Return to home1912 Jan 1,
Kim Philby was born in India. He became a ringleader of a group of
upper crust Englishmen who entered public service or, in many cases,
the British Secret Service, then spied for the Soviets. Philby got
away and spent his last years in Moscow.
1912 Jan 1, A Massachusetts law
reducing the work-week from fifty-six to fifty-four hours for women
and children, went into effect. Workers struck spontaneously on Jan
12 when the mill owners reduced wages to coincide with the reduced
1912 Jan 1, The Republic of
China was formed with Sun Yat-Sen as president. Nationalist Party
co-founder Song Jiaren began designing the institutions of the new
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.68)
1912 Jan 3, Plans were
announced for a new $150,000 Brooklyn stadium for the Trolley
Dodgers baseball team.
1912 Jan 4, Ecuador’s former
President Eloy Alfaro returned to Ecuador and attempted another coup
but was defeated, arrested and jailed by General and former
President Leonidas Plaza.
1912 Jan 6, New Mexico became
the 47th state of the US.
(HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AP, 1/6/98)
1912 Jan 7, Charles Addams,
cartoonist whose macabre Addams Family appeared in The New Yorker,
1912 Jan 8, The South African
Native National Congress was founded. It was renamed the African
National Congress (ANC) in 1923. Sol Plaatje was one of the founders
of the ANC.
(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A20)(AFP, 1/1/12)(Econ, 8/25/12,
1912 Jan 9, Colonel
Theodore Roosevelt announced that he would run for president if
1912 Jan 9, The $18 million
Equitable Life Assurance building in New York was destroyed by fire.
1912 Jan 10, The World's first
flying-boat airplane, designed by Glenn Curtiss (1878-1930), made
its maiden flight at San Diego, Ca. The Curtiss Model D featured an
electric starter. Curtiss had become the first licensed pilot in
1912 Jan 11, Norwegian explorer
Roald Amundsen beat Scott to the South Pole by five days. [see Dec
1912 Jan 12, In Lawrence,
Mass., over 20,000 textile factory workers went on strike to protest
1912 Jan 13, A temp. of 40F
(-40C), Oakland, Maryland, set a state record.
1912 Jan 13, In Siam (Thailand)
resentful army officers attempted a coup against King Vajiravudh
1912 Jan 16, British explorer
Robert Falcon Scott wrote in his diary after reaching the South Pole
on January 16, 1912, "Great God this is an awful place and terrible
enough for us to have labored to it without the reward of priority."
Robert Scott, attempting to lead the first exploration party to the
South Pole, wrote the passage after finding the black flag of
Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen. Thoroughly demoralized, the five
members of the Scott party died during their 800-mile trek back to
their base camp. [see Jan 18]
1912 Jan 18, The expedition of
British Royal Navy Captain Robert Falcon Scott intended to be the
first to reach the South Pole, but when they arrived they found a
letter from Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, who had been there
over a month earlier. Scott and his group had set out from a camp in
Antarctica 81 days earlier, and on their way back, their supplies
ran out. Scott wrote in a diary during the trek, which a search
party discovered with the team's frozen bodies in November. Part of
Scott's March 29 entry reads, "We shall stick it out to the end, but
we are getting weaker, of course, and the end cannot be far." The
team had made it to within 11 miles of the camp. Scott's diary ended
with, "Last Entry: For God's sake look after our people." [see Jan
(AP, 1/18/98)(HNPD, 1/18/99)
1912 Jan 22, Second Monte-Carlo
auto race began.
1912 Jan 28, Jackson Pollock
(d.1956), "Jack the Dripper", expressionist painter (Lavender Mist),
was born in Cody, Wyoming. Leader of the abstract expressionist
school of art. He filled two sketchbooks between 1937-1939 and
another from 1938-1941.
(AHD, 1971, p.1015)(WSJ, 11/5/97, p.A20)
1912 Jan 28, In Ecuador a group
of pro-Catholic soldiers supported by a mob, broke into the prison
where former Press. Alfaro and his colleagues were detained and
dragged them along the cobbled streets of the city center. This
sparked the Concha Revolution.
1912 Jan 29, "Professor" Irwin
Corey, comedian (Car Wash, Doc), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
1912 Jan 30, Barbara Tuchman,
U.S. historian best remembered for her book "The Guns of August,"
1912 Jan 30, The British House
of Lords opposed the House of Commons by rejecting home rule for
1912 Jan, Alfred Wegener,
German scientist, suggested that the continents had drifted to their
present positions from the break-up of a single primeval
super-continent. He said that the break up of Pangaea came at the
end of the Mesozoic era.
(DD-EVTT, p.22,189)(ON, 9/04, p.8)
1912 Feb 3, New U.S. football
rules were set: the field was shortened to 100 yds.; touchdown
became six points instead of five; four downs were allowed instead
of three; and the kickoff was moved from midfield to the 40 yd.
1912 Feb 4, Erich Leinsdorf
(d.1993), conductor, was born in Vienna, Austria. Leinsdorf earned a
reputation for exacting standards. He published books and essays on
musical matters and became a naturalized American citizen in 1942.
1912 Feb 4, In San Francisco
two horses were killed when a huge truck loaded with 45 tons of
copper cable broke free on the steep grade of Steiner Street hill.
50 horses were pulling against the truck with 4 horses guiding when
the cable broke.
(SSFC, 2/5/12, DB p.42)
1912 Feb 6, Eva Braun, mistress
(Adolph Hitler), was born.
1912 Feb 10, Dr. Joseph Lister,
founder of sterile technique in surgical practice, died at age 85.
In 1917 Sir Rickman John Godlee authored "Lord Lister."
(ON, 7/00, p.9)
1912 Feb 11, SF Police Chief
White delivered an ultimatum to the Chinese Consul General, Ow Young
King, and two secretaries of the Chinese Six companies that they
establish peace between the warring tongs or he would blockade white
from entering Chinatown.
(SSFC, 2/12/12, DB p.42)
1912 Feb 11, Rudolf Firkusny
(d.1954), classical pianist (Julliard), was born in Napajedla,
1912 Feb 11, Roy Fuller, poet
and novelist, was born.
1912 Feb 12, China became a
republic following the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty. Pu Yi (reign
name Hsuan T'ung), the last Ch'ing (Manchu) emperor of China,
abdicated. This marked the end of the Qing Dynasty. China adopted
the Gregorian calendar.
(HN, 2/12/01)(AP, 2/12/06)
1912 Feb 13, The Chinese
imperial government acknowledged the new republic.
1912 Feb 14, Arizona became the
48th state of the Union, the final area of the continental United
States to attain statehood.
(AP, 2/14/98)(AP, 5/20/10)
1912 Feb 14, The 1st US
submarines with diesel engines were commissioned at Groton, Ct.
1912 Feb 15, The Fram reached
latitude 78ø 41' S, farthest south ever by ship.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1912 Feb 19, Stan Kenton,
[Newcomb], jazz musician (Music 55), was born in Wichita, Ks.
1912 Feb 24, Italy bombed
Beirut in the first act of war against the Ottoman Empire.
1912 Feb 26, Coal miners struck
in England. They settled on 03/01.
1912 Feb 27, Lawrence Durrell,
English novelist and poet, was born. His books included "The
Alexandria Quartet." In 1998 Ian MacNiven wrote the biography:
(WUD, 1994, p.443)(SFEC, 7/12/98, BR p.7)(HN,
1912 Mar 1, Albert Berry
completed the first in-flight parachute jump, from a Benoist plane
over Kinlock Field in St. Louis.
1912 Mar 1, Isabella Goodwin,
1st US woman detective, was appointed in NYC.
1912 Mar 4, The French council
of war unanimously voted a mandatory three-year military service.
1912 Mar 5, The Italians became
the first to use dirigibles for military purposes, using them for
reconnaissance flights behind Turkish lines west of Tripoli.
1912 Mar 5, Spanish steamer
"Principe de Asturias" sank NE of Spain and 500 died.
1912 Mar 7, Roald Amundsen
announced the discovery of the South Pole [see Dec 14, 1911].
1912 Mar 7, French aviator,
Heri Seimet flew non-stop from London to Paris in three hours.
1912 Mar 10, In China Yuan
Shikai (b.1859) succeeded Sun Yat-Sen as President of the Republic
1912 Mar 12, Juliette Gordon
Low organized the Girl Guides, which later became the Girl Scouts of
America, at the 1848 Andrew Low House in Savannah, Ga. The US
Congress chartered the Girl Scouts in 1950.
(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T5)(USAT, 3/23/04, p.1D)(AP,
1912 Mar 12, Capt. Albert Berry
performed the 1st parachute jump from an airplane.
1912 Mar 14, An anarchist named
Antonio Dalba unsuccessfully attempted to kill Italy’s King Victor
Emmanuel III in Rome.
1912 Mar 16, Thelma Catherine
Patricia Ryan Nixon, first lady (1968-75) to Richard Nixon, was born
in Ely, Nevada.
(HN, 3/16/01)(MC, 3/16/02)
1912 Mar 16, In San Francisco
the Chinese tong war reopened as 4 Ho Sing gunmen opened fire at the
730 Jackson street liquor store of Cham Kok, the president of the
Suey Sing tong.
(SSFC, 3/11/12, DBp.42)
1912 Mar 19, Adolf Galland,
German Luftwaffe pilot and youngest German General at the age of 33,
1912 Mar 21, Peter Bull, actor,
author (Executioner, Tom Jones, Dr. Strangelove), was born.
1912 Mar 22, Karl Malden
(d.2009), later film and TV star, was born as Mladen Sekulovich in
(AP, 7/2/09)(SFC, 7/1/09, p.A8)
1912 Mar 23, Werner von Braun,
rocket expert (I Aim at the Stars), was born in Wirsitz,
Germany. He led the development of the V-2 rocket during World War
(HN, 3/23/99)(SS, 3/23/02)
1912 Mar 23, Dixie Cup was
1912 Mar 24, The “Bread and
Roses” textile workers strike in Lawrence, Mass., ended. Mill
owners, fearing that government intervention and investigation would
jeopardize the high tariff on woolens, had finally agreed to
bargain. Offers of pay increases from five to twenty-five percent,
time-and-a-quarter for overtime, and no discrimination against
strikers led to the end of the strike.
1912 Mar 27, James Callaghan
(d.2005), British prime minister (1976-1979), was born in
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.A21)
1912 Mar 27, The first cherry
blossom trees, a gift from Japan, were planted in Washington, D.C.
First Lady Helen Herron Taft and the Viscountess Chinda, wife of the
Japanese ambassador, planted two Yoshina cherry trees on the
northern bank of the Potomac Tidal Basin, near the Jefferson
Memorial. The event was held in celebration of a gift, by the
Japanese government, of 3,020 trees to the US government for
planting along Washington's Potomac River.
1912 Mar 28, San Francisco
women began voting for the first time.
(SSFC, 3/25/12, DB p.42)
1912 Mar 29, The U.S. sent
rifles to the Mexican ambassador in Mexico City and readied U.S.
ships to transport troops to fight the rebels.
1912 Mar 29, Capt. Robert F.
Scott, British pole explorer, storm-bound in a tent near South Pole,
made a last entry in his diary: "Last entry. For God's sake look
after our people."
1912 Mar 30, The Treaty of Fez
was signed. Sultan Abdelhafid made Morocco a French protectorate,
resolving the Agadir Crisis of July 1, 1911.
1912 Mar, The Univ. of Michigan
Board of Regents voted to accept specific color shades of maize and
azure blue as filed by Professor Warren P. Lombard.
(MT, Fall ‘96, p.11)
1912 Apr 2, Titanic underwent
sea trials under its own power.
1912 Apr 2, Sun Yet Sen formed
the Kuomintang-Party in China.
1912 Apr 3, Calbraith Perry
Rodgers (b.1879), American pioneer aviator, crashed and was killed
while flying over the ocean near Long Beach, Ca.
(ON, 10/06, p.12)
1912 Apr 4, A Chinese republic
was proclaimed in Tibet.
1912 Apr 6, Cadillac adopted an
electric self-starter. Charles Franklin Kettering (1876-1958), as
president of Delco, introduced the electric-starter on the 1912
1912 Apr 8, Sonja Henie
(d.1969), ice skater, actress (Olympic-gold-1928,32,36), was born in
Oslo, Norway. Henie won 10 consecutive world championships.
(MC, 4/8/02)(SSFC, 10/5/03, Par p.2)
1912 Apr 8, Steamers collided
in Nile, drowning 200.
1912 Apr 10, The 66,000 ton RMS
Titanic left port from Southampton, England, on its ill-fated maiden
voyage with 2,223 people.
(SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.16)(SFEC, 12/8/96, BR
1912 Apr 10, The first wireless
transmission was received on an airplane.
1912 Apr 12, Clara Barton
(b.1821), the founder of the American Red Cross, died at her home in
Glen Echo, Maryland at age 90.
(ON, 8/12, p.12)(
1912 Apr 13, Royal Flying Corps
formed (later RAF).
1912 Apr 14, The British liner
Titanic, on her maiden voyage and hailed as ‘the unsinkable
ship,’ collided with an iceberg in the North Atlantic and
(AP, 4/14/97)(HN, 4/14/99)
1912 Apr 15, Kim Il Sung, North
Korea's communist founder and leader (1948-1994), was born.
(AP, 7/8/97)(WSJ, 6/26/97, p.A14)(SSFC, 3/17/02,
1912 Apr 15, At 2:20 a.m., two
hours and 40 minutes after impact, the luxury liner RMS Titanic sank
in the North Atlantic Ocean off Newfoundland with the loss of about
1,522 lives. About 1,500  people died. Because there were
lifeboats for only half those on board, only 705 passengers and crew
survived the disaster. Among the survivors was J. Bruce Ismay,
president of the White Star Line, who telegraphed his New York
office, "Deeply regret advise you Titanic sank this morning after
collision with iceberg, resulting in serious loss of life. Full
particulars later." Nearly a third of the passengers died. The
ship’s band played the waltz “Songe d’Automne” as it sank. The
accident killed 1,523  people and 705 survived. By 1996 only 8
were still alive. Nearly 60% of the first-class passengers survived.
There were 214 staff members of the 685 survivors. It was later
discovered that Harland & Wolff, the ship’s builder, had used a
lower quality rivet on the ship that likely contributed to the rapid
sinking. The last night on the ship was described by Rick Archbold
and Dana McCauley in their book: “Last Dinner on the Titanic.” The
steamer Carpathia rescued 705 of the 2,358 people onboard. Prof.
Steven Biel of Brandeis Univ. wrote “A Cultural History of the
Titanic” in 1997.
(AP, 4/15/97)(SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.16)(SFC,
9/22/96, Par p.25)(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A1)(SFC, 4/14/97, p.E8)(SFC,
4/19/97, p.A3)(SFEC,12/797, DB p.37)(SFC, 4/15/08, p.A6)
1912 Apr 16, Harriet Quimby
became the first woman to fly solo across the English Channel.
1912 Apr 19, Glenn T. Seaborg,
first head of Atomic Energy Commission, was born. He won a Nobel
Prize in 1951 for co-discovering Plutonium.
(HN, 4/19/97)(MC, 4/19/02)
1912 Apr 20, Boston’s Fenway
Park, home to Boston Red Sox, opened with its first official
1912 Apr 20, Bram Stoker, Irish
theater manager, writer (Dracula), died.
1912 Apr 21, Marcel Camus,
French film director (Black Orpheus), was born.
1912 Apr 22, At the urging of
Pres. Taft the Chamber of Commerce of the USA was established at a
Washington hotel by a gathering of 700 delegates from 44 states. The
represented 324 voluntary organizations.
(Econ, 4/21/12, p.77)
1912 Apr 25, Gladys L. Presley,
mother of Elvis Presley, was born.
1912 Apr 28, Odette Hallowes,
British secret agent in France, was born. She was later captured and
tortured by the Gestapo.
1912 Apr 30, Eve Arden (Eunice
Quedens), actress, was born.
