Timeline 1922 - 1923

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1922        Jan 3, Bill Travers producer, director, actor: Born Free, was born.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1922        Jan 5, Sir Ernest Shackleton (47) died at sea enroute from South Georgia Island to Antarctica. He was buried on South Georgia Island. In 1924Hugh Robert Mill authored "The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton."
    (ON, 5/00, p.10)

1922        Jan 11, Insulin, then called isletin, was 1st used to treat diabetes on Leonard Thompson (14) of Canada. [see Jan 23]
    (www.insulinfreetimes.org/00_spring/giants.htm)

1922        Jan 17, Betty White, actress (Mary Tyler Moore Show, Golden Girls), was born.
    (MC, 1/17/02)
1922        Jan 17, Luis Echeverria Alvarez, president Mexico, was born.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1922        Jan 22, Jean-Pierre Rampal (d.5/20/2000), flautist, was born in Marseilles France.
    (Internet)
1922        Jan 22, James Bryce (b.1838), 1st Viscount Bryce, British jurist, historian and politician, died. He had served as ambassador to the United States from 1907 to 1913. His books included “The American Commonwealth," a classic study of the US Constitution.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9017827/James-Bryce-Viscount-Bryce)
1922        Jan 22, Pope Benedict XV died; he was succeeded by Pius XI.
    (AP, 1/22/98)

1922        Jan 23, The first successful test on a human patient with diabetes occurred when a 2nd dose of insulin was administered to dangerously ill Leonard Thompson (14). Following the birth of an idea and nine months of experimentation, and through the combined efforts of four men at the University of Toronto, Canada, insulin for the treatment of diabetes was first discovered and later purified for human use. Rural Canadian physician Dr. F.G. Banting first conceived the idea of extracting insulin from the pancreas in 1920. He and his assistant C.H. Best prepared pancreatic extracts to prolong the lives of diabetic dogs with advice and laboratory aid from Professor J.J.R. Macleod. The crude insulin extract was purified for human testing by Dr. J.B. Collip. Insulin, now made from cattle pancreases, lifted the death sentence for diabetes sufferers around the world.
    (HNPD, 1/23/99)(www.insulinfreetimes.org/00_spring/giants.htm)

1922        Jan 24, Christian K. Nelson of Onawa, Iowa, patented the Eskimo Pie. The product reportedly saved Iowa's dairy business during the Great Depression.
    (AP, 1/24/98)(SFEC, 4/11/99, Z1 p.8)

1922        Jan 27, Elizabeth Cochran (1864-1922), renowned American journalist who had written under the pen name of Nellie Bly, died in NYC.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nellie_Bly)

1922        Jan 28, The American Pro Football Association was renamed "National Football League."
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1922        Jan 30, Dick Martin, actor, comedian (Laugh-In), was born in Detroit, Mich.
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1922        Jan, The Iraqi state police force was founded.
    (AFP, 1/8/12)

1922        Feb 1, William Desmond Taylor, president of the Motion Picture Director’s Guild, was discovered murdered in his Hollywood bungalow. Taylor was discovered to actually be William Deane-Tanner, an Irishman who had abandoned his family and reinvented himself in the film industry. In 2014 William J. Mann authored “Tinseltown: Murder, Morphine, and Madness at the Dawn of Hollywood."
    (AH, 2/05, p.47)(SSFC, 1/4/15, p.N2)
1922        Feb 1, Lieutenant Colonel I. Matuszewski, the head of the II department of the Polish Joint Staff, informed the military minister of Poland in the letter, that 22,000 prisoners of war were lost in the camp of Tuchola during its existence.
    (www.search.com/reference/Prisoner-of-war_camp)
1922        Feb 1, Renata Tebaldi (d.2004), lyric soprano, was born, Pesaro Italy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renata_Tebaldi)

1922        Feb 2, James Joyce's novel "Ulysses" was published in Paris with 1,000 copies.
    (SFC, 10/15/99, p.C12)(MC, 2/2/02)

1922        Feb 5, The Reader's Digest began publication in Pleasantville, New York. In 1939 it moved to Chappaqua, NY. In 2005 it published its 1,000th issue.
    (HN, 2/5/01)(SFC, 7/19/05, p.D6)
1922        Feb 5, William Larned's steel-framed tennis racquet got its first test.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1922        Feb 6, The Washington Disarmament Conference came to an end with signature of final treaty forbidding fortification of the Aleutian Islands for 14 years. The US, UK, France, Italy & Japan signed the Washington naval arms limitation.
    (HN, 2/6/99)(MC, 2/6/02)

1922        Feb 7, John Willard's "Cat & the Canary," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1922        Feb 8, President Harding had a radio installed in the White House.
    (AP, 2/8/99)

1922        Feb 9, The U.S. Congress established the World War Foreign Debt Commission.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1922        Feb 10, Harold Hughes, Governor of New Jersey, was born.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1922        Feb 11, "April Showers" by Al Jolson hit #1.
    (MC, 2/11/02)
1922        Feb 11, US "intervention army" left Honduras.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1922        Feb 15, Marconi began regular broadcasting transmissions from Essex.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1922        Feb 16, Geraint Evans, Welsh opera baritone (Knaben Wunderhorn, Falstaff), was born.
    (MC, 2/16/02)
1922        Feb 16, The Univ. of Vytautas the Great re-opened in Kaunas. It was Lithuania’s main university until 1930.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.4)(LHC, 2/16/03)

1922        Feb 18, Pres. Harding signed the Capper-Volstead Act. It exempted farmers from federal antitrust laws permitting them to share prices and orchestrate supply.
    (WSJ, 9/26/06, p.B1)(www.uwcc.wisc.edu/info/capper.html)

1922        Feb 20, Vilnius, Lithuania, agreed to separate from Poland.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1922        Feb 21, Murray "the K" Kaufman, NYC DJ (5th Beatle), was born.
    (MC, 2/21/02)
1922        Feb 21, Airship Rome exploded at Hampton Roads, Virginia, and 34 died.
    (MC, 2/21/02)
1922        Feb 21, Great Britain granted Egypt independence.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1922        Feb 27, G.B. Shaw's "Back to Methuselah I/II" premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1922        Feb 27, Commerce Sec. Herbert Hoover convened the 1st National Radio Conference.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1922        Feb 27, The Supreme Court unanimously upheld the 19th Amendment to the Constitution that guaranteed the right of women to vote.
    (AP, 2/27/98)

1922        Feb 28, Britain declared Egypt a sovereign state, but British troops remained.
    (HN, 2/28/98)(MC, 2/28/02)

1922        Feb, Ernest Hemingway met poet Ezra Pound in a Paris bookstore. Pound was one of the founders of a school of poetry called Imagism.
    (ON, 7/05, p.9)

1922        Mar 1, Yitzhak Rabin, premier (Israel, 1992-95, Nobel 1994), was born.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1922        Mar 3, WWJ-AM in Detroit, MI, began radio transmissions.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1922        Mar 3, Italian fascists occupied Fiume and Rijeka.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1922        Mar 4, Bert Williams (b.1874), Antigua-born black actor, mime and singer, died after collapsing onstage in Detroit. In 2005 Caryl Phillips authored “Dancing in the Dark," a novel based on Bert Williams. His recordings included “Nobody."
    (www.duboislc.org/ShadesOfBlack/BertWms.html)(SFC, 2/11/08, p.E1)

1922        Mar 5, Pier Paolo Pasolini, director (Teorema, Pigsty), was born in Bologna, Italy.
    (MC, 3/5/02)
1922        Mar 5, "Nosferatu" premiered in Berlin.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1922        Mar 6, G.B. Shaw's "Back to Methusaleh III/IV," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1922        Mar 9, Eugene O'Neill's "Hairy Ape," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1922        Mar 12, Jack Kerouac, American novelist, was born. He wrote "On the Road."
    (HN, 3/12/99)

1922        Mar 13, George Bernard Shaw’s "Back to Methusaleh V," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1922        Mar 15, Sultan Fuad I issued whereby he changed his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of Egypt.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuad_I_of_Egypt)
1922        Mar 15, France was willing to accept raw material instead of currency for German reparations.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1922        Mar 18, Mohandas K. Gandhi was sentenced in India to six years' imprisonment for civil disobedience. He was released after serving two years. [see Mar 22]
    (AP, 3/18/97)

1922        Mar 20, Raymond Walter Goulding, Radio comedian of Bob and Ray fame, was born.
    (HN, 3/20/01)
1922        Mar 20, Carl Reiner, comedian (2000 Year Old Man, Dick Van Dyke Show), was born in the Bronx.
    (MC, 3/20/02)
1922        Mar 20, President Harding ordered U.S. troops back from the Rhineland.
    (HN, 3/20/98)
1922        Mar 20, The 11,500-ton Langley was commissioned into the U.S. Navy as America’s first aircraft carrier. Langley was not regarded as a beautiful ship. Her flight deck was 533 feet long and 64 feet wide with an open-sided hanger deck, inspiring the nickname "the Old Covered Wagon." Under the leadership of Commander Kenneth Whiting, Langley served as a base for reconnaissance aircraft and a laboratory to develop new procedures for launching and recovering planes, such as the use of cross-deck arresting wires to brake incoming aircraft.
    (HN, 3/20/99)

1922        Mar 22, A British court sentenced Mahatma Gandhi to 6 years in prison. [see Mar 18]
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1922        Mar 23, 1st airplane landed at the US Capitol in Washington DC.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1922        Mar 28, The 1st microfilm device was introduced.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1922        Mar 29, The Lithuanian government announced a land reform act enacted Feb 15.
    (LC, 1998, p.12)(LHC, 3/29/03)

1922        Mar 31, Richard Kiley, actor (Man of La Mancha, Endless Love), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1922        Apr 1, William Manchester, historian (Death of a President), was born in Attleboro, Mass.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1922        Apr 1, Karl I (b.1887), leader of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, died. Also known in the West as Charles I, he took the throne in 1916 and worked for peace, abdicating at the end of World War I, a few years before his death. In 2004 he was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
    (AP, 10/3/04)(www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/KarlI/)

1922        Apr 3, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of Communist Party.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1922        Apr 4, Elmer Bernstein, movie music composer (Robot Monster), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1922        Apr 6, Barry Levinson, director (Rain Man), was born.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1922        Apr 7,  U.S. Secretary of Interior leased Naval Reserve #3, "Teapot Dome,"  in Wyoming to Harry F. Sinclair.
    (HN, 4/7/97)(MC, 4/7/02)

1922        Apr 12, A San Francisco jury acquitted actor Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle in his 3rd murder trial following 2 hung juries.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W7)(AH, 2/05, p.47)

1922        Apr 13, John Gerard Braine, British novelist (Room at the Top), was born.
    (HN, 4/13/01)

1922        Apr 14, Irish Republic rebels occupied 4 government courts in Dublin.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1922        Apr 15, Neville Mariner, conductor, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/01)
1922        Apr 15, Harold Washington, first black mayor of Chicago (1983-1987), was born.
    (HN, 4/15/98)
1922        Apr 15, Wyoming Democratic Senator John Kendrick introduced a resolution that set in motion one of the most significant investigations in Senate history. On the previous day, the Wall Street Journal had reported an unprecedented secret arrangement in which the Secretary of the Interior, without competitive bidding, had leased the U.S. naval petroleum reserve at Wyoming's Teapot Dome to a private oil company. Wisconsin Republican Senator Robert La Follette arranged for the Senate Committee on Public Lands to investigate the matter. His suspicions deepened after someone ransacked his Russell Building office.
    (http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Senate_Investigates_the_Teapot_Dome_Scandal.htm)

1922        Apr 16, Kingsley Amis (d.1995), novelist and poet, was born. He wrote more than 20 novels and 6 volumes of verse. His work included "The King’s English: A Guide to Modern Usage." In 1998 Eric Jacobs published the biography "Kingsley Amis."
    (WSJ, 10/23/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 7/19/98, BR p.3)(HN, 4/16/01)
1922        Apr 16, Annie Oakley shot 100 clay targets in a row, to set a women’s record.
    (HN, 4/16/98)
1922        Apr 16, A German-Russia treaty was signed in Italy. It recognized the Soviet Union.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1922        Apr 18, The office of Will Hays, head of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), announced that Roscoe Arbuckle was banned from working in motion pictures, effective immediately.
    (AH, 2/05, p.47)

1922        Apr 19, Erich Hartmann, German WW II pilot  who later downed 352 Russian aircrafts, was born.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1922        Apr 22, Charles Mingus (d.1979), jazz bassist, was born.
    (HN, 4/22/01)

1922        Apr 27, Fritz Lang's "Dr Mabuse, der Spieler" premiered in Berlin.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1922        Apr 29, A 100-mile-long battle raged near Peking, China.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1922        May 5, Construction began on Yankee Stadium in the Bronx.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yankee_Stadium_%281923%29)

1922        May 13, In San Francisco the 2,300-seat Loew’s Warfield Theater opened on Market St.
    (SFC, 5/11/05, p.C1)(SFC, 3/19/15, p.C3)

1922        May 18, Dutch 2nd Chamber agreed to a 48 hour work week over the previous 45 hours.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1922        May 23, "Abbie’s Irish Rose" opened for the 1st of over 2,500 performances.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1922        May 25, Babe Ruth was suspended for 1 day and fined $200 for throwing dirt on an umpire.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1922        May 26, Lenin suffered a stroke.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1922        May 29, The US Supreme Court ruled that organized baseball is a sport, not subject to antitrust laws.
    (HN, 5/29/98)
1922        May 29, Ecuador became independent.
    (HN, 5/29/98)
1922        May 29, Iannis Xenakis, Greek mathematician, architect and composer, was born in Romania. In 2004 James Harley authored “Xenakis: His Life in Music."
    (SSFC, 7/25/04, p.M4)
1922        May 29, Jevgeni B. Vachtangov (39), Armenian-Russian actor, director, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1922        May 30, The Lincoln Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., by Chief Justice William Howard Taft and Robert Todd Lincoln. The Memorial has 48 sculptured festoons above the columns representing the number of states at the time of dedication. The 36 Doric columns in the Lincoln Memorial represent the number of states in the Union at the time of Lincoln’s death in 1865. The limestone and marble edifice, which is situated at the western end of the Mall, was designed by Henry Bacon of North Carolina in the style of a Greek temple. Daniel Chester French co-designed the memorial with Bacon.
    (HNQ, 2/12/00)(WSJ, 5/24/08, p.W12)(AP, 5/30/08)

