Timeline 1918-1919

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1918        Jan 1, The first gasoline pipeline began operation with 40 miles of three inch pipe from Salt Creek to Casper, Wyoming.
    (HN, 1/1/01)
1918        Jan 1, Canada’s Unionist government began to enforce the Military Service Act.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscription_Crisis_of_1917)

1918        Jan 2, Bolsheviks talked about resuming war unless the Germans quit Russian soil.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1918        Jan 3, Maxene Andrews, was born. She was a singer [w/sisters LaVerne and Patti]: group: The Andrews Sisters: Why Talk About Love?, A Simple Melody, Bei Mir Bist Du Schön, Rum and Coca Cola; solo: I Suppose; on Broadway with Patti: Over Here.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1918        Jan 6, Germany acknowledged Finland’s independence.
    (HN, 1/6/99)
1918        Jan 6, George Cantor (b.1845), Russian-born German mathematician, died. He is best known as the creator of modern set theory and work with mathematical infinities.
    (http://encyclopedia.laborlawtalk.com/Georg_Cantor)

1918        Jan 7, The Germans moved 75,000 troops from the East Front to the Western Front.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1918        Jan 8, President Woodrow Wilson addressed a hastily convened joint session of Congress, publicly stating the Fourteen Points--his idealistic plan for a world forever free from conflict. Most of Wilson's Fourteen Points addressed specific European territorial concerns, but he also called for fair and generous treatment of Germany, absolute freedom of the seas, national boundaries determined on the basis of language, and the establishment of a general assembly of nations. When World War I ended in November 1918, Wilson personally attended the peace negotiations, believing that with his guidance, "peace without victory" was possible and a new world order was at hand. What he had not counted on was the bitterness and cynicism of his allies, who had lost much. As the negotiations progressed, more and more of the Fourteen Points were sacrificed to vengeance and a grab for land. The German magazine Simplicissimus remarked on Wilson's betrayal of his principles in June 1919 with God asking, "Woodrow Wilson, where are your 14 Points?" Wilson responds, "Don't get excited, Lord, we didn't keep your Ten Commandments either!"
    (AP, 1/8/98)(HNPD, 1/7/99)
1918        Jan 8,    Mississippi became the first state to ratify the proposed 18th amendment to the US Constitution, which established Prohibition.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

1918        Jan 10, The US House of Representatives passed women's suffrage. The 19th Amendment for women's suffrage was also known as the Anthony Amendment in honor of Susan B. Anthony.
    (HN, 1/10/99)(SFC, 10/11/99, p.E12)

1918        Jan 15, Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt (1954-1971), was born.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1918        Jan 24, Oral Roberts, Televangelist, founder Oral Roberts University, was born.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1918        Jan 25, Austria and Germany rejected U.S. peace proposals.
    (HN, 1/25/99)

1918        Jan 26, Nicolae Ceausescu, Romanian president (1967-90), was born.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1918        Jan 27, "Tarzan of the Apes," 1st Tarzan film, premiered at Broadway Theater. Elmo Lincoln, renamed from Otto Elmo Linkenhelter by D.W. Griffiths, was the first Tarzan in the film "Tarzan of the Apes."
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.E2)(MC, 1/27/02)
1918        Jan 27, Communists attempted to seize power in Finland.
    (HN, 1/27/99)

1918        Jan 28, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae (b.1872), Canadian MD and author of the poem Flanders Field (1915), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_McCrae)
1918        Jan 28, Leon Trotsky became leader of the Russian Communists.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1918        Jan 29, John Forsythe (d.2010), actor (Bachelor Father, Charlie's Angels, Dynasty), was born in NJ.
    (SFC, 4/3/10, p.C2)
1918        Jan 29, The Supreme Allied Council met at Versailles.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1918        Jan 31, Russia joined the rest of the world and adopted the Gregorian calendar. The next day became February 14, 1918.
    (www.ortelius.de/kalender/greg_en.php)

1918        Feb 2, John L. Sullivan (59), American former heavyweight boxing champ, died.
    (AH, 2/06, p.34)

1918        Feb 3, Joey Bishop, [Gottlieb], talk show host (Joey Bishop Show), was born in the Bronx.
    (MC, 2/3/02)
1918        Feb 3, The $4.25 million, 12,000 foot Twin Peaks tunnel for the SF Muni Railway opened with Mayor James Rolph at the helm of the first streetcar to go through to West Portal. Access to the west of the mountain spawned the 1st residential parks including West Portal Park, St. Francis Wood, Balboa Terrace, and Forest Hill.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.4)(SFCM, 3/3/02, p.40)(SFC, 2/4/09, p.B7)

1918        Feb 5, The US steamship Tuscania was torpedoed by German submarine U-77 and sank off the coast of Ireland.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)(www.worldwar1.com/dbc/tuscania.htm)
1918        Feb 5, The Soviets proclaimed the separation of church and state.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1918        Feb 6, Britain’s Representation of the People Act, aka the Fourth Reform Act, granted working class men in the armed forces the right to vote. Female property owners over age 30 were also granted the right to vote.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representation_of_the_People_Act_1918)
1918        Feb 6, Gustav Klimt (b.1862), Austrian Symbolist artist, died. He helped found the Vienna Secessionist art movement (1897) and was chosen as its 1st president.
    (WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Klimt)

1918        Feb 7, Singapore businessman Ong Sam Leong (b.1857) died. He made a fortune out of his monopoly on the supply of coolie labor from China to phosphate mines on Christmas Island.
    (http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_1461_2009-02-19.html)

1918            Feb 8, The World War I first edition of The Stars and Stripes, the weekly newspaper of the American Expeditionary Forces, was published in Paris, France. It was produced weekly by an all-military staff to serve the doughboys under General of the Armies John J. "Black Jack" Pershing. Some of its staff went on to journalistic fame, including Pvt. Harold Ross, who later became the founder and editor of The New Yorker magazine, and sports writer Lt. Grantland Rice. The first paper called The Stars and Stripes was a product of the Civil War, put out by four Union soldiers in 1861. Using the facilities of a captured newspaper plant in Bloomfield, Missouri, they ran off a one-page paper that made just one appearance.
    (http://ww2.pstripes.osd.mil/aboutnew.html)

1918        Feb 9, Army chaplain school organized at Ft. Monroe, Va.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1918        Feb 12, Dominic DiMaggio, baseball outfielder (Boston Red Sox), was born.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1918        Feb 14, Sigmund Romberg's musical "Sinbad," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 2/14/02)
1918        Feb 14, Warsaw demonstrators protested the transfer of Polish territory to the Ukraine.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1918        Feb 15, The 1st WW I US army troopship was torpedoed & sunk off Ireland by Germany.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1918        Feb 15, Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania adopted the Gregorian calendar.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1918        Feb 16, The Council of Lithuania declared the independence of the State of Lithuania. The council also declared that the foundations of the state would be determined by a Constituent Assembly to be elected by the inhabitants on the basis of universal, equal and secret suffrage. Independence lasted until World War II. It again declared independence in 1990.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LHC, 2/16/03)(AP, 2/16/07)

1918        Feb 20, The Soviet Red Army seized Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine.
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1918        Feb 22, Germany claimed the Baltic states, Finland and Ukraine from Russia.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1918        Feb 24, Estonia declared independence from Russia.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1918        Feb 26, Theodore [Hamilton] Sturgeon, US sci-fi author (Starshine, A Way Home, Hugo, Caviar), was born.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1918        Feb 26, Stands at the Hong Kong Jockey Club collapsed and burned, killing 604.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1918        Feb, Montana’s Legislature passed a sedition law which led to the conviction 79 citizens under Gov. Sam Stewart. In 2005 Clemens Work authored “Darkness Before Dawn: Sedition and Free Speech in the American West.” In 2006 Gov. Brian Schweitzer posthumously pardoned 75 men and 3 women. One man was pardoned shortly after the war.
    (SFC, 5/3/06, p.A3)

1918        Mar 2, Hubert Bancroft (b.1832) San Francisco-based historian and ethnologist, died in SF. His work included compiling and editing a 39-volume chronicle that traced the saga of the Pacific Coast from the Spanish conquistadors to the Gold Rush. The Bancroft Library at UC Berkeley was named in his honor after UC purchased his book collection in 1905. In 2014 his great-great granddaughter reduced and published his 800-page autobiography as a 225-page book.
    (SFC, 5/27/14, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubert_Howe_Bancroft)

1918        Mar 3, Arthur Kornberg, Nobel Prize-winning biochemist (1959), was born.
    (HN, 3/3/01)(SC, 3/3/02)
1918          Mar 3, Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of White Russia.
    (AP, 3/3/98)(HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)
1918        Mar 3, Richard Göring's "Seeschlacht" premiered in Berlin.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1918        Mar 4, Terek Autonomous Republic was established in RSFSR (until 1921).
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1918        Mar 5, The Soviets moved the capital of Russia from Petrograd to Moscow.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1918        Mar 6, US naval boat "Cyclops" disappeared in "Bermuda Triangle."
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1918        Mar 7, Pres. Wilson authorized US Army's Distinguished Service Medal.
    (MC, 3/7/02)
1918        Mar 7, Finland signed an alliance treaty with Germany.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1918        Mar 9, Frank Morrison Spillane (d.2006), mystery writer [Mickey Spillane], was born in Brooklyn. His Mike Hammer crime novels later sold over 200 million copies. His books included “Kiss Me Deadly” and “The Erection Set.”
    (HN, 3/9/01)(SFC, 6/21/01, p.D5)(SFC, 7/18/06, p.B5)
1918        Mar 9, Russian Bolshevik Party became the Communist Party.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1918        Mar 10, Günther Rall, German Luftwaffe ace in World War II, was born.
    (HN, 3/10/99)

1918        Mar 12, Vladimir I. Lenin published his reasons for moving the capital from St. Petersburg to Moscow.
    (WSJ, 9/20/04, p.A20)

1918        Mar 13, Women were scheduled to march in the St. Patrick’s Day Parade in New York due to a shortage of men.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1918        Mar 14, An all-Russian Congress of Soviets ratified a peace treaty with the Central Powers.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1918        Mar 15, Richard Ellmann, US literary scholar, writer (Oscar Wilde), was born.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1918        Mar 19, US Congress authorized time zones and approved Daylight Saving Time.
    (AP, 3/19/97)(www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/usstat.html)(SSFC, 3/27/05, Par p.15)

1918        Mar 20, The Bolsheviks asked for American aid to rebuild their army.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1918        Mar 21, Howard Cosell, sportscaster (Monday Night Football), was born in Winston-Salem, NC.
    (MC, 3/21/02)
1918        Mar 21, During World War I, Germany launched the Somme 'Michael' Offensive in France, hoping to break through the Allied line before American reinforcements could arrive. It is better remembered as the First Battle of the Somme.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1356)(AP, 3/21/97)(HN, 3/21/99)

1918        Mar 22, Ukrainian mobs massacred the Jews of Seredino Buda.
    (www.ukraine-observer.com/articles/205/612)

1918        Mar 23, Alick Wickham dove 200' into Australia's Yarra River.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1918        Mar 23, Crépy-en-Laonnoise: German artillery shelled Paris France and 256 were killed. The Paris bombs were named "Thick Bertha's Dike" (nickname for the widow Krupp).
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1918        Mar 23, Germany became the 1st country to recognize the independence of Lithuania. This was based on the Lithuanian legislative act of Dec 11, 1917.
    (LHC, 3/23/03)

1918        Mar 25, Belarus declared independence.
    (LHC, 3/25/03)
1918        Mar 25, Claude Debussy (55), French composer, died in Paris. In 1962 Edward Lockspeiser authored “Debussy,” a look at how the composer shaped the work of Symbolist writers.
    (AP, 3/25/97)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)

1918        Mar 26, On the Western Front during World War I the Germans took the French towns Noyon, Roye and Lihons.
    (HN, 3/25/98)
1918        Mar 26, Col. Raynal Bolling (b.1877), architect of American air power in WWI and resident of Greenwich, Connecticut, was shot dead by a German patrol in France.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raynal_Bolling)

1918        Mar 29, Pearl Bailey (d.1990), singer and actress, was born. "There is a way to look at the past. Don’t hide from it. It will not catch you if you don’t repeat it." "A man without ambition is dead. A man with ambition but no love is dead. A man with ambition and love for his blessings here on earth is ever so alive."
    (AP, 6/24/97)(AP, 6/12/98)(HN, 3/29/01)   

1918        Mar 31, Daylight Savings Time went into effect throughout the U.S. for the first time.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1918        Mar, A flu epidemic began at Fort Riley, Kansas, where 48 men died. It was carried by recruits to Europe where it mutated and returned with a vengeance. [see May, 1918] The Spanish flu was later found to have been caused by a genetic fusion of pig and human viruses. In 1997 Dr. Johan Hultin recovered tissue in Brevig Mission, Alaska, with frozen virus and submitted it for gene sequencing. In 2004 John M. Barry authored "The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History."
    (WSJ, 2/9/98, p.A16)(HNPD, 7/21/98)(SFC, 2/26/01, p.A9)(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A1)(SFCM, 2/17/02, p.8)(SSFC, 2/29/04, p.M1)

1918        Mar-Jul 1919, The art collection of Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas, more than 500 paintings and 5,000 prints, was auctioned off in Paris.
    (WSJ, 10/21/97, p.A20)

1918        Apr 1, In England the Royal Flying Corps was replaced by the Royal Air Force.
    (AP, 4/1/98)(HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)
1918        Apr 1, Isaac Rosenberg (b.1890), British WWI war poet, died near Arras, France, during Ludendorff’s big spring offensive. In 2008 Jean Moorcroft Wilson authored “Isaac Rosenberg: The Making of a Great War Poet.”
    (WSJ, 4/3/09, p.W6)

1918        Apr 3, Sixten Ehrling, conductor (Royal Opera of Stockholm), was born in Malmo, Sweden.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1918        Apr 3, French Gen. Ferdinand Foch (1851-1929) was named the supreme commander of the Allied Forces.
    (www.firstworldwar.com/source/foch_order.htm)

1918        Apr 4, Battle of Somme [France], an offensive by the British against the German Army ended.
    (HN, 4/4/99)

1918        Apr 8, The US First Aero Squadron was assigned to the Western Front for the first time on observation duty.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1918        Apr 13, Electrical fire killed 38 mental patients at Oklahoma State Hospital.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1918        Apr 15, Clemenceau published secret French-Austrian documents.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1918        Apr 17, William Holden, Ill, actor (Stalag 17, Bridge Over River Kwai, SOB), was born.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1918        Apr 18, Clifton Keith Hillegass, founder of the study guides known as Cliff's Notes, was born.
    (HN, 4/18/01)

1918        Apr 21, Baron Manfred von Richthofen (25), the cousin of Frieda Lawrence and the highest-scoring German ace of World War I with 80 victories, was killed in a dogfight over France's Somme Valley over Amiens. As he pursued a Canadian pilot with jammed guns, von Richthofen, flying a red Fokker triplane, broke one of his own flying rules by following his prey too long, too far and too low. Two miles behind Allied lines, Richthofen was mortally wounded when he was fired upon simultaneously by another Canadian pilot and Australian ground troops. The following day, the Red Baron was buried by his enemies with full military honors. He was replaced with Hermann Goering.
    (WSJ, 5/15/95, p. A-16)(AP, 4/21/97)(HNPD, 4/21/99)

1918        Apr 22, Robert Wadlow Alton, world’s tallest man (8’11.1"), was born.
    (HN, 4/22/98)
1918        Apr 22, British naval forces attempted to sink block-ships in the German U-boat bases at the Battle of Zeeburgge.
    (HN, 4/22/99)

1918        Apr 25, Ella Fitzgerald (d.1996), jazz singer, was born. She became known as the ‘First Lady of Song.’ [see Apr 25, 1917]
    (SFC, 6/16/96, p.A1)(SFC, 4/26/97, p.A5)
1918        Apr 25, Astrid Varnay, soprano (Met Opera 1941-56), was born in Stockholm, Sweden.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1918        Apr 28, Gavrilo Princip (22), Bosnian murderer of arch duke Ferdinand, died in prison of tuberculosis.
    (http://concise.britannica.com)(AP, 4/28/07)

1918        Apr 29, America's WWI Ace of Aces, Eddie Rickenbacker, scored his first victory with the help of Captain James Norman Hall. He eventually racked up 26 victories before the end of the war.
    (HN, 4/29/99)

