Timeline 1916-1917

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1916        Jan 2, The U.S. instructed Ambassador Sharp to tell the Entente in Paris that America would reject the German peace offer.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1916        Jan 3, Betty Furness, consumer advocate, TV spokesperson for refrigerators, was born.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)
1916        Jan 3, Three armored Japanese cruisers were ordered to guard the Suez Canal.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1916        Jan 11, Russian General Yudenich launched a WWI winter offensive and advances west.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1916        Jan 12, Pieter W. Botha, later president of South Africa, was born in Orange Free State.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1916        Jan 14, British authorities seized German attaché von Papen’s financial records confirming espionage activities in the U.S.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1916        Jan 18, The Russians forced the Turkish 3rd Army back to Erzurum.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1916        Jan 24, Rafael Caldera, president of Venezuela (1969-1974), was born.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)

1916        Jan 27, President Woodrow Wilson opened a preparedness program.
    (HN, 1/27/99)

1916        Jan 28, Louis D. Brandeis, a private practice attorney and leader in the US Zionist movement, was appointed by President Wilson to the Supreme Court, becoming its first Jewish member. He served until 1939.
    (AP, 1/28/98)(SFC, 10/6/05, p.A15)

1916        Jan 29, 1st bombings of Paris by German Zeppelins took place.
    (MC, 1/29/02)
1916        Jan 29, Grigori Rasputin, Russian mystic, shaman, grubby peasant, and influential favorite of the Romanov court, survived a failed attempt to poison him. Prince Felix Yussoupov, an effete, wealthy young aristocrat, shot and killed Rasputin and in effect, brought down the Russian Empire. The prince dined out on his story for many decades, becoming a jet-set celebrity. He restored his old wealth, lost in the Soviet Revolution, by suing anyone who wrote about Rasputin without his permission. [see Dec 16, Dec 30, 1916]
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1916        Jan 30, Sir Clements Markham (b.1830), English explorer and geographer, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clements_Markham)

1916        Jan 31, President Woodrow Wilson refused the compromise on Lusitania reparations.
    (HN, 1/31/99)

1916        Feb 3, Canada’s original parliament buildings, in Ottawa, burned down.
    (AP, 2/3/97)

1916        Feb 5, Enrico Caruso recorded "O Solo Mio" for the Victor Talking Machine Co.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1916        Feb 6, Germany admitted full liability for Lusitania incident and recognized the United State's right to claim indemnity.
    (HN, 2/6/99)
1916        Feb 6, Ruben Dario (b.1867), Nicaraguan poet, died. Dario, one of Nicaragua's best-known poets, is considered the father of the Modernismo movement.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9028777/Ruben-Dario)

1916        Feb 8, Demonstrators protested against food shortages in Berlin.
    (HN, 2/8/98)

1916        Feb 9, Conscription began in Great Britain as the Military Service Act becomes effective.
    (HN, 2/9/99)

1916        Feb 11, Baltimore Symphony Orchestra presented its 1st concert.
    (MC, 2/11/02)
1916        Feb 11, Emma Goldman was arrested for lecturing on birth control.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1916        Feb 13, Vilhelm Hammershoi (b.1864), Danish painter, died. He is most celebrated for his interiors, many of which he painted at his residence in Copenhagen.
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.94)

1916        Feb 15, Ian Ballantine, publisher (Ballantine Books), was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1916        Feb 16, Russian troops conquered Erzurum, Armenia.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1916        Feb 21, The World War I Battle of Verdun began in France with an unprecedented German artillery barrage of the French lines; the French were able to prevail after 10 months of fighting. German Gen’l. Erich von Falkenhayn launched the attack.
    (AP, 2/21/98)(HN, 2/21/01)(Sm, 2/06, p.38)

1916        Feb 23, Secretary of State Lansing hinted that the U.S. might have to abandon the policy of avoiding "entangling foreign alliances."
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1916        Feb 23, French artillery killed the entire French 72nd division at Samogneux, Verdun.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1916        Feb 24, Jules Verne’s "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea" opened in New York.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1916        Feb 26, Jackie Gleason, comedian (Ralph Kramden in the Honeymooners), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1916        Feb 26, Mutual signed Charlie Chaplin to a film contract.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1916        Feb 26, General Henri Philippe Petain took command of the French forces at Verdun. A line of bayonets protruding from the earth still testifies to French valor at Verdun in World War I.
    (HN, 2/26/98)
1916        Feb 26, Germans sank the French transport ship Provence II, killing 930.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1916        Feb 26, Russian troops conquered Kermansjah, Persia.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1916        Feb 28, Haiti became the first U.S. protectorate.
    (HN, 2/28/98)
1916        Feb 28, Henry James (b.1843), US-British writer (Bostonians), died in London. His books included “The American“ (1877) and “The Golden Bowl” (1904). In 2004 Colm Toibin authored “The Master,” a novel that explores James’ private life. In 2007 Peter Brooks authored “Henry James Goes to Paris.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_James)(SFC, 6/19/04, p.E1)(WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P11)

1916        Feb 29, Dinah Shore, actress and singer, was born. [see Mar 1, 1917]
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A1)

1916        Mar 1, Germany began attacking ships in the Atlantic.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1916          Mar 1, A conference of Lithuanians in Berne (Mar 1-5) demanded for the 1st time the full independence of Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1916        Mar 3, Robert Whitehead, Broadway producer (Bus Stop, A Man for All Seasons), was born.
    (HN, 3/3/01)

1916        Mar 6, Rochelle Hudson, actress (That's My Boy), was born in Okla City, OK.
    (MC, 3/6/02)
1916        Mar 6, The Allies recaptured Fort Douamont in France.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1916        Mar 7, French Defense Minister Joseph Gallieni resigned from his position.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1916        Mar 8, US invaded Cuba for 3rd time. This time "to end corrupt Menocal regime."
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1916        Mar 9, Pancho Villa led 1,500 horsemen in a night raid on Columbus, New Mexico. 18 US soldiers and citizens were killed as the town was looted and burned. President Woodrow Wilson responded by ordering General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing to "pursue and disperse" the bandits. Wilson called out 158,664 National Guard members to deal with the situation.
    (HN, 3/9/99)(SFC, 5/17/06, p.A11)(AP, 3/9/07)
1916        Mar 9, Germany declared war on Portugal.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1916        Mar 10, US President Woodrow Wilson ordered General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing to pursue and capture Pancho Villa, following Villa’s raid in New Mexico.
    (SFC, 3/11/09, p.B2)
1916        Mar 10, James Herriot (d.1995), Scottish writer and country veterinarian (All Creatures Great and Small), was born as James Alfred Wight, in Sunderland, England. [Other sources give his birthday as Oct 3.]
    (HN, 3/10/01)

1916        Mar 14, In the Battle of Verdun Germans attacked on Mort-Homme ridge, West of Verdun.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1916        Mar 15, Harry James (d.1983), American band leader and trumpet player, was born, He is best remembered for his hit "You Made Me Love You." He married Betty Grable
    (HN, 3/15/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_James)
1916        Mar 15, General Pershing and his 15,000 troops chased Pancho Villa into Mexico. US troops pursued the guerillas, killing 50 on US soil and 70 more in Mexico. General Pershing failed to capture the Villa dead or alive. Villa was assassinated at Parral in 1923.
    (HN, 3/15/98)(MC, 3/15/02)

1916        Mar 18, On the Eastern Front, the Russians countered the Verdun assault with an attack at Lake Naroch. The Russians lost 100,000 men and the Germans lost 20,000.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1916        Mar 19, Irving Wallace, author (People's Almanac, The Man), was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)
1916        Mar 19, The First Aerosquadron took off from Columbus, NM, to join Gen. John J. Pershing and his Punitive Expedition for Pancho Villa in Mexico.
    (HN, 3/19/99)

1916        Spring, Mata Hari made contact with German intelligence through her lover Alfred Kiepert. She traveled to Cologne and Frankfurt, was shown how to use invisible ink, and was given the code name H-21.
    (WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A16)

1916        Mar 29, Eugene McCarthy, U.S. senator and 1968 presidential candidate, was born in Watkins, Minn.
    (HN, 3/29/01)(MC, 3/29/02)
1916        Mar 29, The Italians called off the fifth attack on Isonzo.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1916        Mar 30, Pancho Villa killed 172 at the Guerrero garrison in Mexico.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1916        Mar 31, General Pershing and his army routed Pancho Villa’s army in Mexico.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1916        Mar, Ishi, the last Yahi Indian in California, died of tuberculosis. His body was cremated but his brain was removed and shipped to the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC. The documentary film "Ishi, the Last Yahi" was made by John Harrison Quinn (d.2000 at 59). In 2004 Orin Starn authored "Ishi's Brain: In search of the Last "Wild" Indian."
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.A1)(SFC, 1/26/00, p.A24)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.M1)

1916               Apr 1,  The first US national women's swimming championships was held.
    (OTD)

1916        Apr 2, German troops overtook Bois de Caillette.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1916        Apr 3, Herb Caen (d.1997), columnist (SF Chronicle), was born in Sacramento, Calif.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1916        Apr 4, US Senate agreed (82-6) to participate in WW I.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1916        Apr 5, Gregory Peck, film actor (To Kill a Mockingbird), was born in La Jolla, Calif.
    (HN, 4/5/01)(MC, 4/5/02)

1916        Apr 6, German government OK’d unrestricted submarine warfare.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1916        Apr 9, The German army launched it's third offensive during the Battle of Verdun.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

1916        Apr 11, Alberto E. Ginastera, composer (Panambi), was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1916        Apr 12, Beverly Cleary, American writer, was born. Her children’s books included the Ramona Quimby series which stemmed from “Henry Huggins” (1950).
    (SFC, 5/6/06, p.E1)
1916        Apr 12, American cavalrymen and Mexican bandit troops clashed at Parole, Mexico.
    (HN, 4/12/99)

1916        Apr 14, Emerson Buckley, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1916        Apr 14, Sir Ernest Shackleton and his 27 man crew landed at Elephant Island off the Antarctic Peninsula.
    (ON, 5/00, p.10)

1916        Apr 16,     In Norway Lars Korvald (d.2006), later prime minister (1972-1973) was born on a farm near the southeastern village of Nedre Eiker. He graduated from the Norwegian Agricultural College in 1943, and became an agriculture teacher.
    (AP, 7/4/06)

1916        Apr 20, The Chicago Cubs, after merging with the Chicago Whales, began playing at Weeghman Park. In 1926 the stadium became known as Wrigley Field.
    (http://www.ballparksofbaseball.com/nl/WrigleyField.htm)
1916        Apr 20, German-British sea battle off Belgian coast.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1916        Apr 21, Bill Carlisle, the infamous ‘last train robber,’ robbed a train in Hanna, Wyoming.
    (HN, 4/21/99)

1916        Apr 22, Yehudi Menuhin (d.1999), violinist, was born in New York.
    (SFC, 3/13/99, p.A1)(HN, 4/22/01)

1916        Apr 23, Lord Dunsany's "Night at an Inn," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1916        Apr 24, Some 1,600 Irish nationalist, the Irish Volunteers, launched the Easter Rising by seizing several key sites in Dublin, including the General Post Office. Eemon de Valera was one of the commandants in the uprising. It was provoked by impatience with the lack of home rule and was put down by British forces several days later. Michael Collins, a member of Sinn Fein, led the guerrilla warfare. 116 soldiers and 16 policemen were slain along with 62 rebels. The 1999 novel "A Star Called Henry" by Roddy Doyle was set in this period. Film footage of the Easter Rising was sold at auction in 2000 for $115,000 to a private Irish resident.
    (WSJ, 10/11/96, p.A8)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(AP, 4/24/97)(SFEC, 9/19/99, BR p.1)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)(ON, 9/04, p.5)
1916        re: Apr 24, In "Easter" William Butler Yeats wrote: "All changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born."
    (NOHY, 3/1990, p.212)
1916        re: Apr 24, "The history taught stopped at 1916, they didn’t deal with the war of independence or the civil war." Thus said Neil Jordan, director of the 1996 film "Michael Collins."
    (SFC, 9/22/96, Par p.31)

1916        Apr 26, Morris L. West, novelist (Shoes of the Fisherman), was born in Australia.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1916        Apr 28, The British declared martial law throughout Ireland.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1916        Apr 29, The Easter Rising in Dublin collapsed as Irish nationalists surrendered to British authorities. Irish nationalists set post office on fire in Dublin during Easter Uprising.
    (AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)(MC, 4/29/02)

1916        May 1, Glenn Ford, actor, was born in Quebec, Canada. He starred in the film "The Blackboard Jungle."
    (HN, 5/1/99)(MC, 5/1/02)

1916        May 3, Irish nationalist Padraic Pearse and two others were executed by the British for their roles in the Easter Rising.
    (AP, 5/3/97)

1916        May 4,    Responding to a demand from Pres. Wilson, Germany agreed to limit its submarine warfare, averting a diplomatic break with Washington. However, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare the following year.
    (AP, 5/4/07)

1916        May 5, U.S. marines invaded the Dominican Republic. [see May 15, 1916]
    (HN, 5/5/98)

1916        May 8, Sir Ernest Shackleton with 6 men man crew completed a 16-day voyage of 800 miles from Elephant Island to South Georgia Island in the lifeboat James Caird.
    (ON, 5/00, p.10)

1916      May 9, The Sykes-Picot Agreement was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. The boundaries of this agreement still remains in much of the common border between Syria and Iraq. Britain and France carved up the Levant into an assortment of monarchies, mandates and emirates. The agreement enshrined Anglo-French imperialist ambitions at the end of WW II. Syria and Lebanon were put into the French orbit, while Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, the Gulf states and the Palestinian Mandate. Sir Mark Sykes (d.1919 at age 39) and Francois Picot made the deal.
    (WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sykes-Picot_Agreement)

1916        May 11, Einstein's paper “The Basis of the General Theory of Relativity” was published.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2dvp8de)
1916        May 11, Max [Johann BJM] Reger (43), German composer, pianist, organist, died.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1916        May 13,  The 1st US observance of American Indian Day. American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month originated in 1915 when the president of the Congress of American Indian Associations issued a proclamation declaring the second Saturday in May each year as American Indian Day. The first American Indian Day was celebrated in May 1916, in New York. In 1990, President George H.W. Bush signed a joint congressional resolution designating November 1990 as National American Indian Heritage Month. Similar proclamations have been issued each year since 1994.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(www.aifisf.com/news.htm)
1916        May 13, Sholem Aleichem (b.1859), Yiddish writer (Fiddler on the Roof), died in NY. He was born as Solomon Rabinowitz (1859) in Russia. His work included “Tevye the Dairyman,” a series of stories published from 1894-1914.
    (www.britannica.com)(WSJ, 9/22/07, p.W6)

1916        May 15, U.S. Marines landed in Santo Domingo to quell civil disorder. [see May 5, 1916]
    (HN, 5/15/98)

1916        May 18, US pilot Kiffin Rockwell shot down German aircraft.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1916        May 20, The Saturday Evening Post cover featured a Norman Rockwell painting.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
1916        May 20, Sir Ernest Shackleton with 2 men crew reached a whaling station on St. Georgia Island after their ship sank in the ice of Antarctica. Shackelton's own account of the venture was titled: "South." In 1959 Alfred Lansing wrote "Endurance: Shackleton’s Incredible Voyage." A biography of Shackleton was written in 1985 by Roland Huntford.
    (WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B1)(SFEC, 1/24/99, BR p.6)
1916        May 20, A tornado hit Codell, Kansas. More hit on the same date in 1917 and 1918.
    (www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/almanac/arc2006/alm06may.htm)

1916        May 22, French troops occupied parts of Fort Douaumont, Verdun.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1916        May 24, US pilot William Thaw shot down a German Fokker.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1916        May 25, Virginia Ginny Simms, actress, singer (Kay Kyser Band), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1916        May 27, French Gen. Joseph Simon Gallieni (b.1849) died. He had been called out of retirement at the onset of war to serve in the Ministry of War in Paris and orchestrated the allied victory at the Battle of the Marne (1914).
    (ON, 8/08, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Galli%C3%A9ni)