1922        Jun 3, Alain Resnais, French film director, was born.
    (HN, 6/3/01)

1922        Jun 7, Rocky Graziano, boxer, entertainer (Pantomime Quiz, Martha Raye Show), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1922        Jun 10, Judy Garland, singer-actress was born as Frances Ethel Gumm in Grand Rapids, Minn. She starred in The Wizard of Oz and Easter Parade.
    (AP, 6/10/97)(HN, 6/10/99)

1922        Jun 11, John Bromfield, actor (Easy to Love), was born in South Bend, In.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1922        Jun11, Michael Cacoyannis, director (Zorba the Greek, Trojan Women), was born.
    (Internet)
1922        Jun 11, The documentary film “Nanook of the North," shot in subarctic Quebec (1920-1921) by Robert Flaherty, premiered in NYC.
    (ON, 2/03, p.11)

1922        Jun 14, Warren G. Harding became the first president heard on radio, as Baltimore station WEAR broadcast his speech dedicating the Francis Scott Key memorial at Fort McHenry. [see Jan 19, 1903]
    (AP, 6/14/97)(HN, 6/14/98)

1922        Jun 15, Morris "Mo" Udall (d.1998), U.S. Congressman from Arizona (1961-1991), was born in St. Johns, Az. He was one of 6 children in a pioneer Mormon family and was instrumental in investigating the Mai Lai Massacre in Vietnam and later sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1976.
    (HN, 6/15/99)(SFC, 12/14/98, p.A5)

1922        Jun 16, Henry Berliner demonstrated his helicopter to US Bureau of Aeronautics.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1922        Jun 19, Aage Nills Bohr, physicist, study atomic nucleus (Nobel 1975), was born in Denmark.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1922        Jun 21, Judy Holliday, actress, was born.
    (HN, 6/21/01)

1922        Jun 22, Bill Blass (d.2002), fashion designer, was born in Fort Wayne, Ind.
    (SFC, 6/13/02, p.A23)

1922        Jun 25, The SF Chronicle’s sports pages became the Sporting Green with the sports section printed in green.
    (SSFC, 6/7/09, p.W2)

1922        Jun 27, George Walker, composer (In Praise of Lillies), was born in Washington, DC.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1922        Jun 27, The Newberry Medal was 1st presented for kids literature to Hendrik Van Loon.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1922        Jun 30, Irish rebels in London assassinated Sir Henry Wilson, the British deputy for Northern Ireland.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1922        Jul 2, Dan Rowan, comedian (Rowan & Martin's Laugh-in), was born in Beggs, Okla.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1922        Jul 6, Vice-president Calvin Coolidge gave a speech at Fredericksburg City Park on behalf of a fund raising campaign to save and restore the Kenmore House, the home of Elizabeth (sister of George Washington) and Fielding Lewis.
    (HT, 5/97, p.44,68)

1922        Jul 7, Pierre Cardin, fashion designer (Unisex), was born in Paris, France.
    (AP, 7/7/02)(MC, 7/7/02)

1922        Jul 15, 1st duck-billed platypus was publicly exhibited in US at a NY zoo.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1922        Jul 17, Donald Davie, English poet and literary critic, was born.
    (HN, 7/17/01)

1922        Jul 18, A fire began at the Manufacturers Transit Company’s 7-storey warehouse on Jane St. in Greenwich Village, NYC. Explosions erupted and newspapers called it “the Greenwich Village Volcano." 2 firemen were killed. A final eruption destroyed 2 houses on  Jul 23. Assistant fire chief “Smokey Joe" Martin (d.1945) directed the fire fighting efforts.
    (ON, 4/03, p.8)

1922        Jul 19, George McGovern, 1972 Democratic candidate for president of the United States, South Dakota senator, was born.
    (HN, 7/19/98)

1922        Jul 21, Djemal Pasha, dictator of Turkey, was murdered.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1922        Jul 26, Jason Robards Jr, actor (A Thousand Clowns, Any Wednesday), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1922        Jul 27, Norman Lear, TV writer, producer (All in The Family), was born.
    (MC, 7/27/02)
1922        Jul 27, The US government recognized the Lithuanian government de jure.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.4)

1922        Jul 28, Jacques Piccard, undersea explorer (bathyscaph Trieste), was born in Switzerland.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1922        Jul 28, A statement drafted by the Diplomatic Service of the USA specified in the concealed form temporariness of self-dependence of the state system of Lithuania and,  at the same time, Latvia and Estonia, as long as the Bolshevist Russia exists, as well as conditionality of the states by acknowledging their governments only, and not the states themselves.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ojrbvyl p.43)

1922        Jul 31, Ralph Samuelson (18) rode the world's 1st water skis in Minn.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1922        Aug 1, Lithuania adopted a new Constitution.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LC, 1998, p.22)

1922        Aug 2, Alexander Graham Bell (b.1847), Scottish-US physicist (telephone), died in Nova Scotia. He and Gardiner Hubbard, his father-in-law, were the founders of the National Geographic Society.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Graham_Bell)(ON, 1/03, p.5)
1922        Aug 2, China was hit by a typhoon and some 60,000 died.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1922        Aug 7, The Irish Republican Army cut the cable link between the United States and Europe at Waterville landing station.
    (HN, 8/7/98)

1922        Aug 8, Rudi Gernreich, designer (1st women's topless swimsuit, miniskirt), was born.
    (MC, 8/8/02)
1922        Aug 8, An Italian general strike was broken by fascist terror.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1922        Aug 12, The home of Frederick Douglass in Washington, D.C. was dedicated as a memorial.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1922        Aug 15, Lukas Foss, [Fuchs], composer (Prairie), was born in Berlin, Germany.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1922        Aug 17, Ralph Roberts, actor (Tradition, Gone are the Days), was born in NC.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1922        Aug 18, Shelly Winters, actress who won an Academy Award for The Diary of Anne Frank, was born.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1922        Aug 21, Curly Lambeau and Green Bay Football Club were granted an NFL franchise.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1922        Aug 22, Michael Collins, Irish politician, was killed in an ambush.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1922        Aug 26, The Philadelphia Phillies beat the Chicago Cubs 26-23.
    (SFEC, 7/25/99, Z1 p.2)

1922        Aug 28, The first-ever radio commercial aired on station WEAF in New York City (the 10-minute advertisement was for the Queensboro Realty Company, which had paid a fee of $100).
    (HFA, ‘96, p.36)(AP, 8/28/97)

1922        Aug, Templeton Crocker led a movement to "organize anew" the California Historical Society. The society began publishing a magazine that has continued ever since.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, DB p.9)(SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.55)

1922        Aug, The last California grizzly bear was shot by a Fresno cattle rancher, though another was sighted in Tulare County a couple years later.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.8)

1922         Aug, The ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople recognized the Autochephalous Albanian Orthodox Church.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1922        Sep 1, Yvonne De Carlo, actress (10 Commandments, Munsters) was born in Vancouver, BC.
    (SC, 9/1/02)
1922        Sep 1, Vittorio Gassman, actor (War and Peace) was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)
1922        Sep 1, Melvin R. Laird (Rep-R-Mich), US Secretary of Defense (1969-73) was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)
1922        Sep 1, A NYC law required all "pool" rooms to change their name to "billiards."
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1922        Sep 7, Dr. William Halsted (b.1852), an American surgeon, died. He had emphasized strict aseptic technique during surgical procedures, was an early champion of newly discovered anesthetics, and introduced several new operations, including the radical mastectomy for breast cancer. Halsted had experimented with cocaine and injected himself with the drug. Throughout his professional life, he was addicted to cocaine and later also to morphine.
    (AP, 7/17/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Stewart_Halsted)
1922        Sep 7, Thomas Cobden-Sanderson (b.1840), English printer and bookbinder, died. He and Emery Walker had formed a printing partnership in 1900 and created the Doves typeface. The partnership went sour and between 1913-1917 Cobden-Sanderson dropped a ton of the metal typeface into the Thames to keep it out of the hands of Walker. In 2003 Marianne Todcombe authored “The Doves Press."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._J._Cobden_Sanderson)(Econ, 12/21/13, p.118)

1922        Sep 8, Sid Caesar, comedian and television star, best known for "Your Show of Shows," and "The Sid Caesar Show," was born in Yonkers, NY.
    (HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)

1922        Sep 9, William T. Cosgrave replaced assassinated Irish leader Michael Collins.
    (MC, 9/9/01)
1922        Sep 9, Turkish troops under Mustafa Kemal conquered Smyrna, Greece. This effectively ended in the field the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) more than three years after the Greek army had landed on Smyrna on 15 May, 1919. In 2008 Giles Milton authored “Paradise Lost: Smyrna, 1922: The Destruction of Islam’s City of Tolerance."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Fire_of_Smyrna)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.90)

1922        Sep 13, A major fire began to ravage Smyrna, Greece, shortly following occupation by Turkish troops under Mustafa Kemal. The fire lasted 4 days.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Fire_of_Smyrna)

1922        Sep 11, The British mandate of Palestine began.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1922        Sep 13, In El Azizia, Libya, a temperature of 136.4 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) was the hottest ever measured on Earth.
    (AP, 7/23/03)

1922        Sep 16, Rev. Edward Wheeler Hall and his mistress, choir member Eleanor Mills, were found shot to death in a New Jersey apple orchard. Hall’s wife and her 2 brothers were indicted for the murder, but they were acquitted at trial. In 1964 William Kunstler authored “The Minister and the Choir Singer, “ an account of the double murder and trial.
    (WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W8)

1922        Sep 21, Pres Warren G. Harding signed a joint resolution of approval to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
    (MC, 9/21/01)
1922        Sep 21, The US passed a tariff act. The Fordney-McCumber Tariff bill (named after Joseph Fordney, chair of the House Ways and Means Committee, and Porter McCumber, chair of the Senate Finance Committee) was signed by President Warren Harding. In the end, the tariff law raised the average American ad valorem tariff rate to 38 percent.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.126)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fordney-McCumber_Tariff)

1922        Sep 24, Cornell MacNeil, US, operatic baritone (La Traviata), was born.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1922        Sep 26, Thomas Watson (b.1856) Populist Georgia state politician, attorney, newspaper editor, died in Washington, DC.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_E._Watson)(Econ, 12/7/13, p.34)

1922        Sep 28, Mussolini marched on Rome.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1922        Sep, Ahmet Zogu, a tribal warlord, assumed the position of Prime Minister.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(www, Albania, 1998)

1922        Oct 3, Rebecca L. Felton, D-Ga., became the first woman to be seated in the U.S. Senate. Mrs. Felton had been appointed to serve out the remaining term of Sen. Thomas E. Watson.
    (AP, 10/3/97)
1922        Oct 3, The 1st facsimile photo (fax) was sent over city telephone lines in Washington, DC.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1922        Oct 8, Dr. Christiaan Barnard, Pioneering South African heart-transplant surgeon, was born. [see Nov 8]
    (MC, 10/8/01)
1922        Oct 8, Lilian Gatlin became the first woman pilot to fly across the United States.
    (HN, 10/8/98)

1922        Oct 9, Fyvush Finkel, actor (Middle Ages, Picket Fences, Boston Public), was born.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1922        Oct 14, The 1st automated telephones began service at the Pennsylvania exchange in NYC.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1922        Oct 18, Little Orphan Annie, comic strip character, was born.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1922        Oct 22, Parsifal Place was laid out in Bronx. It was named after a knight in Wagner's Opera.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1922        Oct 24, Irish Parliament adopted a constitution for an Irish Free State.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1922        Oct 26, Italian government resigned under pressure from fascists and Benito Mussolini.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1922        Oct 27, The first US annual celebration of Navy Day took place.
    (AP, 10/27/00)   
1922        Oct 27, In Italy, liberal Luigi Facta’s cabinet resigned after threats from Mussolini that "either the government will be given to us or we will seize it by marching on Rome." Mussolini called for a general mobilization of all Fascists.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1922      Oct 28, The 1st coast-to-coast radio broadcast of a football game. WEAF in New York broadcast the first collegiate football game to be heard across the US. Princeton played against the University of Chicago at Stagg Field in Chicago, Illinois. Telephone lines transmitted the game to New York City, where the radio transmission started. Queensboro Realty Co. paid $100 for 10 minutes of air time. (Princeton 21, Chicago 18.)
    (http://senior.billings.k12.mt.us/otrannex/history/radio.htm)
1922        Oct 28, Fascism came to Italy as Benito Mussolini took control of the government.
    (AP, 10/28/97)

1922        Oct 30, Mussolini sent his black shirts into Rome and formed a government. The Fascist takeover was almost without bloodshed. [see Oct 28]
    (HN, 10/30/98)(MC, 10/30/01)

1922        Oct 31, Norodom Sihanouk (d.2012), 2-time king (1941-1955 and 1993-2004), president and premier of Cambodia, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norodom_Sihanouk)
1922        Oct 31, Karel & Josef Capek's "World We Live In," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/31/01)
1922        Oct 31, Mussolini was made prime minister. He centralized all power in himself as leader of the Fascist party and attempted to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler's Germany. Mussolini formed a cabinet of Fascists and Nationalists and declared himself temporary dictator.
    (HN, 10/30/98)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.C12)

1922        Nov 1, The Ottoman Empire ended as Turkey’s Grand National Assembly abolished the sultanate. In 2006 Caroline Finkel authored “Osman’s Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire)(WSJ, 4/11/06, p.D8)