1918        May 1, Jack Paar (d.2004), later late-night TV talk show host, was born in Canton, Ohio.
    (www.museum.tv/archives/etv/P/htmlP/paarjack/paarjack.htm)

1918        May 9, Mike Wallace, newscaster (Biography, 60 Minutes), was born in Brookline, Mass.
    (MC, 5/9/02)
1918        May 9, Orville Freeman, (Gov-D-Minn.), Sec of Agriculture (1961-69), was born in Minneapolis.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1918        May 10, The HMS Vindictive was sunk to block the entrance of Ostend Harbor.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1918        May 11, Richard Feynman (d.1988), theoretical physicist was born. His classic lectures were published in 1995 in the book "Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by its most Brilliant Teacher" by Addison -Wesley in 1995. In 1996 Feynman’s "Lost Lecture" was written by David L. and Judith R. Goodstein. Feynman won a Nobel Prize in 1965.
    (WSJ, 11/6/95, p. A-20)(HN, 5/11/02)(MC, 5/11/02)

1918        May 13, The first US airmail stamps, featuring a picture of an airplane, were introduced. On some of the initial stamps the airplane was printed upside down; the "inverted Jenny," as it came to be called, became a collector's item. One sheet of 100 stamps got by inspectors.
    (SSFC, 11/12/06, p.A2)(AP, 5/13/08)

1918        May 14, Sunday baseball became legal in Wash, DC.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1918        May 15, Joseph Wiseman, actor (Dr No, Viva Zapata, Les Miserables), was born in Montreal.
    (MC, 5/15/02)
1918        May 15, The U.S. Post Office and the U.S. Army began regularly scheduled airmail service between Washington and New York through Philadelphia. Lieutenant George L. Boyle, an inexperienced young army pilot, was chosen to make the first flight from Washington. Even with a route map stitched to his breeches, Boyle lost his way and flew south rather than north. The second leg of the Washington--Philadelphia--New York flight, however, took off and arrived in New York on schedule--without the Washington mail. The distance of the route was 218 miles, and one round trip per day was made six days a week. Army Air Service pilots flew the route until August 10, 1918, when the Post Office Department took over the entire operation with its own planes and pilots.
    (AP, 5/15/97)(HNPD, 6/15/99)(HNQ, 4/24/01)
1918        May 15, Pfc. Henry Johnson and Pfc. Needham Roberts received the Croix de Guerre for their services in World War I. They were the first Americans to win France's highest military medal.
    (HN, 5/15/99)

1918        May 17, Birgit Nilsson, operatic soprano (Isolde, Turandot, Elektra, Salome), was born in Karup, Sweden.
    (MC, 5/17/02)
1918        May 17, British authorities arrested Irish leader Eamon de Valera and other Sinn Fein leaders on suspicion of conspiring with the Germans.
    (ON, 9/04, p.5)

1918        May 18, A TNT explosion in chemical factory in Oakdale, PA, killed 200.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1918        May 18, The Netherlands Indian Volksraad was installed in Batavia.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1918        May 18, Toivo Kuula (34), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1918        May 19, Florence Chadwick, the 1st to swim English Channel both ways, was born.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1918        May 20, The 1st electrically propelled warship (New Mexico).
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1918        May 24, Coleman A. Young, civil rights leader (Mayor-D-Detroit), was born.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1918        May 25, Claude Akins Nelson, actor (BJ & Bear, Movin' On, Lobo), was born in GA.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1918        May 27, Henry Adams (b.1838), US historian, journalist and novelist, died. His books included “The Education of Henry Adams” (1907) and ”Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres” (1918).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Brooks_Adams)(WSJ, 9/1/07, p.P9)

1918        May 28, Herb Shriner, radio humorist, was born.
    (HN, 5/28/01)
1918        May 28, Tatars declared Azerbaijan, in Russian Caucasus, independent.
    (HN, 5/28/98)
1918        May 28, The Battle of Cantigny began during World War I as American troops captured the French town from the Germans; the Americans were able to resist German counterattacks in the days that followed.
    (AP, 5/28/08)

1918        May 29, Herb Shriner, humorist, TV host (Herb Shriner Show), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1918        May 29, Isabel Dean, actress (5 Days one Summer, Virgin Island, Ransom), was born in England.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1918        May, In the worst global epidemic of the century, influenza (an acute, contagious respiratory viral infection) had been spreading around the world since May. Before it ended in 1919 it would kill 20 million people--about twice as many as World War I. [see Mar, 1918]
    (HN, 10/31/98)

1918        May, The German army staged a surprise offensive and rolled into the Marne Valley through the center of the French 6th Army. The Germans were held at bay by some 9,000 US Marines of the 5th and 6th Regiments of the 4th Brigade.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A26)

1918        Jun 3, The US Supreme Court ruled child labor laws unconstitutional.
    (MC, 6/3/02)
1918        Jun 3, The Finnish Parliament ratified its treaty with Germany.
    (HN, 6/3/98)

1918        Jun 4, French and American troops halted Germany’s offensive at Chateau-Thierry, France.
    (HN, 6/4/98)

1918        Jun 6, In France the US Marines counter-attacked the Germans and pushed them back to the woods at Bois de Belleau. U.S. Marines entered combat at the Battle of Belleau Wood. 1st US victory of WW I.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A26)(HN, 6/6/01)(MC, 6/6/02)

1918        Jun 8, Robert Preston, actor (The Music Man), was born.
    (HN, 6/8/01)

1918        Jun 12, First airplane bombing raid by an American unit occurred on World War I’s Western Front in France.
    (HN, 6/12/98)

1918        Jun 18, Allied forces on the Western Front began their largest counter-attack against the spent German army.
    (HN, 6/18/98)

1918        Jun 26, After a brief respite, the Germans began firing their huge 420 mm howitzer "Big Bertha" at Paris. During World War I, Germany’s 98-ton howitzer used to shell Verdun and Liege-Big Bertha-was named after the wife of munitions maker Gustav Krupp. Bertha Krupp was actually the heir to the Krupp family fortune when she married Prussian diplomat Gustav von Bohlen und Halbach, who changed his name to Krupp and took over the family firm, which was the world’s largest manufacturer of munitions. Gustav Krupp went on to support Adolph Hitler and help finance the Nazis.
    (HN, 6/26/98)(HNQ, 8/28/98)

1918        Jun 27, Two German pilots were saved by parachutes for the first time.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

1918        Jun 28, The US Marines took the Bois de Belleau.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A26)

1918        Jun, Bethlehem Steel director Charles Schwab was featured on the cover of the 1st issue of the Bethlehem Star, an employee newsletter.
    (SSFC, 7/3/05, p.F2)

1918        Jul 2, Robert Sarnoff was born. He later became president of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) and converted the network to the first all-color television station.
    (HN, 7/2/99)

1918        Jul 3, The Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the oldest US environmental conservation law, prohibited killing or harassing birds migrating across international borders.
    (SFC, 4/9/99, p.A5)(SFC, 10/23/02, p.A4)(www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/migtrea.html)
1918        Jul 3, Ottoman Sultan Mehmet Resad died and Vahdettin (1861-1926) became the new Sultan.
    (www.turkeyswar.com/whoswho/who-vahidettin.htm)

1918        Jul 4, Ann Landers and Abigail Van Buren, twin sisters who became famous columnists, were born in Sioux City, Iowa, as Esther P. (Landers) and Pauline E. (Abbie) Friedman. Their "advice" columns are syndicated in more than 1,000 newspapers. Esther Friedman died in 2002 at age 83.
    (IB, 12/7/98)(SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A10)
1918        Jul 4, Altar dedicated at full-scale replica of Stonehenge at Maryhill, Wa.
    (Maggio, 98)
1918        Jul 4, A record 17 war vessels were launched the Bay Area. The steamer "Defiance" was sponsored by Mrs. Charles Schwab.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)
1918        Jul 4, Taufa’ahau Tupou IV, king of Tonga (1965-2006), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taufa'ahau_Tupou_IV)(WSJ, 9/11/06, p.A1)

1918        Jul 8, Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), Nobel Prize winning writer, was wounded in Italy while working as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross. He was later awarded the Italian Silver Medal of Military Valor. Hemingway enlisted in a Red Cross ambulance unit in 1917 during World War I.  He was commissioned a second lieutenant and served on the Italian front. After WWI he reported from the battlefields of the Spanish Civil War for American newspapers. His book "Farewell to Arms" was based on his experiences in WWI.
    (HNQ, 7/28/99)(HN, 7/8/01)

1918        Jul 9, The US Distinguished Service Cross was established by an Act of Congress.
    (AP, 7/9/08)
1918        Jul 9, 101 people were killed as an inbound local train collided with an outbound express in Nashville, Tenn.
    (AP, 7/9/97)

1918        Jul 11, Enrico Caruso joined the war effort and recorded "Over There", the patriotic song written by George M. Cohan.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1918        Jul 12, A Japanese battleship exploded in the Bay of Tokayama and some 500 people were killed.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1918        Jul 14, Ingmar Bergman, Swedish film director (The Seventh Seal, Fanny and Alexander), was born in Uppsala, Sweden.
    (HN, 7/14/01)(MC, 7/14/02)
1918        Jul 14, Arthur Laurents, writer and librettist, was born.
    (HN, 7/14/01)

1918        Jul 15, The Second Battle of the Marne began during World War I.
    (AP, 7/15/97)

1918        Jul 17, Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, was executed at Ekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks under orders from Lenin. His wife, son, 4 daughters, and 4 servants were also executed. The family mass grave was discovered by a former KGB agent in 1979 in the Urals and only 9 bodies were found. The bodies were dug up in 1991. A 1997 documentary film by Victoria Lewis, "Mystery of the Last Tsar," told the story. The Czar, his wife, three children and four servants were executed by a 12-man firing squad in the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg. A reburial of the family was scheduled in St. Petersburg for Jul 17, 1998.
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.E3)(SFC, 2/28/98, p.A8)(SFC, 7/15/98, p.A9)(AP, 7/17/07)
1918        Jul 17, Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna (b.1864) was murdered at a mine the village of Siniachikha. The Cheka beat Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich Romanov, Princes Ioann Konstantinovich, Konstantin Konstantinovich, Igor Konstantinovich, Vladimir Pavlovich Paley, Feodor Remez (Grand Duke Sergei's secretary), and Varvara Yakovleva, a sister from the Grand Duchess's convent,  before throwing their victims into a pit, Elizabeth being the first. Hand grenades were then hurled down the shaft, but only one victim, Feodor Remez, died as a result of the grenades. Finally a large quantity of brushwood was shoved into the opening and set alight.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princess_Elisabeth_of_Hesse_and_by_Rhine_%281864%E2%80%931918%29)

1918        Jul 18, Nelson Mandela (d.2013), later anti-apartheid leader and president of South Africa, was born in the Umtata district of Transkei. Prior to becoming president he served 18 of 27 years in jail on Robben Island.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)
1918        Jul 18, During World War I, American and French forces launched a counteroffensive against the Germans during the Second Battle of the Marne.
    (AP, 7/18/08)

1918        Jul 19, German armies retreated across the Marne River in France.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1918        Jul 21, The residents and coastguardsmen of Orleans, Massachusetts, were amazed to see the German U-boat, U-156, firing at an American tug and four barges just off shore.
    (HNQ, 2/1/02)

1918        Jul 22, Florine Stettheimer painted "Heat," wherein she captured the relations between mothers and daughters with deft satire. The date is on the birthday cake in the painting.
    (WSJ, 7/18/95, p.A-12)

1918        Jul 25, Annette Adams of Calif. was sworn in as the 1st US woman district attorney.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1918        Jul 25, A race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania, left 3 blacks and 2 whites dead.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1918        Jul 26, Britain’s top war ace, Edward Mannock, was shot down by ground fire on the Western Front.
    (HN, 7/26/98)

1918        Jul 29, Edwin Greene O'Connor, author (The Last Hurrah), was born.
    (HN, 7/29/01)
1918        Jul 29, Mary Lee Settle, novelist, was born.
    (HN, 7/29/01)

1918        Jul 30, Poet Joyce Kilmer (b.1886), a sergeant in the 165th U.S. Infantry Regiment, was killed during the Second Battle of the Marne in World War I. Kilmer is perhaps best remembered for his poem "Trees."
    (AP, 7/30/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joyce_Kilmer)

1918        Jul, The US War Dept. assigned some 9,000 soldiers from California and the Philippines for duty in Siberia.
    (Ind, 5/4/02, 5A)

1918        Aug 2, A British force landed in Archangel, Russia, to support White Russian opposition to the Bolsheviks.
    (HN, 8/2/98)

1918        Aug 3, James MacGregor Burns, political writer (The Lion & the Fox), was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1918        Aug 6, The 2nd battle of the Marne ended.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1918        Aug 9, Mother Marianne Cope (b.1838), a nun from Utica, New York, died in Kalaupapa, Hawaii. She had cared for lepers exiled to the Kalaupapa Peninsula. In 2012 she was named a saint in the Catholic church.
    (AP, 10/20/12)

1918        Aug 11, The British attacked with 450 tanks at the Battle of Amiens as the Allies pushed Germany back.
    (MC, 8/11/02)(PC, 1992, p.728)

1918        Aug 14, Some 5,000 soldiers left Camp Fremont in Menlo Park, Ca., for duty in Vladivostok, Siberia, under Maj. Gen. William W. Graves.
    (Ind, 5/4/02, 5A)

1918        Aug 15, Russia severed diplomatic ties with US.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1918        Aug 16, US troops overthrew Archangel (Russia).
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1918        Aug 17, Mort Marshall, actor (Cully-Dumplings), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1918        Aug 18, Elsa Morante, Italian writer and author of "History: A Novel," was born.
    (HN, 8/18/00)

1918        Aug 19, "Yip! Yip! Yaphank," a musical revue by Irving Berlin featuring Army recruits from Camp Upton in Yaphank, N.Y., opened on Broadway.
    (AP, 8/19/08)

1918        Aug 20, Britain opened its offensive on the Western front during World War I.
    (AP, 8/20/97)

1918        Aug 22, Britain’s battle cruiser HMS Hood was launched. It was sunk in 1941 by the German battleship Bismarck.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Hood_(51))

1918        Aug 25, Leonard Bernstein, conductor and composer who initiated the television series "Young People's Concerts," was born in Lawrence, MA.
    (WUD, 1994, p.141)(HN, 8/25/98)(MC, 8/25/02)

1918        Aug 27, It was reported that German master spy Edward Michael Zacho was captured in SF.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)

1918        Aug 30, Ted Williams (d.2002), Hall of Fame outfielder for the Boston Red Sox, the last man to hit .400 in a season, was born.
    (HN, 8/30/98)(SFC, 7/6/02, p.A1)
1918        Aug 30, Lenin, the new leader of Soviet Russia, was shot & wounded after a speech.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1918        Aug 31, Alan Jay Lerner, playwright and lyricist, was born. His work included "Brigadoon" and "Camelot."
    (HN, 8/31/00)
1918        Aug, Lenin gave a command to suppress a peasant revolt in Penza with orders to hang no fewer than one hundred known kulaks.
    (WSJ, 10/23/96, p.A19)

1918        Sep 1, US troops landed in Vladivostok, Siberia, and stayed until 1920. [see Sep 2]
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1918        Sep 2, Laurindo Almeida, composer and guitarist, was born.
    (MC, 9/2/01)
1918        Sep 2, Martha Mitchell, wife of Attorney General John Mitchell, was born.
    (MC, 9/2/01)
1918        Sep 2, Some 9,000 soldiers from California and the Philippines began arriving at Vladivostok under Gen. William S. Graves. His orders said to stay out of trouble.
    (Ind, 5/4/02, 5A)

1918        Sep 3, The United States recognized the nation of Czechoslovakia.
    (HN, 9/3/98)
1918        Sep 3, Five soldiers were hanged for alleged participation in the Houston riot of 1917.
    (MC, 9/3/01)
1918        Sep 3, Allies forced Germans back across Hindenburg Line.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1918        Sep 4, Paul Harvey, conservative radio commentator, was born in Tulsa, Okla.
    (HN, 9/4/98)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)