1916        May 28, Walker Percy, writer (The Moviegoer, Love in the Ruins), was born in Birmingham, Ala.
    (HN, 5/28/01)(MC, 5/28/02)

1916        May 29, Official flag of president of United States was adopted.
    (HN, 5/29/98)
1916        May 29, U.S. forces invaded the Dominican Republic and stayed until 1924.
    (HN, 5/29/98)

1916        May 30, Dr. Joseph W. Kennedy, scientist, discoverer of plutonium, was born.
    (HN, 5/30/98)
1916        May 30, Herbert Smith was the chief designer at Sopwith and came up with the Sopwith Triplane in 1916--the inspiration for other triplanes that followed. In the spring of 1916, Herbert Smith, the chief designer at Sopwith, began work on a successor to the well-regarded Sopwith Pup. He set out to design a plane that could climb faster, fly higher, maneuver as well as if not better than its predecessor and, if possible, afford better visibility than the Pup. Surprisingly, the prototype that emerged from the Sopwith hangar on May 30, 1916, was not a biplane but a triplane. The design impressed the pilots who flew it and the pilots who flew against it. Soon many other triplane designs appeared in the skies.
    (HNQ, 3/22/01)

1916        May 31, During World War I, British and German fleets fought the Battle of Skagerrak at Jutland off Denmark and 10,000 were left dead. There was no clear-cut victor, although the British suffered heavier losses.
    (HN, 5/31/98)(AP, 5/31/06)

1916        Jun 1, The National Defense Act increased the strength of the U.S. National Guard by 450,000 men. The legislation set up uniform standards for training, unit size and required all enlistees to take a dual oath to obey the state’s governor and the US president.
    (HN, 6/1/98)(SFC, 5/17/06, p.A11)

1916        Jun 5, Lord Herbert Horatio Kitchener, British war hero, died when a German mine sank his battleship in the North Sea. In 2001 John Pollock authored "Kitchener: Architect of Victory, Artisan of Peace."
    (WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A24)

1916        Jun 6, China’s Pres. Yuan Shikai (b.1859) died.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Shikai)

1916        Jun 8, Francis Crick, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA (Nobel 1962), was born.
    (HN, 6/8/98)(MC, 6/8/02)

1916        Jun 9, Robert S. McNamara, U.S. Secretary of Defense (1961-1968) under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, was born. He oversaw the American buildup and fighting in the Vietnam War.
    (HN, 6/9/99)(MC, 6/9/02)

1916        Jun 10, Mecca, under control of the Turks, fell to the Arabs during the Great Arab Revolt. Sharif Hussein, Arab Emir of Mecca, led the revolt.
    (HN, 6/10/98)(ON, 10/05, p.7)

1916        Jun 15, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill incorporating the Boy Scouts of America.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1916        Jun 17, American troops under the command of Gen. Jack Pershing marched into Mexico. US Gen’l. Pershing led an unsuccessful punitive expedition against Francisco "Pancho" Villa. [see Mar 31]
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A17)(MC, 6/17/02)

1916        Jun 21, Mexican troops beat a US expeditionary force under Gen Pershing.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1916        Jun 23, Carleton Watkins (b.1829), California photographer, died in obscurity at Napa State Hospital. He was later considered the greatest documentarian of Western landscape ever to heft a camera.
    (SFC, 5/4/09, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carleton_Watkins)

1916        Jun 24, John Ciardi, poet, was born.
    (HN, 6/24/01)

1916        Jun 26, Russian General Aleksei Brusilov renewed his offensive against the Germans.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1916        Jun 29, Sir Roger David Casement, the Irish-born diplomat knighted by King George V in 1911, was convicted of treason for his role in Ireland's Easter Rebellion, and sentenced to death.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1916        Jul 1, Olivia DeHavilland (Academy Award-winning actress: To Each His Own [1946], The Heiress [1949]; Gone with the Wind), was born.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1916        Jul 1, Dwight D. Eisenhower married Mary "Mamie" Geneva Doud in Denver.
    (AP, 7/1/97)
1916        Jul 1, Roland Robert Tuck, London, British Spitfire ace during World War II who shot down 29 enemy planes Tuck's hard-won flying skill and a remarkable run of good fortune contributed to victory in the Battle of Britain, was born.
    (HN, 7/1/98)
1916        Jul 1, In France at 7:30AM, a 5 day, continuous, British artillery bombardment of German lines stopped, and 11 British divisions (100,000 men) went "over the top" toward the Germans. By 9AM 22,000 were dead & another 40,000 were wounded in what became known as the Battle of the Somme. Some 57,500 British soldiers were killed or wounded on the first day of the battle. These attacks continued for another five months, costing the British over one million killed & wounded. Field Marshal Douglas Haig commanded the British forces. 4 months of stalemate cost 420,00 British casualties. In 2014 Joe Sacco authored “The Great War: July 1, 1916 – The First Day of the Battle of the Somme.
    (AP, 7/15/09)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.93)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.66)
1916        Jul 1, British court martial was held for the Dublin Easter uprising.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1916        Jul 2, Barry Gray, radio talk show host, was born.
    (HN, 7/2/01)
1916        Jul 2, Ken Curtis Lamar, actor (Ripcord, Festus-Gunsmoke), was born in Colorado.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1916        Jul 3, The 1st of 3 fatal shark attacks occurred near the NJ shore.
    (MC, 7/3/02)
1916        Jul 3, Hetty Green (b.1834), American investor, died in NYC. In 2012 Janet Wallach authored “The Richest Woman in America: Hetty Green in the Gilded Age.”
    (SSFC, 10/21/12, p.F7)

1916        Jul 4, Tokyo Rose, (Iva Toguri D'Aquino), was born in Los Angeles. She did propaganda broadcasts against the U.S. from Japan during World War II.; imprisoned after the war, then received presidential pardon in 1977.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1916        Jul 4, Nathan’s Famous Hot Dogs opened a stand at Brooklyn’s Coney Island and held an eating contest as a publicity stunt that became an annual event.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A3)
1916        Jul 4, Poet Alan Seeger died in action at Befloy-en-Santerre. Born in New York City in 1888, Seeger went to Paris in 1912 and joined the French Foreign legion at the outbreak of WWI. He was killed in the Battle of the Somme. He wrote the lines: I have a rendezvous with death / At some disputed barricade..."
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, z1 p.2)(HNQ, 8/23/98)

1916        Jul 6, Odilon Redon (b.1840), French symbolist painter, died.
    (SFC, 7/13/13, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odilon_Redon)

1916        Jul 9, The 1st cargo submarine to cross Atlantic arrived in US from Germany.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1916        Jul 11, Dan Patch (b.1896), a record-breaking, Indiana-born, harness race horse, died and was buried in Minnesota. He was the first harness race horse to break the 2-minute mile. In 2008 Charles Leersen authored “Crazy Good: The True Story of Dan Patch, The Most Famous Horse in America.” Here Leersen details the pharmacopoeia used in racing at the turn of the century. 
    (WSJ, 5/17/08, p.W9)

1916        Jul 14, Natalia Ginzberg, Italian novelist (The Dry Heat, Family Sayings), was born.
    (HN, 7/14/01)

1916        Jul 15, The Boeing Co., originally known as Pacific Aero Products, was founded in Seattle by William Boeing.
    (AP, 7/15/97)
1916        Jul 15, A series of engagements in the Battle of the Somme began at Delville Wood and continued to September 3 between the armies of the German Empire and the British Empire. A brigade of South Africans held the wood until 19 July at a cost of four-fifths of its men injured or killed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Delville_Wood)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.46)

1916        Jul 9, Edward Heath (d.2005), later PM of England (1970-1974, was born in Kent county.
    (SFC, 7/18/05, p.B6)

1916        Jul 19, In the WWI Battle at Fromelles, France, German machine guns and artillery left over 5,500 Australians and over 1,500 British killed, wounded or missing in less than 24 hours.
    (SFC, 7/20/10, p.A2)

1916        Jul 22, In San Francisco some 50,000 people marched in a Preparedness Day parade sponsored by business leaders and opposed by labor. A bomb went off on Market St. at Steuart during the parade. 10 people were killed including Arthur Nelson. The bomb was set by a professed anarchist. Labor leader Tom Mooney was convicted, but it turned out that the evidence was fabricated. In 1918 Mooney’s death sentence was commuted to life in prison by Gov. William Stephens. In 1930 Gov. Clement Young denied a pardon for Mooney. Labor activist Warren K. Billings was also convicted and sentenced to life in prison. Mooney was pardoned in 1939 by Democratic Governor Culbert Olson. Billings served 22 years in prison before being pardoned by Gov. Olson.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Mooney)(AP, 7/22/97)(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)(SFC, 9/22/01, p.A3)(OAH, 2/05, p.A10)(SFC, 7/8/05, p.F6)(SSFC, 4/27/08, DB p.58)(SSFC, 12/18/11, DB p.42)(SFC, 5/17/14, p.C3)

1916        Jul 24, John D. MacDonald, author was born.
    (HN, 7/24/02)

1916        Jul 25, An explosion at the Cleveland Waterworks tunnel project trapped 12 men and 18 would-be rescuers. 8 men were saved and 10 bodies were recovered by a team led by black inventor Garrett A. Morgan (d.1963) dressed in his new Safety Hood.
    (ON, 3/02, p.12)

1916        Jul 28, David Brown, director (Jaws, Planet of the Apes), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1916        Jul 28, Laird Cregar, actor (Charley's Aunt, Hangover Square), was born in Phila.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1916        Jul 30, German saboteurs blew up a munitions pier on Black Tom Island, Jersey City, NJ. 7 people were killed. Damages totaled about $20-25 million. After much legal maneuvering a commission in 1939 ruled that Germany was guilty of sabotaging Black Tom and another plant in Kingsland, NJ, and awarded$50 million to the claimants. In 1953 the new Federal Republic of Germany began making payments. The last payment was made in 1979.
    (AH, 10/04, p.36,77)

1916        Aug 3, Roger Casement, knighted for his service in the Congo, was hanged at London’s Pentonville Prison for his activities on behalf of Irish independence.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)(HN, 8/3/99)

1916        Aug 4, The United States signed a treaty to purchase the Danish Virgin Islands for $25 million. The US purchased the southern Virgin Islands including St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix and about 50 other small Caribbean islets and cays from Denmark. They were then known as the Danish West Indies. The Act of March 3, 1917, authorized payment by the US of $25 million for the Virgin Islands.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1595)(AP, 8/4/97)(HNQ, 11/20/99)

1916        Aug 5, The British navy defeated the Ottomans at the naval battle off Port Said, Egypt.
    (HN, 8/5/98)
1916        Aug 5, George Sainton Kaye Butterworth (31), composer, died.
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1916        Aug 6, Richard Hofstadter, physicist who won the Nobel prize in 1961 for his studies of neutrons and protons, was born.
    (HN, 8/6/98)

1916        Aug 7, Persia formed an alliance with Britain and Russia.
    (HN, 8/7/98)

1916        Aug 11, The Russia army took Stanislau, Poland, from the Germans.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1916        Aug 12, In Paris Jean Cocteau took pictures of Pablo Picasso, poet Max Jacob and painter Amedeo Modigliani and other friends as they met for lunch and passed the afternoon. It all came out in the 1997 book by Billy Kluver: A Day With Picasso."
    (SFC,11/18/97, p.E1)

1916        Aug 17, Umberto Boccioni (b.1882), Italian painter and sculptor, died. He was thrown from his horse and trampled during a cavalry training exercise. He helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement as one of its principal figures.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.71)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umberto_Boccioni)

1916        Aug 25, The National Park Service was established within the Department of the Interior by the Organic Act. Horace Albright and Stephen Mather helped persuade the US Congress to establish the organization.
    (www.nps.gov/legacy/organic-act.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/mr6gc)(AP, 8/25/97)
1916        Aug 25, Erich Von Stroheim Jr, actor, director (Napoleon, Sunset Blvd), was born.
    (MC, 8/25/02)
1916        Aug 25, Van Johnson (d.2008), film actor, was born in Newport, RI.
    (SFC, 12/13/08, p.A5)

1916        Aug 27, Italy declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1916        Aug 28, C. Wright Mills (d.1962), sociologist, writer (The Power Elite), was born in Waco, Texas.
    (Google)
1916        Aug 28, Germany declared war on Romania.
    (MC, 8/29/01)
1916        Aug 28, Italy’s declaration of war against Germany took effect during World War I.
    (AP, 8/28/97)

1916        Aug 29, Congress created the US Naval reserve.
    (MC, 8/29/01)
1916        Aug 29, The US Jones Law (Act of Congress of August 29, 1916), also known as the Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916, replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 that earlier served as a constitution for the Philippine Islands. Manuel Luis Quezon (1878-1944), Resident Commissioner to Washington, D.C. since 1909, pushed the passage of the Jones Act.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jones_Law_%28Philippines%29)(http://tinyurl.com/42mk5ef)
1916        Aug 29, Gen Von Hindenburg became German Chief of Staff.
    (MC, 8/29/01)
1916        Aug 29, Transportship Hsin-Yu & cruiser Hai-Yung collided and 1000 people were killed.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1916        Aug 30, Sir Ernest Shackleton rescued the crew he had left behind on Elephant Island.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.w14)

1916        Aug 31, Daniel Schorr, broadcast journalist (CBS), was born in NYC.
    (www.nndb.com)
1916        Aug 31, In Indonesia the Surabaya Zoo  was established based on Acceptance Letter of the general Dutch Governor, by the name of “Soerabaiasche Planten-en Dierentuin” (the Botany Garden and the Surabaya Animal) on the merit of a journalist named H. F. K. Kommer who had the hobby of gathering the animal.
    (www.surabaya.go.id/eng/tourism.php?page=zoo)

1916        Sep 1, The US Congress passed the Keatings-Owen Act, which banned child labor from interstate commerce. In 1918 it was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2gx7pm)(ON, 2/07, p.6)
1916        Sep 1, Bulgaria declared war on Romania as the First World War expanded.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1916        Sep 2, Two airborne planes communicated directly by radio for the 1st time.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)

1916        Sep 3, The German Somme front was broken by an Allied offensive. Allies turned back the Germans in the Battle of Verdun.
    (HN, 9/3/98)(MC, 9/3/01)

1916        Sep 6, Clarence Saunders opened his first Piggly Wiggly grocery store in Memphis, Tenn. He pioneered self-service in the US and obtained a patent. He later franchised over a 1,000 stores.
    (WSJ, 11/16/98, p.A12)(Econ, 10/2/04, p.18)(AP, 9/6/06)

1916        Sep 7, The U.S. Congress passed the Workman’s Compensation Act.
    (HN, 9/7/00)

1916        Sep 11, The "Star Spangled Banner" was sung at the beginning of a baseball game for the first time in Cooperstown, New York.
    (HN, 9/11/00)

1916         Sep 13, Roald Dahl (d.1990), son of Norwegian immigrants, was born in Llandaff, Wales. He is best known for his children’s books such as "James and the Giant Peach."
    (www.bbc.co.uk/arts/books/author/dahl)

1916        Sep 15, Armored tanks were introduced by the British during the Battle of the Somme.
    (HN, 9/15/00)

1916        Sep 19, The 1st landing on Schiphol, Farman F-22 of Soesterberg.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1916        Sep 21, Ewing Marion Kauffman (d.1993) was born in Garden City, Missouri. In 1950 he formed Marion Laboratories and sold the company to Merrell Dow in 1989. He founded the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation in 1966 to foster education and entrepreneurship.
    (www.kauffman.org/ewingkauffman.cfm)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ewing_Kauffman)

1916        Sep 22, Warren Billings, one of 5 people charged in the July 22 San Francisco Preparedness Day bombing, was sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)

1916        Sep 26, A Bishop spoke against Catholics joining trade unions
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1916        Sep 27, Constance of Greece declared war on Bulgaria.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1916        Oct 3, James Alfred Wight Herriot (d.1995), Yorkshire veterinarian and author, was born. His books include "All Creatures Great and Small."
    (HN, 10/3/00)