1922        Nov 2, Australian Qantas airways began service.
    (www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/history-birthplace/global/en)
1922        Nov 2, English archeologist Charles Leonard Woolley began excavating the ancient Mesopotamian city of Ur, located between Baghdad and the Persian Gulf.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.7)

1922        Nov 4, The US Postmaster General ordered all homes to get mailboxes or relinquish delivery of mail.
    (HN, 11/4/98)
1922        Nov 4, British archeologist Howard Carter was elated when his Egyptian workers uncovered the top of a stairway cut into bedrock in the Valley of the Kings. For a decade, Carter had been searching for the tomb of the young king Tutankhamen, who had ruled Egypt 3,200 years before. Carter was particularly thrilled at the discovery of the staircase because his wealthy patron, the Earl of Carnarvon, had agreed to fund only one more season before abandoning the search. At the bottom of the staircase was a sealed doorway, which suggested that the tomb had probably not been robbed. Carter ordered the stairway filled and telegraphed his patron, "At last have made wonderful discovery in valley; a magnificent tomb with seals intact; recovered same for your arrival; congratulations." On November 26, Carter, with Carnarvon standing by, drilled a small hole in the tomb's antechamber. Inserting a candle, Carter peered into the darkness at the rich funerary goods. When asked by Carnarvon if he could see anything, the awestruck Carter replied, "Yes, wonderful things."
    (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.598)(AP, 11/4/97)(HNPD, 11/3/98)

1922        Nov 5, King Tut’s tomb was discovered. [see Nov 4}
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1922        Nov 6, King George V proclaimed Irish Free state.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1922        Nov 7, Al Hirt, jazz trumpeter, was born in New Orleans, La.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1922        Nov 8, Christiaan Barnard, South African surgeon, was born. He performed the first human heart transplant operation. [see Oct 8]
    (HN, 11/8/00)

1922        Nov 11, Kurt Vonnegut, American author who wrote "Slaughterhouse Five," was born.
    (HN, 11/11/98)
1922        Nov 11, Canada’s Vernon McKenzie urged fighting U.S. propaganda with taxes on U.S. magazines.
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1922        Nov 12, Charlotte MacLeod, mystery writer, was born. (Rest You Merry, Maid of Honor).
    (HN, 11/12/00)

1922        Nov 13, Black Renaissance began in Harlem, NY.
    (MC, 11/13/01)
1922        Nov 13, George Cohan's musical "Little Nellie Kelly," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1922        Nov 14, Boutros Boutros Ghali, Egyptian secretary-general of UN (1992-), was born.
    (MC, 11/14/01)
1922        Nov 14, The British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, began the first daily radio broadcasts from Marconi House. The company was formed with a commercial mission to sell radio sets. General manager John Reith (33), Scottish engineer, envisaged an independent British broadcaster able to educate, inform and entertain the whole nation, free from political interference and commercial pressure.
    (AP, 11/14/97)(www.bbc.co.uk/heritage/story/1920s.shtml)

1922        Nov 15, It was announced that Dr. Alexis Carrel discovered white corpuscles.
    (HN, 11/15/00)

1922        Nov 17, Mahmet VI (1861-1926), the last Ottoman Sultan (aka Sultan Vahdettin), left the Dolmabahçe Palace on board the British gunship Malaya and went to Malta. He spent just 37 days on this island and went to Mecca upon the invitation of a local leader. His subsequent attempts to restore himself as Caliph in Hejaz proved a failure. He died in San Remo, Italy.
    (AP, 4/3/12)(www.turkeyswar.com/whoswho/who-vahidettin.htm)

1922        Nov 18, Marcel Proust (b.1871), French author (Recherche du Temps Perdu), died at 51. His masterpiece was "Remembrance of Things Past." In 1998 it was turned into a comic book series. In 1998 Alain de Botton published the whimsical "How Proust Can Save Your Life." In 1999 Edmund White wrote the biography "Marcel Proust." The major biography by John Yves Taddie was scheduled to appear in English in 1999. In 2000 Roger Shattuck authored "Proust’s Way." William C. Carter authored "Marcel Proust: A Life."
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.A10)(SFEC, 1/17/99, BR p.3)(SFEC, 9/3/00, BR p.3)(MC, 11/18/01)

1922        Nov 21, Rebecca L. Felton of Georgia was sworn in as the first woman to serve in the U.S. Senate.
    (AP, 11/21/97)

1922        Nov 24, Italian parliament gave Mussolini dictatorial powers "for 1 year."
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1922        Nov 25, Archaeologist Howard Carter entered King Tut's tomb.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1922        Nov 26, Charles M. Shultz, American cartoonist who created "Peanuts" starring Charlie Brown, was born.
    (HN, 11/26/98)
1922        Nov 26, Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter, archeologists, opened King Tut’s tomb in Egypt.
    (HN, 11/26/98)(AP, 11/26/02)

1922        Nov 27, Allied delegates barred Soviets from Near East peace conference.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1922        Nov 28, Capt. Cyril Turner of the Royal Air Force gave the first public skywriting exhibition, spelling out, "Hello U-S-A. Call Vanderbilt 7200" over New York’s Times Square. 47,000 called.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)
1922        Nov 28, In Greece six top politicians and soldiers were executed one day after being convicted of high treason following a crushing military defeat by Turkey. In 2010 the Greek Supreme Court posthumously acquitted the six executed politicians and soldiers. 
    (AP, 10/21/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1922_in_Greece)

1922        Nov 30, Hitler spoke to 50,000 national socialists (Nazis) in Munich.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1922        Dec 1, 1st skywriting over US-"Hello USA"-by Capt Turner, RAF.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1922        Dec 3, Sven Nykvist, Swedish cinematographer, was born.
    (HN, 12/3/00)

1922        Dec 4, Gerard Philipe, actor (Caligula, Le Diable au Corps), was born in Cannes, France.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1922        Dec 6, The Irish Free State came into being under terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty.
    (AP, 12/6/08)

1922        Dec 11, Grace Paley, short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 12/11/00)
1922        Dec 11, Gabriel Narutowicz (b.1865), a Lithuanian-born, Swiss banking engineer, served as Poland’s first post WWI president. Five days later he was assassinated.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_Narutowicz)

1922        Dec 12, John Wanamaker (b.1938), US merchant who founded a chain of stores in Philadelphia, died. He introduced department stores and price tags to the US and became the first modern advertiser when he bought ads in newspapers to promote his stores. “Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted; the trouble is I don’t know which half."
    (http://tinyurl.com/ck74o)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.61)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.15)

1922        Dec 14, Don Hewitt, NYC, CBS news executive producer (60 Minutes), was born.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1922        Dec 16, Gabriel Narutowicz (b.1865), a Lithuanian-born, Swiss banking engineer and Poland’s first post WWI president was assassinated while attending an art exhibition, in the National Gallery of Art.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_Narutowicz)

1922        Dec 21, Paul Winchell, ventriloquist (Jerry Mahoney, Knucklehead Smith), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1922        Dec 24, Ava Gardner, actress (On the Beach, Night of the Iguana), was born in Grabtown, NC.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1922        Dec 30, Vladimir I. Lenin proclaimed the establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Soviet Russia was renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Soviet Union was organized as a federation of RSFSR, Ukrainian SSR, Belorussian SSR and Transcaucasian SSR.
    (AP, 12/30/97)(HN, 12/30/98)

1922        The second largest equestrian statue in the world, located in Washington, D.C., is of General and later President Ulysses S. Grant. The statue of Grant, sculpted by Henry Merwin Shrady and dedicated in 1922, stands at head of the reflecting pool in front of the U.S. Capitol Building. The only equestrian statue larger is of Victor Emmanuel in Italy.
    (HNQ, 11/21/98)

1922        Pierre Bonnard painted "Woman With Dog."
    (WSJ, 11/17/99, p.A20)

1922        The Constructivist group of artists in Russia issued a manifesto calling for the defeat of art, which they regarded as the enemy of technology. Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956), a painter turned photographer, was founding member of the group.
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandr_Rodchenko)

1922        Paul Klee painted his watercolor "Little Regata." It was stolen from the Phillips Collection in Washington DC in 1963 and returned in 1997.
    (WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1922         Fernand Leger painted his "Mother and Child."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)   

1922        Maxfield Parrish painted his oil "Daybreak." It was auctioned off at Sotheby’s in 1996 for $4,292,500.
    (SFC, 6/12/96, p.C1)

1922        Picasso painted "Mother and Child." [also dated 1921] Picasso originally used his wife's body and the face of another woman and included himself. He later cut himself out after his marriage deteriorated and began painting his wife with a long ugly neck and angry teeth.
    (WSJ, 4/27/95, p.C-1)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1922        Walter Berndt premiered his comic strip "Smitty" in the New York Daily News. It was about an office boy and his annoying kid brother named Herby, who made his own debut in 1930.
    (SFC, 7/8/98, Z1 p.3)

1922        Willa Cather won a Pulitzer Prize for her novel "One of Ours."
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, BR p.4)
1922        Marc Chagall (1887-1985), Belarus-born Russian artist, authored a memoir.
    (SFC, 11/19/08, p.E8)
1922        George Samuel Clason authored “The Richest Man in Babylon," financial advice provided as a set of parables set in Babylon.
    (SFC, 5/21/04, p.F1)
1922        The first edition of Compton’s Pictured Encyclopedia was published.
    (WSJ, 8/18/07, p.A5)
1922        F. Scott Fitzgerald authored his 2nd novel “The Beautiful and Damned."
    (WSJ, 7/29/06, p.P12)   
1922        Hermann Hesse (1877-1962) published his novel "Siddhartha," a short lyric novel of a father-son relationship based on the early life of Buddha and inspired by Hesse’s travels through India. In 1951 it was translated to English.
    (SFC, 10/15/99, p.C12)(iUniv. 7/2/00)(WSJ, 8/5/06, p.P8)
1922        Otto Jesperson (1860-1943), Danish linguist, authored “Language: Its Nature, Development and Origins." “Men sang out their feelings long before they were able to speak their thoughts. But of course we must not imagine that "singing" means exactly the same thing here as in a modern concert hall. When we say that speech originated in song, what we mean is merely that our comparatively monotonous spoken language and our highly developed vocal music are differentiations of primitive utterances, which had more in them of the latter than of the former. These utterances were, at first, like the singing of birds and the roaring of many animals and the crooning of babies, exclamative, not communicative--that is, they came forth from an inner craving of the individual without any thought of any fellow-creatures. Our remote ancestors had not the slightest notion that such a thing as communicating ideas and feelings to someone else was possible."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Jespersen)(www.lawrence.edu/fast/koopmajo/antiquity.html)
1922        Franz Kafka (1883-1924) authored his novel “The Castle."
    (WSJ, 8/7/07, p.D10)
1922        Sinclair Lewis (1965-1951) published his novel "Babbitt," a small-town saga of a real estate agent.
    (WSJ, 7/13/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.W8)
1922        Emily Post published "Etiquette," which became a best-seller.
    (WSJ, 7/13/99, p.A20)
1922        Lewis Fry Richardson published "Weather Prediction by Numerical Process." He proposed to setup 64,000 people to work together in a vast installation to formulate global weather forecasts.
    (Wired, 2/99, p.104)
1922        Ranier Marie Rilke published "Mitsou," about a cat that runs away from a boy. It was illustrated by Balthus (b.1908).
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, BR p.12)
1922        Margaret Sanger wrote "Pivot of Civilization." She called for the segregation of "morons, misfits, and the maladjusted" and for the "sterilization of "genetically inferior races."
    (WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A18)
1922        Upton Sinclair self-published "The Goose-Step: A Study of American Education."
    (SFEM, 1/30/00, p.15)
1922        "The Velveteen Rabbit" by Margery Williams was published. The book was illustrated by William Nicholson.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)
1922        Carter G. Woodson (1875-1950), black historian, authored “The Negro in Our History."
    (WSJ, 5/19/05, p.D8)
1922        James Weldon Johnson published his landmark anthology: "The Book of American Negro Poetry."
    (MT, 3/96, p.14)

1922        T.S. Eliot wrote his long poem "The Waste Land."
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)

1922        Harley Granville Barker, English playwright, wrote "The Secret Life," a romantic melodrama set in England’s countryside after WW I.
    (WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A9)

1922        The Broadway show "Liza" featured Maude Russell Rutherford (d.2001 at 104) as one of the chorus girls who introduced the Charleston dance. The lyrics and music were by Maceo Pinkard.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.D5)

1922        Jean Borlin, Swedish dancer, choreographed the ballet "Skating Rink." The décor and costumes were designed by Ferdnand Leger. The music was by Arthur Honneger.
    (WSJ, 6/25/99, p.W7)

1922        The play "Abies' Irish Rose" began in New York City and ran for 2,327 performances over the next 5 years.
    (SFC, 12/28/99, p.C4)

1922        The Mills Brothers began performing in Piqua, Ohio. Donald Mills (d.1999), the youngest brother (7), Harry, Herbert and John (d.1936) later made their first hit with "Tiger Rag." Other hits included "Glow Worm," "Yellow Bird" and "Paper Doll."
    (SFC, 11/16/99, p.E6)

1922        The New York Philharmonic made its first radio broadcast from the old Lewisohn Stadium in upper Manhattan.
    (WSJ, 11/13/97, p.A20)

c1922    Saxophonist Benny Carter began playing with Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway at age 15. Ellington’s band was the Cotton Club Orchestra. His drummer up to the 1940s was Sonny Greer.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.B2)(SFEM, 10/5/97, p.9)

1922        Louis Armstrong moved to Chicago.
    (WSJ, 1/3/95, p. 8)

1922        The first radio station on the West Coast went on the air in San Jose as KQW, later KCBS.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.4)