1918        Sep 6, The German Army began a general retreat across the Aisne, with British troops in pursuit.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1918        Sep 7, Chaim Herzog (d.1997), Israeli president, was born.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1918        Sep 11, The Boston Red sox beat Chicago 4-2 to win the World Series in the 6th game.
    (www.1918redsox.com/augsep.htm)
1918        Sep 11, US troops landed in Russia to fight the Bolsheviks.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1918        Sep 12, During World War I, U.S. forces led by Gen. John J. Pershing launched an attack on the German-occupied St. Mihiel salient north of Verdun, France.
    (AP, 9/12/97)
1918        Sep 12, Lt. Frank Luke Jr. destroyed a German balloon. Over the next 6 days he destroyed 9 more and earned the name "the Arizona Balloon Buster."
    (AH, 6/02, p.18)
1918        Sep 12, British troops retook Havincourt, Moeuvres, and Trescault along the Western Front.
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1918        Sep 13, U.S. and French forces took St. Mihiel, France, in America’s first action as a standing army.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1918        Sep 17, Chaim Herzog (d.1997), president (Israel, 1983-93), was born in Belfast.
    (www.pmo.gov.il/PMOEng/Government/Memorial/Presidents/Hertsog.htm)

1918        Sep 18, Nelson Mandela, later pres. of South Africa, was born. [see Jun 11, Jul 18]
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1918        Sep 19, American troops of the Allied North Russia Expeditionary Force received their baptism of fire near the town of Seltso against Soviet forces.
    (HN, 9/19/99)
1918        Sep 19, Liza Nina Mary Frederica Lehmann, composer, died at 56.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1918        Sep 22, Henryk Szeryng, violinist (Brahms Concerto), was born in Zelazowa Wola, Poland.
    (MC, 9/22/01)
1918        Sep 22, General Allenby led the British army against the Turks, taking Haifa and Nazareth, Palestine.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1918        Sep 25, John Ireland, Irish and US archbishop of St Paul, died at 80.
    (MC, 9/25/01)
1918        Sep 25, Brazil declared war on Austria.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1918        Sep 26, The Meuse-Argonne offensive against the Germans began during World War I.
    (AP, 9/26/08)
1918        Sep 26, German Ace Ernst Udet shot down two Allied planes, bringing his total for the war up to 62.
    (HN, 9/26/00)

1918        Sep 27, President Woodrow Wilson opened his fourth Liberty Loan campaign to support men and machines for World War I.
    (HN, 9/27/98)
1918        Sep 27, Arab forces attacked and seized Deraa (Jordan).
    (ON, 10/05, p.8)

1918        Sep 29, Allied forces scored a decisive breakthrough of the Hindenburg Line during World War I.
    (AP, 9/29/97)
1918        Sep 29, Lt. Frank Luke Jr. against orders destroyed 3 German balloons and downed 2 pursuing fighters in a final flight of vengeance for the loss of his wingman Lt. Joseph Wehner. Luke received a posthumous medal of honor.
    (AH, 6/02, p.18)

1918        Sep 30, Bulgaria pulled out of World War I.
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1918        Sep, Pres. Woodrow Wilson ordered all US breweries to shut down on December 1 in order to save grain for the war effort.
    (WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P13)

1918        Oct 1, Damascus (Syria) fell to Arab forces as Turkish Ottoman officials surrendered the city.
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)(AP, 10/1/08)

1918        Oct 5, The Univ. of Michigan played a home football game against Case Institute of Technology and won 33-0. A number of fans in the stands were infected with influenza and passed it on to fellow spectators. The first two local deaths occurred on Oct 11. The local epidemic was declared over on Nov 4 with 117 deaths in Ann Arbor.
    (LSA, Fall/06, p.58)

1918        Oct 6, US ship Otranto sank between Scotland and Ireland. 425 people died.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1918        Oct 7, C. Hubert H. Parry, English musicologist and composer (Jerusalem), died at 70.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1918        Oct 8, Sgt. Alvin C. York almost single-handedly killed 25 German soldiers and captured 132 in the Argonne Forest in France. Corporal Alvin C. York's platoon was advancing toward the Decauville railway when they were hit with machine-gun fire from all sides. The doughboys captured one gun, but the noise drew the fire of the remaining German emplacements, killing six and seriously wounding three Americans. As the most senior of the remaining doughboys, York went out alone to engage the enemy with just his rifle and service revolver, picking off the machine-gunners one by one. When the fighting was over, York had single-handedly eliminated 35 machine guns, killed more than 20 Germans and taken 132 members of a Prussian Guards regiment as prisoners. A modest man, York shrugged off his heroic actions, saying, "It's over; let's forget it."
    (AP, 10/8/97)(HNPD, 12/13/98)

1918        Oct 9, E Howard Hunt, involved in Watergate break-in, was born in Hamburg, NY.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1918        Oct 10, While President Woodrow Wilson was attempting to establish "peace without victory" with Germany, the German UB-123 torpedoed RMS Leinster, a civilian mail and passenger ferry, off the coast of Ireland. Leinster was usually escorted by a Royal Air Force airship as a precaution, but on October 10, 1918, the ferry set out alone. Leinster was sunk; 564 passengers and crewmen perished, many of them American and Allied troops. After Leinster, the Germans lost their chance for an easy peace.
    (HNPD, 10/10/99)

1918        Oct 11, Jerome Robbins (Rabinowitz), choreographer, was born. He won an Oscar for "West Side Story."
    (HN, 10/11/00)(MC, 10/11/01)
1918        Oct 11, Archibald M. Willard (b.1836), American artist, died in Ohio. His paintings included “Spirit of ’76” (1876).
    (www.nationalsojourners.org/heroes.html)

1918        Oct 12, The 1st use of iron lung  was at Boston's Children Hospital.
    (MC, 10/12/01)
1918        Oct 12, The Cloquet Fire erupted in Minnesota, claiming some 450 lives.
    (AP, 10/12/08)

1918        Oct 14, In France the American 32nd division was sent to engage German troops on the Dame Marie, while the 5th and 42nd Divisions under Gen. Douglas MacArthur swept in pincer movements to occupy Cote de Chatillon. The objectives were taken in 3 days of tough fighting. In 2008 Robert H. Ferrell authored “The Question of MacArthur’s Reputation: Cote de Chatillon, October 14-16, 1918.”
    (WSJ, 11/24/08, p.A17)
1918        Oct 13-15, A forest fire killed some 1,000 people in Minnesota and Wisconsin. [see Oct 12]
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)

1918        Oct 14, The Czechoslovak National Council in Paris organized a provisional government of Czechoslovakia  with T.G. Masaryk as president.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.728)

1918        Oct 16, Felix Arndt, composer, died at 29.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1918        Oct 17, Rita Hayworth, American actress, was born.
    (HN, 10/17/98)
1918        Oct 17, Anton Dilger (B.1884), an American saboteur educated as a surgeon in Germany, died of Spanish flu in Spain. [see 1916] In 2007 Robert Koenig authored “The Fourth Horseman: One Man’s Mission to Wage the Great War in America.”
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M2)
1918        Oct 17, Yugoslavia proclaimed itself a republic.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1918        Oct 18, Czechs seized Prague, renounced Hapsburg's rule and declared independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Masaryk proclaimed the foundation of Czechoslovakia from Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (HN, 10/18/98)(http://tinyurl.com/856hg)
1918        Oct 18, Russian 10th Army drove out White armies of Tsaritsyn (Stalingrad).
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1918        Oct 20, Germany aimed at an armistice and agreed to further concessions.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1918        Oct 22, The cities of Baltimore and Washington run out of coffins during the "Spanish Influenza" epidemic.
    (HN, 10/22/00)

1918        Oct 23, President Wilson felt satisfied that the Germans were accepting his armistice terms and agreed to transmit their request for an armistice to the Allies. The Germans had agreed to suspend submarine warfare, cease inhumane practices such as the use of poison gas, and withdraw troops back into Germany.
    (HN, 10/23/98)

1918        Oct 24, Alexander Charles Lecocq, composer, died at 86.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1918        Oct 25, The Canadian steamship Princess Sophia hit a reef off the coast of Alaska;  some 350 people perished.
    (AP, 10/25/08)

1918        Oct 26, Cecil H. Chubb donated the property of Stonehenge to the English state.
    (HT, 3/97, p.22)(www.this-is-amesbury.co.uk/stonehenge.html)
1918        Oct 26, Germany’s supreme commander, General Erich Ludendorff, resigned, protesting the terms to which the German Government had agreed in negotiating the armistice. This set the stage for his later support for Hitler and the Nazis, who claimed that Germany did not lose the war on the battlefield but were "stabbed in the back" by politicians.
    (HN, 10/26/98)

1918        Oct 28, The Czechoslovak National Congress in Prague proclaimed the independence of Czechoslovakia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czechoslovakia:_1918_-_1938)
1918        Oct 29-1918 Oct 31, The Kingdom of Greater Serbia was proclaimed at Sarajevo in Bosnia bringing that state into what was later called Yugoslavia. [see Dec 1]
    (BWH, 1988)

1918        Oct 30, Ted Williams, hitter (Red Sox, AL MVP '46, '49; Trip Crown '42,'47), was born.
    (MC, 10/30/01)
1918        Oct 30, The Italians captured Vittorio Veneto and rout the Austro-Hungarian army.
    (HN, 10/30/98)
1918        Oct 30, The Slovak National Council acceded to the Nov 28 Prague proclamation for the creation of Czechoslovakian state. Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During World War II, Slovakia existed as puppet state of Nazi-run Germany.
    (www.slovakia.org/history6.htm)(AP, 9/21/02)
1918        Oct 30, Turkey signed an armistice with the Allies, agreeing to end hostilities at noon October 31.
    (HN, 10/30/98)

1918        Oct 31, In the worst global epidemic of the century, influenza (an acute, contagious respiratory viral infection) had been spreading around the world since May. Before it ended in 1919 20 million people were killed worldwide, about twice as many as World War I, with about 500-600,000 of them in the US. October was the deadliest month and some 195,000 died. It was estimated that 20-40 million people died worldwide. In 1998 the TV show "The American Experience" documented the tragedy: "Influenza 1918." Dr. Alfred Crosby wrote "America’s Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918." [see 1917, 1918-1919]
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.11)(SFC, 2/9/98, p.E1)(WSJ, 2/9/98, p.A16)(HN, 10/31/99)
1918        Oct 31, Egon Schiele (28), Viennese artist, died in the flu epidemic. He produced some 3,000 drawings and 300 paintings in about 12 years.
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.E3)(MC, 10/31/01)
1918        Oct 31, Stephen Tisza, Hungarian PM (-1917), was assassinated by soldiers.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1918        Oct-Nov, Some 2,021 people in SF died of the flu. San Franciscans wore protective face masks during the [Spanish] flu epidemic of this year. Researchers in 1997 attempted to isolate the virus from victims buried in the Arctic and Alaska.
    (SFC, 12/24/96, p.E3)(NPR, 9/29/97)(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)

1918          Nov 1, During a wildcat strike a replacement motorman, behind schedule, was speeding a Brighton Beach bound train down what is today the Franklin Avenue shuttle. The train derailed on a curve and hit a tunnel wall on the approach to the Prospect Park Station. 102 died in a NYC BMT subway derailment at Malbone Street, Brooklyn.
    (www.bmt-lines.com/history.html)
1918        Nov 1, Yugoslav battleship Viribus Unitis was sunk by Italians.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1918        Nov 3, Russell Long (d.2003), U.S. senator from Louisiana, was born.
    (HN, 11/3/98)(SFC, 5/10/03, p.A13)
1918        Nov 3, The Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved.
    (MC, 11/3/01)
1918        Nov 3, There was a mutiny of the German fleet at Kiel. This was the first act leading to German's capitulation in World War I. [see Nov 4]
    (HN, 11/3/99)
1918        Nov 3, Poland proclaimed independence from Russia after WW I. [see Nov 11]
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1918        Nov 4, Art Carney (d.2003), actor (Ed Norton-Honeymooners), was born in Mount Vernon, NY.
    (EntW, 12/03, p.96)
1918        Nov 4, Austria signed an armistice with Allies.
    (HN, 11/4/98)
1918        Nov 4, Kiel, Germany, fell into the hands of revolutionary sailors. [see Nov 3]
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1918        Nov 5, George Sheehan, cardiologist, was born. He became well known for his book "Running and Being."
    (HN, 11/5/00)

1918        Nov 7, Billy Graham, evangelist, was born in Charlotte, N.C. He later led the Evangelical Christians, a group that numbered 35% of all Americans.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, Par, p.4)(SFEC, 9/21/97, Z1 p.3)
1918        Nov 7, Goddard demonstrated tube-launched solid propellant rockets.
    (MC, 11/7/01)
1918        Nov 7, During World War I, an erroneous report that an armistice had been signed set off celebrations across the country. The armistice was signed on Nov 11.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
1918         Nov 7, The Yugoslav National Conference at Geneva decided on the union of Croatia and Slovenia with Serbia and Montenegro. [see Dec 1]
    (BWH, 1988)

1918        Nov 9, Florence Chadwick, swimmer (Hall of Fame 1970), was born in San Diego, Calif.
    (MC, 11/9/01)
1918        Nov 9, Spiro Agnew (d.Sep 17, 1996) was born. He later became governor of Maryland and 39th vice-president of the US under Nixon (1968-1973) until convicted of tax evasion.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A7)(HN, 11/9/98)
1918        Nov 9, Choi Hong Hi (d.2002), one of the founders of the South Korean Army (1946), was born in North Korea. He developed the tae kwon do (to kick with the foot, to strike with the fist, art) martial arts style in the 1940s and named it in 1955.
    (SFC, 7/2/02, p.A17)
1918        Nov 9, Germany was proclaimed a republic. Kaiser Wilhelm II announced that he would abdicate. He then fled to the Netherlands.
    (AP, 11/9/97)(HN, 11/9/98)
1918        Nov 9, Guillaume Apollinaire (38), [Kostrowitsky], French poet (Alcools), died.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1918        Nov 10, Retired German Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to the Netherlands.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1918        Nov 11, At ten minutes past five in the morning, German and Allied negotiators placed the final signatures on the armistice that would end World War I six hours later. After the signing, French General Ferdinand Foch sent all Allied commanders the following message: "Hostilities will cease on the entire [Western] front November 11 at 11:00 a.m." Even as the hour approached 9 of 16 commanders of US divisions on the Western Front ordered a final assault that left an additional 11,000 casualties. Although the Allies had not invaded Germany and there was no clear military victory, the Germans were forced to sign the armistice because of insurmountable problems. German troops, pushed past their limits of endurance by five years of fighting, faced a fresh stream of well-equipped American soldiers. Germany's allies, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria, had already ceased fighting and mutinies increased as German soldiers and sailors refused to carry out suicidal missions. Food shortages, both at home and at the front, had reached crisis levels. The costs of the First World War were astronomical with 7.5 million dead and more than 35 million total casualties. The US Armistice Day holiday was changed to Veteran’s Day after the Korean War. It was celebrated as “Veteran’s Day” for the first time in the US in Emporia, Kansas, on November 11, 1953. In 2004 Joseph E. Persico authored “Eleventh Month, Eleventh Day, Eleventh Hour: Armistice Day, 1918, World War I and Its Violent Climax.”
    (SFC, 11/9/96, p.A16)(SFC,11/8/97, p.A11)(HNPD, 11/11/98)(SFC, 12/28/04, p.D1)
1918        Nov 11, The Second Polish Republic declared its independence.
    (SFC, 11/13/96, p.C2)(AP, 11/11/08)

1918        Nov 12, Emperor Karl of Austria-Hungary, husband of Zita, relinquished participation in the Austrian state and then fled to Switzerland. Austria became a republic.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_I_of_Austria)(Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)

1918        Nov 14, The Grand Duchy of Baden ceased to exist and became a republic. The provisional government declared the establishment of the freie Volksrepublik Baden (Free Peoples' Republic of Baden), and set 5 January 1919 as the date for new elections. In 1933 it went under Nazi rule.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Baden)

