.2003), anti-apartheid hero, was born.
    (SFC, 5/7/03, p.A20)
1912        In South Africa Johannesburg’s Alexandra township began when a group of blacks bought the land from a white farmer who failed to find white buyers. It became one of the only neighborhoods to successfully resist apartheid's forced relocations.
    (AFP, 6/19/12)

1912-1913    Marc Chagall painted "The Violinist," showing a fiddler, who stands with one foot covering a Vitebsk rooftop.
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)
1912-1913    During the Balkan Wars the Kingdom of Greece acquired Macedonia from the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)
1912-1913    Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969), later revolutionary head of Vietnam, lived in the US and worked as a baker at the Parker House Hotel in Boston.
    (SSFC, 6/15/08, p.E5)

1912-1918    The US government washed its circulated paper currency and recycled it.
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.C4)

1912-1926     The Taisho Period was named after the reign of Emperor Taisho, the father of Hirohito.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1912-1930    James Rolph Jr. was the Mayor of San Francisco. Under him the first municipal railroad system in the US was built.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.22)

1912-1938    Leopold Stokowski was the music director of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.107)(WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)

1912-1976    Afro Libio Basaldella, Italian artist. He personified the progressive impulses of post WW II Italian painting.
    (SFC, 4/17/99, p.B10)

1912-1988    Ray Kaiser Eames, artist and wife of Charles Eames.
    (SFC, 6/6/96, E1)

1912-1989     Mary McCarthy, American author: "When writers come, I find I’m talking all the time, exchanging thoughts I haven’t exchanged for some time. I get stupid in solitude."
    (AP, 11/8/97)

1912-1989     Barbara Tuchman, American historian: "If power corrupts, weakness in the seat of power, with its constant necessity of deals and bribes and compromising arrangements, corrupts even more."
    (AP, 9/22/98)

1912-1992  Eric Sevareid, American news commentator: "The biggest big business in America is not steel, automobiles, or television. It is the manufacture, refinement and distribution of anxiety."
    (AP, 5/8/98)

1912-1993    William Golding, writer, received the Nobel Prize in 1983. His books include "Lord of the Flies," "Inheritors," and "Double Tongue," published posthumously in 1995.

1913        In 2013 Charles Emerson authored “1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War.”
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.85)

1913        Jan 9, Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th president of the United States (1968-1974) and first President to resign from office, was born in Yorba Linda, Calif.
    (HN, 1/9/98)(AP, 1/9/08)

1913        Jan 11, The first sedan-type automobile, a Hudson, went on display at the 13th Automobile Show in New York.
    (AP, 1/11/99)

1913        Jan 12, Kiel and Wilhelmshaven became submarine bases in Germany.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1913        Jan 15, Lloyd Bridges, actor (Sea Hunt, Roots, Airplane), was born in San Leandro, Calif.
    (MC, 1/15/02)
1913        Jan 15, The first telephone line between Berlin and New York was inaugurated.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1913        Jan 16, Prof. Thaddeus Lowe (80), balloonist pioneer, died.
    (www.militarymuseum.org/Lowe.html)

1913        Jan 18, Danny Kaye, UNICEF, comedian, actor, was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1913        Jan 20, Karl Wittgenstein (b.1847), Viennese industrialist and father of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), died of throat cancer. In 2009 Alexander Waugh authored “The House of Wittgenstein: A Family at War.”
    (WSJ, 2/28/09, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Wittgenstein)
1913        Jan 20, Jose Guadalupe Posada, Mexican cartoonist, died. He had  created Catrina, the Skeleton Lady in her elegant broad-brimmed hat in a satirical engraving sometime between 1910 and his death. Her image grew over the years to symbolize Mexico’s Day of the Dead.
    (AP, 10/31/13)

1913        Jan 21, Aristide Briand formed a French government.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1913        Jan 22, Turkey consented to the Balkan peace terms and gave up Adrianople.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1913        Jan 23, The "Young Turks" revolted because they were angered by the concessions made at the London peace talks.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1913        Jan 24, Mark Goodson, TV game-show producer (Goodson-Toddman), was born.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1913        Jan 26, Jim Thorpe relinquished his 1912 Olympic medals for being a pro.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1913        Jan 28, Pleasance Pendred, an active member of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU), was arrested for taking part in a window breaking campaign mainly targeting government offices around Westminster. Her pamphlet “Why Women Teachers Break Windows” was first published circa 1912 by the Woman’s Press. The Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) had recently declared all out war against public and private property in the United Kingdom. An orgy of vandalism followed.
    (http://suffragettes.nls.uk/media/28977/project_1_4_1.pdf)(ON, 10/2010, p.8)

1913        Jan 31, The British House of Lords rejected a bill tabled by the Liberal government and passed by the House of Commons on January 16 proposing home rule for Ireland. One peer said that home rule would make the Irish "a menace in war and a disturbing influence in peace."
    (HC, 2003, p.64)

1913        Jan, San Francisco’s Lowell High School opened at its 3rd location on a block bordered by Masonic, Hayes, Ashbury and Grove streets.
    (SFC, 5/26/12, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowell_High_School_%28San_Francisco%29)

1913        Feb 2, The new Grand Central Terminal in NYC opened. It first opened in 1871 and was rebuilt by Cornelius Vanderbilt at 42nd and Park Ave. It was designed by the architectural firms of Reed and Stem and Warren and Wetmore, and was extensively remodeled in 1998.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Central_Terminal)(WSJ, 12/9/04, p.D10)(SSFC, 1/3/10, p.L4)

1913        Feb 3, Ratification of the 16th Amendment to the Constitution, providing for a federal income tax, was completed as Delaware became the 36th state to ratify the 1909 resolution. The new income tax laws included an exemption on life insurance to help widows and orphans. The 1st $3,000 was exempted. The top rate on incomes over $500,000 was 6%.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sixteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution)(AP, 2/3/00)(SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A3)(WSJ, 6/4/03, p.B1)

1913        Feb 4, Rosa Lee Parks, civil rights activist, was born. Her refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Alabama started the Civil Rights Movement.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1913        Feb 6, Mary Douglas Nicol, later archaeologist and paleo-anthropologist Mary Leakey, was born in London. She met anthropologist Louis Leakey in 1933 and joined him in Kenya.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A6)(HN, 2/6/01)

1913        Feb 7, Turks lost 5,000 men in a battle with the Bulgarian army in Gallipoli.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1913        Feb 9, Leo van der Kar, masseur, businessman, founder (Sports funds), was born.
    (MC, 2/9/02)
1913        Feb 9-18, The 10 Day Tragedy of Mexico City when 3,000 died.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1913        Feb 12, A New York commission reported that there was widespread violation of child labor laws.
    (HN, 2/12/97)

1913        Feb 13, Joaquin Miller (b.1837), known as the "poet of the Sierras," died in Oakland, Ca. Miller had sponsored California’s 1st Arbor Day. His work included "Utopia" (1880) and “Life amongst the Modocs : unwritten history” (1873), an autobiographical novel first published in London. Miller was born as Cincinnatus Hiner Miller near Liberty, Indiana. His secret "California Diary" was unearthed 25 years after his death. In 1919 Oakland purchased his property and in 1928 turned it into a park combined with adjacent undeveloped tracts.
    (http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007936641)(SFEM, 4/2/00, p.48)(SSFC, 1/14/07, p.B3)(SSFC, 6/16/13, DB p.17)

1913        Feb 14, Jimmy Hoffa (d.1975), Teamsters leader who disappeared, was born.
    (MC, 2/14/02)
1913        Feb 14, Mel Allen, sportscaster (voice of NY Yankees), was born in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1913        Feb 15, The 1st avant-garde art show in America opened in NYC. [see Feb 17]
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1913        Feb 17, Oskar Danon, composer, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 2/17/02)
1913        Feb 17, Rene Leibowitz, composer, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 2/17/02)
1913        Feb 17, NY Armory Show introduced Picasso, Matisse, Duchamp to US public. [see Feb 15]
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1913        Feb 18, Artur Axmann, Nazi youth leader, was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)
1913        Feb 18, Marcel Duchamp’s painting "Nude Descending a Staircase" was displayed at the Armory Show in NYC.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1913        Feb 22, Ferdinand de Saussure (b.1857), Swiss linguist and founder of Structuralism, died in Geneva.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9065908)