1916        Oct 4, The California State Federation of Labor maintained its policy of banning Japanese workers from joining labor unions.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)
1916        Oct 4, National Lead, US Steel (preferred) and Peoples Gas were removed from the Dow Jones. AT&T was first added to the DJIA.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45,46)(WSJ, 4/2/04, p.C1)

1916        Oct 5, Corporal Adolf Hitler was wounded in WW I.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1916        Oct 7, In the most lopsided victory in college football history, Georgia Tech defeated Cumberland University of Lebanon, Tennessee, 222-0 in Atlanta.
    (http://gtalumni.org/Publications/magazine/spr98/div11.html)

1916        Oct 10, Antonio Sant’Elia (b.1888), Italian architect,  was killed during the Eighth Battle of the Isonzo. He was a key member of the Futurist movement in architecture.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.71)

1916        Oct 14, C. Everett Koop, U.S. Surgeon General (1981-1989), was born.
    (HN, 10/14/00)(MC, 10/14/01)

1916        Oct 16, Margaret Higgins Sanger opened the first birth control clinic at 46 Amboy St. in Brooklyn. She spent 30 days in jail when she opened America's first birth control clinic. Sanger coined the term "birth control" and made the cause a worldwide movement. After opening her clinic in Brooklyn, she was jailed for creating a public nuisance. Born in Corning, New York, on September 14, 1883, Sanger died in 1966.
    (AP, 10/16/97)(HNQ, 9/11/98)
1916        Oct 16, The Philippine Commission was abolished and the Philippine Legislature was inaugurated. It consisted of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Native legislators were 1st elected but the US governors general remained in charge for years.
    (www.senate.gov.ph/about/history.asp)(SSFC, 5/11/03, p.D6)

1916        Oct 19, Emil Gilels, pianist (Brussels Competition-1938), was born in Odessa, Ukraine.
    (MC, 10/19/01)
1916        Oct 19, Karl-Birger Blomdahl, Sweden, opera composer (Herr von Hancken), was born.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1916        Oct 21, US Army formed Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC).
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1916        Oct 24, Henry Ford awarded equal pay to women. Industrialist Henry Ford helped lead American war production with the gigantic facility at Willow Run.
    (HN, 10/24/98)

1916        Oct 25, German pilot Rudolf von Eschwege shoot down his first enemy plane, a Nieuport 12 of the Royal Naval Air Service over Bulgaria.
    (HN, 10/25/99)

1916        Oct 26, French leader Francois Mitterrand, was born. He served as President of France from 1981-95.
    (HN, 10/26/98)(MC, 10/26/01)
1916        Oct 26, Margaret Sanger was arrested for obscenity (advocating birth control).
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1916        Oct 27, The 1st published reference to "jazz" appeared in Variety.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1916        Oct, T.E. Lawrence (of Arabia) met with Feisal Hussain for the 1st time.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3rd3h)

1916        Nov 2, France reconquered Ft Vaux, Verdun.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1916        Nov 3, On the Baltic off of Finland a German U-boat under Captain Bruno Hoppe ordered Captain E.B. Eriksson of the Swedish schooner Jonkoping to halt for an inspection. Beverages headed for the Russians were discovered and the ship was evacuated and sunk. In 1998 some 1,000 bottles of 1907 Heidsieck Monopole champagne were recovered, of which 500 were preserved in drinking condition. Hoppe later sank the schooner Akir. The 66-ton Joenkoeping was sunk in the Baltic Sea by a German U-boat. It carried 44 creates of champagne, 67 barrels of cognac, and 17 barrels of port wine intended for the Russian army. Divers planned to recover the cargo in 1998.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A14)(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A19)(AP, 9/21/98)

1916        Nov 4, Walter Cronkite, news anchor for CBS (1962-1981), was born.
    (HN, 11/4/98)(MC, 11/4/01)

1916        Nov 7, President Woodrow Wilson was re-elected over Charles Evans Hughes, but the race was so close that all votes had to be counted before an outcome could be determined, so the results were not known until November 11. President Woodrow Wilson was elected for a second term largely because he had successfully kept America out of the war that was raging in Europe since 1914. His campaign slogan was: "He kept us out of the war." Wilson beat Charles Evans Hughes, a former Supreme Court Justice with an electoral college vote of 277-254. Wilson’s victory in California, 13 electoral votes, by 3,773 votes gave him 277 electoral votes to 254 for Hughes. Wilson carried the popular vote 9.1 million to 8.5 for Hughes.
    (HN, 11/7/98)(HNPD, 2/24/99)(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A21)(SFEC, 10/29/00, p.A1) (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A3)
1916        Nov 7, Republican Jeannette Rankin (R-Montana), lifelong feminist and pacifist of Montana, became the first woman elected to Congress. As legislative secretary of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, Rankin helped the women of Montana win the vote in 1914, six years before all American women won the vote. Rankin was elected as a delegate-at-large to the U.S. House of Representatives. During her first term in Washington (1917-1919), Rankin strongly supported isolationism--she was one of 49 members of Congress to vote against war with Germany in 1917. Rankin served another term in the House of Representatives from 1941 to 1943, where she created a furor as the only legislator to vote against declaring war on Japan after the Pearl Harbor raid. This unpopular stand ended her political career, but Rankin remained politically active, even leading a 1968 march to protest American involvement in Vietnam. Jeanette Rankin died in 1973.
    (AP, 11/7/97)(HN, 11/7/98)(HNPD, 11/6/98)
1916        Nov 7, Grand duke Nikolai Nikolayevich warned the czar of an uprising.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1916        Nov 8, Peter Ulrich Weiss, German novelist and dramatist, was born. His work included "Marat/Sade" and "The Investigation."
    (HN, 11/8/00)

1916        Nov 14, Frederick Libby (d.1970), American WW I ace, was awarded the Military Cross by King George V at Buckingham Palace. He wrote an account of his experiences later published as "Horses Don’t Fly."
    (WSJ, 8/16/00, p.A20)

1916        Nov 16, French adjutant-chief Eugene Rouges died with several of his men when a German artillery shell exploded in their trench in Gradesnica, Macedonia. In the 1990s villagers began finding a liquid fortune in vintage cognac buried in the old trenches.
    (AP, 7/23/07)

1916        Nov 17, Shelby Foote, American writer famous for his three volume book on America’s Civil War, was born.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1916        Nov 18, Gen. Douglas Haig finally called off 1st Battle of the Somme in Europe.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1916        Nov 20, Thomas McGrath, poet and novelist, was born.
    (HN, 11/20/00)

1916        Nov 21, The HMHS Britannic, the sister ship of the Titanic, sank in the Kea Channel off Greece after being hit by a mine or a torpedo. 30 people in lifeboats died from the suction of the sinking ship. The Britannic, launched in 1914 from the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland, included an additional expansion joint due to design update following the sinking of the Titanic in 1912.
    (www.titanic-titanic.com/britannic.shtml)(AH, 10/07, p.14)
1916        Nov 21, Franz Jozef I, King of Austria and Hungary, died.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1916        Nov 22, Jack London, American writer, died in Glen Ellen, Ca., of a kidney disease, gastrointestinal uremic poisoning. An overdose of morphine was also suspected. He had written 50 books. London produced 200 short stories, 400 nonfiction articles and 20 novels. A 1998 biography by Alex Kershaw was titled: "Jack London: A Life." In 2010 James L. Haley authored “wolf: The Lives of jack London.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_London)(SFC, 11/20/96, p.A17)(SFEC, 1/25/98, BR p.3)(Econ, 8/14/10, p.69)

1916        Nov 24, Forrest J. Ackerman, coined the term "sci-fi," was born.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1916        Nov 28, Vyes Theriault, French-Canadian author, novelist, was born.
    (HN, 11/28/00)
1916        Nov 28, Hiram Bingham, American explorer, wrote a letter to Gilbert H. Graham, the president of National Geographic, in which he stated that artifacts from his 3rd expedition to Peru belonged to the Peruvian government, which expected their return in 18 months. A dispute over the return of artifacts from Yale back to Peru continued in 2006. In 2010 Yale made arrangements to return the collection in stages over the next 2 years.
    (SFC, 3/10/06, p.A12)(Econ, 11/27/10, p.47)
1916        Nov 28, The first (German) air attack on London.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1916        Nov 29, US declared martial law in Dominican Republic.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1916        Nov, Ray Conniff (d.2002), bandleader and composer, was born in Attleboro, Mass.
    (SFC, 10/19/02, p.A21)
1916        Nov, T.E. Lawrence was assigned as the British liaison to Arab Prince Feisal Hussain.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3rd3h)

1916        Dec 1, King Constantine Greece refused to surrender to the Allies.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1916        Dec 2, Paolo Tosti, Italian-born composer and music teacher, died at the Hotel Excelsior in Rome. In 1894 Tosti joined the British Royal Academy of Music as a professor. In 1906, he became a British citizen and was knighted two years later by his friend, King Edward VII. In 1913 he returned to Italy to spend his last years there. Tosti wrote a total of 360 songs in his lifetime including: “Goodbye,” “Forever,” and “Mother.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paolo_Tosti)(www.bohemianopera.com/tosti.htm)

1916        Dec 3, French commander Joseph Joffre was dismissed after his failure at the Somme. General Robert Nivelle became the new French commander-in-chief.
    (HN, 12/3/98)

1916        Dec 5, Hans Richter (73), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/5/01)
1916        Dec 5, David Lloyd George replaced Herbert Asquith as the British Prime Minister.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1916        Dec 9, Kirk Douglas, film star, was born as Issur Demsky in Amsterdam, NY.
    (SSFC, 10/8/06, Par p.2)(www.imdb.com/name/nm0000018/)

1916        Dec 12, Worst train disaster ever took place in Modane, France, 543 French Soldiers were killed.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1916        Dec 14, Shirley Jackson, novelist and short story writer (Life Among Savages, The Lottery), was born.
    (HN, 12/14/00)
1916        Dec 14, People of Denmark voted to sell Danish West Indies to United States for $25 million. [see Aug 4]
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1916        Dec 15, The French defeated the Germans in the World War I Battle of Verdun. [see Dec 18]
    (AP, 12/15/97)

1916        Dec 16, Gregory Rasputin (45), the Russian monk and confidant to Czarina Alexandra, was assassinated by Prince Yussoupov (Youssoupoff). The monk who had wielded powerful influence over the Russian court, was murdered by a group of noblemen. He was fed cakes and wine laced with cyanide, then shot a number of times and finally drowned. In 1957 Youssoupoff (d.1967) authored a memoir in France that in 2003 was translated into English: Lost Splendor: The Amazing Memoirs of the Man Who Killed Rasputin." A TV version of Rasputin was made for HBO in 1996. [see Dec 30]
    (WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-15)(AP, 12/16/97)(SSFC, 11/30/03, p.M4)

1916        Dec 18, The Battle of Verdun ended with the French and Germans each having suffered more than 330,000 killed and wounded in 10 months. [see Dec 15]
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1916        Dec 29, According to the New Style calendar (Dec. 16th by the Old Style), Grigory Rasputin, the so-called "Mad Monk" who had wielded great influence with Czar Nicholas II, was murdered by a group of Russian noblemen in St. Petersburg. Rasputin drowned when he was thrown through a hole in the ice of the Neva River. When Rasputin was introduced to the Russian royal family in 1905, he demonstrated an ability to heal the royal son Alexis and was then welcomed into the family circle. Rasputin was considered a holy peasant, but his belief that sinning was necessary for salvation led him to seduce women and other scandalous behavior. A conspiracy, believing Rasputin had too much influence on the empress, formed to assassinate him, and on the night of December 29-30, they poisoned his wine--but he did not die. They shot him twice, but when he still refused to die, they drowned him.
    (HNPD, 12/30/98)(AP, 12/29/06)

1916        Marcel Duchamp displayed a plastic typewriter cover as finished work of art, a dadaist still-life with the logo "Underwood."
    (WSJ, 6/4/97, p.A16)

1916        A glass mural, "Dream Garden," was made by Maxfield Parrish and Louis Tiffany. the 15 x 49 foot work was commissioned by Cyrus Curtis and sold for over $5 million in 1998.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.C11)

1916        Albert Gleizes painted his ethereal Florent Schmidt at the Piano.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)   

1916        Egon Schiele, Viennese artist, made his "Reclining Woman Exposing Herself."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)
1916        Egon Schiele painted a view of Krumau, Bohemia. In 2003 it sold for £12.6 million.
    (Econ, 8/23/03, p.55)

1916        Henry Tonk, artist, did Studies of Facial Wounds. It was inspired by the shrapnel horrors of WW I.
    (WSJ, 6/15/95, p.A-14)

1916        Paul Strand, photographer, broke from soft focus and created his own modernist approach to photography.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, DB p.22)

1916        William Boetcker (1873-162), a German-born Presbyterian minister and member of the anti-trade union Citizen’s Alliance, published a leaflet entitled "Lincoln on Private Property." On the backside he included a set of his best aphorisms as the "Ten Cannots." These included “You cannot strenghten the weak by weakening the strong.”
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.16)(http://tinyurl.com/d5ynf42)
1916        Albert Einstein published his book “Relativity: The Special and the General Theory,” in an effort to make relativity understandable to the layman. His work predicted the existence of pulsars, which were first discovered in 1967.
    (ON, 6/07, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar)
1916        C.F. Dixon-Johnson authored "The Armenians," with the aim of "presenting the public an opportunity of judging whether or not 'the Armenian Question' has another side than that which has been recently so assiduously promulgated throughout the Western World."
    (www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh08/06.htm)
1916        Ring Lardner (1885-1933), American humorist and writer, authored “You Know Me Al.” It traced the 1st season of a rookie hurler for the Chicago White Sox.”
    (AP, 5/14/99)(HN, 3/6/01)(WSJ, 12/2/06, p.P8)
1916        Arnold Toynbee edited a document titled: "The Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire: 1915-1916."
    (http://www.ku.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce.htm)
1916        Frederick J. Waugh, a noted marine painter, authored "The Clan of Munes," a children's book about troll-like figures set in the Cathedral Woods of Monhegan Island, Maine. The book was later thought to have inspired a tradition of building fairy houses in the Cathedral Woods.
    (WSJ, 1/18/00, p.A1,8)
1916        Sarah Williamson authored “A California Cook Book.” It was reprinted in 2009.
    (SSFC, 1/17/10, p.K2)

1916        In "Easter" William Butler Yeats wrote: "All changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born."
    (NOHY, 3/1990, p.212)

1916        The opera "Die Toten Augen" (The Dead Eyes) by composer Eugen D'Albert (b.1864 in Glasgow) was first performed in Dresden under Fritz Reiner.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.33)

1916        George Gershwin at 18 wrote his first published song: "When You Want ‘Em, You Can’t Get ‘Em. When You Got ‘Em, You Don’t Want ‘Em."
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, z1 p.2)

1916        Eric Satie composed "Trois melodies."
    (SFC,11/14/97, p.C5)

1916        In Miami industrialist James Deering (d.1925) built the Vizcaya villa in Italian Renaissance style with formal gardens as his winter home on S. Miami Ave. The local government acquired the villa in 1952 and turned it into a museum.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 60)(WSJ, 7/9/99, p.W2)(WSJ, 8/31/01, p.W2)

1916        The Goodyear Redwood Lumber Co. constructed Harbor House in Elk, Ca., (once Greenwood Landing). It served as an executive residence and quarters for Goodyear guests.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, p.T9)

1916        The Frenchglen Hotel was built for cattle traders and stockmen in southeastern Oregon. It was named after Peter French.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, p.T5)

1916        Photographer Alfred Stieglitz (52) met artist Georgia O’Keeffe (29).
    (SFC, 6/23/96, p.B9)

1916        Margaret Sanger (d.1966) founded Planned Parenthood.
    (SFC, 11/13/96, p.E10)

1916        The George Gustav Heye Center was founded. [see 1874-1957, Heye]
    (Wired, Dec., ‘95, p.117)

1916        Virginia schoolboy Antonio Gentile won a nation-wide contest and $5 to create a logo for a snack food company. His Mr. Peanut idea was enhanced by a professional artist and became the logo for the  Planters Company.
    (www.drloriv.com/appraisals/mrpeanut.asp)

1916        In San Francisco a 9-story building at 150 Otis St. was built to serve as the city’s first juvenile hall and detention center. In 2010 plans were underway to convert it to permanent living space for homeless veterans.
    (SFC, 4/23/10, p.C2)
1916        In San Francisco a set of 4 linked homes on Russian Hill, designed by Willis Polk, were built at 1-7 Russian Hill Place.
    (SSFC, 9/27/09, p.C2)
1916        The San Diego Zoo in Balboa Park was founded.
    (Hem., 8/96, p.21)
1916        The beach community at Willow Camp, Ca., was renamed Stinson Beach after the largest land owners in the area, Rose and Nathan Stinson.
    (SFC, 11/27/07, p.A13)

1916        Fenton U-turn Weems ran 171 yards for a touchdown at the Rose Bowl where Washington State beat Brown 14-0. He had become disoriented, ran the wrong way, turned around and scored.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, z1 p.4)

1916         Glenn Springs, Texas. "During the Pancho Villa troubles in Mexico, several hundred hungry bandits crossed the border and sacked the town..."

