Return to home1918 Jan 1,
The first gasoline pipeline began operation with 40 miles of three
inch pipe from Salt Creek to Casper, Wyoming.
1918 Jan 1, Canada’s Unionist
government began to enforce the Military Service Act.
1918 Jan 2, Bolsheviks talked
about resuming war unless the Germans quit Russian soil.
1918 Jan 3, Maxene Andrews, was
born. She was a singer [w/sisters LaVerne and Patti]: group: The
Andrews Sisters: Why Talk About Love?, A Simple Melody, Bei Mir Bist
Du Schön, Rum and Coca Cola; solo: I Suppose; on Broadway with
Patti: Over Here.
(440 Int'l. 1/3/99)
1918 Jan 6, Germany
acknowledged Finland’s independence.
1918 Jan 6, George Cantor
(b.1845), Russian-born German mathematician, died. He is best known
as the creator of modern set theory and work with mathematical
1918 Jan 7, The Germans moved
75,000 troops from the East Front to the Western Front.
1918 Jan 8, President Woodrow
Wilson addressed a hastily convened joint session of Congress,
publicly stating the Fourteen Points--his idealistic plan for a
world forever free from conflict. Most of Wilson's Fourteen Points
addressed specific European territorial concerns, but he also called
for fair and generous treatment of Germany, absolute freedom of the
seas, national boundaries determined on the basis of language, and
the establishment of a general assembly of nations. When World War I
ended in November 1918, Wilson personally attended the peace
negotiations, believing that with his guidance, "peace without
victory" was possible and a new world order was at hand. What he had
not counted on was the bitterness and cynicism of his allies, who
had lost much. As the negotiations progressed, more and more of the
Fourteen Points were sacrificed to vengeance and a grab for land.
The German magazine Simplicissimus remarked on Wilson's betrayal of
his principles in June 1919 with God asking, "Woodrow Wilson, where
are your 14 Points?" Wilson responds, "Don't get excited, Lord, we
didn't keep your Ten Commandments either!"
(AP, 1/8/98)(HNPD, 1/7/99)
1918 Jan 8, Mississippi became
the first state to ratify the proposed 18th amendment to the US
Constitution, which established Prohibition.
1918 Jan 10, The US House of
Representatives passed women's suffrage. The 19th Amendment for
women's suffrage was also known as the Anthony Amendment in honor of
Susan B. Anthony.
(HN, 1/10/99)(SFC, 10/11/99, p.E12)
1918 Jan 15, Gamal Abdel
Nasser, President of Egypt (1954-1971), was born.
1918 Jan 19, The Latvian
rifleman 6th Tukums regiment, sent to defend the Bolshevik
headquarters in Smolny institute in St. Petersburg, took part in
disbanding Russia’s Constituent Assembly.
1918 Jan 24, Oral Roberts,
Televangelist, founder Oral Roberts University, was born.
1918 Jan 25, Austria and
Germany rejected U.S. peace proposals.
1918 Jan 26, Nicolae Ceausescu,
Romanian president (1967-90), was born.
1918 Jan 27, "Tarzan of the
Apes," 1st Tarzan film, premiered at Broadway Theater. Elmo Lincoln,
renamed from Otto Elmo Linkenhelter by D.W. Griffiths, was the first
Tarzan in the film "Tarzan of the Apes."
(SDUT, 6/6/97, p.E2)(MC, 1/27/02)
1918 Jan 27, Communists
attempted to seize power in Finland.
1918 Jan 28, Lieutenant Colonel
John McCrae (b.1872), Canadian MD and author of the poem Flanders
Field (1915), died.
1918 Jan 28, Leon Trotsky
became leader of the Russian Communists.
1918 Jan 29, John Forsythe
(d.2010), actor (Bachelor Father, Charlie's Angels, Dynasty), was
born in NJ.
(SFC, 4/3/10, p.C2)
1918 Jan 29, The Supreme Allied
Council met at Versailles.
1918 Jan 31, Russia joined the
rest of the world and adopted the Gregorian calendar. The next day
became February 14, 1918.
1918 Feb 2, John L. Sullivan
(59), American former heavyweight boxing champ, died.
(AH, 2/06, p.34)
1918 Feb 3, Joey Bishop,
[Gottlieb], talk show host (Joey Bishop Show), was born in the
1918 Feb 3, The $4.25 million,
12,000 foot Twin Peaks tunnel for the SF Muni Railway opened with
Mayor James Rolph at the helm of the first streetcar to go through
to West Portal. Access to the west of the mountain spawned the 1st
residential parks including West Portal Park, St. Francis Wood,
Balboa Terrace, and Forest Hill.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.4)(SFCM, 3/3/02, p.40)(SFC,
1918 Feb 5, The US steamship
Tuscania was torpedoed by German submarine U-77 and sank off the
coast of Ireland.
1918 Feb 5, The Soviets
proclaimed the separation of church and state.
1918 Feb 6, Britain’s
Representation of the People Act, aka the Fourth Reform Act, granted
working class men in the armed forces the right to vote. Female
property owners over age 30 were also granted the right to vote.
1918 Feb 6, Gustav Klimt
(b.1862), Austrian Symbolist artist, died. He helped found the
Vienna Secessionist art movement (1897) and was chosen as its 1st
1918 Feb 7, Singapore
businessman Ong Sam Leong (b.1857) died. He made a fortune out of
his monopoly on the supply of coolie labor from China to phosphate
mines on Christmas Island.
Feb 8, The World War I first edition of The Stars and Stripes, the
weekly newspaper of the American Expeditionary Forces, was published
in Paris, France. It was produced weekly by an all-military staff to
serve the doughboys under General of the Armies John J. "Black Jack"
Pershing. Some of its staff went on to journalistic fame, including
Pvt. Harold Ross, who later became the founder and editor of The New
Yorker magazine, and sports writer Lt. Grantland Rice. The first
paper called The Stars and Stripes was a product of the Civil War,
put out by four Union soldiers in 1861. Using the facilities of a
captured newspaper plant in Bloomfield, Missouri, they ran off a
one-page paper that made just one appearance.
1918 Feb 9, Army chaplain
school organized at Ft. Monroe, Va.
1918 Feb 12, Dominic DiMaggio,
baseball outfielder (Boston Red Sox), was born.
1918 Feb 14, Sigmund Romberg's
musical "Sinbad," premiered in NYC.
1918 Feb 14, Warsaw
demonstrators protested the transfer of Polish territory to the
1918 Feb 15, The 1st WW I US
army troopship was torpedoed & sunk off Ireland by Germany.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1918 Feb 15, Estonia, Latvia
& Lithuania adopted the Gregorian calendar.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1918 Feb 16, The Council of
Lithuania declared the independence of the State of Lithuania. The
council also declared that the foundations of the state would be
determined by a Constituent Assembly to be elected by the
inhabitants on the basis of universal, equal and secret suffrage.
Independence lasted until World War II. It again declared
independence in 1990.
(DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LHC, 2/16/03)(AP, 2/16/07)
1918 Feb 20, The Soviet Red
Army seized Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine.
1918 Feb 22, Germany claimed
the Baltic states, Finland and Ukraine from Russia.
1918 Feb 24, Estonia declared
independence from Russia.
1918 Feb 26, Theodore
[Hamilton] Sturgeon, US sci-fi author (Starshine, A Way Home, Hugo,
Caviar), was born.
1918 Feb 26, Stands at the Hong
Kong Jockey Club collapsed and burned, killing 604.
1918 Feb, Montana’s Legislature
passed a sedition law which led to the conviction 79 citizens under
Gov. Sam Stewart. In 2005 Clemens Work authored “Darkness Before
Dawn: Sedition and Free Speech in the American West." In 2006 Gov.
Brian Schweitzer posthumously pardoned 75 men and 3 women. One man
was pardoned shortly after the war.
(SFC, 5/3/06, p.A3)
1918 Mar 2, Hubert Bancroft
(b.1832) San Francisco-based historian and ethnologist, died in SF.
His work included compiling and editing a 39-volume chronicle that
traced the saga of the Pacific Coast from the Spanish conquistadors
to the Gold Rush. The Bancroft Library at UC Berkeley was named in
his honor after UC purchased his book collection in 1905. In 2014
his great-great granddaughter reduced and published his 800-page
autobiography as a 225-page book.
1918 Mar 3, Arthur Kornberg,
Nobel Prize-winning biochemist (1959), was born.
(HN, 3/3/01)(SC, 3/3/02)
1918 Mar 3, Germany and
Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which
called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk,
which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by
the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of
(AP, 3/3/98)(HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)
1918 Mar 3, Richard Göring's
"Seeschlacht" premiered in Berlin.
1918 Mar 4, Terek Autonomous
Republic was established in RSFSR (until 1921).
1918 Mar 5, The Soviets moved
the capital of Russia from Petrograd to Moscow.
1918 Mar 6, US naval boat
"Cyclops" disappeared in "Bermuda Triangle."
1918 Mar 7, Pres. Wilson
authorized US Army's Distinguished Service Medal.
1918 Mar 7, Finland signed an
alliance treaty with Germany.
1918 Mar 9, Frank Morrison
Spillane (d.2006), mystery writer [Mickey Spillane], was born in
Brooklyn. His Mike Hammer crime novels later sold over 200 million
copies. His books included “Kiss Me Deadly" and “The Erection Set."
(HN, 3/9/01)(SFC, 6/21/01, p.D5)(SFC, 7/18/06,
1918 Mar 9, Russian Bolshevik
Party became the Communist Party.
1918 Mar 10, Günther Rall,
German Luftwaffe ace in World War II, was born.
1918 Mar 12, Vladimir I. Lenin
published his reasons for moving the capital from St. Petersburg to
(WSJ, 9/20/04, p.A20)
1918 Mar 13, Women were
scheduled to march in the St. Patrick’s Day Parade in New York due
to a shortage of men.
1918 Mar 14, An all-Russian
Congress of Soviets ratified a peace treaty with the Central Powers.
1918 Mar 15, Richard Ellmann,
US literary scholar, writer (Oscar Wilde), was born.
1918 Mar 19, US Congress
authorized time zones and approved Daylight Saving Time.
3/27/05, Par p.15)
1918 Mar 20, The Bolsheviks
asked for American aid to rebuild their army.
1918 Mar 21, Howard Cosell,
sportscaster (Monday Night Football), was born in Winston-Salem, NC.
1918 Mar 21, During World War
I, Germany launched the Somme 'Michael' Offensive in France, hoping
to break through the Allied line before American reinforcements
could arrive. It is better remembered as the First Battle of the
(WUD, 1994, p.1356)(AP, 3/21/97)(HN, 3/21/99)
1918 Mar 22, Ukrainian mobs
massacred the Jews of Seredino Buda.
1918 Mar 23, Alick Wickham dove
200' into Australia's Yarra River.
1918 Mar 23,
Crépy-en-Laonnoise: German artillery shelled Paris France and 256
were killed. The Paris bombs were named "Thick Bertha's Dike"
(nickname for the widow Krupp).
1918 Mar 23, Germany became the
1st country to recognize the independence of Lithuania. This was
based on the Lithuanian legislative act of Dec 11, 1917.
1918 Mar 25, Belarus declared
1918 Mar 25, Claude Debussy
(55), French composer, died in Paris. In 1962 Edward Lockspeiser
authored “Debussy," a look at how the composer shaped the work of
(AP, 3/25/97)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)
1918 Mar 26, On the Western
Front during World War I the Germans took the French towns Noyon,
Roye and Lihons.
1918 Mar 26, Col. Raynal
Bolling (b.1877), architect of American air power in WWI and
resident of Greenwich, Connecticut, was shot dead by a German patrol
1918 Mar 29, Pearl Bailey
(d.1990), singer and actress, was born. "There is a way to look at
the past. Don’t hide from it. It will not catch you if you don’t
repeat it." "A man without ambition is dead. A man with ambition but
no love is dead. A man with ambition and love for his blessings here
on earth is ever so alive."
(AP, 6/24/97)(AP, 6/12/98)(HN,
1918 Mar 31, Daylight Savings
Time went into effect throughout the U.S. for the first time.
1918 Mar, A flu epidemic began
at Fort Riley, Kansas, where 48 men died. It was carried by recruits
to Europe where it mutated and returned with a vengeance. [see May,
1918] The Spanish flu was later found to have been caused by a
genetic fusion of pig and human viruses. In 1997 Dr. Johan Hultin
recovered tissue in Brevig Mission, Alaska, with frozen virus and
submitted it for gene sequencing. In 2004 John M. Barry authored
"The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in
(WSJ, 2/9/98, p.A16)(HNPD, 7/21/98)(SFC, 2/26/01,
p.A9)(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A1)(SFCM, 2/17/02, p.8)(SSFC, 2/29/04, p.M1)
1918 Mar-Jul 1919, The art
collection of Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas, more than 500 paintings
and 5,000 prints, was auctioned off in Paris.
(WSJ, 10/21/97, p.A20)
1918 Apr 1, In England the
Royal Flying Corps was replaced by the Royal Air Force.
(AP, 4/1/98)(HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)
1918 Apr 1, Isaac Rosenberg
(b.1890), British WWI war poet, died near Arras, France, during
Ludendorff’s big spring offensive. In 2008 Jean Moorcroft Wilson
authored “Isaac Rosenberg: The Making of a Great War Poet."
(WSJ, 4/3/09, p.W6)
1918 Apr 3, Sixten Ehrling,
conductor (Royal Opera of Stockholm), was born in Malmo, Sweden.
1918 Apr 3, French Gen.
Ferdinand Foch (1851-1929) was named the supreme commander of the
1918 Apr 4, Battle of Somme
[France], an offensive by the British against the German Army ended.
1918 Apr 8, The US First Aero
Squadron was assigned to the Western Front for the first time on
1918 Apr 13, Electrical fire
killed 38 mental patients at Oklahoma State Hospital.
1918 Apr 13, The Soviet Wartime
and people’s commissariat issued an order to form Latvian Soviet
rifleman division. The commander in charge was Jukums Vacietis. It
was one of the first divisions in the Red Army.
1918 Apr 15, Clemenceau
published secret French-Austrian documents.
1918 Apr 17, William Holden,
Ill, actor (Stalag 17, Bridge Over River Kwai, SOB), was born.
1918 Apr 18, Clifton Keith
Hillegass, founder of the study guides known as Cliff's Notes, was
1918 Apr 21, Baron Manfred von
Richthofen (25), the cousin of Frieda Lawrence and the
highest-scoring German ace of World War I with 80 victories, was
killed in a dogfight over France's Somme Valley over Amiens. As he
pursued a Canadian pilot with jammed guns, von Richthofen, flying a
red Fokker triplane, broke one of his own flying rules by following
his prey too long, too far and too low. Two miles behind Allied
lines, Richthofen was mortally wounded when he was fired upon
simultaneously by another Canadian pilot and Australian ground
troops. The following day, the Red Baron was buried by his enemies
with full military honors. He was replaced with Hermann Goering.
(WSJ, 5/15/95, p. A-16)(AP, 4/21/97)(HNPD,
1918 Apr 22, Robert Wadlow
Alton, world’s tallest man (8’11.1"), was born.
1918 Apr 22, British naval
forces attempted to sink block-ships in the German U-boat bases at
the Battle of Zeeburgge.
1918 Apr 25, Ella Fitzgerald
(d.1996), jazz singer, was born. She became known as the ‘First Lady
of Song.’ [see Apr 25, 1917]
(SFC, 6/16/96, p.A1)(SFC, 4/26/97, p.A5)
1918 Apr 25, Astrid Varnay,
soprano (Met Opera 1941-56), was born in Stockholm, Sweden.
1918 Apr 28, Gavrilo Princip
(22), Bosnian murderer of arch duke Ferdinand, died in prison of
1918 Apr 29, America's WWI Ace
of Aces, Eddie Rickenbacker, scored his first victory with the help
of Captain James Norman Hall. He eventually racked up 26 victories
before the end of the war.
1918 May 1, Jack Paar (d.2004),
later late-night TV talk show host, was born in Canton, Ohio.
1918 May 9, Mike Wallace,
newscaster (Biography, 60 Minutes), was born in Brookline, Mass.