1918        Nov 17, Influenza deaths reported in the U.S. far exceeded World War I casualties.
    (HN, 11/17/98)
1918        Nov 17, German troops evacuated Brussels.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1918        Nov 21, The last German troops left Alsace-Lorraine, France.
    (HN, 11/21/98)
1918        Nov 21, Two German ammunition trains exploded in Hamont, Belgium and 1,750 died.
    (MC, 11/21/01)
1918        Nov 21, Polish soldiers organized a pogrom against Jews of Galicia, Poland.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1918        Nov 22, Polish forces attacked the Jewish community of Lemberg (Lvov).
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1918        Nov 24, Frank O. King premiered his comic strip "Gasoline Alley" in the Chicago Tribune. He aged his characters over time.
    (www.toonopedia.com/gasalley.htm)(SFC, 7/8/98, Z1 p.3)(WSJ, 6/20/01, p.A1)

1918        Nov 24, Another proclamation took place of the United Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. [see Dec 1]
    (BWH, 1988)

1918        Nov 25, Chile and Peru severed relations.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1918        Nov 26, Montenegro deposed its king who opposed union and voted to join the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. [see Dec 1]
    (BWH, 1988)

1918        Nov 28, Kaiser Wilhelm of Prussia and Germany, abdicated.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1918        Nov 29, Madeleine L'Engle, writer, was born. Her work included "A Wrinkle in Time."
    (HN, 11/29/00)

1918        Nov, US Navy airpower increased to 2,107 airplanes, 20 airships, 215 balloons and 39,871 men. [see April, 1917]
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.9)

1918        Dec 1, US breweries shut down due to a September directive from Pres. Wilson.
    (WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P13)
1918        Dec 1, An American army of occupation entered Germany.
    (HN, 12/1/98)
1918        Dec 1, Danish parliament passed an act to grant Iceland independence.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.20)(MC, 12/1/01)
1918        Dec 1, The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes [later in 1929 to be called Yugoslavia] was proclaimed by Alexander Karadjordjevic, the son of King Peter of Serbia. It included the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Macedonia, the Hungarian-controlled regions of Croatia and Slovenia, the Austrian province of Dalmatia, Carniola and parts of Styria, Carinthia and Istria. King Alexander I renamed the Balkan state called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to Yugoslavia in 1929.
    (AP, 10/3/97)(HNQ, 3/26/99)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/map/yugoslavia/1900/)

1918        Dec 2, Armenia proclaimed independence from Turkey. An independent Republic of Armenia was established in Russian Armenia under Dashnak administration.
    (HN, 12/2/98)(Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)

1918        Dec 3, The Allied Conference ended in London; Germany was required to pay to full limits for the war.
    (HN, 12/3/02)

1918        Dec 4, President Wilson set sail for France to attend the Versailles Peace Conference. He was the 1st chief executive to travel outside US while in office.
    (AP, 12/4/97)
1918        Dec 4, France cancelled trade treaties in order to compete in postwar economic battle.
    (HN, 12/4/98)

1918        Dec 6, Harold Horace Hopkins, inventor (Endoscope), was born.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1918        Dec 7, Spartacists called for a German revolution.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1918        Dec 8, Gerard Souzay, baritone (Le Nozze di Figaro), was born in Angers, France.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1918        Dec 9, Kirk Douglas, American actor best known for his role in "Spartacus," was born as Issur Danielovitch Demsky.
    (HN, 12/9/98)(SFEC, 7/16/00, DB p.48)
1918        Dec 9, French troops occupied Mainz.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1918        Dec 10, U.S. troops were called to guard Berlin as a coup was feared.
    (HN, 12/10/98)

1918        Dec 11, Alexander Solzhenitsyn (d.2008), Russian writer, was born. He won the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize and is famous for “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich” (1962) and "The Gulag Archipelago" (1973). Daniel J. Mahoney later authored "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Ascent From Ideology."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleksandr_Solzhenitsyn)(WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A20)

1918        Dec 13, President Wilson arrived in France, becoming the first chief executive to visit Europe while in office.
    (AP, 12/13/97)
1918        Dec 13, US army of occupation crossed the Rhine and entered Germany.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1918        Dec 14, Sidonio Pais, prince of Portugal, was murdered.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1918        Dec 19, Robert Ripley (1890-1949) began his "Champs and Chumps" cartoon series in the NY Globe. By 1929 the sports series turned into “Ripley’s Believe It or Not!”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Ripley)

1918        Dec 20, Eugene O'Neill's "Moon of the Caribees" premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1918        Dec 21, Donald Regan, White House staffer and US Secretary of Treasury (1981-85), was born.
    (MC, 12/21/01)
1918        Dec 21, Kurt Waldheim, 4th Secretary General of the United Nations, was born.
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1918        Dec 22, The last of the food restrictions, that had been enforced because of the shortages during World War I, were lifted.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1918        Dec 23, Helmut Schmidt, Chancellor of Germany, was born.
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1918        Dec 23, Jose Greco, flamenco dancer (Holiday for Lovers), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1918        Dec 25, Anwar Sadat (d.1981), president of Egypt, was born. "There can be hope only for a society which acts as one big family, and not as many separate ones."
    (AP, 5/9/98)(HN, 12/25/98)
1918        Dec 25, Revolt erupted in Berlin.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1918        Dec 30, John E. Hoover decided to be called J. Edgar Hoover.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1918        Dec 31, Kid Gleason replaced Pants Rowland as White Sox manager.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1918         Dec, Albanian leaders met at Durrës to discuss Albania's interests at the Paris Peace Conference. When World War I ended the Italian armies occupied most of Albania, and Serbian, Greek and French armies occupied the remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers began a struggle for dominance over Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1918        Elie Nadleman painted "Tango."
    (WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)

1918        Constantin Brancusi made his gleaming bronze sculpture "La Muse."
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 11/13/98, p.W16)

1918        In England Duncan Grant painted a portrait of his lifetime companion Vanessa Bell. They both figured in the complex love affairs of the Bloomsbury Group. The painting is now in the London National Gallery.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1918        Modigliani painted "Woman in a Plaid Dress." It sold for $5.3 mil in 1998. he also painted a portrait of his mistress Jeanne Hebuterne.
    (WSJ, 5/21/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)

1918        Georgia O'Keefe painted "Three Women."
    (SFEC, 2/20/99, BR p.8)

1918        Picasso (1881-1973), French painter, married Olga Khokhlova, one of Diaghilev’s Russian dancers, whom he met in Rome.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.99)

1918        Egon Schiele made his crayon sketch: "Edith Schiele on Her Deathbed."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)

1918        Chaim Soutine painted his youthful "Self-Portrait."
    (WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)

1918        Willa Cather (d.1947) authored her novel "My Antonia."
    (SFC, 3/29/04, p.E1)

1918        Benjamin Ives Gilman (1852-1933), secretary of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, authored “Museum Ideals: of Purpose and Method.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Ives_Gilman)

1918        Lytton Strachey (1880-1932) published "Eminent Victorians," a scandalous collection of sketches that revolutionized English biography.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, BR p.4)(WUD, 1994, p.1403)

1918        The "Origin and Evolution of Life" by Henry Fairfield Osborn was published.
    (NH, 5/96, p.5456)

1918        Dr. Paul Popenoe co-authored "Applied Eugenics."
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D1)

1918        Will Strunk privately published "The Elements of Style" for his students at Cornell. Revisions were later overseen by his student E.B. White.
    (WSJ, 7/30/99, p.W15)

1918        The Book "The Higher Learning in America: A Memorandum of the Conduct of Universities by Businessmen," by Thorstein Veblen, a former teacher at Stanford, was published. The subtitle had initially read "A Study in Total Depravity." Veblen was let go from Stanford in 1909 ostensibly for his philandering.
    (SFEM, 1/30/00, p.15)

1918        Jesse Lynch Williams, journalist, wrote his play "Why Marry," which won the first Pulitzer Prize for drama.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)

1918        Giocomo Puccini composed his opera "Gianni Schicchi."
    (WUD, 1994, p.596)

1918        Eric Satie composed "Socrate."
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E1)

1918        Irwing Caesar (1895-1996) wrote the song "Swanee" with George Gershwin. It later became a big seller when Al Jolson used it as his signature song.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.C6)

1918        Gilda Gray inspired a dance craze after she performed "The Shimmy" to W.C. Handy's Saint Louis Blues in a Broadway show.
    (ON, 1/03, p.9)

1918        "Stars and Stripes," a weekly for men in the military, was founded.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)

1918        The Dunellen Hall manor house in Greenwich, Conn., was built. The Jacobean style brick mansion was sold to real estate magnate Harry Helmsley for $11 million in the 1980s.
    (WSJ, 4/21/09, p.A6)

1918        In San Francisco the Forest Hill Station provided a subway connection from the Forest Hill neighborhood to downtown SF.
    (SSFC, 2/27/11, p.C2)
1918        The Mount Diablo High Gear Race was run to the summit of Mt. Diablo in northern California.
    (SFC, 8/24/96, p.E1)
1918        The Calaveras Dam, 10 miles NE of San Jose, Ca., failed during construction. The Spring Valley Water Co. completed the 210-foot earthen dam in 1925. In 2001 dam regulators ordered the reservoir to be drained to about a third to avoid collapse in an earthquake. A new dam was scheduled for completion in 2015.
    (SFC, 9/15/02, p.A20)(SFC, 9/16/11, p.A1)

1918        The Boston Red Sox won the Baseball World Series.
    (Hem., 4/97, p.103)

1918        Fritz Haber (1868-1934), German chemist, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for extracting ammonia from nitrogen in 1909. The Haber-Bosch process was beneficial for food production and explosives. Haber also helped develop poison gas during WW I.
    (WSJ, 12/8/00, p.W11)(SSFC, 8/7/05, p.C6)

1918        Pres. Wilson pushed through Congress the Sedition Act of 1918. It was the most extreme antispeech legislation in American history.
    (WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1918        The US government nationalized the Wells Fargo franchise into a government agency known as the American Railway Express Agency. The government took control of everything except the bank, which began rebuilding with a focus on commercial markets.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)

1918        The US Labor Dept. launched an "Own Your Home Campaign."
    (WSJ, 4/29/04, p.A2)

1918        The US Supreme Court ruled that facts cannot by copyrighted, but that a news agency can retain exclusive use of its product so long as it has commercial value.
    (Econ, 6/26/10, p.63)

1918        The US Navy began recruiting women, the "Yeomanettes," to work as clerks, drafters and recruiters in an attempt to free men for overseas duty.
    (SFC, 8/16/00, p.B2)

1918        Alfred E. Smith (1873-1944) was 1st elected governor of New York.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1944)(WUD, 1994 p.1345)(WSJ, 3/6/00, p.A20)

1918        Charley Chapin (1858-1930), city editor for the Pulitzer's NYC Evening World, faced financial ruin after living beyond his means. He contemplated murder-suicide and killed his wife, but lost his nerve and turned himself in. He was sent to Sing Sing prison where he cultivated roses. In 1920  he wrote an autobiography.
    (WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)

1918        The game "Consult El Caro" was 1st built. A metal ball fell into a recessed hole containing answers to questions.
    (SFC, 9/10/02, p.A15)

1918        Sailor Jack and his dog Bingo first appeared on Cracker Jack boxes.
    (AH, 10/04, p.71)

1918        The Fel-Pro Company was founded to supply gaskets for Henry Ford’s Model T. In 1998 the company was to be acquired by Federal-Mogul for $720 million in cash and stock.
    (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A19)   

1918        GM bought Chevrolet.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1918        Walter Jacobs opened a rental business in Chicago that grew to become Hertz. In 1923 he sold his business to John Hertz. GM owned Hertz from 1826 to 1953. Ford acquired Hertz in 1985 and in 2005 announced plans to sell it to a consortium of 3 private equity firms in a deal valued at $15 billion.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.60)

1918        The Sears, Roebuck and Co., catalog offered a 5-pound Home Motor for US$8.75, the equivalent of about $85 in 1996.
    (Wired, 10/96, p.98)

1918        In Texas C.N. Williamson and E.E. Dickies established the U.S. Overall Co. It was later renamed Williamson-Dickie and then came to be known as Dickies.
    (SSFC, 8/20/06, p.M4)

1918        The Warner brothers built a film studio on Sunset Blvd. in LA, Ca.
    (WSJ, 6/2/06, p.A1)

1918        The first electric waffle was introduced in the US by Landers, Frary & Clark.
    (SFC, 7/22/98, Z1 p.2)

1918        Edwin Howard Armstrong (1890-1954), engineer and inventor, developed the superheterodyne circuit, basic to radio receivers. He is known as the "Father of FM" or frequency modulation. In 1939 Armstrong perfected his system of static-free radio, which was widely adopted in the U.S. and Europe. His super-regenerative circuit, devised in 1920, was used in 2-way police and aircraft radio systems.
    (HN, 5/12/99)

1918        The 1st pogo stick was invented. In 1947 metal replaced the original wood sticks. Extreme sticks used for stunts were brought out in 2001.
    (WSJ, 8/10/01, p.B1)

1918        The National Washboard Co. received US patent 1283148 and design patent 52236 for their wood frame and glass rubbing surface. By the 1960s the company was out of business.
    (SFC, 10/18/06, p.G3)

1918        The Bailey Radium Laboratories, Inc., of East Orange, New Jersey, began manufacturing Radithor. It was advertised as "A Cure for the Living Dead" as well as "Perpetual Sunshine." It consisted of triple distilled water containing at a minimum 1 microcurie (37 kBq) each of the radium 226 and 228 isotopes. The FTC issued a cease and desist order against the manufacture in 1931.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radithor)(AH, 10/07, p.37)

1918        The influenza epidemic killed 11,000 people in Philadelphia.
    (LSA, Fall/06, p.58)

1918        People in San Francisco wore protective face masks during the [Spanish]  flu epidemic of this year. Researchers in 1997 attempted to isolate the virus from victims buried in the Arctic.
    (SFC, 12/24/96, p.E3)(NPR, 9/29/97)
1918        The California-based Save the Redwoods League began collecting donations for the purchase of redwood land. In 1960 the 33-mile Avenue of the Giants, a 52,000-acre area of river and redwoods, was dedicated following efforts by the Save the Redwoods League.
    (www.savetheredwoods.org/league/anniversary.shtml)(SFCM, 7/18/04, p.29)

1918        Australia established its alternative vote for elections. This ranked candidates on the ballot in order of preference.
    (Econ, 4/30/11, p.13)

1918        Vienna became the capital of the Republic of Austria.
    (StuAus, April ‘95, p.14)
1918        In Austria the first democratic elections were held.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A16)

1918        Arthur Ransome (1884-1967), British agent and writer, wrote a propaganda pamphlet titled: “On Behalf of Russia: An Open Letter to America.” In 2009 Roland Chambers authored “The Last Englishman: The Double Life of Arthur Ransome.”
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Ransome)
1918        In Britain dancer Maud Allan sued MP Noel Pemberton-Billing (1881-1948) for libel and lost. Allan, a San Francisco-raised dancer, had achieved fame for her “Visions of Salome” interpretive dance. Pemberton-Brilling wanted to use the court as a soapbox for his int’l. homosexual conspiracy theories. In 2012 Mark Jackson’s “Salomania,” based on the trial, debuted in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 6/23/12, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noel_Pemberton_Billing)

1918        In Canada Vancouver workers staged a general strike after a union organizer was killed under mysterious circumstances by a posse seeking draft dodgers outside the mining town of Cumberland.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)

1918        Gustaf Mannerheim led a Finnish victory over much larger Bolshevik and Finnish Red Guard forces.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1918        In France the Meuse-Argonne offensive action was made. A portion of the U.S. 77th Division in World War I was encircled by the Germans during the 1918 Meuse-Argonne offensive of World War I and called the "lost battalion.". The unit managed to hold off its attackers until relief finally arrived.
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A17)

1918        The Gellert Pool was constructed at the Gellert Hotel on the Buda side of Budapest, Hungary.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T1,4)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1918        Italy gained Trieste from the Hapsburg Empire.
    (www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Rotunda/2209/Trieste.html)

1918        Japan’s first parliamentary cabinet was formed.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1918        Some 1,000 pilot whales became stranded on the Chatham Islands in the biggest recorded mass stranding on the New Zealand coast.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

1918        Kosovo became part of the newly created Yugoslavia and was dominated by a Serbian monarchy until WW II.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)

1918        An attempt to establish a Moldovan Soviet failed and Romanian troops occupied the province.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1918        The heir to Romania's throne, Prince Carol, secretly married Zizi Lambrino, a Romanian aristocrat. The marriage was later annulled because by law Romania's heir to the throne was obliged to marry a foreign princess. Their child, Mircea Grigore, was then regarded as an illegitimate son. Mircea, filed a request in a Lisbon court in 1955, demanding to be recognized as Carol's legitimate son. His request was granted.
    (AP, 2/15/12)

