Return to home1922 Jan 3,
Bill Travers producer, director, actor: Born Free, was born.
(440 Int'l. 1/3/99)
1922 Jan 5, Sir Ernest
Shackleton (47) died at sea enroute from South Georgia Island to
Antarctica. He was buried on South Georgia Island. In 1924Hugh
Robert Mill authored "The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton."
(ON, 5/00, p.10)
1922 Jan 11, Insulin, then
called isletin, was 1st used to treat diabetes on Leonard Thompson
(14) of Canada. [see Jan 23]
1922 Jan 17, Betty White,
actress (Mary Tyler Moore Show, Golden Girls), was born.
1922 Jan 17, Luis Echeverria
Alvarez, president Mexico, was born.
1922 Jan 22, Jean-Pierre Rampal
(d.5/20/2000), flautist, was born in Marseilles France.
1922 Jan 22, James Bryce
(b.1838), 1st Viscount Bryce, British jurist, historian and
politician, died. He had served as ambassador to the United States
from 1907 to 1913. His books included “The American Commonwealth," a
classic study of the US Constitution.
1922 Jan 22, Pope Benedict XV
died; he was succeeded by Pius XI.
1922 Jan 23, The first
successful test on a human patient with diabetes occurred when a 2nd
dose of insulin was administered to dangerously ill Leonard Thompson
(14). Following the birth of an idea and nine months of
experimentation, and through the combined efforts of four men at the
University of Toronto, Canada, insulin for the treatment of diabetes
was first discovered and later purified for human use. Rural
Canadian physician Dr. F.G. Banting first conceived the idea of
extracting insulin from the pancreas in 1920. He and his assistant
C.H. Best prepared pancreatic extracts to prolong the lives of
diabetic dogs with advice and laboratory aid from Professor J.J.R.
Macleod. The crude insulin extract was purified for human testing by
Dr. J.B. Collip. Insulin, now made from cattle pancreases, lifted
the death sentence for diabetes sufferers around the world.
1922 Jan 24, Christian K.
Nelson of Onawa, Iowa, patented the Eskimo Pie. The product
reportedly saved Iowa's dairy business during the Great Depression.
(AP, 1/24/98)(SFEC, 4/11/99, Z1 p.8)
1922 Jan 27, Elizabeth Cochran
(1864-1922), renowned American journalist who had written under the
pen name of Nellie Bly, died in NYC.
1922 Jan 28, The American Pro
Football Association was renamed "National Football League."
1922 Jan 30, Dick Martin,
actor, comedian (Laugh-In), was born in Detroit, Mich.
1922 Jan, The Iraqi state
police force was founded.
1922 Feb 1, William Desmond
Taylor, president of the Motion Picture Director’s Guild, was
discovered murdered in his Hollywood bungalow. Taylor was discovered
to actually be William Deane-Tanner, an Irishman who had abandoned
his family and reinvented himself in the film industry. In 2014
William J. Mann authored “Tinseltown: Murder, Morphine, and Madness
at the Dawn of Hollywood."
(AH, 2/05, p.47)(SSFC, 1/4/15, p.N2)
1922 Feb 1, Lieutenant Colonel
I. Matuszewski, the head of the II department of the Polish Joint
Staff, informed the military minister of Poland in the letter, that
22,000 prisoners of war were lost in the camp of Tuchola during its
1922 Feb 1, Renata Tebaldi
(d.2004), lyric soprano, was born, Pesaro Italy.
1922 Feb 2, James Joyce's novel
"Ulysses" was published in Paris with 1,000 copies.
(SFC, 10/15/99, p.C12)(MC, 2/2/02)
1922 Feb 5, The Reader's Digest
began publication in Pleasantville, New York. In 1939 it moved to
Chappaqua, NY. In 2005 it published its 1,000th issue.
(HN, 2/5/01)(SFC, 7/19/05, p.D6)
1922 Feb 5, William Larned's
steel-framed tennis racquet got its first test.
1922 Feb 6, The Washington
Disarmament Conference came to an end with signature of final treaty
forbidding fortification of the Aleutian Islands for 14 years. The
US, UK, France, Italy & Japan signed the Washington naval arms
(HN, 2/6/99)(MC, 2/6/02)
1922 Feb 7, John Willard's "Cat
& the Canary," premiered in NYC.
1922 Feb 8, President Harding
had a radio installed in the White House.
1922 Feb 9, The U.S. Congress
established the World War Foreign Debt Commission.
1922 Feb 10, Harold Hughes,
Governor of New Jersey, was born.
1922 Feb 11, "April Showers" by
Al Jolson hit #1.
1922 Feb 11, US "intervention
army" left Honduras.
1922 Feb 15, Marconi began
regular broadcasting transmissions from Essex.
1922 Feb 16, Geraint Evans,
Welsh opera baritone (Knaben Wunderhorn, Falstaff), was born.
1922 Feb 16, The Univ. of
Vytautas the Great re-opened in Kaunas. It was Lithuania’s main
university until 1930.
(DrEE, 11/23/96, p.4)(LHC, 2/16/03)
1922 Feb 18, Pres. Harding
signed the Capper-Volstead Act. It exempted farmers from federal
antitrust laws permitting them to share prices and orchestrate
1922 Feb 20, Vilnius,
Lithuania, agreed to separate from Poland.
1922 Feb 21, Murray "the K"
Kaufman, NYC DJ (5th Beatle), was born.
1922 Feb 21, Airship Rome
exploded at Hampton Roads, Virginia, and 34 died.
1922 Feb 21, Great Britain
granted Egypt independence.
1922 Feb 27, G.B. Shaw's "Back
to Methuselah I/II" premiered in NYC.
1922 Feb 27, Commerce Sec.
Herbert Hoover convened the 1st National Radio Conference.
1922 Feb 27, The Supreme Court
unanimously upheld the 19th Amendment to the Constitution that
guaranteed the right of women to vote.
1922 Feb 28, Britain declared
Egypt a sovereign state, but British troops remained.
(HN, 2/28/98)(MC, 2/28/02)
1922 Feb, Ernest Hemingway met
poet Ezra Pound in a Paris bookstore. Pound was one of the founders
of a school of poetry called Imagism.
(ON, 7/05, p.9)
1922 Mar 1, Yitzhak Rabin,
premier (Israel, 1992-95, Nobel 1994), was born.
1922 Mar 3, WWJ-AM in Detroit,
MI, began radio transmissions.
1922 Mar 3, Italian fascists
occupied Fiume and Rijeka.
1922 Mar 4, Bert Williams
(b.1874), Antigua-born black actor, mime and singer, died after
collapsing onstage in Detroit. In 2005 Caryl Phillips authored
“Dancing in the Dark," a novel based on Bert Williams. His
recordings included “Nobody."
(www.duboislc.org/ShadesOfBlack/BertWms.html)(SFC, 2/11/08, p.E1)
1922 Mar 5, Pier Paolo
Pasolini, director (Teorema, Pigsty), was born in Bologna, Italy.
1922 Mar 5, "Nosferatu"
premiered in Berlin.
1922 Mar 6, G.B. Shaw's "Back
to Methusaleh III/IV," premiered in NYC.
1922 Mar 9, Eugene O'Neill's
"Hairy Ape," premiered in NYC.
1922 Mar 12, Jack Kerouac,
American novelist, was born. He wrote "On the Road."
1922 Mar 13, George Bernard
Shaw’s "Back to Methusaleh V," premiered in NYC.
1922 Mar 15, Sultan Fuad I
issued whereby he changed his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of
1922 Mar 15, France was willing
to accept raw material instead of currency for German reparations.
1922 Mar 18, Mohandas K. Gandhi
was sentenced in India to six years' imprisonment for civil
disobedience. He was released after serving two years. [see Mar 22]
1922 Mar 20, Raymond Walter
Goulding, Radio comedian of Bob and Ray fame, was born.
1922 Mar 20, Carl Reiner,
comedian (2000 Year Old Man, Dick Van Dyke Show), was born in the
1922 Mar 20, President Harding
ordered U.S. troops back from the Rhineland.
1922 Mar 20, The 11,500-ton
Langley was commissioned into the U.S. Navy as America’s first
aircraft carrier. Langley was not regarded as a beautiful ship. Her
flight deck was 533 feet long and 64 feet wide with an open-sided
hanger deck, inspiring the nickname "the Old Covered Wagon." Under
the leadership of Commander Kenneth Whiting, Langley served as a
base for reconnaissance aircraft and a laboratory to develop new
procedures for launching and recovering planes, such as the use of
cross-deck arresting wires to brake incoming aircraft.
1922 Mar 22, A British court
sentenced Mahatma Gandhi to 6 years in prison. [see Mar 18]
1922 Mar 23, 1st airplane
landed at the US Capitol in Washington DC.
1922 Mar 28, The 1st microfilm
device was introduced.
1922 Mar 29, The Lithuanian
government announced a land reform act enacted Feb 15.
(LC, 1998, p.12)(LHC, 3/29/03)
1922 Mar 31, Richard Kiley,
actor (Man of La Mancha, Endless Love), was born in Chicago.
1922 Apr 1, William Manchester,
historian (Death of a President), was born in Attleboro, Mass.
1922 Apr 1, Karl I (b.1887),
the last Habsburg leader of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, died. Also
known in the West as Charles I, he took the throne in 1916 and
worked for peace, abdicating at the end of World War I, a few years
before his death. In 2004 he was beatified by Pope John Paul VI. In
2020 Martyn Rady authored "The Habsburgs".
1922 Apr 3, Stalin was
appointed General Secretary of Communist Party.
1922 Apr 4, Elmer Bernstein,
movie music composer (Robot Monster), was born in NYC.
1922 Apr 6, Barry Levinson,
director (Rain Man), was born.
1922 Apr 7, U.S.
Secretary of Interior leased Naval Reserve #3, "Teapot Dome,"
in Wyoming to Harry F. Sinclair.