1912 Apr, The Arthur Conan
Doyle novel "The Lost World" began running in serial form in The
(PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.18)
1912 May 2, Axel Springer,
German newspaper magnate, was born.
1912 May 3, May Sarton, poet
and writer, was born.
1912 May 4, More than ten
thousand women and about a thousand men marched down Fifth Avenue in
NYC to support woman's suffrage.
(NYT, 5/5/1912, p1)
1912 May 5, The Soviet
Communist Party newspaper Pravda began publishing. Iosif
Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili took the name Stalin, meaning "man of
steel," about the time he helped found the Russian Communist
newspaper Pravda. Stalin specialized in writing about national
minorities in Russia and went on to become editor of Pravda.
(HN, 5/5/98)(HN, 12/21/98)(HNQ, 4/6/00)
1912 May 7, Columbia University
approved plans for awarding the Pulitzer Prize in several
categories. The award was established by Joseph Pulitzer.
1912 May 11, Phil Silvers,
comedian and actor, was born. He stared on TV's "Sergeant Bilko."
1912 May 12, The Beverly Hills
Hotel opened. In 1987 it was acquired by the Sultan of Brunei. He
closed it down for a $100 million remodel in 1992 and it reopened in
(WSJ, 5/11/01, p.W6)(SSFC, 5/27/12, p.H5)
1912 May 13, Gil Evans, jazz
pianist and composer, was born.
1912 May 13, In San Francisco
aviator Roy Francis and artist Phil Rader made a 36 minute flight
over the city.
(SSFC, 5/13/12, p.42)
1912 May 13, The Royal
Flying Corps was established in England. It was the predecessor of
the Royal Air Force.
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/99)
1912 May 14, Johan August
Strindberg (b.1849), Swedish novelist, dramatist and essayist, died.
In 1985 Michael Meyer authored a Strindberg biography.
(WUD, 1994 p.1407)(SFC, 8/10/00, p.D2)(MC,
1912 May 15, Ty Cobb rushed a
heckler at a NY Highlander game and was suspended.
1912 May 16, Studs Terkel
American author, was born. He wrote The 'Good War.' "Take it easy,
but take it."
(AP, 5/16/98)(HN, 5/16/99)
1912 May 17, Archibald Cox was
born. He was the special prosecutor in the Watergate hearings who
was fired by President Richard Nixon.
1912 May 18, Richard Brooks,
director (Blackboard Jungle, In Cold Blood), was born in
1912 May 18, Georg von Opel,
German auto manufacturer, was born.
1912 May 18, Maurits Binger
established 2 Dutch movie companies.
1912 May 20, Joseph Proce, 3rd
victim of NYC's Zodiac killer, was born.
1912 May 25, Eddie Maxwell,
singer (Yes We Have No Bananas), was born.
1912 May 26, Jay Silverheels
(d.1980) was born as Harold J. Smith on the Six Nations Indian
Reservation, Brantford, Ontario, Canada. He was the son of a Mohawk
Indian chief and became an actor who portrayed Tonto on "The Lone
1912 May 27, John Cheever
(d1982), Pulitzer Prize winning writer was born. His work included
"The Wapshot Chronicle" and "The World of Apples."
(BS, 5/3/98, p.13E)(HN, 5/27/01)
1912 May 28, Patrick White,
Australian writer (The Tree of Man, The Eye of the Storm), was born.
1912 May 29, John Hanlo, Dutch
poet (Go to the Mosque), was born.
1912 May 29, Curtis Publishing
fired 15 young women for dancing the "Turkey Trot" during their
1912 May 30, U.S. Marines were
sent to Nicaragua to protect American interests.
1912 May 30, Wilbur Wright
(b.1867), aeronautical inventor, died of a typhoid infection.
(WUD, 1994, p.1647)(ON, SC, p.4)
1912 May, The first US feature
film, Oliver Twist, was released.
(SFC, 9/17/96, p.A22)
1912 May, Albanians rose
against the Ottoman authorities and seized Shkup (Skopje,
(www, Albania, 1998)
1912 Jun 4, Massachusetts
passed the 1st US minimum wage law.
1912 Jun 5, US marines invaded
Cuba (3rd time).
1912 Jun 6, In Alaska the
Novarupta volcano began erupting 6 miles from Mount Katmai. When the
eruption stopped on June 9th, the ash cloud had spread across
southern Alaska. This was later recognized as the most powerful
volcanic eruption of the 20th century. Crops withered across Canada
and the US that summer under skies shrouded with volcanic ash.
(http://geology.com/novarupta/)(Hem, 4/96, p.78)
1912 Jun 7, US army tested the
1st machine gun mounted on a plane.
1912 Jun 7, Pope Pius X issued
the encyclical: "On the Indians of South America."
1912 Jun 9, Convict H.A.
Lynwood was killed at San Quentin Penitentiary after prisoners
demonstrated for a 2nd day over the quality of food being served.
(SSFC, 6/10/12, DB p.42)
1912 Jun 17, Wessel Couzijn,
sculptor, cartoonist (Auschwitz-monument), was born.
1912 Jun 17, The German
Zeppelin SZ 111 burned in its hanger in Friedrichshafen.
1912 Jun 18, Glen Morris,
Olympic champion, actor (Tarzan), was born in MO.
1912 Jun 19, A new labor law is
passed by Congress, extending the 8-hour working day to all workers
under federal contract.
1912 Jun 21, Mary McCarthy,
American novelist whose works include "Memories of Catholic
Girlhood" and "The Group," was born.
1912 Jun 23, Alan M. Turing
(d.1954), English mathematician and pioneer of computer theory, was
born. He cracked the Enigma code in World War II that was used by
the Germans to communicate with their submarines. A play by Hugh
Whitemore titled "Breaking the Code," tells his story. It was shown
as a TV film on Masterpiece Theater in 1997.
(V.D.-H.K.p.349)(SFC, 1/31/97, p.D3)(HN, 6/23/01)
1912 Jun 24, Norman Cousins
(d.1990), editor of the Saturday Review, was born. He wrote "Anatomy
of an Illness as Perceived by the Patient." "History is an
accumulation of error."
(AP, 4/22/97)(HN, 6/24/99)
1912 Jun 24, The San Francisco
Board of Supervisors authorized Library Trustees to erect a
library building in the Civic Center using $75,000 tendered for this
purpose 11 years earlier by Andrew Carnegie.
(SSFC, 6/24/12, DB p.42)
1912 Jun 26, Gustav Mahler's
9th Symphony premiered in Vienna.
1912 Jun 27, Audrey Christie,
actress (Dorothy-Fair Exchange), was born in Chicago, Ill.
1912 Jun 28, Sergiu
Celibidache, Romanian conductor, was born.
1912 Jun 28, Karl F. von
Weisacker, German physicist, philosopher, was born.
1912 Jun 29, John Toland, US
political writer (Adolf Hitler, Rising Sun, Pulitzer 1971), was
1912 Jun 30, Belgian workers
struck to demand universal suffrage.
1912 Jul 1, Drama critic
Harriet Quimby (b.1875) took a passenger up in her new Blériot
monoplane from Boston to fly over Dorchester Bay at the
Harvard-Boston Aviation Meet. As she descended for landing, the
plane went into a dive and, without seat belts, she and her
passenger were thrown out into the shallow water of the bay, where
they struck the muddy bottom and were crushed to death. Quimby was
the first American to receive a pilot's license (1911) and was the
first woman to solo across the English Channel (1912). Her interest
in flight was piqued at an aviation meet in 1910.
1912 Jul 2, In San Francisco
Mary’s Help Hospital opened at 145 Guerrero St. It was made possible
by a bequest from Catherine Birdsall Johnson (d.1893).
(Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)
1912 Jul 3, Elizabeth Taylor,
novelist and short story writer, was born.
1912 Jul 4, Detroit Tiger
George Mullen no-hits St Louis Browns, 7-0.
1912 Jul 4, Jack Johnson TKOd
Jim Flynn in 9 for heavyweight boxing title.
1912 Jul 15, British National
Health Insurance Act went into effect.
1912 Jul 16, A Naval torpedo,
launched from an airplane, was patented by B.A. Fiske.
1912 Jul 17, Art Linkletter,
radio and television personality, was born.
1912 Jul 14, Woodrow Wilson
"Woody" Guthrie, American folk singer, was born. Woody Guthrie
(d.1967) was born in Okemah, Okla.
(HN, 7/14/98)(SFC, 11/27/98, p.C11)
1912 Jul 25, The Comoros were
proclaimed to be French colonies.
1912 Jul 30, Emperor Meiji
died. Under Meiji the country had moved from a preindustrial state
to a leading modern power. His son Yoshihito followed his father to
the throne. With him the Meiji era ended officially and the Taisho
1912 Jul 31, Milton Friedman
(d.2006), Nobel Prize winning economist (1976), was born. He became
the premier spokesman for the monetarist school of economics. He
argued that changes in money supply precede changes in the overall
economic conditions. He argued that all social welfare programs
should be replaced with a negative income tax. He held that there
was a natural rate of unemployment that depended on the given
(HN, 7/31/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)
1912 Aug 4, The 1st detachment
of American forces requested by President Diaz, arrived at Managua,
Nicaragua, from Corinto. It was a handful of seamen from the USS
1912 Aug 7, The Progressive
Party nominated Theodore Roosevelt for president. Ex-President
Theodore Roosevelt had stormed the Republican convention but failed
to wrest the nomination from William Howard Taft. He then founded
his own, short-lived, Progressive Party. The party split allowed
Taft to win the election.
(WSJ, 6/5/96, p.A12)(AP, 8/7/97)(SFEC, 3/5/00,
1912 Aug 10, Leonard Woolf,
English man of letters, married writer Virginia Duckworth (b.1882).
Virginia Woolf committed suicide in 1941.
1912 Aug 11, Moroccan Sultan
Mulai Hafid abdicated his throne in the face of internal dissent.
Most of the country became a French protectorate with Spain taking
the northern fifth.
(HN, 8/10/98)(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T11)(AP, 5/17/03)
1912 Aug 12, Jane Wyatt,
actress (Father Knows Best, Star Trek), was born in Campgaw, NJ.
1912 Aug 13, Ben Hogan,
American golfer (US Open 1950, 51, 53), was born in Dublin, Tx.
(HN, 8/13/00)(MC, 8/13/02)
1912 Aug 13, Jan Peeters, Dutch
water colors painter, monumental artist, was born.
1912 Aug 13, Jules E.F.
Massenet (70), French opera composer (Werther, Manon), died.
1912 Aug 14, The US Public
Health Service was established under the Dept. of the Treasury by
the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service Act (37 Stat. 309).
1912 Aug 14, The JUSTIN,
carrying a US battalion of 354 men and its equipment, arrived at
Corinto, Nicaragua, and anchored near the Annapolis. US forces
remained until 1925.
1912 Aug 15, Julia Child
(d.2004), American chef and television personality, was born as
Julia Carolyn McWilliams in Pasadena, Calif. Her 90th B-day party
was held in SF on Aug 1, 2002.
(SFEC, 9/28/97, BR p.5)(SFC, 10/20/99, Z1p.4)(HN,
8/15/00)(SFCM, 9/1/02, p.33)
1912 Aug 16, Virginia executed
Virginia Christian (b.1895) in the electric chair. Christian, an
African-American maid, was convicted for the murder of her white
employer Mrs. Ida Virginia Belote (72), a white woman, in her home
at Hampton on March 18.
1912 Aug 20, The US Plant
Quarantine Act went into effect.
1912 Aug 20, William Booth,
English minister, founder (Salvation Army), died.
1912 Aug 21, Mr. Carter-Cotton
was chosen as 1st chancellor of Univ. of British Columbia.
1912 Aug 23, Gene Kelly, dancer
and actor who starred in "An American in Paris" and "Singing in the
Rain," was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as Eugene Curan. Kelly
debuted on Broadway in 1938 musical "Pal Joey" and in the film "For
Me and My Gal" four years later
(HN, 8/23/98)(MC, 8/23/02)
1912 Aug 24, US passed an
anti-gag law giving federal employees the right to petition
1912 Aug 24, By an act of
Congress, Alaska was given a territorial legislature of two houses.
1912 Aug 24, NYC held a ticker
tape parade for Jim Thorpe and victorious US Olympians.
1912 Aug 25, An aircraft
recovered from a spin for the 1st time.
1912 Aug 25, Different
nationalities battled with each other in Macedonia.
1912 Aug 27, Edgar Rice
Burroughs’s "Tarzan of the Apes" first appeared in a magazine.
Burroughs (d. 1950 at 74) wrote "Tarzan of the Apes" for The
All-Story Magazine and received $700.
(SDUT, 6/6/97, p.E2)(SFEC, 5/9/99, Par p.8)(HN,
1912 Apr 29, Henri Poincare
(d.1912), French mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, died. He
investigated the idea of space and led to the notion that space is
too complex for mathematics. In 2002 Russian mathematician Grigory
Perelman solved the 1904 Poincare Conjecture. In 2007 Donal O’Shea
authored “The Poincare Conjecture.”
1912 Aug 31, Ramon Vinay
(d.1996), Chilean operatic tenor and baritone, was born in Chillan.
1912 Aug 31, In Ecuador
Leónidas Plaza was inaugurated for a 2nd term as president. Gen.
Plaza had received 98% of the vote in the presidential election. His
1st term was from September 1, 1901 to August 31, 1905.
1912 Aug, The paving of County
Road along the Peninsula between South SF and Burlingame was begun.
Highway Commission Chairman Burton Towne formally broke ground on El
Camino Real near San Bruno Ave.
(Ind, 2/6/99, p.5A)(SFC, 8/3/12, p.A10)
1912 Aug, Nellie Schmidt of
Alameda became the 1st woman to swim across the SF Bay. She crossed
from the Vallejo St. wharf to Oakland in 3 hours and 6 minutes. F.M.
Riehl (72), the 1st man to swim across in 1872, coached her.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W4)
1912 Sep 1, Samuel
Coleridge-Taylor (b.1875), Afro-British composer, died.
1912 Sep 3, World's 1st cannery
opened in England to supply food to the navy.
1912 Sep 4, Alexander Liberman,
editor, painter and photographer (639), was born.
1912 Sep 5, John Cage (d.1992),
inventive composer, writer, philosopher, and artist, was born. [2nd
source says Sep 15] "The highest purpose is to have no purpose at
(HN, 9/5/98)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)(AP, 6/20/00)
1912 Sep 7, French aviator
Roland Garros set an altitude record of 13,200 feet.
1912 Sep 9, Kurt Sanderling,
conductor (E Berlin Symph 1960-77), was born in Arys, Germany.
1912 Sep 10, In France J.
Vedrines became the first pilot to break 100 m.p.h. barrier.
1912 Sep 14, The United States
government notified Nicaragua that it would protect American lives
and property there and uphold the government against rebels.
1912 Sep 21, Chuck Jones,
animator and director of Warner Brothers cartoons Bugs Bunny and
Daffy Duck, was born.
(HN, 9/21/00)(MC, 9/21/01)
1912 Sep 23, Mack Sennett's
first Keystone Cops short subject "Cohen collects a Debt", a
split-reel of two comedies starring Mabel Normand and Ford Sterling,
(AP, 9/23/97)(HN, 9/23/01)
1912 Sep 27, W C Handy
published "Memphis Blues," the 1st Blues Song. [see Sep 28]
1912 Sep 28, W.C. Handy’s
"Memphis Blues" was published. It was the first published blues
composition. [see Sep 27]
(HN, 9/28/98)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1912 Sep 28, The SS Kichemaru
disappeared in a storm off the Japanese coast and 1,000 died.
1912 Sep 30, The Columbia
School of Journalism opened in NYC. Joseph Pulitzer bequeathed $2
million to start the school.
(ON, 4/03, p.2)
1912 Oct 4, Gen. Zeledon,
Nicaraguan opponent of US occupation, was executed.