1918 May 9, Orville Freeman,
(Gov-D-Minn.), Sec of Agriculture (1961-69), was born in
1918 May 10, The HMS Vindictive
was sunk to block the entrance of Ostend Harbor.
1918 May 11, Richard Feynman
(d.1988), theoretical physicist was born. His classic lectures were
published in 1995 in the book "Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of
Physics Explained by its most Brilliant Teacher" by Addison -Wesley
in 1995. In 1996 Feynman’s "Lost Lecture" was written by David L.
and Judith R. Goodstein. Feynman won a Nobel Prize in 1965.
(WSJ, 11/6/95, p. A-20)(HN, 5/11/02)(MC, 5/11/02)
1918 May 13, The first US
airmail stamps, featuring a picture of an airplane, were introduced.
On some of the initial stamps the airplane was printed upside down;
the "inverted Jenny," as it came to be called, became a collector's
item. One sheet of 100 stamps got by inspectors.
(SSFC, 11/12/06, p.A2)(AP, 5/13/08)
1918 May 14, Sunday baseball
became legal in Wash, DC.
1918 May 15, Joseph Wiseman,
actor (Dr No, Viva Zapata, Les Miserables), was born in Montreal.
1918 May 15, The U.S. Post
Office and the U.S. Army began regularly scheduled airmail service
between Washington and New York through Philadelphia. Lieutenant
George L. Boyle, an inexperienced young army pilot, was chosen to
make the first flight from Washington. Even with a route map
stitched to his breeches, Boyle lost his way and flew south rather
than north. The second leg of the Washington--Philadelphia--New York
flight, however, took off and arrived in New York on
schedule--without the Washington mail. The distance of the route was
218 miles, and one round trip per day was made six days a week. Army
Air Service pilots flew the route until August 10, 1918, when the
Post Office Department took over the entire operation with its own
planes and pilots.
(AP, 5/15/97)(HNPD, 6/15/99)(HNQ, 4/24/01)
1918 May 15, Pfc. Henry Johnson
and Pfc. Needham Roberts received the Croix de Guerre for their
services in World War I. They were the first Americans to win
France's highest military medal.
1918 May 17, Birgit Nilsson,
operatic soprano (Isolde, Turandot, Elektra, Salome), was born in
1918 May 17, British
authorities arrested Irish leader Eamon de Valera and other Sinn
Fein leaders on suspicion of conspiring with the Germans.
(ON, 9/04, p.5)
1918 May 18, A TNT explosion in
chemical factory in Oakdale, PA, killed 200.
1918 May 18, The Netherlands
Indian Volksraad was installed in Batavia.
1918 May 18, Toivo Kuula (34),
1918 May 19, Florence Chadwick,
the 1st to swim English Channel both ways, was born.
1918 May 20, The 1st
electrically propelled warship (New Mexico).
1918 May 24, Coleman A. Young,
civil rights leader (Mayor-D-Detroit), was born.
1918 May 25, Claude Akins
Nelson, actor (BJ & Bear, Movin' On, Lobo), was born in GA.
1918 May 27, Henry Adams
(b.1838), US historian, journalist and novelist, died. His books
included “The Education of Henry Adams" (1907) and
"Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres" (1918).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Brooks_Adams)(WSJ, 9/1/07, p.P9)
1918 May 28, Herb Shriner,
radio humorist, was born.
1918 May 28, Tatars declared
Azerbaijan, in Russian Caucasus, independent.
1918 May 28, The Battle of
Cantigny began during World War I as American troops captured the
French town from the Germans; the Americans were able to resist
German counterattacks in the days that followed.
1918 May 29, Herb Shriner,
humorist, TV host (Herb Shriner Show), was born.
1918 May 29, Isabel Dean,
actress (5 Days one Summer, Virgin Island, Ransom), was born in
1918 May, In the worst global
epidemic of the century, influenza (an acute, contagious respiratory
viral infection) had been spreading around the world since May.
Before it ended in 1919 it would kill 20 million people--about twice
as many as World War I. [see Mar, 1918]
1918 May, The German army
staged a surprise offensive and rolled into the Marne Valley through
the center of the French 6th Army. The Germans were held at bay by
some 9,000 US Marines of the 5th and 6th Regiments of the 4th
(SFC, 6/6/97, p.A26)
1918 Jun 3, The US Supreme
Court ruled child labor laws unconstitutional.
1918 Jun 3, The Finnish
Parliament ratified its treaty with Germany.
1918 Jun 4, French and American
troops halted Germany’s offensive at Chateau-Thierry, France.
1918 Jun 6, In France the US
Marines counter-attacked the Germans and pushed them back to the
woods at Bois de Belleau. U.S. Marines entered combat at the Battle
of Belleau Wood. 1st US victory of WW I.
(SFC, 6/6/97, p.A26)(HN, 6/6/01)(MC, 6/6/02)
1918 Jun 8, Robert Preston,
actor (The Music Man), was born.
1918 Jun 12, First airplane
bombing raid by an American unit occurred on World War I’s Western
Front in France.
1918 Jun 18, Allied forces on
the Western Front began their largest counter-attack against the
spent German army.
1918 Jun 26, After a brief
respite, the Germans began firing their huge 420 mm howitzer "Big
Bertha" at Paris. During World War I, Germany’s 98-ton howitzer used
to shell Verdun and Liege-Big Bertha-was named after the wife of
munitions maker Gustav Krupp. Bertha Krupp was actually the heir to
the Krupp family fortune when she married Prussian diplomat Gustav
von Bohlen und Halbach, who changed his name to Krupp and took over
the family firm, which was the world’s largest manufacturer of
munitions. Gustav Krupp went on to support Adolph Hitler and help
finance the Nazis.
(HN, 6/26/98)(HNQ, 8/28/98)
1918 Jun 27, Two German pilots
were saved by parachutes for the first time.
1918 Jun 28, The US Marines
took the Bois de Belleau.
(SFC, 6/6/97, p.A26)
1918 Jun, Bethlehem Steel
director Charles Schwab was featured on the cover of the 1st issue
of the Bethlehem Star, an employee newsletter.
(SSFC, 7/3/05, p.F2)
1918 Jun, The Ottomans became
the first to recognize the first and short-lived Republic of
(Econ., 4/18/15, p.76)
1918 Jul 2, Robert Sarnoff was
born. He later became president of the National Broadcasting Company
(NBC) and converted the network to the first all-color television
1918 Jul 3, The Migratory Bird
Treaty Act, the oldest US environmental conservation law, prohibited
killing or harassing birds migrating across international borders.
4/9/99, p.A5)(SFC, 10/23/02, p.A4)
1918 Jul 3, Ottoman Sultan
Mehmet Resad died and Vahdettin (1861-1926) became the new Sultan.
1918 Jul 4, Ann Landers and
Abigail Van Buren, twin sisters who became famous columnists, were
born in Sioux City, Iowa, as Esther P. (Landers) and Pauline E.
(Abbie) Friedman. Their "advice" columns are syndicated in more than
1,000 newspapers. Esther Friedman died in 2002 at age 83.
(IB, 12/7/98)(SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A10)
1918 Jul 4, Altar dedicated at
full-scale replica of Stonehenge at Maryhill, Wa.
1918 Jul 4, A record 17 war
vessels were launched the Bay Area. The steamer "Defiance" was
sponsored by Mrs. Charles Schwab.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)
1918 Jul 4, Taufa’ahau Tupou
IV, king of Tonga (1965-2006), was born.
1918 Jul 8, Ernest Hemingway
(1899-1961), Nobel Prize winning writer, was wounded in Italy while
working as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross. He was
later awarded the Italian Silver Medal of Military Valor. Hemingway
enlisted in a Red Cross ambulance unit in 1917 during World War
I. He was commissioned a second lieutenant and served on the
Italian front. After WWI he reported from the battlefields of the
Spanish Civil War for American newspapers. His book "Farewell to
Arms" was based on his experiences in WWI.
(HNQ, 7/28/99)(HN, 7/8/01)
1918 Jul 9, The US
Distinguished Service Cross was established by an Act of Congress.
1918 Jul 9, 101 people were
killed as an inbound local train collided with an outbound express
in Nashville, Tenn.
1918 Jul 11, Enrico Caruso
joined the war effort and recorded "Over There", the patriotic song
written by George M. Cohan.
1918 Jul 11, German Prince
Herzog von Urach (1864-1928) was elected King of Lithuania with the
regnal name Mindaugas II. He never assumed the crown, however, as
German authorities declared the election invalid. The invitation was
withdrawn in November 1918.
1918 Jul 12, A Japanese
battleship exploded in the Bay of Tokayama and some 500 people were
1918 Jul 14, Ingmar Bergman,
Swedish film director (The Seventh Seal, Fanny and Alexander), was
born in Uppsala, Sweden.
(HN, 7/14/01)(MC, 7/14/02)
1918 Jul 14, Arthur Laurents,
writer and librettist, was born.
1918 Jul 15, The Second Battle
of the Marne began during World War I.
1918 Jul 17, Russian Tsar,
Nicholas II, was executed at Ekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks under
orders from Lenin. His wife, son, 4 daughters, and 4 servants were
also executed. The family mass grave was discovered by a former KGB
agent in 1979 in the Urals and only 9 bodies were found. The bodies
were dug up in 1991. A 1997 documentary film by Victoria Lewis,
"Mystery of the Last Tsar," told the story. The Czar, his wife,
three children and four servants were executed by a 12-man firing
squad in the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg. A reburial of the
family was scheduled in St. Petersburg for Jul 17, 1998.
(SFC, 4/5/97, p.E3)(SFC, 2/28/98, p.A8)(SFC,
7/15/98, p.A9)(AP, 7/17/07)
1918 Jul 17, Grand Duchess
Elizabeth Feodorovna (b.1864) was murdered at a mine the village of
Siniachikha. The Cheka beat Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich Romanov,
Princes Ioann Konstantinovich, Konstantin Konstantinovich, Igor
Konstantinovich, Vladimir Pavlovich Paley, Feodor Remez (Grand Duke
Sergei's secretary), and Varvara Yakovleva, a sister from the Grand
Duchess's convent, before throwing their victims into a pit,
Elizabeth being the first. Hand grenades were then hurled down the
shaft, but only one victim, Feodor Remez, died as a result of the
grenades. Finally a large quantity of brushwood was shoved into the
opening and set alight.
1918 Jul 18, Nelson Mandela
(d.2013), later anti-apartheid leader and president of South Africa,
was born in the Umtata district of Transkei. Prior to becoming
president he served 18 of 27 years in jail on Robben Island.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)(SFC,
1918 Jul 18, During World War
I, American and French forces launched a counteroffensive against
the Germans during the Second Battle of the Marne.
1918 Jul 19, German armies
retreated across the Marne River in France.
1918 Jul 21, The residents and
coastguardsmen of Orleans, Massachusetts, were amazed to see the
German U-boat, U-156, firing at an American tug and four barges just
1918 Jul 22, Florine
Stettheimer painted "Heat," wherein she captured the relations
between mothers and daughters with deft satire. The date is on the
birthday cake in the painting.
(WSJ, 7/18/95, p.A-12)
1918 Jul 25, Annette Adams of
Calif. was sworn in as the 1st US woman district attorney.
1918 Jul 25, A race riot in
Chester, Pennsylvania, left 3 blacks and 2 whites dead.
1918 Jul 26, Britain’s top war
ace, Edward Mannock, was shot down by ground fire on the Western
1918 Jul 29, Edwin Greene
O'Connor, author (The Last Hurrah), was born.
1918 Jul 29, Mary Lee Settle,
novelist, was born.
1918 Jul 30, Poet Joyce Kilmer
(b.1886), a sergeant in the 165th U.S. Infantry Regiment, was killed
during the Second Battle of the Marne in World War I. Kilmer is
perhaps best remembered for his poem "Trees."
1918 Jul, The US War Dept.
assigned some 9,000 soldiers from California and the Philippines for
duty in Siberia.
(Ind, 5/4/02, 5A)
1918 Aug 2, A British force
landed in Archangel, Russia, to support White Russian opposition to
1918 Aug 3, James MacGregor
Burns, political writer (The Lion & the Fox), was born.
1918 Aug 6, The 2nd battle of
the Marne ended.
1918 Aug 9, Mother Marianne
Cope (b.1838), a nun from Utica, New York, died in Kalaupapa,
Hawaii. She had cared for lepers exiled to the Kalaupapa Peninsula.
In 2012 she was named a saint in the Catholic church.
1918 Aug 11, The British
attacked with 450 tanks at the Battle of Amiens as the Allies pushed
(MC, 8/11/02)(PC, 1992, p.728)
1918 Aug 14, Some 5,000
soldiers left Camp Fremont in Menlo Park, Ca., for duty in
Vladivostok, Siberia, under Maj. Gen. William W. Graves.
(Ind, 5/4/02, 5A)
1918 Aug 15, Russia severed
diplomatic ties with US.
1918 Aug 16, US troops
overthrew Archangel (Russia).
1918 Aug 17, Mort Marshall,
actor (Cully-Dumplings), was born in NYC.
1918 Aug 18, Elsa Morante,
Italian writer and author of "History: A Novel," was born.
1918 Aug 19, "Yip! Yip!
Yaphank," a musical revue by Irving Berlin featuring Army recruits
from Camp Upton in Yaphank, N.Y., opened on Broadway.
1918 Aug 20, Britain opened its
offensive on the Western front during World War I.
1918 Aug 22, Britain’s battle
cruiser HMS Hood was launched. It was sunk in 1941 by the German
1918 Aug 25, Leonard Bernstein,
conductor and composer who initiated the television series "Young
People's Concerts," was born in Lawrence, MA.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)(HN, 8/25/98)(MC, 8/25/02)
1918 Aug 27, It was reported
that German master spy Edward Michael Zacho was captured in SF.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)
1918 Aug 30, Ted Williams
(d.2002), Hall of Fame outfielder for the Boston Red Sox, the last
man to hit .400 in a season, was born.
(HN, 8/30/98)(SFC, 7/6/02, p.A1)
1918 Aug 30, Lenin, the new
leader of Soviet Russia, was shot & wounded after a speech.
1918 Aug 31, Alan Jay Lerner,
playwright and lyricist, was born. His work included "Brigadoon" and
1918 Aug, Lenin gave a command
to suppress a peasant revolt in Penza with orders to hang no fewer
than one hundred known kulaks.
(WSJ, 10/23/96, p.A19)
1918 Sep 2, Laurindo Almeida,
composer and guitarist, was born.
1918 Sep 2, Martha Mitchell,
wife of Attorney General John Mitchell, was born.
1918 Sep 2, Some 9,000 soldiers
from California and the Philippines began arriving at Vladivostok
under Gen. William S. Graves. His orders said to stay out of
trouble. US President Woodrow Wilson sent the Polar Bear Expedition
to Russia in response to requests from the governments of Great
Britain and France to join the Allied Intervention in North Russia
(also known as the North Russia Campaign). The Allied intervention
in the Russian Civil War fought the Red Army in the surrounding
region during the period of September 1918 through to July 1919.
1918 Sep 3, The United States
recognized the nation of Czechoslovakia.
1918 Sep 3, Five soldiers were
hanged for alleged participation in the Houston riot of 1917.
1918 Sep 3, Allies forced
Germans back across Hindenburg Line.
1918 Sep 4, Paul Harvey,
conservative radio commentator, was born in Tulsa, Okla.
(HN, 9/4/98)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1918 Sep 6, The German Army
began a general retreat across the Aisne, with British troops in
1918 Sep 11, The Boston Red sox
beat Chicago 4-2 to win the World Series in the 6th game.
1918 Sep 11, US troops landed
in Russia to fight the Bolsheviks.
1918 Sep 12, During World War
I, U.S. forces led by Gen. John J. Pershing launched an attack on
the German-occupied St. Mihiel salient north of Verdun, France.
1918 Sep 12, Lt. Frank Luke Jr.
destroyed a German balloon. Over the next 6 days he destroyed 9 more
and earned the name "the Arizona Balloon Buster."