1913        Feb 25, Jim Backus, actor (Mr. Magoo, Thurston Howell III-Gilligan's Island), was born in Cleveland.
    (MC, 2/25/02)
1913        Feb 25, The 16th Amendment to the constitution was adopted, setting the legal basis for the income tax. The amendment, proposed by Congress at the urging of Pres. Taft, established a corporate tax. Churches and other religious organizations were exempted from federal taxation. Cordell Hull, author of the Revenue Act of 1913, said: “Of course any kind of society or corporation that is not doing business for profit and not acquiring profit would not come within the meaning of the taxing clause.”
    (HN, 2/25/98)(WSJ, 3/11/98, p.A20)(AH, 4/07, p.31)(http://tinyurl.com/yg2j694)

1913        Feb 26-1913 Mar 6, An Albanian Congress was held in Trieste as the Ottoman Empire broke down. Ismail Qemali served as head of the provisional government of the newly founded Albanian state.
    (http://tinyurl.com/jffdw)

1913        Feb 27, Irwin Shaw, US novelist (Rich Man Poor Man), was born.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1913        Feb 29, A US judge upheld a Wright Brothers’ airplane patent regarding the use of ailerons in a suit against Glenn Curtiss. In 1914 a Court of Appeals affirmed the decision. Henry Ford offered assistance to Curtiss and Ford lawyer W. Benton Crisp put Curtiss back in production by employing non-simultaneous use of ailerons.
    (ON, 12/11, p.12)

1913        Mar 1, The US Federal income tax filing date took effect. It was changed to March 15 in 1918 and again to April 15 in 1955. The first Form 1040 was four pages with all of the instructions on page 4.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tax_Day)(SFC, 10/25/13, p.A12)
1913        Mar 1, The 1st state law requiring bonding of officers and state employees was enacted in North Dakota.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1913        Mar 3, Ida B. Wells-Barnett demonstrated for female suffrage in Washington DC.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1913        Mar 4, Gabriel Fauré's opera "Penelope" premiered in Monte Carlo.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1913        Mar 4, Woodrow Wilson was inaugurated as 28th President.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1913        Mar 4, Department of Commerce & Labor was split into separate departments.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1913        Mar 4, 1st US law regulating the shooting of migratory birds was passed.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1913        Mar 6, Stewart Granger, actor (Saraband for Dead Lovers, Scaramouche), was born.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1913        Mar 10, Harriet Tubman, abolitionist, conductor on Underground RR, died in NY. In 2004 Catherine Clinton authored "Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom" and Kate Clifford Larson authored "Bound for the Promised Land: Harriet Tubman, Portrait of an American Hero."
    (MC, 3/10/02)(SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M1)(USAT, 2/5/04, p.5D)

1913        Mar 13, William J. Casey, headed CIA during Iran Contra scandal (1981-87), was born.
    (MC, 3/13/02)
1913        Mar 13, Kansas legislature approved censorship of motion pictures.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1913        Mar 22, In China Song Jiaren (30), a leader of the new Nationalist Party, died following a March 20 attack at the Shanghai railway station. All those involved in his killing died or went missing within a year.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.66)

1913        Mar, Frank Goodnow (1859-1939), a legal scholar from Columbia Univ., arrived in China to help draft a new Chinese constitution. One of two versions gave Yuan Shikai almost nearly unchecked powers of Chinese citizens.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Johnson_Goodnow)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.48)

1913        May 8, California lawmakers passed Assembly bill 2039, an anti-tipping measure with penalties for both giving and receiving tips.
    (SSFC, 5/5/13, p.46)

1913        May 14, Walter Johnson (1887-1946), Washington Senators baseball ace, ended his  record-breaking streak of 56 scoreless innings against the St. Louis Browns. Johnson’s scoreless inning streak began on April 10, 1913, and lasted 55 and 2/3 innings pitched. He threw six shutouts in a row before finally being scored on by the Browns. The Big Trains streak of 55 2/3 scoreless innings surpassed the Philadelphia Athletics' Jack Coombs record of 53 scoreless innings achieved in 1910. It would take 55 years before Johnson's streak was broken by the Los Angeles Dodgers' Don Drysdale.
    (www.nationalsdailynews.com/columnists/archive.cfm?blog=mark&tag=The%20Big%20Train)
1913        May 14, New York Governor William Sulzer approved a state charter for the Rockefeller Foundation. John D. Rockefeller had given $100 million to the Rockefeller Foundation. This insulated a large part of Rockefeller's fortune from inheritance taxes. At this time Rockefeller’s net worth approached $900 million, about $13 billion in 1998 dollars.
    (WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W10)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.68)

1913        Mar 15, Lewis Robert Wasserman (d.2002) was born in Cleveland. In 1946 Dr. Jules Stein (d.1981), founder of Music Corp. of America hired Lew Wasserman as director of advertising and public relations. Wasserman went on to expand the company as MCA Inc. into a major entertainment conglomerate.
    (SFC, 6/4/02, p.A18)
1913        Mar 15, President Wilson met with reporters for what's been described as the first presidential press conference. Some sources say Wilson's first actual press conference was a week later.
    (AP, 3/15/97)

1913        Mar 16 The 15,000-ton battleship Pennsylvania was launched at Newport News, Va.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1913        Mar 18, Greek King George I was killed by an assassin. Constantine I was to succeed.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1913        Mar 20, It was reported that Alcatraz island is to be abandoned as an Army prison and will be turned over to the Dept. of Justice for use as a federal penitentiary. It was deactivated as a military prison in 1933.
    (SSFC, 2/17/13, DB p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcatraz_Island)

1913        Mar 22, Karl Malden, actor (Mike-Streets of SF, American Express), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 3/22/02)
1913        Mar 22, Martha Modl, German singer, soprano (Wagner), was born.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1913        Mar 23, A strong tornado swept through Omaha, Neb., on Easter Sunday leaving over 100 fatalities and millions of dollars in damage.
    (SFC, 3/23/09, p.D8)

1913        Mar 25, The home of vaudeville, the Palace Theatre, opened in New York City starring Ed Wynn.
    (AP, 3/24/98)(MC, 3/25/02)
1913        Mar 25, Great Dayton, Ohio, flood. [see Mar 25]
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1913        Mar 26, Dayton, Ohio, was almost destroyed when Scioto, Miami, and Muskingum River reached flood stage simultaneously.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1913        Mar 26, The Balkan allies took Adrianople. Bulgaria captured Adrianople, ending the 1st Balkan War.
    (HN, 3/25/98)(SS, 3/26/02)

1913        Mar 29, The Reichstag announced a raise in taxes in order to finance the new military budget.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1913        Mar 31, John Pierpont Morgan (b.1837), US banker, CEO (US Steel Corp), died in Rome, Italy. His art collection was valued at $60m. In 1999 Jean Strouse authored “Morgan.”
    (www.netstate.com/states/peop/people/ct_jpm.htm)(Econ, 11/20/04, p.86)(WSJ, 8/4/07, p.P9)

1913        Apr 1, In San Francisco Lee Quon Sing, an aged rag picker, was shot and killed by two members of the Bing Kong tong, a society at war with the Suey Sing tong. Police captured Yee Lick, one of the shooters. Lee Quon Sing was the 8th victim in the war that began three weeks ago over a slave girl.
    (SSFC, 3/31/13, DB p.42)

1913        Apr 3, British suffragette Emily Pankhurst was sentenced to 3 years in jail. She protested with hunger strikes and was released and re-arrested 9 times over a period of 18 months under the Temporary Discharge of Prisoners for Ill-Health Act.
    (http://suffragettes.nls.uk/media/28977/project_1_4_1.pdf)(ON, 10/2010, p.8)

1913        Apr 7, The suffragists' marched to the Capitol in Washington, D.C. By the second decade of the 20th century, woman suffrage--women's right to vote--had become an issue of national importance in America. The growth in the numbers of American working women and the valuable contributions women made in war production during World War I further increased the suffragists' support. On August 20, 1919, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified, giving women the right to vote.
    (HNPD, 4/7/99)

1913        Apr 8, The US 17th Amendment was ratified, requiring direct election of senators, as opposed to appointment by state legislatures.
    (AP, 4/8/08)
1913        Apr 8, Opening of China's 1st parliament took place in Peking (Beijing).
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1913        Apr 9, Pancho Villa and his men stole 122 silver bars from a train in Northern Mexico. The silver was then valued at about $160,000 and in 1999 would be $2.6 million. Wells Fargo and its Mexican subsidiary arranged to buy back the silver for cash and gave Villa either $50,000 or 50,000 pesos ($25,000) in exchange for 93 of the 122 bars.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)