1916        Pres. Woodrow Wilson put a Maine Park under federal protection and dubbed it Sieur de Monts National Monument.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.T6)
1916        The 1915 film "Birth of a Nation" was shown to Pres. Woodrow Wilson, the first motion picture shown in the White House.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E3)
1916        Pres. Woodrow Wilson signed the Harrison Drug Act. It required all persons licensed to sell narcotics to file an inventory of their stocks with the IRS. It outlawed the use of cocaine, which had been a key ingredient in many patent medicines. [2nd source says the act was created in 1914]
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, Z1 p.2)(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E3)
1916        Pres. Wilson signed the federal estate tax into law. It was a levy on the transfer of large fortunes between generations. In 2006 Michael Graetz and Ian Shapiro authored “Death by a Thousand Cuts,” a unique portrait of American politics as viewed through the lens of the death tax repeal saga.
    (WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A1)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.25)

1916        Anton Dilger (1884-1918), an American educated as a surgeon in Germany, set up a basement laboratory in Washington DC for cultivating anthrax bacteria and Pseudomonas mallei to infect horses and cattle destined to supply Allied armies. German saboteurs disseminated the bacteria. Dilger later moved to Mexico to help goad Mexico into attacking the US. He died of the Spanish flu in Madrid. In 2007 Robert Koenig authored “The Fourth Horseman: One Man’s Mission to Wage the Great War in America.”
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M2)

1916        US troops were still fighting skirmishes on some islands of the Philippines to this time.
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A6)

1916        Farm Credit Services of America was founded as the 1st of America’s government sponsored entities.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.68)

1916        Fairbanks, Alaska, caught fire. The town's bacon supply was burned as fuel to keep the steam powered water pump running. The event was later covered by Margaret Murie (d.2003) in her 1962 autobiography "Two in the Far North."
    (SFC, 10/24/03, p.A16)

1916        Mining students at UC Berkeley began construction of the Lawson Adit, a tunnel on the Berkeley campus, as part of their mining studies.
    (SSFC, 3/16/14, p.C1)
1916        Oakland Preserving Co. became the California Packing Co.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.B1)
1916        Lewis Terman, Stanford psychology professor known as the father of American IQ testing, developed and published the "Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale," commonly known as Stanford-Binet. His son Frederick Terman was later considered the father of a technical revolution. He encouraged his students to start local businesses that led to the growth of Silicon Valley.
    (WSJ, 7/18/97, p.A15)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W31)(WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)
1916        Mt. Lassen, Ca., was made a National Park.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T8)

1916        The Detroit Glass Minnow Tube was first introduced about this time. It is a fish lure where the angler pours a little water and live bait into a glass tube that is capped before casting.
    (Hem, 8/95, p.97)

1916        Joe Saunders of Nebraska launched the first car hire business when he began lending his ford Model T to traveling salesmen.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.91)

1916        In Nevada drillers on the 30,000 acre Fly Ranch in the Hualapai Flat struck geothermal water and gave birth to the Fly Geyser. It transformed the area into a desert wetland.
    (NH, 7/98, p.83)

1916        Bandelier National Park, NM, was named after anthropologist Adolph F.A. Bandelier. [see 1880)
    (SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D7)

1916        Todd Shipyards was formed in Brooklyn, NY, in a merger of several companies that included Robins Dry Dock & Repair Co. From 1958 to 1986 it was led by John T. Gilbride (1916-2007), whose father had run Robins. Todd filed for bankruptcy protection in 1987 and emerged from bankruptcy in 1990.
    (WSJ, 3/24/07, p.A8)

1916        A Westinghouse engineer in Pittsburgh started to play music over the air to his friends. By 1920 the company had a radio station operating on the factory roof.
    (WSJ, 1/12/98, p.A19)

1916        In Utah the US government took land from the Ute Indians for the rights to oil shale reserves. In 2000 84,000 acres were given back.
    (SFC, 1/14/00, p.A12)

1916        The Four Wheel Drive Auto Co. of Clintonville, Wis., got a boost from WW I demand for its trucks.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1916        Robert Brislawn, a Wyoming horse-packer, began trading Indians for their best mustangs.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)

1916        Charlie Chaplin’s paycheck was the highest in the land with the possible exception of steel magnate Charles Schwab.
    (WSJ, 7/17/96, p.A12)

1916        The Dow Jones was expanded to 20 stocks.
    (WSJ, 6/3/96, p.C1)

1916        Whitman Publishing became a subsidiary of Western Printing and Lithographing Co., which became Western Publishing in 1960. They published Little Golden Books under the Golden Press name.
    (SFC, 4/15/98, Z1 p.6)

1916        The US Gypsum Co. invented a building board, with gypsum sandwiched between sheets of tough paper, that it called Sheetrock (drywall). It replaced multiple plaster coats and became popular after WW II.
    (SFC, 10/29/03, p.F1)

1916        James L. Kraft invented processed cheese, which resulted in his Kraft empire.
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.B3)

1916        A formula for household bleach was devised.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.7)

1916        Edouard Heuer pioneered the chronos, or stopwatch. It indicated 1/100th of a second.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.113)

1916        Hand operated windshield wipers, stop lights and rearview mirrors became standard on some cars.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1916        The US had 270,000 miles of railway. By 1986 this would diminish by half.
    (NG, 5/88, pres. intro.)

1916         A single farm worker in 1916 provided food and farm products to seven Americans. By 1972 that number had grown to 60.
    (HNQ, 12/28/99)

1916        Psychologist James Leuba conducted a random poll of selected scientists to inquire if they believed in God. 40% said that they believed in God. A 1997 poll by Edward Larson that followed the 1916 procedure produced similar results. Leuba predicted that disbelief would spread as education expanded.
    (SFC, 4/4/97, p.A12)

1916        William Hubble (1889-1953), American astronomer, published photographs of NGC 2261 and found the nebula had changed size and shape over the previous 8 years. This work led to his doctoral thesis: Photographic Investigations of Faint Nebulae” and job offer to Mount Wilson Observatory in southern California.
    (ON, 12/10, p.1)

1916        Charles Dawson, a paleontologist involved in the 1912 Piltdown Hoax, died.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.48)

1916        Henry James (b.1843), American novelist and brother of William James, died. His novels included "The Ambassadors," "The Golden Bowl," "The Wings of the Dove," "The Beast in the Jungle," and "The Portrait of a Lady." In 2000 Robert B. Pippin authored "Henry James and Modern Moral Life." Pippin held that James was trying to work out a practical morality without recourse to religion or ethical principles.
    (WUD, 1994, p.762)(WUD, 1994, p.A38)

1916        Percival Lowell, American astronomer, died. He believed that an unknown planet was affecting the orbit of Neptune, which was discovered in 1930. The first two letters of Pluto commemorate his name.
    (Disc. Ch., 7/23/95)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Par p.13)

1916        Josiah Royce (b.1855), American philosopher and educator, died.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1249)

1916        Charles Taze Russell (b.1852) died. He founded the International Bible Students Association. In the 1870’s Russell abandoned the Adventist movement and formed his own in Pennsylvania, which was later named Jehovah’s Witnesses. His early followers were called "Russellites."
    (HN, 2/16/02)

1916        Charles de Foucauld, a former French army officer turned monk who lived among the Tuareg people in the Sahara, was killed in an anti-French uprising in Algeria. In 2005 he was beatified by Pope Benedikt XVI. Inspired by the monk, groups known as the Little Sisters and Little Brothers of Jesus were formed in Algeria.
    (AP, 11/13/05)

1916        Charles I took the throne and worked for peace as the Austro-Hungarian empire neared its end. He abdicated at the end of the war in 1918 and died in Portugal in 1922 at age 34. In 2003 the Vatican attributed a miracle to the last emperor of Austria-Hungary, paving the way for the eventual beatification and sainthood of Charles I.
    (AP, 12/21/03)

1916        In Britain Cecil Chubb bought the property that contained Stonehenge from a Wiltshire farmer.
    (HT, 3/97, p.22)
1916        Britain appointed a Royal Commission to investigate the calamitous attack on the Dardanelles.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.67)
1916        British Summer Time was introduced by the Parliament.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/livescience/whostarteddaylightsavingtime)

1916        The remains of the Spinops sternbergorum, which comes from the same herbivore family as the Triceratops, were discovered in a quarry known as the "bone bed" in Alberta, Canada. A. Smith Woodward, the Museum Keeper of Geology didn't think much of the find, describing it as "nothing but rubbish" and the remains were simply transferred into storage. In 2011 scientists identified the bull-size dinosaur as a new species from 76 million BC in the Late Cretaceous.
    (AP, 12/8/11)

1916        Germany reduced its retirement age from 70, which was fixed by Bismarck, to 65.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.16)
1916        Germany adopted daylight saving time.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, Par p.15)

1916        In Namibia it was the beginning of 73 years of occupation [by South Africa].
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C2)

1916        A disastrous breach of Dutch coastal defenses occurred.
    (www.metoffice.com/education/secondary/students/flood.html)

1916        In the Philippines native legislators were 1st elected but the US governors general remained in charge for years.
    (SSFC, 5/11/03, p.D6)

1916        In South Africa the Univ. of Fort Hare (UFH) was officially established.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.13)

1916-1922    Charlie Dalton later wrote the book "With the Dublin Brigade" that covers this period of the Irish rebellion.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, p.C13)

1916-1922    David Lloyd George of Wales served as the Prime Minister of Britain.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T4)

1916-1924    US Marines occupied the Dominican Republic.
    (SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)

1916-1931    The Indian rupee was the legal tender of Iraq.
    (WSJ, 11/7/03, p.A10)

1916-1996    Stavros Niarchos, Greek shipping tycoon. He was a fierce rival of Aristotle Onassis and earned millions of dollars shipping crude oil around the world. He married the former wife of Onassis after Onassis latched on to Jackie Kennedy. He died on Apr 15, in Switzerland and was buried there.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, C-4)

1917        Jan 5, Wieland Wagner, German opera director (grandson of Richard Wagner), was born.
    (MC, 1/5/02)
1917        Jan 5, Jane Wyman (d.2007), film star, was born as Sarah Jane Mayfield Fulks in St. Joseph, Mo.
    (SFC, 9/11/07, p.A2)
1917        Jan 5, Bulgarian and German troops occupied the Port of Braila in East Romania.
    (HN, 1/5/99)(WUD, 1994, p.178)

1917        Jan 6, Hendrik P.G. Quack (82), lawyer and economist (Bank of Netherlands), died.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1917        Jan 10, Buffalo Bill Cody, army scout and Indian fighter, died. Edward Zane Carroll Judson wrote about Western themes using the name Ned Buntline. The author is best known for his dime novels about William "Buffalo Bill" Cody.
    (MesWP)(HNQ, 4/9/00)(MC, 1/10/02)
1917        Jan 10, Germany was rebuked as the Entente officially rejected a proposal for peace talks and demanded the return of occupied territories from Germany.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1917        Jan 14, The Provisional Parliament was established in Poland.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1917        Jan 17, The United States paid Denmark $25 million for the Virgin Islands.
    (AP, 1/17/07)

1917        Jan 18, Philip Boileau (b.1863), Canada-born artist, died in the US. He was known for his portraits of beautiful women, the “Boileau Girls.”
    (SFC, 3/12/08, p.G3)(www.thephilipboileausociety.com/)

1917        Jan 19, John Raitt, Bonnie Raitt's father, singer, actor (Pajama Game, Carousel), was born.
    (MC, 1/19/02)
1917        Jan 19, Silvertown Essex's ammunition factory exploded and 300 died.
    (MC, 1/19/02)
1917         Jan 19, The Zimmermann Note, a coded message sent to Germany’s minister in Mexico by German Foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann, proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event war broke out between the U.S. and Germany. Intercepted by British naval intelligence, the note proposed, among other things, "We shall give generous financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona." The message was forwarded by the British to the U.S. State Department, which subsequently released it to the press on March 1.
    (HNQ, 7/15/98)

1917        Jan 22, President Wilson pleaded for an end to war in Europe, calling for "peace without victory." (By April, however, America was also at war.)
    (AP, 1/22/98)

1917        Jan 24, Ernest Borgnine, actor (Ice Station Zebra, McHale, Marty), was born in Hamden, Ct.
    (Internet)

1917        Jan 28, US forces were recalled from Mexico after nearly eleven months of fruitless searching for Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa, accused of leading a bloody raid against Columbus, New Mexico.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1917          Jan 31, Germany resumed unlimited sub warfare, saying that all neutral ships that are in the war zone would be attacked.
     (AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99)

1917        Jan, The 5-member white Dixie Jass Band from New Orleans led by Nick LaRocca cut its first jazz records: "Darktown Strutters’ Ball" and "Indiana" for Columbia Records in NYC.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.D5)

1917        Jan, In Norway a piece of sugar containing anthrax bacilli was found in the luggage of Otto Karl von Rosen, when he was apprehended in Karasjok for suspected espionage and sabotage.
    (NH, 10/98, p.18)

1917        Feb 1, Admiral Tirpitz (1849-1930) announced that Germany would attack all shipping in the North Atlantic with its feared U-Boats. [see Jan 31]
    (WSJ, 1/29/96, p. C-1)(WUD, 1994 p.1488)

1917        Feb 3, The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Germany, which had announced a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare. A German submarine sank the U.S. liner Housatonic off coast of Sicily.
    (AP, 2/3/97)(HN, 2/3/99)

1917        Feb 5, Congress nullified President Woodrow Wilson's veto of the Immigration Act, a law severely curtailing the immigration of Asians. Literacy tests were required.
    (AP, 2/5/97)(HN, 2/5/99)
1917        Feb 5, Mexico’s constitution was adopted.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AP, 2/5/97)

1917        Feb 7, The British steamer California was sunk off the coast of Ireland by a German U-boat.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1917        Feb 8, The British steamship Mantola was torpedoed by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland. All but seven crew members, who drowned when their lifeboat overturned, were rescued by the HMS Laburnum. The ship sank the next day. The British Ministry of War Transport paid a War Risk Insurance Claim for £110,000 (in 1917 value) for silver that was on board when the ship sank. In 2011 Odyssey Marine Exploration discovered the ship.     
    (SFC, 10/11/11, p.A6)(www.shipwreck.net/ssmantola.php)

1917        Feb 11, Sidney Sheldon, American novelist, was born.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1917        Feb 15, The Main Branch of the SF Public Library at the Civic center was dedicated. It was designed by George Kelham in the Beaux-Arts Classical style at a cost of $1.1 million.  The interior was adorned with murals by Frank Vincent De Mond and by Gottardo Piazzoni in 1932.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C6)(SFC,12/10/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 1/19/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 1/23/00, DB p.29)
1917        Feb 15, M Wolf discovered asteroid #865 Zubaida.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1917        Feb 16, The 1st Madrid synagogue in 425 years opened.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1917        Feb 17, Edmund Bishop (70), English secretary of Thomas Carlyle, died.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1917        Feb 19, American troops were recalled from the Mexican border.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1917        Feb 19, Carson McCuller, writer (The Heart is a Lonely Hunter), was born.
    (HN, 2/19/01)