(HN, 4/7/97)(MC, 4/7/02)
1922 Apr 10, The Genoa
Conference opened. Representatives of 34 countries gathered to
discuss global economic problems following World War I and aimed to
restore Europe’s economy. America declined to participate. The
conference close on May 19. Among the propositions formulated at the
conference was the proposal that central banks make a partial return
to the Gold Standard.
10/3/15, SR p.6)
1922 Apr 12, A San Francisco
jury acquitted actor Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle in his 3rd murder trial
following 2 hung juries.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W7)(AH, 2/05, p.47)
1922 Apr 13, John Gerard
Braine, British novelist (Room at the Top), was born.
1922 Apr 14, Irish Republic
rebels occupied 4 government courts in Dublin.
1922 Apr 15, Neville Mariner,
conductor, was born.
1922 Apr 15, Harold Washington,
first black mayor of Chicago (1983-1987), was born.
1922 Apr 15, Wyoming Democratic
Senator John Kendrick introduced a resolution that set in motion one
of the most significant investigations in Senate history. On the
previous day, the Wall Street Journal had reported an unprecedented
secret arrangement in which the Secretary of the Interior, without
competitive bidding, had leased the U.S. naval petroleum reserve at
Wyoming's Teapot Dome to a private oil company. Wisconsin Republican
Senator Robert La Follette arranged for the Senate Committee on
Public Lands to investigate the matter. His suspicions deepened
after someone ransacked his Russell Building office.
1922 Apr 16, Kingsley Amis
(d.1995), novelist and poet, was born. He wrote more than 20 novels
and 6 volumes of verse. His work included "The King’s English: A
Guide to Modern Usage." In 1998 Eric Jacobs published the biography
(WSJ, 10/23/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 7/19/98, BR p.3)(HN,
1922 Apr 16, Annie Oakley shot
100 clay targets in a row, to set a women’s record.
1922 Apr 16, A German-Russia
treaty was signed in Italy. It recognized the Soviet Union.
1922 Apr 18, The office of Will
Hays, head of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of
America (MPPDA), announced that Roscoe Arbuckle was banned from
working in motion pictures, effective immediately.
(AH, 2/05, p.47)
1922 Apr 19, Erich Hartmann,
German WW II pilot who later downed 352 Russian aircrafts, was
1922 Apr 22, Charles Mingus
(d.1979), jazz bassist, was born.
1922 Apr 27, Fritz Lang's "Dr
Mabuse, der Spieler" premiered in Berlin.
1922 Apr 29, A 100-mile-long
battle raged near Peking, China.
1922 May 5, Construction began
on Yankee Stadium in the Bronx.
1922 May 13, In San Francisco
the 2,300-seat Loew’s Warfield Theater opened on Market St.
(SFC, 5/11/05, p.C1)(SFC, 3/19/15, p.C3)
1922 May 18, Dutch 2nd Chamber
agreed to a 48 hour work week over the previous 45 hours.
1922 May 23, "Abbie’s Irish
Rose" opened for the 1st of over 2,500 performances.
1922 May 25, Babe Ruth was
suspended for 1 day and fined $200 for throwing dirt on an umpire.
1922 May 26, Lenin suffered a
1922 May 29, The US Supreme
Court ruled that organized baseball is a sport, not subject to
1922 May 29, Ecuador became
1922 May 29, Iannis Xenakis,
Greek mathematician, architect and composer, was born in Romania. In
2004 James Harley authored “Xenakis: His Life in Music."
(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.M4)
1922 May 29, Jevgeni B.
Vachtangov (39), Armenian-Russian actor, director, died.
1922 May 30, The Lincoln
Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., by Chief Justice William
Howard Taft and Robert Todd Lincoln. The Memorial has 48 sculptured
festoons above the columns representing the number of states at the
time of dedication. The 36 Doric columns in the Lincoln Memorial
represent the number of states in the Union at the time of Lincoln’s
death in 1865. The limestone and marble edifice, which is situated
at the western end of the Mall, was designed by Henry Bacon of North
Carolina in the style of a Greek temple. Daniel Chester French
co-designed the memorial with Bacon.
(HNQ, 2/12/00)(WSJ, 5/24/08, p.W12)(AP, 5/30/08)
1922 Jun 3, Alain Resnais,
French film director, was born.
1922 Jun 7, Rocky Graziano,
boxer, entertainer (Pantomime Quiz, Martha Raye Show), was born.
1922 Jun 10, Judy Garland,
singer-actress was born as Frances Ethel Gumm in Grand Rapids, Minn.
She starred in The Wizard of Oz and Easter Parade.
(AP, 6/10/97)(HN, 6/10/99)
1922 Jun 11, John Bromfield,
actor (Easy to Love), was born in South Bend, In.
1922 Jun11, Michael Cacoyannis,
director (Zorba the Greek, Trojan Women), was born.
1922 Jun 11, The documentary
film “Nanook of the North," shot in subarctic Quebec (1920-1921) by
Robert Flaherty, premiered in NYC.
(ON, 2/03, p.11)
1922 Jun 14, Warren G. Harding
became the first president heard on radio, as Baltimore station WEAR
broadcast his speech dedicating the Francis Scott Key memorial at
Fort McHenry. [see Jan 19, 1903]
(AP, 6/14/97)(HN, 6/14/98)
1922 Jun 15, Morris "Mo" Udall
(d.1998), U.S. Congressman from Arizona (1961-1991), was born in St.
Johns, Az. He was one of 6 children in a pioneer Mormon family and
was instrumental in investigating the Mai Lai Massacre in Vietnam
and later sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1976.
(HN, 6/15/99)(SFC, 12/14/98, p.A5)
1922 Jun 16, Henry Berliner
demonstrated his helicopter to US Bureau of Aeronautics.
1922 Jun 19, Aage Nills Bohr,
physicist, study atomic nucleus (Nobel 1975), was born in Denmark.
1922 Jun 21, Judy Holliday,
actress, was born.
1922 Jun 22, Bill Blass
(d.2002), fashion designer, was born in Fort Wayne, Ind.
(SFC, 6/13/02, p.A23)
1922 Jun 24, Germany's Jewish
foreign minister was assassinated by the right-wing terrorist group
Organisation Consul. Walter Rathenau (b.1867) was the foreign
secretary of Germany’s Weimar Republic and one of the country’s most
1922 Jun 25, The SF Chronicle’s
sports pages became the Sporting Green with the sports section
printed in green.
(SSFC, 6/7/09, p.W2)
1922 Jun 27, George Walker,
composer (In Praise of Lillies), was born in Washington, DC.
1922 Jun 27, The Newberry Medal
was 1st presented for kids literature to Hendrik Van Loon.
1922 Jun 30, Irish rebels in
London assassinated Sir Henry Wilson, the British deputy for
1922 Jul 2, Dan Rowan, comedian
(Rowan & Martin's Laugh-in), was born in Beggs, Okla.
1922 Jul 6, Vice-president
Calvin Coolidge gave a speech at Fredericksburg City Park on behalf
of a fund raising campaign to save and restore the Kenmore House,
the home of Elizabeth (sister of George Washington) and Fielding
(HT, 5/97, p.44,68)
1922 Jul 7, Pierre Cardin,
fashion designer (Unisex), was born in Paris, France.
(AP, 7/7/02)(MC, 7/7/02)
1922 Jul 15, 1st duck-billed
platypus was publicly exhibited in US at a NY zoo.
1922 Jul 17, Donald Davie,
English poet and literary critic, was born.
1922 Jul 18, A fire began at
the Manufacturers Transit Company’s 7-storey warehouse on Jane St.
in Greenwich Village, NYC. Explosions erupted and newspapers called
it “the Greenwich Village Volcano." 2 firemen were killed. A final
eruption destroyed 2 houses on Jul 23. Assistant fire chief
“Smokey Joe" Martin (d.1945) directed the fire fighting efforts.
(ON, 4/03, p.8)
1922 Jul 19, George McGovern,
1972 Democratic candidate for president of the United States, South
Dakota senator, was born.
1922 Jul 21, Djemal Pasha,
dictator of Turkey, was murdered.
1922 Jul 26, Jason Robards Jr,
actor (A Thousand Clowns, Any Wednesday), was born in Chicago.
1922 Jul 27, Norman Lear, TV
writer, producer (All in The Family), was born.
1922 Jul 27, The US government
recognized the Lithuanian government de jure.
(Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.4)
1922 Jul 28, Jacques Piccard,
undersea explorer (bathyscaph Trieste), was born in Switzerland.
1922 Jul 28, A statement
drafted by the Diplomatic Service of the USA specified in the
concealed form temporariness of self-dependence of the state system
of Lithuania and, at the same time, Latvia and Estonia, as
long as the Bolshevist Russia exists, as well as conditionality of
the states by acknowledging their governments only, and not the
1922 Jul 31, Ralph Samuelson
(18) rode the world's 1st water skis in Minn.
1922 Aug 1, Lithuania adopted a
(DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LC, 1998, p.22)
1922 Aug 2, Alexander Graham
Bell (b.1847), Scottish-US physicist (telephone), died in Nova
Scotia. He and Gardiner Hubbard, his father-in-law, were the
founders of the National Geographic Society.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Graham_Bell)(ON, 1/03, p.5)
1922 Aug 2, China was hit by a
typhoon and some 60,000 died.
1922 Aug 7, The Irish
Republican Army cut the cable link between the United States and
Europe at Waterville landing station.
1922 Aug 8, Rudi Gernreich,
designer (1st women's topless swimsuit, miniskirt), was born.
1922 Aug 8, An Italian general
strike was broken by fascist terror.
1922 Aug 12, The home of
Frederick Douglass in Washington, D.C. was dedicated as a memorial.
1922 Aug 15, Lukas Foss,
[Fuchs], composer (Prairie), was born in Berlin, Germany.