1912 Oct 8, Montenegro declared
war on Turkey beginning the 1st Balkan War. Balkan League members
followed Montenegro 10 days later. [see Oct 18]
1912 Oct 14, Theodore
Roosevelt, former president and the Bull Moose Party candidate, was
shot at close range by anarchist William Schrenk while greeting the
public in front of the Hotel Gilpatrick in Milwaukee while
campaigning for the presidency. He was saved by the papers in his
breast pocket and still managed to give a 90 minute address in
Milwaukee after requesting his audience to be quiet because "there
is a bullet in my body." Schrenk was captured and uttered the now
famous words "any man looking for a third term ought to be
(WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)(AP, 10/14/97)(WSJ, 8/5/96,
p.A10)(HN, 10/14/98)(MC, 10/14/01)
1912 Oct 17, John Paul I,
[Albino Luciano], 263rd Roman Catholic pope (1978), was born.
1912 Oct 17, Bulgaria, Greece
and Serbia declared war on Turkey. [see Oct 18]
1912 Oct 18, The First Balkan
War broke out between the members of the Balkan League-- Serbia,
Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro--and the Ottoman Empire. A small
Balkan War broke out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian
nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and
resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out
of much of the Balkan Peninsula. Austria-Hungary’s 1908 annexation
of Bosnia and Herzegovina spurred Serbian efforts to form the Balkan
alliance with its neighbors. As a result of the war on Turkey,
Serbia doubled its territory with the award of Northern Macedonia.
Albanian leaders affirmed Albania as an independent state. [see Oct
(V.D.-H.K.p.290)(CO, Grolier’s/ Albania)(HN,
10/18/98)(HNQ, 3/27/99)(www, Albania, 1998)
1912 Oct 21, Georg Solti,
conductor (Fidelio), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
1912 Oct 26, By an executive
order Delaware was represented by the first star and Delaware was
represented by the top stripe of the American flag. Delaware was the
first of the 13 colonies to ratify the Constitution, on Dec. 7,
1787. It was thus assigned the top of the 13 stripes and the first
of the then 48 stars by an executive order signed by President
William Howard Taft. Each subsequent stripe was then assigned to the
colonies in the order in which they ratified the Constitution. The
first 13 stars (from left to right) also represent the order in
which the colonies ratified, and are then followed by the rest of
the states in the order in which they were admitted into the Union.
1912 Oct 28, Richard Doll,
English epidemiologist, was born. He established a link between
tobacco smoke and cancer.
1912 Oct, A film of "Richard
III" directed by James Keane with Frederick Warde was the 2nd
feature film produced in the US. A complete copy was discovered in
1996. It came 5 months after the first feature, a version of "Oliver
Twist," released in May.
(SFC, 9/17/96, p.A22)
1912 Oct, Fighting against
Turkish dominion began throughout Macedonia.
1912 Nov 3, Alfredo Stroessner
(d.2006), dictator of Paraguay (1954-89), was born.
(SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10)
1912 Nov 3, The first all metal
plane was flown near Issy, France, by pilots Ponche and Prinard.
1912 Nov 4, Arizona and Kansas
granted women the right to vote. Wisconsin voted against suffrage
1912 Nov 5, Democrat Woodrow
Wilson was elected the 28th president, defeating Progressive
Republican Theodore Roosevelt and incumbent Republican William
Howard Taft. Wilson had served as the president of Princeton Univ.
In 2004 James Chace authored “1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft &
Debs – The election that Changed the Country.
(I&I, Penzias, p.216)(AP, 11/5/97)(HN,
11/5/98)(WSJ, 2/8/99, p.A21)(WSJ, 5/11/04, p.D12)
1912 Nov 5, Bulgarian troops in
Constantinople blockaded drinking water.
1912 Nov 9, The football team
of Pennsylvania’s Carlisle Indian School, with running back Jim
Thorpe, defeated the Army team, with Dwight D. Eisenhower as
linebacker, 27-6. In 2007 Sally Jenkins authored “The Real
Americans: The Team That Changed a Game, a People, a Nation.”
1912 Nov 11, Joseph Wieniawski
(75), composer, died.
1912 Nov 12, Robert Scott's
diary and dead body were found in Antarctica.
1912 Nov 12, Jose Canalejas Y
Mendez (b.1854), premier of Spain, was assassinated by anarchist
1912 Nov 14, Barbara Hutton,
heiress (Woolworth), was born.
1912 Nov 18, Cholera broke out
1912 Nov 24, Garson Kanin,
writer and director, was born. His work included "Born Yesterday."
1912 Nov 24, Austria denounced
Serbian gains in the Balkans; Russia and France backed Serbia while
Italy and Germany backed Austria.
1912 Nov 25, Johannes D. De
Jong, Frisian poet and photographer (Kar £t twa), was born.
1912 Nov 25, American College
of Surgeons incorporated in Springfield, Ill.
1912 Nov 26, Eric Sevareid,
American broadcast journalist, was born.
1912 Nov 26, Eugene Ionesco,
dramatist (Rhinoceros), was born in Slatina, Romania. [see Nov 13
and Nov 26, 1909]
(WUD, 1994 p.750)(MC, 11/26/01)
1912 Nov 27, David Merrick,
[Margulois], Broadway producer (Hello Dolly), was born in Hong Kong.
1912 Nov 28, Albanian delegates
at Vlora declared the independence of Albania and established a
provisional government. This marked Albania’s Independence Day.
(www, Albania, 1998)(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.H3)
1912 Nov 30, Gordon Parks,
black artist, photographer, and author of "The Learning Tree," was
born in Fort Scott, KS. He directed the film “Shaft” in 1971.
1912 Dec 1, Minoru Yamasaki,
architect (World Trade Center, NY), was born.
1912 Dec 2, Henry Armstrong,
the only boxer to hold three titles simultaneously, was born.
1912 Dec 3, Turkey, Serbia,
Montenegro, Greece & Bulgaria signed a weapons pact.
1912 Dec 4, An armistice was
signed to end the First Balkan War. Following several victories over
the Ottoman army, coalition forces occupied Macedonia and forced the
Ottoman Empire to seek an armistice.
1912 Dec 5, Italy, Austria, and
Germany renewed the Triple Alliance for six years.
1912 Dec 9, Thomas P. "Tip"
O’Neill, Speaker of the House of Representatives, was born.
1912 Dec 12, Henry Armstrong,
American boxer, was born.
1912 Dec 14, Louis Botha
resigned as South Africa's premier.
1912 Dec 18, In the famous
Piltdown Man Forgery amateur archaeologist Charles Dawson announced
the discovery of two skulls from the Piltdown Quarry in Sussex,
England. They appeared to belong to a primitive hominid and ancestor
of man. Also found was a canine tooth, a tool carved from an
elephant's tusk, and fossil teeth from a number of prehistoric
animals. Dawson enlisted the help of vertebrate paleontologist
Arthur Smith Woodward. They christened it Eoanthropus dawsoni and on
this day they announced their find to the Geological Society of
London. A 1996 book "Unraveling Piltdown" by John Evangelist Walsh
labeled Dawson as the perpetrator of the hoax. The missing link was
later determined to be only 600 years old. The fossils had been
doctored to look and test to be older. In 2012 Miles Russell
authored “The Piltdown Man Hoax: Case Closed.” [see 1908, 1913,
1953, 1955 & 1983]
(PacDisc, Spring ‘96, p.15)(SFEC, 9/22/96, BR
p.9)(SSFC, 12/16/12, p.A23)
1912 Dec 20, J. Hartley
Manners' "Peg O' My Heart" premiered in NYC.
1912 Dec 22, Claudia "Lady
Bird" Johnson, wife of President Lyndon Baines Johnson, was born.
1912 Dec 23, The 1st "Keystone
Kops" film, titled "Hoffmeyer's Legacy," was produced.
1912 Dec 23, The Aswan Dam in
Egypt began operation.
1912 Dec 25, Italy landed
troops in Albania to protect its interests during a revolt there.
1912 Dec 28, The SF Mayor James
Rolph piloted the city-owned Municipal Railway’s first streetcar.
The Geary Street Line, from Geary and 39th to Kearney and Market,
was the 1st municipally built railway in the US to compete with the
private United Railroads. The double-ended streetcar was built by
W.L. Holman Car Co. of SF. Service began the next day.
4/15/07, p.B5)(SFC, 4/14/09, p.B1)
1912 Dec, Ambassadorial
conference opened in London and discussed Albania's fate.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1912 Charles Samuel Adams,
American cartoonist of the Macabre, was born.
(AHD, 1971, p.14)
1912 Dr. Barnes went to Paris a
tried to buy the prize Picasso paintings held by Gertrude Stein. She
declined to sell. [see 1872-1951, Barnes]
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.84)
1912 Arthur G. Dove painted his
pastel on canvas: "Plant Forms."
(WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)
1912 Marcel Duchamp
(1887-1968), French painter, painted his "Nude Descending a
Staircase, No.2." It caused a sensation at the 1913 Armory Show.
(WSJ, 12/2/96, p.A16)
1912 Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)
painted "Adele Bloch-Bauer II.” An earlier portrait Adele
Bloch-Bauer was made in 1907. In 2012 Anne-Marie O’Connor authored
“The Lady in Gold: The Extraordinary Tale of Gustav Klimt’s
Masterpiece, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer.”
(SSFC, 3/18/12, p.F5)
1912 Piet Mondrian made his
semi-abstract "Flowering Trees."
(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E1)
1912 Picasso added a found
commercial object to one of his paintings and created the first
(WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A16)
1912 Egon Schiele, Austrian
expressionist, painted "Portrait of Wally."
(SFC, 1/9/98, p.A7)
1912 John Singer Sargent
painted "Spanish Fountain."
(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)
c1912 E.J. Bellocq,
photographer, made 89 glass negatives of prostitutes in the
Storyville district of New Orleans. They were published in 1996 in
the book: "Bellocq: Photographs from Storyville" with text by John
(SFEC, 10/6/96, BR p.6)
1912 Mary Antin (1881-1949),
Russian-born immigrant (1894), authored “The Promised Land.” The
book was highly successful and was used in Civic courses in US
schools until 1949.
1912 Dot Babb authored “In the
Bosom of the Comanchos,” an account of his and his sister’s life as
captive children among the Comanches.
(AH, 6/07, p.64)
1912 Max Beerbohm (1872-1956),
English essayist, published “A Christmas Garland,” a collection of
17 poetic parodies with a Christmas theme.
1912 Theodore Dreiser
(1871-1945) authored “The Financier,” the 1st book of his “Trilogy
of Desire,” an Iliad of American capitalism.
(WSJ, 9/16/06, p.P10)(Econ, 1/3/15, p.56)
1912 Zoeth Eldredge authored
“The Beginnings of San Francisco.”
(SFC, 2/19/11, p.A10)
1912 Christine Frederick
authored “The New Housekeeping: Efficiency Studies in Home
Management,” in the Ladies Home Journal. She argued that servants
should get overtime and bonuses for mastering new tasks.
1912 Sigmund Freud authored
"Totem and Taboo."
(WSJ, 5/5/06, p.A16)
1912 American poet Robert Frost
and his family moved to England because he could not find a
publisher for his poems in the United States. He was greatly admired
by the English poets. He returned to the United States three years
later, and became one of the country's most important poets,
receiving four Pulitzer Prizes for his poetry. In 1961, John F.
Kennedy invited Frost to read a poem at his inauguration.
1912 Zane Grey (1872-1939)
authored his novel “Riders of the Purple Sage.”
1912 Herbert Hoover, mining
engineer and future US president, translated "De Re
Metallica," by German mineralogist Georgius Bauer (Agricola,
1494-1555). It described mining, smelting, and chemistry.
1912 Algot Lange, the son of an
opera singer, authored “In the Amazon Jungle.” In 1910 he had gone
on an adventure in the upper Amazon between Brazil and Peru and only
survived with the aid of Mangeroma cannibals.
(WSJ, 4/28/07, p.P8)
1912 James Loeb, retired
banker, began his Loeb Classical Library. Together with publisher
William Heinemann they put out classical selections in translation
along with original Greek or Latin text. In 2006 a 500th title in
the series: “A Loeb Classical Library Reader.”
(WSJ, 4/8/06, p.P9)
1912 Thomas Mann wrote his
novella "Death in Venice." In 1971 it was made into a film by
(WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-5)(SFEC, 4/6/97, DB p.55)
1912 Harriet Monroe, former
Chicago Tribune art critic, founded the monthly Poetry Magazine. In
2002 Ruth Lilly (87), great-grandchild of Eli Lilly, gave the
magazine a $100 million endowment.
(SFC, 11/19/02, p.A3)
1912 Valentine de Saint-Point
(1875-1953), French artist, authored “Manifesto of Futurist Woman.”
1912 Morgan Shuster, American
financial expert, authored “The Strangling of Persia.” He describes
his failed efforts to introduce virtuous financial practices in Iran
in the face of British and Russian barriers.
(WSJ, 10/6/07, p.W8)
1912 The novella “Hadji Murad”
by Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) was published. Murad (d.1852) was an
important Chechen leader during the resistance of the Caucasian
peoples in 1711-1864 against the Russian Empire's seizure of the
1912 Wilfrid M. Voynich, an
antiquarian book dealer, bought a number of medieval manuscripts
from an undisclosed location in Europe. Among these was an
illustrated manuscript codex of 234 pages, written in an unknown
script. The manuscript was later donated to Yale Univ. [see Jan 20,
1912 H.G. Wells wrote his novel
(WSJ, 11/21/96, p.B12)
1912 Edith Wharton authored her
novel "The Reef."
(SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.8)
1912 The book "Sinking of the
Titanic: The World’s Greatest Sea Disaster," was published.
(SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)
1912 Florence Lawrence and her
director-husband Harry Solter created their own Victor Film Studio
in Fort Lee, New Jersey.
(ON, 4/06, p.6)
1912 Vaslav Nijinsky created
the ballet "Afternoon of a Faun."
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1912 Buddy Gilmore, drummer
with the Jim Europe Band, established drummers in the dance music of
the era. The group recorded on Victor Records. His work was later
described in the biography "A Life in Ragtime" by Reid Badger.
(SFEM, 10/5/97, p.9)
1912 The song "Ragtime Cowboy
Joe" was written.
(BAAC, 8/97, p.1)
1912 Frieda (von Richthofen)
Weekley left her husband and three children after 12 years of
marriage to live with D.H. Lawrence. She was 32, the daughter of a
Prussian baron from Metz, and Lawrence was 26, a collier’s son, who
was seeking a lecturing position from Earnest Weekley, his former
(WSJ, 5/15/95, p. A-16)
1912 Gertrude Stein went to
Avila, Spain, and was inspired to a new style of writing.
(WSJ, 2/1/96, p.A-16)
1912 Gilbert "Broncho Billy"
Anderson and George Spoor, Chicago movie producers moved their
Essanay movie studios to Niles, Ca., and over the next 4 years
produced some 350 one-reel films that included "The Tramp" with
(SFC, 12/31/99, p.A1,6)(SFC, 9/9/06, p.B3)(SFC,
1912 Raynal Bolling
(1887-1918), who made his money as a lawyer for US Steel, hired an
architect to build an English-style mansion in Greewnwich,
Connecticut. His Greyledge mansion was demolished in 2007 by Spencer
Lampert, hedge fund director for Tudor Investment Corp.
(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A6)
1912 The SF carousel in Golden
Gate Park was crafted by dedicated blacksmiths. it underwent
restoration in the 1980s.
(SFC, 12/28/96, p.A24)
1912 Harriet Pullman Carolan
and her husband Francis purchased 554 acres in Hillsborough, CA.,
and proceeded with plans to build a mansion inspired by the 17th
century French châteaux, Vaux le Vicomte. The 98-room mansion, the
Carolands Chateau, was completed in 1915, but the couple separated
in 1917 and she seldom visited. By 1997 it was falling into
disrepair and plans were proposed to turn it into a 15-unit condo.
(SFC, 8/19/97, p.A13,17)
1912 In San Francisco the
Geary, Park and Ocean cable car lines closed.