1918        In Russia Lenin established the Collegium on Affairs of Museums and Protection of Monuments of Art and Antiquity.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.33)
1918        In Russia Jacob Ivanovich Moiseeff of Minsk headed the Trans-Siberian Railway. His daughter Nadya Jacobova Moiseeva was born in 1918 and escaped to Shanghai after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A22)
1918        Nikolay Bukharin, member of the central committee of the Bolshevik Party and editor of Pravda, led the "Left Communists" in opposition to V.I. Lenin's signing the Brest-Litovsk treaty with Germany and withdrawing Russia from World War I. Bukharin-a major Marxist theoretician and economist-and the Left Communists proposed to transform the war into a general European revolution.
    (HNQ, 8/31/99)
1918        Idel-Ural (Volga-Ural), a 1917 union of Finno-Ugric people in the middle of Russia, was crushed by the Bolsheviks. Its foreign minister Sadri Maqsudi Arsal was welcomed in Finland and then Estonia.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.73)

1918        Lawrence of Arabia blew up the Hijaz railway line in Saudi Arabia.
    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.70)

1918        The Swiss Fatherland Association, an anti-Semitic and anti-immigration, group was founded.
    (SFC, 6/10/98, p.A10)

1918        Arab Prince Faisal (1885-1933), aka Feisal, took control of Syria.
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)(Econ, 2/8/14, p.79)

1918-1919    Herbert Hoover directed the American Relief Administration under Pres. Wilson.
    (AH, 12/02, p.20)

1918-1919     The Influenza Pandemic killed between 20 and 40 million people worldwide. It has been cited as one of the most devastating epidemics in history, its toll surpassing the number of people killed in WWI and the Black Death Plague outbreak of 1347 to 1351. More than 28% of Americans were infected with influenza and 600,000 died, suffocating as their lungs filled with fluid. As the numbers of patients soared, medical personnel and facilities were overwhelmed and emergency tent hospitals, such as the one seen above, were established in many cities. At the height of the epidemic, the death rate was so high that a nationwide shortage of gravediggers and caskets resulted. While the terrifying epidemic continued into 1919, the number of deaths began to decline in November 1918, as the number of susceptible people dwindled.
    (HNPD, 7/21/98)

1918-1921    The war of attrition continues in Russia. The Belarussians or White Russians, joined by many émigrés, almost destroy the Communist Revolution but fail.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.291)

1918-1922    Mehmed VI succeeded Mehmed V in the Ottoman House of Osman. 
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1918-1993    Sascha Brastoff designed ceramics, plastics and decorative accessories and enamels on copper in West Los Angeles from 1953-1973. His firm was called Sascha Brastoff of California, Inc.
    (SFC, 4/7/99, Z1 p.7)

1919        Jan 1, J.D. Salinger, American novelist, was born in NYC. In 1951 Jerome David Salinger published "The Catcher in the Rye," which became a bible for American teenagers.
    (SFC, 1/29/10, p.A1)

1919        Jan 1-1919 Dec 31, In 2007 this period was covered in Ann Hagedorn’s book: “Savage Peace: Hope and Fear in America, 1919.”
    (WSJ, 4/27/07, p.P9)

1919        Jan 2, Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) was inaugurated as governor of Massachusetts.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Coolidge)

1919        Jan 5, British ships shelled the Bolshevik headquarters in Riga.
    (HN, 1/5/99)
1919        Jan 5, The National Socialist Party (Nazi) formed.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1919        Jan 6, The 26th president of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, died in Oyster Bay, N.Y., at age 60. "Put out the light" were his last words. In 1920 his autobiography was published by Scribner. In 1997 H.W. Brands published the biography: "T.R.: The Last Romantic." Around 1954 Carleton Putnam (d.1998), dropped his position as chairman of Delta Airlines and wrote the biography: "Theodore Roosevelt", that covered the first 28 years of Roosevelt’s life. Theodore Roosevelt coined the term "Good to the last drop," used by Maxwell House Coffee. The original Maxwell House hotel was in Nashville, Tenn. In 1980 Edmund Morris authored the Pulitzer Prize winning Vol 1: "The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt." In 1997 "T.R. The Last Romantic" by H.W. Brands was published. In 2001 Edmund Morris authored Vol 2: "Theodore Rex." In 2004 the Library of America published “Theodore Roosevelt: Letters and Speeches; The rough Riders, an Autobiography.”
    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)(AP, 1/6/98)(SFC, 3/17/98, p.A20)(SFC, 6/27/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 9/27/99, p.A32)(ON, 12/99, p.12)(WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A16)(SFC, 10/21/04, p.E1)

1919        Jan 13, Jackie Robinson, baseball star, was born. He broke the apartheid ban in 1947.
    (SFEC, 10/4/98, p.B14)
1919        Jan 13, Robert Stack, actor best know for his role as Elliot Ness in the TV series "The Untouchables," was born.
    (HN, 1/13/99)
1919        Jan 13, California voted to ratify the Prohibition amendment.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1919        Jan 14, Andy Rooney, American humorist, author and television personality, was born. He appeared on the TV program "60 Minutes."
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1919        Jan 15, In Boston an explosion opened a tank of molasses and the cylindrical sides toppled outward knocking down 10 nearby buildings. 2 million gallons of molasses oozed onto the streets and killed 21 people. Another 50 were injured [see 1872].
    (www.snopes.com/horrors/freakish/molasses.asp)
1919        Jan 15, Karl Liebknecht (47), Marxist revolutionary, was murdered.
    (MC, 1/15/02)
1919        Jan 15, Rosa Luxemburg (b.1870), Marxist revolutionary, was murdered.
    (MC, 1/15/02)
1919        Jan 15, Peasants in Central Russia rose against the Bolsheviks.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1919        Jan 16, Nebraska, Wyoming and Missouri became the 36th, 37th and 38th states to ratify Prohibition, which went into effect a year later. Prohibition became law in the US with the passage of the Volstead Act on Oct 28, which enforced and defined the 18th Amendment. It was passed over President Wilson's veto with the necessary two-thirds majority of state ratification.
    (WSJ, 8/22/96, p.A14)(AP, 1/16/98)

1919        Jan 17, Pianist and statesman Ignace Jan Paderewski became the first premier of the newly created republic of Poland.
    (AP, 1/17/07)

1919        Jan 18, The World War I Peace Congress, held to negotiate peace treaties ending World War I, opened in Versailles, France.
    (AP, 1/18/08)

1919        Jan 19, John H. Johnson (d.2005), editor and publisher of Ebony and Jet magazines, was born Arkansas.
    (HN, 1/19/99)(SFC, 8/8/05, p.B4)

1919        Jan 21, The German Krupp plant began producing guns under the U.S. armistice terms.
    (HN, 1/21/99)
1919        Jan 21, Several IRA members acting independently at Soloheadbeg, in County Tipperary, led by Seán Treacy, Seamus Robinson, Sean Hogan and Dan Breen, attacked and shot two Royal Irish Constabulary officers, Constables James McDonnell and Patrick O'Connell, who were escorting explosives.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_War_of_Independence)

1919        Jan 23, Ernie Kovacs, U.S. comedian, was born. His "The Ernie Kovacs Show" introduced viewers to his off-beat sense of humor.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1919        Jan 24, In Russia Grand Prince Pavel Alexandrovich, a son of Czar Alexander II, and grand princes Nikolai Mikhailovich, Georgy Mikhailovitch and Dmitry Konstantinovich, nephews of the czar, were executed at the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg. They were posthumously rehabilitated in 1999 by the Russian office of the prosecutor general.
    (SFC, 6/10/99, p.C3)

1919        Jan 25, The League of Nations plan was adopted by the Allies.
    (HN, 1/25/99)

1919        Jan 27, Endre Ady (b.1877), Hungarian lyric poet, died.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.79)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ady.htm)

1919        Jan 31, Jackie Robinson, first black major league baseball player, was born.
    (HN, 1/31/99)

1919        Feb 1, Andrea King (d.2003), Hollywood film star, was born in Paris, France, as Georgette Andre Barry.
    (SFC, 5/9/03, p.A22)
1919        Feb 1, "There she is..." The first Miss America was crowned on this day, not in Atlantic City, but in New York City. Edith Hyde was not, the judges found, a Miss. She was a Mrs. Mrs. Tod Robbins—the mother of two children.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)

1919        Feb 3, Eamon de Valera, Sinn Fein leader, and 2 other men escaped from England’s Lincoln Jail and made their way home to Ireland.
    (ON, 9/04, p.7)
1919        Feb 3, League of Nations held its 1st meeting in Paris.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1919        Feb 4, City of Bremen's Soviet Republic was overthrown.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1919        Feb 5, Aaron Chwatt (d.2006) was born in NYC. He later established himself as a Borscht Circuit comic and became known as Red Buttons, comic film and TV star.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.B9)

1919        Feb 6, The 1st day of 5-day Seattle general strike, the first general strike in America, took effect. During this period Washington was a center for the Industrial Workers of the World, also known as the "Wobblies." Their agitation led to the Centralia massacre and the Everett massacre.
    (WSJ, 12/3/99, p.A14)(MC, 2/6/02)

1919        Feb 8, Lithuanian and German military forces forced the Bolsheviks from Kedainiai.
    (LHC, 2/8/03)

1919            Feb 11, Eva Gabor (d.1995), actress, was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001247/)

1919        Feb 13, Tennessee Ernie Ford, country and gospel singer, was born.
    (HN, 2/13/01)

1919        Feb 14, The United Parcel Service was incorporated in Oakland, CA.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1919        Feb 15, The American Legion was organized in Paris.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1919        Feb 16, Sir Mark Sykes (b.1879), best known for the 1916 Sykes-Picot agreement dividing up the Middle East in anticipation of the fall of the Ottoman Empire, died of Spanish flu in Paris. In 2008 an Oxford team took tissue samples before reburying his body in its grave in East Yorkshire. They hoped to find clues that might help fight a future global influenza outbreak.
    (AP, 9/17/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Sykes)

1919        Feb 17, Germany signed an armistice giving up territory in Poland.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1919        Feb 18, Jack Palance (d.2006), later film and TV star, was born as Volodymir Ivanovich Palahniuk in Latimer Mines, Pa.
    (SFC, 11/11/06, p.B6)

1919        Feb 19, The First Pan African Congress met in Paris, France.
    (HN, 2/19/99)

1919        Feb 23, Fascist Party was formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini. [see Mar 23]
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1919        Feb 25, Oregon introduced the first state tax on gasoline at one cent per gallon, to be used for road construction.
    (HN, 2/25/98)(AP, 2/25/98)

1919        Feb 26, Congress established Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.17)(AP, 2/26/98)
1919        Feb 26, Acadia National Park was established as Lafayette National Park in Maine.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1919        Feb 27, 1st public performance of Gustav Holst's "Planets."
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1919          Feb 27, The Bolsheviks took Lithuania and joined it with Belarus as a single Soviet republic. Litbel lasted until June 25.
    (LHC, 2/27/03)

1919        Mar 1, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, US beat poet (Coney Island of the Mind), was born. [see Mar 24]
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1919         Mar 1, The Korean coalition proclaimed their independence from Japan. 33 Koreans gathered in a local restaurant to read a declaration of independence that ignited a series of demonstrations against Japanese occupation.
    (HN, 3/1/98)(SSFC, 2/24/13, p.M3)

1919        Mar 2, The 1st congress of Communist Int’l. opened at the Kremlin.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1919        Mar 3, The US Supreme Court ruled that falsely shouting “Fire!” in a crowded theater is not protected by the first amendment. "Shouting fire in a crowded theater" is a misquote that refers to Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.'s opinion in the US Supreme Court case Schenck v. United States and that is used to express the limits upon which free speech may be expressed under the terms of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shouting_fire_in_a_crowded_theater)
1919        Mar 3, Boeing flew the first U.S. international airmail from Vancouver, British Columbia to Seattle, Wash.
    (HN, 3/3/99)
1919        Mar 3, Communist Party in Germany announced a general strike.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1919        Mar 4, Czech Legions shot and killed some 50 German demonstrators, including women and children, in Sudetenland.
    (http://tinyurl.com/856hg)

1919        Mar 8, Reports from Paris indicated that 6,000 American men had married French women in the past year.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1919        Mar 11, A general strike in Germany was crushed.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1919        Mar 14, Max Shulman, novelist (Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, Tender Trap), was born.
    (MC, 3/14/02)
1919        Mar 14, In France Emile Cottin was condemned to death for the attempt on the life of Clemenceau.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1919        Mar 15-17, The American Legion was founded in Paris by members of the American Expeditionary Force.   
    (AP, 3/15/97)(www.legion.org/)

1919        Mar 17, Nat "King" Cole, American jazz pianist and singer, was born. He is famous for "Unforgettable" and "Mona Lisa."
    (HN, 3/17/99)

1919        Mar 19, A typhoid epidemic raged in Petrograd, Russia, killing 200 daily.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1919        Mar 22, The first international airline service was inaugurated on a weekly schedule between Paris and Brussels.
    (AP, 3/22/99)

1919        Mar 23, Benito Mussolini founded his Fascist political movement in Milan, Italy. [see Feb 23]
    (AP, 3/23/97)
1919        Mar 23, Bashkir ASSR (Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) in the RSFSR (Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic) was constituted.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1919        Mar 23, Moscow's Politburo-Central Committee formed.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1919        Mar 24, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, 'beat' poet, was born. [see Mar 1]
    (HN, 3/24/01)

1919        Mar 25, Jeanne Cagney, actress (Lion is in the Streets, Quicksand), was born.
    (MC, 3/25/02)
1919        Mar 25, The Paris Peace Commission adopted a plan to protect nations from the influx of foreign labor.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1919        Mar 30, Gandhi announced resistance against Rowlatt Act.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1919        Apr 1, Joseph E. Murray, transplant physician, was born.
    (HN, 4/1/01)

1919        Apr 2, Ian Hunter, impresario, was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1919        Apr 3, Austria expelled all Habsburgs.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1919        Apr 4, Antony Tudor, choreographer (Metropolitan Opera 1957), was born in England.
    (MC, 4/4/02)
1919        Apr 4, Antanas Smetona began serving as the 1st president of Lithuania.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antanas_Smetona)

1919        Apr 5, Eamon de Valera became Taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland (Dail Eireann).
    (HN, 5/5/97)(MC, 4/5/02)
1919        Apr 5, Polish Army executed 35 young Jews.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1919        Apr 8, [Douglas] Ian Smith, premier of Rhodesia, was born. He was Premier of the British Colony of Southern Rhodesia (13 Apr 1964 - 11 Nov 1965) and Prime Minister of the Republic of Rhodesia (11 Nov 1965 - 1 Jun 1979). He was Premier of the British Colony of Southern Rhodesia (13 Apr 1964 - 11 Nov 1965) and Prime Minister of the Republic of Rhodesia (11 Nov 1965 - 1 Jun 1979).
    (MC, 4/8/02)(Internet)

1919        Apr 10, Emiliano Zapata (b.c1877), a leader of Mexico's indigenous people during the Mexican Revolution, was assassinated by a government emissary who had come to his southern stronghold in the state of Morelos for peace negotiations. His native language was Nahuatl of the Aztecs.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-10)(MC, 4/10/02)

1919        Apr 12, Maurice Girodias, French publisher, was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1919        Apr 13, Madalyn Murray O'Hair, American atheist (opposed prayer in school), was born.
    (MC, 4/13/02)
1919        Apr 13, In the Amritsar Massacre British forces under the command of General Reginald Dyer killed hundreds of Indian nationalists in the thickly crowded plaza at Jallianwala Bagh.
    (HN, 4/13/98)(EWH, 4th ed., p.1101)

1919        Apr 15, Charles Steale shot his oil-well filled photo: "Pictorial Map of Burkburnett, Texas."
    (SFC, 9/26/96, p.E1)
1919        Apr 15, Jane Arminda Delano (b.1862), founder of the American Red Cross Nursing Service, died in France while on a Red Cross mission and was buried there. She was posthumously awarded the US Distinguished Service Medal, the 1st female recipient. In 1920 She was brought back to the U.S. and re-interred in Arlington National Cemetery.
    (www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jadelano.htm)