1922 Aug 17, Ralph Roberts,
actor (Tradition, Gone are the Days), was born in NC.
1922 Aug 18, Shelly Winters,
actress who won an Academy Award for The Diary of Anne Frank, was
1922 Aug 21, Curly Lambeau and
Green Bay Football Club were granted an NFL franchise.
1922 Aug 22, Michael Collins,
Irish politician, was killed in an ambush.
1922 Aug 26, The Philadelphia
Phillies beat the Chicago Cubs 26-23.
(SFEC, 7/25/99, Z1 p.2)
1922 Aug 28, The first-ever
radio commercial aired on station WEAF in New York City (the
10-minute advertisement was for the Queensboro Realty Company, which
had paid a fee of $100).
(HFA, ‘96, p.36)(AP, 8/28/97)
1922 Aug, Templeton Crocker led
a movement to "organize anew" the California Historical Society. The
society began publishing a magazine that has continued ever since.
(SFEC, 8/31/97, DB p.9)(SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.55)
1922 Aug, The last California
grizzly bear was shot by a Fresno cattle rancher, though another was
sighted in Tulare County a couple years later.
(Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.8)
1922 Aug, The ecumenical
patriarch in Constantinople recognized the Autochephalous Albanian
(www, Albania, 1998)
1922 Sep 1, Yvonne De Carlo,
actress (10 Commandments, Munsters) was born in Vancouver, BC.
1922 Sep 1, Vittorio Gassman,
actor (War and Peace) was born.
1922 Sep 1, Melvin R. Laird
(Rep-R-Mich), US Secretary of Defense (1969-73) was born.
1922 Sep 1, A NYC law required
all "pool" rooms to change their name to "billiards."
1922 Sep 7, Dr. William Halsted
(b.1852), an American surgeon, died. He had emphasized strict
aseptic technique during surgical procedures, was an early champion
of newly discovered anesthetics, and introduced several new
operations, including the radical mastectomy for breast cancer.
Halsted had experimented with cocaine and injected himself with the
drug. Throughout his professional life, he was addicted to cocaine
and later also to morphine.
1922 Sep 7, Thomas
Cobden-Sanderson (b.1840), English printer and bookbinder, died. He
and Emery Walker had formed a printing partnership in 1900 and
created the Doves typeface. The partnership went sour and between
1913-1917 Cobden-Sanderson dropped a ton of the metal typeface into
the Thames to keep it out of the hands of Walker. In 2003 Marianne
Todcombe authored “The Doves Press."
1922 Sep 8, Sid Caesar,
comedian and television star, best known for "Your Show of Shows,"
and "The Sid Caesar Show," was born in Yonkers, NY.
(HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)
1922 Sep 9, William T. Cosgrave
replaced assassinated Irish leader Michael Collins.
1922 Sep 9, Turkish troops
under Mustafa Kemal conquered Smyrna, Greece. This effectively ended
in the field the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) more than three years
after the Greek army had landed on Smyrna on 15 May, 1919. In 2008
Giles Milton authored “Paradise Lost: Smyrna, 1922: The Destruction
of Islam’s City of Tolerance."
1922 Sep 13, A major fire began
to ravage Smyrna, Greece, shortly following occupation by Turkish
troops under Mustafa Kemal. The fire lasted 4 days.
1922 Sep 11, The British
mandate of Palestine began.
1922 Sep 13, In El Azizia,
Libya, a temperature of 136.4 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) was
the hottest ever measured on Earth.
1922 Sep 16, Rev. Edward
Wheeler Hall and his mistress, choir member Eleanor Mills, were
found shot to death in a New Jersey apple orchard. Hall’s wife and
her 2 brothers were indicted for the murder, but they were acquitted
at trial. In 1964 William Kunstler authored “The Minister and the
Choir Singer, “ an account of the double murder and trial.
(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W8)
1922 Sep 21, Pres Warren G.
Harding signed a joint resolution of approval to establish a Jewish
homeland in Palestine.
1922 Sep 21, The US passed a
tariff act. The Fordney-McCumber Tariff bill (named after Joseph
Fordney, chair of the House Ways and Means Committee, and Porter
McCumber, chair of the Senate Finance Committee) was signed by
President Warren Harding. In the end, the tariff law raised the
average American ad valorem tariff rate to 38 percent.
1922 Sep 24, Cornell MacNeil,
US, operatic baritone (La Traviata), was born.
1922 Sep 26, Thomas Watson
(b.1856) Populist Georgia state politician, attorney, newspaper
editor, died in Washington, DC.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_E._Watson)(Econ, 12/7/13, p.34)
1922 Sep 28, Mussolini marched
1922 Sep, Ahmet Zogu, a tribal
warlord, assumed the position of Prime Minister.
(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(www, Albania, 1998)
1922 Oct 3, Rebecca L. Felton,
D-Ga., became the first woman to be seated in the U.S. Senate. Mrs.
Felton had been appointed to serve out the remaining term of Sen.
Thomas E. Watson.
1922 Oct 3, The 1st facsimile
photo (fax) was sent over city telephone lines in Washington, DC.
1922 Oct 8, Dr. Christiaan
Barnard, Pioneering South African heart-transplant surgeon, was
born. [see Nov 8]
1922 Oct 8, Lilian Gatlin
became the first woman pilot to fly across the United States.
1922 Oct 9, Fyvush Finkel,
actor (Middle Ages, Picket Fences, Boston Public), was born.
1922 Oct 14, The 1st automated
telephones began service at the Pennsylvania exchange in NYC.
1922 Oct 18, Little Orphan
Annie, comic strip character, was born.
1922 Oct 22, Parsifal Place was
laid out in Bronx. It was named after a knight in Wagner's Opera.
1922 Oct 23, Andrew Bonar Law
(1858-1923) began serving as British prime minister and continued to
May 22, 1923. Winston Churchill dubbed his coalition government the
“second eleven" because so many top players refused to serve in it.
1922 Oct 24, Irish Parliament
adopted a constitution for an Irish Free State.
1922 Oct 26, Italian government
resigned under pressure from fascists and Benito Mussolini.
1922 Oct 27, The first US
annual celebration of Navy Day took place.
1922 Oct 27, In Italy, liberal
Luigi Facta’s cabinet resigned after threats from Mussolini that
"either the government will be given to us or we will seize it by
marching on Rome." Mussolini called for a general mobilization of
1922 Oct 28, The 1st coast-to-coast radio
broadcast of a football game. WEAF in New York broadcast the first
collegiate football game to be heard across the US. Princeton played
against the University of Chicago at Stagg Field in Chicago,
Illinois. Telephone lines transmitted the game to New York City,
where the radio transmission started. Queensboro Realty Co. paid
$100 for 10 minutes of air time. (Princeton 21, Chicago 18.)
1922 Oct 28, Fascism came to
Italy as Benito Mussolini took control of the government.
1922 Oct 30, Mussolini sent his
black shirts into Rome and formed a government. The Fascist takeover
was almost without bloodshed. [see Oct 28]
(HN, 10/30/98)(MC, 10/30/01)
1922 Oct 31, Norodom Sihanouk
(d.2012), 2-time king (1941-1955 and 1993-2004), president and
premier of Cambodia, was born.
1922 Oct 31, Karel & Josef
Capek's "World We Live In," premiered in NYC.
1922 Oct 31, Mussolini was made
prime minister. He centralized all power in himself as leader of the
Fascist party and attempted to create an Italian empire, ultimately
in alliance with Hitler's Germany. Mussolini formed a cabinet of
Fascists and Nationalists and declared himself temporary dictator.
(HN, 10/30/98)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.C12)
1922 Nov 1, The Ottoman Empire
ended as Turkey’s Grand National Assembly abolished the sultanate.
In 2006 Caroline Finkel authored “Osman’s Dream: The History of the
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire)(WSJ, 4/11/06, p.D8)
1922 Nov 2, Australian Qantas
airways began service.
1922 Nov 2, English
archeologist Charles Leonard Woolley began excavating the ancient
Mesopotamian city of Ur, located between Baghdad and the Persian
(ON, 8/20/11, p.7)
1922 Nov 4, The US Postmaster
General ordered all homes to get mailboxes or relinquish delivery of
1922 Nov 4, British
archeologist Howard Carter was elated when his Egyptian workers
uncovered the top of a stairway cut into bedrock in the Valley of
the Kings. For a decade, Carter had been searching for the tomb of
the young king Tutankhamen, who had ruled Egypt 3,200 years before.
Carter was particularly thrilled at the discovery of the staircase
because his wealthy patron, the Earl of Carnarvon, had agreed to
fund only one more season before abandoning the search. At the
bottom of the staircase was a sealed doorway, which suggested that
the tomb had probably not been robbed. Carter ordered the stairway
filled and telegraphed his patron, "At last have made wonderful
discovery in valley; a magnificent tomb with seals intact; recovered
same for your arrival; congratulations." On November 26, Carter,
with Carnarvon standing by, drilled a small hole in the tomb's
antechamber. Inserting a candle, Carter peered into the darkness at
the rich funerary goods. When asked by Carnarvon if he could see
anything, the awestruck Carter replied, "Yes, wonderful things."
(NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.598)(AP,
1922 Nov 5, King Tut’s tomb was
discovered. [see Nov 4}
1922 Nov 6, King George V
proclaimed Irish Free state.
1922 Nov 7, Al Hirt, jazz
trumpeter, was born in New Orleans, La.
1922 Nov 8, Christiaan Barnard,
South African surgeon, was born. He performed the first human heart
transplant operation. [see Oct 8]
1922 Nov 11, Kurt Vonnegut,
American author who wrote "Slaughterhouse Five," was born.
1922 Nov 11, Canada’s Vernon
McKenzie urged fighting U.S. propaganda with taxes on U.S.
1922 Nov 12, Charlotte MacLeod,
mystery writer, was born. (Rest You Merry, Maid of Honor).