1922        Sid Grauman created the concept of the Hollywood premiere by throwing a glittering opening for Douglas Fairbanks Sr.‘s "Robin Hood" at his new Egyptian Theater. Its décor was inspired by the recent discovery of King Tut‘s tomb.
    (AP, 6/18/00)

1922        The Warner Brothers, Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack, opened their first West Coast studio.
    (WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)

1922        The 1st arc-welded structure in the US was a 245-step, freestanding, steel staircase into the Moaning Caverns of Calaveras, Ca.
    (SSFC, 12/16/01, p.C5)

1922        The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) expanded its first building at 10 Broad St. to include 11 Wall St.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.D2)

1922        A Greek Orthodox Archdiocese was established in the US.
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.A3)

1922        Mennonites from Canada and Pennsylvania fled persecution and settled near Chihuahua, Mexico.
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, p.T3)(SFEC, 11/5/00, p.T4)

1922        El Charro, Tucson’s oldest Mexican restaurant was founded.
    (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.31)

1922        The Pescadero High School in Pescadero, Calif. was founded.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.C-3)

1922        Reader’s Digest launched its flagship magazine.
    (WSJ, 4/18/00, p.A1)

1922        The journal Foreign Affairs was founded with Archibald Cary Coolidge as editor.
    (WSJ, 11/20/97, p.A20)

1922        Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (b.1866), Spanish dramatist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (SC, 8/12/02)
1922        Otto Meyerhof (1884-1951), German doctor, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle.
    (http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1922/meyerhof-bio.html)
1922        Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian Arctic explorer (1893-1896), was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.
    (ON, 7/05, p.5)

1922        In the Rose Bowl California played to a 0-0 tie with Washington & Jefferson.
    (SFC, 10/15/99, p.C12)

1922        The Hollywood censorship regime known as the Hays Office was set up. It established that no two people could be filmed in the same bed and helped to popularize twin beds.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)

1922        Washington made a Naval Treaty with Japan.
    (AP, 12/29/97)

1922        The Colorado River Compact allocated 7.5 million acre-feet of water from the upper basin states (Wyoming, Colorado, Utah and New Mexico) to be delivered to the lower basin sates (California, Arizona and Nevada) plus the rights to divert another 1 million acre-feet from the river’s lower tributaries.
    (SFEC, 8/24/97, p.A10)(SFCM, 7/17/05, p.6)

1922        The country Club Plaza of Kansas City, Mo., opened as an elite alternative to downtown shopping and was the 1st retailing concept to rely upon shoppers arriving by car. The major shopping mall movement in the US began in 1956 with the Edina, Minn., mall.
    (WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)

1922        Ford bought Lincoln Motor Co.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1922        Samuel I. Newhouse (d.1979) bought the financially troubled Staten Island Advance newspaper. The Newhouse family expanded the operations into a major communications conglomerate.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.B6)

1922        Clarence Birdseye returned to New York state and began experimenting with packaging frozen food.
    (ON, 8/12, p.5)

1922        Dole, a Boston businessman, bought 98% of Hawaii’s Lanai Island for $1.1 million and planted 16,000 acres of pineapple. He imported plantation workers from Japan, China and the Philippines.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)

1922        Macy’s Department Stores became a publicly traded corporation. In 1996 Jeffrey A. Trachtenberg wrote how the company was taken private in 1986 to its Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1992: "The Rain on Macy’s Par."
    (SFC, 11/27/96, p.D5)

1922        Ida Rosenthal (1860-1973), Belarus-born immigrant and Manhattan dressmaker, came up with the first Maidenform bra.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ida_Rosenthal)(SSFC, 12/29/13, Par p.14)

1922        Jules Stein created the band-booking agency Music Corporation of America.
    (SSFC, 6/15/03, p.M1)

1922        W. Clement Stone (b.1902) began his Combined Registry & Co., an insurance operation, in Chicago, Illinois with $100. In 1987 it was renamed Aon Corp. By the time of his death in 2002 Combined Int’l. had grown to a $2 billion concern.
    (SSFC, 7/16/06, p.D1)(www.combined.com/2130_history.html)

1922        Tinker Beads began to be produced. A full set contained 144 wooden beads, cord and a blunt needle.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, Z1 p.7)

1922        Vitamin E was discovered in when Evans HM et al. described a "substance X" that was essential to maintain rat fertility. After obtaining similar results, Sure B called the substance "vitamin E" because vitamins A, B, C, and D were already known.
    (www.cyberlipid.org/vite/vite0001.htm)

1922        Alexander Friedmann, Russian physicist and mathematician, made two simple assumptions about the universe that show why we should not expect it to be static. The first is that the universe looks identical in whichever direction we look and the second is that this would also be true if we were to observe the universe from anywhere else. This is later proven by Bubble.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.40)

1922        The 228-foot Standard Oil Building at 225 Bush was completed in Italian Renaissance style. It was designed by George Kelham, was expanded in 1949 and was sold in 1994 to Pacific Resources Development Inc. In 1999 it became the NBC Internet Building leased by Xoom.com from Ocwen Asset Investment Corp.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/225_Bush_Street)(SFC, 9/9/99, p.B2)(SFC, 9/6/01, p.A11)(SSFC, 5/31/15, p.C2)
1922        In San Francisco the Greek Revival home at 439 Roosevelt Way was built. It was designed by architect John C. Hladick and was at one time own ed by silent movie star Norma Talmadge (1894-1957).
    (SSFC, 11/3/13, p.C2)
1922        In San Francisco the 7-storey headquarters of the Spring Valley Water Co. was built its  at 425 Mason St. It was designed by Willis Polk.
    (SSFC, 8/24/14, p.C2)
1922        San Francisco’s last Tong murder took place. In 1962 Richard Dillon authored “Hatchet Men," an account of the SF Tong wars.
    (SFC, 7/13/13, p.C2)
1922        The oil tanker Lyman A. Stuart sank near Mile Rocks off the coast of San Francisco.
    (G, Winter 96/97, p.3)(SFC, 6/29/13, p.C2)

1922        Roy Chapman Andrews of the American Museum of Natural History led an expedition to the Gobi desert and discovered dinosaur bones. Later expeditions there turned up bones and nests of Protoceratops, a small horned dinosaur. He led 6 expeditions to the Gobi between 1921 and 1930. Andrews’ own autobiography is titled "Under a Lucky Star." In 2001 Charles Gallencamp the Andrews biography: "Dragon Hunter."
    (T.E.-J.B. p.25)(AM, 7/97, p.80)(WSJ, 5/21/01, p.A20)

1922        George Leigh Mallory (36) took part in a 2nd expedition of mountain climbers to Mt. Everest. 7 porters were killed and the expedition failed to reach the summit.
    (ON, 3/05, p.7)

1922        Arthur Wesley Dow (b.1857), American photographer, died.
    (WSJ, 1/20/04, p.D7)

1922        In Albania Zog, a tribal warlord, became the prime minister.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)

1922        Vegemite, a salty, slightly bitter spread made from brewer's yeast, was introduced by Australian chemist Cyril Callister for the Fred Walker Cheese Company in Melbourne. The company wanted a Vitamin B-rich spread that could compete with Britain's popular Marmite. The name came in a 1923 national poll. In 2009 Kraft Foods Australia announced that a creamier variation of Vegemite would be on store shelves July 5 alongside the original.
    (AP, 6/15/09)
1922        Reginald Arthur Borstel (b.1875), Australian artist, died. He was known for his ship portraits.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.B5)
1922        Henry Lawson (b.1867), Australian poet, died.
    (NG, 8/04, p.1)
1922        In Australia Colin Campbell Ross was hanged for raping and murdering Alma Tirtschke (12) and dumping her body in an alley in 1921. In 2008 the city of Melbourne posthumously pardoned him for the crime after new tests found crucial evidence against him was flawed.
    (Reuters, 5/27/08)

1922        Britain decommissioned the HMS Ascension and the island became a dependency of St. Helena. Ascension Island issued its first postage stamps.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.160)(www.britlink.org/ascension.html)
1922        Britain’s Daily Mail and General Trust (DMGT) was established to manage the Daily Mail and other newspaper interests of its founding family. The group can trace its origins back to launch of the mid market national newspaper the Daily Mail by Harold Harmsworth and his elder brother, Alfred, in 1896.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daily_Mail_and_General_Trust)(Econ, 4/6/13, p.66)

1922        In Croatia Sister Marija Krucifiksa Kozulic, founder of the Corruption’s Society of the sisters of the Sacred heart of Jesus, died. Her support of orphans and poor children led to later efforts for her canonization.
    (SFC, 2/17/14, p.A1)

1922        Adolph Hitler and Hermann Goring became friends and political allies because of their mutual hatred of the Versailles Treaty. In 2004 Anthony Read authored "The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle."
    (SSFC, 4/4/04, p.M3)
1922        In the Rapallo Treaty Germany recognized Lenin's regime.
    (WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)
1922        Carl Wieselsberger, German physicist, described a method of suspending models on an airstream, i.e. the ground effect.
    (Econ, 9/8/07, TQ p.12)(http://naca.central.cranfield.ac.uk/citations/cit.html)
1922        Walther Rathenau, a German-Jewish industrialist, was assassinated by right-wing thugs. The 1999 book "Einstein's German World" by Fritz Stern included an essay on Rathenau. Other essays presented views of Max Planck, physicist, Paul Ehrlich, founder of chemotherapy, and Fritz Haber, who worked on the insecticide later known as Zyklon-B.
    (WSJ, 9/21/99, p.A24)

1922        The novel “Rene Leys" by French author Victor Segalen (1878-1919), was published three years after the author’s death. The novel, writen in diary form, was about a Belgian teenager in old Peking who regales his employer with tales of the hidden intrigues and conspiracies taking palce in the imperial palace.
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.86)
1922        In Pauillac, France, Baron Philippe de Rothschild took over the Bordeaux region vineyard that had been initially purchased by his great-grandfather. He initiated bottling all production at the chateau and commissioned the architect, Charles Siclis, to build the famous "Grand Chai," as the centerpiece building.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T4)

1922        James Dole, a Boston businessman, bought 98% of Lanai Island, Ha., from the Baldwins for $1.1 million and planted 16,000 acres of pineapple. Dole built Lanai City, a harbor, infrastructure and brought in workers from China, Japan and the Philippines.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)(SFC, 6/27/12, p.D6)

1922        Hungary’s Regent Miklos Horthy passed the first of four anti-Jewish laws, limiting the number of Jewish students at universities.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.59)
1922        Their was a rainfall of spiders over Hungary.
    (SFC, 5/30/98, p.E4)

1922        In India civil disobedience demonstrators killed 22 police officers and Gandhi called off his campaign of disobedience.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)

1922        The Irish Republican Army refused to accept a separate Northern Ireland under British rule.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.7)

1922        In Ireland a cease-fire was established.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, p.C4)

1922        Revolutionary Erskine Childers was killed by Irish Free State forces. His son later became president, and his grandson a UN official.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, p.A17)

1922        The Univ. of Lithuania was founded in Kaunas.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.4)

1922        The West Bank became an unallocated portion of the Palestine Mandate.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)

1922        Lenin deported 70 of the best minds in Russia along with their families. In 2006 Lesley Chamberlain authored “The Philosophy Steamer: Lenin and the Exile of the Intelligentsia."
    (Econ, 3/18/06, p.80)
1922        The Soviet government divided the North Caucasus along ethnic lines, separating the Chechen Autonomous Oblast from the Republic of the Mountain Peoples and abolishing the republic itself in 1924.
    (www.chechnyawar.com/history)(USAT, 9/2/04, p.13A)
1922        The Red October Heat and Power Plant opened in St. Petersburg, Russia.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.F8)

1922        Scotland joined the United Kingdom of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)

1922        In Montevideo, Uruguay, the 26-storey Palacio Salvo hotel, designed by Architect Mario Palanti, became the tallest building in South America.
    (SSFC, 10/30/05, p.F6)

1922-1928    Dolly Rekords were made during this period by the Averill Co. They were played on a small record player inside the body of a Madame Hendren Doll.
    (SFC, 9/23/98, Z1 p.8)

1922-1948    Palestine and the West Bank comprised about 1/5th of the local area under British rule at his time.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.C12)

1922-1953    Stalin was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
    (AHD, 1971, p.1255)

1922-1981    H. C. Westerman, American artist. He is recognized as the pioneer of the Chicago Monster School of grotesque comic art. His work included the watercolor "Mohave" (1966), and the box sculptures "March or Die" (1966), and "The Evil Force" (1962).
    (SFC, 9/25/97, p.B2)

1923        Jan 1, The Angelus Temple, a spiritual palace in the Echo Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, was dedicated by Canadian-born evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson (1890-1944), organizer of the Int’l. Church of the Foursquare Gospel.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aimee_Semple_McPherson)(WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P9)
1923        Jan 1, Sadi Lecointe set a new aviation speed record flying an average of 208 mph at Istres.
    (HN, 1/1/99)
1923        Jan 1, John Daly (b.1841), for whom Daly City is named, died and was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in Colma. He was from Boston and had arrived in the Bay Area alone at age 13 via the Isthmus of Panama, where his mother died of yellow fever.
    (CHA, 1/2001)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Donald_Daly)

1923        Jan 2, A Ku Klux Klan surprise attack on a black residential area of Rosewood, Fla., killed 8 people. The all-black town of Rosewood, a north Florida community of 120 people, was burned to the ground. A white woman fearful of being caught in an affair, falsely claimed that she was raped and beaten by a black man. Violence exploded as a white mob tried to string up a black man for information on an alleged rape. At least 6 black and 2 white died and almost every building was burned. In 1994 the Florida legislature provided up to $2 million in compensation to survivors. Nine survivors won a $2 million settlement in 1995. In 1996 the event was recreated in the film "Rosewood" by John Singleton.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, DB p.43)(SFC, 9/24/97, p.C2) (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A3)(MC, 1/2/02)