1917        Feb 20, Kern, Bolton & Wodehouse's musical "Oh, Boy!," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 2/20/02)
1917        Feb 20, Ammunitions ship exploded in Archangel harbor, Russia, and about 1,500 died.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1917        Feb 21, The SS Mendi steamship sank after being accidentally rammed in the British Channel by the SS Darro, an empty meat ship bound for Argentina. 607 members of the South African Labour Corps, 9 officers and 33 crew lost their lives. The crew of the Darro made no attempt to rescue survivors.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Mendi)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.46)

1917        Feb 23, The February revolution began in Russia (OS calendar). [see Mar 8]
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1917        Feb 24, The British presented the decoded Zimmermann telegram, a German plot for Mexican help, to Pres. Wilson and an enraged Wilson released the document to the American public on March 1. On April 6, 1917, America formally declared war on Germany and her Allies.
    (HNPD, 2/24/99)(MC, 2/24/02)

1917        Feb 25, Anthony Burgess, English writer (A Clockwork Orange), was born.
    (HN, 2/25/01)

1917        Feb 26, President Wilson publicly asked congress for the power to arm merchant ships. When the United States entered World War I, propagandist George Creel set out to stifle anti-war sentiment. Pres. Wilson, following his 1916 re-election, had asked the NY publicist to design a public relations campaign to swing the country’s interests to support Britain and France.
    (HN, 2/26/98)(AH, 6/07, p.46)
1917        Feb 26, Utrecht Harbor, Netherlands, held its 1st Annual fair.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1917        Feb 27, John Connally, Texas Governor, wounded in the assassination of President John Kennedy, was born.
    (HN, 2/27/98)

1917        Feb 28, AP reported that Mexico and Japan would ally with Germany if US enters WW I.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1917        Feb 28, Russian Duma set up a Provisional Committee; workers set up Soviets.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1917        Feb, Mata Hari was arrested in Paris for spying.
    (WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A16)

1917        Mar 1, Robert Lowell, Jr., poet, was born. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1947 for Lord Weary's Castle.
    (HN, 3/1/01)
1917        Mar 1, Dinah Shore, singer (See the USA in a Chevrolet), was born in Winchester, Ten. [see Feb 29, 1916]
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1917        Mar 1, The 1st US federal land bank was chartered.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1917        Mar 2, President Woodrow Wilson signed the Jones-Shafroth Act giving Puerto Ricans US citizenship. The Jones Act separated the Executive, Judicial, and Legislative branches of Puerto Rican government, provided civil rights to the individual, and created a locally elected bicameral legislature. The two houses were a Senate consisting of 19 members and a 39-member House of Representatives. However, the Governor and the President of the US had the power to veto any law passed by the legislature. Also, the US Congress had the power to stop any action taken by the legislature in Puerto Rico.
    (www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/jonesact.html)(AP, 3/2/98)
1917        Mar 2, Desi Arnaz (Desiderio Alberto Arnez y de Acha III) was born in Santiago, Cuba. His father was the mayor of Santiago.
    (www.youns.com/lucy/desiarnaz.asp)

1917        Mar 3, Congress passed the 1st excess profits tax on corporations.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1917        Mar 4, Republican Jeanette Rankin of Montana took her seat as the first woman elected to the House of Representatives.
    (AP, 3/4/98)

1917        Mar 5, The 1st jazz recording for Victor Records was released by RCA Victor in Camden, NJ. Viktor issued "Dixie Jass Band One-Step" and "Livery Stable Blues" by The Dixie Jass Band.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.D5)(MC, 3/5/02)

1917        Mar 8, The US Senate voted to limit filibusters by adopting Rule XXII, the cloture rule, introduced at the urging of Pres. Wilson. The Senate had operated without a cloture rule since 1806. The rule required a 2/3 vote. It was later amended to a 3/5 vote. 
    (AP, 3/8/98)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.30)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.24)
1917        Mar 8-12, Russia’s democratic February revolution took place in Russia. The "February Revolution" (according to the Old Style calendar that Russians used) began with rioting and strikes in the Russian army garrison at Petrograd.
    (AP, 3/8/98)(LHC, 3/8/03)
1917        Mar 8, Ferdinand von Zeppelin (78), Dutch count, air pioneer, died.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1917          Mar 9, Algirdas Julius Greimas, Lithuanian semiologist and mythologist, was born in Tula, Russia. He died Feb 27, 1992, in Paris.
    (LHC, 3/9/03)
1917          Mar 9, A Lithuanian committee in St. Petersburg accepted a declaration for Lithuanian autonomy. (LHC, 3/9/03)

1917        Mar 11, British troops occupied Baghdad.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1917        Mar 12, Russian troops mutinied in the "February Revolution." [see Mar 8]
    (HN, 3/12/99)

1917        Mar 14, China broke off diplomatic relations with Germany.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1917        Mar 15, Nicholas II, last Russian tsar, said he will abdicate.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1917        Mar 16, Nicholas II, Czar of Russia, abdicated in favor of his brother Michael. He was forced to sign a document of abdication after being brought down by political unrest and widespread starvation stemming from Russia’s staggering losses in WWI. The czar, his wife Alexandra, their four daughters and son Alexis, heir to the throne, were held prisoner by the Bolsheviks for several months at Tsarskoye Selo palace near Petrograd. In August 1917, the family was transported to distant Siberia to prevent any attempt to restore them to the throne. In July 1918, the entire royal family was executed by local Bolsheviks.
    (HNPD, 3/16/99)

1917        Mar 17, Czar Michael abdicated after one day in favor of a provisional government under Prince George Evgenievich Lvov (55).
    (PCh, 1992, p.722)

1917        Mar 18, The Germans sank the U.S. ships, City of Memphis, Vigilante and the Illinois, without any type of warning.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1917        Mar 19, Dino Lipatti, composer, pianist, was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)
1917        Mar 19, The US Supreme Court, in Wilson v. New, upheld the Adamson Act, the eight hour work day for railroad workers.
    (HN, 3/19/98)(AP, 3/19/08)
1917        Mar 19, A German submarine in the Mediterranean Sea sunk the French battleship Danton. In 2009 the Danton was discovered on the seabed southwest of Sardinia.
    (SFC, 2/21/09, p.A2)(www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?16848)

1917        Mar 20, Dame Vera Lynn, British songstress, was born. She sang "White Cliffs of Dover" and "Lily Marlene" during World War II.
    (HN, 3/20/99)
1917        Mar 20, Gideon Sundback, Swedish-born engineer, patented an all-purpose zipper while working for the Automatic Hook and Eye Co. of Hoboken, New Jersey. The zipper name was coined by B.F. Goodrich in 1923, who used it to fasten rubber galoshes. In 1994 Robert Friedel authored “Zipper: An Exploration in Novelty.”
    (ON, 7/04, p.5)(www.inventors.about.com)

1917        Mar 22, The U.S. became the first to recognize the Kerensky Government in Russia.
    (HN, 3/22/97)
1917        Mar 22, In Brazil Caixa Economica de Sao Paulo first opened its doors. In 2008 the bank was bought by Banco do Brazil.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2wkhujw)(Econ, 5/15/10, SR p.11)

1917        Mar 23, A 4 day series of tornadoes killed 211 in Midwest US.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1917        Mar 23, Austrian Emperor Charles I made a peace proposal to French President Poincare.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1917        Mar 27, The Seattle Metropolitans became the first US team to win the Stanley Cup as they defeated the Montreal Canadiens.
    (AP, 3/27/97)

1917        Mar 28, The Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) was founded, these were Great Britain’s first official service women.
    (HN, 3/28/99)
1917        Mar 28, Puccini's "La Rondine," premiered in Monte Carlo.
    (MC, 3/28/02)
1917        Mar 28, Jews were expelled from Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Turkish authorities.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1917        Mar 29, Man O'War, racehorse (winner of 20 out of 21 races and $249,465), was born.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1917        Mar 31, The United States took possession of the Virgin Islands. The purchase from Denmark for $25 million had been set up in 1916.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Virgin_Islands)

1917        Apr 1, In Baltimore some 4,000 pro-war demonstrators stormed a meeting of the American League Against Militarism and threatened to hang the participants that included Stanford Univ. Chancellor David Starr Jordan.
    (Ind, 4/12/03, 5A)
1917        Apr 1, Scott Joplin (b.1868), ragtime composer (Sting), died of syphilis in a NY mental hospital. His work included the opera "Treemonisha."
    (MC, 4/1/02)(SFC, 6/21/03, p.D3)c

1917        Apr 2, At 8:30 p.m. President Woodrow Wilson, delivered his message before a joint session of Congress and recommended that a state of war be declared between the United States and the imperial German government. Realizing that the war looming ahead would be a costly one, Wilson said, "the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured…" and "The world must be made safe for democracy."
    (AP, 4/2/97)(HN, 4/2/98)(http://condor.stcloudstate.edu/~brixr01/theTIMEMACHINE.html)
1917        Apr 2, Jeannette Pickering Rankin was sworn in as the first woman to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives.
    (HN, 4/2/01)

1917        Apr 3, Lenin left Switzerland for Petrograd.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1917        Apr 4, U.S. Senate voted 90-6 to enter World War I on Allied side.
    (HN, 4/4/98)

1917        Apr 5, Robert Bloch, sci-fi author (Hugo, Psycho), was born.
    (HN, 4/5/01)(MC, 4/5/02)

1917        Apr 6, The US Congress approved a declaration of war against Germany and entered World War I on the Allied side.
     (HN, 4/6/98)(AP, 4/6/04)

1917        Apr 7, De Falla's ballet "El Sombrero de tres Picos," premiered in Madrid.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1917        Apr 9, Battle of Arras began as Canadian troops launched a massive assault on Vimy Ridge in France. The assault brought four Canadian divisions fought together for the first time and cost 10,600 lives.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Arras_%281917%29)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)
1917        Apr 9, Edward Thomas (b.1878), British writer and poet, was killed in action during the Battle of Arras. His travel books included “The Icknield Way.” In 2012 Matthew Hollis authored “Now All Roads Lead to France: The Last Years of Edward Thomas.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Thomas_%28poet%29)(Economist, 9/22/12, p.94)

1917        Apr 10, Robert B. Woodward, synthetic chemist, was born.
    (HN, 4/10/01)
1917        Apr 10, A munitions factory explosion at Eddystone, PA., killed 133 workers.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1917        Apr 11, Babe Ruth beat NY Yanks, pitching to a 3-hit, 10-3 win for Red Sox.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1917        Apr 12, Domenico Scarlatti's and Jean Cocteau's ballet premiered in Rome.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1917        Apr 13, Howard Keel, actor, singer (7 Brides for 7 Brothers, Kiss Me Kate), was born.
    (MC, 4/13/02)
1917        Apr 13, Diamond Jim Brady (b.1856), American financier, philanthropist and gourmand, died. When his body was examined, doctors discovered that his stomach was eight times larger than that of an average person.
    (WSJ, 1/12/08, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%22Diamond_Jim%22_Brady)

1917        Apr 15, The British defeated the Germans at the battle of Arras.
    (HN, 4/15/98)
   
1917        Apr 16, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin returned to Russia after years of exile to start the Bolshevik Revolution.
    (AP, 4/16/97)(HN, 4/16/98)

1917        Apr 20, In the Pravda newspaper Lenin named Russia "Free land of world."
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1917        Apr 25, Ella Fitzgerald (d.1996), jazz singer, was born. [see Apr 25, 1918]
    (HN, 4/25/02)

1917        Apr 26, Ieoh Ming Pei (IM Pei), architect (1961 Brunner Prize), was born in Canton, China. He designed the East Wing of the US National Gallery of Art.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A18)(www.archpedia.com/Architects/IM-Pei.html)

1917        Apr 28, Robert Anderson, writer (Tea & Sympathy, Never Sang for My Father), was born in NY.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1917        Apr, The US Navy had 54 airplanes, one nonoperational airship, two balloons and 267 officers and men.
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.9)

1917        May 1, Caucasian unity was proclaimed at the first Mountain People's Congress in Vladikavkaz. The idea of a Caucasus Confederation had its origins in the spring of 1917 and was developed further in 1918. At the Congress the "Alliance of United Mountain People of the North Caucasus and Dagestan", headed by T. Chermoev, a Chechen, R. Kaplanov, a Kumyk, P. Kotsev, a Kabardian, V. Dzhabagiev, an Ingush, and others, was officially established. The Abkhazian people also became full members of this alliance. A Mountain Peoples' Government was formed in November 1917.
    (www.ciaonet.org/olj/crs/crs_1998sp/crs98sp_las01.html)

1917        May 3, Kiro Gligorov (d.2012) was born in the central Macedonian town of Shtip. He later served as the first president of Macedonia (1991-1999).
    (AP, 1/2/12)

1917        May 5, Eugene Jacques Bullard became the first African-American aviator when he earned a flying certificate with the French Air Service.
    (HN, 5/5/99)

1917        May 10, Atlantic ships got destroyer escorts to fend off German attacks.
    (HN, 5/10/98)

1917        May 12, M. Wolf discovered asteroid #870, Manto.
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)

1917        May 13, Ernest Bloch (1880-1959), Swiss composer, premiered his work "Schelomo."
    (WUD, 1994 p.159)(MC, 5/13/02)
1917        May 13, Three peasant children near Fatima, Portugal, reported seeing a vision of the Virgin Mary. Francisco and Jacinta Marto and Lucia de Santos (d.2005) later reported appearances on 5 more occasions. Dos Santos was said by believers to be the main recipient of prophecies from the Virgin about key 20th century events. The Vatican said the 1st secret foretold the end of World War I and that the 2nd predicted the spread and collapse of Communism and the conversion of Russia. In 2000 the Vatican disclosed that the so-called 3rd Secret of Fatima was a vision of an attempt to kill a pope. It was reportedly associated to the May 13, 1981, assassination attempt. In 2000 the Vatican unveiled the 62-line handwritten account of Lucia de Jesus dos Santos.
    (AP, 5/13/97)(SFEC, 5/14/00, p.A2)(SFC, 6/27/00, p.A12)

1917        May 15, British Lt. John Harold Pritchard was killed in a nighttime battle at Bullecourt, France. This was during the two week 2nd battle of Bullecourt on the Hindenburg Line. Thousands of dead were scattered on both sides. In 2013 Pritchard’s body was found on a farm that covered the battleground.
    (SFC, 4/24/13, p.A5)

1917        May 18, The U.S. Congress passed the Selective Service act, calling up soldiers to fight World War I.
    (HN, 5/18/99)
1917        May 18, California approved an Industrial Loan Act. State chartered industrial loan banks approved loans to industrial workers shunned by traditional banks.
    (www.leginfo.ca.gov/.const/.article_15)(Econ, 4/22/06, p.71)
1917        May 18, Satie-Massine-Picasso's ballet "Parade" premiered in Paris, France.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1917        May 20, Turkish government authorized Jews to return to Tel Aviv and Jaffa.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1917        May 21, Raymond Burr, actor, was born in BC, Canada. He played Perry Mason on television.
    (HN, 5/21/99)(MC, 5/21/02)

1917        May 25, Steve Cochran, actor (Mozambique, Gay Senotiys, Dallas), was born in Eureka, CA.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1917        May 25, Jimmy Hamilton, saxophonist, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1917        May 25, Theodore Hesburgh, ex-president of Notre Dame, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1917        May 25, Leon Felix Augustin Joseph Vasseur (72), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1917        May 26, Up to eight separate tornadoes cut a path of destruction for nearly 300 miles across Illinois and Indiana.
    (SFC, 5/26/09, p.D8)

1917        May 28, "Papa" John Creach, violinist, was born.
    (MC, 5/28/02)
1917        May 28, Barry Commoner, biologist (Science & Survival), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1917        May 29, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States (1961-1963), was born at 83 Beals St. in Brookline, Mass. He was assassinated in his first term.
    (AP, 5/29/97)(HN, 5/29/99)(SSFC, 9/8/02, p.C12)