1922 Nov 13, Black Renaissance
began in Harlem, NY.
1922 Nov 13, George Cohan's
musical "Little Nellie Kelly," premiered in NYC.
1922 Nov 14, Boutros Boutros
Ghali, Egyptian secretary-general of UN (1992-), was born.
1922 Nov 14, The British
Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, began the first daily radio
broadcasts from Marconi House. The company was formed with a
commercial mission to sell radio sets. General manager John Reith
(33), Scottish engineer, envisaged an independent British
broadcaster able to educate, inform and entertain the whole nation,
free from political interference and commercial pressure.
1922 Nov 15, It was announced
that Dr. Alexis Carrel discovered white corpuscles.
1922 Nov 17, Mahmet VI
(1861-1926), the last Ottoman Sultan (aka Sultan Vahdettin), left
the Dolmabahçe Palace on board the British gunship Malaya and went
to Malta. He spent just 37 days on this island and went to Mecca
upon the invitation of a local leader. His subsequent attempts to
restore himself as Caliph in Hejaz proved a failure. He died in San
1922 Nov 18, Marcel Proust
(b.1871), French author (Recherche du Temps Perdu), died at 51. His
masterpiece was "Remembrance of Things Past." In 1998 it was turned
into a comic book series. In 1998 Alain de Botton published the
whimsical "How Proust Can Save Your Life." In 1999 Edmund White
wrote the biography "Marcel Proust." The major biography by John
Yves Taddie was scheduled to appear in English in 1999. In 2000
Roger Shattuck authored "Proust’s Way." William C. Carter authored
"Marcel Proust: A Life."
(SFC, 9/16/98, p.A10)(SFEC, 1/17/99, BR
p.3)(SFEC, 9/3/00, BR p.3)
1922 Nov 18, Abdulmecid II
(1868-1944) was elected Caliph by the Turkish National Assembly at
Ankara. He established himself in Constantinople on Nov 24, 1922 and
continued to 1924. He was nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman
1922 Nov 21, Rebecca L. Felton
of Georgia was sworn in as the first woman to serve in the U.S.
1922 Nov 24, Italian parliament
gave Mussolini dictatorial powers "for 1 year."
1922 Nov 25, Archaeologist
Howard Carter entered King Tut's tomb.
1922 Nov 26, Charles M. Shultz,
American cartoonist who created "Peanuts" starring Charlie Brown,
1922 Nov 26, Lord Carnarvon and
Howard Carter, archeologists, opened King Tut’s tomb in Egypt.
(HN, 11/26/98)(AP, 11/26/02)
1922 Nov 27, Allied delegates
barred Soviets from Near East peace conference.
1922 Nov 28, Capt. Cyril Turner
of the Royal Air Force gave the first public skywriting exhibition,
spelling out, "Hello U-S-A. Call Vanderbilt 7200" over New York’s
Times Square. 47,000 called.
1922 Nov 28, In Greece six top
politicians and soldiers were executed one day after being convicted
of high treason following a crushing military defeat by Turkey. In
2010 the Greek Supreme Court posthumously acquitted the six executed
politicians and soldiers.
1922 Nov 30, Hitler spoke to
50,000 national socialists (Nazis) in Munich.
1922 Nov, In Japan Albert
Einstein, while on a lecture tour, gave two notes to a courier in
Tokyo, briefly describing his theory on happy living: "a quiet and
modest life brings more joy than a pursuit of success bound with
constant unrest" and "where there's a will, there's a way." The
notes surfaced in 2017 and were put up for auction in Jerusalem.
1922 Dec 1, 1st skywriting over
US-"Hello USA"-by Capt Turner, RAF.
1922 Dec 3, Sven Nykvist,
Swedish cinematographer, was born.
1922 Dec 4, Gerard Philipe,
actor (Caligula, Le Diable au Corps), was born in Cannes, France.
1922 Dec 6, The Irish Free
State came into being under terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty.
1922 Dec 11, Grace Paley, short
story writer, was born.
1922 Dec 11, Gabriel Narutowicz
(b.1865), a Lithuanian-born, Swiss banking engineer, served as
Poland’s first post WWI president. Five days later he was
1922 Dec 12, John Wanamaker
(b.1938), US merchant who founded a chain of stores in Philadelphia,
died. He introduced department stores and price tags to the US and
became the first modern advertiser when he bought ads in newspapers
to promote his stores. “Half the money I spend on advertising is
wasted; the trouble is I don’t know which half."
p.61)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.15)
1922 Dec 14, Don Hewitt, NYC,
CBS news executive producer (60 Minutes), was born.
1922 Dec 16, Gabriel Narutowicz
(b.1865), a Lithuanian-born, Swiss banking engineer and Poland’s
first post WWI president was assassinated while attending an art
exhibition, in the National Gallery of Art.
1922 Dec 21, Paul Winchell,
ventriloquist (Jerry Mahoney, Knucklehead Smith), was born in NYC.
1922 Dec 24, Ava Gardner,
actress (On the Beach, Night of the Iguana), was born in Grabtown,
1922 Dec 30, Vladimir I. Lenin
proclaimed the establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics. Soviet Russia was renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics. The Soviet Union was organized as a federation of RSFSR,
Ukrainian SSR, Belorussian SSR and Transcaucasian SSR.
(AP, 12/30/97)(HN, 12/30/98)
1922 The second largest
equestrian statue in the world, located in Washington, D.C., is of
General and later President Ulysses S. Grant. The statue of Grant,
sculpted by Henry Merwin Shrady and dedicated in 1922, stands at
head of the reflecting pool in front of the U.S. Capitol Building.
The only equestrian statue larger is of Victor Emmanuel in Italy.
1922 Pierre Bonnard painted
"Woman With Dog."
(WSJ, 11/17/99, p.A20)
1922 The Constructivist group
of artists in Russia issued a manifesto calling for the defeat of
art, which they regarded as the enemy of technology. Alexander
Rodchenko (1891-1956), a painter turned photographer, was founding
member of the group.
1922 Paul Klee painted his
watercolor "Little Regata." It was stolen from the Phillips
Collection in Washington DC in 1963 and returned in 1997.
(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)
1922 Fernand Leger painted his
"Mother and Child."
(WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)
1922 Maxfield Parrish painted
his oil "Daybreak." It was auctioned off at Sotheby’s in 1996 for
(SFC, 6/12/96, p.C1)
1922 Picasso painted "Mother
and Child." [also dated 1921] Picasso originally used his wife's
body and the face of another woman and included himself. He later
cut himself out after his marriage deteriorated and began painting
his wife with a long ugly neck and angry teeth.
(WSJ, 4/27/95, p.C-1)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)
1922 Walter Berndt premiered
his comic strip "Smitty" in the New York Daily News. It was about an
office boy and his annoying kid brother named Herby, who made his
own debut in 1930.
(SFC, 7/8/98, Z1 p.3)
1922 Willa Cather won a
Pulitzer Prize for her novel "One of Ours."
(SFEC, 4/2/00, BR p.4)
1922 Marc Chagall (1887-1985),
Belarus-born Russian artist, authored a memoir.
(SFC, 11/19/08, p.E8)
1922 George Samuel Clason
authored “The Richest Man in Babylon," financial advice provided as
a set of parables set in Babylon.
(SFC, 5/21/04, p.F1)
1922 The first edition of
Compton’s Pictured Encyclopedia was published.
(WSJ, 8/18/07, p.A5)
1922 F. Scott Fitzgerald
authored his 2nd novel “The Beautiful and Damned."
(WSJ, 7/29/06, p.P12)
1922 Hermann Hesse (1877-1962)
published his novel "Siddhartha," a short lyric novel of a
father-son relationship based on the early life of Buddha and
inspired by Hesse’s travels through India. In 1951 it was translated
(SFC, 10/15/99, p.C12)(iUniv. 7/2/00)(WSJ,
1922 Otto Jesperson
(1860-1943), Danish linguist, authored “Language: Its Nature,
Development and Origins." “Men sang out their feelings long before
they were able to speak their thoughts. But of course we must not
imagine that "singing" means exactly the same thing here as in a
modern concert hall. When we say that speech originated in song,
what we mean is merely that our comparatively monotonous spoken
language and our highly developed vocal music are differentiations
of primitive utterances, which had more in them of the latter than
of the former. These utterances were, at first, like the singing of
birds and the roaring of many animals and the crooning of babies,
exclamative, not communicative--that is, they came forth from an
inner craving of the individual without any thought of any
fellow-creatures. Our remote ancestors had not the slightest notion
that such a thing as communicating ideas and feelings to someone
else was possible."
1922 Franz Kafka (1883-1924)
authored his novel “The Castle."
(WSJ, 8/7/07, p.D10)
1922 Sinclair Lewis (1965-1951)
published his novel "Babbitt," a small-town saga of a real estate
(WSJ, 7/13/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.W8)
1922 Emily Post published
"Etiquette," which became a best-seller.
(WSJ, 7/13/99, p.A20)
1922 Lewis Fry Richardson
published "Weather Prediction by Numerical Process." He proposed to
setup 64,000 people to work together in a vast installation to
formulate global weather forecasts.
(Wired, 2/99, p.104)
1922 Ranier Marie Rilke
published "Mitsou," about a cat that runs away from a boy. It was
illustrated by Balthus (b.1908).
(SFEC, 2/6/00, BR p.12)
1922 Margaret Sanger wrote
"Pivot of Civilization." She called for the segregation of "morons,
misfits, and the maladjusted" and for the "sterilization of
"genetically inferior races."
(WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A18)
1922 Upton Sinclair
self-published "The Goose-Step: A Study of American Education."
(SFEM, 1/30/00, p.15)
1922 "The Velveteen Rabbit" by
Margery Williams was published. The book was illustrated by William
(SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)
1922 Carter G. Woodson
(1875-1950), black historian, authored “The Negro in Our History."