1919        Apr 16, Merce Cunningham, American dancer and choreographer, was born.
    (HN, 4/16/01)

1919        Apr 20, Polish Army captured Vilno (Vilnius), Lithuania from Soviet Army.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1919        Apr 28, The first jump with an Army Air Corp (rip-cord type) parachute was made by Les Irvin.
    (HN, 4/28/98)(MC, 4/28/02)

1919        Apr 29, A parcel bomb aimed at US Senator Thomas Hardwick and designed to explode on May day, exploded unsuccessfully. It was one of nearly 30 devices sent by anarchist groups to politicians, judges and businessmen.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1919        Apr 30, US postal workers discovered 30 booby-trap bombs in the national mail system, targeting several members of congress and other public figures. Investigators later implicated a network of anarchists and radicals who were rounded up and deported.
    (SFC, 5/1/09, p.B2)

1919        May 1, Dan O'Herlihy, actor (Fail Safe, Last Starfighter, Robocop), was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1919        May 1, In Indonesia Mount Kelud erupted. A powerful explosion that could be heard hundreds of miles away destroyed dozens of villages and killed at least 5,160 when a boiling crater lake broke through the crater wall killing people in 104 small villages.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)(AP, 11/3/07)
1919        May 1, In Mexico Pancho Villa married Soledad Seanez Holguin. This was recognized by the state in 1946 after proof showed the pair had both a civil and a church wedding.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p. A19)

1919        May 2, The first U.S. air passenger service started.
    (HN, 5/2/98)

1919        May 3, Betty Compden, lyricist, was born.
    (HN, 5/3/01)
1919        May 3, Pete Seeger (d.2014), American folksinger and songwriter, was born in NYC. His father was a musicologist and his mother a concert violinist. Seeger helped to lay the foundation for American protest music, singing out about the plight of everyday working folks and urging listeners to political and social activism.
    (www.rutherford.org/oldspeak/Articles/Art/oldspeak-Seeger.html)(SFC, 1/29/14, p.A10)
1919        May 13, Atlantic City, NJ, became the site of the 1st municipal airport in the US.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)

1919        May 4, Some 3,000 young scholars from 13 colleges and universities rallied at Tiananmen Square to protest the loss of Shandong province to the Japanese under the Versailles Treaty at the Paris Peace Conference. German concessions in China were bequeathed to Japan. Among the protestors were people who helped form the Communist Party.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/17/99, p.A21)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.13)

1919        May 5, George London, bass-baritone (The Flying Dutchman, Wotan, Scarpia. Rigoletto), was born in Montreal, Canada.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1919        May 6, Paris Peace Conference disposed of German colonies; German East Africa was assigned to Britain & France, German SW Africa to South Africa.
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1919        May 6, Frank Lyman Baum (62), author (Wizard of Oz), died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1919        May 7, Eva (Evita) Peron, first lady of Argentina, was born. She helped her husband, Juan, achieve office.
    (HN, 5/7/99)

1919        May 8, The first transatlantic flight took-off by a US Navy seaplane.
    (HN, 5/8/98)

1919        May 9, Arthur English, comedian, actor (Malachi's Cove), was born.
    (MC, 5/9/02)
1919        May 9, James Reese Europe (b.1881), jazz band leader and founder of the NYC Clef Club, died after he was stabbed during the intermission of a performance at Mechanic’s Hall in Boston. Europe led the Clef Club Symphony Orchestra before WW I and during the war led a US Army band in the all-black 369th Infantry Regiment, which was attached to the French Army. In 1995 Reid Badger authored “A Life in Ragtime,” a biography of Europe.
    (WSJ, 11/10/05, p.D7)(www.jass.com/Others/europe.html)

1919        May 14, The first transatlantic flight by a U.S. Navy seaplane began at Chatham Naval Air Station in Mass. [see May 27]
    (WSJ, 9/10/99, p.W6)

1919        May 16, Liberace (d.1987), pianist, was born in a Milwaukee suburb as Wladziu Valentino Liberace. At 17 he debuted with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. He later averaged an income of $5 million for over 35 years.
    (SSFM, 4/29/01, p.22)

1919        May 18, Margot Fonteyn (d.1991), ballet dancer, was born in Surrey, England, as Peggy Hookham.
    (HN, 5/18/01)

1919        May 19, Mustafa Kemal arrived in Samsun, Anatolia, to start the National Struggle.
    http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html

1919        May 20, Volcano Kelut on Java erupted killing 550. [see May 1]
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1919        May 25, Gino Negri, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1919        May 25, Madame C.J. Walker (b.1867 as Sarah Breedlove), black, wealthy cosmetics manufacturer, died at age 51. In 2003 Beverly Lowry authored "Her Dream of Dreams: The Rise and Triumph of Madame C.J. Walker."
    (WSJ, 4/22/03, D7)(SSFC, 10/24/04, Par p.4)

1919        May 26, Jay Silverheels, actor, was born. He played Tonto in The Lone Ranger TV series
    (HN, 5/26/01)

1919        May 27, The first transatlantic flight was completed by a U.S. Navy seaplane. U.S. Navy Curtiss flying boat NC-4, piloted by Lt. Cmdr. Albert C. Read, arrived safely in Lisbon, Portugal, to become the first aircraft to complete a transatlantic flight. Three aircraft, designated NC-1, NC-3 and NC-4--called "Nancy" boats--had taken off from New York's Rockaway Naval Air Station [Chatham Naval Air Station in Mass.] for Lisbon on May 8, with intermediate stops planned for Newfoundland and the Azores. Only NC-4 completed the 3,925-mile transatlantic flight. Heavy rain and fog forced NC-1 down at sea, where it sank on May 17. NC-3, came down in rough seas and taxied 200 miles into the harbor at Horta in the Azores.
    (HN, 5/27/98)(HNPD, 5/27/99)
1919        May 27, Charles Strite patented a pop-up toaster. [see May 29)
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1919        May 28, May Swenson, poet, was born.
    (HN, 5/28/01)
1919        May 28, Armenia declared it's Independence. [see Dec 2, 1918]
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1919        May 29, A solar eclipse occurred that was photographed by two British expeditions, one in Africa and the other in Sobral, Brazil. Arthur Eddington, British astronomer, confirmed Einstein’s prediction of the deflection of light from Principe, a Portuguese island off the Atlantic coast of Africa. In 1980 Harry Colling and Trevor Pinch published "The Golem," an account of the expedition. The play “Rose Tattoo” by Tennessee (Thomas Lanier) Williams was originally titled “The Eclipse of May 29, 1919.”
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)(www.bun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~suchii/Edd.on1919.html)
1919        May 29, Charles Strite patented a pop-up toaster. [see May 27]
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1919        Jun 2, There were coordinated bombings in Washington, DC, and 6 other cities. Militant followers of anarchist Luigi Galleani were blamed. A campaign this month involved 8 bombs that killed several people including an anarchist.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1919_United_States_anarchist_bombings)(Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1919        Jun 4, The U.S. Senate passed the Women’s Suffrage bill.
    (HN, 6/4/98)
1919        Jun 4, US marines invaded Costa Rica.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1919        Jun 5, Richard Scarry, Children's author and illustrator, was born.
    (HN, 6/5/01)

1919        Jun 6, Finland declared war on Bolsheviks.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1919        Jun 11, Richard Todd, actor (Dorian Gray, Assassin Yangtze Incident), was born in  Ireland.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1919        Jun 11, Sir Barton won the Belmont Stakes, becoming horse racing’s first Triple Crown winner.
    (AP, 6/11/97)
1919        Jun 11, Eamon de Valera, Sinn Fein leader, arrived in NYC where he lived until 1921 raising funds for the nationalist cause in Ireland.
    (ON, 9/04, p.7)

1919            Jun 14, The US Congress passed the 19th amendment granting suffrage to American women.
    (www.usconstitution.net/constamnotes.html#Am19)
1919        Jun 14, Pilot John William Alcock (1892-1919) and navigator Arthur Witten Brown (1886-1948) took off from St. John’s, Newfoundland, for Clifden, Ireland, on the first nonstop transatlantic flight. The flight lasted 16 hours and 28 minutes and carried the first transatlantic airmail. They won a 10 thousand pound prize, first offered by the Daily Mail in 1913.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Whitten_Brown)(ON, 4/09, p.1)

1919        Jun 17, The "Barney Google" cartoon strip by Billy DeBeck premiered. In 1924 he introduced a horse named spark Plug to the strip.
    (SFC, 9/7/05, p.G7)(www.toonopedia.com/google.htm)

1919        Jun 19, Pauline Kael, American movie critic, was born. She wrote I lost it at the Movies.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)(AP, 6/19/99)
1919        Jun 19, Mustafa Kemal founded the Turkish National Congress at Angora (later Ankara) and denounced the Treaty of Versailles.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1919        Jun 20, Treaty of Versailles: Germany ended the incorporation of Austria. [see Jun 28]
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1919        Jun 21, German sailors under Admiral von Reuter scuttled 72 warships at Scapa Flow in the Orkneys even though Germany had surrendered. It was the greatest act of self-destruction in modern military history.
    (HN, 6/21/98)(Camelot, 6/21/99)(MC, 6/21/02)

1919        Jun 26, The New York Daily News, America's first tabloid, was first published.
    (AP, 6/26/99)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1919        Jun 28, Harry S. Truman married Elizabeth Virginia Wallace in Independence, Mo.
    (AP, 6/28/97)

1919        Jun 28, The Treaty of Versailles was signed in France, ending (WW I) World War I. The first world war began in 1914 and ended on this date. Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles under protest. Books by participants included "Peacemaking" by Harold Nicolson; "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" by John Maynard Keynes; and "The Truth About the Peace Treaties" by David Lloyd George. In 2000 Richard Holmes authored "The Western Front." Nearly 1 million British died and nearly 2 million each for France, Germany, Russia and Turkey. In 2002 Margaret MacMillan authored "Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.32)(AP, 6/28/97)(HN, 6/28/98)(WSJ, 8/16/00, p.A20)(SSFC, 12/15/02, p.M3)
1919        The Versailles conference gave Norway sovereignty over the island of Svalbard, but allowed other countries to establish settlements there.
    (Econ, 10/2/04, p.52)

1919         Jun 30, Susan Hayward, actress, was born.
    (HN, 6/30/01)
1919        Jun 30, John William Strutt (b.1842), 3rd Baron Rayleigh and British physicist and Nobel Prize winner (1904), died in England. His work included the discovery of the phenomenon now called Rayleigh scattering, explaining why the sky is blue.
    (www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1904/)

1919        Jul 2, Johnny Bradford, actor (Ransom Sherman Show), was born in Long Branch, NJ.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1919        Jul 4, Jack Dempsey, the "Manassa Mauler", defeated Jess Willard by a knockout in Toledo, Ohio, after three rounds to become the World's Heavyweight Boxing Champion.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1919        Jul 4, Max Wolf discovered asteroid #914 Palisana.
    (Maggio, 98)
1919        Jul 4, The ADGB (Allgemeine Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund) party was formed.
    (Maggio, 98)

1919        Jul 7, William Moses Kunstler, defense attorney (Chicago 8), was born.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1919        Jul 7, The U.S. Army’s First Transcontinental Motor Train left Washington, D.C., bound for San Francisco. The 62-day journey crossed 3,250 miles. In 2002 Peter Davies authored "American Road," an account of the trip.
    (HN, 3/7/01)(WSJ, 7/19/02, p.W9)

1919        Jul 8, President Wilson received a tumultuous welcome in New York City after his return from the Versailles Peace Conference in France.
    (AP, 7/8/97)

1919        Jul 10, President Wilson personally delivered the Treaty of Versailles to the Senate and urged its ratification.
    (AP, 7/10/97)

1919        Jul 15, Iris Murdoch (d.1999), philosopher-novelist, was born in Dublin. She wrote 28 novels and in 1998 published "Existentialists and Mystics," a collection of writings from 1950 to the 1980s. Herein she tried to "recover the moral dimension of art."
    (WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_Murdoch)(SFC, 2/9/99, p.A20)

1919        Jul 20, Sir Edmund Hillary, the first man reach the summit of Mount Everest, was born in New Zealand.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1919        Jul 21, A dirigible crashed through a bank skylight killing 13 in Chicago.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1919        Jul 21, The British House of Lords ratified the Versailles Treaty.
    (HN, 7/21/98)
1919        Jul 21, Anthony Fokker established an airplane factory at Hamburg and Amsterdam.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1919        Jul 24, A race riot in Washington, DC, left 6 killed and 100 wounded.
    (MC, 7/24/02)
1919        Jul 24, LaVerne Noyes (b.1849), American inventor, died. His inventions included the akromotor, a device that converted wind to electricity, and a dictionary holder.
    (http://eos.lib.uchicago.edu/e/spcl/excat/donors2.html#d)

1919        Jul 26, James Lovelock, British biologist and inventor, was born. He developed the Gaia hypothesis. According to this idea the earth is influenced by life to sustain life, and the planet is a the core of a single, unified, living system. "The earth is a living organism, and I’ll stick by that," he says.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.388)

1919        Jul 27, In a Chicago race riot 15 whites and 23 blacks were killed with 500 injured.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1919        Jul 30, Federal troops were called out to put down Chicago race riots.
    (HN, 7/30/98)

1919        Jul 31, Curt Gowdy (d.2006), later leading sports announcer, was born in Green River, Wyo.
    (SFC, 2/21/06, p.B5)
1919        Jul 31, Primo Levi, Italian writer and scientist (Survival in Auschwitz), was born.
    (HN, 7/31/01)
1919        Jul 31, Germany's Weimar Constitution was adopted by the republic's National Assembly. The Weimar Republic became Germany’s 1st democratic government.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

1919        Aug 1, In Hungary Bela Kun's government fell in the face of invasions from both the Czechs, Romanians and a French-sponsored counter-revolutionary force, led by Admiral Miklos Horthy de Nagybanya, which succeeded in establishing Horthy in government for many years.
    (www.firstworldwar.com/bio/kun.htm)

1919        Aug 8, Dino De Laurentiis, producer (King Kong), was born in Torre Annunziata, Italy.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1919        Aug 9, Ruggiero Leoncavallo (62), Italian composer (Pagliacci), died.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1919        Aug 10, Ukrainian National Army massacred 25 Jews in Podolia, Ukraine.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1919        Aug 11, The Green Bay Packers football was club founded.
    (MC, 8/11/02)
1919        Aug 11, Andrew Carnegie (b.1835), industrialist, philanthropist, and founder of Carnegie Steel, died. Carnegie became a philanthropist in later life, giving away more than $350 million and building 2,509 public libraries. His value in 1999 dollars totaled $100 billion.” The man who dies rich dies disgraced,” was the motto of Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie‘s last years were spent giving away as much money as possible in an effort to shed his image as one of the era‘s leading “robber barons.” Among other bequests to good causes, he established the Carnegie Institute of Technology and hundreds of Carnegie Free Public Libraries across the U.S. In 2005 Les Standiford authored “Meet You In Hell,” an account of the rivalry between Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick. In 2006 David Nasaw authored “Andrew Carnegie.”
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, Par p.7)(HNQ, 4/21/00)(WSJ, 7/29/05, p.W8)(SSFC, 10/22/06, p.M3)
1919        Aug 11, Germany's Weimar Constitution was signed by President Friedrich Ebert.
    (AP, 8/11/07)

1919        Aug 12, Peter Ambrose Cyprian Luke, playwright, was born.
    (MC, 8/12/02)
1919        Aug 12, Michael Kidd [Milton Greenwald], choreographer (7 Brides for 7 Bros), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1919        Aug 13, Rex Humbard, televangelist, was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1919        Aug 18, Anti-Cigarette League of America formed in Chicago, Illinois.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1919        Aug 19, Malcolm Forbes (d.1990), publisher of Forbes magazine, was born in Brooklyn, NY. "I don't waste too much time philosophizing about wealth, I just recommend it to everyone."
    (HN, 8/19/98)(Internet)
1919        Aug 19, Afghanistan established independence from the UK with the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi.
    (AFP, 8/19/10)