1913        Apr 14, Mary Phagan (13) was found killed at an Atlanta pencil factory. She had stopped to pick up her check on her way to Peachtree Street to see a Confederate Memorial Day Parade. Leo Frank (29), a Jewish factory manager, was falsely accused of raping and murdering the young girl. Georgia Gov. John M. Slaton later commuted Frank’s sentence to life, but a vigilante crowd dragged him out of prison and lynched him on Aug 17. In 1968 Leonard Dinnerstein authored “The Leo Frank Case.” The story is covered in the 1997 novel "The Old Religion" by David Mamet. In 1998 the musical "Parade" was produced based on the Frank lynching.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.6)(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 1/17/09, p.W8)
1913        Apr 14, Jean Fournet, French conductor, was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1913        Apr 19, California passed the Webb Bill, excluding Japanese from owning land. It was signed into law on May 19, 1913.
    (HN, 4/19/97)
1913        Apr 19, San Francisco’s Chinatown was put under a partial blockade following the killing of Lem Foon by Bing Kong tong highbinders. The blockade was the 2nd of its kind in as many years.
    (SSFC, 4/14/13, p.46)

1913        Apr 21, Gideon Sundback of Sweden patented the zipper. [see Apr 29]
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1913        Apr 25, Earl Bostic, alto sax player (Flamingo, Temptation), was born in Tulsa, OK.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1913        Apr 25, Russ Conway Brandon, actor (Richard Diamond Private Eye), was born in Manitoba.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1913        Apr 26, Sun Yet San called for revolt against Pres. Yuan Shikai in China.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1913        Apr 27, The Knights of Lithuania were begun as a youth organization.  Its purpose was to unite the Lithuanian youth living in the USA, and through them, preserve Lithuanian culture and restore freedom to Lithuania, then divided between Russia and Germany.
    (http://vilnews.com/, 4/14/11)   

1913        Apr 29, Gideon Sundback of Hoboken patented an all-purpose zipper. The name was coined by B.F. Goodrich, who used it to fasten rubber galoshes. [see Apr 21]
    (HN, 4/29/98)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)

1913         Apr, The British Parliament passed the Temporary Discharge of Prisoners for Ill-Health Act. It made legal the hunger strikes that Suffragettes were undertaking at the time and stated that they would be released from prison as soon as they became ill.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.8)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Wcat.htm)

1913        May 1, Walter Susskind, conductor, was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1913        May 3, William Inge, American playwright (Picnic, Bus Stop), was born.
    (HN, 5/3/01)

1913        May 5, Tyrone Power, actor (Mark of Zorro, Alexander's Ragtime Band), was born in Cleveland.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1913        May 6, Stewart Granger, [James Stewart], actor (Prisoner of Zenda, Scaramouche), was born in London.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1913        May 7, British House of Commons rejected women's right to vote.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1913        May 9, The 17th amendment to the Constitution, providing for the election of US senators by popular vote rather than selection by state legislatures, was ratified. [see May 31]
    (AP, 5/9/01)

1913        May 13, The first 4 engine aircraft was built & flown by Igor Sikorsky of Russia.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/98)

1913        May 14, New York Governor William Sulzer approved a state charter for the Rockefeller Foundation. John D. Rockefeller had given $100 million to the Rockefeller Foundation. This insulated a large part of Rockefeller's fortune from inheritance taxes. At this time Rockefeller’s net worth approached $900 million, about $13 billion in 1998 dollars.
    (WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W10)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.68)
1913        May 14, Franz Hals museum opened in Haarlem, Netherlands.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1913        May 16, Woody Herman (d.1987), jazz bandleader, was born.
    (HN, 5/16/01)

1913        May 18, Perry Como (Pierino Roland Como, d. 2001), singer, was born in Canonsburg, Pa. [maybe 1912]
    (SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A27)(SC, 5/18/02)
1913        May 18, Otto Reubke (70), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1913        May 19, The Webb Alien Land-Holding Bill was signed in California, excluding Japanese from owning land.
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)

1913        May 20, William Hewlett, co-founder of Hewlett-Packard Co., was born.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
1913        May 20, Henry Morrison Flagler (b.1830), US tycoon, real estate promoter, railroad developer and Rockefeller partner in Standard Oil, died. He was a key figure in the development of the eastern coast of Florida along the Atlantic Ocean and was founder of what became the Florida East Coast Railway. He is known as the father of Miami, Florida.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Flagler)

1913        May 25, Joseph Peter Grace, businessman, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1913        May 26, The Actors' Equity Association was organized in NYC.
    (AP, 5/26/97)

1913        May 29, Iris Adrian, actress (Blue Hawaii, Bluebeard), was born in Los Angeles, CA.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1913        May 29, The premier of the ballet Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring) by Igor Stravinsky and Vaslav Nijinsky in Paris caused rioting in the theater. The orchestra was led by Pierre Monteux and décor was by Nikolai Roerich.
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.B9)(HN, 5/29/01)(WSJ, 12/8/04, p.D12)

1913        May 30, Conclusion of the First Balkan War. The Treaty of London ended First Balkan War, and the Second Balkan War began.
    (HN, 5/30/98)(www, Albania, 1998)
1913        May 30, New country of Albania formed.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1913        May 31, The 17th Amendment to the Constitution, providing for the popular election of U.S. senators, was declared in effect. [see May 9]
    (AP, 5/31/97)(HN, 5/31/98)

1913        Jun 1, Serbia and Greece concluded a secret treaty for joint action against Bulgaria; joined by Romania. Dissatisfied with their share of the spoils, Serbia, denied its proposed outlet to the Adriatic Sea, sought compensation in Macedonia along the Vardar River which the Bulgarians rejected while Greece asked for control of Thessaloniki and "a certain part" of the eastern Macedonian territories, which Bulgaria rejected as well.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1913        Jun 2, Bert Farber, orchestra leader (Arthur Godfrey, Vic Damone), was born in  Brooklyn, NY.
    (SC, 6/2/02)
1913        Jun 2, Barbara Pym (Mary Crampton), English novelist (Less Than Angels, Quartet in Autumn), was born.
    (HN, 6/2/01)
1913        Jun 2, The 1st strike settlement mediated by US Dep't of Labor for the RR clerks.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1913        Jun 8, Emily Wilding Davison (b.1872), a member of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), died from injuries 4 days earlier when she tried to block the path of a racehorse owned by King George V. See link for video of race.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Wdavison.htm)

1913        Jun 11, Vince Lombardi, National Football League coach, was born. He coached the Green Bay Packers who won the first Super Bowl.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1913        Jun 13, Ralph Edwards (d.2005), radio and TV host (This is Your Life), was born in Merino, Colo.
    (www.imdb.com)(SFC, 11/17/05, p.B5)

1913        Jun 17, U.S. Marines set sail from San Diego to protect American interests in Mexico.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1913        Jun 24, Greece and Serbia annulled their alliance with Bulgaria following border disputes over Macedonia and Thrace.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

1913         Jun 27, Richard Bissell, novelist and playwright, was born.
    (HN, 6/27/01)
1913         Jun 27, Willie Mosconi, professional billiards player and world champion (1941-57), was born.
    (HN, 6/27/01)(SC, 6/27/02)

1913        Jun 29, Anticipating assistance from Austro-Hungary the Bulgarian army attacked its former allies. This Second Balkan War was at first waged entirely on Macedonian soil. The 2nd Balkan War began. Bulgaria defeated Greek and Serbian troops.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1913        Jun, Rev. Hudson Stuck led a team in the 1st ascent to the summit of Mt. McKinley, Alaska.
    (ON, 3/06, p.8)(www.themilepost.com/major_attractions/mt_mckinley.shtml)

1913        Jul 1, The Lincoln Highway Association decided to call its coast-to-coast highway the Lincoln Highway, and it was officially incorporated as the Lincoln Highway Association.
    (http://lincolnhighway.jameslin.name/history/part2.html)
1913        Jul 1, Serbia and Greece declared war on Bulgaria.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1913        Jul 7, In the SF Bay Area a fire raged on Mount Tamalpais. Hundreds of rattlesnakes were driven down the slopes by the fire.
    (SSFC, 7/7/13, p.42)
1913        Jul 7, British House of Commons accepted Home-Rule Law.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1913        Jul 10, A temperature of 134 degrees was recorded in Death Valley. It was the highest ever recorded in the US and later said to be a world record.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.T6)(AP, 7/23/03)(SFC, 12/29/12, p.A6)
1913        Jul 10, Rumania entered the Second Balkan War and four days later the Ottoman Empire joined the general assault on Bulgaria. Faced with four fronts, Bulgarian armies were defeated piecemeal and the government at Sofia was forced to seek peace. Atrocities were widespread. For example, in pursuing the Bulgarian army Greek forces systematically burnt to the ground all Macedonian villages they encountered, mass-murdering their entire populations. Likewise, when the Greek army entered Kukush (Kilkis) and occupied surrounding villages, about 400 old people and children were imprisoned and killed. Nor did the Serbian "liberators" lag behind in destruction and wanton slaughter throughout Macedonia. In Bitola, Skopje, Shtip and Gevgelija, the Serbian army, police and chetniks (guerrillas) committed their own atrocities.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1913        Jul 12, The 4-masted schooner J.H. Lunsmann sank on in the San Francisco Bay near Fort Mason following a collision with the steamer Francis H. Leggett. The crew of 12 were rescued.
    (SSFC, 7/14/13, p.47)(http://tinyurl.com/m6ey4u3)