1923         Jan 4, Emile Coué (1857-1926), French pharmacist, arrived in NYC. Coue was a proponent of "auto-suggestion," and believed positive thinking could cure disease. He recommended chanting "every day, in every way, I'm getting better and better."
    (http://tinyurl.com/4ke2gvp)
1923        Jan 4, The Paris Conference on war reparations hit a deadlock as the French insisted on the hard line and the British insisted on Reconstruction.
    (HN, 1/4/99)

1923        Jan 5, The Senate debated the benefits of Peyote for the American Indian.
    (HN, 1/5/99)

1923        Jan 8, Joseph Wiezenbaum, artificial intelligence pioneer, was born.
    (MC, 1/8/02)
1923        Jan 8, Giorgio Tozzi, basso (Met Opera, Boris, Don Giovanni), was born in Chicago, Illinois.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1923        Jan 9, Katherine Mansfield (34), NZ-British writer (Dove's Nest), died.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1923        Jan 10, The United States withdrew its last troops from Germany.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1923        Jan 11, The French entered Essen in the Ruhr. They were there to extract Germany's resources as war payment.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1923        Jan 13, Hitler denounced the Weimar republic as 5,000 storm troopers demonstrated in Germany.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1923        Jan 15, Lithuanians took Klaipeda back from French control.
     (LC, 1998, p.8)(LHC, 1/15/03)

1923        Jan 19, The French announced the invention of a new gun with a range of 56 miles.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1923        Jan 28, The 1st "National Socialist German Workers Party" (NSDAP, aka NAZI) formed in Munich.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1923        Jan 31, Norman Mailer (d.2007), NYC mayoral candidate, novelist (Naked and the Dead), was born in NJ. In 1999 Mary V. Dearborn published "Norman Mailer: A Biography."
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, BR p.7)(SSFC, 11/11/07, p.A7)

1923        Feb 1, Fascists Voluntary Militia formed in Italy under Mussolini.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1923        Feb 2, Ethyl gasoline was 1st marketed in Dayton, Ohio.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1923        Feb 3, The National Union committee divided a neutral zone between Lithuania and Poland and drew a final line of demarcation.
    (LHC, 2/3/03)

1923        Feb 4, French troops took Offenburg, Appenweier and Buhl in the Ruhr as a part of the agreement ending World War I.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1923        Feb 5, Stephen J. Cannell, TV producer, writer (Rockford Files), was born.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1923        Feb 6, Edward E. Barnard (65), US astronomer (5th moon Jupiter), died.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1923        Feb 8, German NSDAP (Nazi Party) Volkischer Beobachter newspaper became a daily.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1923        Feb 9, Brendan Behan, Irish playwright and poet, was born in Dublin, Ireland. His work included "The Hostage" and "The Quare Fellow."
    (HN, 2/9/01)(MC, 2/9/02)
1923        Feb 9, Norman E. Shumway, pioneer cardiac transplant surgeon, was born in Mich.
    (MC, 2/9/02)
1923        Feb 9, Soviet Aeroflot airlines formed.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1923        Feb 10, Cesare Siepi, basso (NY Metropolitan Opera), was born in Milan, Italy.
    (MC, 2/10/02)
1923        Feb 10, Wilhelm Konrad von Röntgen (77), physicist (Nobel 1901), died. In 1971 Robert W. Nitske authored “The Life of Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: Discoverer of the X Ray."
    (ON, 11/04, p.8)

1923        Feb 13, Charles "Chuck" Yeager, American test pilot, was born. He was the first man to break the sound barrier on October 14, 1947.
    (HN, 2/13/99)

1923        Feb 15, Yelena Bonner, soviet dissident, wife of Andre Sakharov, was born in Moscow.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1923        Feb 16, Bessie Smith (1898-1937) made her first recording "Down Hearted Blues." Her recording was included by the National Recording Preservation Board in the Library of Congress' National Recording Registry in 2002.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Downhearted_Blues)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=go6TiLIeVZA)
1923        Feb 16, In Egypt the burial chamber of King Tutankhamen's recently unearthed tomb was unsealed by archeologist Howard Carter.
    (AP, 2/16/08)(www.king-tut.org.uk/curse-of-king-tut/howard-carter-timeline.htm)

1923        Feb 19, Jean Sibelius' 6th Symphony premiered.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1923        Feb 22, 1st successful chinchilla farm established in US was in LA, Calif.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1923        Feb 26, Italian nationalist blue-shirts merged with the fascist black-shirts.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1923        Feb 28, Charles Durning, actor (Fury, Sting, Tootsie), was born in Highland Falls, NY.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1923        Mar 1, Allies occupied Ruhrgebied and killed a railroad striker.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1923        Mar 2, Doc Watson, singer and guitarist, was born.
    (HN, 3/2/01)
1923        Mar 2, The first issue of the weekly periodical, "TIME" appeared on newsstands. The first issue, dated March 3, was 32 pages and featured a charcoal sketch of Congressman Joseph Gurney Cannon on the cover. It was the United States’ first modern newsmagazine. The worldwide Time Magazine was conceived by Henry Luce and Briton Hadden (d.1929) in 1922. Luce and Hadden had just graduated from Yale. In 2006 Isaiah Wilner authored “The Man Time Forgot," a biography of Hadden.
    (www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19230303,00.html)(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)
1923        Mar 2, In Italy, Mussolini admitted that women have a right to vote, but declares that the time was not right.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1923        Mar 3, US Senate rejected membership in International Court of Justice, The Hague.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1923        Mar 4, Lenin's last article in Pravda (about Red bureaucracy) was published.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1923        Mar 5, Laurence Tisch (d.2003) was born in Brooklyn. In 1946 his parents entrusted him with $125,000 to invest. He and his brother grew it to billions through their Loews conglomerate.
    (SSFC, 11/16/03, p.A29)
1923        Mar 5, Montana and Nevada passed the US's first old age pension grants, giving $25 per month.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1923        Mar 6, The Turkish National Assembly rejected the Lausanne Treaty in Angora.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1923        Mar 8, Cyd Charisse, dancer, actress, was born.
    (HN, 3/8/01)
1923        Mar 8, John McPhee, writer (Oranges, A Sense of Where You Are), was born.
    (HN, 3/8/01)

1923        Mar 10, Kenneth "Jethro" Burns, country singer (Homer & Jethro), was born.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1923        Mar 13, Lee de Forest demonstrated his sound-on-film moving pictures in NYC.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1923        Mar 14, Diane Arbus [Nemerov] (d.1971), photographer, innovator (Vogue and Harper's Bazaar), was born in NYC. In 1984 Patricia Bosworth authored: "Diane Arbus: A Biography."
    (MC, 3/14/02)(Internet)
1923        Mar 14, President Harding became the first chief executive to file an income tax report.
    (AP, 3/14/97)
1923        Mar 14, German Supreme Court prohibited the NSDAP (Nazi Party).
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1923      Mar 15, An ambassador's conference set the demarcation line between Lithuania and Poland as a national border, which Lithuania did not recognize.
    (LHC, 3/15/03)
1923        Mar 15, Lenin was felled by his 3rd stroke.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1923        Mar 20, Bavarian minister of Interior refused to forbid the Nazi SA. [NOTE: The Sturmabteilung SA, German for "Assault Division" and sometimes translated stormtroopers, functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. It played a key role in Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in the 1930s. SA men were often known as brown shirts from the color of their uniform and to distinguish them from the SS who were known as black shirts.]
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1923        Mar 22, Marcel Marceau, French mime, was born. "I do not get my ideas from people on the street. If you look at faces on the street, what do you see? Nothing. Just boredom." He devised over 100 pantomimes, including The Creation of the World.
    (HN, 3/22/97)(AP, 3/22/99)

1923        Mar 23, Frank Silver and Irving Conn released "Yes, We Have No Bananas."
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1923        Mar 24, Edna Jo Hunter, expert on military families and prisoners of war, was born.
    (MC, 3/24/02)

1923        Mar 26, Bob Elliot, radio comedian, one half of Bob and Ray, was born.
    (HN, 3/26/01)
1923        Mar 26, Actress Sarah Bernhardt (b.1844), born in Paris as Rosine Bernardt, died in Paris. In 2010 Robert Gottlieb authored “Sarah: The Life of Sarah Bernhardt."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_Bernhardt)(Econ, 9/18/10, p.105)

1923        Mar 27, Louis Simpson, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet, was born.
    (HN, 3/27/01)

1923        Mar 31, The first U.S. dance marathon, held in New York City, ended. Alma Cummings (32) set a world record of 27 hours on her feet. 6 younger male partners helped her.
    (AP, 3/31/98)(WSJ, 6/1/05, p.B1)
1923        Mar 31, French soldiers fired on workers at Krupp factory in Essen; 13 died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1923        Apr 5, Michael V. Gazzo, actor (Cookie, Fear City), was born in Hillside, NJ.
    (MC, 4/5/02)
1923        Apr 5, Firestone Co. put their inflatable tires into production.
    (MC, 4/5/02)
1923        Apr 5, George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert (56), England’s 5th Earl of Lord Carnarvon, died in Egypt from an infected mosquito bite. He financed the excavation of the Egyptian New Kingdom Pharaoh Tutankhamen’s tomb in Egypt's Valley of the Kings.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Herbert,_5th_Earl_of_Carnarvon)
1923        Apr 5, Nguyen Van Thieu, president of South Vietnam (1965-75), selected this date as his birth date on the grounds that it was luckier than his Nov 1924 birthday.
    (HN, 5/5/97)(SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)(MC, 4/5/02)

1923        Apr 7, The Workers Party of America in NYC became an official communist party.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
1923        Apr 7, The 1st brain tumor operation under local anesthetic was performed at Beth Israel Hospital in NYC by Dr K. Winfield Ney.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1923        Apr 8, Franco Corelli, tenor, was born in Anconia, Italy.
    (MC, 4/8/02)
1923        Apr 8, Death toll from plague reached 1,000 in India.
    (HN, 4/8/98)

1923        Apr 10, Hitler demanded "hatred and more hatred" in Berlin.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1923        Apr 12, Ann Miller, [Lucille Ann Collier], dancer (On the Town), was born in Cherino, Tex.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1923        Apr 15, American inventor Lee De Forest (1873-1961) premiered 18 short films made in Phonofilm at the Rivoli Theater in New York City. Phonofilm recorded sound directly onto film.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_De_Forest)
1923        Apr 15, Insulin became generally available for diabetics.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1923        Apr 17, Harry Reasoner, American broadcast journalist, was born in Dakota City, Iowa.
    (HN, 4/17/98)(MC, 4/17/02)

1923        Apr 18, The first baseball game was played in Yankee Stadium. Babe Ruth hit a three-run homer as the Yankees beat the Red Sox 4-1. The stadium was called the House that Ruth built. In 2011 Robert Weintraub authored “The House That Ruth Built: A New Stadium, the first Yankees Championship, and the Redemption of 1923."
    (AP, 4/18/98)(WSJ, 10/12/99, p.A24)(Econ, 5/7/11, p.90)
1923        Apr 18, Poland annexed Central Lithuania.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1923        Apr 20, Tito Puente, bandleader, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1923        Apr 21, John Mortimor, British barrister and playwright, was born. He created Rumpole of the Bailey.
    (HN, 4/21/99)

1923        Apr 23, Lady Elizabeth (Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, 1900-2002) married Prince Albert, Duke of York (d.1952) in Westminster Abbey. Albert was crowned King of England in 1937. [see Apr 26]
    (SFC, 8/5/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)(SSFC, 3/31/02, p.A3)

1923        Apr 24, Colonel Jacob Schick patented Schick razors.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1923        Apr 25, Anita Bjorak, actress (Miss Julie, Loving Couples, Night People), was born.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1923        Apr 25, Melissa Hayden, ballerina (1961 Silver Bowl), was born in Toronto, Canada.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1923        Apr 25, Albert King, blues singer/guitar (Bad Look Blues), was born in Mississippi.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1923        Apr 26, English prince Albert (George VI) married lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. [see Apr 23]
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1923        May 1, Joseph Heller (d.1999), American author, was born in Bkln, NY. His work included the novel "Catch 22."
    (HN, 5/1/99)(SFC, 12/14/99, p.A10)(MC, 5/1/02)

1923        May 2, Lieutenants Okaley Kelly and John Macready took off from New York for the West Coast on what would become the first successful nonstop transcontinental flight.
    (HN, 5/2/02)

1923        May 3,    The 1st non-stop flight across the US was completed. Army lieutenants Kelly and Macready arrived in San Diego from New York in 26 hours and 50 minutes.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(HN, 4/6/98)(NPub, 2002, p.10)

1923        May 4, In Vienna, Austria, bloody street battles took place between Nazis, socialists and police.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1923        May 10, Geidar Aliev (Heydar Aliyev, d.2003), later KGB general, Communist Party chief and Azerbaijan president, was born in Nakhichevan.
    (AP, 12/12/03)(SFC, 12/13/03, p.A20)

1923        May 15, Richard Avedon, photographer, was born.
    (HN, 5/15/01)

1923        May 25, John Weitz, spy, author, fashion designer (Friends in High Places), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1923        May 25, Britain recognized Transjordan with Abdullah as its leader.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1923        May 26, James Arness, actor (Gunsmoke), was born in Minneapolis, MN.
    (HN, 5/26/01)(MC, 5/26/02)

1923        May 27, Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State (1973-77), was born. He became Sec. of State in the Nixon administration, and won the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end the Vietnam War.
    (HN, 5/27/99)(MC, 5/27/02)

1923        May 28, US Attorney General said it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere.
    (MC, 5/28/02)
1923        May 28, US unemployment was nearly ended.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1923        May 29, Adolf Oberländer German painter, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1923        May 30, Howard Hanson's 1st Symphony "Nordic," premiered.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1923        Jun 3, In Italy, dictator Benito Mussolini granted women the right to vote.
    (HN, 6/3/98)

1923        Jun 4, Filippo Smaldone, Italian priest, died. He provided education and assistance for the death and founded the Congregation of the Salesian Sisters of the Sacred Heart. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI named him a saint.
    (SFC, 10/16/06, p.A2)