(SFC, 2/8/14, p.C1)
1912 The New York Society for
the Suppression of Vice (NYSSV) was founded by Anthony Comstock and
his supporters in the Young Men's Christian Association.
1912 Baseball stadiums Fenway
Park in Boston and Tiger Stadium in Detroit were built.
(SFC, 7/21/96, zone 1 p.6)(SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)
1912 Chicago meatpackers built
Market Square. It is listed on the National Register of Historic
Places as the first planned shopping center in the US.
(Hem., 7/96, p.26)
1912 In Buffalo, NY, St.
Gerard’s church was built by Italian immigrants and modeled after
St. Paul Outside the Walls, a Renaissance-style basilica in Rome. it
was closed in January 2008 as part of a diocese-wide restructuring.
In 2010 a Roman Catholic parish in an affluent northern suburb of
Atlanta began raising $16 million to import the closed church.
1912 In Tacoma, Washington, the
Tudor-Gothic Thornewood Castle was completed using 500-year-old
bricks from Wales. It was built to the specifications of Mr. Chester
Thorne, one of the founders of the Port of Tacoma as a gift for his
bride, Anna. It was later converted to a bed and breakfast hotel.
1912 Prizes were added to boxes
of Cracker Jacks.
1912 National Biscuit, later
Nabisco, came up with the Oreo cookie.
(WSJ, 1/19/08, p.A10)
1912 The International Amateur
Athletic Federation was founded by 17 national athletic federations
who saw the need for a governing authority, for an athletic program,
for standardized technical equipment and world records.
1912 A young George S. Patton
was a 5th place finisher in a Military Pentathlon.
(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)
1912 At the Stockholm Olympics
Native American Jim Thorpe won gold medals in the decathlon and
(HT, 4/97, p.18)
1912 Alexis Carrel (b.1873),
French surgeon and biologist, won a Nobel Prize for the development
of blood vessel suture technique.
(HN, 6/28/99)(MC, 6/28/02)
1912 Gerhart Hauptmann
(b.1862), German author (Before Dawn) won the Nobel Prize in
1912 US Sec. of State Elihu
Root won the Nobel Peace Prize.
(SSFC, 8/15/04, p.D11)
1912 The US banned the drink
absinthe. Lawmakers thought the chemical thujone, found in one of
the spirit’s main ingredients, wormwood, made people crazy or
homicidal. This theory was later dismissed and the ban was lifted in
(WSJ, 12/24/96, p.A6)(SFC, 3/21/08, p.F4)
1912 Services began in
Bethlehem Chapel of the unfinished National Cathedral in Washington
DC, fulfilling the vision of DC planner Pierre L’Enfant, who had
called for a church for national purposes. Construction had begun in
1907 and continued for 83 years.
1912 The Supreme Court in
Cincinnati vs. Louisville & N.R. Co. extended the concept of
eminent domain to include intangibles, including "a charter, or any
kind of contract."
(Wired, 10/96, p.133)
1912 Engraver George T. Morgan
is believed to have produced 5 Liberty Head V nickels at the
Philadelphia Mint with a 1913 stamped date. In 2004 one sold for $3
(WSJ, 5/20/04, p.C1)(SFC, 4/27/13, p.A4)
1912 The 1912-1913 "Money
Trust" investigations were spearheaded by Wall Street
lawyer-turned-reformer Samuel Untermeyer.
(WSJ, 8/1/03, p.W10)
1912 The Radio Act of this year
was the first US law to license operators.
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1912 Frank Taussig (1859-1940),
former president of the American Economic Association (1904-1905)
and Harvard professor, stated: “We must accept the consumer as the
1912 Dr. Rupert Blue at age 45
became the US Surgeon General and served under 2 presidents to 1920.
He had led the bubonic plagued eradication program in SF between
(ON, 1/00, p.7)
1912 About this time Fred H.
Bixby purchased the 8,580-acre Cojo Ranch in California’s Santa
Barbara County. In 1939 he acquired the adjacent 15,814-acre Jalama
Ranch. The properties included 9 miles of coastline and in 2007 sold
for about $155 million.
(WSJ, 1/12/07, p.W10)
1912 AT&T engineers
produced the vacuum tube and made possible Theodore Vail’s
prediction of transcontinental phone service by 1914. High power
vacuum tubes were used to amplify voice signals over electric noise.
(I&I, Penzias, p.215)(SFEC,12/14/97, p.A12)
1912 The 42-ton Dixiana No. 1
Shay steam engine at Roaring Camp, Ca., was built.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-3)
1912 On the West Coast maritime
Radio PH had its transmitter relocated from SF to Bolinas and its
receiver to Tomales Bay under the Marconi Co.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A14)
1912 Du Pont was forced to give
up a big piece of its explosives business due to government trust
busting but kept its military line and became the chief supplier to
the Allies in WW I.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)
1912 The Hearst Corp. acquired
Harper's Bazaar fashion magazine, and Motor Boating and Sailing
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)
1912 Standard Oil established
America’s first gas station in Cincinnati.
(F, 10/7/96, p.67)
1912 The Durable Toy &
Novelty Co. began making toy registering banks about this time. Its
office was in NYC and its factory in Cleveland, Ohio.
(SFC, 4/2/08, p.G2)
1912 Eric B. Savage
incorporated his M.W. Savage Factories in Minneapolis. His was one
of the first mail-order furniture houses.
(SFC, 5/9/07, p.G7)
1912 Standard Cordage Co. was
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R46)
1912 Harry C. Heath (d.1962)
invented a new siren capable of an instant blast. It was refereed to
as the 1st-ever electric siren. A Heath-designed siren was used in
the SF Ferry Building from 1918-1972.
(SFC, 11/23/01, p.A22)
1912 The synthetic resin PVC,
polyvinyl chloride, was first produced.
(SFC, 8/5/98, Z1 p.3)
1912 Casimir Funk, a
Polish-American scientist, suggested that dietary deficiencies in
substances that he named "vitamins" might cause such diseases as
beriberi, rickets, pellagra, sprue and others.
(MT, Fall ‘96, p.4)
1912 The 25,000 acre National
Elk Refuge was established outside of Jackson Hole, Wyoming.
(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.C7)
1912 California farmers in
Butte County began raising rice in the wet lowlands of the
Sacramento Valley, a Japanese variety imported from Texas.
(SFC, 5/22/96, zz-1)(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.C10)
1912 The cooperative California
Associated Raison Co. was formed in the Central Valley to produce,
process and market raisins. The Sun-Maid brand name was launched in
1915. In 1916 a portrait of Lorraine Collett of Fresno became the
1912 Mabel Hubbard Bell, the
wife of Alexander Graham Bell, and Margaret Wilson, the daughter of
Pres. Woodrow Wilson, formed the American Montessori Association to
expand the educational methods of Italian Dr. Maria Montessori.
(ON, 3/07, p.5)
1912 The U of Mich. established
a separate graduate school that in 1935 was named for Horace H.
Rackham for a financial contribution.
(MT, Fall. ‘97, p.19)
1912 The College Art
Association of art teachers and art scholars began holding annual
(WSJ, 3/13/00, p.A44)
1912 Grasshoppers swept across
Tulsa, Okla. People raked them up and sold them as chicken feed.
(SFC, 5/23/98, p.C3)
1912 The mitten crab was first
identified in Europe.
(Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.6)
1912 Katmai volcano in
southwest Alaska erupted. E.G. Zeis later studied the volcanic gases
emitted from the volcano for years after the eruption and measured
significant quantities of hydrogen fluoride, one of the chemicals
said to cause depletion of ozone. Scientists visited the site in
1914 and dubbed it: "The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes."
(WSJ, 1/12/95, A-17)
1912 General William Booth
(b.1829), the founder and leader of the Salvation Army, died.
1912 Karl May (b.1842), German
author of US Western novels, died. A third of his 80 books were set
in the American West and included "Son of the Bear Hunter," "The
Spirit of Llano Estacado" and the 4 Winnetou novels.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A1)
1912 A small Balkan War broke
out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian nationalism
spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in
the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of
the Balkan Peninsula.
(V.D.-H.K.p.290)(Compuserve Online, Grolier’s
Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)
1912 In Australia the Vlaming
Head Lighthouse was built on the North West Cape.
(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.T4)
1912 Australian pioneers
diverted the waters of the Murrumbidgee River to create one of the
biggest irrigation projects in the country.
(Econ, 12/11/10, p.54)
1912 The Australian Antarctic
Expedition of 1911-1914 began using an airplane to tow gear onto the
ice in preparation for their sledging journeys. The plane, the first
from France's Vickers factory, had not been seen since the
mid-1970s, when researchers photographed the steel fuselage nearly
encompassed in ice. Australian researchers stumbled on remains of
the plane on Jan 1, 2010.
1912 In Belgium Jean Neuhaus
Jr. took an empty chocolate shell and filled it with rich creations
developed by his pharmacist granddad and perfected by his father.
Thus was born the praline.
(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T9)
1912 The British Royal Navy
E-class submarine entered service.
(SSFC, 1/2/05, p.E3)
1912 Workmen in London, England
stumbled on the stock of a 17th century goldsmith when they broke
through the wooden floor of a building in Cheapside. The whole lot
was purchased by the London Museum. In 2013 the complete Cheapside
Hoard was put on display.
(Econ, 10/12/13, p.98)
1912 The Imperial Theater in
Montreal, Canada, was built.
(WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A14)
1912 In Canada the 1st Calgary
Stampede began as a rodeo organized by American Guy Weadick, a trick
(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)
1912 Dofasco was founded in
Canada as the Dominion Steel Casting Co. to make railway parts. In
2006 it accepted a bid by Arcelor, a European steel giant.
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.36)
1912 In France the Archbishop
of Paris stated that "Christians must not tango."
(SFEC,11/30/97, Z1 p.3)
1912 The Saint Nicholas
Cathedral in Nice, with its two pointed spires and five
crucifix-topped onion-shaped domes, was built under Nicholas II,
nearly 50 years after his grandfather, Alexander II, bought the land
it sits on.
1912 Helena Rubinstein,
following her success in Australia and London opened a beauty salon
(SFEM, 8/23/98, p.29)
1912 The 1st neon sign
illuminated the Palais Coiffeur, a Parisian beauty shop.
(SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T6)
1912 France chose Casablanca as
the capital of its “protectorate” over Morocco.
(SSFC, 11/18/12, p.G5)
1912 German psychologist
William Stern introduced the term "intelligence quotient" and
(WSJ, 7/18/97, p.A15)
1912 Heinrich Muller and
Heinrich Schreyer started the Schreyer & Co. toy company in
Nuremberg, Germany. The name was shortened to Schuco in the 1920.
They began making “Yes/No” toys in 1921 and after WWII these were
called “Tricky” toys. In 1999 Schuco became part of the Simba
(SFC, 4/23/08, p.G6)
1912 Wilesco Schroeder Co. of
Ludenscheid, Germany, was founded by Wilhelm Schroeder to
manufacture aluminum utensils and carving sets. By the 1960s it
expanded to produce toy tractors and fire engines.
(SFC, 11/1/06, p.G2)
1912 Merck chemists in Germany
introduced methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), a
euphoria-producing psychedelic. Documents from the time showed that
MDMA emerged during the company's efforts to develop a potentially
life-saving medicine that would help blood to clot. It later became
known as "ecstasy."
1912 Greece acquired Crete.
(WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)
1912 The Mayan site of Xultun
(Guatemala) was first discovered. In 2010 paintings were discovered
at the site dating to around 800. Figures were captioned as "Older
Brother Obsidian," or "Senior Obsidian," and "Younger Brother
Obsidian," or perhaps "Junior Obsidian."
1912 In Japan the Sumitomo Bank
(WSJ, 10/15/99, p.A1)
1912 Pancho Villa, a former
bandit, returned to Mexico from the US with a tiny band of men that
he built into the "Division del Norte."
(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)
1912 After the fall of the
Manchu dynasty, Mongol princes, supported by tsarist Russia,
declared the independence of Mongolia from China.
1912 In India the film
“Pundalit,” the first result of an Indian’s use to tell a story,
opened in Bombay. An ad for the film survived, but the film itself
(Econ, 12/2/06, p.87)
1912 In India British colonial
rulers shifted their base from Calcutta to New Delhi.
1912 Kim Il Sung was born in
Pyongyang, N. Korea. He ruled the country from 1948 to 1994.
(NG, Aug., 1974, H. Edward Kim, p.259)
1912 Managua, Nicaragua, was
destroyed by civil war.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)
1912 Engineers dammed the
Chagres River to create the Panama Canal’s main water supply. The
submerged town of Matachin ("kill the Chinese") had been named after
hundreds of Chinese railway workers committed suicide over a period
of several months.
(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.C5)
1912 Panama Canal workers
rioted on Independence Day.
(SFC, 3/3/09, p.E10)
1912 The Pushkin Museum opened
in Moscow. It was scheduled to close in 2009 for a $380 million
upgrade to be completed in 2012.
(WSJ, 5/21/08, p.D9)
1912 In South Africa Walter Max
Ulyate Sisulu (d.2003), anti-apartheid hero, was born.
(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A20)
1912 In South Africa
Johannesburg’s Alexandra township began when a group of blacks
bought the land from a white farmer who failed to find white buyers.
It became one of the only neighborhoods to successfully resist
apartheid's forced relocations.
1912-1913 Marc Chagall painted "The Violinist,"
showing a fiddler, who stands with one foot covering a Vitebsk
(WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)
1912-1913 During the Balkan Wars the Kingdom of
Greece acquired Macedonia from the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
(SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)
1912-1913 Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969), later
revolutionary head of Vietnam, lived in the US and worked as a baker
at the Parker House Hotel in Boston.
(SSFC, 6/15/08, p.E5)
1912-1916 Ecuador’s Concha Revolution was an
outcome of the Jan 28, 1912, assassination of liberal leader Eloy
Alfaro, who was responsible for the Liberal Revolution of 1895. The
novel “Cuando los guayacanes florecían” (1954) by Estupiñán Bass
recounts the events of the Concha Revolution.
1912-1918 The US government washed its circulated
paper currency and recycled it.
(SFC, 4/4/98, p.C4)
1912-1926 The Taisho Period was named after the
reign of Emperor Taisho, the father of Hirohito.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)
1912-1930 James Rolph Jr. was the Mayor of San
Francisco. Under him the first municipal railroad system in the US
(SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.22)
1912-1938 Leopold Stokowski was the music director
of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
(Hem, 6/96, p.107)(WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)
1912-1976 Afro Libio Basaldella, Italian artist.
He personified the progressive impulses of post WW II Italian
(SFC, 4/17/99, p.B10)
1912-1988 Ray Kaiser Eames, artist and wife of
(SFC, 6/6/96, E1)
1912-1989 Mary McCarthy, American author: "When
writers come, I find I’m talking all the time, exchanging thoughts I
haven’t exchanged for some time. I get stupid in solitude."
1912-1989 Barbara Tuchman, American historian:
"If power corrupts, weakness in the seat of power, with its constant
necessity of deals and bribes and compromising arrangements,
corrupts even more."
1912-1992 Eric Sevareid, American news commentator: "The
biggest big business in America is not steel, automobiles, or
television. It is the manufacture, refinement and distribution of
1912-1993 William Golding, writer, received the
Nobel Prize in 1983. His books include "Lord of the Flies,"
"Inheritors," and "Double Tongue," published posthumously in 1995.
1913 In 2013 Charles Emerson
authored “1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War.”
(Econ, 6/8/13, p.85)
1913 Jan 9, Richard Milhous
Nixon, 37th president of the United States (1968-1974) and first
President to resign from office, was born in Yorba Linda, Calif.
(HN, 1/9/98)(AP, 1/9/08)
1913 Jan 11, The first
sedan-type automobile, a Hudson, went on display at the 13th
Automobile Show in New York.
1913 Jan 12, Kiel and
Wilhelmshaven became submarine bases in Germany.