1913        Jul 14, Gerald Ford (d.2006), 41st vice-president and 38th president of the United States, was born as Leslie King, Jr. in Omaha, Nebraska, and achieved his highest prominence as the 38th president of the Untied States. He became president upon Richard Nixon's resignation from office. Gerald Rudolph Ford was age two when his mother divorced his father and moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan. She remarried Gerald Ford, Sr., who adopted the young boy and gave him his name. Ford assumed the presidency on August 9, 1974, upon the resignation of Richard M. Nixon.
    (HN, 7/14/99)(HNQ, 11/24/99)(AP, 12/27/06)
1913        Jul 14, Jimmy Hoffa, missing labor leader, was born.
    (MC, 7/14/02)
1913        Jul 14, Fritz Erler, German politician (SDP), was born.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1913        Jul 18, Richard "Red" Skelton, legendary clown, was born in Vincennes, Ind. During a career that stretched through medicine shows, vaudeville, motion pictures, radio and television, the gentle Skelton created a beloved host of characters from the silent tramp Freddie the Freeloader (shown at left) to the Mean Widdle Kid, who coined the catch phrase, "I dood it!" Skelton's sentimental humor, so popular in the '40s, '50s and '60s, did not change with the times and in 1970, CBS canceled The Red Skelton Show. Skelton refused to retire, touring the college lecture circuit and painting clown faces that sold for as much as $80,000. Red Skelton died at age 84 on September 17, 1997.
    (HNPD, 7/18/98)(MC, 7/18/02)

1913        Jul 22, Licia Albanese, operatic soprano (NY Met Opera), was born in Bari, Italy.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1913        Jul 23, The "Second Revolution" broke out in south China.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1913        Jul 31, Bulgaria signed an armistice concluding the 2nd Balkan War. [see Aug 10]
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkan_Wars)

1913        Aug 9, Herman Eugene Talmadge (d.2002), later George state governor and US Senator, was born.
    (SFC, 3/22/02, p.A27)

1913        Aug 10, The Treaty of Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War. It was concluded by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. The entire "disputed zone" was taken by Serbia, Greece secured its position in Thessaloniki and southeastern Macedonia, the Ottomans regained all the territories lost in the First Balkan War to Bulgaria with the exception of eastern (Pirin) Macedonia, and the Romanians seized Southern Dobruja. 
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1913        Aug 12, Kurt Kaszner, actor (Cmdr Fitzhugh-Land of the Giants), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1913        Aug 13, Makarios III, [Michail Moeskos], archbishop, president Cyprus, was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1913        Aug 16, Menachem Begin, Israeli statesman (1977-83) and Nobel Peace Prize (1978) recipient, was born.
    (HN, 8/16/98)(MC, 8/16/02)

1913        Aug 19, San Francisco’s Orpheum theater headlined W.C. Fields (1880-1946), a comedy juggler, as “the silent humorist.”
    (SSFC, 8/19/12, DB p.42)

1913        Aug 25, Walt Kelly (d.1973), cartoonist who created the comic strip "Pogo," was born.
    (HN, 8/25/98)(SFC, 3/10/99, Z1 p.6)

1913        Aug 27, In San Francisco a fire at arcade stables on Folsom St. between 5th and 6th killed 95 horses.
    (SSFC, 8/25/13, DB p.58)

1913        Aug 28, Richard Tucker, [Reuben Ticker], Tenor (NY Met Opera), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1913        Aug, Henry Ford began his 1st large-scale automobile assembly tests. It initially took 12 hours and 30 minutes to assemble a Model T.
    (ON, 3/03, p.4)(Econ, 4/20/13, SR p.3)

1913        Sep 1, George Bernard Shaw’s "Androcles and the Lion," premiered in London.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1913        Sep 3, In northern California the Sacramento Northern began operating a new electric train from Oakland to Sacramento. Its morning Comet and afternoon Meteor made the run in 2 hrs and 41 minutes. The railroad never made money and passenger service stopped in 1941.
    (SFC, 9/3/13, p.A1)

1913        Sep 11, Hedy Lamarr, actress, was born in Austria. She featured in numerous minor roles in Austro-German film prior to her 1938 Hollywood arrival and gained significant notoriety for her libidinous 10 nude scene in the Czech film 'Ecstasy' (1932).  She was cast in many romantic films including 'Samson and Delilah' and 'My Favorite Spy' "Any girl can be glamorous. All you have to do is stand still and look stupid"-- Hedy Lamarr.
    (MC, 9/11/01)
1913        Sep 11, James Farley (39), known across the US as the most successful leader of strikebreakers, died in Plattsburg, NY.
    (SSFC, 8/4/13, DB p.42)(http://tinyurl.com/mscghsd)

1913        Sep 13, Jesse Owens, track and field athlete, was born. He was a four-gold medal winner at the 1936 Olympic games at Berlin.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.38)(AHD, 1971, p.938)(HN, 9/12/98)

1913        Sep 14, The Lincoln Highway Association announced the route of the Lincoln Highway. Its leaders, particularly Henry Joy, President of the Packard Motor Car Company, decided on as straight a route as possible and that decision dictated the course. That initial line was 3,389 miles long. Less than half of it, 1,598 miles, was improved. (Eventually, as segments of the route were improved, the length shrunk to about 3,140 miles).
    (www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/lincoln.cfm)
1913        Sep 14, Jacobo Guzman Arbenz (d.1971), president of Guatemala (1951-54) was born. He was overthrown by the CIA. Arbenz, soldier and nationalist politician and president Guatemala, was the son of a Swiss pharmacist who emigrated to Guatemala, Arbenz joined a group of army officers that overthrew dictator Jorge Ubico in 1944. Arbenz became president with the support of army and leftists, including the Communist Party. His radical policies, especially regarding expropriation of portions of the United Fruit Company holdings, led to a U.S. backed coup in 1954 and his fleeing to Mexico. Arbenz died in 1971 in Mexico City.
     (NG, 10/1988,)(HNQ, 1/14/00)(http://www.bookrags.com/biography/jacobo-arbenz-guzman/)

1913        Sep 15, John Mitchell (d.1988), Pres. Nixon's attorney general (1969-1972), was born. Under Nixon he was a central figure in the Watergate scandal and served time in jail.
    (http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/mitchell5.html)

1913        Sep 16, San Francisco recorded its hottest day ever and nearly 100,000 people made their way to the seashore.
    (SSFC, 9/15/13, DB p.46)

1913        Sep 21, The 1st aerobatic maneuver, a sustained inverted flight, was performed in France.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1913        Sep 22, "7 Keys to Baldpate," by Earl Derr Biggers (Charlie Chan) premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 9/22/01)
1913        Sep 22, Coal mine explosion killed 263 at Dawson, New Mexico. [see Oct 22]
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1913        Sep 23, Serbian troops marched into Albania.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1913        Sep 26, Ernst Schnabel, German sailor and dramatist (Anne Frank), was born.
    (MC, 9/26/01)
1913        Sep 26, The first boat was raised in the locks of the Panama Canal.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1913        Sep 28, Race riots in Harriston, Mississippi, killed 10 people.
    (HN, 9/28/98)

1913        Sep 29, The Treaty of Constantinople was signed. Turkey obtained not only Adrianople, but also Kirk Kilissé and Demotica. The Bulgarians were not even left masters of the one railway leading to Dedeagatch, their sole port on the Aegean Sea.
    (www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/boshtml/bos151.htm)

1913        Fall, Henry Ford (1863-1947) introduced the moving assembly line at his Highland Park, Mich., plant.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(F, 10/7/96, p.67)

1913        Oct 3, A 1% US federal income tax was signed into law by Pres. Wilson. The law spared interest of any kind, including home-mortgage interest.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revenue_Act_of_1913)(Econ, 2/4/12, p.86)

1913        Oct 7, In attempting to find ways to lower the cost of the automobile and make it more affordable to ordinary Americans, Henry Ford took note of the work of efficiency experts like Frederick Taylor, the "father of scientific management." The result was the assembly line that reduced the time it took to manufacture a car, from 12 hours to 93 minutes. Ford reversed the slaughter house production process of removing parts from a moving line to adding parts. Production more than doubled and the price of the Model T was reduced from $600 to $550.
    (HN, 10/7/00)(SFC, 6/13/03, p.B4)(ON, 3/03, p.4)