1917        May, The film "The Spirit of ’76," produced by Robert Goldstein, opened in Los Angeles. The film celebrated the American Revolution but showed the British in an unfavorable light and with the United States involved in World War I on the side of the British, federal officials accused Goldstein of producing "pro-German" propaganda. In 1918. Goldstein was arrested for violating the Espionage Act and sentenced to 10 years. He served 3.
    (WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W17)(HNQ, 3/1/01)
1917        May, French soldiers refused to return to the trenches after the disastrous April-May Chemin des Dames offensive of Gen. Nivelle, in which more than 30,000 French soldiers died and 80,000 were wounded to no good purpose. The "La Chanson de Craonne," sung to the tune of Charles Sablon's "Bonsoir M'amour" by the mutineers, celebrated the resistance of the soldiers to return to the front and was banned for many years from French airwaves.
    (www.ufppc.org/content/view/6510/)

1917        Jun 2, Max Showalter, actor, composer (Stockard Channing Show), was born in Caldwell, Ks.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1917        Jun 4, Charles Collingwood, news commentator (CBS, Chronicles), was born in Mich.
    (MC, 6/4/02)
1917        Jun 4, American men begin registering for the draft. [see Jun 5]
    (MC, 6/4/02)
1917        Jun 4, The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, a British order of chivalry, was established by King George V. The Order included five classes in civil and military divisions in decreasing order of seniority. These included: Knight Grand Cross (GBE) or Dame Grand Cross (GBE), Knight Commander (KBE) or Dame Commander (DBE), Commander (CBE),  Officer (OBE), and Member (MBE).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_the_British_Empire)

1917        Jun 5, About 10 million American men began registering for the draft in World War I.
    (AP, 6/5/97)

1917        Jun 7, Gwendolyn Brooks, one of the foremost African American poets of the 20th Century, was born. She won the Pulitzer Prize for poetry for her verse narrative "Annie Allen."
    (HN, 6/7/99)
1917        Jun 7, Dean Martin, singer, comedian (partner for Jerry Lewis), was born in Steubenville, Ohio. He died in Beverly Hills, Ca. on Dec. 25, 1995. [see Jun 17]
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-1)(SC, 6/7/02)
1917        Jun 7, British Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig launched his assault in Flanders to take German pressure off his French allies. For months, troops of the British Expeditionary Force fought a series of pointless battles in a nightmarish landscape of knee-deep shell holes filled with mud and blasted, skeletal trees. When the campaign finally ground to a halt on November 10, 1917, the BEF had suffered losses of 300,000 men and German losses were around 200,000--for a total gain of four miles.
    (HNPD, 6/7/99)

1917        Jun 8, Byron R. White (d.2002), later US Supreme Court Justice (1962-1993), was born in Fort Collins, Colo.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A1)

1917        Jun 10, 60,000 people of Petrograd welcomed Prince Kropotkin, who was banned 41 years earlier.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1917        Jun 13, Germany bombed London.
    (MC, 6/13/02)

1917        Jun 15, The US Espionage Act was passed. It was used to ban Marxist magazines from the mails and was soon followed by the Sedition Act. Eugene Debs was sent to prison for opposing the war under the Espionage Act.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Espionage_Act_of_1917)(WSJ, 10/29/98, p.A20)
1917        Jun 15, Great Britain pledged the release of all Irish captured during the Easter Rebellion of 1916.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1917        Jun 16, Katharine Graham (d.2001), publisher of the Washington Post, was born. She was later considered one of the most influential women in the United States.
    (HN, 6/16/99)(SFC, 7/18/01, p.A6)
1917        Jun 16, Irving Penn, fashion photographer, brother of film director Arthur Penn, was born.
    (HN, 6/16/01)
1917        Jun 16, The 1st Congress of Soviets convened in Russia.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1917        Jun 17, Dean Martin, singer and comedian, was born as Dino Crocetti in Steubenville, Ohio. He worked with Jerry Lewis. His films included "My Friend Irma," "Hollywood or Bust," "Airport," "Bells are Ringing" and "Rio Bravo." [see Jun 7]
    (MC, 6/17/02)
1917        Jun 17, British king George V took the name Windsor. [see Jun 19, Jul 17]
    (MC, 6/17/02)
 1917        Jun 17, The Russian Duma met in secret session in Petrograd and voted for an immediate Russian offensive against the German Army.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1917        Jun 19, King George V ordered the British royal family to dispense with German titles and surnames. The family took the name  "Windsor." [see Jun 17, Jul 17]
    (DT, 6/19/97)(MC, 6/19/02)

1917        Jun 23, Babe Ruth, starting pitcher for the Boston Red Sox, was ejected from a baseball game after he walked the 1st batter and argued with the umpire. Relief pitcher Ernie Shore threw out the 1st batter at 2nd base and proceeded to pitch a no-hitter.
    (SFC, 9/2/00, p.B3)

1917        Jun 24, Russian Black Sea fleet mutinied at Sebastopol.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1917        Jun 26, General John "Black Jack" Pershing arrived in France with the first of the 14,000 American Expeditionary Force.
    (AP, 6/26/97)(HN, 6/26/98)(MC, 6/26/02)

1917        Jun 27, Hank Gowdy became the 1st baseball player to enter WW I military service.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1917        Jun 28, The Raggedy Ann doll invented.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1917        Jun 29, The Ukraine proclaimed independence from Russia.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1917        Jun 30, Lena Horne, American singer, was born in Brooklyn, NYC. She later appeared in the films "Stormy Weather" and "Death of a Gunfighter."
    (HN, 6/30/99)(MC, 6/30/02)

1917        Jul 1, The 1893 upper jaw cancer operation for President Grover Cleveland remained a secret until July 1, 1917, when the doctor who performed the operation revealed the story.
    (HNQ, 11/6/99)

1917        Jul 2, Race riots erupted in East St. Louis, Illinois. The official death toll was put at 48, but as many as 200 were believed killed. In 1964 Elliott M. Rudwick authored Race Riot at East St. Louis, July 2, 1917.” In 2008 Harper Barnes authored “Never Been a Time: The 1917 Race Riot That Sparked the Civil Rights Movement.”
    (SFC, 7/18/08, p.E3)(www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=54020510)
1917        Jul 2, An Arab army led by Feisal Hussein and Bedouin chief Auda Abu Taiya fought Turkish forces at Aqaba killing 300 and capturing 160 Turkish soldiers.
    (ON, 10/05, p.8)

1917        Jul 4, During a ceremony in Paris honoring the French hero of the American Revolution, U.S. Lt. Col. Charles E. Stanton declared, "Lafayette, we are here!"
    (AP, 7/4/97)

1917        Jul 6, During World War I, Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence and Auda Abu Tayi captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks.
    (AP, 7/6/08)

1917        Jul 7, A federal Grand Jury indicted 147 people including multimillionaire Leopold Michels and many San Franciscans in the case of "Germany’s gigantic conspiracy against American neutrality." The "neutrality plot" involved an alleged attempt to foment revolution in India against British rule and a conspiracy to ship supplies from SF to German ships in the Pacific.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)

1917        Jul 9, British warship "Vanguard" exploded at Scapa Flow killing 804.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1917        Jul 11, The Allied assault on Flanders, Belgium, began and lasted to Nov 10, for a total gain of four miles and the occupation of Passchendaele. 9 major battles took place during this period in the Allied attempt to capture Passchendaele. In preparation for the attack the Allies fired some 4.2 million shells. In 2006 military teams around Flanders still retrieved 2-3 dozen shells per day.  
    (AM, 7/04, p.9)(WSJ, 5/24/06, p.A1)

1917        Jul 12, Andrew Wyeth, painter who focused on the northeastern United States, was born in Chadds Ford, Pa. In 1998 Beth Venn and Adam Weinberg published "Unknown Terrain," a companion piece to a Whitney Museum exhibition of his art.
    (HN, 7/12/98)(MC, 7/12/02)(www.wyethcenter.com)

1917        Jul 15, Robert Conquest, English author (Back to Life), was born.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1917        Jul 16, Ludwig Philipp Scharwenka (70), German composer (Album Polonaise), died.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1917        Jul 17, The British royal family adopted the Windsor name. King George V changed the family name to the House of Windsor from the German-sounding House of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha. [see Jun 17,19]
    (AP, 7/17/97)(SFEC, 1/19/97, Par p.2)(DTnet, 6/19/97)

1917        Jul 20, The US draft lottery in World War I went into operation.
    (AP, 7/21/97)
1917        Jul 20, Alexander Kerensky became the premier of Russia.
    (HN, 7/20/98)
1917        Jul 20, The Pact of Corfu was signed between the Serbs, Croats & Slovenes to form Yugoslavia. [see Dec 1, 1918]
    (www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1917yugoslavia1.html)

1917        Jul 22, British bombed German lines at Ypres with 4,250,000 grenades.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1917        Jul 24, The sailing vessel R.P. Rithet caught fire and burned at sea. Captain Knut Lindberg (1865-1935) and crew took to a lifeboat and sailed nearly 1000 miles to Port Allen, Kauai, Hawaii. All 14 men and officers survived. The 1080 ton steel bark was built at Port Glasgow in 1892 for C. Brewer & Co. Matson bought it in 1908 and installed auxiliary diesel engines c. 1916.
    (SSFC, 10/17/10, DB p.46)(www.usmm.org/matson.html)

1917        Jul 26, J. Edgar Hoover got job with the Justice Department.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1917        Jul 31, The third Battle of Ypres commenced as the British attacked the German lines.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1917        Aug 1, Frank Little, IWW organizer, was lynched in Butte, MT.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1917        Aug 2, Royal Naval Air Service officer E.H. Dunning became the first pilot to land on the deck of a moving ship. He performed the tricky maneuver by flying his Sopwith Pup alongside the HMS Furious as it steamed at high speed into the wind, then side-slipping inward to the deck. Furious joined the British Royal Navy as an aircraft carrier after being fitted with a primitive flight deck. Five days after his successful deck landing, Dunning drowned during another attempt when his aircraft developed mechanical problems and plunged overboard.
    (HNPD, 8/5/99)

1917        Aug 4, Pravda called for the killing of all capitalists, priests and officers.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1917        Aug 10, The US Congress passed the Lever Food and Fuel Control Act. It gave Pres. Wilson the power to regulate the transportation, production and storage of wartime necessities.
    (AH, 6/07, p.44)(www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3401802360.html)

1917        Aug 14, The Chinese Parliament declared war on the Central Powers, Germany and Austria, during World War I. Some 100,000 Chinese laborers ended up serving near the front lines in Flanders as the “Chinese Labor Corps,” which endured military discipline under British officers. Hundreds died in the influenza that swept post-war Europe and the last were shipped home in 1920.
    (AP,  8/14/97)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.41)

1917        Aug 22, John Lee Hooker, blues singer and guitarist, was born.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1917        Aug 28, Jack Kirby, cartoonist (X-Men, Spiderman, Hulk, Capt America), was born.
    (MC, 8/28/01)
1917        Aug 28, 10 suffragists were arrested as they picketed the White House.
    (AP, 8/28/97)

1917        Aug 29, Canada’s PM Robert Borden introduced the Military Service Act. The Act was passed: allowing the government to conscript men across the country if the PM felt that it was necessary.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscription_Crisis_of_1917)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)

1917        Sep 2, Cleveland Amory, conservationist and TV reviewer (TV Guide), was born in Nahant, Mass.
    (MC, 9/2/01)
1917        Sep 2, Admiral Tirpitz formed the Deutsche Vaterlands Party.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1917        Sep 3, The 1st night bombing of London by German fighter planes.
    (MC, 9/3/01)
1917        Sep 3, German troops overran Riga Latvia.
    (MC, 9/3/01)
1917        Sep 3, Fanya Kaplan, the Russian who shot at Lenin on Aug 30th, was executed.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1917        Sep 4, The American expeditionary force in France suffered its first fatalities in World War I when a German plane attacked a British-run base hospital..
    (AP, 9/4/08)

1917        Sep 6, French pilot Georges Guynemer shot down 54th German aircraft.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1917        Sep 8, Eugene Bullard, aviator, was born in Columbus, Georgia. He emigrated to France and became the first African-American combat aviator when he flew a reconnaissance mission over the city of Metz, France. He was credited with one confirmed "kill," a German Pfalz he shot down over Verdun.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1917        Sep 11, Jessica Mitford (d.1996), writer who championed civil rights, best known for her book “The American Way of Death,” was born.
    (HN, 9/11/98)
1917        Sep 11, Ferdinand Marcos, Philippines Pres. (1965-86), was born.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1917        Sep 15, Russia was proclaimed a republic by Alexander Kerensky, the head of a provisional government.
    (AP, 9/15/97)

1917        Sep 17, Some 20,000 iron workers went on strike in SF, Oakland and Alameda in the biggest strike ever on the Pacific Coast. Marines were sent to guard the Union iron Works and 32 men were arrested in street demonstrations.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)
1917        Sep 17, The German Army recaptured the Russian [Latvian] Port of Riga from Russian forces.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1917        Sep 20, Arnold "Red" Auerbach, second winningest basketball coach in history with 1,037 victories for the Boston Celtics, was born.
    (HN, 9/20/98)
1917        Sep 20, The British assaulted the Polygon Forest in France.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1917        Sep 27, Louis Auchincloss, novelist, was born in Lawrence, NY. His work included "Portrait in Brownstone, The Embezzler," and "Watchfires.
    (HN, 9/27/00)(MC, 9/27/01)
1917        Sep 27, Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas (b1834), French impressionist painter died in Paris. His fascination with horses was covered in the 1998 book "Degas at the Races" by Jean Sutherland.
    (WSJ, 10/2/96, p.B5)(SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Degas)

1917        Sep, Elvin Jones, jazz drummer, was born.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, DB p.15)

1917        Oct 6, Robert Mitchum, actor (2 for the Seesaw, Ryan's Daughter), was born.
    (MC, 10/6/01)
1917        Oct 6, US Congress passed the Trading With the Enemy Act, which allowed the US to seize the property of enemy nationals.
    (www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/182.html)(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P13)

1917        Oct 8, Rodney Porter, British biochemist and Nobel Prize winner, was born.
    (HN, 10/8/00)
1917        Oct 8, Leon Trotsky was named chairman of Petrograd Soviet.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1917        Oct 10, Thelonious Monk (d.1982), jazz pianist and composer, was born. He eventually moved to New York City where he played at various nightclubs throughout the 40s. He began recording more in the 1950s, usually with small groups, gaining more notoriety, but his musical influence on his fellow musicians was already considerable, including such jazz artists as George Russell and Randy Weston. Jazz pianist and prolific composer Thelonious Monk, one of the early bebop musicians of the 1940s, stopped touring and recording in the early 70s, leaving such jazz standards as "Straight, No Chaser" and " ‘Round Midnight." [see Oct 11]
    (HNQ, 2/28/01)

1917        Oct 11, Thelonious Monk, jazz great, was born. [see Oct 10]
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1917        Oct 15, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., historian and author, was born in Ohio. He won the 1946 Pulitzer Prize for his book "Age of Jackson."
    (HN, 10/15/00)(MC, 10/15/01)
1917        Oct 15, Mata Hari (b.1876), the woman whose name has become synonymous with a seductive female spy, was executed by the French outside Paris on charges of spying for the Germans during World War I. The daughter of a prosperous Dutch merchant, Margaretha Geertruida Zelle married a colonial army officer named MacLeod in 1895. The couple lived for five years in Java and Sumatra before the marriage failed. By 1905, Mrs. MacLeod was calling herself Mata Hari--said to be Malay for "eye of the day"--and creating a sensation as an exotic East Indian dancer in Europe. Among her many lovers were military officers and, although the facts surrounding her espionage activities are still unclear, Mata Hari was arrested by the French as a German spy in February 1917. After a two-day trial before a military court, Mata Hari was sentenced to death for espionage. In 2002 Richard Skinner authored "The Red Dancer," a novel based on her life.
    (WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A16)(AP, 10/15/97)(HNPD, 10/15/98)(SSFC, 3/24/02, p.M4)