1913 Jan 15, Lloyd Bridges,
actor (Sea Hunt, Roots, Airplane), was born in San Leandro, Calif.
1913 Jan 15, The first
telephone line between Berlin and New York was inaugurated.
1913 Jan 16, Prof. Thaddeus
Lowe (80), balloonist pioneer, died.
1913 Jan 18, Danny Kaye,
UNICEF, comedian, actor, was born in Brooklyn, NY.
1913 Jan 20, Karl Wittgenstein
(b.1847), Viennese industrialist and father of philosopher Ludwig
Wittgenstein (1889-1951), died of throat cancer. In 2009 Alexander
Waugh authored “The House of Wittgenstein: A Family at War.”
1913 Jan 20, Jose Guadalupe
Posada, Mexican cartoonist, died. He had created Catrina, the
Skeleton Lady in her elegant broad-brimmed hat in a satirical
engraving sometime between 1910 and his death. Her image grew over
the years to symbolize Mexico’s Day of the Dead.
1913 Jan 21, Aristide Briand
formed a French government.
1913 Jan 22, Turkey consented
to the Balkan peace terms and gave up Adrianople.
1913 Jan 23, The "Young Turks"
revolted because they were angered by the concessions made at the
London peace talks.
1913 Jan 24, Mark Goodson, TV
game-show producer (Goodson-Toddman), was born.
1913 Jan 26, Jim Thorpe
relinquished his 1912 Olympic medals for being a pro.
1913 Jan 28, Pleasance Pendred,
an active member of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU),
was arrested for taking part in a window breaking campaign mainly
targeting government offices around Westminster. Her pamphlet “Why
Women Teachers Break Windows” was first published circa 1912 by the
Woman’s Press. The Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) had
recently declared all out war against public and private property in
the United Kingdom. An orgy of vandalism followed.
1913 Jan 31, The British House
of Lords rejected a bill tabled by the Liberal government and passed
by the House of Commons on January 16 proposing home rule for
Ireland. One peer said that home rule would make the Irish "a menace
in war and a disturbing influence in peace."
(HC, 2003, p.64)
1913 Jan, San Francisco’s
Lowell High School opened at its 3rd location on a block bordered by
Masonic, Hayes, Ashbury and Grove streets.
1913 Feb 2, The new Grand
Central Terminal in NYC opened. It first opened in 1871 and was
rebuilt by Cornelius Vanderbilt at 42nd and Park Ave. It was
designed by the architectural firms of Reed and Stem and Warren and
Wetmore, and was extensively remodeled in 1998.
p.D10)(SSFC, 1/3/10, p.L4)
1913 Feb 3, Ratification of the
16th Amendment to the Constitution, providing for a federal income
tax, was completed as Delaware became the 36th state to ratify the
1909 resolution. The new income tax laws included an exemption on
life insurance to help widows and orphans. The 1st $3,000 was
exempted. The top rate on incomes over $500,000 was 6%.
2/3/00)(SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A3)(WSJ, 6/4/03, p.B1)
1913 Feb 4, Rosa Lee Parks,
civil rights activist, was born. Her refusal to give up her seat on
a segregated bus in Alabama started the Civil Rights Movement.
1913 Feb 6, Mary Douglas Nicol,
later archaeologist and paleo-anthropologist Mary Leakey, was born
in London. She met anthropologist Louis Leakey in 1933 and joined
him in Kenya.
(SFC, 12/10/96, p.A6)(HN, 2/6/01)
1913 Feb 7, Turks lost 5,000
men in a battle with the Bulgarian army in Gallipoli.
1913 Feb 9, Leo van der Kar,
masseur, businessman, founder (Sports funds), was born.
1913 Feb 9-18, The 10 Day
Tragedy of Mexico City when 3,000 died.
1913 Feb 12, A New York
commission reported that there was widespread violation of child
1913 Feb 13, Joaquin Miller
(b.1837), known as the "poet of the Sierras," died in Oakland, Ca.
Miller had sponsored California’s 1st Arbor Day. His work included
"Utopia" (1880) and “Life amongst the Modocs : unwritten history”
(1873), an autobiographical novel first published in London. Miller
was born as Cincinnatus Hiner Miller near Liberty, Indiana. His
secret "California Diary" was unearthed 25 years after his death. In
1919 Oakland purchased his property and in 1928 turned it into a
park combined with adjacent undeveloped tracts.
p.48)(SSFC, 1/14/07, p.B3)(SSFC, 6/16/13, DB p.17)
1913 Feb 14, Jimmy Hoffa
(d.1975), Teamsters leader who disappeared, was born.
1913 Feb 14, Mel Allen,
sportscaster (voice of NY Yankees), was born in Birmingham, Alabama.
1913 Feb 15, The 1st
avant-garde art show in America opened in NYC. [see Feb 17]
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1913 Feb 17, Oskar Danon,
composer, conductor, was born.
1913 Feb 17, Rene Leibowitz,
composer, conductor, was born.
1913 Feb 17, NY Armory Show
introduced Picasso, Matisse, Duchamp to US public. [see Feb 15]
1913 Feb 18, Artur Axmann, Nazi
youth leader, was born.
1913 Feb 18, Marcel Duchamp’s
painting "Nude Descending a Staircase" was displayed at the Armory
Show in NYC.
1913 Feb 22, Ferdinand de
Saussure (b.1857), Swiss linguist and founder of Structuralism, died
1913 Feb 25, Jim Backus, actor
(Mr. Magoo, Thurston Howell III-Gilligan's Island), was born in
1913 Feb 25, The 16th Amendment
to the constitution was adopted, setting the legal basis for the
income tax. The amendment, proposed by Congress at the urging of
Pres. Taft, established a corporate tax. Churches and other
religious organizations were exempted from federal taxation. Cordell
Hull, author of the Revenue Act of 1913, said: “Of course any kind
of society or corporation that is not doing business for profit and
not acquiring profit would not come within the meaning of the taxing
(HN, 2/25/98)(WSJ, 3/11/98, p.A20)(AH, 4/07,
1913 Feb 26-1913 Mar 6, An
Albanian Congress was held in Trieste as the Ottoman Empire broke
down. Ismail Qemali served as head of the provisional government of
the newly founded Albanian state.
1913 Feb 27, Irwin Shaw, US
novelist (Rich Man Poor Man), was born.
1913 Feb 29, A US judge upheld
a Wright Brothers’ airplane patent regarding the use of ailerons in
a suit against Glenn Curtiss. In 1914 a Court of Appeals affirmed
the decision. Henry Ford offered assistance to Curtiss and Ford
lawyer W. Benton Crisp put Curtiss back in production by employing
non-simultaneous use of ailerons.
(ON, 12/11, p.12)
1913 Mar 1, The US Federal
income tax filing date took effect. It was changed to March 15 in
1918 and again to April 15 in 1955. The first Form 1040 was four
pages with all of the instructions on page 4.
1913 Mar 1, The 1st state law
requiring bonding of officers and state employees was enacted in
1913 Mar 3, Ida B.
Wells-Barnett demonstrated for female suffrage in Washington DC.
1913 Mar 4, Gabriel Fauré's
opera "Penelope" premiered in Monte Carlo.
1913 Mar 4, Woodrow Wilson was
inaugurated as 28th President.
1913 Mar 4, Department of
Commerce & Labor was split into separate departments.
1913 Mar 4, 1st US law
regulating the shooting of migratory birds was passed.
1913 Mar 6, Stewart Granger,
actor (Saraband for Dead Lovers, Scaramouche), was born.
1913 Mar 10, Harriet Tubman,
abolitionist, conductor on Underground RR, died in NY. In 2004
Catherine Clinton authored "Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom" and
Kate Clifford Larson authored "Bound for the Promised Land: Harriet
Tubman, Portrait of an American Hero."
(MC, 3/10/02)(SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M1)(USAT, 2/5/04,
1913 Mar 13, William J. Casey,
headed CIA during Iran Contra scandal (1981-87), was born.
1913 Mar 13, Kansas legislature
approved censorship of motion pictures.
1913 Mar 22, In China Song
Jiaren (30), a leader of the new Nationalist Party, died following a
March 20 attack at the Shanghai railway station. All those involved
in his killing died or went missing within a year.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.66)
1913 Mar, Frank Goodnow
(1859-1939), a legal scholar from Columbia Univ., arrived in China
to help draft a new Chinese constitution. One of two versions gave
Yuan Shikai almost nearly unchecked powers of Chinese citizens.
1913 May 8, California
lawmakers passed Assembly bill 2039, an anti-tipping measure with
penalties for both giving and receiving tips.
(SSFC, 5/5/13, p.46)
1913 May 14, Walter Johnson
(1887-1946), Washington Senators baseball ace, ended his
record-breaking streak of 56 scoreless innings against the St. Louis
Browns. Johnson’s scoreless inning streak began on April 10, 1913,
and lasted 55 and 2/3 innings pitched. He threw six shutouts in a
row before finally being scored on by the Browns. The Big Trains
streak of 55 2/3 scoreless innings surpassed the Philadelphia
Athletics' Jack Coombs record of 53 scoreless innings achieved in
1910. It would take 55 years before Johnson's streak was broken by
the Los Angeles Dodgers' Don Drysdale.
1913 May 14, New York Governor
William Sulzer approved a state charter for the Rockefeller
Foundation. John D. Rockefeller had given $100 million to the
Rockefeller Foundation. This insulated a large part of Rockefeller's
fortune from inheritance taxes. At this time Rockefeller’s net worth
approached $900 million, about $13 billion in 1998 dollars.
(WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W10)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.68)
1913 Mar 15, Lewis Robert
Wasserman (d.2002) was born in Cleveland. In 1946 Dr. Jules Stein
(d.1981), founder of Music Corp. of America hired Lew Wasserman as
director of advertising and public relations. Wasserman went on to
expand the company as MCA Inc. into a major entertainment
(SFC, 6/4/02, p.A18)
1913 Mar 15, President Wilson
met with reporters for what's been described as the first
presidential press conference. Some sources say Wilson's first
actual press conference was a week later.
1913 Mar 16 The 15,000-ton
battleship Pennsylvania was launched at Newport News, Va.
1913 Mar 18, Greek King George
I was killed by an assassin. Constantine I was to succeed.
1913 Mar 20, It was reported
that Alcatraz island is to be abandoned as an Army prison and will
be turned over to the Dept. of Justice for use as a federal
penitentiary. It was deactivated as a military prison in 1933.
(SSFC, 2/17/13, DB
1913 Mar 22, Karl Malden, actor
(Mike-Streets of SF, American Express), was born in Chicago.
1913 Mar 22, Martha Modl,
German singer, soprano (Wagner), was born.
1913 Mar 23, A strong tornado
swept through Omaha, Neb., on Easter Sunday leaving over 100
fatalities and millions of dollars in damage.
(SFC, 3/23/09, p.D8)
1913 Mar 25, The home of
vaudeville, the Palace Theatre, opened in New York City starring Ed
(AP, 3/24/98)(MC, 3/25/02)
1913 Mar 25, Great Dayton,
Ohio, flood. [see Mar 25]
1913 Mar 26, Dayton, Ohio, was
almost destroyed when Scioto, Miami, and Muskingum River reached
flood stage simultaneously.
1913 Mar 26, The Balkan allies
took Adrianople. Bulgaria captured Adrianople, ending the 1st Balkan
(HN, 3/25/98)(SS, 3/26/02)
1913 Mar 29, The Reichstag
announced a raise in taxes in order to finance the new military
1913 Mar 31, John Pierpont
Morgan (b.1837), US banker, CEO (US Steel Corp), died in Rome,
Italy. His art collection was valued at $60m. In 1999 Jean Strouse
p.86)(WSJ, 8/4/07, p.P9)
1913 Apr 1, In San Francisco
Lee Quon Sing, an aged rag picker, was shot and killed by two
members of the Bing Kong tong, a society at war with the Suey Sing
tong. Police captured Yee Lick, one of the shooters. Lee Quon Sing
was the 8th victim in the war that began three weeks ago over a
(SSFC, 3/31/13, DB p.42)
1913 Apr 3, British suffragette
Emily Pankhurst was sentenced to 3 years in jail. She protested with
hunger strikes and was released and re-arrested 9 times over a
period of 18 months under the Temporary Discharge of Prisoners for
1913 Apr 7, The suffragists'
marched to the Capitol in Washington, D.C. By the second decade of
the 20th century, woman suffrage--women's right to vote--had become
an issue of national importance in America. The growth in the
numbers of American working women and the valuable contributions
women made in war production during World War I further increased
the suffragists' support. On August 20, 1919, the 19th Amendment to
the Constitution was ratified, giving women the right to vote.
1913 Apr 8, The US 17th
Amendment was ratified, requiring direct election of senators, as
opposed to appointment by state legislatures.
1913 Apr 8, Opening of China's
1st parliament took place in Peking (Beijing).
1913 Apr 9, Pancho Villa and
his men stole 122 silver bars from a train in Northern Mexico. The
silver was then valued at about $160,000 and in 1999 would be $2.6
million. Wells Fargo and its Mexican subsidiary arranged to buy back
the silver for cash and gave Villa either $50,000 or 50,000 pesos
($25,000) in exchange for 93 of the 122 bars.
(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)
1913 Apr 14, Mary Phagan (13)
was found killed at an Atlanta pencil factory. She had stopped to
pick up her check on her way to Peachtree Street to see a
Confederate Memorial Day Parade. Leo Frank (29), a Jewish factory
manager, was falsely accused of raping and murdering the young girl.
Georgia Gov. John M. Slaton later commuted Frank’s sentence to life,
but a vigilante crowd dragged him out of prison and lynched him on
Aug 17. In 1968 Leonard Dinnerstein authored “The Leo Frank Case.”
The story is covered in the 1997 novel "The Old Religion" by David
Mamet. In 1998 the musical "Parade" was produced based on the Frank
(SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.6)(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)(WSJ,
6/9/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 1/17/09, p.W8)
1913 Apr 14, Jean Fournet,
French conductor, was born.
1913 Apr 19, California passed
the Webb Bill, excluding Japanese from owning land. It was signed
into law on May 19, 1913.
1913 Apr 19, San Francisco’s
Chinatown was put under a partial blockade following the killing of
Lem Foon by Bing Kong tong highbinders. The blockade was the 2nd of
its kind in as many years.
(SSFC, 4/14/13, p.46)
1913 Apr 21, Gideon Sundback of
Sweden patented the zipper. [see Apr 29]
1913 Apr 25, Earl Bostic, alto
sax player (Flamingo, Temptation), was born in Tulsa, OK.
1913 Apr 25, Russ Conway
Brandon, actor (Richard Diamond Private Eye), was born in Manitoba.
1913 Apr 26, Sun Yet San called
for revolt against Pres. Yuan Shikai in China.
1913 Apr 27, The Knights of
Lithuania were begun as a youth organization. Its purpose was
to unite the Lithuanian youth living in the USA, and through them,
preserve Lithuanian culture and restore freedom to Lithuania, then
divided between Russia and Germany.
1913 Apr 29, Gideon Sundback of
Hoboken patented an all-purpose zipper. The name was coined by B.F.
Goodrich, who used it to fasten rubber galoshes. [see Apr 21]
(HN, 4/29/98)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)
1913 Apr, The British
Parliament passed the Temporary Discharge of Prisoners for
Ill-Health Act. It made legal the hunger strikes that Suffragettes
were undertaking at the time and stated that they would be released
from prison as soon as they became ill.
1913 May 1, Walter Susskind,
conductor, was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia.
1913 May 3, William Inge,
American playwright (Picnic, Bus Stop), was born.
1913 May 5, Tyrone Power, actor
(Mark of Zorro, Alexander's Ragtime Band), was born in Cleveland.
1913 May 6, Stewart Granger,
[James Stewart], actor (Prisoner of Zenda, Scaramouche), was born in
1913 May 7, British House of
Commons rejected women's right to vote.