(AH, 6/02, p.18)
1918 Sep 12, British troops
retook Havincourt, Moeuvres, and Trescault along the Western Front.
1918 Sep 13, U.S. and French
forces took St. Mihiel, France, in America’s first action as a
1918 Sep 17, Chaim Herzog
(d.1997), president (Israel, 1983-93), was born in Belfast.
1918 Sep 18, Nelson Mandela,
later pres. of South Africa, was born. [see Jun 11, Jul 18]
1918 Sep 19, American troops of
the Allied North Russia Expeditionary Force received their baptism
of fire near the town of Seltso against Soviet forces.
1918 Sep 19, Liza Nina Mary
Frederica Lehmann, composer, died at 56.
1918 Sep 22, Henryk Szeryng,
violinist (Brahms Concerto), was born in Zelazowa Wola, Poland.
1918 Sep 22, General Allenby
led the British army against the Turks, taking Haifa and Nazareth,
1918 Sep 25, John Ireland,
Irish and US archbishop of St Paul, died at 80.
1918 Sep 25, Brazil declared
war on Austria.
1918 Sep 26, The Meuse-Argonne
offensive against the Germans began during World War I.
1918 Sep 26, German Ace Ernst
Udet shot down two Allied planes, bringing his total for the war up
1918 Sep 27, President Woodrow
Wilson opened his fourth Liberty Loan campaign to support men and
machines for World War I.
1918 Sep 27, Arab forces
attacked and seized Deraa (Jordan).
(ON, 10/05, p.8)
1918 Sep 29, Allied forces
scored a decisive breakthrough of the Hindenburg Line during World
1918 Sep 29, Lt. Frank Luke Jr.
against orders destroyed 3 German balloons and downed 2 pursuing
fighters in a final flight of vengeance for the loss of his wingman
Lt. Joseph Wehner. Luke received a posthumous medal of honor.
(AH, 6/02, p.18)
1918 Sep 30, Bulgaria pulled
out of World War I.
1918 Sep, Pres. Woodrow Wilson
ordered all US breweries to shut down on December 1 in order to save
grain for the war effort.
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P13)
1918 Oct 1, Damascus (Syria)
fell to Arab forces as Turkish Ottoman officials surrendered the
(ON, 10/05, p.9)(AP, 10/1/08)
1918 Oct 5, The Univ. of
Michigan played a home football game against Case Institute of
Technology and won 33-0. A number of fans in the stands were
infected with influenza and passed it on to fellow spectators. The
first two local deaths occurred on Oct 11. The local epidemic was
declared over on Nov 4 with 117 deaths in Ann Arbor.
(LSA, Fall/06, p.58)
1918 Oct 6, US ship Otranto
sank between Scotland and Ireland. 425 people died.
1918 Oct 7, C. Hubert H. Parry,
English musicologist and composer (Jerusalem), died at 70.
1918 Oct 8, Alvin Callum York
(1887-164) almost single-handedly killed 25 German soldiers and
captured 132 in the Argonne Forest in France. Corporal Alvin C.
York's platoon was advancing toward the Decauville railway when they
were hit with machine-gun fire from all sides. The doughboys
captured one gun, but the noise drew the fire of the remaining
German emplacements, killing six and seriously wounding three
Americans. As the most senior of the remaining doughboys, York went
out alone to engage the enemy with just his rifle and service
revolver, picking off the machine-gunners one by one. When the
fighting was over, York had single-handedly eliminated 35 machine
guns, killed more than 20 Germans and taken 132 members of a
Prussian Guards regiment as prisoners. A modest man, York shrugged
off his heroic actions, saying, "It's over; let's forget it."
1918 Oct 9, E Howard Hunt,
involved in Watergate break-in, was born in Hamburg, NY.
1918 Oct 10, While President
Woodrow Wilson was attempting to establish "peace without victory"
with Germany, the German UB-123 torpedoed RMS Leinster, a civilian
mail and passenger ferry, off the coast of Ireland. Leinster was
usually escorted by a Royal Air Force airship as a precaution, but
on October 10, 1918, the ferry set out alone. Leinster was sunk; 564
passengers and crewmen perished, many of them American and Allied
troops. After Leinster, the Germans lost their chance for an easy
1918 Oct 11, Jerome Robbins
(Rabinowitz), choreographer, was born. He won an Oscar for "West
(HN, 10/11/00)(MC, 10/11/01)
1918 Oct 11, Archibald M.
Willard (b.1836), American artist, died in Ohio. His paintings
included “Spirit of ’76" (1876).
1918 Oct 12, The 1st use of
iron lung was at Boston's Children Hospital.
1918 Oct 12, The Cloquet Fire
erupted in Minnesota, claiming some 450 lives.
1918 Oct 14, In France the
American 32nd division was sent to engage German troops on the Dame
Marie, while the 5th and 42nd Divisions under Gen. Douglas MacArthur
swept in pincer movements to occupy Cote de Chatillon. The
objectives were taken in 3 days of tough fighting. In 2008 Robert H.
Ferrell authored “The Question of MacArthur’s Reputation: Cote de
Chatillon, October 14-16, 1918."
(WSJ, 11/24/08, p.A17)
1918 Oct 13-15, A forest fire
killed some 1,000 people in Minnesota and Wisconsin. [see Oct 12]
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)
1918 Oct 14, The Czechoslovak
National Council in Paris organized a provisional government of
Czechoslovakia with T.G. Masaryk as president.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.728)
1918 Oct 16, Felix Arndt,
composer, died at 29.
1918 Oct 17, Rita Hayworth,
American actress, was born.
1918 Oct 17, Anton Dilger
(B.1884), an American saboteur educated as a surgeon in Germany,
died of Spanish flu in Spain. [see 1916] In 2007 Robert Koenig
authored “The Fourth Horseman: One Man’s Mission to Wage the Great
War in America."
(SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M2)
1918 Oct 17, Yugoslavia
proclaimed itself a republic.
1918 Oct 18, Czechs seized
Prague, renounced Hapsburg's rule and declared independence from the
Austro-Hungarian Empire. Masaryk proclaimed the foundation of
Czechoslovakia from Pittsburgh, Pa.
1918 Oct 18, Russian 10th Army
drove out White armies of Tsaritsyn (Stalingrad).
1918 Oct 20, Germany aimed at
an armistice and agreed to further concessions.
1918 Oct 22, The cities of
Baltimore and Washington run out of coffins during the "Spanish
1918 Oct 23, President Wilson
felt satisfied that the Germans were accepting his armistice terms
and agreed to transmit their request for an armistice to the Allies.
The Germans had agreed to suspend submarine warfare, cease inhumane
practices such as the use of poison gas, and withdraw troops back
1918 Oct 24, Alexander Charles
Lecocq, composer, died at 86.
1918 Oct 25, The Canadian
steamship Princess Sophia hit a reef off the coast of Alaska;
some 350 people perished.
1918 Oct 26, Cecil H. Chubb
donated the property of Stonehenge to the English state.
1918 Oct 26, Germany’s supreme
commander, General Erich Ludendorff, resigned, protesting the terms
to which the German Government had agreed in negotiating the
armistice. This set the stage for his later support for Hitler and
the Nazis, who claimed that Germany did not lose the war on the
battlefield but were "stabbed in the back" by politicians.
1918 Oct 28, The Czechoslovak
National Congress in Prague proclaimed the independence of
1918 Oct 29-1918 Oct 31, The
Kingdom of Greater Serbia was proclaimed at Sarajevo in Bosnia
bringing that state into what was later called Yugoslavia. [see Dec
1918 Oct 30, Ted Williams,
hitter (Red Sox, AL MVP '46, '49; Trip Crown '42,'47), was born.
1918 Oct 30, The Italians
captured Vittorio Veneto and rout the Austro-Hungarian army.
1918 Oct 30, The Slovak
National Council acceded to the Nov 28 Prague proclamation for the
creation of Czechoslovakian state. Slovaks joined the Czechs to form
Czechoslovakia. During World War II, Slovakia existed as puppet
state of Nazi-run Germany.
1918 Oct 30, Turkey signed an
armistice with the Allies, agreeing to end hostilities at noon
1918 Oct 31, In the worst
global epidemic of the century, influenza (an acute, contagious
respiratory viral infection) had been spreading around the world
since May. Before it ended in 1919 20 million people were killed
worldwide, about twice as many as World War I, with about
500-600,000 of them in the US. October was the deadliest month and
some 195,000 died. It was estimated that 20-40 million people died
worldwide. In 1998 the TV show "The American Experience" documented
the tragedy: "Influenza 1918." Dr. Alfred Crosby wrote "America’s
Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918." [see 1917, 1918-1919]
(MT, Fall. ‘97, p.11)(SFC, 2/9/98, p.E1)(WSJ,
2/9/98, p.A16)(HN, 10/31/99)
1918 Oct 31, Egon Schiele (28),
Viennese artist, died in the flu epidemic. He produced some 3,000
drawings and 300 paintings in about 12 years.
(SFC, 10/13/97, p.E3)(MC, 10/31/01)
1918 Oct 31, Stephen Tisza,
Hungarian PM (-1917), was assassinated by soldiers.
1918 Oct-1918 Nov, Some 2,021
people in SF died of the flu. San Franciscans wore protective face
masks during the [Spanish] flu epidemic of this year. Researchers in
1997 attempted to isolate the virus from victims buried in the
Arctic and Alaska.
(SFC, 12/24/96, p.E3)(NPR, 9/29/97)(SFEC,
1918 Nov 1, During a
wildcat strike a replacement motorman, behind schedule, was speeding
a Brighton Beach bound train down what is today the Franklin Avenue
shuttle. The train derailed on a curve and hit a tunnel wall on the
approach to the Prospect Park Station. 102 died in a NYC BMT subway
derailment at Malbone Street, Brooklyn.
1918 Nov 1, Yugoslav battleship
Viribus Unitis was sunk by Italians.
1918 Nov 3, Russell Long
(d.2003), U.S. senator from Louisiana, was born.
(HN, 11/3/98)(SFC, 5/10/03, p.A13)
1918 Nov 3, The
Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved.
1918 Nov 3, There was a mutiny
of the German fleet at Kiel. This was the first act leading to
German's capitulation in World War I. [see Nov 4]
1918 Nov 3, Poland proclaimed
independence from Russia after WW I. [see Nov 11]
1918 Nov 4, Art Carney
(d.2003), actor (Ed Norton-Honeymooners), was born in Mount Vernon,
(EntW, 12/03, p.96)
1918 Nov 4, Austria signed an
armistice with Allies.
1918 Nov 4, Kiel, Germany, fell
into the hands of revolutionary sailors. [see Nov 3]
1918 Nov 5, George Sheehan,
cardiologist, was born. He became well known for his book "Running
1918 Nov 7, Billy Graham,
evangelist, was born in Charlotte, N.C. He later led the Evangelical
Christians, a group that numbered 35% of all Americans.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, Par, p.4)(SFEC, 9/21/97, Z1 p.3)
1918 Nov 7, Goddard
demonstrated tube-launched solid propellant rockets.
1918 Nov 7, During World War I,
an erroneous report that an armistice had been signed set off
celebrations across the country. The armistice was signed on Nov 11.
1918 Nov 7, The Yugoslav
National Conference at Geneva decided on the union of Croatia and
Slovenia with Serbia and Montenegro. [see Dec 1]
1918 Nov 9, Florence Chadwick,
swimmer (Hall of Fame 1970), was born in San Diego, Calif.
1918 Nov 9, Spiro Agnew (d.Sep
17, 1996) was born. He later became governor of Maryland and 39th
vice-president of the US under Nixon (1968-1973) until convicted of
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A7)(HN, 11/9/98)
1918 Nov 9, Choi Hong Hi
(d.2002), one of the founders of the South Korean Army (1946), was
born in North Korea. He developed the tae kwon do (to kick with the
foot, to strike with the fist, art) martial arts style in the 1940s
and named it in 1955.
(SFC, 7/2/02, p.A17)
1918 Nov 9, Germany was
proclaimed a republic. Kaiser Wilhelm II announced that he would
abdicate. Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands offered him political
asylum and there he lived until his death in 1941.
(AP, 11/9/97)(Econ, 10/25/14, p.85)
1918 Nov 9, Guillaume
Apollinaire (38), [Kostrowitsky], French poet (Alcools), died.
1918 Nov 10, Retired German
Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to the Netherlands.
1918 Nov 11, At ten minutes
past five in the morning, German and Allied negotiators placed the
final signatures on the armistice that would end World War I six
hours later. After the signing, French General Ferdinand Foch sent
all Allied commanders the following message: "Hostilities will cease
on the entire [Western] front November 11 at 11:00 a.m." Even as the
hour approached 9 of 16 commanders of US divisions on the Western
Front ordered a final assault that left an additional 11,000
casualties. Although the Allies had not invaded Germany and there
was no clear military victory, the Germans were forced to sign the
armistice because of insurmountable problems. German troops, pushed
past their limits of endurance by five years of fighting, faced a
fresh stream of well-equipped American soldiers. Germany's allies,
Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria, had already ceased
fighting and mutinies increased as German soldiers and sailors
refused to carry out suicidal missions. Food shortages, both at home
and at the front, had reached crisis levels. The costs of the First
World War were astronomical with 7.5 million dead and more than 35
million total casualties. The US Armistice Day holiday was changed
to Veteran’s Day after the Korean War. It was celebrated as
“Veteran’s Day" for the first time in the US in Emporia, Kansas, on
November 11, 1953. In 2004 Joseph E. Persico authored “Eleventh
Month, Eleventh Day, Eleventh Hour: Armistice Day, 1918, World War I
and Its Violent Climax."
(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A16)(SFC,11/8/97, p.A11)(HNPD,
11/11/98)(SFC, 12/28/04, p.D1)
1918 Nov 11, The Second Polish
Republic declared its independence.
(SFC, 11/13/96, p.C2)(AP, 11/11/08)
1918 Nov 12, Emperor Karl of
Austria-Hungary, husband of Zita, relinquished participation in the
Austrian state and then fled to Switzerland. Austria became a
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_I_of_Austria)(Hem., Dec. '95,
1918 Nov 13, Soviet Russia
annulled the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty.
1918 Nov 14, The Grand Duchy of
Baden ceased to exist and became a republic. The provisional
government declared the establishment of the freie Volksrepublik
Baden (Free Peoples' Republic of Baden), and set 5 January 1919 as
the date for new elections. In 1933 it went under Nazi rule.
1918 Nov 17, Influenza deaths
reported in the U.S. far exceeded World War I casualties.
1918 Nov 17, German troops
1918 Nov 21, The last German
troops left Alsace-Lorraine, France.
1918 Nov 21, Two German
ammunition trains exploded in Hamont, Belgium and 1,750 died.
1918 Nov 21, Polish soldiers
organized a pogrom against Jews of Galicia, Poland.
1918 Nov 22, Polish forces
attacked the Jewish community of Lemberg (Lvov).
1918 Nov 24, Frank O. King
premiered his comic strip "Gasoline Alley" in the Chicago Tribune.
He aged his characters over time.
(www.toonopedia.com/gasalley.htm)(SFC, 7/8/98, Z1
p.3)(WSJ, 6/20/01, p.A1)
1918 Nov 24, Another
proclamation took place of the United Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats
and Slovenes. [see Dec 1]
1918 Nov 25, Chile and Peru
1918 Nov 26, Montenegro deposed
its king who opposed union and voted to join the new Kingdom of
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. [see Dec 1]
1918 Nov 28, Kaiser Wilhelm of
Prussia and Germany, abdicated.
1918 Nov 29, Madeleine L'Engle,
writer, was born. Her work included "A Wrinkle in Time."
1918 Nov, US Navy airpower
increased to 2,107 airplanes, 20 airships, 215 balloons and 39,871
men. [see April, 1917]
(SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.9)
1918 Dec 1, US breweries shut
down due to a September directive from Pres. Wilson.
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P13)
1918 Dec 1, An American army of
occupation entered Germany.
1918 Dec 1, Danish parliament
passed an act to grant Iceland independence.