(WSJ, 5/19/05, p.D8)
1922 James Weldon Johnson
published his landmark anthology: "The Book of American Negro
(MT, 3/96, p.14)
1922 T.S. Eliot wrote his long
poem "The Waste Land."
(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)
1922 Harley Granville Barker,
English playwright, wrote "The Secret Life," a romantic melodrama
set in England’s countryside after WW I.
(WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A9)
1922 The Broadway show "Liza"
featured Maude Russell Rutherford (d.2001 at 104) as one of the
chorus girls who introduced the Charleston dance. The lyrics and
music were by Maceo Pinkard.
(SFC, 3/30/01, p.D5)
1922 Jean Borlin, Swedish
dancer, choreographed the ballet "Skating Rink." The décor and
costumes were designed by Ferdnand Leger. The music was by Arthur
(WSJ, 6/25/99, p.W7)
1922 The play "Abies' Irish
Rose" began in New York City and ran for 2,327 performances over the
next 5 years.
(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C4)
1922 The Mills Brothers began
performing in Piqua, Ohio. Donald Mills (d.1999), the youngest
brother (7), Harry, Herbert and John (d.1936) later made their first
hit with "Tiger Rag." Other hits included "Glow Worm," "Yellow Bird"
and "Paper Doll."
(SFC, 11/16/99, p.E6)
1922 The New York Philharmonic
made its first radio broadcast from the old Lewisohn Stadium in
(WSJ, 11/13/97, p.A20)
c1922 Saxophonist Benny Carter began playing with
Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway at age 15. Ellington’s band was the
Cotton Club Orchestra. His drummer up to the 1940s was Sonny Greer.
(SFC, 9/5/96, p.B2)(SFEM, 10/5/97, p.9)
1922 Louis Armstrong moved to
(WSJ, 1/3/95, p. 8)
1922 The first radio station on
the West Coast went on the air in San Jose as KQW, later KCBS.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.4)
1922 Sid Grauman created the
concept of the Hollywood premiere by throwing a glittering opening
for Douglas Fairbanks Sr.‘s "Robin Hood" at his new Egyptian
Theater. Its décor was inspired by the recent discovery of King
1922 The Warner Brothers,
Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack, opened their first West Coast studio.
(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)
1922 Henry R. Luce and Britton
Hadden founded Time magazine. Its first issue was dated March 3,
1923. In 2017 Time Inc. was sold to the Meredith Corp.
(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)(SFC, 11/27/17, p.A6)
1922 The New York Stock
Exchange (NYSE) expanded its first building at 10 Broad St. to
include 11 Wall St.
(SFC, 4/23/98, p.D2)
1922 A Greek Orthodox
Archdiocese was established in the US.
1922 William Ogburn
(1886-1959), American sociologist, offered a theory of social change
suggesting that technology is the primary engine of progress, but
tempered by social responses to it. He coined the term “cultural
lag" to describe the mismatch between the material conditions of
life and behavior and attitudes.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_lag)(Econ, 8/22/15, p.36)
1922 Reader’s Digest launched
its flagship magazine.
(WSJ, 4/18/00, p.A1)
1922 The journal Foreign
Affairs was founded with Archibald Cary Coolidge as editor.
(WSJ, 11/20/97, p.A20)
1922 Jacinto Benavente y
Martinez (b.1866), Spanish dramatist, won the Nobel Prize.
1922 Otto Meyerhof (1884-1951),
German doctor, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery of
the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the
metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle.
1922 Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian
Arctic explorer (1893-1896), was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.
(ON, 7/05, p.5)
1922 Niels Bohr won the Nobel
Prize in Physics for his services in the investigation of the
structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them.
1922 In the Rose Bowl
California played to a 0-0 tie with Washington & Jefferson.
(SFC, 10/15/99, p.C12)
1922 The Hollywood censorship
regime known as the Hays Office was set up. It established that no
two people could be filmed in the same bed and helped to popularize
(SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)
1922 Washington made a Naval
Treaty with Japan.
1922 El Charro, Tucson’s oldest
Mexican restaurant was founded.
(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.31)
1922 The Colorado River Compact
allocated 7.5 million acre-feet of water from the upper basin states
(Wyoming, Colorado, Utah and New Mexico) to be delivered to the
lower basin sates (California, Arizona and Nevada) plus the rights
to divert another 1 million acre-feet from the river’s lower
(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.A10)(SFCM, 7/17/05, p.6)
1922 The country Club Plaza of
Kansas City, Mo., opened as an elite alternative to downtown
shopping and was the 1st retailing concept to rely upon shoppers
arriving by car. The major shopping mall movement in the US began in
1956 with the Edina, Minn., mall.
(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)
1922 Ford bought Lincoln Motor
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1922 Samuel I. Newhouse
(1895-1979) bought the financially troubled Staten Island Advance
newspaper. The Newhouse family expanded the operations into a major
communications conglomerate. As of October 2014, it was ranked as
the 44th largest privately held company in the United States
according to Forbes.
1922 Clarence Birdseye returned
to New York state and began experimenting with packaging frozen
(ON, 8/12, p.5)
1922 Dole, a Boston
businessman, bought 98% of Hawaii’s Lanai Island for $1.1 million
and planted 16,000 acres of pineapple. He imported plantation
workers from Japan, China and the Philippines.
(SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)
1922 Macy’s Department Stores
became a publicly traded corporation. In 1996 Jeffrey A.
Trachtenberg wrote how the company was taken private in 1986 to its
Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1992: "The Rain on Macy’s Par."
(SFC, 11/27/96, p.D5)
1922 Ida Rosenthal (1860-1973),
Belarus-born immigrant and Manhattan dressmaker, came up with the
first Maidenform bra.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ida_Rosenthal)(SSFC, 12/29/13, Par
1922 Jules Stein created the
band-booking agency Music Corporation of America.
(SSFC, 6/15/03, p.M1)
1922 W. Clement Stone (b.1902)
began his Combined Registry & Co., an insurance operation, in
Chicago, Illinois with $100. In 1987 it was renamed Aon Corp. By the
time of his death in 2002 Combined Int’l. had grown to a $2 billion
1922 Tinker Beads began to be
produced. A full set contained 144 wooden beads, cord and a blunt
(SFC, 2/5/97, Z1 p.7)
1922 Vitamin E was discovered
in when Evans HM et al. described a "substance X" that was essential
to maintain rat fertility. After obtaining similar results, Sure B
called the substance "vitamin E" because vitamins A, B, C, and D
were already known.
1922 Alexander Friedmann,
Russian physicist and mathematician, made two simple assumptions
about the universe that show why we should not expect it to be
static. The first is that the universe looks identical in whichever
direction we look and the second is that this would also be true if
we were to observe the universe from anywhere else. This is later
proven by Bubble.
(BHT, Hawking, p.40)
1922 The Pescadero High School
in Pescadero, Calif. was founded.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.C-3)
1922 Clement Hartley, a
prominent fruit grower and banker in Vacaville, Ca., built a new
Spanish Colonial Revival home on Buck Ave. It was later designated a
(SSFC, 5/31/20, p.A5)
1922 In SF the 228-foot
Standard Oil Building at 225 Bush was completed in Italian
Renaissance style. It was designed by George Kelham, was expanded in
1949 and was sold in 1994 to Pacific Resources Development Inc. In
1999 it became the NBC Internet Building leased by Xoom.com from
Ocwen Asset Investment Corp.
p.B2)(SFC, 9/6/01, p.A11)(SSFC, 5/31/15, p.C2)
1922 In San Francisco the Greek
Revival home at 439 Roosevelt Way was built. It was designed by
architect John C. Hladick and was at one time own ed by silent movie
star Norma Talmadge (1894-1957).
(SSFC, 11/3/13, p.C2)
1922 In San Francisco the
7-storey headquarters of the Spring Valley Water Co. was built
its at 425 Mason St. It was designed by Willis Polk.
(SSFC, 8/24/14, p.C2)
1922 San Francisco’s last Tong
murder took place. In 1962 Richard Dillon authored “Hatchet Men," an
account of the SF Tong wars.
(SFC, 7/13/13, p.C2)
1922 The oil tanker Lyman A.
Stuart sank near Mile Rocks off the coast of San Francisco.
(G, Winter 96/97, p.3)(SFC, 6/29/13, p.C2)
1922 The 1st arc-welded
structure in the US was a 245-step, freestanding, steel staircase
into the Moaning Caverns of Calaveras, Ca.
(SSFC, 12/16/01, p.C5)
1922 Roy Chapman Andrews of the
American Museum of Natural History led an expedition to the Gobi
desert and discovered dinosaur bones. Later expeditions there turned
up bones and nests of Protoceratops, a small horned dinosaur. He led
6 expeditions to the Gobi between 1921 and 1930. Andrews’ own
autobiography is titled "Under a Lucky Star." In 2001 Charles
Gallencamp the Andrews biography: "Dragon Hunter."
(T.E.-J.B. p.25)(AM, 7/97, p.80)(WSJ, 5/21/01,
1922 George Leigh Mallory (36)
took part in a 2nd expedition of mountain climbers to Mt. Everest. 7
porters were killed and the expedition failed to reach the summit.
(ON, 3/05, p.7)
1922 Arthur Wesley Dow
(b.1857), American photographer, died.
(WSJ, 1/20/04, p.D7)
1922 In Albania Zog, a tribal
warlord, became the prime minister.
(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)
1956 Argentine novelist Antonio
De Benedetto (1922-1986) authored "Zama." In 2016 it was translated
to English. In 2017 it was turned into a film by Argentine director
1922 Vegemite, a salty,
slightly bitter spread made from brewer's yeast, was introduced by
Australian chemist Cyril Callister for the Fred Walker Cheese
Company in Melbourne. The company wanted a Vitamin B-rich spread
that could compete with Britain's popular Marmite. The name came in
a 1923 national poll. In 2009 Kraft Foods Australia announced that a
creamier variation of Vegemite would be on store shelves July 5
alongside the original.