1913 May 9, The 17th amendment
to the Constitution, providing for the election of US senators by
popular vote rather than selection by state legislatures, was
ratified. [see May 31]
1913 May 13, The first 4 engine
aircraft was built & flown by Igor Sikorsky of Russia.
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/98)
1913 May 14, New York Governor
William Sulzer approved a state charter for the Rockefeller
Foundation. John D. Rockefeller had given $100 million to the
Rockefeller Foundation. This insulated a large part of Rockefeller's
fortune from inheritance taxes. At this time Rockefeller’s net worth
approached $900 million, about $13 billion in 1998 dollars.
(WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W10)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.68)
1913 May 14, Franz Hals museum
opened in Haarlem, Netherlands.
1913 May 16, Woody Herman
(d.1987), jazz bandleader, was born.
1913 May 18, Perry Como
(Pierino Roland Como, d. 2001), singer, was born in Canonsburg, Pa.
(SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A27)(SC, 5/18/02)
1913 May 18, Otto Reubke (70),
1913 May 19, The Webb Alien
Land-Holding Bill was signed in California, excluding Japanese from
1913 May 20, William Hewlett,
co-founder of Hewlett-Packard Co., was born.
1913 May 20, Henry Morrison
Flagler (b.1830), US tycoon, real estate promoter, railroad
developer and Rockefeller partner in Standard Oil, died. He was a
key figure in the development of the eastern coast of Florida along
the Atlantic Ocean and was founder of what became the Florida East
Coast Railway. He is known as the father of Miami, Florida.
1913 May 25, Joseph Peter
Grace, businessman, was born.
1913 May 26, The Actors' Equity
Association was organized in NYC.
1913 May 29, Iris Adrian,
actress (Blue Hawaii, Bluebeard), was born in Los Angeles, CA.
1913 May 29, The premier of the
ballet Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring) by Igor Stravinsky
and Vaslav Nijinsky in Paris caused rioting in the theater. The
orchestra was led by Pierre Monteux and décor was by Nikolai
(SFEC, 8/10/97, p.B9)(HN, 5/29/01)(WSJ, 12/8/04,
1913 May 30, Conclusion of the
First Balkan War. The Treaty of London ended First Balkan War, and
the Second Balkan War began.
(HN, 5/30/98)(www, Albania, 1998)
1913 May 30, New country of
1913 May 31, The 17th Amendment
to the Constitution, providing for the popular election of U.S.
senators, was declared in effect. [see May 9]
(AP, 5/31/97)(HN, 5/31/98)
1913 Jun 1, Serbia and Greece
concluded a secret treaty for joint action against Bulgaria; joined
by Romania. Dissatisfied with their share of the spoils, Serbia,
denied its proposed outlet to the Adriatic Sea, sought compensation
in Macedonia along the Vardar River which the Bulgarians rejected
while Greece asked for control of Thessaloniki and "a certain part"
of the eastern Macedonian territories, which Bulgaria rejected as
1913 Jun 2, Bert Farber,
orchestra leader (Arthur Godfrey, Vic Damone), was born in
1913 Jun 2, Barbara Pym (Mary
Crampton), English novelist (Less Than Angels, Quartet in Autumn),
1913 Jun 2, The 1st strike
settlement mediated by US Dep't of Labor for the RR clerks.
1913 Jun 8, Emily Wilding
Davison (b.1872), a member of the Women's Social and Political Union
(WSPU), died from injuries 4 days earlier when she tried to block
the path of a racehorse owned by King George V. See link for video
1913 Jun 11, Vince Lombardi,
National Football League coach, was born. He coached the Green Bay
Packers who won the first Super Bowl.
1913 Jun 13, Ralph Edwards
(d.2005), radio and TV host (This is Your Life), was born in Merino,
(www.imdb.com)(SFC, 11/17/05, p.B5)
1913 Jun 17, U.S. Marines set
sail from San Diego to protect American interests in Mexico.
1913 Jun 24, Greece and Serbia
annulled their alliance with Bulgaria following border disputes over
Macedonia and Thrace.
1913 Jun 27, Richard Bissell,
novelist and playwright, was born.
1913 Jun 27, Willie Mosconi,
professional billiards player and world champion (1941-57), was
(HN, 6/27/01)(SC, 6/27/02)
1913 Jun 29, Anticipating
assistance from Austro-Hungary the Bulgarian army attacked its
former allies. This Second Balkan War was at first waged entirely on
Macedonian soil. The 2nd Balkan War began. Bulgaria defeated Greek
and Serbian troops.
1913 Jun, Rev. Hudson Stuck led
a team in the 1st ascent to the summit of Mt. McKinley, Alaska.
1913 Jul 1, The Lincoln Highway
Association decided to call its coast-to-coast highway the Lincoln
Highway, and it was officially incorporated as the Lincoln Highway
1913 Jul 1, Serbia and Greece
declared war on Bulgaria.
1913 Jul 7, In the SF Bay Area
a fire raged on Mount Tamalpais. Hundreds of rattlesnakes were
driven down the slopes by the fire.
(SSFC, 7/7/13, p.42)
1913 Jul 7, British House of
Commons accepted Home-Rule Law.
1913 Jul 10, A temperature of
134 degrees was recorded in Death Valley. It was the highest ever
recorded in the US and later said to be a world record.
(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.T6)(AP, 7/23/03)(SFC,
1913 Jul 10, Rumania entered
the Second Balkan War and four days later the Ottoman Empire joined
the general assault on Bulgaria. Faced with four fronts, Bulgarian
armies were defeated piecemeal and the government at Sofia was
forced to seek peace. Atrocities were widespread. For example, in
pursuing the Bulgarian army Greek forces systematically burnt to the
ground all Macedonian villages they encountered, mass-murdering
their entire populations. Likewise, when the Greek army entered
Kukush (Kilkis) and occupied surrounding villages, about 400 old
people and children were imprisoned and killed. Nor did the Serbian
"liberators" lag behind in destruction and wanton slaughter
throughout Macedonia. In Bitola, Skopje, Shtip and Gevgelija, the
Serbian army, police and chetniks (guerrillas) committed their own
1913 Jul 12, The 4-masted
schooner J.H. Lunsmann sank on in the San Francisco Bay near Fort
Mason following a collision with the steamer Francis H. Leggett. The
crew of 12 were rescued.
(SSFC, 7/14/13, p.47)(http://tinyurl.com/m6ey4u3)
1913 Jul 14, Gerald Ford
(d.2006), 41st vice-president and 38th president of the United
States, was born as Leslie King, Jr. in Omaha, Nebraska, and
achieved his highest prominence as the 38th president of the Untied
States. He became president upon Richard Nixon's resignation from
office. Gerald Rudolph Ford was age two when his mother divorced his
father and moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan. She remarried Gerald
Ford, Sr., who adopted the young boy and gave him his name. Ford
assumed the presidency on August 9, 1974, upon the resignation of
Richard M. Nixon.
(HN, 7/14/99)(HNQ, 11/24/99)(AP, 12/27/06)
1913 Jul 14, Jimmy Hoffa,
missing labor leader, was born.
1913 Jul 14, Fritz Erler,
German politician (SDP), was born.
1913 Jul 18, Richard "Red"
Skelton, legendary clown, was born in Vincennes, Ind. During a
career that stretched through medicine shows, vaudeville, motion
pictures, radio and television, the gentle Skelton created a beloved
host of characters from the silent tramp Freddie the Freeloader
(shown at left) to the Mean Widdle Kid, who coined the catch phrase,
"I dood it!" Skelton's sentimental humor, so popular in the '40s,
'50s and '60s, did not change with the times and in 1970, CBS
canceled The Red Skelton Show. Skelton refused to retire, touring
the college lecture circuit and painting clown faces that sold for
as much as $80,000. Red Skelton died at age 84 on September 17,
(HNPD, 7/18/98)(MC, 7/18/02)
1913 Jul 22, Licia Albanese,
operatic soprano (NY Met Opera), was born in Bari, Italy.
1913 Jul 23, The "Second
Revolution" broke out in south China.
1913 Jul 31, Bulgaria signed an
armistice concluding the 2nd Balkan War. [see Aug 10]
1913 Aug 9, Herman Eugene
Talmadge (d.2002), later George state governor and US Senator, was
(SFC, 3/22/02, p.A27)
1913 Aug 10, The Treaty of
Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War. It was concluded by the
delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. The
entire "disputed zone" was taken by Serbia, Greece secured its
position in Thessaloniki and southeastern Macedonia, the Ottomans
regained all the territories lost in the First Balkan War to
Bulgaria with the exception of eastern (Pirin) Macedonia, and the
Romanians seized Southern Dobruja.
1913 Aug 12, Kurt Kaszner,
actor (Cmdr Fitzhugh-Land of the Giants), was born in Vienna,
1913 Aug 13, Makarios III,
[Michail Moeskos], archbishop, president Cyprus, was born.
1913 Aug 16, Menachem Begin,
Israeli statesman (1977-83) and Nobel Peace Prize (1978) recipient,
(HN, 8/16/98)(MC, 8/16/02)
1913 Aug 19, San Francisco’s
Orpheum theater headlined W.C. Fields (1880-1946), a comedy juggler,
as “the silent humorist.”
(SSFC, 8/19/12, DB p.42)
1913 Aug 25, Walt Kelly
(d.1973), cartoonist who created the comic strip "Pogo," was born.
(HN, 8/25/98)(SFC, 3/10/99, Z1 p.6)
1913 Aug 27, In San Francisco a
fire at arcade stables on Folsom St. between 5th and 6th killed 95
(SSFC, 8/25/13, DB p.58)
1913 Aug 28, Richard Tucker,
[Reuben Ticker], Tenor (NY Met Opera), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
1913 Aug, Henry Ford began his
1st large-scale automobile assembly tests. It initially took 12
hours and 30 minutes to assemble a Model T.
(ON, 3/03, p.4)(Econ, 4/20/13, SR p.3)
1913 Sep 1, George Bernard
Shaw’s "Androcles and the Lion," premiered in London.
1913 Sep 3, In northern
California the Sacramento Northern began operating a new electric
train from Oakland to Sacramento. Its morning Comet and afternoon
Meteor made the run in 2 hrs and 41 minutes. The railroad never made
money and passenger service stopped in 1941.
(SFC, 9/3/13, p.A1)
1913 Sep 11, Hedy Lamarr,
actress, was born in Austria. She featured in numerous minor roles
in Austro-German film prior to her 1938 Hollywood arrival and gained
significant notoriety for her libidinous 10 nude scene in the Czech
film 'Ecstasy' (1932). She was cast in many romantic films
including 'Samson and Delilah' and 'My Favorite Spy' "Any girl can
be glamorous. All you have to do is stand still and look stupid"--
1913 Sep 11, James Farley (39),
known across the US as the most successful leader of strikebreakers,
died in Plattsburg, NY.
(SSFC, 8/4/13, DB
1913 Sep 13, Jesse Owens, track
and field athlete, was born. He was a four-gold medal winner at the
1936 Olympic games at Berlin.
(HFA, ‘96, p.38)(AHD, 1971, p.938)(HN, 9/12/98)
1913 Sep 14, The Lincoln
Highway Association announced the route of the Lincoln Highway. Its
leaders, particularly Henry Joy, President of the Packard Motor Car
Company, decided on as straight a route as possible and that
decision dictated the course. That initial line was 3,389 miles
long. Less than half of it, 1,598 miles, was improved. (Eventually,
as segments of the route were improved, the length shrunk to about
1913 Sep 14, Jacobo Guzman
Arbenz (d.1971), president of Guatemala (1951-54) was born. He was
overthrown by the CIA. Arbenz, soldier and nationalist politician
and president Guatemala, was the son of a Swiss pharmacist who
emigrated to Guatemala, Arbenz joined a group of army officers that
overthrew dictator Jorge Ubico in 1944. Arbenz became president with
the support of army and leftists, including the Communist Party. His
radical policies, especially regarding expropriation of portions of
the United Fruit Company holdings, led to a U.S. backed coup in 1954
and his fleeing to Mexico. Arbenz died in 1971 in Mexico City.
1913 Sep 15, John Mitchell
(d.1988), Pres. Nixon's attorney general (1969-1972), was born.
Under Nixon he was a central figure in the Watergate scandal and
served time in jail.
1913 Sep 16, San Francisco
recorded its hottest day ever and nearly 100,000 people made their
way to the seashore.
(SSFC, 9/15/13, DB p.46)
1913 Sep 21, The 1st aerobatic
maneuver, a sustained inverted flight, was performed in France.
1913 Sep 22, "7 Keys to
Baldpate," by Earl Derr Biggers (Charlie Chan) premiered in NYC.
1913 Sep 22, Coal mine
explosion killed 263 at Dawson, New Mexico. [see Oct 22]
1913 Sep 23, Serbian troops
marched into Albania.
1913 Sep 26, Ernst Schnabel,
German sailor and dramatist (Anne Frank), was born.
1913 Sep 26, The first boat was
raised in the locks of the Panama Canal.
1913 Sep 29, The Treaty of
Constantinople was signed. Turkey obtained not only Adrianople, but
also Kirk Kilissé and Demotica. The Bulgarians were not even left
masters of the one railway leading to Dedeagatch, their sole port on
the Aegean Sea.
1913 Fall, Henry Ford
(1863-1947) introduced the moving assembly line at his Highland
Park, Mich., plant.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(F, 10/7/96, p.67)
1913 Oct 3, A 1% US federal
income tax was signed into law by Pres. Wilson. The law spared
interest of any kind, including home-mortgage interest.
1913 Oct 7, In attempting to
find ways to lower the cost of the automobile and make it more
affordable to ordinary Americans, Henry Ford took note of the work
of efficiency experts like Frederick Taylor, the "father of
scientific management." The result was the assembly line that
reduced the time it took to manufacture a car, from 12 hours to 93
minutes. Ford reversed the slaughter house production process of
removing parts from a moving line to adding parts. Production more
than doubled and the price of the Model T was reduced from $600 to
(HN, 10/7/00)(SFC, 6/13/03, p.B4)(ON, 3/03, p.4)
1913 Oct 10, Panama Canal was
completed when President Woodrow Wilson triggered a blast which
exploded the Gamboa Dike by pressing an electric button at the White
House in Washington, D.C. [see Oct 10, 1911]
1913 Oct 13, The 16th amendment
to the constitution was ratified and the modern income tax came into
being. It lifted the constitutional ban on income taxes. The levy
was 1% of GDP and the highest rate was 7%. An exemption on the first
$20,000 in dividend income was revoked during WW I.
(SFC, 11/2/96, p.D1)(CyCEO, 6/3/97, p.1,8)(WSJ,
3/11/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 9/25/02, p.D8)
1913 Oct 14, An explosion in a
coal mine in Cardiff, Wales, killed 439.
1913 Oct 15, Klaus Barbie,
Gestapo chief (Lyon), was born.
1913 Oct 17, Zeppelin LII
exploded over London, killing 28.
1913 Oct 18, Austrian-Hungary
demanded that Serbia and Albania leave.
1913 Oct 21, San Francisco
Police Chief D.A. White swore in three female officers, the city’s
(SSFC, 10/20/13, DB p.46)
1913 Oct 22, An explosion at
Dawson, NM, coal mine killed 263 mine workers. [see Sep 22]
1913 Oct 27, Pres. Wilson said
US will never attack another country.
1913 Oct 28, The "Krazy Kat"
comic strip by George Herriman (1880-1944) debuted as a daily comic
strip in the New York Evening Journal.
1913 Nov 2, American actor Burt
Lancaster, was born.
1913 Nov 4, Gig Young, actor
(They Shoot Horses Don't They), was born in St. Cloud, Minn.
1913 Nov 5, Vivian Leigh,
American actress famous for her role as Scarlet O’Hare in "Gone With
the Wind," was born.
1913 Nov 6, Mohandas K. Gandhi
led a march of Indian miners into Transvaal, South Africa. He was
arrested 3 times during the 1st 4 days of the march. The miners had
struck because the Cape Colony Supreme Court Justice had ruled that
only Christian marriages registered by the Registrar of Marriages
would be considered legal.