1919        Aug 23, The "Gasoline Alley" cartoon strip premiered in Chicago Tribune.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1919        Aug 25, George C. Wallace, governor of Alabama and presidential candidate who led the fight to keep segregation in the South, was born in Clio, Ala.
    (HN, 8/25/98)(MC, 8/25/02)
1919        Aug 25, The 1st scheduled passenger service by airplane between Paris and London.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1919        Aug 28, Godfrey Hounsfield, British inventor of the EMI-scanner, was born.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1919        Aug 31, John Reed formed the Communist Labor Party in Chicago, with the motto, "Workers of the world unite!"
    (HN, 8/31/98)(YN, 8/31/99)(MC, 8/31/01)
1919        Aug 31, The Ukrainian (Petlyura) Army recaptured Kiev. Petlyura's Ukrainian Army killed 35 members of a Jewish defense group.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1919        Aug, The British regime banned Ireland’s Sinn Fein.
    (www.thehistorynet.com/mh/blmanagainstempire/)

1919        Sep 2, Marge Champion, dancer (Marge & Gower Champion Show), was born in LA, California.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1919        Sep 6, Pier Pander (b.1864), Dutch sculptor, died.
    (http://home.wxs.nl/~bekke412/pier.html)

1919        Sep 9, Most of Boston's 1,500-member police force went on strike. The city’s police commissioner fired the strikers and Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933), who was running for governor, came out in support of the firings. 
    (AP, 9/9/99)(AH, 6/07, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Coolidge)

1919        Sep 10, Robert B. Leighton (d.3/9/97), physicist, was born in Detroit.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)
1919        Sep 10, New York City welcomed home Gen. John J. Pershing and 25,000 soldiers who had served in the U.S. First Division during World War I.
    (AP, 9/10/97)
1919        Sep 10, The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria on the other.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Saint_Germain)

1919        Sep 11, US marines invaded Honduras (again).
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1919        Sep 12, Adolf Hitler joined the German Worker's Party. In 2004 Robert O. Paxton authored "The Anatomy of Fascism," on the rise and fall of Hitler and Mussolini.
    (HN, 9/12/98)(SSFC, 4/4/04, p.M3)

1919        Sep 16, The American Legion was formally chartered by an act of Congress.
    (AP, 9/16/07)

1919        Sep 17, The US saluted Gen. John J. Pershing and soldiers returning from WWI in a parade up Pennsylvania Ave. in Washington DC.
    (AH, 10/04, p.14)

1919        Sep 19, Blanche Thebom, mezzo-soprano (Amneris-Aida), was born in Monessen, Penn.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1919        Sep 22, President Woodrow Wilson abandoned his national tour to support the League of Nations when he suffered a case of nervous exhaustion.
    (HN, 9/22/98)
1919        Sep 22, Steel workers at Gary, Ind., went on strike to force US Steel to recognize their union. The walkout ended in 110 days without success.
    (PCh, 1992, p.734)(MC, 9/22/01)

1919        Sep 25, Pres. Wilson collapsed in Pueblo, Colorado. An ailing President Woodrow Wilson was faced with the possibility that the Senate might not ratify the Versailles Treaty ending World War I without substantial changes. Wilson embarked on a grueling railroad tour of America to sway public opinion in favor of his version of the Treaty, delivering 40 speeches in less than a week. He warned America that without the Treaty, "there will be another world war" within a single generation. He was rushed back to a White House sickroom but there suffered a stroke on October 2. For the five weeks Wilson’s life was in danger, his doctor and Mrs. Edith Bolling Galt Wilson, shown here in a posed photograph taken after the crisis had passed, kept the president isolated, but did not declare him unfit to perform his presidential duties. By November 1, Wilson once again governed the country, although he was left partially paralyzed, weak and demoralized. In March 1920, the Senate finally rejected the Treaty of Versailles.
    (AP, 9/25/97)(HNPD, 9/25/98)

1919        Sep 27, British troops withdrew from Archangel.
    (MC, 9/27/01)
1919        Sep 27, Adelina [Adela JM] Patti, Italian soprano (Lucio), died at 76.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1919        Sep, The British regime banned the Irish Parliament (Dail Eireann).
    (www.thehistorynet.com/mh/blmanagainstempire/)

1919        Oct 1, In baseball’s World Series the Chicago White Sox faced the Cincinnati Reds in a best of 9 games. The White Sox intentionally threw the series to satisfy gamblers in what became known as the Black Sox Scandal. 8 players were banned from baseball for life. In 1963 Eliot Asinof described the events in his book “Eight men Out.” The 1988 baseball film "Eight Men Out" was directed by John Sayles.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.8)(SFC, 7/14/96, DB p.33)(AH, 10/04, p.14)
1919        Oct 1, Black sharecroppers gathered at Elaine, Arkansas, to secure a more equitable price for their products. When a white deputy sheriff and a railroad detective, arrived at the church, a fight broke out between them and the guards in which the railroad detective was killed and the deputy sheriff was wounded. This led to 3 days of fighting and the killing of 5 white men and close to 200 black men, women and children. The Arkansas state court later sentenced 12 sharecroppers to death and a 5-year legal battle ensued. In 2008 Robert Whitaker authored “”On the Laps of Gods: The Red Summer of 1919 and the Struggle for Justice That Remade a Nation.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaine_Race_Riot)(SSFC, 7/27/08, Books p.1)

1919        Oct 2, President Wilson suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed and Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall was urged to assume the presidency but he refused. It was Marshall who had earlier said: "What this country needs is a really good five-cent cigar." The quote was attributed to Marshall in 1920 by the SFEM..
    (DFP, 7/28/96, p.J1)(SFEM, 12/15/96, p.15)(AP, 10/2/97)

1919        Oct 3, The Serbian, Croatian & Slavic (Yugoslavia) parliament agreed on an 8 hr work day.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1919        Oct 4, Rene Marques, Puerto Rican playwright and short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 10/4/00)

1919        Oct 7, Fritz Kreisler's and F. Jacobi's "Apple Blossoms," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1919        Oct 8, The U.S. Senate and House of Representatives passed the Volstead Prohibition Enforcement Bill. It was named for Representative Andrew Volstead of Minnesota and enforced the ban on the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages. This rang in the era of prohibition.
    (HN, 10/8/98)(MC, 10/8/01)

1919        Oct 9, The Cincinnati Reds won the World Series, defeating the Chicago White Sox 10-5 at Comiskey Park. The victory turned hollow amid charges eight of the White Sox had thrown the Series in what became known as the "Black Sox" scandal.
    (AP, 10/9/08)

1919        Oct 11, Art Blakey, jazz drummer, was born.
    (HN, 10/11/00)
1919        Oct 11, The 1st transcontinental air race ended.
    (MC, 10/11/01)
1919        Oct 11, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines made its debut and served a pre-packaged dinner, believed to be the 1st in-flight meal, on a flight between London and Paris.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)(WSJ, 5/31/08, p.A12)

1919        Oct 16, Kathleen Winsor, writer, was born. Her work includes "Forever Amber."
    (HN, 10/16/00)

1919        Oct 17, The Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was chartered.
    (AP, 10/17/08)

1919        Oct 18, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, (L) 15th Canadian PM (1968-79, 1980-84), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Trudeau)
1919        Oct 18, Madrid opened a subway system.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1919        Oct 19, The US Distinguished Service Medal was awarded to a woman for the 1st time.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1919        Oct 22, Doris Lessing, novelist, was born. Her work included "Children of Violence" and "The Golden Notebook." Carole Klein (d.2001 at 67) later authored "Doris Lessing: A Biography."
    (HN, 10/22/00)(SFC, 7/5/01, p.D2)

1919        Oct 23, Sigmund Romberg's musical "Passing Show," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1919        Oct 26, Elgar's Cello Concerto premiered in Queen's Hall London.
    (MC, 10/26/01)
1919        Oct 26, President Wilson's veto of Prohibition Enforcement Bill was overridden.
    (MC, 10/26/01)
1919        Oct 26, Mohammed Riza Pahlevi, the Shah of Iran (1941-79). He was overthrown in 1979 and died in the United States, was born.
    (HN, 10/26/98)(MC, 10/26/01)

1919        Oct 27, The Axeman of New Orleans claimed last victim.
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1919        Oct 28, Congress passed the National Prohibition Act, or Volstead Act, over President Wilson’s veto. It was named after its promoter, Congressman Andrew J. Volstead, and provided enforcement guidelines for the Prohibition Amendment which had been ratified January 29.
    (AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)

1919        Nov 7, US police raided offices of Union of Russian Workers.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1919        Nov 10, The American Legion held its first national convention, in Minneapolis.
    (AP, 11/10/97)
1919        Nov 10, Moise Tshombe was born. He became Pres. of Katanga and then premier of the Congo (Zaire).
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1919        Nov 11, The first 2-minutes’ silence was observed in Britain to commemorate those who died in the Great War.
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1919        Nov 14, Red Army captured Omsk, Siberia.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1919        Nov 15, The US Senate 1st invoked cloture to end a filibuster over the Versailles Treaty.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1919        Nov 17, Hershy Kay, composer and arranger, was born Philadelphia, Penn.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1919        Nov 18, H. Tierney's and J. McCarthy's musical "Irene," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1919        Nov 19, The US Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles by a vote of 55 in favor to 39 against, short of the two-thirds majority needed for ratification.
    (AP, 11/19/97)
1919        Nov 19, Gillo Pontecorvo (d.2006) was born in Pisa, Italy. He one of 10 children of a wealthy Jewish industrialist and grew up to become a prominent film maker.
    (SFC, 10/14/06, p.B5)

1919        Nov 22, A Labor conference committee in the U.S. urged an eight hour work day and a 48-hour week.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1919        Nov 27, Bulgaria signed peace treaty with Allies at Neuilly, France, fixing war reparations and recognizing Yugoslavian independence.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1919        Nov 28, American-born Lady Astor was elected the first female member of the British Parliament.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)(HN, 11/28/98)

1919        Nov 30, Women cast votes for the first time in French legislative elections.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1919        Nov, Attorney Gen'l. A. Mitchell Palmer ordered anti-Communist raids supported by his assistant J. Edgar Hoover. The Palmer raids led to the arrest of over 450 members of the Union of Russian Workers. [see Jan. 1920]
    (SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M6)
1919        Nov, A group of officers of the American Brigade, 112th United Stated Infantry, left the United States and arrived in Kaunas on December 31. They had had to sail from Quebec because of a steamship strike in New York. They visited Lithuanian Minister Count A. Tyszkiewicz in London, where they first heard of the Lithuanian victory at Šiauliai over Bermondt. Approximately 10,000 enlisted men were ready to go to Lithuania. The US government would not allow direct transportation so arrangements were made for them to be taken to Canada as laborers. From there they were to sail to Riga. The expedition was financed by the Lithuanians, with some assurance that there would be unpublicized indirect support from the US government.
    (www.arlingtoncemetery.net/sjharris.htm)

1919        Dec 1, AA Milne's "Mr. Pim Passes By," premiered in Manchester.
    (MC, 12/1/01)
1919        Dec 1, Lady Astor was sworn in as the first female member of the British Parliament.
    (AP, 12/1/00)

1919        Dec 2, Henry Clay Frick (b.1849), coal and steel magnate, died in NYC. He partnered with Andrew Carnegie and built of the largest coke & steel operation of the time. In 1998 Martha Frick and Symington Sanger authored “Henry Clay Frick.” In 2005 Les Standiford authored “Meet You In Hell,” an account of the rivalry between Frick and Andrew Carnegie.
    (www.netstate.com/states/peop/people/pa_hcf.htm)(WSJ, 7/29/05, p.W8)(WSJ, 8/4/07, p.P9)

1919        Dec 3, Pierre A. Renoir (78), French painter and sculptor, died.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1919        Dec 8-31, The first round trip transcontinental flight was made from NYC to SF and back.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.4)

1919        Dec 10, Captain Ross Smith became the first person to fly 11,500 miles from England to Australia.
    (HN, 12/10/98)

1919        Dec 15, In Cairo, Egypt, medical student Iryan Yusuf threw a bomb at the car of the prime minister as he arrived at the Café Riche. The PM  survived the attack.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.85)

1919        Dec 18, Horatio William Parker (56), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/18/01)
1919        Dec 18, British pilot John William Alcock (b.1892), enroute to a Pris air show, was killed while making a forced landing in fog near Rouen. He and navigator Arthur Witten Brown (1886-1948) had recently completed the world’s first nonstop transatlantic flight [see June 14].
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Whitten_Brown)(ON, 4/09, p.1)

1919        Dec 19, The Thimble Theatre cartoon strip, by Elzie Segar (1894-1938) of Chesater, Ill., made its debut in the New York Journal and featured the characters Olive Oyl, Castor Oyl, and Ham Gravy, who were the comic's leads for about a decade. Segar added Popeye in 1929.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E.C._Segar)
1919        Dec 19, American Meteorological Society was founded.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1919        Dec 20, US House of Representatives restricted immigration.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1919        Dec 21, J. Edgar Hoover gallantly deported anarchist, feminist Emma Goldman to Russia for agitating against forced conscription in the US.
    (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(MC, 12/21/01)

1919        Dec 23, The 1st hospital ship built to move wounded naval personnel was launched.
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1919        Dec 23, Alice H. Parker patented a gas heating furnace.
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1919        Dec 23, Britain instituted a new constitution for India.
    (HN, 12/23/98)

1919        Dec 24, Luisa Tetrazzini sang for 100,000 people in front of Lotta's Fountain on Christmas Eve. Some signal this as the culminating of San Francisco's reconstruction. It was an unusually comfortable winter evenings and the message to the world reinforced the image of wonderful weather in San Francisco, even in winter.
    (SFC, 12/25, 1910)

1919        Ahmed Ben Bella, Algerian statesman, was born. He served as premier from 1962-1965.
    (WUD, 1994 p.137)

1919        Iris Murdoch, philosopher-novelist, was born in Dublin. She wrote some 26 novels and in 1998 published "Existentialists and Mystics," a collection of writings from 1950 to the 1980s. Herein she tries to "recover the moral dimension of art."
    (WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)

1919        Gaston Lachaise (1882-1935), Franco-American sculptor, created his work "Dancing Nude."
    (SFC, 2/2/02, p.D1)

c1919        Childe Hassam, American impressionist, painted "California."
    (WSJ, 6/2/00, p.W4)

1919        Otto Dix created his work "Ich bin das A und das O."
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, BR p.7)

1919        Amedeo Modigliani painted another portrait of his mistress Jeanne Hebuterne. She was believed to be pregnant in this portrait.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)

1919        Sherwood Anderson published his linked short story collection "Winesburg, Ohio.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, BR p.1)

1919        Albert Beveridge wrote a biography of former chief justice John Marshall.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A20)

1919        Christine Frederick authored “Household Engineering: Scientific Management in the Home,” in which she borrowed the principle of efficiency on the factory floor and applied it to domestic tasks in the American kitchen.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.126)

1919        Hermann Hesse published his first real literary success, "Demian," The novel about a young, troubled adolescent’s conflict to achieve self-awareness, was symbolized by the duality between his dream character Demian and his real-life counterpart, Sinclair.
    (iUniv. 7/2/00)

1919        Somerset Maugham (d.1965), author “The Moon and Sixpence,” a novel whose main character is based on Paul Gauguin.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.75)

1919        John Reed and Bertram Wolfe (d.1977 at 81) wrote a manifesto that resulted in the formation of the American Communist Party.
    (SFC, 1/17/00, p.C2)

1919        George Bernard Shaw wrote his play "Heartbreak House."
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.7)

1919        W.B. Yeats wrote his poem "The Second Coming."
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)

1919        P.G. Wodehouse wrote his novel "Damsel in Distress." It was dramatized in 1928 and scored for film by George and Ira Gershwin in 1937.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

1919        Movie audiences were introduced to Felix the Cat. Otto Messmer created Felix for an animation studio owned by Pat Sullivan, who licensed the character. A. Schoenhut & Co. of Philadelphia (f.1872) began marketing Felix toys in the 1920s.
    (SFC, 8/31/05, p.G3)

1919        "La Lucille" by George Gershwin, was his first Broadway play. Gershwin’s song "Swanee" was performed by Al Jolson and Jolson’s recording in 1920 was a megahit.
    (SFC, 3/9/98, p.C2)(SFEC, 8/16/98, DB p.37)(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)

c1919        George Gershwin composed "O Land of Mine" for chorus and orchestra.
    (WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)