1913        Oct 10, Panama Canal was completed when President Woodrow Wilson triggered a blast which exploded the Gamboa Dike by pressing an electric button at the White House in Washington, D.C. [see Oct 10, 1911]
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1913        Oct 13, The 16th amendment to the constitution was ratified and the modern income tax came into being. It lifted the constitutional ban on income taxes. The levy was 1% of GDP and the highest rate was 7%. An exemption on the first $20,000 in dividend income was revoked during WW I.
    (SFC, 11/2/96, p.D1)(CyCEO, 6/3/97, p.1,8)(WSJ, 3/11/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 9/25/02, p.D8)

1913        Oct 14, An explosion in a coal mine in Cardiff, Wales, killed 439.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1913        Oct 15, Klaus Barbie, Gestapo chief (Lyon), was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1913        Oct 17, Zeppelin LII exploded over London, killing 28.
    (HN, 10/17/98)

1913        Oct 18, Austrian-Hungary demanded that Serbia and Albania leave.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1913        Oct 21, San Francisco Police Chief D.A. White swore in three female officers, the city’s first policewomen.
    (SSFC, 10/20/13, DB p.46)

1913        Oct 22, An explosion at Dawson, NM, coal mine killed 263 mine workers. [see Sep 22]
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1913        Oct 27, Pres. Wilson said US will never attack another country.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1913        Oct 28, The "Krazy Kat" comic strip by George Herriman (1880-1944) debuted as a daily comic strip in the New York Evening Journal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krazy_Kat)

1913        Nov 2, American actor Burt Lancaster, was born.
    (HN, 11/2/98)

1913        Nov 4, Gig Young, actor (They Shoot Horses Don't They), was born in St. Cloud, Minn.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1913        Nov 5, Vivian Leigh, American actress famous for her role as Scarlet O’Hare in "Gone With the Wind," was born.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1913        Nov 6, Mohandas K. Gandhi led a march of Indian miners into Transvaal, South Africa. He was arrested 3 times during the 1st 4 days of the march. The miners had struck because the Cape Colony Supreme Court Justice had ruled that only Christian marriages registered by the Registrar of Marriages would be considered legal.
    (AP, 11/6/97)(ON, 9/03, p.5)

1913        Nov 7, Albert Camus (d.1960), French philosopher, novelist, and dramatist best known for his book "The Stranger" (1942) was born on an Algerian farm.
    (WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A16)(HN, 11/7/98)

1913        Nov 9, Storm "Freshwater Fury" sank 8 ore-carriers on Great Lakes.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1913        Nov 10, Carmen Miranda, singer and actress (4 Jills in a Jeep, Down Argentine Way), was born.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1913        Nov 16, "Swann's Way," the first volume of Marcel Proust's 7-part novel "Remembrance of Things Past," was published.
    (HN, 11/16/00)

1913        Nov 17, The first ship sailed through the Panama Canal.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1913        Nov 22, Benjamin Britten (d.1976), English composer, pianist and conductor, was born.
    (WSJ, 7/26/99, p.A21)(HN, 11//00)

1913        Nov 25, Lewis Thomas, physician and author, was born. His work included "The Lives of a Cell."
    (HN, 11/25/00)

1913        Nov 26, San Francisco Chief of Police White issued an order prohibiting women from visiting local pavilions during local prizefights.
    (SSFC, 11/24/13, DB p.46)
1913        Nov 26, Russian kingdom forbade Polish congregation of speakers.
    (MC, 11/26/01)   

1913        Nov 28, Heavyweight Jack Johnson KO’d Andre Spaul in Paris.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1913        Nov, Treaty of Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War. The Great Powers recognized an independent Albanian state. Demographics were ignored, however, and half of the territories inhabited by Albanians (such as Kosova and Chameria) were divided among Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1913        Dec 1, Mary Martin, American actress famous for her roles in "South Pacific" and "The Sound of Music," was born.
    (HN, 12/1/98)
1913        Dec 1, The first drive-in automobile service station, built by Gulf Refining Co., opened in Pittsburgh. [see Cincinnati in 1912] 
    (AP, 12/1/06)
1913        Dec 1, Continuous moving assembly line was introduced by Ford.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1913        Dec 2, The US Senate passed the Raker Act which authorized SF rights to dam the Tuolumne River in Yosemite National Park for water-collection and power-generation facilities.
    (www.sfwater.org/)

1913         Dec 6, President Woodrow Wilson signed the Raker Act into law. It authorized SF rights to dam the Tuolumne River in Yosemite National Park for water-collection and power-generation facilities.
    (www.sfwater.org/)

1913        Dec 7, Aaron Montgomery Ward (b.1844), Chicago founder of the mail-order industry (1872), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Montgomery_Ward)

1913        Dec 8, Delmore Schwartz, poet and writer, was born.
    (HN, 12/8/00)

1913        Dec 12, Ethiopia’s Emperor Menelik II (b.1844) died. After his death the council of regency continued the rule of Ethiopia. Lij Iyasu had been designated successor of Menelik II by Empress Taytu in May 1909 - however a problem occurred: the imperial Abyssinian rules of succession dictated, that only a Christian could rule Ethiopia as Emperor - and Lij Iyasu had taken the Muslim faith. Therefore Lij Iyasu was never crowned emperor of Ethiopia. In 1916 Empress Zewditu I of Ethiopia succeeded Menelik II, she was his oldest daughter.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menelik_II_of_Ethiopia)
1913        Dec 12    , Authorities in Florence, Italy, announced that the Mona Lisa, stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris in 1911, had been recovered.
    (AP, 12/12/97)

1913        Dec 14, Greece formally annexed Crete.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1913        Dec 16, Charlie Chaplin began his film career at Keystone for $150 a week.
    (MC, 12/16/01)

1913        Dec 18, Willy Brandt, Mayor of Berlin and Chancellor of West Germany, was born as Herbert Frahm.  He was chancellor from 1969-74 and won a Nobel Prize in 1971.
    (HN, 12/18/98)(MC, 12/18/01)

1913        Dec 21, The first crossword puzzle, created by Arthur Wynne, the English-born New York journalist, was published in the New York World.
    (AP, 12/21/97)(www.fun-with-words.com/first_crossword.html)

1913        Dec 23, The Federal Reserve Act (Owen-Glass Act) was signed by Pres. Wilson. It established the decentralized, government-controlled banking system in the US known as the Federal Reserve. It repealed the gold standard and replaced it with a system that ensured that the US dollar would be a better store of value than gold. The goal was to strive for maximum employment and price stability. The act guarded against inflation but allowed deflation. It was the first thorough reorganization of the national banking system since the Civil War. A compromise split monetary policy between politically appointed governors in Washington, DC, and the presidents of 12 regional banks, with boards appointed in part by private bankers.
    (WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A14)(HNQ, 10/16/99)(SSFC, 11/28/04, p.D1)(Econ, 11/28/09, p.37)

1913        Dec 25, In San Francisco the St. Francis of Assisi church on Vallejo Street re-opened following fire damage from 1906.
    (SSFC, 3/25/12, DB p.41)

1913        Dec 27, In San Francisco over 25,000 people gathered at Lotta’s Fountain to celebrate the postponed Christmas Eve festival.
    (SSFC, 12/22/13, DB p.42)
1913        Dec 27, Charles Moyer, president of the Miners Union, was shot in the back and dragged through the streets of Chicago.
    (HN, 12/27/98)

1913        Dec 29, The 1st movie serial, "Adventures of Kathlyn," premiered in Chicago.
    (AP, 12/29/05)

1913        Dec, In San Francisco police officer W.F. Kreuger took a bullet just under his heart as he engaged three armed yeggmen (burglers) at Natoma and Eighth. Kreuger survived and the bullet remained in his body.
    (SSFC, 2/16/14, DB p.42)
1913        Dec, In Calumet, Mich., at a Christmas Party for families of copper miners, somebody yelled fire and caused a panic that led to the death of 72 people, mostly children.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.4)
1913        Dec, Konrad Preuss (1869-1938), German anthropologist, arrived in Colombia to study to pre-Columbian statues at San Agustin. He stayed until 1919 and brought back to Germany a number of the statues and a great quantity of ancient ceramics and other items, which he reproduced and documented in his book, “Arte Monumental Prehistórico” (1931).
    (Econ, 12/7/13, p.38)(www.sanagustinstatues.org/libroen.pdf)