1923        Jun 9, Brinks unveiled its 1st armored security vans.
    (MC, 6/9/02)
1923        Jun 9, Bulgaria’s government was overthrown by the military.
    (HN 6/9/98)

1923        Jun 12, Harry Houdini freed himself from a straight jacket while suspended upside down, 40 feet (12 m) above ground in NYC.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1923        Jun 13, The French set a trade barrier between the occupied Ruhr and the rest of Germany.
    (HN, 6/13/98)

1923        Jun 15, Dashiell Hammett published his story "The Vicious Circle" in the Black Mask pulp magazine under the pseudonym Peter Collinson.
    (SFCM, 4/15/01, p.4)

1923        Jun 16, Sun Yat Sen founded a military academy.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1923        Jun 19, "Moon Mullins", Comic Strip, made its debut.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)

1923        Jun 20, Pres. Harding set out on a 7,500-mile "Voyage of Understanding" through the northwest. The 57-year-old Harding, who suffered from heart disease, was so shaken by breaking reports of corruption in his administration that he went on a cross-country speaking tour to strengthen his position.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A19)(HN, 8/2/98)
1923        Jun 20, France announced it would seize the Rhineland to assist Germany in paying her war debts.
    (HN, 6/20/98)

1923        Jun 21, Marcus Garvey was sentenced to 5 years for using mail to defraud.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1923        Jun 23, Air mail service between SF and NYC was boosted with 50 new Douglas airplanes.
    (SFC, 6/22/01, WBb p.8)

1923        Jun 24, Pope Pius XI spoke against allies occupying Ruhrgebied.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1923        Jun 27, Paul F. Conrad, cartoonist (Pulitzer 1964, 71, 84), was born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1923        Jun 27, The first in-flight refueling occurred over San Diego, Ca.
    (NPub, 2002, p.10)
1923        Jun 27, Yugoslav Premier Nikola Pachitch was wounded by Serb attackers in Belgrade.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

1923        Jul 4, Jack Dempsey beat Tommy Gibbon in 15 for the heavyweight boxing title.
    (Maggio, 98)

1923        Jul 5, Edward Robeson Taylor (b.1838), former mayor of San Francisco (1907-1910), died. Taylor, a doctor and lawyer, had also served as dean of Hastings College of the Law and was a founder of the Book Club of California as well as a published poet.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Robeson_Taylor)

1923        Jul 6, Wojciech Jaruzelski, Polish general, pres. (1989-90), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wojciech_Jaruzelski)

1923        Jul 10, Jean Kerr (d.2003), playwright and author, was born in Scranton, Pa. Her later books included "Please Don’t Eat the Daisies."
    (SFC, 1/7/03, p.A22)

1923        Jul 15, President Warren G. Harding (d.Aug 2, 1923) tapped the golden spike of the $60 million Alaskan Railway at Nenana.
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.C9)

1923        Jul 17, James Purdy, writer (Cabot Wright Begins), was born.
    (HN, 7/17/01)

1923        Jul 20, In Mexico Francisco Villa (aka Pancho Villa, b.1877) [Doroteo Arango], general and revolutionist, died in an ambush. In c1999 Friedrich Katz of the Univ. of Chicago published "The Life and Times of Pancho Villa." In 2001 Frank McLynn authored "Villa and Zapata."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1593)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A14)(MC, 7/20/02)

1923        Jul 22, Robert Dole, U.S. Senator from Kansas (1969-95), was born. In 1996 he was a Republican candidate for president of the United States.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1923        Jul 24, The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland. It replaced the Treaty of Sevres and divided the lands inhabited by the Kurds between Turkey, Iraq and Syria. Article 39 allowed Turkish nationals to use any language they wished in commerce, public and private meetings, and publications. The treaty specifically protected the rights of the Armenian, Greek and Jewish communities. The former provinces of Baghdad, Basra and Mosul were lumped together to form Iraq. Both countries agreed to a massive exchange of religious minorities. Christians were deported from Turkey to Greece and Muslims from Greece to Turkey. In 2006 Bruce Clark authored “Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey."
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)(AP, 7/24/97)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.9)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.50)(Econ, 12/9/06, p.92)

1923        Jul 27, Pres. Harding suffered an attack of food poisoning. His unskilled physician, with the support of Mrs. Harding, treated the president with large doses of purgatives, which worsened his heart condition.
    (HN, 8/2/98)

1923        Jul 29, Albert Einstein spoke on pacifism in Berlin.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1923        Jul, Officially sanctioned chuck wagon racing started at the Calgary Stampede in Canada.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)

1923        Aug 2, Following a return trip form Alaska the 29th president of the United States, Warren G. Harding (57), died in San Francisco at the Palace Hotel of a "stroke of apoplexy." Not considered to have been a particularly intelligent man, Harding owed his rise to political power to the driving ambition of his wife, Florence Kling Harding. As president, the Ohio native was troubled by scandals caused by his weakness for pretty women and a tendency to place unscrupulous friends—called "The Ohio Gang"—in positions of power. Graft, corruption and other scandals that led to the suicides of two high Federal officials had begun to taint the Harding Administration when the president suddenly died of a heart attack, just before the Teapot Dome Scandal broke, the largest scandal of his administration. In 1998 Carl Sferrazza Anthony published "Florence Harding: The First Lady, The Jazz Age and the Death of America’s Most Scandalous President." Vice President Calvin Coolidge became president upon the death of Warren G. Harding.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1923)(AP, 8/2/97)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W27)(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A15,19)(HN, 8/2/98)(HN, 8/2/98)(HNQ, 12/7/98)
1923        Aug 2, Vice President Calvin Coolidge went to bed at 9 p.m. at his father’s home in Plymouth, Vermont, where he was enjoying a short vacation. It took several hours for the news of President Warren G. Harding’s death in California to reach the small town, but by 2 a.m., Coolidge was told that Harding was dead. Traditionally, the president is sworn in by the chief justice of the Supreme Court—but he slept 500 miles away. At 2:30 a.m. on August 3, 1923, Coolidge’s father, a notary public, administered the oath of office to his son by the light of a kerosene lamp.
    (HNPD, 8/3/98)

1923        Aug 3, Anne Klein, fashion designer (Anne Klein II), was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)
1923        Aug 3, Calvin Coolidge was sworn in as the 30th president of the United States, following the death of Warren G. Harding. It took several hours for the news of President Warren G. Harding's death in California to reach the small town of Plymouth, Vermont, where he was enjoying a short vacation, but by 2 a.m., Coolidge was told that Harding was dead. Traditionally, the president is sworn in by the chief justice of the Supreme Court--but he slept 500 miles away. At 2:30 a.m. on August 3, 1923, Coolidge's father, a notary public, administered the oath of office to his son by the light of a kerosene lamp.
    (AP, 8/3/97)(HNPD, 8/3/98)

1923        Aug 5, Richard G. Kleindienst, one of the key officials who helped elect Richard Nixon to the presidency in 1969, was born.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1923        Aug 10, Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida (b.1863), Spanish impressionist painter, died in Cercedilla. His work included “A View of Malaga."
    (WSJ, 10/29/04, p.A15)(www.britannica.com)

1923        Aug 12, Enrico Tiraboschi became the 1st to swim English Channel westward.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1923        Aug 13, US Steel Corp. initiated an 8-hour work day.
    (MC, 8/13/02)
1923        Aug 13, The Turkish National Congress selected Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Ataturk) as president.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1923        Aug 15, Simon Peres [Persky], premier of Israel, was born in Belarus.
    (www.ourcampaigns.com/CandidateDetail.html?CandidateID=30248)
1923        Aug 15, Eamon de Valera was arrested in Irish Free State.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1923        Aug 17, Larry Rivers (d.2002), painter and sculptor, was born in Bronx, NY, as Yitzroch Grossberg.
    (HN, 8/17/00)(SC, 8/12/02)(NW, 8/26/02, p.9)

1923        Aug 18, Jimmy Witherspoon, blues singer, was born.
    (HN, 8/18/00)

1923        Aug 19, Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto (b.1848), French-Italian sociologist, economist and philosopher, died. In 1906 he made the famous observation that 20% of the population owned 80% of the property in Italy. This was later generalized by Joseph M. Juran and others into the so-called Pareto principle (also termed the 80-20 rule) and generalized further to the concept of a Pareto distribution.
    (WSJ, 3/8/08, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vilfredo_Pareto)

1923        Aug 21, Chris Schenkel, sportscaster (Monday Night Fights), was born in Biuppus, Ind.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1923        Aug 22, Paavo Nurmi of Finland ran a world record mile (4:10.4).
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1923        Aug 23, Richard Adler, composer, songwriter (Damn Yankees, Pajama Game), was born.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1923        Aug 23, Wolfgang Sawallisch, conductor (Vienna Symph 1960-70), was born in Munich, Germany.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1923        Aug 24, Kate Douglas Wiggin (66), author (US kindergarten movement), died.
    (www.online-literature.com/kate-wiggin/)

1923        Aug 29,  Richard Attenborough, actor, director (Gandhi, Young Winston), was born in England.
    (MC, 8/29/01)
1923        Aug 29, Alexander Zemlinsky (1871-1942, Vienna-born composer, completed his 45-minute Lyric Symphony for Soprano, Baritone, and Orchestra, in Seven Songs on Poems by Rabindranath Tagore, Opus 18.
    (www.sfsymphony.org/music/ProgramNotes.aspx?id=45152)

1923        Aug 31, Mussolini's troops occupied Korfu.
    (MC, 8/31/01) 

1923        Sep 1, Rocky Marciano, world heavyweight boxing champion (1952-56), was born. He began boxing at the relatively advanced age of 24, but rose to the heavyweight title in 1952 with a perfect record. He retained his crown for 7 years, winning all six of his title defense prizefights, then retired undefeated in 1959.
    (HN, 9/1/99)(MC, 9/1/02)(SC, 9/1/02)
1923        Sep 1, The Japanese cities of Tokyo and Yokohama were devastated by the Great Kanto earthquake that claimed 99,000-143,000 lives. The 7.9-8.3 quake off Tokyo's shoreline killed some 99,300 people.
    (AP, 9/1/97)(www.ig.utexas.edu/research/projects/eq/faq/world.htm)

1923        Sep 3, Mort Walker, cartoonist (Beetle Bailey, Hi & Lois), was born.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1923        Sep 4, Noel Coward's revue "London Calling," premiered in London.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1923        Sep 8, Seven of the 15 ships of Destroyer Squadron 11 were wrecked on a rocky point on the California Santa Barbara County coast. 23 sailors were killed.
    (SFC, 9/9/98, p.D2)

1923        Sep 10, The Irish Free state joined the League of Nations.
    (MC, 9/10/01)
1923        Sep 10, In response to a dispute with Yugoslavia, Mussolini mobilized Italian troops on Serb front.
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1923        Sep 11, ZR-1 (biggest active dirigible) flew over NY's tallest skyscraper, Woolworth Tower.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1923        Sep 15, Gov. Walton (b.1881) of Oklahoma declared a state of siege because of KKK terror. Walton was elected governor in 1922 and impeached in 1923.
    (www.cga.state.ct.us/2004/rpt/2004-R-0184.htm)

1923        Sep 17, Hank Williams, Sr., singer, songwriter and guitarist known for "Lonesome Blues" and "Your Cheatin’ Heart," was born.
    (HN, 9/17/98)
1923        Sep 17, In Berkeley, Ca., a fire began in the Wildcat Canyon and in 2 hours engulfed 584 structures. 50 blocks were engulfed and over 6,000 people were left homeless.
    (SFC, 9/17/98, p.A20)(SFC, 10/16/99, p.C1)

1923        Sep 21, Gordon Battelle (b.1883), industrialist and researcher, died following an appendectomy at a Columbus, Ohio, hospital. In his will, he left the bulk of his estate, about $1.6 million, to the establishment of Battelle Memorial Institute, founded in 1929.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Battelle)

1923        Sep 22, Marquess of Ripon, game hunter, died, after shooting his 52nd grouse.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1923        Sep 26, Sir Aubrey Herbert (b.1880), Englishman, died. He worked for Albania’s independence and was twice offered the throne of Albania. He authored the WW 1 journal “Mons, Anzac & Kut."
    (www.ku.edu/carrie/texts/world_war_I/Mons/mons.htm)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.16)
1923        Sep 28, William Windom, actor (Farmer's Daughter, Murder She Wrote), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1923        Sep, SF police raided at 5 St. Louis Alley in Chinatown and captured Ah Kung along with 3 slave girls valued at $3,500 each.
    (SSFC, 9/23/12, DB p.46)
1923        Sep, The Int’l. Criminal Police Commission (Interpol) formed in Vienna.
    (www.exxun.com/ekio/io_interpol_2088.html)
1923        Sep, In Japan an orgy of opportunistic anti-Korean slaughter followed the Sep 1 Great Kanto earthquake.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.59)

1923        Oct 4, Charlton Heston III, American actor, was born. His films included "10 Commandments," "Ben Hur" and "Planet of Apes."
    (HN, 10/4/98)(MC, 10/4/01)

1923        Oct 5, Philip Berrigan, militant priest (Chicago 7), was born.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1923        Oct 13, Angora (Ankara) became Turkey's capital.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1923        Oct 15, Italo Calvino (d.1985), Italian novelist (Winter's Night a Traveler), was born in Cuba.
    (HN, 10/15/00)(MC, 10/15/01)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M4)

1923        Oct 16, Walt Disney and his brother Roy O. Disney founded The Disney Company.
    (MC, 10/16/01)(WSJ, 2/13/04, p.A8)
1923        Oct 16, John Harwood patented a self-winding watch in Switzerland.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1923        Oct 20, Herschel Bernardi, actor (Arnie, Voice of Charlie the Tuna, Front), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1923        Oct 20, Philip Whalen (d.2002), Zen Buddhist priest and SF Beat poet, was born in Portland.   
    (SFC, 6/27/02, p.A19)