1917        Oct 17, The 1st British bombing of Germany took place.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1917        Oct 19, The first doughnut was fried by Salvation Army volunteer women for American troops in France during World War I.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1917        Oct 21, Dizzy Gillespie, jazz trumpeter, famous for Night in Tunisia and Blue ‘n’ Boogie, was born.
    (HN, 10/21/98)
1917        Oct 21, Members of the First Division of the U.S. Army training in Luneville, France, became the first Americans to see action on the front lines of World War I. The first U.S. troops entered the front lines at Sommervillier under French command.
    (AP, 10/21/98)(HN, 10/21/98)
1917        Oct 21, Petrograd's garrison accepted a Revolutionary Military Committee.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1917        Oct 22, Leopold Stokowski led Philadelphia Orchestra in its first recording.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1917        Oct 23, The 1st Infantry division, "Big Red One," fired the 1st US shot in WW I.
    (MC, 10/23/01)
1917        Oct 23, Lenin spoke against Kamenev, Kollontai, Stalin and Trotsky.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1917        Oct 24, The Austro-German army routed the Italian army at Caporetto, Italy. In what came to be known as the 1st blitzkrieg German and Austro-Hungarian forces took at least 250,000 Italian soldiers as prisoners on the Isonzo Front.
    (HN, 10/24/98)(SFEC, 7/9/00, p.T14)

1917          Oct 25(OS), In Russia Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin seized power. Lenin (1870-1924) and Leon Trotsky (1879-1940), seized power from Russian socialist Alexander F. Kerensky (1881-1970) who had taken over the government in July of 1917. Kerensky sent troop on this day to shut down the Bolshevik press in Petrograd (Leningrad, St. Petersburg). Kerensky’s ministers at the Winter Palace surrendered in the face of Bolshevik armed might. [see Nov 7]
    (www.marxists.org/history/ussr/revolution/)

1917        Oct 26, Felix the Cat, cartoon character, was born.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1917        Oct 27, 20,000 women marched in a suffrage parade in New York.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1917        Oct 31, William H. McNeil, historian, was born. His work include "The Rise of the West."
    (HN, 10/31/00)
1917        Oct 31, Eugene O'Neill's "In the Zone," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1917        Oct, The British Admiralty ordered that all naval and merchant ships be painted in dazzle camouflage, to help reduce their visibility to German submarines. The painting style was the idea of Norman Wilkinson (1878-1971) and came from his familiarity with the avant garde art styles of cubism and vorticism.
    (ON, 12/05, p.2)(www.ww2poster.co.uk/artists/Wilkinson.htm)

1917        Nov 1, First US soldiers were killed in combat in WWI.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1917        Nov 2, In the Lansing-Ishii Agreement the US recognized Japan's privileges in China.
    (MC, 11/2/01)
1917        Nov 2, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour, in what became known as the Balfour Declaration, expressed support for a "national home" for the Jews of Palestine. It encouraged Jewish immigration to Israel in the decade after WW I.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(AP, 11/2/97)

1917        Nov 5, The US Supreme Court decision (Buchanan vs. Warley) struck down a Louisville, Ky., ordnance requiring blacks and whites to live in separate areas (race-based zoning).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buchanan_v._Warley)(Econ, 2/11/12, p.34)
1917        Nov 5, General Pershing led U.S. troops into the first American action against German forces.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1917        Nov 6, NY allowed women to vote.
    (MC, 11/6/01)
1917        Nov 6, Bolshevik "October Revolution" (October 25 on the old Russian calendar), led by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky, seized power in Petrograd. [see Nov 7]
    (HN, 11/6/98)

1917        Nov 7, British General Sir Edmond Allenby broke the Turkish defensive line in the Third Battle of Gaza.
    (HN, 11/7/98)
1917        Nov 7, (October 25 old style Julian calendar then used by Russia) The provisional government of Premier Aleksandr Kerensky fell to the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. He called his followers the Bolsheviks, meaning the majority, when they formed for a short period the majority of a revolutionary committee. The Bolsheviks became a majority of the ruling group, but they were only a small part of the total Russian population. Decades of czarist incompetence and the devastation of World War I had wrecked the Russian economy and in March 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated. Kerensky's provisional government struggled to maintain power until Lenin's Bolshevik followers stormed Petrograd and seized all government operations. Lenin and his lieutenant, Leon Trotsky, quickly confiscated land and nationalized industry and in March 1918, Russia withdrew from World War I by signing the humiliating Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany. Bloody civil war raged in Russia for the next two years as the anti-Bolshevik White Army battled the Communists for control. [see Nov 6] This day became a national holiday and continued until it was abolished in late 2004.
    (CFA, '96, p.58)(V.D.-H.K.p.260-261)(AP, 11/7/97)(HNPD, 11/7/98)(AP, 11/4/05)

1917        Nov 8, The People's Commissars "gave" authority to Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1917        Nov 10, Forty-one US suffragettes were arrested for picketing in front of the White House.
    (AP, 11/10/07)
1917        Nov 10, The assault on Flanders, begun July 11, finally ground to a halt. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had suffered losses of 300,000 men and German losses were around 200,000--for a total gain of four miles and the occupation of Passchendaele. The battle was later described by Edwin Campion Vaughan in “Some Desperate Glory” (1981).
    (HN, 6/7/98)(HNQ, 11/2/98)(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)
1917        Nov 10, New Soviet government suspended freedom of the press.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1917        Nov 11, Lydia Kamekeha Lili’uokalani, the last queen of the Hawaiian Islands, died. She wrote the song "Aloha ‘Oe" and the book "Hawaii’s Story By Hawaii’s Queen."
    (WUD, 1994, p.830)(ON, 11/02, p.7)

1917        Nov 12, Joseph Coors, CEO of Adolph Coors Co Brewery, was born.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1917        Nov 15, Kerensky fled and the Bolsheviks took command in Moscow.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1917        Nov 16, British occupied Tel Aviv and Jaffa.
    (MC, 11/16/01)
1917        Nov 16, Georges Clemenceau (76) again became prime minister of France. He appointed himself as minister of war as well as chief of state. For his contribution to the victory of the Allies in World War I, premier Clemenceau was referred to as the "Father of Victory." A physician, journalist, author and statesman, Clemenceau was an ardent upholder of the French Third Republic. He strove to create an indomitable "will to victory" and proclaimed "To be entirely in unity with the soldier, to live, to suffer, to fight with him." Clemenceau, declared he would wage war "to the last quarter hour, for the last quarter hour will be ours." Born on September 28,1841, Clemenceau died on November 24, 1929.
    (HNQ, 3/23/99)(AP, 11/16/07)

1917         Nov 17, The French Sculptor Rodin (77) froze to death in an unheated attic in Meudon, France. He had applied to the government for quarters as warm as those wherein his statues were stored, but the government turned him down. His studio was called La Villa des Brillants. He worked with sculptor A.-E. Carrier-Belleuse and for years spent a considerable amount of time on decorative work for public monuments. His work included several versions of a "Monument to Victor Hugo," "The Kiss," "The Burghers of Calais" and "The Thinker." His famous "Balzac" wasn’t cast in bronze until 1939. The film "Camille Claudel" told the story of Rodin’s mistress, a brilliant sculptress who went mad after their love affair.
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p. S-8)(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T10)(AP, 11/17/97)
1917        Nov 17, Lenin defended the "temporary" removal of freedom of the press.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1917        Nov 19, Indira Gandhi was born in Allahabad. She served as prime minister of India from 1967 to 1977 and 1978 to 1984, when she was assassinated by her own guards.
    (HN, 11/19/00)(AP, 11/19/07)

1917        Nov 20, In the 1st tank battle Britain broke through German lines.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1917        Nov 21, German ace Rudolf von Eschwege was killed over Macedonia when he attacked a booby-trapped observation balloon packed with explosives.
    (HN, 11/21/99)
1917        Nov 21, Maxim Gorki called Lenin a blind fanatic and unthinking adventurer.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1917        Nov 26, Bolsheviks offered armistice between Russian and the Central Powers.
    (HN, 11/26/98)

1917        Nov 28, Fred and Adele Astaire debut on Broadway in the Sigmund Romberg revue "Over the Top".
    (DT net, 11/28/97)(MC, 11/28/01)

1917        Nov, Georges Clemenceau became premier of France at the age of 76 and appointed himself as minister of war as well as chief of state. For his contribution to the victory of the Allies in World War I, premier Clemenceau was referred to as the "Father of Victory." A physician, journalist, author and statesman, Clemenceau was an ardent upholder of the French Third Republic. He strove to create an indomitable "will to victory" and proclaimed "To be entirely in unity with the soldier, to live, to suffer, to fight with him." Clemenceau, declared he would wage war "to the last quarter hour, for the last quarter hour will be ours." Born on September 28,1841, Clemenceau died on November 24, 1929.
    (HNQ, 3/23/99)

1917        Dec 1, Boys Town founded by Father Edward Flanagan west of Omaha Neb. [see Dec 12]
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1917        Dec 6, Finland declared independence from Russia (National Day).
    (SFEM, 8/8/99, p.44)(MC, 12/6/01)
1917        Dec 6, Former Czar Nicholas II and family were made prisoners by the Bolsheviks in Tobolsk.
    (HN, 12/6/98)
1917        Dec 6, In Nova Scotia some 2000 people were killed and thousands wounded following an explosion in Halifax harbor. The Imo, a Norwegian freighter ship, had collided with the French munitions ship Mont Blanc and a fire soon caused a massive explosion. A local court found Captain Le Medec of the Mont Blanc and other defendants guilty of the collision. Canada’s Supreme Court ruled that the captains of both ships were equally to blame. A Privy Council in London ruled that Le Medec had done nothing illegal.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.1054)(ON, 7/05, p.7)(AP, 12/6/07)

1917        Dec 7, The US declared war on Austria-Hungary with only one dissenting vote in Congress and became the 13th country to do so.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1917        Dec 9, British forces under General Allenby captured Jerusalem. He liberated the city from Turkish control.
    (WSJ, 4/4/96, A-12)(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(MC, 12/9/01)
1917        Dec 9, New Finnish Republic demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops.
    (HN, 12/9/98)

1917        Dec 10, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the International Red Cross.
    (HN, 12/10/98)

1917        Dec 11, Aviator Katherine Stinson landed at the SF Presidio and established a new endurance record by flying from San Diego.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)

1917        Dec 12, Father Edward J. Flanagan (31) founded Boys Town outside Omaha, Neb. A half-dozen boys entered to seek a better life. [see Dec 1]
    (AP, 12/12/97)(MC, 12/12/01)
1917         Dec 12, In Modane, France a troop train derailed near the entrance of Mt. Cenis tunnel and 543 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(AP, 2/18/04)

1917        Dec 16, Arthur C. Clark, English science fiction writer, was born. "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic." He is best remembered for his book "The Sentinel," the source of Kubrick’s film "2001: A Space Odyssey."
    (AP, 12/16/97)(HN, 12/16/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_C._Clarke)

1917        Dec 17, The US federal government took over the railroads until Mar, 1920, because of WW I.       
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)
1917        Dec 17, Pilots who flew solo before this date, the 13th anniversary of the Wright Brothers first flight, were eligible to join the exclusive Early Birds, founded in 1928. [see Dec 11, 1903]
    (SFC,12/5/97, p.A22)(SFC, 5/26/98, p.B2)

1917        Dec 18, Ossie Davis, actor, playwright (Hot Stuff, Man Called Adam), was born in Cogdell, Ga.
    (MC, 12/18/01)
1917        Dec 18, The Soviet regiment under Stalin and Lenin declared Finland Independent.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1917        Dec 20, Russian secret police in Czechoslovakia was formed under Felix Dzerzhinsky. He helped lead the Bolshevik revolution and set up the communist secret police, the Cheka, which later became the KGB.
    (MC, 12/20/01)(WSJ, 10/15/02, p.D6)

1917        Dec 21, Andre Eglevsky, choreographer (Limelight), was born.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1917        Dec 24, The Kaiser warned Russia that he would use "iron fist" and "shining sword" if peace was spurned.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1917        Dec 26, Rosemary Woods, Pres. Nixon's secretary, was born.
    (MC, 12/26/01)
1917        Dec 26, As a wartime measure, President Wilson placed railroads under government control, with Secretary of War William McAdoo as director general.
    (AP, 12/26/97)(HN, 12/26/98)

1917        Dec 28, The New York Evening Mail published "A Neglected Anniversary," a facetious essay by H. L. Mencken supposedly recounting the history of bathtubs in America. For example, Mencken "claimed" the first American bathtub made its debut in the Cincinnati home of grain dealer Adam Thompson on Dec. 20, 1842, and that the first White House bathtub was installed in 1851 at the order of President Millard Fillmore.
    (AP, 12/28/99)

1917        Dec 29, Tom Bradley, future mayor of Los Angeles, was born on a cotton plantation in Calvert, Texas.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, p.A13)

1917        John Grillo, abstract artist, was born. Much of his work was done in Provincetown with 2 years in SF, 1946-47.
    (SFC, 3/2/02, p.D1)

1917        William Mandel was born. He lived with his family in Russia between 1931-1932. In 2000 he authored "Saying No to Power: Autobiography of a 20th Century Activist and Thinker."
    (SFEC, 9/24/00, BR p.4)

1917        Byron White, US supreme Court Justice from 1962-1993, was born in Colorado. In 1998 Dennis J. Hutchinson published the biography: "The Man Who Once Was Whizzer White."
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1917        Theresa Bernstein, artist, helped found the Philadelphia Ten, a female art group. It was created in response to the Eight, a male-dominated group later called the Ashcan School.
    (SFC, 3/1/01, p.E2)

1917        In France Marcel Duchamp christened his supine “readymade” urinal as a work of art, "Fountain," and signed it with the fictitious name R. Mutt. The original was lost but he authorized an edition of 8 replicas in 1964.
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 2/18/05, p.A10)

1917        Piet Mondrian and three other painters founded the movement known as De Stijl, which became synonymous with Mondrian.
    (HNQ, 7/16/01)

1917        James Montgomery Flagg, American painter, created the famous poster of Uncle Sam as the stern, compelling figure saying "I Want You For U.S. Army."
    (Hem., 7/95, p.89)

1917        Gustav Klimt, Austrian modernist, created his oil painting "Garden of Flowers."
    (WSJ, 7/17/02, p.D12)

1917        Andre Lhote painted his cubist "Rugby Game" in brilliant planes of orange gold and green.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)

1917        Piet Mondrian painted his first total abstraction "Composition In Line."
    (WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)

1917        Emil Nolde, German expressionist, created his painting "Blumengarten (Utenwarf)." In 2009 it was sold to a European art collector for an undisclosed amount to the heirs of Otto Nathan Deutsch, a Jewish businessman who lost it when he fled Germany to escape Nazi persecution in 1939. The was estimated to be worth between $4-6 million. A Swedish museum had bought the artwork from a Swiss gallery in 1967, unaware of its history.
    (AP, 9/9/09)

1917        Georgia O’Keeffe painted "Nude Series VII."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.T5)

1917        Picasso got involved in the design of the ballet "Par" produced by Diaghilev, with a book by Jean Cocteau and music by Eric Satie.
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A20)

1917        Diego Rivera painted his Cubist "Still Life with Bread and Fruit" while studying in Paris.
    (WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W12)

1917        Egon Schiele, Viennese artist, made his "Kneeling Girl Propped on Her Elbows."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)

1917        Julian Dimock, photographer, upon the death of his father quit photography and donated some 6,000 images to the American Museum of Natural History.
    (NH, 8/96, p.78)

1917        The French architect Tony Garnier embellished British theory on city planning in his book: "Etude pour la construction des villes," and in twenty years his book "Cite Industrielle."
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.91)

1917        Edgar Rice Burroughs published his sci-fi book "Princess of Mars."
    (NH, 10/96, p.75)

1917        Somerset Maugham wrote his play "Our Betters."
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.E3)

1917        Ethel Richardson Robertson wrote "The Fortunes of Richard Mahoney." "It was a critique of snobbery and a celebration of a woman’s devotion to family."
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, DB p.40)

1917        D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (1860-1948), Scottish classicist, mathematician and biologist, produced his work "On Growth and Form,"  the first formal attempt to analyze patterns and shapes in nature. His work also included "A Glossary of Greek Birds" and "A Glossary of Greek Fishes."
    (NH, 12/98, p.10)(Econ, 3/7/09, p.92)