(HFA, ‘96, p.20)(MC, 12/1/01)
1918 Dec 1, The Kingdom of
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes [later in 1929 to be called Yugoslavia]
was proclaimed by Alexander Karadjordjevic, the son of King Peter of
Serbia. It included the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia
and Macedonia, the Hungarian-controlled regions of Croatia and
Slovenia, the Austrian province of Dalmatia, Carniola and parts of
Styria, Carinthia and Istria. King Alexander I renamed the Balkan
state called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to
Yugoslavia in 1929.
1918 Dec 2, Armenia proclaimed
independence from Turkey. An independent Republic of Armenia was
established in Russian Armenia under Dashnak administration.
(HN, 12/2/98)(Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)
1918 Dec 3, The Allied
Conference ended in London; Germany was required to pay to full
limits for the war.
1918 Dec 4, President Wilson
set sail for France to attend the Versailles Peace Conference. He
was the 1st chief executive to travel outside US while in office.
1918 Dec 4, France cancelled
trade treaties in order to compete in postwar economic battle.
1918 Dec 6, Harold Horace
Hopkins, inventor (Endoscope), was born.
1918 Dec 7, Spartacists called
for a German revolution.
1918 Dec 8, Gerard Souzay,
baritone (Le Nozze di Figaro), was born in Angers, France.
1918 Dec 9, Kirk Douglas,
American actor best known for his role in "Spartacus," was born as
Issur Danielovitch Demsky.
(HN, 12/9/98)(SFEC, 7/16/00, DB p.48)
1918 Dec 9, French troops
1918 Dec 10, U.S. troops were
called to guard Berlin as a coup was feared.
1918 Dec 11, Alexander
Solzhenitsyn (d.2008), Russian writer, was born. He won the 1970
Nobel Peace Prize and is famous for “One Day in the Life of Ivan
Denisovich" (1962) and "The Gulag Archipelago" (1973). Daniel J.
Mahoney later authored "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Ascent From
1918 Dec 13, President Wilson
arrived in France, becoming the first chief executive to visit
Europe while in office.
1918 Dec 13, US army of
occupation crossed the Rhine and entered Germany.
1918 Dec 14, Sidonio Pais,
prince of Portugal, was murdered.
1918 Dec 19, Robert Ripley
(1890-1949) began his "Champs and Chumps" cartoon series in the NY
Globe. By 1929 the sports series turned into “Ripley’s Believe It or
1918 Dec 20, Eugene O'Neill's
"Moon of the Caribees" premiered in NYC.
1918 Dec 21, Donald Regan,
White House staffer and US Secretary of Treasury (1981-85), was
1918 Dec 21, Kurt Waldheim, 4th
Secretary General of the United Nations, was born.
1918 Dec 22, The last of the
food restrictions, that had been enforced because of the shortages
during World War I, were lifted.
1918 Dec 23, Helmut Schmidt,
Chancellor of Germany, was born.
1918 Dec 23, Jose Greco,
flamenco dancer (Holiday for Lovers), was born in Italy.
1918 Dec 25, Anwar Sadat
(d.1981), president of Egypt, was born. "There can be hope only for
a society which acts as one big family, and not as many separate
(AP, 5/9/98)(HN, 12/25/98)
1918 Dec 25, Revolt erupted in
1918 Dec 30, John E. Hoover
decided to be called J. Edgar Hoover.
1918 Dec 31, Kid Gleason
replaced Pants Rowland as White Sox manager.
1918 Dec, Albanian leaders met
at Durrës to discuss Albania's interests at the Paris Peace
Conference. When World War I ended the Italian armies occupied most
of Albania, and Serbian, Greek and French armies occupied the
remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers began a struggle for
dominance over Albanians.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1918 Constantin Brancusi made
his gleaming bronze sculpture "La Muse."
(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 11/13/98, p.W16)
1918 In England Duncan Grant
painted a portrait of his lifetime companion Vanessa Bell. They both
figured in the complex love affairs of the Bloomsbury Group. The
painting is now in the London National Gallery.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)
1918 Modigliani painted "Woman
in a Plaid Dress." It sold for $5.3 mil in 1998. he also painted a
portrait of his mistress Jeanne Hebuterne.
(WSJ, 5/21/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)
1918 Picasso (1881-1973),
French painter, married Olga Khokhlova, one of Diaghilev’s Russian
dancers, whom he met in Rome.
(Econ, 11/17/07, p.99)
1918 Egon Schiele made his
crayon sketch: "Edith Schiele on Her Deathbed."
(WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)
1918 Chaim Soutine painted his
(WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)
1918 Willa Cather (d.1947)
authored her novel "My Antonia."
(SFC, 3/29/04, p.E1)
1918 Benjamin Ives Gilman
(1852-1933), secretary of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, authored
“Museum Ideals: of Purpose and Method."
1918 Lytton Strachey
(1880-1932) published "Eminent Victorians," a scandalous collection
of sketches that revolutionized English biography.
(SFEC, 8/22/99, BR p.4)(WUD, 1994, p.1403)
1918 The "Origin and Evolution
of Life" by Henry Fairfield Osborn was published.
(NH, 5/96, p.5456)
1918 Dr. Paul Popenoe
co-authored "Applied Eugenics."
(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D1)
1918 Marie Stopes (1880-1958),
British academic, authored the groundbreaking "Married Love" in the
field of birth control and women's sexual rights. She was the first
female academic on the faculty of the University of Manchester.
1918 Will Strunk privately
published "The Elements of Style" for his students at Cornell.
Revisions were later overseen by his student E.B. White.
(WSJ, 7/30/99, p.W15)
1918 The Book "The Higher
Learning in America: A Memorandum of the Conduct of Universities by
Businessmen," by Thorstein Veblen, a former teacher at Stanford, was
published. The subtitle had initially read "A Study in Total
Depravity." Veblen was let go from Stanford in 1909 ostensibly for
(SFEM, 1/30/00, p.15)
1918 Jesse Lynch Williams,
journalist, wrote his play "Why Marry," which won the first Pulitzer
Prize for drama.
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1918 Giocomo Puccini composed
his opera "Gianni Schicchi."
(WUD, 1994, p.596)
1918 Eric Satie composed
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E1)
1918 Irwing Caesar (1895-1996)
wrote the song "Swanee" with George Gershwin. It later became a big
seller when Al Jolson used it as his signature song.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.C6)
1918 Gilda Gray inspired a
dance craze after she performed "The Shimmy" to W.C. Handy's Saint
Louis Blues in a Broadway show.
(ON, 1/03, p.9)
1918 "Stars and Stripes," a
weekly for men in the military, was founded.
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1918 The Dunellen Hall manor
house in Greenwich, Conn., was built. The Jacobean style brick
mansion was sold to real estate magnate Harry Helmsley for $11
million in the 1980s.
(WSJ, 4/21/09, p.A6)
1918 San Francisco’s Sunset
branch library was completed at 1305 18th Ave. The classical style
building was designed by G. Albert Lansburgh.
(SSFC, 11/23/14, p.C2)
1918 In San Francisco the
Forest Hill Station provided a subway connection from the Forest
Hill neighborhood to downtown SF.
(SSFC, 2/27/11, p.C2)
1918 The Mount Diablo High Gear
Race was run to the summit of Mt. Diablo in northern California.
(SFC, 8/24/96, p.E1)
1918 The Calaveras Dam, 10
miles NE of San Jose, Ca., failed during construction. The Spring
Valley Water Co. completed the 210-foot earthen dam in 1925. In 2001
dam regulators ordered the reservoir to be drained to about a third
to avoid collapse in an earthquake. A new dam was scheduled for
completion in 2015.
(SFC, 9/15/02, p.A20)(SFC, 9/16/11, p.A1)
1918 The Boston Red Sox won the
Baseball World Series.
(Hem., 4/97, p.103)
1918 Fritz Haber (1868-1934),
German chemist, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for extracting
ammonia from nitrogen in 1909. The Haber-Bosch process was
beneficial for food production and explosives. Haber also helped
develop poison gas during WW I.
(WSJ, 12/8/00, p.W11)(SSFC, 8/7/05, p.C6)
1918 Pres. Wilson pushed
through Congress the Sedition Act of 1918. It was the most extreme
antispeech legislation in American history.
(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)
1918 The US government
nationalized the Wells Fargo franchise into a government agency
known as the American Railway Express Agency. The government took
control of everything except the bank, which began rebuilding with a
focus on commercial markets.
(SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)
1918 The US government began
permitting the full deduction of interest as part of a package to
help companies struggling with the effects of WWI.
(Econ, 5/16/15, p.19)
1918 The US Labor Dept.
launched an "Own Your Home Campaign."
(WSJ, 4/29/04, p.A2)
1918 The US Supreme Court ruled
that facts cannot by copyrighted, but that a news agency can retain
exclusive use of its product so long as it has commercial value.
(Econ, 6/26/10, p.63)
1918 The US Navy began
recruiting women, the "Yeomanettes," to work as clerks, drafters and
recruiters in an attempt to free men for overseas duty.
(SFC, 8/16/00, p.B2)
1918 Alfred E. Smith
(1873-1944) was 1st elected governor of New York.
(TMC, 1994, p.1944)(WUD, 1994 p.1345)(WSJ,
1918 Charley Chapin
(1858-1930), city editor for the Pulitzer's NYC Evening World, faced
financial ruin after living beyond his means. He contemplated
murder-suicide and killed his wife, but lost his nerve and turned
himself in. He was sent to Sing Sing prison where he cultivated
roses. In 1920 he wrote an autobiography.
(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)
1918 The game "Consult El Caro"
was 1st built. A metal ball fell into a recessed hole containing
answers to questions.
(SFC, 9/10/02, p.A15)
1918 Sailor Jack and his dog
Bingo first appeared on Cracker Jack boxes.
(AH, 10/04, p.71)
1918 The Fel-Pro Company was
founded to supply gaskets for Henry Ford’s Model T. In 1998 the
company was to be acquired by Federal-Mogul for $720 million in cash
(SFC, 1/12/98, p.A19)
1918 Walter Jacobs opened a
rental business in Chicago that grew to become Hertz. In 1923 he
sold his business to John Hertz. GM owned Hertz from 1826 to 1953.
Ford acquired Hertz in 1985 and in 2005 announced plans to sell it
to a consortium of 3 private equity firms in a deal valued at $15
(Econ, 9/17/05, p.60)
1918 The Sears, Roebuck and
Co., catalog offered a 5-pound Home Motor for US$8.75, the
equivalent of about $85 in 1996.
(Wired, 10/96, p.98)
1918 In Texas C.N. Williamson
and E.E. Dickies established the U.S. Overall Co. It was later
renamed Williamson-Dickie and then came to be known as Dickies.
(SSFC, 8/20/06, p.M4)
1918 The Warner brothers built
a film studio on Sunset Blvd. in LA, Ca.
(WSJ, 6/2/06, p.A1)
1918 The first electric waffle
was introduced in the US by Landers, Frary & Clark.
(SFC, 7/22/98, Z1 p.2)
1918 Edwin Howard Armstrong
(1890-1954), engineer and inventor, developed the superheterodyne
circuit, basic to radio receivers. He is known as the "Father of FM"
or frequency modulation. In 1939 Armstrong perfected his system of
static-free radio, which was widely adopted in the U.S. and Europe.
His super-regenerative circuit, devised in 1920, was used in 2-way
police and aircraft radio systems.
1918 The 1st pogo stick was
invented. In 1947 metal replaced the original wood sticks. Extreme
sticks used for stunts were brought out in 2001.
(WSJ, 8/10/01, p.B1)
1918 The National Washboard Co.
received US patent 1283148 and design patent 52236 for their wood
frame and glass rubbing surface. By the 1960s the company was out of
(SFC, 10/18/06, p.G3)
1918 The Bailey Radium
Laboratories, Inc., of East Orange, New Jersey, began manufacturing
Radithor. It was advertised as "A Cure for the Living Dead" as well
as "Perpetual Sunshine." It consisted of triple distilled water
containing at a minimum 1 microcurie (37 kBq) each of the radium 226
and 228 isotopes. The FTC issued a cease and desist order against
the manufacture in 1931.
1918 The influenza epidemic
killed 11,000 people in Philadelphia.
(LSA, Fall/06, p.58)
1918 People in San Francisco
wore protective face masks during the [Spanish] flu epidemic
of this year. Researchers in 1997 attempted to isolate the virus
from victims buried in the Arctic.
(SFC, 12/24/96, p.E3)(NPR, 9/29/97)
1918 The California-based Save
the Redwoods League began collecting donations for the purchase of
redwood land. In 1960 the 33-mile Avenue of the Giants, a
52,000-acre area of river and redwoods, was dedicated following
efforts by the Save the Redwoods League.
1918 Australia established its
alternative vote for elections. This ranked candidates on the ballot
in order of preference.
(Econ, 4/30/11, p.13)
1918 Vienna became the capital
of the Republic of Austria.
(StuAus, April ‘95, p.14)
1918 In Austria the first
democratic elections were held.
(SFC, 10/25/96, p.A16)
1918 Arthur Ransome
(1884-1967), British agent and writer, wrote a propaganda pamphlet
titled: “On Behalf of Russia: An Open Letter to America." In 2009
Roland Chambers authored “The Last Englishman: The Double Life of
1918 In Britain dancer Maud
Allan sued MP Noel Pemberton-Billing (1881-1948) for libel and lost.
Allan, a San Francisco-raised dancer, had achieved fame for her
“Visions of Salome" interpretive dance. Pemberton-Brilling wanted to
use the court as a soapbox for his int’l. homosexual conspiracy
theories. In 2012 Mark Jackson’s “Salomania," based on the trial,
debuted in San Francisco.
1918 In Canada Vancouver
workers staged a general strike after a union organizer was killed
under mysterious circumstances by a posse seeking draft dodgers
outside the mining town of Cumberland.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)
1918 Gustaf Mannerheim led a
Finnish victory over much larger Bolshevik and Finnish Red Guard
(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)
1918 In France the
Meuse-Argonne offensive action was made. A portion of the U.S. 77th
Division in World War I was encircled by the Germans during the 1918
Meuse-Argonne offensive of World War I and called the "lost
battalion.". The unit managed to hold off its attackers until relief
(SFC, 1/26/98, p.A17)
1918 The Gellert Pool was
constructed at the Gellert Hotel on the Buda side of Budapest,
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T1,4)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)
1918 The Yazidis of Sinjar
(Iraq) saved hundreds of Armenians and Assyrian Christians as they
were being slaughtered by Ottoman Turks and their Kurdish
proxies. The Ottomans retaliated by sending a small army to
Sinjar and capturing the revered Yazidi leader, Hamo Sharro, who was
sentenced to five years of har labor.
(Econ, 8/23/14, p.38)
1918 Italy gained Trieste from
the Hapsburg Empire.
1918 Japan’s first
parliamentary cabinet was formed.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1918 Kosovo became part of the
newly created Yugoslavia and was dominated by a Serbian monarchy
until WW II.
(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)
1918 An attempt to establish a
Moldovan Soviet failed and Romanian troops occupied the province.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)
1918 Some 1,000 pilot whales
became stranded on the Chatham Islands in the biggest recorded mass
stranding on the New Zealand coast.
1918 The heir to Romania's
throne, Prince Carol, secretly married Zizi Lambrino, a Romanian
aristocrat. The marriage was later annulled because by law Romania's
heir to the throne was obliged to marry a foreign princess. Their
child, Mircea Grigore, was then regarded as an illegitimate son.
Mircea, filed a request in a Lisbon court in 1955, demanding to be
recognized as Carol's legitimate son. His request was granted.
1918 In Russia Lenin
established the Collegium on Affairs of Museums and Protection of
Monuments of Art and Antiquity.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.33)
1918 In Russia Jacob Ivanovich
Moiseeff of Minsk headed the Trans-Siberian Railway. His daughter
Nadya Jacobova Moiseeva was born in 1918 and escaped to Shanghai
after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931.
(SFC, 12/2/97, p.A22)
1918 Nikolay Bukharin, member
of the central committee of the Bolshevik Party and editor of
Pravda, led the "Left Communists" in opposition to V.I. Lenin's
signing the Brest-Litovsk treaty with Germany and withdrawing Russia
from World War I. Bukharin-a major Marxist theoretician and
economist-and the Left Communists proposed to transform the war into
a general European revolution.