1922 Reginald Arthur Borstel
(b.1875), Australian artist, died. He was known for his ship
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.B5)
1922 Henry Lawson (b.1867),
Australian poet, died.
(NG, 8/04, p.1)
1922 In Australia Colin
Campbell Ross was hanged for raping and murdering Alma Tirtschke
(12) and dumping her body in an alley in 1921. In 2008 the city of
Melbourne posthumously pardoned him for the crime after new tests
found crucial evidence against him was flawed.
1922 British women were
admitted to the Law Society and allowed to become practicing
lawyers. Carrie Morrison, Mary Pickup, Mary Sykes, and Maud Crofts
became the first women in England to qualify as solicitors.
1922 Britain decommissioned the
HMS Ascension and the island became a dependency of St. Helena.
Ascension Island issued its first postage stamps.
1922 Britain’s Daily Mail and
General Trust (DMGT) was established to manage the Daily Mail and
other newspaper interests of its founding family. The group can
trace its origins back to launch of the mid market national
newspaper the Daily Mail by Harold Harmsworth and his elder brother,
Alfred, in 1896.
1922 In Croatia Sister Marija
Krucifiksa Kozulic, founder of the Corruption’s Society of the
sisters of the Sacred heart of Jesus, died. Her support of orphans
and poor children led to later efforts for her canonization.
(SFC, 2/17/14, p.A1)
1922 Adolph Hitler and Hermann
Goring became friends and political allies because of their mutual
hatred of the Versailles Treaty. In 2004 Anthony Read authored "The
Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle."
(SSFC, 4/4/04, p.M3)
1922 In the Rapallo Treaty
Germany recognized Lenin's regime.
(WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)
1922 Carl Wieselsberger, German
physicist, described a method of suspending models on an airstream,
i.e. the ground effect.
(Econ, 9/8/07, TQ
1922 Walther Rathenau, a
German-Jewish industrialist, was assassinated by right-wing thugs.
The 1999 book "Einstein's German World" by Fritz Stern included an
essay on Rathenau. Other essays presented views of Max Planck,
physicist, Paul Ehrlich, founder of chemotherapy, and Fritz Haber,
who worked on the insecticide later known as Zyklon-B.
(WSJ, 9/21/99, p.A24)
1922 The novel “Rene Leys" by
French author Victor Segalen (1878-1919), was published three years
after the author’s death. The novel, writen in diary form, was about
a Belgian teenager in old Peking who regales his employer with tales
of the hidden intrigues and conspiracies taking palce in the
(Econ, 8/23/14, p.86)
1922 In Pauillac, France, Baron
Philippe de Rothschild took over the Bordeaux region vineyard that
had been initially purchased by his great-grandfather. He initiated
bottling all production at the chateau and commissioned the
architect, Charles Siclis, to build the famous "Grand Chai," as the
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T4)
1922 James Dole, a Boston
businessman, bought 98% of Lanai Island, Ha., from the Baldwins for
$1.1 million and planted 16,000 acres of pineapple. Dole built Lanai
City, a harbor, infrastructure and brought in workers from China,
Japan and the Philippines.
(SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)(SFC, 6/27/12, p.D6)
1922 The British government
passed Emergency Regulations Ordinance to quell a seamen’s strike in
Hong Kong’s harbor. The law was later used by the colonial
administration to help put down riots that rocked the trading hub in
1922 Hungary’s Regent Miklos
Horthy passed the first of four anti-Jewish laws, limiting the
number of Jewish students at universities.
(Econ, 11/9/13, p.59)
1922 Their was a rainfall of
spiders over Hungary.
(SFC, 5/30/98, p.E4)
1922 In India civil
disobedience demonstrators killed 22 police officers and Gandhi
called off his campaign of disobedience.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)
1922 A kind of draught board in
an elongated 'H' shape, together with its pieces and dice, were
found during archaeological excavations at the royal cemetery in the
ancient Sumerian city of Ur, known now as Tal al-Muqayyar, in
southern Iraq. It took more than five decades until experts managed
to match up and translate a set of rules carved into a piece of clay
with the board game. It became known as the Royal Game of Ur.
1922 The Irish Republican Army
refused to accept a separate Northern Ireland under British rule.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.7)
1922 In Ireland a cease-fire
(SFEC, 10/20/96, p.C4)
1922 Revolutionary Erskine
Childers was killed by Irish Free State forces. His son later became
president, and his grandson a UN official.
(SFC, 4/9/96, p.A17)
1922 Kurds declared their own
state only to see stronger powers crush it within months.
(Econ, 7/9/16, p.38)
1922 The Univ. of Lithuania was
founded in Kaunas.
(DrEE, 11/23/96, p.4)
1922 Mennonites from Canada and
Pennsylvania fled persecution and settled near Chihuahua, Mexico.
(SFEC, 6/1/97, p.T3)(SFEC, 11/5/00, p.T4)
1922 The West Bank became an
unallocated portion of the Palestine Mandate.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)
1922 Lenin deported 70 of the
best minds in Russia along with their families. In 2006 Lesley
Chamberlain authored “The Philosophy Steamer: Lenin and the Exile of
(Econ, 3/18/06, p.80)
1922 The Soviet government
divided the North Caucasus along ethnic lines, separating the
Chechen Autonomous Oblast from the Republic of the Mountain Peoples
and abolishing the republic itself in 1924.
1922 The Red October Heat and
Power Plant opened in St. Petersburg, Russia.
(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.F8)
1922 Scotland joined the United
Kingdom of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)
1922 Uganda's Makerere Univ.
was first established in Kampala as a technical school. It grew into
a widely respected university.
1922 In Montevideo, Uruguay,
the 26-storey Palacio Salvo hotel, designed by Architect Mario
Palanti, became the tallest building in South America.
(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.F6)
1922-1928 Dolly Rekords were made during this
period by the Averill Co. They were played on a small record player
inside the body of a Madame Hendren Doll.
(SFC, 9/23/98, Z1 p.8)
1922-1948 Palestine and the West Bank comprised
about 1/5th of the local area under British rule at his time.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.C12)
1922-1953 Stalin was General Secretary of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
(AHD, 1971, p.1255)
1922-1981 H. C. Westerman, American artist. He is
recognized as the pioneer of the Chicago Monster School of grotesque
comic art. His work included the watercolor "Mohave" (1966), and the
box sculptures "March or Die" (1966), and "The Evil Force" (1962).
(SFC, 9/25/97, p.B2)
1923 Jan 1, The Angelus Temple,
a spiritual palace in the Echo Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, was
dedicated by Canadian-born evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson
(1890-1944), organizer of the Int’l. Church of the Foursquare
1923 Jan 1, Sadi Lecointe set a
new aviation speed record flying an average of 208 mph at Istres.
1923 Jan 1, John Daly (b.1841),
for whom Daly City is named, died and was buried at Woodlawn
Cemetery in Colma. He was from Boston and had arrived in the Bay
Area alone at age 13 via the Isthmus of Panama, where his mother
died of yellow fever.
1923 Jan 2, A Ku Klux Klan
surprise attack on a black residential area of Rosewood, Fla.,
killed 8 people. The all-black town of Rosewood, a north Florida
community of 120 people, was burned to the ground. A white woman
fearful of being caught in an affair, falsely claimed that she was
raped and beaten by a black man. Violence exploded as a white mob
tried to string up a black man for information on an alleged rape.
At least 6 black and 2 white died and almost every building was
burned. In 1994 the Florida legislature provided up to $2 million in
compensation to survivors. Nine survivors won a $2 million
settlement in 1995. In 1996 the event was recreated in the film
"Rosewood" by John Singleton.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, DB p.43)(SFC, 9/24/97, p.C2)
(SFC, 2/5/00, p.A3)(MC, 1/2/02)
1923 Jan 4, Emile Coué
(1857-1926), French pharmacist, arrived in NYC. Coue was a proponent
of "auto-suggestion," and believed positive thinking could cure
disease. He recommended chanting "every day, in every way, I'm
getting better and better."
1923 Jan 4, The Paris
Conference on war reparations hit a deadlock as the French insisted
on the hard line and the British insisted on Reconstruction.
1923 Jan 5, The Senate debated
the benefits of Peyote for the American Indian.
1923 Jan 8, Joseph Wiezenbaum,
artificial intelligence pioneer, was born.
1923 Jan 8, Giorgio Tozzi,
basso (Met Opera, Boris, Don Giovanni), was born in Chicago,
1923 Jan 10, The United States
withdrew its last troops from Germany.
1923 Jan 11, The French entered
Essen in the Ruhr. They were there to extract Germany's resources as
war payment. After France and Belgium occupied the Ruhr, Germany’s
central bank, the Reichsbank, increased its money printing,
(HN, 1/11/99)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.57)
1923 Jan 13, Hitler denounced
the Weimar republic as 5,000 storm troopers demonstrated in Germany.
1923 Jan 15, Lithuanians took
Klaipeda back from French control.
(LC, 1998, p.8)(LHC, 1/15/03)
1923 Jan 19, The French
announced the invention of a new gun with a range of 56 miles.
1923 Jan 28, The 1st "National
Socialist German Workers Party" (NSDAP, aka NAZI) formed in Munich.
1923 Jan 31, Norman Mailer
(d.2007), NYC mayoral candidate, novelist (Naked and the Dead), was
born in NJ. In 1999 Mary V. Dearborn published "Norman Mailer: A
(SFEC, 12/26/99, BR p.7)(SSFC, 11/11/07, p.A7)
1923 Feb 1, Fascists Voluntary
Militia formed in Italy under Mussolini.
1923 Feb 2, Ethyl gasoline was
1st marketed in Dayton, Ohio.