1913        Philip H. Abelson (d.2004), nuclear physicist, was born in Tacoma, Wa. In 1940 he and  Edwin McMillan discovered Neptunium, element No. 93.
    (NH, 7/02, p.36)(SFC, 8/9/04, p.B6)

1913        Loretta Young (d.2000), film actress, was born in Salt Lake City as Gretchen Michaela Young.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.B10)

1913        Arthur B. Davies helped organize the Armory Show of modern art in New York. The exhibit included works by Fauvists and Cubists which outraged traditional artists. The show featured "Nude Descending a Staircase," (1912) by Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), French painter.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.361)(WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A18)

1913        Giacomo Balla created his drawing: "Study for Abstract Speed."
    (WSJ, 8/3/99, p.A20)

1913        Arthur Dove painted his pastel "Sentimental Music."
    (WSJ, 3/6/98, p.A13)

1913        Marcel Duchamp invented the "Readymade," a piece of art created "not by the hand or skill but by the mind and decision of the artist."
    (WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A18)

1913        The Faberge Imperial rock crystal egg with rose cut diamonds set in platinum was created for the Czar. An American in 1994 paid $5.5 mil for the egg. Only 56 eggs were commissioned by the czars and czarinas.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.19)

1913        Kazimir Malevich (1878-1935), Ukraine artist, designed the costumes for the opera “Victory Over the Sun.”
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.96)(Econ, 12/21/13, SR p.5)

1913        Phillip Malyavin, Russian artist, painted the portrait "Dancing woman."
    (WSJ, 5/2/03, p.W6)

1913        John Singer Sargent , American painter, painted "The Sketchers."
    (WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)

1913        John Sloan painted "Movies." It included the marquee advertising "A Romance of the Harem."
    (WSJ, 8/11/00, p.W6)

1913        Edgar Holmes Adams authored “Private Gold Coinage of California 1849-1855.”
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.18)

1913        "The Chinese Cook Book" was published by Chong Jan & Co.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, zz-1 p.2)

1913        British economist Norman Angell wrote "The Great Illusion." He predicted that a major war would cause a global financial meltdown.
    (WSJ, 7/8/96, p.C1)

1913        Charles Beard (1874-1948), American historian, authored “An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States.” It argues that the structure of the Constitution of the US was motivated primarily by the personal financial interests of the Founding Fathers.
    (WSJ, 4/28/09, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Beard)

1913        Irish writer Howard Ward authored “The Mystery of Dr. Fu Manchu,” his first Fu Manchu novel, under the pen-name Sax Rohmer. It collated various short stories published the preceding year.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Mystery_of_Dr._Fu-Manchu)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.76)

1913        Elsie De Wolfe authored "The House in Good Taste" and marked the beginning of the profession of interior decorating.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.B4)

1913        D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), English writer, published his novel "Sons and Lovers."
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D._H._Lawrence)

1913        Jack London settled in Glen Ellen, California. His book "Valley of the Moon" described the local area. He built a model farm in the Glen Ellen hillsides and called it Beauty Ranch. the property included a man-made lake, blacksmith shop, cooperage, winery, barns, silos, bath-houses, and a deluxe pig sty. A magnificent mansion called Wolf House was to crown the ranch but it burned down just before he moved in.
    (WCG, p.68)

1913        Wesley Clair Mitchell, professor at Columbia, authored "Business Cycles and Their Causes."
    (NW, 10/7/02, p.50)

1913        Edith Wharton authored her novel "The Custom of the Country."
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.8)

1913        The Toonerville Folks comic strip by Fontaine Fox began about this time and continued to 1955. After a few years the strip was often named the Toonerville Trolley, a funny electric streetcar featured in the strip. Mickey McGuire was a character in the strip and was played by a child actor named Joe Yule Jr. in several silent movies. Yule took the McGuire name for himself, but was sued by Fox. He then changed his name to Mickey Rooney.
    (SFC, 11/7/07, p.G8)

1913        Vaslav Nijinsky created the ballet "Jeux" to music by Claude Debussy.
    (WSJ, 11/12/01, p.A20)

1913        Visiting America with a touring company, Charlie Chaplin was cast in his first film, "Making a Living." Although historians are not certain when the "little tramp" was created, Chaplin remains most readily identified with that beloved character.
    (AP, 4/16/00)

1913        The first film by Hollywood’s first major movie studio "The Squaw Man" was produced. The studio was formed by Jesse L. Lasky, his brother-in-law Samuel Goldwyn and friend Cecil B. DeMille.
    (SFC, 9/19/96, p.E4)

1913        The opera "The Glass Blowers" by John Philip Sousa was first performed.
    (WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A12)

1913        The song "Peg o’ My Heart" came out.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.B4)

1913        Arnold Schoenberg composed his cantata "Gurrelieder."
    (WSJ, 1/31/02, p.A16)

1913        Francis Marion Smith and his associates at Realty Estate Syndicate became overextended and were forced to declare bankruptcy. Their SF Bay Area Key System went into receivership and was taken over by a new company in 1923. The Key rail and ferry services continued until 1939 when it began operating on the lower deck of the new SF Bay Bridge.
    (SFC, 3/22/14, p.D2)
1913        In San Francisco the 2-storey Vesuvio building at 255 Columbus Ave. was built. It was designed by Italo Zanolini. The building was redone in 1918. Vesuvio’s bar opened in 12948.
    (SSFC, 5/19/13, p.C5)
1913        San Francisco’s Commercial High School, which had resurrected on a lot at Grove and Larkin streets, was moved on wheels, to make way for the Civic Auditorium, to the southwest corner of Franklin and Fell streets under the name High School of Commerce.
    (SFC, 4/30/13, p.E4)
1913        The San Francisco Civic Auditorium was constructed. It was damaged by the 1987 earthquake and was shut down for 19 months for repairs.
    (WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)
1913        In San Francisco the Hotel Senate, aka Crescent Manor, opened at 467 Turk Street. It was designed by architect Charles J. Rousseau.
    (SFC, 12/13/10, p.D1)
1913        In San Francisco the 1910 67,000-square-foot building designed by architect Newton Tharp, was moved brick by brick to 170 Fell St. It was used by the SF Unified School District for administration until the 1989 earthquake.
    (SFC, 1/7/98, p.A15)
1913        In San Francisco the 2-story building at 200 Powell St. was built. The Art Moderne style was designed by Salfield and Kohlberg. It was remodeled in 1933 and 2008.
    (SSFC, 9/26/10, p.C4)
1913        Notre Dame des Victoires church in San Francisco was built on Bush Street.
    (SFCM, 4/30/06, p.4)(www.noehill.com/sf/landmarks/sf173.asp)
1913        The St. Joseph church was built in San Francisco at Howard and 10th streets. It was forced to close following the 1989 earthquake. The Polaris real estate group bought it around 2009 and planned to restore the structure as office space.
    (SFC, 2/1/12, p.C1)
1913        In San Francisco the 11-story Flatiron Building, designed by Havens and Toepke, was built at 540 Market St.
    (SSFC, 4/12/09, p.B3)
1913        In San Francisco the 2-story headquarters of the Commercial fire Dispatch Co. was built at 229 Oak St.
    (SFC, 11/25/09, p.D3)
1913        In San Francisco Charles Baker was convicted for embezzling $220,000 from Crocker National Bank. In 1929 his son Roy Baker confessed to embezzling $72,000 over 3 years from Oakland Bank.
    (SFC, 5/7/04, p.F2)
1913        In San Francisco motorized pumps were installed in the Dutch and Murphy windmills in Golden Gate Park. Their maintenance was neglected and they eventually ceased to operate.
    (SFC, 6/26/02, p.A18)
1913        In San Francisco neighborhood activists burned 30 of the old Carville houses.
    (SFC, 1/14/99, p.D10)

1913        In Detroit the Michigan Central Depot railway station opened on Michigan Ave. It was designed by the same architects responsible for NYC’s Grand Central Station. The last train departed from the station in January, 1988, after which the structure was stripped by vandals. In 2009 it continued to stand, under owner Manuel Moroun, a trucking and real estate mogul, even as a dead body was found at the bottom of an elevator shaft.
    (LSA, Spring, 2009, p.66)
1913        The 60-story, 792-foot Woolworth Building by architect Cass Gilbert was completed at 233 Broadway and became the tallest building in the world. The Woolworth Building in New York reigned as the world's tallest building from its opening until the Chrysler Building was completed in 1930. It was first conceived in 1910 with a simple drawing by architect Cass Gilbert. Commissioned by retail giant Frank Winfield Woolworth as the headquarters of his "five and ten cent" store chain, the Woolworth Building was the first to utilize many key developments in skyscraper technology. The building was supported by a foundation of concrete piers sunk below street level to bedrock. Men worked in caissons, or chambers kept dry with high-pressure air, to sink the foundation below the water line. Above ground, the building's steel framework rose 792 feet--very tall for its day--and its wind bracing was highly developed. High-speed express and local elevators were also used in this building, which instantly became a symbol of the vitality of New York. Gilbert dressed it in Gothic raiment.
    (HT, 5/97, p.24)(HNPD, 2/27/99)(WSJ, 5/28/02, p.D7)
1913        Hill Auditorium at the Univ. of Michigan was constructed. The 4,200 seat auditorium was a gift from regent Arthur Hill. In 1978 it was added to the National Register of Historical Places.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.15)