1917        Edith Wharton authored the novel "Summer." It was the story of a woman's sexual awakening. In 1999 it premiered as an opera by the Berkshire Opera Company.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.A42)

1917        A recording by Sophie Tucker of  W.C. Handy's "The Saint Louis Blues" sold a million copies.
    (ON, 1/03, p.9)

1917        Jascha Heifetz, 17 year-old violinist from Russia, made his debut at Carnegie Hall.
    (WSJ, 12/21/94, A-16)

1917        In Germany Hans Pfitzner premiered his opera "Palestrina," about the life of the 16th cent. composer and how Palestrina supposedly saved polyphony in church music during the Council of Trent.
    (WSJ, 7/1/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1917        Giocomo Puccini composed his opera "La Rondine."
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A20)

1917        Igor Stravinsky composed the ballet "Les Noces" (The Wedding).
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, DB p.35)

1917        The Military Ordinariate was established. It was a Roman Catholic position under the authority of the Archdiocese of New York to administer to the US military services.
    (SFC, 8/28/96, C2)

1917        L.L. Nunn, self-made American millionaire in mining and hydro-power, founded Deep Springs College in eastern California. It is a very small liberal arts institution with only a couple dozen students (all male). There is no tuition, but the students are required to work at least 20 hours per week. It is on 3,500 acres and the academic year consists of six seven-week terms.
    (Smith., 4/1995, p.115-117)(Econ, 1/19/13, p.31)

1917        At the settlement of Nenana, Alaska, a group of men placed bets on when the ice would break apart on the Tenana River. Thus began the Nenana Ice Classic where a tripod is inserted into the ice and bets are placed as to the exact time that it breaks on the river’s melting ice.
    (WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-16)   

1917        The Cafe des Artistes opened in New York City on W. 67th St.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.54)

1917        Charlie Chaplin signed the movie industry's first million-dollar contract to direct and star in 8 films.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1917        Bertie Charles Forbes (1880-1954), financial journalist and author, founded Forbes Magazine.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.50)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.C._Forbes)

1917        Joseph Pulitzer established the Pulitzer Prize for achievements in journalism and letters.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)(HNQ, 1/29/02)

1917        Karl Gjellerup (b.1857), Danish poet, novelist won the Nobel Prize.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1917        The Chicago White Sox won the Baseball World Series.
    (SFC, 10/28/04, p.A7)

1917        A Paris to Peking road race was held.
    (WSJ, 7/19/02, p.W9)

1917        The US passed special rules to allow Mexican to enter the US due to the expanding economy.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.5)

1917        Storyville, the New Orleans brothel district, was closed under federal insistence to protect the sailors soon to influx due to American entry into WW I.
    (WSJ, 2/3/95, p.A-11)

1917        A US congressional select committee revoked the medal of Honor from Dr. Mary Walker on the grounds that her actions during the civil war had not constituted real heroism. She refused to give it up and wore it for 2 more years until she died. The Army restored the medal in 1977.
    (SFC, 7/17/96, p.E10)

1917        The Iroquois Confederacy declared war on Germany.
    (www.history.army.mil/html/topics/natam/natam-wwii.html)

1917        The Manufacturers Aircraft Association was formed under the efforts of Ford lawyer W. Benton Crisp. Royalties of 1% were paid to the Curtiss and Wright companies up to 2 million dollars each. The organization, later named the Manufacturers' Aircraft Association (MAA), continued to unify the air industry and engage in public education endeavors. The MAA was later dissolved, and in 1919, the newly formed Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce (ACCA) stepped in to promote civil aviation.
    (ON, 12/11, p.12)(www.aia-aerospace.org/about_aia/aia_at_a_glance/history/)

1917        In Alaska the territorial Legislature created the Univ. of Alaska in Fairbanks and specified that it include a museum. In 1978 the state Legislature paid for a building  designed to hold exhibits. In 1980 a 39,000-square-foot space opened as the Univ. of Alaska Museum of the North.
    (SSFC, 5/6/07, p.G7)
1917        Denali National Park in Alaska was established. It covered 9,300 square miles. Denali was the native name for Mt. McKinley.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.T6)(SSFC, 3/28/04, p.D9)

1917        In Ashland, Mass., a plant run by various textile companies began operations. Nyanza Inc. operated it as a dye manufacturing plant from 1965 until the company went bankrupt in 1978. during this period Nyanza released manufacturing waste containing such substances as mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium into unlined lagoons and nearby streams. The site was added to the federal Superfund list in 1983. In 2006 a 7-year study confirmed that children who swam or waded in the water near the now-closed dye plant ran an increased risk of cancer.
    (AP, 5/11/06)

1917        Frank Hague (1876-1956) was elected mayor of Jersey City and served until he retired 1947. He built an $8 million fortune out of an annual salary of $7,500. During his tenure city workers gave a kickback, known as “rice pudding,” to City Hall of 3% of their salaries.
    (www.jerseycityonline.com)(Econ, 1/20/07, p.24)

1917        Henry Leland formed the Lincoln Motor Co.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1917        The Fleetwood Body Corp. began building exteriors for the carmakers.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.D1)
1917        The Electric Welding Co. renamed to the Steel Products Company introduced the first one-piece forged engine valve.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.67)

1917        The Ideal Novelty Company produced the doughboy doll designed by one of its founders, Morris Michtom.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, Z1 p.7)

1917        An update of the zipper from 1893, very much like the modern one, was patented. [see Apr 29, 1913]
    (Wired, Dec., ‘95, p.138)

1917        Schick developed the electric razor.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.7)

1917        The Filoli mansion (acronym from fight, love, life), west of Redwood City, was first occupied by William Bowers Bourn II, president of the Spring Valley Water Co. Architect Willis Polk (d.1924) had designed the Filoli estate on the Peninsula and the glass-fronted Hallidie Building on Sutter St. The Filoli House, an elegant Georgian house west of Redwood City, was built by mining millionaire William Bourn.
    (SFC, 12/19/96, p.A21)(Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)(Ind, 2/9/02, 5A)
1917        The Univ. of Calif. entered the medical business with a small $750,000 facility that was little more than a community hospital [in San Francisco?].
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-10)
1917        The San Francisco Board of Supervisors changed the Richmond District name to Park-Presidio District, over concerns of confusion with the city of Richmond in the East Bay. Australian George Turner Marsh, one of the district’s earliest residents, called his home the Richmond House in honor of his old Melbourne suburb. In 2009 legislation was introduced to change the name back to Richmond.
    (SFC, 1/28/09, p.B1)
1917        In San Francisco the Twin Peaks Tunnel blasted through to West Portal. It opened in 1918.
    (SFCM, 7/10/05, p.4)
1917        The Fourth Street drawbridge, a bascule bridge with a 700-ton concrete counterweight, was built. It was named for Peter R. Maloney, a police inspector who founded the South of Market Boys charity group. In 2003 it closed for a $17 million overhaul.
    (SFC, 3/27/03, p.A3)
1917        In San Francisco the Santa Fe Building at 605 Market St. was built. It was designed by architects Wood and Simpson.
    (SSFC, 5/13/12, p.C2)
1917        Willis Polk (1867-1924) designed San Francisco’s 7-story Hallidie Building. It was completed at 130 Sutter St. in 1918 and was the first building in America to feature glass curtain walls.
    (SFEM, 8/8/99, p.42)(SFC, 11/30/10, p.C1)(SFC, 4/27/13, p.A1)
1917        The 800-seat Strand Theatre opened on Market Street. It closed in 2006. In 2012 the American Conservatory Theater (ACT) bought the vacant building.
    (SFC, 2/29/12, p.A1)
1917        A Neoclassic church was built at 651 Dolores in SF. In 2008 the Second Church of Christ, Scientist, planned to replace the building due to lack of funds for earthquake reinforcement.
    (SFC, 10/16/08, p.B5)
1917        The SF Conservatory of Music was founded by Ada Clement and Lillian Hodghead. It was initially called the Ada Clement Piano School and located on Sacramento St. In 1956 it moved into a former infant shelter at 19th Ave. at Ortega. In 2006 it moved into a new $80 facility in the Civic Center.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W14)(SFC, 4/27/06, p.E1)
1917        The red lights of the Barbary Coast went out. Louis Sidney "Sid" LeProtti was the pianist who led the So Different Jazz Band at Purcell’s, one of the most famous Negro dance halls in the country at 520 Pacific St. of the San Francisco Barbary Coast district. A 1982 book by Tom Stoddard: "Jazz on the Barbary Coast" covers the era.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, p.C-15)(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.D7)
c1917        St. Paul’s elementary school in Noe Valley was constructed.
    (SFC,11/12/97, p.A17)
1917        The San Francisco Board of Supervisors changed the Richmond District name to Park-Presidio District, over concerns of confusion with the city of Richmond in the East Bay. Australian George Turner Marsh, one of the district’s earliest residents, called his home the Richmond House in honor of his old Melbourne suburb. In 2009 legislation was introduced to change the name back to Richmond.
    (SFC, 1/28/09, p.B1)
1917        John McLaren at 70 managed to convince the Board of Supervisors to write legislation to allow him to remain as Superintendent of Parks for as long as he lived.
    (SFC, 7/29/97, p.A8)
1917        The SF Muni began offering motor bus transit service.
    (SFC, 10/6/99, p.A4)
1917        Columbus Salame was founded in San Francisco. In 1967 its Salami making operation was moved to South San Francisco.
    (SFC, 7/24/09, p.D2)
1917        In San Francisco the flower market on Bush St. closed and moved to 5th and Howard. It later moved again to 6th and Brannan.
    (GTP, 1973, p.59)
1917        Maj. Gen. Frederick Funston (b.1865), a hero of the SF 1906 earthquake, died.
    (SFC, 3/8/01, p.A22)
1917        Abigail Eastman Meagher Parrot, the widow of SF millionaire banker and merchant John Parrot, died.
    (Ind, 11/24/01, 5A)
1917        Ignatz Steinhart, SF civic benefactor, died. He willed $250,000 for a public aquarium that opened as the Steinhart Aquarium in 1926.
    (SFC, 6/22/00, p.A18)
1917        In California Fort Ord was established as a military base just north of Monterey. It spread over some 28,000 acres east of Monterey Bay. The base was closed in 1994 and in 2012 some 14,000 acres were turned into the Fort Ord National Monument.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.C-11)(SFC, 4/21/12, p.C4)
1917        Commercial sturgeon fishing was outlawed in California because of overfishing.
    (SFC, 6/5/96, zz1p.8)

1917        There was a poor wheat harvest in the US.
    (WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1917        A world-wide influenza pandemic occurred and is later thought to have been caused by the leap of a swine virus to humans. In 1999 Gina Kolata authored "Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus That Caused It." The 1918-1919 Spanish flu killed 20-100 million people worldwide and 550,000 in the US.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.B10)(WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)

1917        In Brazil Ernesto de Santos Donga wrote the song "Pela telefone." It was considered to be the first recorded samba.
    (Wired, 2/98, p.128)

1917        Chechens formed their 1st independent state, the Confederation of North Caucasian Peoples, following the Bolshevik Revolution. [see May 1]
    (SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A11)

1917        Darfur was an independent sultanate until 1917, when it was the last region to be incorporated into the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. The Fur, largely peasant farmers, occupy the central belt of the region Also in this central zone are the non-Arab Masalit, Berti, Bargu, Bergid, Tama and Tunjur peoples, who are all sedentary farmers.
    (www.sudanupdate.org/REPORTS/PEOPLES/Darf.htm)

1917        In England two young girls in the Yorkshire countryside took photographs that seemed to capture a group of fairies, the Cottingley fairies. The photos were challenged, mocked by the press and defended by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and derided by Harry Houdini. In 1997 the film "Fairytale: A True Story" was released based on the events.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.D6)(WSJ, 10/24/97, p.A20)
1917        W.B. Yeats (52) married Bertha Georgie Hyde-Lees (d.1968), his young spirit-medium (25). She became the oracular voice of his philosophy and poetry. In 2002 Ann Saddlemeyer authored "Becoming George: The Life of Mrs. W.B. Yeats."
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M2)

1917        Auguste Moreau (b.1834), French sculptor, died. He and 4 other members of his family designed light fixtures based on sculptured figures.
    (SFC, 1/16/08, p.G4)(www.aspireauctions.com/auction30/details/4195.html)

1917        Frank and Harry Baldwin, sons of missionaries from Maui, Ha., acquired Lanai Island from the Lanai Co.
    (SFC, 6/27/12, p.D6)

1917        Eamon de Valera was released from prison after serving 14 months for his role in the 1916 Irish Easter Uprising. He soon won a seat in the British Parliament representing County Clare, and was elected leader of Sinn Fein and president of the Irish Volunteers.
    (ON, 9/04, p.5)

1917        Benito Mussolini, editor of the Il Popolo d'Italia newspaper, was paid 100 pounds a week by Britain, equal to about 6,000 pounds ($9,600) in 2009. The paper campaigned to keep Italy on the allied side in the war. This was made public in 2009 by Cambridge historian Peter Martland, based on papers from Sir Samuel Hoare (1880-1959), in charge of British agents in Rome at this time. 
    (AP, 10/14/09)

1917        In Japan the Nikon Corporation was established.
    (PR, Neopath Corp., 7/2/96)
1917        The 2 main soy sauce families of Noda, the Mogi and Takanashi, banded together to form Noda Shoyu Co. Ltd. and became the premier soy sauce maker in Japan. In 1980 the company was renamed Kikkoman.
    (SFC, 1/3/00, p.B7)
1917        In Japan the Toyo Toki (Oriental Ceramic) company was founded and introduced Western-style sit-down lavatories to Japan. The company, later know as Toto, grew to become one of the world’s biggest bathroom and kitchen ceramics companies in the world.
    (Econ, 7/25/09, p.66)

1917        Karlis Ulmanis founded the Farmer’s Party. He later became president and is considered by many as the "father of independent Latvia."
    (BN, 10/97, p.1)

1917        In Mongolia just after the Russian Revolution, defeated anti-Communist forces under "Mad Baron" Ungern-Sternberg took Ulan Bator, then called Urga. The mad Baron undertook city-wide arson and mass executions.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.28)

1917        When the tsarist regime fell, Mongolia reverted to Chinese control.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1917        In Russia the Bolsheviks tried banning money in favor of barter after the revolution, but chaos resulted and they accepted money as a necessary evil.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, p.B3)
1917        In Russia the Don Cossacks declared their own independent republic during the unrest that led to the Bolshevik Revolution.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1916        Independent sultanates ruled the Darfur region of Sudan until this year.
    (WPR, 3/04, p.32)

1917        In Sweden Knut Wallenburg set up a foundation as a tax saving way to keep the family together.
    (Econ, 10/14/06, p.73)
1917        Ivar Kreuger (1880-1932) exited his construction and engineering business and founded the Swedish Match Company, which he used to monopolize the match industry and swindle numerous investors up to his suicide in 1932.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.116)

1917        The Catholic Church’s Code of Canon Law of this year stated that “An ecumenical council enjoys supreme power over the universal church.
    (WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A11)

1917-1918    "The Life of Herbert Hoover: Master of Emergencies" was the 3rd volume on Hoover’s life by George H, Nash published in 1996.
    (WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1917-1918    A severe winter in the US prevented farmers from getting their corn to market, so much of it went to the pigs.
    (WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1917-1918    Paul Robeson at Rutgers Univ. became an All-American football star.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.A19)

1917-1920    Sir Robert Borden, changed to the Unionist Party and continued to serve as the 8th Prime Minister of Canada.
1917-1922    Fur trappers in Australia killed 8 million koalas and almost wiped out the species.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)

1917-1986     Sydney J. Harris, American journalist: "Men make counterfeit money; in many more cases, money makes counterfeit men."
    (AP, 8/8/97)

1917-1991    This period in Russia was later covered by Martin Malia in "The Soviet Tragedy: A History of Socialism in Russia, 1917-1991."
    (WSJ, 3/26/98, p.A20)

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