1923 Feb 3, The National Union
committee divided a neutral zone between Lithuania and Poland and
drew a final line of demarcation.
1923 Feb 4, French troops took
Offenburg, Appenweier and Buhl in the Ruhr as a part of the
agreement ending World War I.
1923 Feb 5, Stephen J. Cannell,
TV producer, writer (Rockford Files), was born.
1923 Feb 6, Edward E. Barnard
(65), US astronomer (5th moon Jupiter), died.
1923 Feb 8, German NSDAP (Nazi
Party) Volkischer Beobachter newspaper became a daily.
1923 Feb 9, Brendan Behan,
Irish playwright and poet, was born in Dublin, Ireland. His work
included "The Hostage" and "The Quare Fellow."
(HN, 2/9/01)(MC, 2/9/02)
1923 Feb 9, Norman E. Shumway,
pioneer cardiac transplant surgeon, was born in Mich.
1923 Feb 9, Soviet Aeroflot
1923 Feb 10, Cesare Siepi,
basso (NY Metropolitan Opera), was born in Milan, Italy.
1923 Feb 10, Wilhelm Konrad von
Röntgen (77), physicist (Nobel 1901), died. In 1971 Robert W. Nitske
authored “The Life of Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: Discoverer of the X
(ON, 11/04, p.8)
1923 Feb 13, Charles "Chuck"
Yeager, American test pilot, was born. He was the first man to break
the sound barrier on October 14, 1947.
1923 Feb 15, Yelena Bonner,
soviet dissident, wife of Andre Sakharov, was born in Moscow.
1923 Feb 16, Bessie Smith
(1898-1937) made her first recording "Down Hearted Blues." Her
recording was included by the National Recording Preservation Board
in the Library of Congress' National Recording Registry in 2002.
1923 Feb 16, In Egypt the
burial chamber of King Tutankhamen's recently unearthed tomb was
unsealed by archeologist Howard Carter.
1923 Feb 19, Jean Sibelius' 6th
1923 Feb 22, 1st successful
chinchilla farm established in US was in LA, Calif.
1923 Feb 26, Italian
nationalist blue-shirts merged with the fascist black-shirts.
1923 Feb 28, Charles Durning,
actor (Fury, Sting, Tootsie), was born in Highland Falls, NY.
1923 Mar 1, Allies occupied
Ruhrgebied and killed a railroad striker.
1923 Mar 2, Doc Watson, singer
and guitarist, was born.
1923 Mar 2, The first issue of
the weekly periodical, "TIME" appeared on newsstands. The first
issue, dated March 3, was 32 pages and featured a charcoal sketch of
Congressman Joseph Gurney Cannon on the cover. It was the United
States’ first modern newsmagazine. The worldwide Time Magazine was
conceived by Henry Luce and Briton Hadden (d.1929) in 1922. Luce and
Hadden had just graduated from Yale. In 2006 Isaiah Wilner authored
“The Man Time Forgot," a biography of Hadden.
1923 Mar 2, In Italy, Mussolini
admitted that women have a right to vote, but declares that the time
was not right.
1923 Mar 3, US Senate rejected
membership in International Court of Justice, The Hague.
1923 Mar 4, Lenin's last
article in Pravda (about Red bureaucracy) was published.
1923 Mar 5, Laurence Tisch
(d.2003) was born in Brooklyn. In 1946 his parents entrusted him
with $125,000 to invest. He and his brother grew it to billions
through their Loews conglomerate.
(SSFC, 11/16/03, p.A29)
1923 Mar 5, Montana and Nevada
passed the US's first old age pension grants, giving $25 per month.
1923 Mar 6, The Turkish
National Assembly rejected the Lausanne Treaty in Angora.
1923 Mar 8, Cyd Charisse,
dancer, actress, was born.
1923 Mar 8, John McPhee, writer
(Oranges, A Sense of Where You Are), was born.
1923 Mar 10, Kenneth "Jethro"
Burns, country singer (Homer & Jethro), was born.
1923 Mar 13, Lee de Forest
demonstrated his sound-on-film moving pictures in NYC.
1923 Mar 14, Diane Arbus
[Nemerov] (d.1971), photographer, innovator (Vogue and Harper's
Bazaar), was born in NYC. In 1984 Patricia Bosworth authored: "Diane
Arbus: A Biography."
1923 Mar 14, President Harding
became the first chief executive to file an income tax report.
1923 Mar 14, German Supreme
Court prohibited the NSDAP (Nazi Party).
1923 Mar 15, An ambassador's conference set
the demarcation line between Lithuania and Poland as a national
border, which Lithuania did not recognize.
1923 Mar 15, Lenin was felled
by his 3rd stroke.
1923 Mar 20, Bavarian minister
of Interior refused to forbid the Nazi SA. [NOTE: The Sturmabteilung
SA, German for "Assault Division" and sometimes translated
stormtroopers, functioned as a paramilitary organization of the
NSDAP – the German Nazi party. It played a key role in Adolf
Hitler’s rise to power in the 1930s. SA men were often known as
brown shirts from the color of their uniform and to distinguish them
from the SS who were known as black shirts.]
1923 Mar 22, Marcel Marceau,
French mime, was born. "I do not get my ideas from people on the
street. If you look at faces on the street, what do you see?
Nothing. Just boredom." He devised over 100 pantomimes, including
The Creation of the World.
(HN, 3/22/97)(AP, 3/22/99)
1923 Mar 23, Frank Silver and
Irving Conn released "Yes, We Have No Bananas."
1923 Mar 24, Edna Jo Hunter,
expert on military families and prisoners of war, was born.
1923 Mar 26, Bob Elliot, radio
comedian, one half of Bob and Ray, was born.
1923 Mar 26, Actress Sarah
Bernhardt (b.1844), born in Paris as Rosine Bernardt, died in Paris.
In 2010 Robert Gottlieb authored “Sarah: The Life of Sarah
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_Bernhardt)(Econ, 9/18/10, p.105)
1923 Mar 27, Louis Simpson,
Pulitzer Prize-winning poet, was born.
1923 Mar 31, The first U.S.
dance marathon, held in New York City, ended. Alma Cummings (32) set
a world record of 27 hours on her feet. 6 younger male partners
(AP, 3/31/98)(WSJ, 6/1/05, p.B1)
1923 Mar 31, French soldiers
fired on workers at Krupp factory in Essen; 13 died.
1923 Apr 5, Michael V. Gazzo,
actor (Cookie, Fear City), was born in Hillside, NJ.
1923 Apr 5, Firestone Co. put
their inflatable tires into production.
1923 Apr 5, George Edward
Stanhope Molyneux Herbert (56), England’s 5th Earl of Lord
Carnarvon, died in Egypt from an infected mosquito bite. He financed
the excavation of the Egyptian New Kingdom Pharaoh Tutankhamen’s
tomb in Egypt's Valley of the Kings.
1923 Apr 5, Nguyen Van Thieu,
president of South Vietnam (1965-75), selected this date as his
birth date on the grounds that it was luckier than his Nov 1924
(HN, 5/5/97)(SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)(MC, 4/5/02)
1923 Apr 7, The Workers Party
of America in NYC became an official communist party.
1923 Apr 7, The 1st brain tumor
operation under local anesthetic was performed at Beth Israel
Hospital in NYC by Dr K. Winfield Ney.
1923 Apr 8, Franco Corelli,
tenor, was born in Anconia, Italy.
1923 Apr 8, Death toll from
plague reached 1,000 in India.
1923 Apr 10, Hitler demanded
"hatred and more hatred" in Berlin.
1923 Apr 12, Ann Miller,
[Lucille Ann Collier], dancer (On the Town), was born in Cherino,
1923 Apr 15, American inventor
Lee De Forest (1873-1961) premiered 18 short films made in Phonofilm
at the Rivoli Theater in New York City. Phonofilm recorded sound
directly onto film.
1923 Apr 15, Insulin became
generally available for diabetics.
1923 Apr 17, Harry Reasoner,
American broadcast journalist, was born in Dakota City, Iowa.
(HN, 4/17/98)(MC, 4/17/02)
1923 Apr 18, The first baseball
game was played in Yankee Stadium. Babe Ruth hit a three-run homer
as the Yankees beat the Red Sox 4-1. The stadium was called the
House that Ruth built. In 2011 Robert Weintraub authored “The House
That Ruth Built: A New Stadium, the first Yankees Championship, and
the Redemption of 1923."
(AP, 4/18/98)(WSJ, 10/12/99, p.A24)(Econ, 5/7/11,
1923 Apr 18, Poland annexed
1923 Apr 20, Tito Puente,
bandleader, was born.
1923 Apr 21, John Mortimor,
British barrister and playwright, was born. He created Rumpole of
1923 Apr 23, Lady Elizabeth
(Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, 1900-2002) married Prince Albert, Duke of
York (d.1952) in Westminster Abbey. Albert was crowned King of
England in 1937. [see Apr 26]
(SFC, 8/5/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)(SSFC,
1923 Apr 25, Anita Bjorak,
actress (Miss Julie, Loving Couples, Night People), was born.
1923 Apr 25, Melissa Hayden,
ballerina (1961 Silver Bowl), was born in Toronto, Canada.
1923 Apr 25, Albert King, blues
singer/guitar (Bad Look Blues), was born in Mississippi.
1923 Apr 26, English prince
Albert (George VI) married lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. [see Apr 23]
1923 May 1, Joseph Heller
(d.1999), American author, was born in Bkln, NY. His work included
the novel "Catch 22."
(HN, 5/1/99)(SFC, 12/14/99, p.A10)(MC, 5/1/02)
1923 May 2, Lieutenants Okaley
Kelly and John Macready took off from New York for the West Coast on
what would become the first successful nonstop transcontinental
1923 May 3,
The 1st non-stop flight across the US was completed. Army
lieutenants Kelly and Macready arrived in San Diego from New York in
26 hours and 50 minutes.