1913        The New York Times building was constructed. [see 1904]
    (SFEM, 1/16/00, p.22)

1913        Industrialist Charles Gates introduced the 1st residential air-conditioning in his Minneapolis mansion.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)

1913        Strombeck-Becker Manufacturing Co. of Moline Illinois was incorporated by J.F. Strombeck and R.D. Becker. They made wooden handles and tent poles and expanded into toys in 1919 and dollhouse furniture in 1931. In 1962 the company dropped out of the toy business.
    (SFC, 8/20/08, p.G4)

1913        Mary McAboy of Missoula, Montana, began hand-making Skookum Indian dolls and acquired a patent for it in 1914. Skookum was a Siwash Indian word that roughly means bully good.
    (SFC, 6/17/98, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 3/16/05, p.G4)

1913        Joe’s Stone Crab eatery in Miami Beach opened for business.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 57)

1913        Peppermint Life Savers were introduced.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.B4)

1913        Kamerlingh Onnes of Holland won the Nobel Prize for liquefying helium. His major discovery was superconductivity, the elimination of electrical resistance at very cold temperatures. In 1999 Tom Shachtman described the event in his book "Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold."
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)

1913        Knute Rockne, football coach at Notre Dame, popularized the forward pass.
    (WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)
1913        The New York Highlanders American League baseball team officially adopted the “Yankees” name. Newspapers have begun calling them the “Yanks” as early as 1904. Fans had earlier called them “the Americans” due to their league affiliation.
    (ON, 6/09, p.11)

1913        US Pres. Woodrow Wilson, a Virginian, ordered the federal workers in Washington to be segregated.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)

1913        The US Post Office first set up contract stations to reduce congestion at a town’s main post office.
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, C13)

1913        The US Virus Serum Toxin Act gave the USDA authority to ensure that veterinary diagnostic kits are safe and accurate and to decide where cattle can be tested and for what.
    (WSJ, 3/904, p.A8)(SFC, 4/10/04, p.A3)

1913        The Wilson Tariff Act banned the plume trade.
    (NH, 9/96, p.8)

1913        The US buffalo nickel, also known as the Indian head nickel, went into circulation. It continued to 1938.
    (SFC, 4/25/03, B3)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)

1913        Julian Hawthorne, son of Nathanial and one time editor of the New York World, was arrested on a mail fraud charge. He ended his career writing for "Good Words," the first newspaper in any federal penitentiary.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, zone 1 p.4)

1913        Anderson, Delany & Co., an accounting firm, was formed in Chicago. The firm was renamed Arthur Anderson in 1918. Arthur Anderson (28), accounting professor, was a co-founder.
    (SFC, 3/15/02, p.A15)(WSJ, 5/1/02, p.B1)(WSJ, 6/7/02, p.A6)

1913        Theodore Vail, president of AT&T, signed the Kingsbury Commitment a became a government approved monopoly. He agreed to stop acquiring companies and allow competitors to interconnect with the Bell Telephone System.
    (WSJ, 10/26/00, p.A12)(SFC, 7/23/04, p.C1)

1913        Brillo pads were introduced.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.B4)

1913        The US firm Harley-Davidson opened its 1st motorcycle dealership in St. Petersburg, Russia. It closed in 1917. In 2005 it opened a new dealership opened in Moscow.
    (SFC, 5/13/05, p.C2)

1913        Bela Schick devised the "Schick test," which had a dramatic effect on the incidence of diphtheria. The skin test determined a patient’s susceptibility to diphtheria. Mass surveys followed by immunization of Schick-positive children with inactive toxin resulted in a drastic decrease in the incidence of the disease.
    (HNQ, 6/8/99)

1913        The oil refining process called thermal cracking was invented.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)

1913        Niels Bohr proposed that electrons behave in quantum fashion. They remained in fixed orbits and moved from one orbit to another - in quantum leaps - when they emitted or absorbed energy.
    (NG, May 1985, J. Boslough, p. 642)

1913        Charles Dawson and Teilhard de Chardin found the canine tooth that was needed to identify their 1912 jaw as human and not ape.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.48)

1913        In Alabama a white man was executed for murdering a black man.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A3)

1913        In southern California mass excavations began at the asphalt pools at Rancho La Brea. The oldest fossils found there dated back 38,000 years.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.85)
1913        The steamer Pomo sank off the coast of northern California in a gale.
    (SFC, 9/26/97, p.A23)
1913        A temperature of 134 degrees was recorded in Death Valley. It was the highest ever recorded in the US.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.T6)

1913        A Massachusetts state law prohibited non-residents from getting married in the state if their union would not be legal in their home state. The law was repealed in 2008.
    (SFC, 5/19/04, p.A3)(SFC, 8/1/08, p.A4)

1913        Copper miners walked off the job Calumet, Mich. Workers demanded higher wages, shorter hours and return to the 2-man drill. The strike is described by Jerry Stanley in "Big Annie of Calumet: A True Story of the Industrial Revolution."
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, BR p.10)

1913        In Goodsprings, Nevada, the Pioneer Saloon opened. In 2006 Noel Scheckells, a Las Vegas entrepreneur, purchased it. In 2007 Nevada added the saloon to its Register of Historic Places.
    (SSFC, 4/27/08, p.A6)

1913        New York state passed “the eight foot sheet law” to ensure that the upper sheet in a hotel was of sufficient length to cover the face so “that the inhalation by the occupant of bacteria &c, may be prevented.”
    (WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W8)

1913        In Pennsylvania a fire at the Red Ash colliery ignited a coal mine. As of 2009 it was still burning and was the oldest of 36 ongoing mine fires.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.34)

1913        In Washington state the 105-foot Elwha Dam came on line. Fish passage facilities were required, but none were ever built. In 2011 it became part of a $324.7 million, 3-year dam-removal project.
    (SFC, 5/30/11, p.A7)

1913        Josephine Garis Cochrane (73), inventor of the Garis-Cochran Dishwashing Machine, died. Her company was sold to Hobart manufacturing and her appliance was renamed the KitchenAid. It was later acquired by Whirlpool Corp.
    (ON, 4/00, p.12)

1913        Baron Corvo (b.1860) died. A.J.A. Symons later authored "The Quest for Corvo." Corvo’s work included "Hadrian the Seventh."
    (WSJ, 7/6/01, p.W11)

1913        J. P. Morgan (b.1837), financier and art collector, died. In 1990 Ron Chernow published "The House of Morgan." In 1999 Jean Strouse published "Morgan: American Financier."
    (SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A26)

1913        Former slave Harriet Tubman was given a military funeral upon her death for her service as a nurse during the Civil War. Already well known for her work to help slaves escape via the Underground Railroad, Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew asked Tubman to help nurse in the military camps early in the war. Late in her life she was awarded a military pension.
    (HNQ, 7/13/99)

1913        Alfred Russel Wallace (b.1823), naturalist, died. He developed the theory of evolution by natural selection at the same time as did Charles Darwin. In 2001 Peter Raby authored "Alfred Russel Wallace: A Life." In 2002 Michael Shermer authored "Darwin’s Shadow: The Life and Science of Alfred Russel Wallace.
    (NH, 2/02, p.74)

1913        Latin America’s first subway line opened in Argentina. 90 Belgian-made wooden subway cars began rolling and continued thru 2012.
    (SFC, 1/3/13, p.A2)

1913        Small Balkan War broke out, again quelled by major powers.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.290)

1913        Arthur Bernstein, later named Sir Arthur Gilbert, was born in Golders Green, North London. His Gilbert Collection was donated to the Queen Mother in 2000 and installed at Somerset House.
    (WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A24)
1913        London stopped published archives of the Old Bailey as newspapers began publishing details of court cases. By 2008 the archives, going back to 1694, were digitized and made available on line.
    (Econ, 5/3/08, p.65)
1913        The British convoked a conference at Simla, India, to discuss the issue of Tibet's status. The conference was attended by representatives of the British Empire, the newly founded Republic of China, and the Tibetan government at Lhasa.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simla_Accord_%281914%29)
1913        London, England, had 65 electrical utilities using 49 different standards for their supply.
    (Econ, 9/7/13, p.24)