1918 Idel-Ural (Volga-Ural), a
1917 union of Finno-Ugric people in the middle of Russia, was
crushed by the Bolsheviks. Its foreign minister Sadri Maqsudi Arsal
was welcomed in Finland and then Estonia.
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.73)
1918 Lawrence of Arabia blew up
the Hijaz railway line in Saudi Arabia.
(Econ, 4/25/09, p.70)
1918 The Swiss Fatherland
Association, an anti-Semitic and anti-immigration, group was
(SFC, 6/10/98, p.A10)
1918 Arab Prince Faisal
(1885-1933), aka Feisal, took control of Syria.
(ON, 10/05, p.9)(Econ, 2/8/14, p.79)
1918-1919 Herbert Hoover directed the American
Relief Administration under Pres. Wilson.
(AH, 12/02, p.20)
1918-1919 The Influenza Pandemic killed between
20 and 40 million people worldwide. It has been cited as one of the
most devastating epidemics in history, its toll surpassing the
number of people killed in WWI and the Black Death Plague outbreak
of 1347 to 1351. More than 28% of Americans were infected with
influenza and 600,000 died, suffocating as their lungs filled with
fluid. As the numbers of patients soared, medical personnel and
facilities were overwhelmed and emergency tent hospitals, such as
the one seen above, were established in many cities. At the height
of the epidemic, the death rate was so high that a nationwide
shortage of gravediggers and caskets resulted. While the terrifying
epidemic continued into 1919, the number of deaths began to decline
in November 1918, as the number of susceptible people dwindled.
1918-1921 The war of attrition continues in
Russia. The Belarussians or White Russians, joined by many émigrés,
almost destroy the Communist Revolution but fail.
1918-1922 Mehmed VI succeeded Mehmed V in the
Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1918-1993 Sascha Brastoff designed ceramics,
plastics and decorative accessories and enamels on copper in West
Los Angeles from 1953-1973. His firm was called Sascha Brastoff of
(SFC, 4/7/99, Z1 p.7)
1919 Jan 1, J.D. Salinger,
American novelist, was born in NYC. In 1951 Jerome David Salinger
published "The Catcher in the Rye," which became a bible for
(SFC, 1/29/10, p.A1)
1919 Jan 1-1919 Dec 31, In 2007
this period was covered in Ann Hagedorn’s book: “Savage Peace: Hope
and Fear in America, 1919."
(WSJ, 4/27/07, p.P9)
1919 Jan 2, Calvin Coolidge
(1872-1933) was inaugurated as governor of Massachusetts.
1919 Jan 5, British ships
shelled the Bolshevik headquarters in Riga.
1919 Jan 5, The National
Socialist Party (Nazi) formed.
1919 Jan 6, The 26th president
of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, died in Oyster Bay, N.Y.,
at age 60. "Put out the light" were his last words. In 1920 his
autobiography was published by Scribner. In 1997 H.W. Brands
published the biography: "T.R.: The Last Romantic." Around 1954
Carleton Putnam (d.1998), dropped his position as chairman of Delta
Airlines and wrote the biography: "Theodore Roosevelt", that covered
the first 28 years of Roosevelt’s life. Theodore Roosevelt coined
the term "Good to the last drop," used by Maxwell House Coffee. The
original Maxwell House hotel was in Nashville, Tenn. In 1980 Edmund
Morris authored the Pulitzer Prize winning Vol 1: "The Rise of
Theodore Roosevelt." In 1997 "T.R. The Last Romantic" by H.W. Brands
was published. In 2001 Edmund Morris authored Vol 2: "Theodore Rex."
In 2004 the Library of America published “Theodore Roosevelt:
Letters and Speeches; The rough Riders, an Autobiography."
(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)(AP, 1/6/98)(SFC, 3/17/98,
p.A20)(SFC, 6/27/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 9/27/99, p.A32)(ON, 12/99,
p.12)(WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A16)(SFC, 10/21/04, p.E1)
1919 Jan 13, Jackie Robinson,
baseball star, was born. He broke the apartheid ban in 1947.
(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.B14)
1919 Jan 13, Robert Stack,
actor best know for his role as Elliot Ness in the TV series "The
Untouchables," was born.
1919 Jan 13, California voted
to ratify the Prohibition amendment.
1919 Jan 14, Andy Rooney,
American humorist, author and television personality, was born. He
appeared on the TV program "60 Minutes."
1919 Jan 15, In Boston an
explosion opened a tank of molasses and the cylindrical sides
toppled outward knocking down 10 nearby buildings. 2 million gallons
of molasses oozed onto the streets and killed 21 people. Another 50
were injured [see 1872].
1919 Jan 15, Karl Liebknecht
(47), Marxist revolutionary, was murdered.
1919 Jan 15, Rosa Luxemburg
(b.1870), Marxist revolutionary, was murdered.
1919 Jan 15, Peasants in
Central Russia rose against the Bolsheviks.
1919 Jan 16, Nebraska, Wyoming
and Missouri became the 36th, 37th and 38th states to ratify
Prohibition, which went into effect a year later. Prohibition became
law in the US with the passage of the Volstead Act on Oct 28, which
enforced and defined the 18th Amendment. It was passed over
President Wilson's veto with the necessary two-thirds majority of
(WSJ, 8/22/96, p.A14)(AP, 1/16/98)
1919 Jan 17, San Francisco
reinstated a mask law after some 600 new cases of the flu were
reported in a single day. The law was rescinded in February and by
the fall the epidemic was over.
(SFC, 9/12/15, p.C2)
1919 Jan 17, Pianist and
statesman Ignace Jan Paderewski became the first premier of the
newly created republic of Poland.
1919 Jan 18, The World War I
Peace Congress, held to negotiate peace treaties ending World War I,
opened in Versailles, France.
1919 Jan 19, John H. Johnson
(d.2005), editor and publisher of Ebony and Jet magazines, was born
(HN, 1/19/99)(SFC, 8/8/05, p.B4)
1919 Jan 21, The German Krupp
plant began producing guns under the U.S. armistice terms.
1919 Jan 21, Several IRA
members acting independently at Soloheadbeg, in County Tipperary,
led by Seán Treacy, Seamus Robinson, Sean Hogan and Dan Breen,
attacked and shot two Royal Irish Constabulary officers, Constables
James McDonnell and Patrick O'Connell, who were escorting
1919 Jan 23, Ernie Kovacs, U.S.
comedian, was born. His "The Ernie Kovacs Show" introduced viewers
to his off-beat sense of humor.
1919 Jan 24, In Russia Grand
Prince Pavel Alexandrovich, a son of Czar Alexander II, and grand
princes Nikolai Mikhailovich, Georgy Mikhailovitch and Dmitry
Konstantinovich, nephews of the czar, were executed at the Peter and
Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg. They were posthumously
rehabilitated in 1999 by the Russian office of the prosecutor
(SFC, 6/10/99, p.C3)
1919 Jan 25, The League of
Nations plan was adopted by the Allies.
1919 Jan 27, Endre Ady
(b.1877), Hungarian lyric poet, died.
(Sm, 3/06, p.79)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ady.htm)
1919 Jan 31, Jackie Robinson,
first black major league baseball player, was born.
1919 Feb 1, Andrea King
(d.2003), Hollywood film star, was born in Paris, France, as
Georgette Andre Barry.
(SFC, 5/9/03, p.A22)
1919 Feb 1, "There she is..."
The first Miss America was crowned on this day, not in Atlantic
City, but in New York City. Edith Hyde was not, the judges found, a
Miss. She was a Mrs. Mrs. Tod Robbins—the mother of two children.
(440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1919 Feb 3, Eamon de Valera,
Sinn Fein leader, and 2 other men escaped from England’s Lincoln
Jail and made their way home to Ireland.
(ON, 9/04, p.7)
1919 Feb 3, League of Nations
held its 1st meeting in Paris.
1919 Feb 4, City of Bremen's
Soviet Republic was overthrown.
1919 Feb 5, Aaron Chwatt
(d.2006) was born in NYC. He later established himself as a Borscht
Circuit comic and became known as Red Buttons, comic film and TV
(SFC, 7/14/06, p.B9)
1919 Feb 6, The 1st day of
5-day Seattle general strike, the first general strike in America,
took effect. During this period Washington was a center for the
Industrial Workers of the World, also known as the "Wobblies." Their
agitation led to the Centralia massacre and the Everett massacre.
(WSJ, 12/3/99, p.A14)(MC, 2/6/02)
1919 Feb 8, Lithuanian and
German military forces forced the Bolsheviks from Kedainiai.
Feb 11, Eva Gabor (d.1995), actress, was born in Budapest, Hungary.
1919 Feb 13, Tennessee Ernie
Ford, country and gospel singer, was born.
1919 Feb 14, The United Parcel
Service was incorporated in Oakland, CA.
1919 Feb 15, The American
Legion was organized in Paris.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1919 Feb 16, Sir Mark Sykes
(b.1879), best known for the 1916 Sykes-Picot agreement dividing up
the Middle East in anticipation of the fall of the Ottoman Empire,
died of Spanish flu in Paris. In 2008 an Oxford team took tissue
samples before reburying his body in its grave in East Yorkshire.
They hoped to find clues that might help fight a future global
1919 Feb 17, Germany signed an
armistice giving up territory in Poland.
1919 Feb 18, Jack Palance
(d.2006), later film and TV star, was born as Volodymir Ivanovich
Palahniuk in Latimer Mines, Pa.
(SFC, 11/11/06, p.B6)
1919 Feb 19, The First Pan
African Congress met in Paris, France.
1919 Feb 23, Fascist Party was
formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini. [see Mar 23]
1919 Feb 25, Oregon introduced
the first state tax on gasoline at one cent per gallon, to be used
for road construction.
(HN, 2/25/98)(AP, 2/25/98)
1919 Feb 26, Congress
established Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.17)(AP, 2/26/98)
1919 Feb 26, Acadia National
Park was established as Lafayette National Park in Maine.
1919 Feb 27, 1st public
performance of Gustav Holst's "Planets."
1919 Feb 27, The
Bolsheviks took Lithuania and joined it with Belarus as a single
Soviet republic. Litbel lasted until June 25.
1919 Mar 1, Lawrence
Ferlinghetti, US beat poet (Coney Island of the Mind), was born.
[see Mar 24]
1919 Mar 1, The Korean
coalition proclaimed their independence from Japan. 33 Koreans
gathered in a local restaurant to read a declaration of independence
that ignited a series of demonstrations against Japanese occupation.
The March 1st movement led millions of Koreans to take to the
streets to protest against Japanese rule. Thousands were killed and
many ended up in Keijo’s Seodaemun prison.
(SSFC, 2/24/13, p.M3)(Econ, 8/15/15, p.34)
1919 Mar 2, The 1st congress of
Communist Int’l. opened at the Kremlin.
1919 Mar 3, The US Supreme
Court ruled that falsely shouting “Fire!" in a crowded theater is
not protected by the first amendment. "Shouting fire in a crowded
theater" is a misquote that refers to Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.'s
opinion in the US Supreme Court case Schenck v. United States and
that is used to express the limits upon which free speech may be
expressed under the terms of the First Amendment of the United
1919 Mar 3, Boeing flew the
first U.S. international airmail from Vancouver, British Columbia to
1919 Mar 3, Communist Party in
Germany announced a general strike.
1919 Mar 4, Czech Legions shot
and killed some 50 German demonstrators, including women and
children, in Sudetenland.
1919 Mar 8, Reports from Paris
indicated that 6,000 American men had married French women in the
1919 Mar 11, A general strike
in Germany was crushed.
1919 Mar 14, Max Shulman,
novelist (Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, Tender Trap), was born.
1919 Mar 14, In France Emile
Cottin was condemned to death for the attempt on the life of
1919 Mar 15-17, The American
Legion was founded in Paris by members of the American Expeditionary
1919 Mar 17, Nat "King" Cole,
American jazz pianist and singer, was born. He is famous for
"Unforgettable" and "Mona Lisa."
1919 Mar 19, A typhoid epidemic
raged in Petrograd, Russia, killing 200 daily.
1919 Mar 22, The first
international airline service was inaugurated on a weekly schedule
between Paris and Brussels.
1919 Mar 23, Benito Mussolini
founded his Fascist political movement in Milan, Italy. [see Feb 23]
1919 Mar 23, Bashkir ASSR
(Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) in the RSFSR (Russian
Socialist Federal Soviet Republic) was constituted.
1919 Mar 23, Moscow's
Politburo-Central Committee formed.
1919 Mar 24, Lawrence
Ferlinghetti, 'beat' poet, was born. [see Mar 1]
1919 Mar 25, Jeanne Cagney,
actress (Lion is in the Streets, Quicksand), was born.
1919 Mar 25, The Paris Peace
Commission adopted a plan to protect nations from the influx of
1919 Mar 30, Gandhi announced
resistance against Rowlatt Act.
1919 Apr 1, Joseph E. Murray,
transplant physician, was born.
1919 Apr 2, Ian Hunter,
impresario, was born.
1919 Apr 3, Austria expelled
1919 Apr 4, Antony Tudor,
choreographer (Metropolitan Opera 1957), was born in England.
1919 Apr 4, Antanas Smetona
began serving as the 1st president of Lithuania.
1919 Apr 5, Eamon de Valera
became Taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland (Dail Eireann).
(HN, 5/5/97)(MC, 4/5/02)
1919 Apr 5, Polish Army
executed 35 young Jews.
1919 Apr 8, [Douglas] Ian
Smith, premier of Rhodesia, was born. He was Premier of the British
Colony of Southern Rhodesia (13 Apr 1964 - 11 Nov 1965) and Prime
Minister of the Republic of Rhodesia (11 Nov 1965 - 1 Jun 1979). He
was Premier of the British Colony of Southern Rhodesia (13 Apr 1964
- 11 Nov 1965) and Prime Minister of the Republic of Rhodesia (11
Nov 1965 - 1 Jun 1979).
1919 Apr 10, Emiliano Zapata
(b.c1877), a leader of Mexico's indigenous people during the Mexican
Revolution, was assassinated by a government emissary who had come
to his southern stronghold in the state of Morelos for peace
negotiations. His native language was Nahuatl of the Aztecs.
(SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-10)(MC, 4/10/02)
1919 Apr 12, Maurice Girodias,
French publisher, was born.
1919 Apr 13, Madalyn Murray
O'Hair, American atheist (opposed prayer in school), was born.
1919 Apr 13, In the Amritsar
Massacre British forces under the command of General Reginald Dyer
killed hundreds of Indian nationalists in the thickly crowded plaza
at Jallianwala Bagh.
(HN, 4/13/98)(EWH, 4th ed., p.1101)
1919 Apr 15, Charles Steale
shot his oil-well filled photo: "Pictorial Map of Burkburnett,
(SFC, 9/26/96, p.E1)
1919 Apr 15, Jane Arminda
Delano (b.1862), founder of the American Red Cross Nursing Service,
died in France while on a Red Cross mission and was buried there.
She was posthumously awarded the US Distinguished Service Medal, the
1st female recipient. In 1920 She was brought back to the U.S. and
re-interred in Arlington National Cemetery.
1919 Apr 16, Merce Cunningham,
American dancer and choreographer, was born.
1919 Apr 20, Polish Army
captured Vilno (Vilnius), Lithuania from Soviet Army.
1919 Apr 28, The first jump
with an Army Air Corp (rip-cord type) parachute was made by Les
(HN, 4/28/98)(MC, 4/28/02)
1919 Apr 29, A parcel bomb
aimed at US Senator Thomas Hardwick and designed to explode on May
day, exploded unsuccessfully. It was one of nearly 30 devices sent
by anarchist groups to politicians, judges and businessmen.
(Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)
1919 Apr 30, US postal workers
discovered 30 booby-trap bombs in the national mail system,
targeting several members of congress and other public figures.
Investigators later implicated a network of anarchists and radicals
who were rounded up and deported.