(AP, 11/6/97)(ON, 9/03, p.5)
1913 Nov 7, Albert Camus
(d.1960), French philosopher, novelist, and dramatist best known for
his book "The Stranger" (1942) was born on an Algerian farm.
(WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A16)(HN, 11/7/98)
1913 Nov 9, Storm "Freshwater
Fury" sank 8 ore-carriers on Great Lakes.
1913 Nov 10, Carmen Miranda,
singer and actress (4 Jills in a Jeep, Down Argentine Way), was
1913 Nov 16, "Swann's Way," the
first volume of Marcel Proust's 7-part novel "Remembrance of Things
Past," was published.
1913 Nov 17, The first ship
sailed through the Panama Canal.
1913 Nov 22, Benjamin Britten
(d.1976), English composer, pianist and conductor, was born.
(WSJ, 7/26/99, p.A21)(HN, 11//00)
1913 Nov 25, Lewis Thomas,
physician and author, was born. His work included "The Lives of a
1913 Nov 26, San Francisco
Chief of Police White issued an order prohibiting women from
visiting local pavilions during local prizefights.
(SSFC, 11/24/13, DB p.46)
1913 Nov 26, Russian kingdom
forbade Polish congregation of speakers.
1913 Nov 28, Heavyweight Jack
Johnson KO’d Andre Spaul in Paris.
1913 Nov, Treaty of Bucharest
ended the Second Balkan War. The Great Powers recognized an
independent Albanian state. Demographics were ignored, however, and
half of the territories inhabited by Albanians (such as Kosova and
Chameria) were divided among Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1913 Dec 1, Mary Martin,
American actress famous for her roles in "South Pacific" and "The
Sound of Music," was born.
1913 Dec 1, The first drive-in
automobile service station, built by Gulf Refining Co., opened in
Pittsburgh. [see Cincinnati in 1912]
1913 Dec 1, Continuous moving
assembly line was introduced by Ford.
1913 Dec 2, The US Senate
passed the Raker Act which authorized SF rights to dam the Tuolumne
River in Yosemite National Park for water-collection and
1913 Dec 6, President Woodrow
Wilson signed the Raker Act into law. It authorized SF rights to dam
the Tuolumne River in Yosemite National Park for water-collection
and power-generation facilities.
1913 Dec 7, Aaron Montgomery
Ward (b.1844), Chicago founder of the mail-order industry (1872),
1913 Dec 8, Delmore Schwartz,
poet and writer, was born.
1913 Dec 12, Ethiopia’s Emperor
Menelik II (b.1844) died. After his death the council of regency
continued the rule of Ethiopia. Lij Iyasu had been designated
successor of Menelik II by Empress Taytu in May 1909 - however a
problem occurred: the imperial Abyssinian rules of succession
dictated, that only a Christian could rule Ethiopia as Emperor - and
Lij Iyasu had taken the Muslim faith. Therefore Lij Iyasu was never
crowned emperor of Ethiopia. In 1916 Empress Zewditu I of Ethiopia
succeeded Menelik II, she was his oldest daughter.
1913 Dec 12 ,
Authorities in Florence, Italy, announced that the Mona Lisa, stolen
from the Louvre Museum in Paris in 1911, had been recovered.
1913 Dec 14, Greece formally
1913 Dec 16, Charlie Chaplin
began his film career at Keystone for $150 a week.
1913 Dec 18, Willy Brandt,
Mayor of Berlin and Chancellor of West Germany, was born as Herbert
Frahm. He was chancellor from 1969-74 and won a Nobel Prize in
(HN, 12/18/98)(MC, 12/18/01)
1913 Dec 21, The first
crossword puzzle, created by Arthur Wynne, the English-born New York
journalist, was published in the New York World.
1913 Dec 23, The Federal
Reserve Act (Owen-Glass Act) was signed by Pres. Wilson. It
established the decentralized, government-controlled banking system
in the US known as the Federal Reserve. It repealed the gold
standard and replaced it with a system that ensured that the US
dollar would be a better store of value than gold. The goal was to
strive for maximum employment and price stability. The act guarded
against inflation but allowed deflation. It was the first thorough
reorganization of the national banking system since the Civil War. A
compromise split monetary policy between politically appointed
governors in Washington, DC, and the presidents of 12 regional
banks, with boards appointed in part by private bankers.
(WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A14)(HNQ, 10/16/99)(SSFC,
11/28/04, p.D1)(Econ, 11/28/09, p.37)
1913 Dec 25, In San Francisco
the St. Francis of Assisi church on Vallejo Street re-opened
following fire damage from 1906.
(SSFC, 3/25/12, DB p.41)
1913 Dec 27, In San Francisco
over 25,000 people gathered at Lotta’s Fountain to celebrate the
postponed Christmas Eve festival.
(SSFC, 12/22/13, DB p.42)
1913 Dec 27, Charles Moyer,
president of the Miners Union, was shot in the back and dragged
through the streets of Chicago.
1913 Dec 29, The 1st movie
serial, "Adventures of Kathlyn," premiered in Chicago.
1913 Dec, In San Francisco
police officer W.F. Kreuger took a bullet just under his heart as he
engaged three armed yeggmen (burglers) at Natoma and Eighth. Kreuger
survived and the bullet remained in his body.
(SSFC, 2/16/14, DB p.42)
1913 Dec, In Calumet, Mich., at
a Christmas Party for families of copper miners, somebody yelled
fire and caused a panic that led to the death of 72 people, mostly
(SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.4)
1913 Dec, Konrad Preuss
(1869-1938), German anthropologist, arrived in Colombia to study to
pre-Columbian statues at San Agustin. He stayed until 1919 and
brought back to Germany a number of the statues and a great quantity
of ancient ceramics and other items, which he reproduced and
documented in his book, “Arte Monumental Prehistórico” (1931).
1913 Philip H. Abelson
(d.2004), nuclear physicist, was born in Tacoma, Wa. In 1940 he
and Edwin McMillan discovered Neptunium, element No. 93.
(NH, 7/02, p.36)(SFC, 8/9/04, p.B6)
1913 Loretta Young (d.2000),
film actress, was born in Salt Lake City as Gretchen Michaela Young.
(SFEC, 8/13/00, p.B10)
1913 Arthur B. Davies helped
organize the Armory Show of modern art in New York. The exhibit
included works by Fauvists and Cubists which outraged traditional
artists. The show featured "Nude Descending a Staircase," (1912) by
Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), French painter.
(V.D.-H.K.p.361)(WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A18)
1913 Giacomo Balla created his
drawing: "Study for Abstract Speed."
(WSJ, 8/3/99, p.A20)
1913 Arthur Dove painted his
pastel "Sentimental Music."
(WSJ, 3/6/98, p.A13)
1913 Marcel Duchamp invented
the "Readymade," a piece of art created "not by the hand or skill
but by the mind and decision of the artist."
(WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A18)
1913 The Faberge Imperial rock
crystal egg with rose cut diamonds set in platinum was created for
the Czar. An American in 1994 paid $5.5 mil for the egg. Only 56
eggs were commissioned by the czars and czarinas.
(SFEM, 6/9/96, p.19)
1913 Kazimir Malevich
(1878-1935), Ukraine artist, designed the costumes for the opera
“Victory Over the Sun.”
(Econ, 10/26/13, p.96)(Econ, 12/21/13, SR p.5)
1913 John Singer Sargent ,
American painter, painted "The Sketchers."
(WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)
1913 John Sloan painted
"Movies." It included the marquee advertising "A Romance of the
(WSJ, 8/11/00, p.W6)
1913 Edgar Holmes Adams
authored “Private Gold Coinage of California 1849-1855.”
(Economist, 9/8/12, p.18)
1913 "The Chinese Cook Book"
was published by Chong Jan & Co.
(SFC, 2/19/96, zz-1 p.2)
1913 British economist Norman
Angell wrote "The Great Illusion." He predicted that a major war
would cause a global financial meltdown.
(WSJ, 7/8/96, p.C1)
1913 Charles Beard (1874-1948),
American historian, authored “An Economic Interpretation of the
Constitution of the United States.” It argues that the structure of
the Constitution of the US was motivated primarily by the personal
financial interests of the Founding Fathers.
1913 Irish writer Howard Ward
authored “The Mystery of Dr. Fu Manchu,” his first Fu Manchu novel,
under the pen-name Sax Rohmer. It collated various short stories
published the preceding year.
1913 Elsie De Wolfe authored
"The House in Good Taste" and marked the beginning of the profession
of interior decorating.
(SFC, 9/9/00, p.B4)
1913 D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930),
English writer, published his novel "Sons and Lovers."
1913 Jack London settled in
Glen Ellen, California. His book "Valley of the Moon" described the
local area. He built a model farm in the Glen Ellen hillsides and
called it Beauty Ranch. the property included a man-made lake,
blacksmith shop, cooperage, winery, barns, silos, bath-houses, and a
deluxe pig sty. A magnificent mansion called Wolf House was to crown
the ranch but it burned down just before he moved in.
1913 Wesley Clair Mitchell,
professor at Columbia, authored "Business Cycles and Their Causes."
(NW, 10/7/02, p.50)
1913 Edith Wharton authored her
novel "The Custom of the Country."
(SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.8)
1913 The Toonerville Folks
comic strip by Fontaine Fox began about this time and continued to
1955. After a few years the strip was often named the Toonerville
Trolley, a funny electric streetcar featured in the strip. Mickey
McGuire was a character in the strip and was played by a child actor
named Joe Yule Jr. in several silent movies. Yule took the McGuire
name for himself, but was sued by Fox. He then changed his name to
(SFC, 11/7/07, p.G8)
1913 Vaslav Nijinsky created
the ballet "Jeux" to music by Claude Debussy.
(WSJ, 11/12/01, p.A20)
1913 Visiting America with a
touring company, Charlie Chaplin was cast in his first film, "Making
a Living." Although historians are not certain when the "little
tramp" was created, Chaplin remains most readily identified with
that beloved character.
1913 The first film by
Hollywood’s first major movie studio "The Squaw Man" was produced.
The studio was formed by Jesse L. Lasky, his brother-in-law Samuel
Goldwyn and friend Cecil B. DeMille.
(SFC, 9/19/96, p.E4)
1913 The opera "The Glass
Blowers" by John Philip Sousa was first performed.
(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A12)
1913 The song "Peg o’ My Heart"
(SFC, 9/9/00, p.B4)
1913 Arnold Schoenberg composed
his cantata "Gurrelieder."
(WSJ, 1/31/02, p.A16)
1913 Francis Marion Smith and
his associates at Realty Estate Syndicate became overextended and
were forced to declare bankruptcy. Their SF Bay Area Key System went
into receivership and was taken over by a new company in 1923. The
Key rail and ferry services continued until 1939 when it began
operating on the lower deck of the new SF Bay Bridge.
(SFC, 3/22/14, p.D2)
1913 In San Francisco a one
story blacksmith shop, designed by Welsh & Carey, was built at
(SSFC, 10/26/14, p.D2)
1913 In San Francisco the
2-storey Vesuvio building at 255 Columbus Ave. was built. It was
designed by Italo Zanolini. The building was redone in 1918.
Vesuvio’s bar opened in 12948.
(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.C5)
1913 San Francisco’s Commercial
High School, which had resurrected on a lot at Grove and Larkin
streets, was moved on wheels, to make way for the Civic Auditorium,
to the southwest corner of Franklin and Fell streets under the name
High School of Commerce.
(SFC, 4/30/13, p.E4)
1913 The San Francisco Civic
Auditorium was constructed. It was damaged by the 1987 earthquake
and was shut down for 19 months for repairs.
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)
1913 In San Francisco the Hotel
Senate, aka Crescent Manor, opened at 467 Turk Street. It was
designed by architect Charles J. Rousseau.
(SFC, 12/13/10, p.D1)
1913 In San Francisco the 1910
67,000-square-foot building designed by architect Newton Tharp, was
moved brick by brick to 170 Fell St. It was used by the SF Unified
School District for administration until the 1989 earthquake.
(SFC, 1/7/98, p.A15)
1913 In San Francisco the
2-storey building at 200 Powell St. was built. The Art Moderne style
was designed by Salfield and Kohlberg. It was remodeled in 1933 and
(SSFC, 9/26/10, p.C4)
1913 Notre Dame des Victoires
church in San Francisco was built on Bush Street.
1913 The St. Joseph church was
built in San Francisco at Howard and 10th streets. It was forced to
close following the 1989 earthquake. The Polaris real estate group
bought it around 2009 and planned to restore the structure as office
(SFC, 2/1/12, p.C1)
1913 In San Francisco the
11-storey Flatiron Building, designed by Havens and Toepke, was
built at 540 Market St.
(SSFC, 4/12/09, p.B3)
1913 In San Francisco the
2-storey headquarters of the Commercial fire Dispatch Co. was built
at 229 Oak St.
(SFC, 11/25/09, p.D3)
1913 In San Francisco Charles
Baker was convicted for embezzling $220,000 from Crocker National
Bank. In 1929 his son Roy Baker confessed to embezzling $72,000 over
3 years from Oakland Bank.
(SFC, 5/7/04, p.F2)
1913 In San Francisco motorized
pumps were installed in the Dutch and Murphy windmills in Golden
Gate Park. Their maintenance was neglected and they eventually
ceased to operate.
(SFC, 6/26/02, p.A18)
1913 In San Francisco
neighborhood activists burned 30 of the old Carville houses.
(SFC, 1/14/99, p.D10)
1913 In Detroit the Michigan
Central Depot railway station opened on Michigan Ave. It was
designed by the same architects responsible for NYC’s Grand Central
Station. The last train departed from the station in January, 1988,
after which the structure was stripped by vandals. In 2009 it
continued to stand, under owner Manuel Moroun, a trucking and real
estate mogul, even as a dead body was found at the bottom of an
(LSA, Spring, 2009, p.66)
1913 The 60-storey, 792-foot
Woolworth Building by architect Cass Gilbert was completed at 233
Broadway and became the tallest building in the world. The Woolworth
Building in New York reigned as the world's tallest building from
its opening until the Chrysler Building was completed in 1930. It
was first conceived in 1910 with a simple drawing by architect Cass
Gilbert. Commissioned by retail giant Frank Winfield Woolworth as
the headquarters of his "five and ten cent" store chain, the
Woolworth Building was the first to utilize many key developments in
skyscraper technology. The building was supported by a foundation of
concrete piers sunk below street level to bedrock. Men worked in
caissons, or chambers kept dry with high-pressure air, to sink the
foundation below the water line. Above ground, the building's steel
framework rose 792 feet--very tall for its day--and its wind bracing
was highly developed. High-speed express and local elevators were
also used in this building, which instantly became a symbol of the
vitality of New York. Gilbert dressed it in Gothic raiment.
(HT, 5/97, p.24)(HNPD, 2/27/99)(WSJ, 5/28/02,
1913 Hill Auditorium at the
Univ. of Michigan was constructed. The 4,200 seat auditorium was a
gift from regent Arthur Hill. In 1978 it was added to the National
Register of Historical Places.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.15)
1913 The New York Times
building was constructed. [see 1904]
(SFEM, 1/16/00, p.22)
1913 Industrialist Charles
Gates introduced the 1st residential air-conditioning in his
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)
Manufacturing Co. of Moline Illinois was incorporated by J.F.
Strombeck and R.D. Becker. They made wooden handles and tent poles
and expanded into toys in 1919 and dollhouse furniture in 1931. In
1962 the company dropped out of the toy business.
(SFC, 8/20/08, p.G4)
1913 Mary McAboy of Missoula,
Montana, began hand-making Skookum Indian dolls and acquired a
patent for it in 1914. Skookum was a Siwash Indian word that roughly
means bully good.