1913        The Bain Morgan bath house in Montreal was constructed for C$300,000.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.64)

1913        Ricardo Roth Schutz, a guide of Swiss descent, began leading groups of tourists across Lakes Crossing (Cruce de Lagos), linking Bariloche in northern Argentina to Puerto Varas in Chile’s Lakes District.
    (SSFC, 1/6/08, p.G4)

1913        In Denmark the bronze statue of the Little Mermaid, a character from a Hans Christian Anderson story, was installed in the harbor. It was commissioned by Carl Jacobsen, founder of the Carlsberg Beer Co., and created by Edvard Eriksen. [see 1964]
    (SFC,11/5/97, p.C2)

1913        Frank Shuman, American inventor, created the first large solar pumping station in Meadi, Egypt.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, TQ p.23)

1913        Henri Fournier (1886-1914) authored “Le Grand Meaulnes” under the pen name Alain-Fournier. It became one of France’s most popular novels.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.134)
1913        The avant-garde of pre-WW I Paris was chronicled in 1958 by Roger Shattuck’s "The Banquet Years."
    (WSJ, 9/18/98, p.W8)
1913        France enacted legislation requiring owners of protected buildings to maintain them and protect them from damage.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 68)
1913        Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel opened a milliner's shop [in Paris] with funds from her lover.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1913        Dr. Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) and his wife Hélène moved to Gabon and opened a hospital in Lambarene, on the banks of the Ogooue River. The area was then know as French Equatorial Africa. He later expanded it with money from his 1952 Nobel Peace Prize. Born near Alsace, Germany, Schweitzer decided to devote himself to providing health care to people in Africa at the age of 30. Schweitzer also spoke out against the dangers of nuclear weapons, became an organist and expert on Johann Sebastian Bach, and served as a church pastor and university professor. He lived by the principle of "reverence for life."
    (HNPD, 9/4/98)(T&L, 10/80, p. 162)

1913        An imperial edict based nationality on bloodlines rather than birthplace and laid the base for Germany’s citizenship law. The law was set for change in 1998
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A9)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A13)
1913        Germany launched the SS Vaterland, a passenger ship. It happened to be in NY harbor when war broke out in 1914 and was not allowed to leave. The US Navy seized it in 1917 for a troop carrier as the US entered the war. After the war it served as an American passenger liner under the name Leviathan and continued service to 1938.
    (SFC, 8/8/07, p.G2)
1913        German newspaper editor Wolfgang Riepl formulated Riepl’s Law, which hypothesized that new, further developed types of media never replace the existing modes of media and their usage patterns. Instead, a convergence takes place in their field, leading to a different way and field of use for these older forms.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riepl%27s_law)
1913        Franz Schneider patented a gun synchronizing device in Germany, France and Great Britain. In 1915 it was developed as the "Fokker Scourge" to fire bullets through an airplanes propellers.
    (ON, 10/02, p.8)
1913        The German Tendaguru expedition to East Africa (later Tanzania) yielded a huge collection of dinosaur bones from the late Jurassic. The collection was taken to the Berlin Museum of Natural History.
    (WSJ, 1/31/03, p.A1)

1913        The 9,538-foot Mount Olympus in Greece was scaled for the 1st time. For years its slopes had provided a hideout for revolutionaries and bandits.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.D3)
1913        Three Russian ships sailed to the Greek island of Athos and bundled hundreds of Orthodox monks off to Odessa. The Russians feared that a dispute over reciting the name of Jesus Christ would lead to the expulsion of all Russians from Athos. The name dispute began in 1907 when the book “In the Mountains of the Caucasus” was written by a monk named Ilarion.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.89)

1913        The boundary between Iraq and Kuwait was defined.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)

1913        Eamon de Valera (31), mathematics teacher in Dublin, joined the Irish Volunteers, a group that was preparing to use violence to win Ireland’s independence.
    (ON, 9/04, p.5)

1913        In Italy Teatrale alla Scala had its formal opening in Milan on the end floor of the pavilion known as the Casino Ricordi. It contained the Jules Sambon collection, a horde of items pertaining not only to La Scala but to all areas of theater put up for sale in 1911 and acquired by the City of Milan.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.90)

1913        In Mexico a coup led by Victoriano Huerta and encouraged by US Ambassador Lane Wilson overthrew and murdered Pres. Madero.
    (WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)
1913        The Banco Mercantil in Monterrey, Mexico faced demands by rebel troops to pay tribute to the Revolution or close. The bank spirited millions of dollars in gold bullion to Laredo, Texas. It survived the hostilities by operating "offshore" and returned home in 1916.
    (WSJ, 4/1/96, p.A-10)
1913        Mexico’s active Volcan de Fuego, part of the Colima volcano complex, experienced a major eruption. As of 2012 it has erupted more than 40 times since 1576. Only a fraction of the volcano's surface area is in the state of Colima; the majority of its surface area lies over the border in the neighboring state of Jalisco.
    (SSFC, 8/19/12, p.P3)(www.gomanzanillo.com/old_articles/volcano/)

1913        The Peace Palace was built at the Hague, Netherlands, by the Carnegie Foundation. It is often called the seat of international law because it houses the International Court of Justice (which is the principal judicial body of the United Nations), the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the Hague Academy of International Law, and the extensive Peace Palace Library.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_Palace)

1913        In Norway industrialist Sam Eyde built the town of Rjukan, Telemark County, to provide workers for a hydroelectric plant located at the foot of a nearby waterfall.
    (SFC, 10/31/13, p.A4)

1913        The Chagres River in Panama was dammed for the construction of Panama Canal and a 4,000 acre island was formed called Barro Colorado. Ten years later the island was set aside for scientific research.
    (Smith, 5/95, p.10)

1913        In Serbia the Roman Catholic archbishop of Skopje wrote about Prizren following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire as Serbs massacred Albanians: "They knock on the doors of Albanian houses, take away the men and shoot them immediately… As for plunder looting and rape, all that goes without saying. Henceforth the order of the day is: Everything is permitted against the Albanians - not merely permitted but willed and commended.
    (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.A16)

1913        A South African Land Act reserved 87% of the country’s land for the white minority. Blacks were not allowed to own, or even rent, land outside special black reserves.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.38)(Econ, 6/5/10, SR p.9)

1913-1914    This period in Vienna, Austria, is documented by Frederic Morton in Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1913-1914.
    (WSJ, 4/12/95, A-12)

1913-1916    Ezra Pound spent 3 winters with W.B. Yeats as the poets artistic prod and secretary.
    (SFEC, 6/18/00, BR p.10)

1913-1916    Sir Aurel Stein made his 3rd expedition along the Silk Road.
    (AM, 7/00, p.72)

1913-1921    Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)
1913-1921    Thomas Riley Marshall served as vice-president. "What this country needs is a really good five-cent cigar."
    (NW, 12/17/01, p.51)

1913-1927    Marcel Proust (1871-1922), French novelist wrote his 7-volume "Remembrance of Things Past." In 1998 it was turned into a comic book series.
    (WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P18)

1913-1934    Walter Duranty served as the Moscow correspondent for the New York Times and supplied supportive and untrue copy on the successes of Bolshevism/Communism.
    (WSJ, 2/14/96, p.A-15)

1913-1944    The "Krazy Kat" cartoon by George Harriman ran as a comic strip.
    (SFC, 1/18/97, p.D1)

1913-1967    Ad Reinhardt, painter. A retrospective was held at the LA MOCA in 1991.
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, p.D7)

1913-1991    Sir Angus Wilson, novelist, short-story writer, critic and biographer of Dickens and Kipling. He made his debut in 1949 with "The Wrong Set," a collection of stories. "Anglo-Saxon Attitudes" (1956) has been called his best work. His biography was written in 1996 by Margaret Drabble and titled: "Angus Wilson: A Biography."
    (WSJ, 5/14/96, p.A-20)(SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.5)

1913-1996    May 30, Alexander Langsdorf Jr., American physicist. He helped develop the atomic bomb and provided some of the first usable plutonium from a cyclotron. He was also one of the designers of the first two nuclear reactors and invented the diffusion cloud chamber. He died on 5/24/96.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, p.C-10)

1913-1998    Prof. Reinhardt M. Rosenberg, the father of nonlinear modes. His work in mechanical engineering and dynamics culminated in his text "Analytical Dynamics of Discrete Systems. He and his students developed mathematical models of the electrical activity of the human heart.
    (SFC, 8/25/98, p.B2)

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