(SFC, 5/1/09, p.B2)
1919 May 1, Dan O'Herlihy,
actor (Fail Safe, Last Starfighter, Robocop), was born in Ireland.
1919 May 1, In Indonesia Mount
Kelud erupted. A powerful explosion that could be heard hundreds of
miles away destroyed dozens of villages and killed at least 5,160
when a boiling crater lake broke through the crater wall killing
people in 104 small villages.
(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)(AP, 11/3/07)
1919 May 1, In Mexico Pancho
Villa married Soledad Seanez Holguin. This was recognized by the
state in 1946 after proof showed the pair had both a civil and a
(SFC, 7/13/96, p. A19)
1919 May 2, The first U.S. air
passenger service started.
1919 May 3, Betty Compden,
lyricist, was born.
1919 May 3, Pete Seeger
(d.2014), American folksinger and songwriter, was born in NYC. His
father was a musicologist and his mother a concert violinist. Seeger
helped to lay the foundation for American protest music, singing out
about the plight of everyday working folks and urging listeners to
political and social activism.
1919 May 13, Atlantic City, NJ,
became the site of the 1st municipal airport in the US.
(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)
1919 May 4, Some 3,000 young
scholars from 13 colleges and universities rallied at Tiananmen
Square to protest the loss of Shandong province to the Japanese
under the Versailles Treaty at the Paris Peace Conference. German
concessions in China were bequeathed to Japan. Among the protestors
were people who helped form the Communist Party.
(SFC, 6/25/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/17/99, p.A21)(Econ,
1919 May 5, George London,
bass-baritone (The Flying Dutchman, Wotan, Scarpia. Rigoletto), was
born in Montreal, Canada.
1919 May 6, Paris Peace
Conference disposed of German colonies; German East Africa was
assigned to Britain & France, German SW Africa to South Africa.
1919 May 6, Frank Lyman Baum
(62), American author, died in Los Angeles. In 1897 he wrote and
published “Mother Goose in Prose," a collection of Mother Goose
rhymes written as prose stories, and illustrated by Maxfield
Parrish. Baum and illustrator W. W. Denslow published “The Wonderful
World of Oz" in 1900.
1919 May 7, Eva (Evita) Peron,
first lady of Argentina, was born. She helped her husband, Juan,
1919 May 8, The first
transatlantic flight took-off by a US Navy seaplane.
1919 May 9, Arthur English,
comedian, actor (Malachi's Cove), was born.
1919 May 9, James Reese Europe
(b.1881), jazz band leader and founder of the NYC Clef Club, died
after he was stabbed during the intermission of a performance at
Mechanic’s Hall in Boston. Europe led the Clef Club Symphony
Orchestra before WW I and during the war led a US Army band in the
all-black 369th Infantry Regiment, which was attached to the French
Army. In 1995 Reid Badger authored “A Life in Ragtime," a biography
1919 May 14, The first
transatlantic flight by a U.S. Navy seaplane began at Chatham Naval
Air Station in Mass. [see May 27]
(WSJ, 9/10/99, p.W6)
1919 May 16, Liberace (d.1987),
pianist, was born in a Milwaukee suburb as Wladziu Valentino
Liberace. At 17 he debuted with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. He
later averaged an income of $5 million for over 35 years.
(SSFM, 4/29/01, p.22)
1919 May 18, Margot Fonteyn
(d.1991), ballet dancer, was born in Surrey, England, as Peggy
1919 May 19, Mustafa Kemal
arrived in Samsun, Anatolia, to start the National Struggle.
1919 May 20, Volcano Kelut on
Java erupted killing 550. [see May 1]
1919 May 22, The Orteig Prize
was offered by New York hotel owner Raymond Orteig for the first
allied aviator(s) to fly from New York to Paris or vice versa. This
was a few weeks before Alcock and Brown successfully completed the
first non-stop crossing of the Atlantic.
1919 May 25, Gino Negri,
composer, was born.
1919 May 25, Madame C.J. Walker
(b.1867 as Sarah Breedlove), black, wealthy cosmetics manufacturer,
died at age 51. In 2003 Beverly Lowry authored "Her Dream of Dreams:
The Rise and Triumph of Madame C.J. Walker."
(WSJ, 4/22/03, D7)(SSFC, 10/24/04, Par p.4)
1919 May 26, Jay Silverheels,
actor, was born. He played Tonto in The Lone Ranger TV series
1919 May 27, The first
transatlantic flight was completed by a U.S. Navy seaplane. U.S.
Navy Curtiss flying boat NC-4, piloted by Lt. Cmdr. Albert C. Read,
arrived safely in Lisbon, Portugal, to become the first aircraft to
complete a transatlantic flight. Three aircraft, designated NC-1,
NC-3 and NC-4--called "Nancy" boats--had taken off from New York's
Rockaway Naval Air Station [Chatham Naval Air Station in Mass.] for
Lisbon on May 8, with intermediate stops planned for Newfoundland
and the Azores. Only NC-4 completed the 3,925-mile transatlantic
flight. Heavy rain and fog forced NC-1 down at sea, where it sank on
May 17. NC-3, came down in rough seas and taxied 200 miles into the
harbor at Horta in the Azores.
(HN, 5/27/98)(HNPD, 5/27/99)
1919 May 28, May Swenson, poet,
1919 May 28, The Armenian
National Council declared the independence of Armenia under the
leadership of Aram Manukian. [see Dec 2, 1918]
1919 May 29, A solar eclipse
occurred that was photographed by two British expeditions, one in
Africa and the other in Sobral, Brazil. Arthur Eddington, British
astronomer, confirmed Einstein’s prediction of the deflection of
light from Principe, a Portuguese island off the Atlantic coast of
Africa. In 1980 Harry Colling and Trevor Pinch published "The
Golem," an account of the expedition. The play “Rose Tattoo" by
Tennessee (Thomas Lanier) Williams was originally titled “The
Eclipse of May 29, 1919."
1919 May 29, Charles P. Strite
of Minnesota filed for a patent for a pop-up toaster. His US patent:
1,394,450 was issued October 18, 1921.
1919 Jun 2, There were
coordinated bombings in Washington, DC, and 6 other cities. Militant
followers of anarchist Luigi Galleani were blamed. A campaign this
month involved 8 bombs that killed several people including an
1919 Jun 4, The U.S. Senate
passed the Women’s Suffrage bill.
1919 Jun 4, US marines invaded
1919 Jun 5, Richard Scarry,
Children's author and illustrator, was born.
1919 Jun 6, Finland declared
war on Bolsheviks.
1919 Jun 11, Richard Todd,
actor (Dorian Gray, Assassin Yangtze Incident), was born in Ireland.
1919 Jun 11, Sir Barton won the
Belmont Stakes, becoming horse racing’s first Triple Crown winner.
1919 Jun 11, Eamon de Valera,
Sinn Fein leader, arrived in NYC where he lived until 1921 raising
funds for the nationalist cause in Ireland.
(ON, 9/04, p.7)
Jun 14, The US Congress passed the 19th amendment granting suffrage
to American women.
1919 Jun 14, Pilot John William
Alcock (1892-1919) and navigator Arthur Witten Brown (1886-1948)
took off from St. John’s, Newfoundland, for Clifden, Ireland, on the
first nonstop transatlantic flight. The flight lasted 16 hours and
28 minutes and carried the first transatlantic airmail. They won a
10 thousand pound prize, first offered by the Daily Mail in 1913.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Whitten_Brown)(ON, 4/09, p.1)
1919 Jun 17, The "Barney
Google" cartoon strip by Billy DeBeck premiered. In 1924 he
introduced a horse named spark Plug to the strip.
1919 Jun 19, Pauline Kael,
American movie critic, was born. She wrote I lost it at the Movies.
(DTnet, 6/19/97)(AP, 6/19/99)
1919 Jun 19, Mustafa Kemal
founded the Turkish National Congress at Angora (later Ankara) and
denounced the Treaty of Versailles.
1919 Jun 20, Treaty of
Versailles: Germany ended the incorporation of Austria. [see Jun 28]
1919 Jun 21, German sailors
under Admiral von Reuter scuttled 72 warships at Scapa Flow in the
Orkneys even though Germany had surrendered. It was the greatest act
of self-destruction in modern military history.
(HN, 6/21/98)(Camelot, 6/21/99)(MC, 6/21/02)
1919 Jun 26, The New York Daily
News, America's first tabloid, was first published.
(AP, 6/26/99)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1919 Jun 28, Harry S. Truman
married Elizabeth Virginia Wallace in Independence, Mo.
1919 Jun 28, The Treaty of
Versailles was signed in France, ending (WW I) World War I. The
first world war began in 1914 and ended on this date. Germany signed
the Treaty of Versailles under protest. Books by participants
included "Peacemaking" by Harold Nicolson; "The Economic
Consequences of the Peace" by John Maynard Keynes; and "The Truth
About the Peace Treaties" by David Lloyd George. In 2000 Richard
Holmes authored "The Western Front." Nearly 1 million British died
and nearly 2 million each for France, Germany, Russia and Turkey. In
2002 Margaret MacMillan authored "Paris 1919: Six Months That
Changed the World."
(HFA, ‘96, p.32)(AP, 6/28/97)(HN, 6/28/98)(WSJ,
8/16/00, p.A20)(SSFC, 12/15/02, p.M3)
1919 The Versailles conference
gave Norway sovereignty over the island of Svalbard, but allowed
other countries to establish settlements there.
(Econ, 10/2/04, p.52)
1919 Jun 30, Susan Hayward,
actress, was born.
1919 Jun 30, John William
Strutt (b.1842), 3rd Baron Rayleigh and British physicist and Nobel
Prize winner (1904), died in England. His work included the
discovery of the phenomenon now called Rayleigh scattering,
explaining why the sky is blue.
1919 Jun, The US deported
Italian anarchist Luigi Galleani (1861-1931) along with eight of his
adherents. He had lived in the US since 1901. He believed that
spontaneous violence would bring about the end of the capitalist
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luigi_Galleani)(SFC, 11/22/14, p.C4)
1919 Jul 2, Johnny Bradford,
actor (Ransom Sherman Show), was born in Long Branch, NJ.
1919 Jul 4, Jack Dempsey, the
"Manassa Mauler", defeated Jess Willard by a knockout in Toledo,
Ohio, after three rounds to become the World's Heavyweight Boxing
(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1919 Jul 4, Max Wolf discovered
asteroid #914 Palisana.
1919 Jul 4, The ADGB
(Allgemeine Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund) party was formed.
1919 Jul 7, William Moses
Kunstler, defense attorney (Chicago 8), was born.
1919 Jul 7, The U.S. Army’s
First Transcontinental Motor Train left Washington, D.C., bound for
San Francisco. The 62-day journey crossed 3,250 miles. In 2002 Peter
Davies authored "American Road," an account of the trip.
(HN, 3/7/01)(WSJ, 7/19/02, p.W9)
1919 Jul 8, President Wilson
received a tumultuous welcome in New York City after his return from
the Versailles Peace Conference in France.
1919 Jul 10, President Wilson
personally delivered the Treaty of Versailles to the Senate and
urged its ratification.
1919 Jul 15, Iris Murdoch
(d.1999), philosopher-novelist, was born in Dublin. She wrote 28
novels and in 1998 published "Existentialists and Mystics," a
collection of writings from 1950 to the 1980s. Herein she tried to
"recover the moral dimension of art."
1919 Jul 19, Raymonde de
Larouche (1882-1919), French actress and aviatrix, died in a plane
crash at Le Crotoy airport in France.
1919 Jul 20, Sir Edmund
Hillary, the first man reach the summit of Mount Everest, was born
in New Zealand.
1919 Jul 21, A dirigible
crashed through a bank skylight killing 13 in Chicago.
1919 Jul 21, The British House
of Lords ratified the Versailles Treaty.
1919 Jul 21, Anthony Fokker
established an airplane factory at Hamburg and Amsterdam.
1919 Jul 24, A race riot in
Washington, DC, left 6 killed and 100 wounded.
1919 Jul 24, LaVerne Noyes
(b.1849), American inventor, died. His inventions included the
akromotor, a device that converted wind to electricity, and a
1919 Jul 26, James Lovelock,
British biologist and inventor, was born. He developed the Gaia
hypothesis. According to this idea the earth is influenced by life
to sustain life, and the planet is the core of a single, unified,
living system. "The earth is a living organism, and I’ll stick by
that," he says.
1919 Jul 27, In a Chicago race
riot 15 whites and 23 blacks were killed with 500 injured.
1919 Jul 30, Federal troops
were called out to put down Chicago race riots.
1919 Jul 31, Curt Gowdy
(d.2006), later leading sports announcer, was born in Green River,
(SFC, 2/21/06, p.B5)
1919 Jul 31, Primo Levi,
Italian writer and scientist (Survival in Auschwitz), was born.
1919 Jul 31, Germany's Weimar
Constitution was adopted by the republic's National Assembly. The
Weimar Republic became Germany’s 1st democratic government.
(AP, 7/31/97)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)(SSFC, 8/1/04,
1919 Aug 1, In Hungary Bela
Kun's government fell in the face of invasions from both the Czechs,
Romanians and a French-sponsored counter-revolutionary force, led by
Admiral Miklos Horthy de Nagybanya, which succeeded in establishing
Horthy in government for many years.
1919 Aug 8, Dino De Laurentiis,
producer (King Kong), was born in Torre Annunziata, Italy.
1919 Aug 9, Ruggiero
Leoncavallo (62), Italian composer (Pagliacci), died.
1919 Aug 10, Ukrainian National
Army massacred 25 Jews in Podolia, Ukraine.
1919 Aug 11, The Green Bay
Packers football was club founded.
1919 Aug 11, Andrew Carnegie
(b.1835), industrialist, philanthropist, and founder of Carnegie
Steel, died. Carnegie became a philanthropist in later life, giving
away more than $350 million and building 2,509 public libraries. His
value in 1999 dollars totaled $100 billion." The man who dies rich
dies disgraced," was the motto of Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie‘s last
years were spent giving away as much money as possible in an effort
to shed his image as one of the era‘s leading “robber barons." Among
other bequests to good causes, he established the Carnegie Institute
of Technology and hundreds of Carnegie Free Public Libraries across
the U.S. In 2005 Les Standiford authored “Meet You In Hell," an
account of the rivalry between Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick. In
2006 David Nasaw authored “Andrew Carnegie."
(SFEC, 5/23/99, Par p.7)(HNQ, 4/21/00)(WSJ,
7/29/05, p.W8)(SSFC, 10/22/06, p.M3)
1919 Aug 11, Germany's Weimar
Constitution was signed by President Friedrich Ebert.
1919 Aug 12, Peter Ambrose
Cyprian Luke, playwright, was born.
1919 Aug 12, Michael Kidd
[Milton Greenwald], choreographer (7 Brides for 7 Bros), was born.
1919 Aug 13, Rex Humbard,
televangelist, was born.
1919 Aug 18, Anti-Cigarette
League of America formed in Chicago, Illinois.
1919 Aug 19, Malcolm Forbes
(d.1990), publisher of Forbes magazine, was born in Brooklyn, NY. "I
don't waste too much time philosophizing about wealth, I just
recommend it to everyone."
1919 Aug 19, Afghanistan
established independence from the UK with the signing of the Treaty
1919 Aug 23, The "Gasoline
Alley" cartoon strip premiered in Chicago Tribune.
1919 Aug 25, George C. Wallace,
governor of Alabama and presidential candidate who led the fight to
keep segregation in the South, was born in Clio, Ala.
(HN, 8/25/98)(MC, 8/25/02)
1919 Aug 25, The 1st scheduled
passenger service by airplane between Paris and London.
1919 Aug 28, Godfrey
Hounsfield, British inventor of the EMI-scanner, was born.
1919 Aug 31, John Reed formed
the Communist Labor Party in Chicago, with the motto, "Workers of
the world unite!"
(HN, 8/31/98)(YN, 8/31/99)(MC, 8/31/01)
1919 Aug 31, The Ukrainian
(Petlyura) Army recaptured Kiev. Petlyura's Ukrainian Army killed 35
members of a Jewish defense group.
1919 Aug, The British regime
banned Ireland’s Sinn Fein.