(SFC, 6/17/98, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 3/16/05, p.G4)
1913 Joe’s Stone Crab eatery in
Miami Beach opened for business.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 57)
1913 Peppermint Life Savers
(SFC, 9/9/00, p.B4)
1913 Kamerlingh Onnes of
Holland won the Nobel Prize for liquefying helium. His major
discovery was superconductivity, the elimination of electrical
resistance at very cold temperatures. In 1999 Tom Shachtman
described the event in his book "Absolute Zero and the Conquest of
(WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)
1913 Knute Rockne, football
coach at Notre Dame, popularized the forward pass.
(WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)
1913 The New York Highlanders
American League baseball team officially adopted the “Yankees” name.
Newspapers have begun calling them the “Yanks” as early as 1904.
Fans had earlier called them “the Americans” due to their league
(ON, 6/09, p.11)
1913 US Pres. Woodrow Wilson, a
Virginian, ordered the federal workers in Washington to be
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)
1913 The US Post Office first
set up contract stations to reduce congestion at a town’s main post
(SFEC, 9/29/96, C13)
1913 The US Virus Serum Toxin
Act gave the USDA authority to ensure that veterinary diagnostic
kits are safe and accurate and to decide where cattle can be tested
and for what.
(WSJ, 3/904, p.A8)(SFC, 4/10/04, p.A3)
1913 The Wilson Tariff Act
banned the plume trade.
(NH, 9/96, p.8)
1913 The US buffalo nickel,
also known as the Indian head nickel, went into circulation. It
continued to 1938.
(SFC, 4/25/03, B3)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)
1913 Julian Hawthorne, son of
Nathanial and one time editor of the New York World, was arrested on
a mail fraud charge. He ended his career writing for "Good Words,"
the first newspaper in any federal penitentiary.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, zone 1 p.4)
1913 Anderson, Delany &
Co., an accounting firm, was formed in Chicago. The firm was renamed
Arthur Anderson in 1918. Arthur Anderson (28), accounting professor,
was a co-founder.
(SFC, 3/15/02, p.A15)(WSJ, 5/1/02, p.B1)(WSJ,
1913 Theodore Vail, president
of AT&T, signed the Kingsbury Commitment a became a government
approved monopoly. He agreed to stop acquiring companies and allow
competitors to interconnect with the Bell Telephone System.
(WSJ, 10/26/00, p.A12)(SFC, 7/23/04, p.C1)
1913 Brillo pads were
(SFC, 9/9/00, p.B4)
1913 The US firm
Harley-Davidson opened its 1st motorcycle dealership in St.
Petersburg, Russia. It closed in 1917. In 2005 it opened a new
dealership opened in Moscow.
(SFC, 5/13/05, p.C2)
1913 Bela Schick devised the
"Schick test," which had a dramatic effect on the incidence of
diphtheria. The skin test determined a patient’s susceptibility to
diphtheria. Mass surveys followed by immunization of Schick-positive
children with inactive toxin resulted in a drastic decrease in the
incidence of the disease.
1913 The oil refining process
called thermal cracking was invented.
(WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)
1913 Niels Bohr proposed that
electrons behave in quantum fashion. They remained in fixed orbits
and moved from one orbit to another - in quantum leaps - when they
emitted or absorbed energy.
(NG, May 1985, J. Boslough, p. 642)
1913 Charles Dawson and
Teilhard de Chardin found the canine tooth that was needed to
identify their 1912 jaw as human and not ape.
(Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.48)
1913 In Alabama a white man was
executed for murdering a black man.
(SFC, 6/6/97, p.A3)
1913 In southern California
mass excavations began at the asphalt pools at Rancho La Brea. The
oldest fossils found there dated back 38,000 years.
(Econ, 11/9/13, p.85)
1913 The steamer Pomo sank off
the coast of northern California in a gale.
(SFC, 9/26/97, p.A23)
1913 A temperature of 134
degrees was recorded in Death Valley. It was the highest ever
recorded in the US.
(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.T6)
1913 A Massachusetts state law
prohibited non-residents from getting married in the state if their
union would not be legal in their home state. The law was repealed
(SFC, 5/19/04, p.A3)(SFC, 8/1/08, p.A4)
1913 Copper miners walked off
the job Calumet, Mich. Workers demanded higher wages, shorter hours
and return to the 2-man drill. The strike is described by Jerry
Stanley in "Big Annie of Calumet: A True Story of the Industrial
(SFEC, 9/29/96, BR p.10)
1913 In Goodsprings, Nevada,
the Pioneer Saloon opened. In 2006 Noel Scheckells, a Las Vegas
entrepreneur, purchased it. In 2007 Nevada added the saloon to its
Register of Historic Places.
(SSFC, 4/27/08, p.A6)
1913 New York state passed “the
eight foot sheet law” to ensure that the upper sheet in a hotel was
of sufficient length to cover the face so “that the inhalation by
the occupant of bacteria &c, may be prevented.”
(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W8)
1913 In Pennsylvania a fire at
the Red Ash colliery ignited a coal mine. As of 2009 it was still
burning and was the oldest of 36 ongoing mine fires.
(Econ, 3/14/09, p.34)
1913 In Washington state the
105-foot Elwha Dam came on line. Fish passage facilities were
required, but none were ever built. In 2011 it became part of a
$324.7 million, 3-year dam-removal project.
(SFC, 5/30/11, p.A7)
1913 Josephine Garis Cochrane
(73), inventor of the Garis-Cochran Dishwashing Machine, died. Her
company was sold to Hobart manufacturing and her appliance was
renamed the KitchenAid. It was later acquired by Whirlpool Corp.
(ON, 4/00, p.12)
1913 Baron Corvo (b.1860) died.
A.J.A. Symons later authored "The Quest for Corvo." Corvo’s work
included "Hadrian the Seventh."
(WSJ, 7/6/01, p.W11)
1913 J. P. Morgan (b.1837),
financier and art collector, died. In 1990 Ron Chernow published
"The House of Morgan." In 1999 Jean Strouse published "Morgan:
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A24)(WSJ,
1913 Former slave Harriet
Tubman was given a military funeral upon her death for her service
as a nurse during the Civil War. Already well known for her work to
help slaves escape via the Underground Railroad, Massachusetts
Governor John A. Andrew asked Tubman to help nurse in the military
camps early in the war. Late in her life she was awarded a military
1913 Alfred Russel Wallace
(b.1823), naturalist, died. He developed the theory of evolution by
natural selection at the same time as did Charles Darwin. In 2001
Peter Raby authored "Alfred Russel Wallace: A Life." In 2002 Michael
Shermer authored "Darwin’s Shadow: The Life and Science of Alfred
(NH, 2/02, p.74)
1913 Latin America’s first
subway line opened in Argentina. 90 Belgian-made wooden subway cars
began rolling and continued thru 2012.
(SFC, 1/3/13, p.A2)
1913 Small Balkan War broke
out, again quelled by major powers.
1913 Arthur Bernstein, later
named Sir Arthur Gilbert, was born in Golders Green, North London.
His Gilbert Collection was donated to the Queen Mother in 2000 and
installed at Somerset House.
(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A24)
1913 London stopped published
archives of the Old Bailey as newspapers began publishing details of
court cases. By 2008 the archives, going back to 1694, were
digitized and made available on line.
(Econ, 5/3/08, p.65)
1913 The British convoked a
conference at Simla, India, to discuss the issue of Tibet's status.
The conference was attended by representatives of the British
Empire, the newly founded Republic of China, and the Tibetan
government at Lhasa.
1913 London, England, had 65
electrical utilities using 49 different standards for their supply.
(Econ, 9/7/13, p.24)
1913 The Bain Morgan bath house
in Montreal was constructed for C$300,000.
(Hem., 12/96, p.64)
1913 Ricardo Roth Schutz, a
guide of Swiss descent, began leading groups of tourists across
Lakes Crossing (Cruce de Lagos), linking Bariloche in northern
Argentina to Puerto Varas in Chile’s Lakes District.
(SSFC, 1/6/08, p.G4)
1913 In Denmark the bronze
statue of the Little Mermaid, a character from a Hans Christian
Anderson story, was installed in the harbor. It was commissioned by
Carl Jacobsen, founder of the Carlsberg Beer Co., and created by
Edvard Eriksen. [see 1964]
1913 Frank Shuman, American
inventor, created the first large solar pumping station in Meadi,
(Econ, 6/6/09, TQ p.23)
1913 Henri Fournier (1886-1914)
authored “Le Grand Meaulnes” under the pen name Alain-Fournier. It
became one of France’s most popular novels.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.134)
1913 The avant-garde of pre-WW
I Paris was chronicled in 1958 by Roger Shattuck’s "The Banquet
(WSJ, 9/18/98, p.W8)
1913 France enacted legislation
requiring owners of protected buildings to maintain them and protect
them from damage.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 68)
1913 Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel
opened a milliner's shop [in Paris] with funds from her lover.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1913 Dr. Albert Schweitzer
(1875-1965) and his wife Hélène moved to Gabon and opened a hospital
in Lambarene, on the banks of the Ogooue River. The area was then
know as French Equatorial Africa. He later expanded it with money
from his 1952 Nobel Peace Prize. Born near Alsace, Germany,
Schweitzer decided to devote himself to providing health care to
people in Africa at the age of 30. Schweitzer also spoke out against
the dangers of nuclear weapons, became an organist and expert on
Johann Sebastian Bach, and served as a church pastor and university
professor. He lived by the principle of "reverence for life."
(HNPD, 9/4/98)(T&L, 10/80, p. 162)
1913 An imperial edict based
nationality on bloodlines rather than birthplace and laid the base
for Germany’s citizenship law. The law was set for change in 1998
(SFC, 3/28/98, p.A9)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A13)
1913 Germany launched the SS
Vaterland, a passenger ship. It happened to be in NY harbor when war
broke out in 1914 and was not allowed to leave. The US Navy seized
it in 1917 for a troop carrier as the US entered the war. After the
war it served as an American passenger liner under the name
Leviathan and continued service to 1938.
(SFC, 8/8/07, p.G2)
1913 German newspaper editor
Wolfgang Riepl formulated Riepl’s Law, which hypothesized that new,
further developed types of media never replace the existing modes of
media and their usage patterns. Instead, a convergence takes place
in their field, leading to a different way and field of use for
these older forms.
1913 Franz Schneider patented a
gun synchronizing device in Germany, France and Great Britain. In
1915 it was developed as the "Fokker Scourge" to fire bullets
through an airplanes propellers.
(ON, 10/02, p.8)
1913 The German Tendaguru
expedition to East Africa (later Tanzania) yielded a huge collection
of dinosaur bones from the late Jurassic. The collection was taken
to the Berlin Museum of Natural History.
(WSJ, 1/31/03, p.A1)
1913 The 9,538-foot Mount
Olympus in Greece was scaled for the 1st time. For years its slopes
had provided a hideout for revolutionaries and bandits.
(SSFC, 8/8/04, p.D3)
1913 Three Russian ships sailed
to the Greek island of Athos and bundled hundreds of Orthodox monks
off to Odessa. The Russians feared that a dispute over reciting the
name of Jesus Christ would lead to the expulsion of all Russians
from Athos. The name dispute began in 1907 when the book “In the
Mountains of the Caucasus” was written by a monk named Ilarion.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.89)
1913 The boundary between Iraq
and Kuwait was defined.
(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)
1913 Eamon de Valera (31),
mathematics teacher in Dublin, joined the Irish Volunteers, a group
that was preparing to use violence to win Ireland’s independence.
(ON, 9/04, p.5)
1913 In Italy Teatrale alla
Scala had its formal opening in Milan on the end floor of the
pavilion known as the Casino Ricordi. It contained the Jules Sambon
collection, a horde of items pertaining not only to La Scala but to
all areas of theater put up for sale in 1911 and acquired by the
City of Milan.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.90)
1913 In Mexico a coup led by
Victoriano Huerta and encouraged by US Ambassador Lane Wilson
overthrew and murdered Pres. Madero.
(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)
1913 The Banco Mercantil in
Monterrey, Mexico faced demands by rebel troops to pay tribute to
the Revolution or close. The bank spirited millions of dollars in
gold bullion to Laredo, Texas. It survived the hostilities by
operating "offshore" and returned home in 1916.
(WSJ, 4/1/96, p.A-10)
1913 Mexico’s active Volcan de
Fuego, part of the Colima volcano complex, experienced a major
eruption. As of 2012 it has erupted more than 40 times since 1576.
Only a fraction of the volcano's surface area is in the state of
Colima; the majority of its surface area lies over the border in the
neighboring state of Jalisco.
1913 The Peace Palace was built
at the Hague, Netherlands, by the Carnegie Foundation. It is often
called the seat of international law because it houses the
International Court of Justice (which is the principal judicial body
of the United Nations), the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the
Hague Academy of International Law, and the extensive Peace Palace
1913 In Norway industrialist
Sam Eyde built the town of Rjukan, Telemark County, to provide
workers for a hydroelectric plant located at the foot of a nearby
(SFC, 10/31/13, p.A4)
1913 The Chagres River in
Panama was dammed for the construction of Panama Canal and a 4,000
acre island was formed called Barro Colorado. Ten years later the
island was set aside for scientific research.
(Smith, 5/95, p.10)
1913 In Serbia the Roman
Catholic archbishop of Skopje wrote about Prizren following the
collapse of the Ottoman Empire as Serbs massacred Albanians: "They
knock on the doors of Albanian houses, take away the men and shoot
them immediately… As for plunder looting and rape, all that goes
without saying. Henceforth the order of the day is: Everything is
permitted against the Albanians - not merely permitted but willed
(SFEC, 6/20/99, p.A16)
1913 A South African Land Act
reserved 90% of the country’s land for the white minority. This was
subsequently revised down to 87% percent. Blacks were not allowed to
own, or even rent, land outside special black reserves.
(Econ, 7/25/05, p.38)(Econ, 6/5/10, SR p.9)(AFP,
1913-1914 This period in Vienna, Austria, is
documented by Frederic Morton in his “Thunder at Twilight: Vienna
1913-1916 Ezra Pound spent 3 winters with W.B.
Yeats as the poets artistic prod and secretary.
(SFEC, 6/18/00, BR p.10)
1913-1916 Sir Aurel Stein made his 3rd expedition
along the Silk Road.
(AM, 7/00, p.72)
1913-1921 Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of
(A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)
1913-1921 Thomas Riley Marshall served as
vice-president. "What this country needs is a really good five-cent
(NW, 12/17/01, p.51)
1913-1927 Marcel Proust (1871-1922), French
novelist wrote his 7-volume "Remembrance of Things Past." In 1998 it
was turned into a comic book series.
(WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P18)
1913-1934 Walter Duranty served as the Moscow
correspondent for the New York Times and supplied supportive and
untrue copy on the successes of Bolshevism/Communism.
(WSJ, 2/14/96, p.A-15)
1913-1944 The "Krazy Kat" cartoon by George
Harriman ran as a comic strip.
(SFC, 1/18/97, p.D1)
1913-1967 Ad Reinhardt, painter. A retrospective
was held at the LA MOCA in 1991.
(SFEC, 11/22/98, p.D7)
1913-1991 Sir Angus Wilson, novelist, short-story
writer, critic and biographer of Dickens and Kipling. He made his
debut in 1949 with "The Wrong Set," a collection of stories.
"Anglo-Saxon Attitudes" (1956) has been called his best work. His
biography was written in 1996 by Margaret Drabble and titled: "Angus
Wilson: A Biography."
(WSJ, 5/14/96, p.A-20)(SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.5)
1913-1996 May 30, Alexander Langsdorf Jr.,
American physicist. He helped develop the atomic bomb and provided
some of the first usable plutonium from a cyclotron. He was also one
of the designers of the first two nuclear reactors and invented the
diffusion cloud chamber. He died on 5/24/96.
(SFC, 5/26/96, p.C-10)
1913-1998 Prof. Reinhardt M. Rosenberg, the father
of nonlinear modes. His work in mechanical engineering and dynamics
culminated in his text "Analytical Dynamics of Discrete Systems. He
and his students developed mathematical models of the electrical
activity of the human heart.
(SFC, 8/25/98, p.B2)