1923        Oct 24, Denise Levertov, English poet, was born.
    (HN, 10/24/00)

1923        Oct 25, The Teapot Dome scandal came to public attention as Senator Thomas J. Walsh of Montana, subcommittee chairman, revealed the findings of the past 18 months of investigation. His case would result in the conviction of Harry F. Sinclair of Mammoth Oil, and later Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall, the first cabinet member in American history to go to jail. The scandal, named for the Teapot Dome oil reserves in Wyoming, involved Fall secretly leasing naval oil reserve lands to private companies. The administration of President Warren G. Harding was rocked by the Elk Hills Scandal-also known as the Teapot Dome Scandal or Oil Reserves Scandal. In 1921 and 1922 Harding’s secretary of the interior, Albert B. Fall secretly granted Mammoth Oil exclusive rights to California’s Teapot Dome oil reserves and portions of the Elk Hills and Buena Vista Hills reserves to American Petroleum, in exchange for some $300,000. Supervision of the oil reserves had been transferred from the Navy to the Department of the Interior in 1921. Fall was imprisoned for accepting a bribe in the Elk Hills case and the Supreme court ruled Harding’s transfer illegal.
    (HN, 10/25/98)(HNQ, 4/19/99)

1923        Oct 27, Roy Lichtenstein (d.1997), ‘pop art’ painter, was born.
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A7)(HN, 10/27/00)

1923        Oct 29, "Runnin' Wild," which introduced the Charleston dance, opened on Broadway.
    (MC, 10/29/01)
1923        Oct 29, The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Turkey established secular government under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. He introduced the policy known as Kemalism, which bars any mixing of religious and public life. The country was predominantly Sunni Muslim.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-6)(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A10)(HFA, '96, p.40)(AP, 10/29/97)

1923        Nov 1, Victoria de Los Angeles, Spanish opera soprano, was born.
    (HN, 11/1/00)
1923        Nov 1, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company bought the rights to manufacture Zeppelin dirigibles.
    (HN, 11/1/98)

1923        Nov 2, US Navy aviator, H.J. Brown, set new world speed record of 259 mph in a Curtiss racer.
    (HN, 11/2/98)
1923        Nov 2, Bloody street fights took place in Aachen. The pro-French separatists were driven out.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1923        Nov 4, Alfred Heineken, beer brewer, was born.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1923        Nov 6, Col. Jacob Schick patented the 1st electric shaver.
    (MC, 11/6/01)
1923        Nov 6, European inflation soared and one loaf of bread in Berlin was reported to be worth about 140 Billion German Marks. Germany suffered a terrible economic inflation. Hyperinflation eventually made 4.2 trillion marks worth $1.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.7)(HN, 11/6/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1923        Nov 8, Jack S. Kilby (d.2005) was born in Jefferson City, Mo. In 2000 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the microchip (1958).
    (SFC, 12/11/00, p.A2)(SFC, 6/22/05, p.A5)
1923         Nov 8, Adolf Schicklgruber (Hitler) launched his first attempt to seize power with a failed coup in Munich, Germany, that came to be known as the Beer-Hall Putsch. He proclaimed himself chancellor and Ludendorff dictator. After the unsuccessful beerhall putsch, he wound up in jail writing "Mein Kampf." Mein Kampf, was sub-titled Four-and-Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity, and Cowardice. The Nazi dictator wrote much of Mein Kampf (My Struggle) while in prison in 1923 and 1924 for attempting to overthrow the German government. The work became the bible of the Nazi Party and a blueprint for the Third Reich.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1923)(AP, 11/8/97)(HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 5/5/99)

1923        Nov 9, Dorothy Dandridge, actress, singer and dancer (Porgy and Bess), was born in Cleveland, Oh.
    (MC, 11/9/01)
1923        Nov 9, James Schuyler, poet, novelist and playwright, was born.
    (HN, 11/9/00)

1923        Nov 11, Eternal flame was lit for the tomb of unknown solder at the Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1923        Nov 12, Adolf Hitler was arrested for his Nov 8 attempted German coup.
    (HN, 11/12/98)(MC, 11/12/01)

1923        Nov 15, Germany introduced the gold mark. Its issuance was severely restricted by the new Rentenbank. This allowed paper money to settle down to a rate of 4.2 trillion to the dollar by the end of the year.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, p.91)

1923        Nov 18, Alan Shepard, the first American astronaut in space, was born in East Derry, NH.
    (HN, 11/18/98)(MC, 11/18/01)

1923        Nov 19, Oklahoma Governor Walton was ousted by state senate for anti-Ku Klux Klan measures.
    (HN, 11/19/98)

1923        Nov 20, Nadine Gordimer, Nobel Prize-winning South African novelist, was born.
    (HN, 11/20/00)
1923        Nov 20, Garrett Morgan invented and patented a traffic signal.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1923        Nov 22, Pres. Coolidge pardoned WW I German spy Lothar Witzke, who was sentenced to death.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1923        Nov 23, German army commander Gen. Von Seeckt banned the NSDAP & KPD.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1923        Nov 25, Transatlantic broadcasting from England to America for the first time.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1923        Nov 29, International commission headed by American banker Charles Dawes was set up to investigate the German economy.
    (HN, 11/29/98)

1923        Dec 2, Maria M. Callas (d.1977), opera singer (Norma, Traviata, Medea, Lucia, Tosca), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 12/2/01)(Internet)

1923        Dec 4, Cecil B. DeMille's 1st version of "Ten Commandments" premiered.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1923        Dec 6, A presidential address was broadcast on radio for the first time as President Coolidge spoke to a joint session of Congress.
    (AP, 12/6/97)

1923        Dec 13, Phillip Anderson, physicist, was born.
    (HN, 12/13/00)

1923        Dec 21, Nepal changed from British protectorate to independent nation.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1923        Dec 28, George Bernard Shaw's "St. Joan," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 12/28/01)
1923        Dec 28, Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel (91), engineer (Eiffel Tower, Statue of Liberty), died.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1923        Dec 31, BBC began using the Big Ben chime ID.
    (MC, 12/31/01)
1923        Dec 31, The Sahara was crossed by an automobile for the first time.
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1923        Peter Joachim Frohlich was born in Germany. He emigrated to the US in 1941 under the name Peter Jack Gay. He later published "The Enlightenment: An Interpretation" in 2 volumes (1966-1969) and the 5-volume "The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud." In 1998 he published the memoir "My German Question: Growing Up in Nazi Berlin."
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.4)

1923        Poet James Shuyler was born in Chicago. In 1998 David Lehman published "The Last Avant-Garde: The Making of the New York School of Poets."
    (WSJ, 9/18/98, p.W8)

1923        Dr. Barnes set up an exhibit of his collection of paintings in Philadelphia to introduce the foundation that would house the art and promulgate his theories of art. Critics ridiculed the paintings and Barnes closed the foundation to everyone. It was not opened again until 1960. [see 1872-1951, Barnes]
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.84)

1923        Wassily Kandinsky (d.1944), Russian artist credited with the invention of abstract art, created his watercolor "Aquarelle Movementee." It sold in 1999 for $1.3 million.
    (WSJ, 8/13/99, p.W10)

1923        Henri Matisse painted "The Hindu Pose," where a topless woman posed cross-legged in the artist’s Cote d’Azur apartment. The painting sold for $14.8 mil on 5/8/95.
    (WSJ, 5/9/95, p.B-6)

1923        Picasso painted the portrait "Olga Picasso," the Russian ballerina, who was his first wife.
    (WSJ, 5/18/01, p.W8)

1923        Max Ernst created his Surrealist work "Men Shall Know Nothing of This," a floating conjunction of human nether parts.
    (WSJ, 2/25/02, p.A17)

1923        Florine Stettheimer painted "Portrait of Myself."
    (WSJ, 7/18/95, p.A-12)

1923        Picasso painted "Olga," a stunning pastel of his wife in a nice blue dress.
    (WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-13)

1923        Henry Ossawa Tanner, African-American artist, painted "Two Disciples at the Tomb."
    (WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A20)

1923        Photographers Edward Weston (1886-1958) and Tina Modotti (1896-1942) set up shop in Mexico.
    (WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A16)

1923        Elmer Rice wrote his play "The Adding Machine."
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)

1923        Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), Argentine poet, published his first book of verse: "Fervor de Buenos Aires."
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.3)

1923        Robert Frost’s “New Hampshire," a Pulitzer Prize-winning volume of poems, included several of his most well-known poems: "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" and “Census Taker."
    (PBS, 10/1/06)(www.famouspoetsandpoems.com/poets/robert_frost/poems/799)

1923        Marianne Moore (b.1887), American poet, wrote the poem "Marriage." In 1998 her the book: "The Selected letters of Marianne Moore" was edited by Bonnie Costello, Celeste Goodridge and Cristanne Miller.
    (WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)

1923        Ezra Pound wrote his poem: "The pure products of America go crazy."
    (SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.6)

1923        W.B. Yeats wrote his poem "Leda and the Swan."
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)

1923        Le Corbusier (1887-1965), Swiss-French architect and writer, authored “Vers une architecture" (Towards a New Architecture) (1923).
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/lecorbu.htm)

1923        J.B.S. Haldane wrote "Daedalus, or Science and the Future."
    (NH, 4/97, p.6)

1923        Rudyard Kipling authored “The Irish Guards in the Great War," a history of the unit that his son fought and died for in WW I.
    (WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)

1923     Edwin Lefevre authored "Reminiscences of a Stock Operator." It was fictional account based on interviews with real-life trader Jesse Livermore.
    (USAT, 7/16/03, p.2B)

1923        Felix Salten (1869-1945) a Viennese Jew, wrote his antifascist allegory "Bambi, A Life in the Woods." It was translated into English by Whittaker Chambers (28) and published by Simon & Schuster in 1928.  In 1942 it was made into an animated Disney.
    (WSJ, 10/14/97, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Salten)

1923        P.G. Wodehouse (1881-1975) authored "Leave It to Psmith."
    (NW, 8/20/01, p.56)

1923        Charlotte Siepmann (d.1999 at 88) and C.K. Ogden authored "Meaning of Meaning," an early formulation of the linguistic system that became known as Basic English.
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.A20)

1923        Frank Willard (1958) created the Moon Mullins comic strip for the Chicago Tribune. The strip continued with other artists following Willard’s death until 1991.
    (SFC, 9/19/07, p.G6)

1923        Walt Disney began producing his “Alice" comedies and continued with the series to 1927. Virginia Davis (1919-2009), hired at age four, appeared in 13 of the “Alice" films. These included “Alice’s Day at Sea," “Alice the Peacemaker," and “Alice’s Wild West Show." Disney and his Laugh-O-Gram company were based in Kansas City, Ms., when the series began.
    (SFC, 8/19/09, p.D5)

1923        Louis Armstrong recorded with the King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band: "King Oliver and His Creole Jazz Band."
    (WSJ, 1/3/95, p. 8)(SFC, 7/4/97, p.D9)

1923        Bessie Smith recorded her big hit "Downhearted Blues."
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, DB p.39)

1923        George Antheil used synchronized piano rolls for his "Ballet Mechanique." The piece was scored for 10 pianos and an airplane propeller. He later used the principle of spreading a signal over many frequencies in a 1942 patent that later became the basis for spread spectrum technology used in modern wireless communications.
    (WSJ, 2/21/97, p.B15B)(WSJ, 4/23/98, p.A16)

1923        Alban Berg composed his opera "Wozzeck." [see 1926 premiere] It was based on a 1836 play by Georg Buchner and featured the rhythmic speechsong called Sprechstimme. Berg's opera was composed in 1925.
    (WSJ, 2/19/97, p.A15)(SFC, 11/4/99, p.B1)

1923        Manuel de Falla composed "Master Peter’s Puppet Show," (El Retablo de Maese Pedro). It was intended as a puppet theater forged with the poet, Federico Garcia Lorca.
    (SFC, 8/25/97, p.E1)

1923        Darius Milhaud premiered "La Creation du Monde" (the Creation of the World) with 19 members of the Orchestre du Theatre du Champs-Elyssees. Fernand Leger designed the décor and costumes. The jazz age ballet was created by Milhaud, Blaise Cendrars and Jean Borlin.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.32)(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T8)(Econ, 11/19/05, p.90)

1923        The Fitzhugh building was built on the corner of Geary and Powell at Union Square. The site later was taken by Saks Fifth Ave.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)
1923        The palazzo-style Shriners Hospital for Children was opened in the Sunset as a combined meeting hall and care facility for disabled children. The 5-acre site on 19th Ave. had an annex attached in 1969. In 1997 it planned to leave for new quarters in Sacramento. Developers planned to demolish it for 152 housing units. [1st source said 1924]
    (SFC, 2/6/97, p.A17)(SFC, 5/20/97, p.A12)(SFC, 1/9/98, p.A18)
1923        John W. Stacey founded Stacey’s Bookstore in the Flood Building at Market and Powell. In the 1950s the store moved to 851 Market St. On Jan 6, 2009, the store announced it would close in March, 2009, due to competition and economic conditions.
    (SFC, 1/7/09, p.B1)
1923        In San Francisco the Union Espanola, a Spanish cultural center, was founded as a non-profit corporation. For decades it was located on Broadway, but in 1985 moved to Alemany Boulevard.
    (SSFC, 8/5/12, p.G3)
1923        The O’Shaughnessy Dam on the Tuolumne River was completed. The first Hetch Hetchy water began flowing to the Bay Area in 1934.
    (Ind, 3/11/00, p.5A)(SFC, 9/15/02, p.A20)

1923        The Freer Gallery in Washington was established as the nation’s national museum of Asian art. The center of the collection was amassed by Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), a self-made railroad magnate living in Detroit.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 12/14/06, p.D6)