1919        Richard Strauss composed his opera "Die Frau Ohne Schatten" (The Woman Without a Shadow).
    (WSJ, 12/26/01, p.A8)

1919        Louis Armstrong joined the Fate Marable band on a riverboat. His finest recordings include "West End Blues" and "Potato Head Blues."
    (WSJ, 1/3/95, p. 8)(WSJ, 6/03/97, p.A20)

1919        Albert Einstein divorced Mileva Maric and married his cousin and mistress Elsa Einstein Lowenthal.
    (SFC, 11/26/96, p.A7)

1919        Edgar Allen 1862-1937), Ohio businessman, founded the National Society for Crippled Children. In 1934 the organization launched its first Easter Seal fundraising campaign. In 1952 it incorporated the lily flower as its symbol. In 1967 the organization adopted Easter Seals as ifs formal name.
    (www.extramile.us/honorees/allen.cfm)

1919        James Henry Breasted (1865-1935), archeologist, founded the Oriental Institute as part of the Univ. of Chicago. The collection was opened to the public in 1931.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oriental_Institute,_Chicago)(WSJ, 9/9/99, p.A25)(AM, 7/05, p.56)

1919        Draugas , a Lithuanian newspaper, began daily publication. It was published by the congregation of Lithuanian Marion fathers in Chicago.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)

1919        In southern California the Sunkist packing warehouse was built in Anaheim. In 2014 the Mission Revival building was transformed into a food hall with more than 20 food purveyors.
    (SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P6)
1919        Musso & Frank’s Restaurant opened and is now Hollywood’s oldest surviving eatery.
    (Hem., Nov. ‘95, p.76)
1919        The Hoover Institute on War, Revolution and Peace was founded at Stanford to track the growth of Soviet-style communism.
    (SFC, 11/27/01, p.A20)
1919        In San Francisco the Tosca Café opened on Columbus Avenue in North Beach.
    (SFC, 11/19/09, p.A1)

1919        James Henry Breasted founded the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.74)

1919        The Huntington Library, founded by H.E. Huntington, a nephew of Southern Pacific co-founder Collis P. Huntington, was donated to the public.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)

1919        Cornelius Vander Starr (1892-1968) founded "American Asiatic Underwriters" (later known as AIG) in Shanghai. AIG left China in early 1949 as Mao Zedong led the advance of the Communist People's Liberation Army. Starr moved the company headquarters to NYC.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornelius_Vander_Starr)(Econ, 7/23/11, p.69)

1919        Carl Linder won the Boston Marathon. He was rejected for military service due to flat feet.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, Z1 p.2)

1919        US Pres. Woodrow Wilson won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 10/9/09)

1919        The League of Nations was proposed by Woodrow Wilson.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.318)

1919        The Paris Peace Conference upheld the sovereignty of Albania with the efforts of Amer. Pres. Woodrow Wilson.
    (Compuserve Online, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)

1919        The US Congress renamed Sieur de Monts National Monument to Lafayette National Park.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.T6)

1919        The first Hawaiian statehood bill was introduced. Congressional reluctance to Hawaii’s admission was based on concern about admitting a noncontiguous state, fears of excessive Communist influence among unionized workers and Southern concerns about the admission of pro-civil rights congressmen. Hawaii’s popularly elected territorial legislature first petitioned to become a state in 1903.
    (HNQ, 2/23/02)

1919        In Dodge v. Ford the Michigan Supreme Court held that Henry Ford owed a duty to the shareholders of the Ford Motor Company to operate his business for profitable purposes as opposed to charitable purposes.
    (WSJ, 1/14/08, p.R2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dodge_v._Ford_Motor_Company)
1919        Henry Ford sued the Chicago Tribune for libel after the newspaper called him an "ignorant" anarchist. Ford won the suit and was awarded 6 cents. He soon began amassing material of historical value.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.A7)
1918        Highland Park seceded from Detroit, Mi. The village of Highland Park was incorporated as a city to protect its tax base, including its successful Ford plant, from Detroit's expanding boundaries.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Highland_Park,_Michigan)

1919        Texas Rep. Jose T. Canales pushed through legislation to reform the Texas Rangers following reports that the Rangers had killed some 5,000 Hispanics over the previous 5 years.
    (SFC, 4/12/04, p.E8)

1919        The U.S.S. Texas was sunk at Pocomoke Sound just south of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay by well-placed Navy bombs.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.365)

1919        Charles Ponzi of Boston hatched a scheme that defrauded thousands of investors in a postal-coupon scam in the 1920s. He bilked investors in a scheme of high return similar to the "520% Miller" con of 1899. He was convicted and spent 13 years in prison and was deported to Italy in 1934.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 7/23/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 7/10/02, p.A8)(SSFC, 7/14/02, p.G2)

1919        A.P. Giannini of SF formed the East National Bank in NYC.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.B1)

1919        The Bank of North Dakota was founded in Bismarck to lend money to farmers. As a state owned bank the states Legislature had the authority to tap the bank’s profit to fund government programs during tough times.
    (SFC, 12/18/11, p.D2)

1919        Atlanta banker Ernest Woodruff took Coca Cola public.
    (SFC, 4/3/00, p.E1)

c1919        American Spirits Manufacturing Co. in order to cope with prohibition, became US Food Products Corp.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1919        Chalk’s Ocean Airways was founded to fly tourists and fisherman from Florida to the Bahamas.
    (SFC, 12/20/05, p.A4)

1919        Pierre DuPont gave the presidency of the company over to his brother Irenee so as to assume the leadership over GM which they controlled from stock purchases with war profits.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)
1919        General Motors established General Motors Acceptance Corp. (GMAC) to handle loans for its sales. In 2006 Cerberus Capital Management moved to acquire a 51% controlling stake.
    (WSJ, 4/4/06, p.A1)

1919        General Electric joined with other technology businesses and formed the Radio Corp. of America, which took over the assets of Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1919        Henry Ford bought out all nonfamily stockholders. Edsel B. Ford became president of the company.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1919        Halliburton Corp. was founded and focused primarily on business-to-business relationships. In 2003 it had some 100,000 employees.
    (WSJ, 10/17/03, p.A10)

1919        Reynolds Aluminum started out as the US Foil Co. to furnish tinfoil for wrapping cigarette packs.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, Z1 p.8)

1919        United Artists was founded as a film distributor and later a financial backer by silent film stars Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks Sr., Charlie Chaplin and director D.W. Griffith. Pickford and Fairbanks were married for a time. Her life is documented in the 1997 book: "Pickford: The Woman Who Made Hollywood" by Eileen Whitfield.
    (SFC, 7/11/97, p.E2)(SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.E6)

1919        The 1st rotary-dial telephones were installed in Norfolk, Va.
    (SFC, 7/23/04, p.C1)

1919        Air pioneers flew in the Great London to Australia Air Derby of this year. Six planes competed with 14 contestants. Four died in crashes, two were arrested in Yugoslavia for spying, and two others were forced down in Iraq and had to fend off local tribesmen with hand grenades.
    (NG, 5/95, p.10)

1919        The first west-bound transatlantic flight was made by a British airship.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.108)

1919        Ernest Rutherford announced that he had succeeded in breaking up the nucleus of a nitrogen atom by bombarding it with high-energy alpha particles from a radioactive source.
    (SCTS, p.122)

1919        Joseph Larmor (1857-1942), Irish mathematician, proposed that the Earth’s magnetic field was generated spontaneously by the swirling of molten metal inside the planet.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.81)

1919        The Winnetka Plan was a widely-imitated approach to elementary education developed in Winnetka, Illinois. The curriculum, which emphasized individualized learning, was divided into two sections: common essentials and creative activities. In the common essentials section, the pupil was able to advance upon mastering the material. In the creative section, which included music, art, and physical activities, pupils could learn as much or as little as they wanted.
    (HNQ, 12/7/00)

1919        US Sen. Peter Norbeck founded the 73,000 acre Custer State Park, 20 miles south of Keystone, South Dakota.
    (SSFC, 8/4/02, p.C11)

1919        Arthur Eddington, a British astronomer, mounted an expedition to Sobral, Brazil, to watch an eclipse and gather data to verify Einstein's theory of relativity. Though his results were ambiguous he claimed triumph. In 1980 Harry Colling and Trevor Pinch published "The Golem," an account of the expedition.
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A18)

1919        Frank Woolworth, founder of the 5&10 cent retail chain, died. His chain was renamed in 1998 to Venator Corp., a name that means sportsman in Latin.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.B2)(SFC, 4/3/98, p.E1)

1919        The Int’l. Labor Organization (ILO) was founded in the wake of WWI, to pursue a vision based on the premise that universal, lasting peace can be established only if it is based on social justice. The ILO became the first specialized agency of the UN in 1946.
    {Labor, UN}
    (http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/lang--en/index.htm)

1919        The first museum in Afghanistan was instituted at Baghe Bala.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)
1919        Afghanistan was recognized as a sovereign nation.
    (WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A1)
1919        The Emir of Afghanistan declared jihad against Britain’s forces in the North-West Frontier Province. In response Britain shipped a single Handley Page biplane bomber to Karachi. It flew over Kabul and dropped four 20-pound bombs. The emir sued for peace shortly thereafter.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.20)
1919        In Afghanistan Habibullah was assassinated, and succeeded by his son Amanullah (The reform King).
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1919        "Economic Development of the Argentine Republic in the Past 50 Years" was published by Banco Tornquist.
    (WSJ, 2/28/97, p.A15)

1919        Austria enacted laws that barred the Habsburgs from public office and resulted in the confiscation of their property.
    (WSJ, 12/8/97, p.A13)
1919        Austria was obliged to pay reparations to countries ravaged by WW I fighting.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.97)

1919        Bahraini merchants opened the region’s first modern school on the island state.
    (NG, 5/88, p.663)

1919        The Belgian government collected about 330 US tons of German shells and buried them near Poelkapelle under a layer of concrete. Cleaning of the site began in 2006.
    (WSJ, 5/24/06, p.A12)

1919        General Electric Corp. entered the emerging market of Brazil.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.9)

1919        Britain’s export-credit agency was established as part of an effort to improve the Britain’s balance of payments and thus return to the gold standard.
    (Econ, 7/5/14, p.63)
1919        Britain gave power over libraries to its counties.
    (Econ, 5/1/04, p.59)

1919        In China Shougang Group steel mill was founded on the outskirts of Beijing. It was nationalized after the communist takeover in 1949. In 2008 the main plant was closed in an effort to improve air quality for the Olympics.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.6)

1919        The borders of Czechoslovakia were set up by the Versailles Treaty and incorporated 3 million Germans. Most of the Germans lived along the Czech-German border known as the Sudetenland.
    (SFC,1/22/97, p.A8)
1919        The Ditmar Urbach pottery factory was founded in Czechoslovakia with the merger of Urbach Brothers and Rudolph Ditmar’s Heirs.
    (SFC, 2/14/07, p.G3)

1919        In Egypt the Wafd Party was founded as a nationalist party to create secular Muslim-Christian unity in the face of British imperialism. It was instrumental in the development of the 1923 constitution, and supported moving Egypt from dynastic rule to a constitutional monarchy.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.54)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wafd_Party)

1919        Estonia established the kroon as its currency. It continued until Soviet occupation in 1940 and was restored following independence in 1992.
    (Econ, 1/1/11, p.44)

1919        In Finland the Helsinki Central Station, designed by Eliel Saarinen, was completed.
    (SSFC, 6/3/12, p.H4)

1919        Walter Gropius co-founded the Bauhaus in Germany. Two existing schools in Weimar were combined into a single institution. The new school, "the house of building," also combined two important trends in art education: artistic training and arts and crafts. Henry van de Velde was one of the founders. Gropius served as the founding director until 1927.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.363)(SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.104)
1919        Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) opened his 1st private school for the workers at the Waldorf-Astoria cigarette factory in Germany.
    (SFC, 10/29/00, p.A7)
1919        Gdansk was separated from the Deutsches Reich as a free state with a high commissioner of the League of Nations.
    (NG, 5.1988, Mem Forum)
1919        At the end of WW I the German High Seas Fleet was interred at Scapa Flow in the Orkneys. During armistice discussions the German commander gave orders to scuttle the ships.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.49)

1919        In Greece the hotel Capsis Bristol was built in Thessaloniki.
    (WSJ, 9/26/08, p.A20)

1919        In Hong Kong Hueng Chin, father of filmmaker Charles Hueng, founded the Sun Yee On triad, a secret criminal society.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.A7)

1919        Gillette Co. opened a sales office in Calcutta, India. Razor blades were sold from a plant in London.
    (WSJ, 3/13/97, p.A1)

1919        Japan’s Mitsubishi Bank was founded. In 1996 it joined with the Bank of Tokyo and in 2005 became part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.
    (WSJ, 9/23/08, p.C1)
1919        The Japanese firm Olympus was founded as a microscope maker.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.78)

c1919        Jose Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros (d.1974) and Diego Rivera, Mexican painters in Paris, decided that the revolution must be expressed in a public art that all could understand.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T5)

1919        Bennett Young, leader of the 1863 Confederate raid on St. Albans, Vermont, died in Louisville following a law career.
    (ON, 11/99, p.12)

1919        This year marked the birth of Palestinian - Arab nationalism. The events are documented in the 1996 book "Jerusalem in the 20th Century by Martin Gilbert."
    (WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)

1919        In France at the Folies Bergere women performed totally nude on stage for the first time in the modern Western World.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)

1919        In Russia the Bolsheviks began repressions and millions of Cossacks died. Their institutions were destroyed and many fled the country.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1919        Lenin created the Comintern to supervise the int'l. revolutionary movement.
    (WSJ, 6/6/03, p.W9)

1919         Serbs attacked Albanian cities; Albanians adopted guerilla warfare. Albania was denied official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British, French and Greek negotiators decided to divide Albania among Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia. This decision was vetoed by American president Wilson.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1919        The Swiss-based Nestle company exhausted its local supply of milk and began opening factories in Australia, England, Germany and Norway.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.81)

1919        In central Uganda Semei Kakungule, chief of the Abayudaya, converted to Judaism after the British broke a promise to give him a kingdom. By 1961 membership reached 3,000. In 1972 Idi Amin banned Judaism. Membership in 2004 was about 600.
    (Econ, 1/24/04, p.43)

1919        Jimmy Winkfield (1882-1974), former US Kentucky Derby winner, helped lead 262 horses from the Odessa (Ukraine) race track to Warsaw, Poland, in a 3-month journey in front of the advancing Red Army.
    (SSFC, 5/7/06, p.P8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Winkfield)

1919        The Dalat Palace was built in Dalat, Vietnam. Restoration of the hotel began in 1991 under Larry Hillblom (d.1995), co-founder of DHL, an express-delivery company.
    (WSJ, 1/3/06, p.A14)

1919-1920    Hanna Hoch (1889-1978), photomontage artist of the Berlin Dada movement made her work "Cut With the Kitchen Knife Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Epoch of Germany."
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)
1919-1920    Charles Ponzi of Boston bilked investors in a scheme of high return similar to the "520% Miller" con of 1899.
    (WSJ, 7/23/99, p.A14)

1919-1921    The 3rd Anglo-Afghan war began. The British were defeated, and Afghanistan gained full control of her foreign affairs.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1919-1922    The Greco-Turkish war. After the war ethnic Greeks were forced to leave Turkey and ethnic Turks were forced to leave Greece.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.28)

1919-1933    This is the period of the Weimar Republic, Germany’s 1st democratic government. In 2007 Eric D. Weitz authored “Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy.”
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.100)

1919-1939    Vincent Cronin writes a description of Paris, France, in 1995 that cover this period in his book: Paris: City of Light, 1919-1939. The book concentrates on the artists, thinkers, writers and politicians of this time and place. [see 1900-1914]
    (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)

1919-1965    Nat King Cole, popular singer, began his career as a pianist in a jazz combo. He established int’l. fame as a singer of ballads. His biography was made into a TV feature shown in 1998.
    (SFC, 2/2/98, p.D7)

1919-1980    Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, later shah of Iran.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.311)

1919-1990     Malcolm Forbes, American publisher: "When in doubt, duck."
    (AP, 5/5/97)

1919-1990     Laurence J. Peter, Canadian-born educator and author of "The Peter Principle" Thought for Today: "A pessimist is a man who looks both ways when he’s crossing a one-way street."
    (AP, 8/11/97)

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