1919 Sep 2, Marge Champion,
dancer (Marge & Gower Champion Show), was born in LA,
1919 Sep 9, Most of Boston's
1,500-member police force went on strike. The city’s police
commissioner fired the strikers and Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933), who
was running for governor, came out in support of the firings.
(AP, 9/9/99)(AH, 6/07,
1919 Sep 10, Robert B. Leighton
(d.3/9/97), physicist, was born in Detroit.
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)
1919 Sep 10, New York City
welcomed home Gen. John J. Pershing and 25,000 soldiers who had
served in the U.S. First Division during World War I.
1919 Sep 10, The Treaty of
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed by the victorious Allies of World
War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria on the
1919 Sep 11, US marines invaded
1919 Sep 12, Adolf Hitler
joined the German Worker's Party. In 2004 Robert O. Paxton authored
"The Anatomy of Fascism," on the rise and fall of Hitler and
(HN, 9/12/98)(SSFC, 4/4/04, p.M3)
1919 Sep 16, The American
Legion was formally chartered by an act of Congress.
1919 Sep 17, The US saluted
Gen. John J. Pershing and soldiers returning from WWI in a parade up
Pennsylvania Ave. in Washington DC.
(AH, 10/04, p.14)
1919 Sep 19, Blanche Thebom,
mezzo-soprano (Amneris-Aida), was born in Monessen, Penn.
1919 Sep 22, President Woodrow
Wilson abandoned his national tour to support the League of Nations
when he suffered a case of nervous exhaustion.
1919 Sep 22, Steel workers at
Gary, Ind., went on strike to force US Steel to recognize their
union. The walkout ended in 110 days without success.
(PCh, 1992, p.734)(MC, 9/22/01)
1919 Sep 25, Pres. Wilson
collapsed in Pueblo, Colorado. An ailing President Woodrow Wilson
was faced with the possibility that the Senate might not ratify the
Versailles Treaty ending World War I without substantial changes.
Wilson embarked on a grueling railroad tour of America to sway
public opinion in favor of his version of the Treaty, delivering 40
speeches in less than a week. He warned America that without the
Treaty, "there will be another world war" within a single
generation. He was rushed back to a White House sickroom but there
suffered a stroke on October 2. For the five weeks Wilson’s life was
in danger, his doctor and Mrs. Edith Bolling Galt Wilson, shown here
in a posed photograph taken after the crisis had passed, kept the
president isolated, but did not declare him unfit to perform his
presidential duties. By November 1, Wilson once again governed the
country, although he was left partially paralyzed, weak and
demoralized. In March 1920, the Senate finally rejected the Treaty
(AP, 9/25/97)(HNPD, 9/25/98)
1919 Sep 27, British troops
withdrew from Archangel.
1919 Sep 27, Adelina [Adela JM]
Patti, Italian soprano (Lucio), died at 76.
1919 Sep, The British regime
banned the Irish Parliament (Dail Eireann).
1919 Oct 1, In baseball’s World
Series the Chicago White Sox faced the Cincinnati Reds in a best of
9 games. The White Sox intentionally threw the series to satisfy
gamblers in what became known as the Black Sox Scandal. 8 players
were banned from baseball for life. In 1963 Eliot Asinof described
the events in his book “Eight men Out." The 1988 baseball film
"Eight Men Out" was directed by John Sayles.
(SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.8)(SFC, 7/14/96, DB
p.33)(AH, 10/04, p.14)
1919 Oct 1, Black sharecroppers
gathered at Elaine, Arkansas, to secure a more equitable price for
their products. When a white deputy sheriff and a railroad
detective, arrived at the church, a fight broke out between them and
the guards in which the railroad detective was killed and the deputy
sheriff was wounded. This led to 3 days of fighting and the killing
of 5 white men and close to 200 black men, women and children. The
Arkansas state court later sentenced 12 sharecroppers to death and a
5-year legal battle ensued. In 2008 Robert Whitaker authored “"On
the Laps of Gods: The Red Summer of 1919 and the Struggle for
Justice That Remade a Nation."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaine_Race_Riot)(SSFC, 7/27/08, Books
1919 Oct 2, President Wilson
suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed and
Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall was urged to assume the presidency
but he refused. It was Marshall who had earlier said: "What this
country needs is a really good five-cent cigar." The quote was
attributed to Marshall in 1920 by the SFEM.
(DFP, 7/28/96, p.J1)(SFEM, 12/15/96, p.15)(AP,
1919 Oct 3, The Serbian,
Croatian & Slavic (Yugoslavia) parliament agreed on an 8 hr work
1919 Oct 4, Rene Marques,
Puerto Rican playwright and short story writer, was born.
1919 Oct 7, Fritz Kreisler's
and F. Jacobi's "Apple Blossoms," premiered in NYC.
1919 Oct 8, The U.S. Senate and
House of Representatives passed the Volstead Prohibition Enforcement
Bill. It was named for Representative Andrew Volstead of Minnesota
and enforced the ban on the sale or consumption of alcoholic
beverages. This rang in the era of prohibition.
(HN, 10/8/98)(MC, 10/8/01)
1919 Oct 9, The Cincinnati Reds
won the World Series, defeating the Chicago White Sox 10-5 at
Comiskey Park. The victory turned hollow amid charges eight of the
White Sox had thrown the Series in what became known as the "Black
1919 Oct 11, Art Blakey, jazz
drummer, was born.
1919 Oct 11, The 1st
transcontinental air race ended.
1919 Oct 11, KLM Royal Dutch
Airlines made its debut and served a pre-packaged dinner, believed
to be the 1st in-flight meal, on a flight between London and Paris.
(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)(WSJ, 5/31/08, p.A12)
1919 Oct 16, Kathleen Winsor,
writer, was born. Her work includes "Forever Amber."
1919 Oct 17, The Radio
Corporation of America (RCA) was chartered.
1919 Oct 18, Pierre Elliott
Trudeau, (L) 15th Canadian PM (1968-79, 1980-84), was born.
1919 Oct 18, Madrid opened a
1919 Oct 19, The US
Distinguished Service Medal was awarded to a woman for the 1st time.
1919 Oct 22, Doris Lessing,
novelist, was born. Her work included "Children of Violence" and
"The Golden Notebook." Carole Klein (d.2001 at 67) later authored
"Doris Lessing: A Biography."
(HN, 10/22/00)(SFC, 7/5/01, p.D2)
1919 Oct 23, Sigmund Romberg's
musical "Passing Show," premiered in NYC.
1919 Oct 26, Elgar's Cello
Concerto premiered in Queen's Hall London.
1919 Oct 26, President Wilson's
veto of Prohibition Enforcement Bill was overridden.
1919 Oct 26, Mohammed Riza
Pahlevi, the Shah of Iran (1941-79). He was overthrown in 1979 and
died in the United States, was born.
(HN, 10/26/98)(MC, 10/26/01)
1919 Oct 27, The Axeman of New
Orleans claimed last victim.
1919 Oct 28, Congress passed
the National Prohibition Act, or Volstead Act, over President
Wilson’s veto. It was named after its promoter, Congressman Andrew
J. Volstead, and provided enforcement guidelines for the Prohibition
Amendment which had been ratified January 29.
(AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)
1919 Nov 7, US police raided
offices of Union of Russian Workers.
1919 Nov 10, The American
Legion held its first national convention, in Minneapolis.
1919 Nov 10, Moise Tshombe was
born. He became Pres. of Katanga and then premier of the Congo
1919 Nov 11, The first
2-minutes’ silence was observed in Britain to commemorate those who
died in the Great War.
1919 Nov 14, Red Army captured
1919 Nov 15, The US Senate 1st
invoked cloture to end a filibuster over the Versailles Treaty.
1919 Nov 17, Hershy Kay,
composer and arranger, was born Philadelphia, Penn.
1919 Nov 18, H. Tierney's and
J. McCarthy's musical "Irene," premiered in NYC.
1919 Nov 19, The US Senate
rejected the Treaty of Versailles by a vote of 55 in favor to 39
against, short of the two-thirds majority needed for ratification.
1919 Nov 19, Gillo Pontecorvo
(d.2006) was born in Pisa, Italy. He one of 10 children of a wealthy
Jewish industrialist and grew up to become a prominent film maker.
(SFC, 10/14/06, p.B5)
1919 Nov 22, A Labor conference
committee in the U.S. urged an eight hour work day and a 48-hour
1919 Nov 27, Bulgaria signed
peace treaty with Allies at Neuilly, France, fixing war reparations
and recognizing Yugoslavian independence.
1919 Nov 28, American-born Lady
Astor was elected the first female member of the British Parliament.
(DTnet, 11/28/97)(HN, 11/28/98)
1919 Nov 30, Women cast votes
for the first time in French legislative elections.
1919 Nov, Attorney Gen'l. A.
Mitchell Palmer ordered anti-Communist raids supported by his
assistant J. Edgar Hoover. The Palmer raids led to the arrest of
over 450 members of the Union of Russian Workers. [see Jan. 1920]
(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M6)
1919 Nov, A group of officers
of the American Brigade, 112th United Stated Infantry, left the
United States and arrived in Kaunas on December 31. They had had to
sail from Quebec because of a steamship strike in New York. They
visited Lithuanian Minister Count A. Tyszkiewicz in London, where
they first heard of the Lithuanian victory at Šiauliai over
Bermondt. Approximately 10,000 enlisted men were ready to go to
Lithuania. The US government would not allow direct transportation
so arrangements were made for them to be taken to Canada as
laborers. From there they were to sail to Riga. The expedition was
financed by the Lithuanians, with some assurance that there would be
unpublicized indirect support from the US government.
1919 Dec 1, AA Milne's "Mr. Pim
Passes By," premiered in Manchester.
1919 Dec 1, Lady Astor was
sworn in as the first female member of the British Parliament.
1919 Dec 2, Henry Clay
Frick (b.1849), coal and steel magnate, died in NYC. He partnered
with Andrew Carnegie and built of the largest coke & steel
operation of the time. In 1998 Martha Frick and Symington Sanger
authored “Henry Clay Frick." In 2005 Les Standiford authored “Meet
You In Hell," an account of the rivalry between Frick and Andrew
p.W8)(WSJ, 8/4/07, p.P9)
1919 Dec 3, Pierre A. Renoir
(78), French painter and sculptor, died.
1919 Dec 8-31, The first round
trip transcontinental flight was made from NYC to SF and back.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.4)
1919 Dec 10, Captain Ross Smith
became the first person to fly 11,500 miles from England to
1919 Dec 15, In Cairo, Egypt,
medical student Iryan Yusuf threw a bomb at the car of the prime
minister as he arrived at the Café Riche. The PM survived the
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.85)
1919 Dec 18, Horatio William
Parker (56), composer, died.
1919 Dec 18, British pilot John
William Alcock (b.1892), enroute to a Pris air show, was killed
while making a forced landing in fog near Rouen. He and navigator
Arthur Witten Brown (1886-1948) had recently completed the world’s
first nonstop transatlantic flight [see June 14].
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Whitten_Brown)(ON, 4/09, p.1)
1919 Dec 19, The Thimble
Theatre cartoon strip, by Elzie Segar (1894-1938) of Chesater, Ill.,
made its debut in the New York Journal and featured the characters
Olive Oyl, Castor Oyl, and Ham Gravy, who were the comic's leads for
about a decade. Segar added Popeye in 1929.
1919 Dec 19, American
Meteorological Society was founded.
1919 Dec 20, US House of
Representatives restricted immigration.
1919 Dec 21, J. Edgar Hoover
gallantly deported anarchist, feminist Emma Goldman to Russia for
agitating against forced conscription in the US.
(WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(MC, 12/21/01)
1919 Dec 23, The 1st hospital
ship built to move wounded naval personnel was launched.
1919 Dec 23, Alice H. Parker
patented a gas heating furnace.
1919 Dec 23, Britain instituted
a new constitution for India.
1919 Dec 24, Luisa Tetrazzini
sang for 100,000 people in front of Lotta's Fountain on Christmas
Eve. Some signal this as the culminating of San Francisco's
reconstruction. It was an unusually comfortable winter evenings and
the message to the world reinforced the image of wonderful weather
in San Francisco, even in winter.
(SFC, 12/25, 1910)
1919 Ahmed Ben Bella, Algerian
statesman, was born. He served as premier from 1962-1965.
(WUD, 1994 p.137)
1919 Iris Murdoch,
philosopher-novelist, was born in Dublin. She wrote some 26 novels
and in 1998 published "Existentialists and Mystics," a collection of
writings from 1950 to the 1980s. Herein she tries to "recover the
moral dimension of art."
(WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)
1919 Gaston Lachaise
(1882-1935), Franco-American sculptor, created his work "Dancing
(SFC, 2/2/02, p.D1)
c1919 Childe Hassam, American
impressionist, painted "California."
(WSJ, 6/2/00, p.W4)
1919 Otto Dix created his work
"Ich bin das A und das O."
(SFEC, 5/23/99, BR p.7)
1919 Amedeo Modigliani painted
another portrait of his mistress Jeanne Hebuterne. She was believed
to be pregnant in this portrait.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)
1919 Sherwood Anderson
published his linked short story collection "Winesburg, Ohio.
(SFEC, 8/15/99, BR p.1)
1919 Albert Beveridge wrote a
biography of former chief justice John Marshall.
(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A20)
1919 Christine Frederick
authored “Household Engineering: Scientific Management in the Home,"
in which she borrowed the principle of efficiency on the factory
floor and applied it to domestic tasks in the American kitchen.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.126)
1919 Hermann Hesse published
his first real literary success, "Demian," The novel about a young,
troubled adolescent’s conflict to achieve self-awareness, was
symbolized by the duality between his dream character Demian and his
real-life counterpart, Sinclair.
1919 Somerset Maugham (d.1965),
author “The Moon and Sixpence," a novel whose main character is
based on Paul Gauguin.
(Econ, 3/6/04, p.75)
1919 John Reed and Bertram
Wolfe (d.1977 at 81) wrote a manifesto that resulted in the
formation of the American Communist Party.
(SFC, 1/17/00, p.C2)
1919 George Bernard Shaw wrote
his play "Heartbreak House."
(SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.7)
1919 W.B. Yeats wrote his poem
"The Second Coming."
(SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)
1919 P.G. Wodehouse wrote his
novel "Damsel in Distress." It was dramatized in 1928 and scored for
film by George and Ira Gershwin in 1937.
(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)
1919 Movie audiences were
introduced to Felix the Cat. Otto Messmer created Felix for an
animation studio owned by Pat Sullivan, who licensed the character.
A. Schoenhut & Co. of Philadelphia (f.1872) began marketing
Felix toys in the 1920s.
(SFC, 8/31/05, p.G3)
1919 "La Lucille" by George
Gershwin, was his first Broadway play. Gershwin’s song "Swanee" was
performed by Al Jolson and Jolson’s recording in 1920 was a megahit.
(SFC, 3/9/98, p.C2)(SFEC, 8/16/98, DB p.37)(WSJ,
c1919 George Gershwin composed
"O Land of Mine" for chorus and orchestra.
(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)
1919 Richard Strauss composed
his opera "Die Frau Ohne Schatten" (The Woman Without a Shadow).
(WSJ, 12/26/01, p.A8)
1919 Louis Armstrong joined the
Fate Marable band on a riverboat. His finest recordings include
"West End Blues" and "Potato Head Blues."
(WSJ, 1/3/95, p. 8)(WSJ, 6/03/97, p.A20)
1919 Albert Einstein divorced
Mileva Maric and married his cousin and mistress Elsa Einstein
(SFC, 11/26/96, p.A7)
1919 Edgar Allen 1862-1937),
Ohio businessman, founded the National Society for Crippled
Children. In 1934 the organization launched its first Easter Seal
fundraising campaign. In 1952 it incorporated the lily flower as its
symbol. In 1967 the organization adopted Easter Seals as ifs formal
1919 James Henry Breasted
(1865-1935), archeologist, founded the Oriental Institute as part of
the Univ. of Chicago. The collection was opened to the public in
9/9/99, p.A25)(AM, 7/05, p.56)
1919 Draugas, a Lithuanian
newspaper, began daily publication. It was published by the
congregation of Lithuanian Marion fathers in Chicago.
(Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)
1919 In southern California the
Sunkist packing warehouse was built in Anaheim. In 2014 the Mission
Revival building was transformed into a food hall with more than 20
(SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P6)
1919 Musso & Frank’s
Restaurant opened and is now Hollywood’s oldest surviving eatery.
(Hem., Nov. ‘95, p.76)
1919 The Hoover Institute on
War, Revolution and Peace was founded at Stanford to track the
growth of Soviet-style communism.
(SFC, 11/27/01, p.A20)
1919 In San Francisco the
Robert Dollar Building was built at 311 California St. It was
designed by Charles McCall.
(SSFC, 5/31/15, p.C2)
1919 In San Francisco the Tosca
Café opened on Columbus Avenue in North Beach.
(SFC, 11/19/09, p.A1)
1919 James Henry Breasted
founded the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.74)
1919 The Huntington Library,
founded by H.E. Huntington, a nephew of Southern Pacific co-founder
Collis P. Huntington, was donated to the public.
(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)
1919 Cornelius Vander Starr
(1892-1968) founded "American Asiatic Underwriters" (later known as
AIG) in Shanghai. AIG left China in early 1949 as Mao Zedong led the
advance of the Communist People's Liberation Army. Starr moved the
company headquarters to NYC.
1919 Carl Linder won the Boston
Marathon. He was rejected for military service due to flat feet.
(SFEC, 7/9/00, Z1 p.2)
1919 US Pres. Woodrow Wilson
won the Nobel Peace Prize.
1919 The League of Nations was
proposed by Woodrow Wilson.
1919 The Paris Peace Conference
upheld the sovereignty of Albania with the efforts of Amer. Pres.
(Compuserve Online, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./
1919 The US Congress renamed
Sieur de Monts National Monument to Lafayette National Park.
(SFC, 7/21/96, p.T6)
1919 The first Hawaiian
statehood bill was introduced. Congressional reluctance to Hawaii’s
admission was based on concern about admitting a noncontiguous
state, fears of excessive Communist influence among unionized
workers and Southern concerns about the admission of pro-civil
rights congressmen. Hawaii’s popularly elected territorial
legislature first petitioned to become a state in 1903.
1919 In Dodge v. Ford the
Michigan Supreme Court held that Henry Ford owed a duty to the
shareholders of the Ford Motor Company to operate his business for
profitable purposes as opposed to charitable purposes.
1919 Henry Ford sued the
Chicago Tribune for libel after the newspaper called him an
"ignorant" anarchist. Ford won the suit and was awarded 6 cents. He
soon began amassing material of historical value.
(WSJ, 11/21/03, p.A7)
1918 Highland Park seceded from
Detroit, Mi. The village of Highland Park was incorporated as a city
to protect its tax base, including its successful Ford plant, from
Detroit's expanding boundaries.
1919 Texas Rep. Jose T. Canales
pushed through legislation to reform the Texas Rangers following
reports that the Rangers had killed some 5,000 Hispanics over the
previous 5 years.
(SFC, 4/12/04, p.E8)
1919 The US FBI released
“Radicalism and Sedition Among the Negroes as Reflected in Their
Publications." This was the bureau’s “first major work of book-talk"
and an early survey of the Harlem Renaissance.
(SSFC, 2/8/15, p.N4)
1919 The U.S.S. Texas was sunk
at Pocomoke Sound just south of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay
by well-placed Navy bombs.
(NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.365)
1919 Charles Ponzi of Boston
hatched a scheme that defrauded thousands of investors in a
postal-coupon scam in the 1920s. He bilked investors in a scheme of
high return similar to the "520% Miller" con of 1899. He was
convicted and spent 13 years in prison and was deported to Italy in
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 7/23/99, p.A14)(WSJ,
7/10/02, p.A8)(SSFC, 7/14/02, p.G2)
1919 A.P. Giannini of SF formed
the East National Bank in NYC.
(SFC, 4/14/98, p.B1)
1919 The Bank of North Dakota
was founded in Bismarck to lend money to farmers. As a state owned
bank the states Legislature had the authority to tap the bank’s
profit to fund government programs during tough times.
(SFC, 12/18/11, p.D2)
1919 Atlanta banker Ernest
Woodruff took Coca Cola public.
(SFC, 4/3/00, p.E1)
c1919 American Spirits
Manufacturing Co. in order to cope with prohibition, became US Food
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1919 Chalk’s Ocean Airways was
founded to fly tourists and fisherman from Florida to the Bahamas.
(SFC, 12/20/05, p.A4)
1919 Pierre DuPont gave the
presidency of the company over to his brother Irenee so as to assume
the leadership over GM which they controlled from stock purchases
with war profits.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)
1919 General Motors established
General Motors Acceptance Corp. (GMAC) to handle loans for its
sales. In 2006 Cerberus Capital Management moved to acquire a 51%
(WSJ, 4/4/06, p.A1)(Econ, 6/6/15, p.68)
1919 General Electric joined
with other technology businesses and formed the Radio Corp. of
America, which took over the assets of Marconi Wireless Telegraph
Co. of America.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1919 Henry Ford bought out all
nonfamily stockholders. Edsel B. Ford became president of the
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1919 Halliburton Corp. was
founded and focused primarily on business-to-business relationships.
In 2003 it had some 100,000 employees.
(WSJ, 10/17/03, p.A10)
1919 Reynolds Aluminum started
out as the US Foil Co. to furnish tinfoil for wrapping cigarette
(SFEC, 4/5/98, Z1 p.8)
1919 United Artists was founded
as a film distributor and later a financial backer by silent film
stars Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks Sr., Charlie Chaplin and
director D.W. Griffith. Pickford and Fairbanks were married for a
time. Her life is documented in the 1997 book: "Pickford: The Woman
Who Made Hollywood" by Eileen Whitfield.
(SFC, 7/11/97, p.E2)(SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.E6)
1919 The 1st rotary-dial
telephones were installed in Norfolk, Va.
(SFC, 7/23/04, p.C1)
1919 Air pioneers flew in the
Great London to Australia Air Derby of this year. Six planes
competed with 14 contestants. Four died in crashes, two were
arrested in Yugoslavia for spying, and two others were forced down
in Iraq and had to fend off local tribesmen with hand grenades.
(NG, 5/95, p.10)
1919 The first west-bound
transatlantic flight was made by a British airship.
(Hem., 1/96, p.108)
1919 Ernest Rutherford
announced that he had succeeded in breaking up the nucleus of a
nitrogen atom by bombarding it with high-energy alpha particles from
a radioactive source.
1919 Joseph Larmor (1857-1942),
Irish mathematician, proposed that the Earth’s magnetic field was
generated spontaneously by the swirling of molten metal inside the
(Econ, 2/3/07, p.81)
1919 The Winnetka Plan was a
widely-imitated approach to elementary education developed in
Winnetka, Illinois. The curriculum, which emphasized individualized
learning, was divided into two sections: common essentials and
creative activities. In the common essentials section, the pupil was
able to advance upon mastering the material. In the creative
section, which included music, art, and physical activities, pupils
could learn as much or as little as they wanted.
1919 US Sen. Peter Norbeck
founded the 73,000 acre Custer State Park, 20 miles south of
Keystone, South Dakota.
(SSFC, 8/4/02, p.C11)
1919 Arthur Eddington, a
British astronomer, mounted an expedition to Sobral, Brazil, to
watch an eclipse and gather data to verify Einstein's theory of
relativity. Though his results were ambiguous he claimed triumph. In
1980 Harry Colling and Trevor Pinch published "The Golem," an
account of the expedition.
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A18)
1919 Frank Woolworth, founder
of the 5&10 cent retail chain, died. His chain was renamed in
1998 to Venator Corp., a name that means sportsman in Latin.
(SFC,10/20/97, p.B2)(SFC, 4/3/98, p.E1)
1919 The Int’l. Labor
Organization (ILO) was founded in the wake of WWI, to pursue a
vision based on the premise that universal, lasting peace can be
established only if it is based on social justice. The ILO became
the first specialized agency of the UN in 1946.
1919 The first museum in
Afghanistan was instituted at Baghe Bala.
1919 Afghanistan was recognized
as a sovereign nation.
(WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A1)
1919 The Emir of Afghanistan
declared jihad against Britain’s forces in the North-West Frontier
Province. In response Britain shipped a single Handley Page biplane
bomber to Karachi. It flew over Kabul and dropped four 20-pound
bombs. The emir sued for peace shortly thereafter.
(Econ, 8/26/06, p.20)
1919 In Afghanistan Habibullah
was assassinated, and succeeded by his son Amanullah (The reform
1919 "Economic Development of
the Argentine Republic in the Past 50 Years" was published by Banco
(WSJ, 2/28/97, p.A15)
1919 Austria enacted laws that
barred the Habsburgs from public office and resulted in the
confiscation of their property.
(WSJ, 12/8/97, p.A13)
1919 Austria was obliged to pay
reparations to countries ravaged by WW I fighting.
(Econ, 6/23/07, p.97)
1919 Bahraini merchants opened
the region’s first modern school on the island state.
(NG, 5/88, p.663)
1919 The Belgian government
collected about 330 US tons of German shells and buried them near
Poelkapelle under a layer of concrete. Cleaning of the site began in
(WSJ, 5/24/06, p.A12)
1919 General Electric Corp.
entered the emerging market of Brazil.
(Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.9)
1919 Britain’s export-credit
agency was established as part of an effort to improve the Britain’s
balance of payments and thus return to the gold standard.
(Econ, 7/5/14, p.63)
1919 Britain gave power over
libraries to its counties.
(Econ, 5/1/04, p.59)
1919 In China Shougang Group
steel mill was founded on the outskirts of Beijing. It was
nationalized after the communist takeover in 1949. In 2008 the main
plant was closed in an effort to improve air quality for the
(Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.6)
1919 The borders of
Czechoslovakia were set up by the Versailles Treaty and incorporated
3 million Germans. Most of the Germans lived along the Czech-German
border known as the Sudetenland.
1919 The Ditmar Urbach pottery
factory was founded in Czechoslovakia with the merger of Urbach
Brothers and Rudolph Ditmar’s Heirs.
(SFC, 2/14/07, p.G3)
1919 In Egypt the Wafd Party
was founded as a nationalist party to create secular
Muslim-Christian unity in the face of British imperialism. It was
instrumental in the development of the 1923 constitution, and
supported moving Egypt from dynastic rule to a constitutional
1919 Estonia established the
kroon as its currency. It continued until Soviet occupation in 1940
and was restored following independence in 1992.
(Econ, 1/1/11, p.44)
1919 In Finland the Helsinki
Central Station, designed by Eliel Saarinen, was completed.
(SSFC, 6/3/12, p.H4)
1919 In France at the Folies
Bergere women performed totally nude on stage for the first time in
the modern Western World.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)
c1919 Jose Clemente Orozco,
David Alfaro Siqueiros (d.1974) and Diego Rivera, Mexican painters
in Paris, decided that the revolution must be expressed in a public
art that all could understand.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T5)
1919 French inventor Andre
Louis Octave Fauchon-Villeplee filed a patent application for an
“Electric Apparatus for Propelling Projectiles.
(Econ, 5/9/15, p.73)
1919 Walter Gropius co-founded
the Bauhaus in Germany. Two existing schools in Weimar were combined
into a single institution. The new school, "the house of building,"
also combined two important trends in art education: artistic
training and arts and crafts. Henry van de Velde was one of the
founders. Gropius served as the founding director until 1927.
(V.D.-H.K.p.363)(SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)(Econ,
1919 Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925)
opened his 1st private school for the workers at the Waldorf-Astoria
cigarette factory in Germany.
(SFC, 10/29/00, p.A7)
1919 Gdansk was separated from
the Deutsches Reich as a free state with a high commissioner of the
League of Nations.
(NG, 5.1988, Mem Forum)
1919 At the end of WW I the
German High Seas Fleet was interred at Scapa Flow in the Orkneys.
During armistice discussions the German commander gave orders to
scuttle the ships.
(SFEM, 10/10/99, p.49)
1919 In Greece the hotel Capsis
Bristol was built in Thessaloniki.
(WSJ, 9/26/08, p.A20)
1919 In Hong Kong Hueng Chin,
father of filmmaker Charles Hueng, founded the Sun Yee On triad, a
secret criminal society.
(SFC, 2/18/98, p.A7)
1919 Gillette Co. opened a
sales office in Calcutta, India. Razor blades were sold from a plant
(WSJ, 3/13/97, p.A1)
1919 Japan’s Mitsubishi Bank
was founded. In 1996 it joined with the Bank of Tokyo and in 2005
became part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.
(WSJ, 9/23/08, p.C1)
1919 The Japanese firm Olympus
was founded as a microscope maker.
(Econ, 10/22/11, p.78)
1919 Bennett Young, leader of
the 1863 Confederate raid on St. Albans, Vermont, died in Louisville
following a law career.
(ON, 11/99, p.12)
1919 This year marked the birth
of Palestinian - Arab nationalism. The events are documented in the
1996 book "Jerusalem in the 20th Century by Martin Gilbert."
(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)
1919 In Russia the Bolsheviks
began repressions and millions of Cossacks died. Their institutions
were destroyed and many fled the country.
1919 Lenin created the
Comintern to supervise the int'l. revolutionary movement.
(WSJ, 6/6/03, p.W9)
1919 Serbs attacked Albanian
cities; Albanians adopted guerilla warfare. Albania was denied
official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British,
French and Greek negotiators decided to divide Albania among Greece,
Italy and Yugoslavia. This decision was vetoed by American president
(www, Albania, 1998)
1919 The Swiss-based Nestle
company exhausted its local supply of milk and began opening
factories in Australia, England, Germany and Norway.
(Econ, 10/31/09, p.81)
1919 In central Uganda Semei
Kakungule, chief of the Abayudaya, converted to Judaism after the
British broke a promise to give him a kingdom. By 1961 membership
reached 3,000. In 1972 Idi Amin banned Judaism. Membership in 2004
was about 600.
(Econ, 1/24/04, p.43)
1919 Jimmy Winkfield
(1882-1974), former US Kentucky Derby winner, helped lead 262 horses
from the Odessa (Ukraine) race track to Warsaw, Poland, in a 3-month
journey in front of the advancing Red Army.
1919 The Dalat Palace was built
in Dalat, Vietnam. Restoration of the hotel began in 1991 under
Larry Hillblom (d.1995), co-founder of DHL, an express-delivery
(WSJ, 1/3/06, p.A14)
1919-1920 Hanna Hoch (1889-1978), photomontage
artist of the Berlin Dada movement made her work "Cut With the
Kitchen Knife Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Epoch of
(SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)
1919-1920 Charles Ponzi of Boston bilked investors
in a scheme of high return similar to the "520% Miller" con of 1899.
(WSJ, 7/23/99, p.A14)
1919-1921 The 3rd Anglo-Afghan war began. The
British were defeated, and Afghanistan gained full control of her
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)
1919-1922 The Greco-Turkish war. After the war
ethnic Greeks were forced to leave Turkey and ethnic Turks were
forced to leave Greece.
(SFEM, 3/12/00, p.28)
1919-1933 This is the period of the Weimar
Republic, Germany’s 1st democratic government. In 2007 Eric D. Weitz
authored “Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy."
(Econ, 9/22/07, p.100)
1919-1939 Vincent Cronin writes a description of
Paris, France, in 1995 that cover this period in his book: Paris:
City of Light, 1919-1939. The book concentrates on the artists,
thinkers, writers and politicians of this time and place. [see
(WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)
1919-1965 Nat King Cole, popular singer, began his
career as a pianist in a jazz combo. He established int’l. fame as a
singer of ballads. His biography was made into a TV feature shown in
(SFC, 2/2/98, p.D7)
1919-1980 Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, later shah of
1919-1990 Malcolm Forbes, American publisher:
"When in doubt, duck."
1919-1990 Laurence J. Peter, Canadian-born
educator and author of "The Peter Principle" Thought for Today: "A
pessimist is a man who looks both ways when he’s crossing a one-way