1923        In California the Ojai Valley golf course was constructed.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.T3)
1923        The 450-foot-long, 45-foot-tall "Hollywood" sign was erected on Mount Lee as a promotion for the Hollywoodland subdivision in Beachwood Canyon, Ca. In 1949 the "land" was dropped and the sign was declared a historical monument in 1973 and restored in 1978. In 2011 Leo Braudy authored “The Hollywood Sign: Fantasy and Reality of an American Icon."
    (SFC, 11/13/96, p.E5)(SSFC, 3/6/11, p.G3)

1923        The Clements Library opened in Ann Arbor. Its first director was Randolph G. Adams. The library was designed by Albert Kahn and was paid for by William L. Clements to house his extensive book collection. The Univ. of Mich. agreed to pay for its maintenance, staff salaries and fund acquisitions. It acquired about this time the collection of Henry Vignaud, US Consul in Paris, who had amassed a 50,000 piece collection of historic explorations and discoveries.
    (MT, Sum. ‘98, p.8)

1923        The first suburban shopping center opened, the Country Club Plaza, in Kansas City, Mo. It was built in the architectural style of Seville, Spain.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 11/13/96, p.B1)

1923        Economics Laboratory (later Ecolab) was founded in St. Paul, Minnesota, by Merrit Osborn, a former traveling salesman. Its first product was Absorbit, an instant carpet cleaner. In 2012 its revenues reached $12 billion.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.70)

1923        Francis Meynell, a British book designer and publisher, founded Nonsuch Press with his wife Vera, and friend David Garnett. The following year they brought out “The Week-End Book," a handbook for the rural explorer. The last edition was published in 1955.
    (WSJ, 6/3/06, p.P8)

1923        The Chocolate Manufacturers Association was founded.
    (WSJ, 11/25/03, p.B10)

1923        Irving Fisher, economist, established the Number Institute, a company that would develop and sell index numbers for measuring price levels and other economic data.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1923        Amelia Earhart became the 16th woman to be issue a pilot’s license by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale.
    (ON, 12/07, p.8)

1923        Harry MacElhone (d.1958) bought a bar in Paris at 5 rue Dannou behind the opera and named it Harry’s New York Bar. It later became a hangout for the "Lost Generation." His son, Andrew, (1923-1996) took over 1958. Andrew’s son Duncan (d.1998 at 44) took over in 1989. Cocktails such as the French 75 (named after a WW I artillery piece), the Bloody Mary and the Side Car were invented there.
    (SFC, 9/20/96, p.A22)(SFC, 3/28/98, p.B12)

1923        The Converse shoe company, founded in 1908, renamed its All-Stars basketball shoe to Chuck Taylor All-Star. In 2003 the company was sold to Nike.
    (WSJ, 7/10/03, p.A6)(SFC, 12/10/04, p.D1)

1923        William Butler Yeats, Irish poet, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T6)

1923        Yankee stadium was built in the Bronx of NYC.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, T-8)
1923        The NY Yankees defeated the New York Giants in the World Series 4 games to 2.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.C1)

1923        The Lausanne Treaty provided for the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey, and Crete was populated only by Greeks.
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)

1923        Silent Cal Coolidge took over and the country pursued its prosperous, merry ways: rocking to the Charleston, playing mah-jongg, reading Mencken, staggering through dance marathons, making bathtub gin, getting tangled in a new-fangled thing called Cellophane.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1923)

1923        The US Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution protects the right to "bring up children."
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, Z1 p.6)

1923        The 682-foot Shenandoah was built by the U.S. Navy. Two years later the dirigible broke apart in mid-air, killing 14 persons aboard. The Los Angeles was built for the Navy in Germany and delivered in 1924. The Akron was commissioned in 1931 and was, at the time, the world’s largest airship at 785 feet. During a thunderstorm in 1933, the Akron was destroyed, killing 73 of the 77 persons aboard.
    (HNQ, 1/2/00)

1923        The US established a National Oil Reserve near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska.
    (Econ, 12/11/04, p.28)

1923        Special Indian Commissioner H.J. Hagerman organized the first Navajo Tribal Council which gave him power to act for them in auctioning oil leases. The tribal government was established following the discovery of oil on its reservation.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 11/14/11, p.D4)

1923        In South Dakota Gov. William McMaster bought cut rate gas from a Chicago distributor and began selling it at a state depot for 16 cents a gallon. Standard Oil was charging 26.6 cents (equal to about $3.16 in 2008), which he called “highway robbery." Standard oil cut its price to 16.6 cents and other states began to demand the same price. McMaster and Standard eventually negotiated a price of 20 cents a gallon.
    (WSJ, 3/31/08, p.B1)
1923        Doane Robinson, the aging superintendent of the South Dakota State Historical Society, proposed a massive mountain memorial carved from stone so large it would put South Dakota on the map.
    (www.ohranger.com/mount-rushmore/making-mount-rushmore)

1923        The city of Berkeley Ca., under town marshal Gus Vollmer, introduced the use of lie-detector machines.
    (SFC, 4/29/08, p.A1)

1923        Florida took delivery of its first and only electric chair to execute convicts.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A26)

1923        Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, film comedian, was acquitted after 3 trials of the 1921 murder of actress Virginia Rappe.
    (SFC, 5/6/03, p.A17)

1922        Earle C. Anthony, a Los Angeles Packard dealer, commissioned from France the 1st neon signs in the US for his dealership.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T6)

1923        Porter Blanchard (1886-1973), a Massachusetts silversmith, moved to Burbank, Ca. He soon opened a studio featuring silver and pewter work that became part of the California Arts and Crafts movement.
    (SFC, 5/9/07, p.G7)

1923        The American Cotton Oil Company sold the cotton-seed oil business and formed Gold Dust Corp., a soap maker.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1923        Caleb Bradham sold the Pepsi-Cola trademark and business for $35,000. He was forced into bankruptcy after sugar prices plummeted from 22 ½ cents a pound to 3 ½ cents.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.B2)

1923        Barney Pressman pawned his wife's wedding ring in NYC to lease a Seventh Ave. store selling discounted men's suits. In 1993 Barney's opened a $270 million Madison Ave. showcase store.
    (WSJ, 2/11/04, p.B1)

1923        Alfred P. Sloan Jr. (1875-1966), a ball-bearing magnate, became president of a troubled GM and brought in corporate management and tight financial controls. He introduced the ideas of model changes and offering a car "for every purse and purpose."
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)

1923        The Warner Brothers, Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack, incorporated and produced their film "The Gold Diggers."
    (SFC, 7/8/98, p.D4)

1923        Wells Fargo merged with Union Trust Company and stayed solvent through the depression.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)

1923        The Alaska Railroad was completed and opened Denali National Park to the public.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.T6)

1923        Benz & Cie introduced a diesel truck with a 50-horsepower engine.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1923        The Army proved a point when Lieutenants Kelly and Macready flew the first non-stop continental flight from New York to San Diego.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1923        Edwin Hubble used the 100-inch telescope at Mt. Wilson to establish that the Milky Way is only one of many galaxies in the universe. He was able to resolve individual stars of the Andromeda galaxy.
    (JST-TMC,1983, p.8)(NH, 11/96, p.78)
1923        The Milky Way chocolate candy bar was invented.
    (Econ, 5/30/15, p.66)

1923        Arthur Compton, American physicist, discovered the Compton effect where a high energy quantum will eject an electron from an atom and rebound with less energy (a higher wavelength).
    (SCTS, p.49)

1923        Dutch physicist Dirk Coster (1889-1950) and Hungarian chemist George Charles de Hevesy (1889-1966) found element 72, Hafnium. It was identified in zircon (a zirconium ore) from Norway, by means of X-ray spectroscopic analysis. It was named in honor of the city in which the discovery was made, from the Latin name "Hafnia" meaning "Copenhagen."   
    (www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/C-K/Hafnium.html)(http://tinyurl.com/kj24t)

1923        Dr. Vladimir Zworykin invented the iconoscope, a necessary component of television.
    (SFC, 12/28/99, p.C4)

1923        Diphtheria was reported to have been transmitted by an accidental needle stick.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A6)

1923        Commercial mining of vermiculite, a mineral used for insulation and the leavening of garden soil, began in Libby, Montana.
    (SFC, 5/9/09, p.A6)

1923        A group of scientists successfully petitioned the governor of the Panama Canal Zone to set aside Barro Colorado Island for scientific research. It became one of the first protected tropical forests in the world. In 1946 The Smithsonian was designated as its manager.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.10)

1923        Andre Malraux, while doing archeological research in Cambodia, was arrested for dislodging 7 heads from a temple with a handsaw, a chisel and crowbar.
    (WSJ, 7/3/97, p.A9)

1923        J. Harlen Bretz, American geologist, discovered that the strange geology the Scablands in Eastern Washington state were a result of huge floods. He was unable to identify the source of the flooding. "Fully 3,000 sq. miles of the Columbia Plateau were swept by a glacial flood."
    (Smith., 4/1995, p.51-52)

1923        Violence exploded in a north Florida black community of 120 people as a white mob tried to string up a black man for information on an alleged rape. At least 6 black and 2 white died and almost every building was burned. Nine survivors won a $2 million settlement in 1995.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.C2)

1923        Roy Chapman Andrews made his Gobi Desert expedition and discovered the Ukhaa Tolgod basin of Mongolia with fossils from the late Cretaceous, i.e. 80 Million ago.
    (THM, 4/27/97, p.L4)

1923         Albania's Sunni Muslims broke ties with Constantinople and pledged primary allegiance to native country.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1923        French courtesan Maggie Meller (aka Marguerite Alibert) was acquitted in a high profile trial at London's Old Bailey despite the evidence stacked against her. She had blackmailed the Prince of Wales, later Edward VIII, to avoid the gallows after murdering Egyptian Prince Fahmy Bey, her playboy husband. Six years before her trial, Meller had an affair with the British prince. In 1991 Andrew Rose authored "Scandal at the Savoy." In 2013 Rose authored his follow-up "The Prince, The Princess, and The Perfect Murder."
    (AP, 4/3/13)
1923        Britain’s King George V chose Stanley Baldwin (1867-1947) for the premiership instead of George Curzon.
    (www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page137.asp)(WSJ, 6/11/03, p.D10)(ON, 11/05, p.2)

1923        A Burma State Secrets Act, pertaining to trespassing in a prohibited area with prejudicial purpose, was enacted as Burma (later Myanmar) was a British colony.
    (AP, 7/10/14)
1923        Pablo Neruda was appointed as Chile’s consul to Burma.
    (SFC, 7/15/04, p.E11)

1923        In Shanghai the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp., the 2nd largest banking institution in the world, erected a new office building.
    (SFCM, 3/20/05, p.25)

1923        In Egypt Arab feminists returned from a women’s conference in Rome and dumped their head coverings at the Cairo train station. A whole generation was inspired to follow suit.
    (WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A1)

1923        Coco Chanel launched Chanel No. 5 perfume in Paris.
    (WSJ, 10/13/03, p.B1)
1923        Francois Flameng (b.1856), French painter, died. He painted imagined scenes from the domestic life of Napoleon Bonaparte.
    (MT, Fall/03, p.13)

1923        In Germany the Berlin Tempelhof Airport was opened. Its 3-storey brick terminal was completed in 1929 and is considered the first modern airport terminal.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.68)
1923        German researchers Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch, working at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, developed a process for converting coal to gas, which was then used to make synthetic fuels.
    (WSJ, 8/16/06, p.A12)(www.encyclopedia.com/html/F/FischerT1.asp)
1922        Carl Wieselsberger, German physicist, described a method of suspending models on an airstream, i.e. the ground effect.
    (Econ, 9/8/07, TQ p.12)(http://naca.central.cranfield.ac.uk/citations/cit.html)

1923        Iraq's Department of Antiquities was established along with Baghdad’s Iraq Museum.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.D3)(NH, 6/03, p.44)

1923        Japan’s Norinchukin Bank was set up as a quasi-public institution to manage the deposits of millions of farmers, fisherman and forest workers. By 2006 it was Japan’s 4th largest commercial bank with assets of $525 billion.
    (Econ, 2/18/06, p.72)

1923        Tamara Geva (d.1991), Russian ballet dancer, married George Balanchine, ballet choreographer. The couple traveled to East Prussia in 1924 with the Soviet State Dancers and then defected to Paris where they joined Sergei Diaghilev and the Ballet Russes.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A23)(Econ, 4/12/08, p.94)

1923        In Saudi Arabia King Fahd was born in Riyadh.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1923        A new City Hall was built in Stockholm, Sweden, in an amazing mix of bricks and gilt mosaic.
    (SSFC, 10/18/09, p.M4)

1923        In Thailand the Bangkok Snake Farm was established to help Thais co-exist with native poisonous snakes. Venom was harvested to produce antivenin. It is the 2nd oldest such farm in the world. An older one was in Brazil.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)

1923        In Turkey Mustafa Kemal Ataturk formed the pro-secular Republican People’s Party (CHP).
    (Econ, 5/3/08, p.61)

1923-1924    Frances and Robert Flaherty, who made the documentary "Nanook of the North," settled in Samoa to make the silent-film classic "Moana: A Romance of the Golden Age."
    Samoa
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)

1923-1925    Mina Loy wrote her autobiographical work: "Anglo-Mongrels and the Rose."
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, BR p.6)

1923-1925    George Antheil composed his "Jazz Symphony."
    (WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)

1923-1928    Gilbert Murray (b.1866), Australian born scholar served as the chairman of the League of Nations.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1923-1929    Calvin Coolidge became the 30th President of the US. He was elected Vice-President under Harding in 1921, and assumed the presidency upon Harding’s sudden death.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo, 153)

1923-1939    The Fraunfelter China Co. operated in Zanesville, Ohio, during most of this period. Charles Fraunfelter opened the business when he purchased Ohio Pottery, where he had worked since 1915.
    (SFC, 12/21/05, p.G6)

1923-1963    Arthur "Pop" Harris worked the numbers to compile the Dow Jones averages every hour on the hour over this time.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-26)

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