(HFA, '96, p.30)(HN, 4/6/98)(NPub, 2002, p.10)
1923 May 4, In Vienna, Austria,
bloody street battles took place between Nazis, socialists and
1923 May 10, Geidar Aliev
(Heydar Aliyev, d.2003), later KGB general, Communist Party chief
and Azerbaijan president, was born in Nakhichevan.
(AP, 12/12/03)(SFC, 12/13/03, p.A20)
1923 May 15, Richard Avedon,
photographer, was born.
1923 May 25, John Weitz, spy,
author, fashion designer (Friends in High Places), was born.
1923 May 25, Britain recognized
Transjordan with Abdullah as its leader.
1923 May 26, James Arness,
actor (Gunsmoke), was born in Minneapolis, MN.
(HN, 5/26/01)(MC, 5/26/02)
1923 May 27, Henry Kissinger,
US Secretary of State (1973-77), was born. He became Sec. of State
in the Nixon administration, and won the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for
his efforts to end the Vietnam War.
(HN, 5/27/99)(MC, 5/27/02)
1923 May 28, US Attorney
General said it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere.
1923 May 28, US unemployment
was nearly ended.
1923 May 29, Adolf Oberländer
German painter, died.
1923 May 30, Howard Hanson's
1st Symphony "Nordic," premiered.
1923 Jun 3, In Italy, dictator
Benito Mussolini granted women the right to vote.
1923 Jun 4, Filippo Smaldone,
Italian priest, died. He provided education and assistance for the
death and founded the Congregation of the Salesian Sisters of the
Sacred Heart. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI named him a saint.
(SFC, 10/16/06, p.A2)
1923 Jun 9, Brinks unveiled its
1st armored security vans.
1923 Jun 9, Bulgaria’s
government was overthrown by the military.
1923 Jun 12, Harry Houdini
freed himself from a straight jacket while suspended upside down, 40
feet (12 m) above ground in NYC.
1923 Jun 13, The French set a
trade barrier between the occupied Ruhr and the rest of Germany.
1923 Jun 15, Dashiell Hammett
published his story "The Vicious Circle" in the Black Mask pulp
magazine under the pseudonym Peter Collinson.
(SFCM, 4/15/01, p.4)
1923 Jun 16, Sun Yat Sen
founded a military academy.
1923 Jun 19, "Moon Mullins",
Comic Strip, made its debut.
1923 Jun 20, Pres. Harding set
out on a 7,500-mile "Voyage of Understanding" through the northwest.
The 57-year-old Harding, who suffered from heart disease, was so
shaken by breaking reports of corruption in his administration that
he went on a cross-country speaking tour to strengthen his position.
(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A19)(HN, 8/2/98)
1923 Jun 20, France announced
it would seize the Rhineland to assist Germany in paying her war
1923 Jun 21, Marcus Garvey was
sentenced to 5 years for using mail to defraud.
1923 Jun 23, Air mail service
between SF and NYC was boosted with 50 new Douglas airplanes.
(SFC, 6/22/01, WBb p.8)
1923 Jun 24, Pope Pius XI spoke
against allies occupying Ruhrgebied.
1923 Jun 27, Paul F. Conrad,
cartoonist (Pulitzer 1964, 71, 84), was born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
1923 Jun 27, The first
in-flight refueling occurred over San Diego, Ca.
(NPub, 2002, p.10)
1923 Jun 27, Yugoslav Premier
Nikola Pachitch was wounded by Serb attackers in Belgrade.
1923 Jul 4, Jack Dempsey beat
Tommy Gibbon in 15 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1923 Jul 5, Edward Robeson
Taylor (b.1838), former mayor of San Francisco (1907-1910), died.
Taylor, a doctor and lawyer, had also served as dean of Hastings
College of the Law and was a founder of the Book Club of California
as well as a published poet.
1923 Jul 6, Wojciech
Jaruzelski, Polish general, pres. (1989-90), was born.
1923 Jul 10, Jean Kerr
(d.2003), playwright and author, was born in Scranton, Pa. Her later
books included "Please Don’t Eat the Daisies."
(SFC, 1/7/03, p.A22)
1923 Jul 15, President Warren
G. Harding (d.Aug 2, 1923) tapped the golden spike of the $60
million Alaskan Railway at Nenana.
(SSFC, 2/3/02, p.C9)
1923 Jul 17, James Purdy,
writer (Cabot Wright Begins), was born.
1923 Jul 20, In Mexico
Francisco Villa (aka Pancho Villa, b.1877) [Doroteo Arango], general
and revolutionist, died in an ambush. In c1999 Friedrich Katz of the
Univ. of Chicago published "The Life and Times of Pancho Villa." In
2001 Frank McLynn authored "Villa and Zapata."
(WUD, 1994, p.1593)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(SFC,
5/5/99, p.A2)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A14)(MC, 7/20/02)
1923 Jul 22, Robert Dole, U.S.
Senator from Kansas (1969-95), was born. In 1996 he was a Republican
candidate for president of the United States.
1923 Jul 24, The Treaty of
Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey,
was concluded in Switzerland. It replaced the Treaty of Sevres and
divided the lands inhabited by the Kurds between Turkey, Iraq and
Syria. Article 39 allowed Turkish nationals to use any language they
wished in commerce, public and private meetings, and publications.
The treaty specifically protected the rights of the Armenian, Greek
and Jewish communities. The former provinces of Baghdad, Basra and
Mosul were lumped together to form Iraq. Both countries agreed to a
massive exchange of religious minorities. Christians were deported
from Turkey to Greece and Muslims from Greece to Turkey. In 2006
Bruce Clark authored “Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that
Forged Modern Greece and Turkey."
(WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)(AP, 7/24/97)(SSFC,
12/22/02, p.A14)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.9)(Econ, 10/14/06,
p.50)(Econ, 12/9/06, p.92)
1923 Jul 27, Pres. Harding
suffered an attack of food poisoning. His unskilled physician, with
the support of Mrs. Harding, treated the president with large doses
of purgatives, which worsened his heart condition.
1923 Jul 29, Albert Einstein
spoke on pacifism in Berlin.
1923 Jul, In Canada an
officially sanctioned chuckwagon race started at the Calgary
(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)(SSFC, 7/2/17, p.F4)
1923 Aug 2, Following a return
trip form Alaska the 29th president of the United States, Warren G.
Harding (57), died in San Francisco at the Palace Hotel of a "stroke
of apoplexy." Not considered to have been a particularly intelligent
man, Harding owed his rise to political power to the driving
ambition of his wife, Florence Kling Harding. As president, the Ohio
native was troubled by scandals caused by his weakness for pretty
women and a tendency to place unscrupulous friends—called "The Ohio
Gang"—in positions of power. Graft, corruption and other scandals
that led to the suicides of two high Federal officials had begun to
taint the Harding Administration when the president suddenly died of
a heart attack, just before the Teapot Dome Scandal broke, the
largest scandal of his administration. In 1998 Carl Sferrazza
Anthony published "Florence Harding: The First Lady, The Jazz Age
and the Death of America’s Most Scandalous President." Vice
President Calvin Coolidge became president upon the death of Warren
(TMC, 1994, p.1923)(AP, 8/2/97)(SFEC, 3/1/98,
p.W27)(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A15,19)(HN, 8/2/98)(HN, 8/2/98)(HNQ, 12/7/98)
1923 Aug 2, Vice President
Calvin Coolidge went to bed at 9 p.m. at his father’s home in
Plymouth, Vermont, where he was enjoying a short vacation. It took
several hours for the news of President Warren G. Harding’s death in
California to reach the small town, but by 2 a.m., Coolidge was told
that Harding was dead. Traditionally, the president is sworn in by
the chief justice of the Supreme Court—but he slept 500 miles away.
At 2:30 a.m. on August 3, 1923, Coolidge’s father, a notary public,
administered the oath of office to his son by the light of a
1923 Aug 3, Anne Klein, fashion
designer (Anne Klein II), was born.
1923 Aug 3, Calvin Coolidge was
sworn in as the 30th president of the United States, following the
death of Warren G. Harding. It took several hours for the news of
President Warren G. Harding's death in California to reach the small
town of Plymouth, Vermont, where he was enjoying a short vacation,
but by 2 a.m., Coolidge was told that Harding was dead.
Traditionally, the president is sworn in by the chief justice of the
Supreme Court--but he slept 500 miles away. At 2:30 a.m. on August
3, 1923, Coolidge's father, a notary public, administered the oath
of office to his son by the light of a kerosene lamp.
(AP, 8/3/97)(HNPD, 8/3/98)
1923 Aug 5, Richard G.
Kleindienst, one of the key officials who helped elect Richard Nixon
to the presidency in 1969, was born.
1923 Aug 10, Joaquin Sorolla y
Bastida (b.1863), Spanish impressionist painter, died in Cercedilla.
His work included “A View of Malaga."
(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.A15)(www.britannica.com)
1923 Aug 12, Enrico Tiraboschi
became the 1st to swim English Channel westward.
1923 Aug 13, US Steel Corp.
initiated an 8-hour work day.
1923 Aug 13, The Turkish
National Congress selected Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Ataturk) as
1923 Aug 15, Simon Peres
[Persky], premier of Israel, was born in Belarus.
1923 Aug 15, Eamon de Valera
was arrested in Irish Free State.
1923 Aug 17, Larry Rivers
(d.2002), painter and sculptor, was born in Bronx, NY, as Yitzroch
(HN, 8/17/00)(SC, 8/12/02)(NW, 8/26/02, p.9)
1923 Aug 18, Jimmy Witherspoon,
blues singer, was born.
1923 Aug 19, Vilfredo Federico
Damaso Pareto (b.1848), French-Italian sociologist, economist and
philosopher, died. In 1906 he made the famous observation that 20%
of the population owned 80% of the property in Italy. This was later
generalized by Joseph M. Juran and others into the so-called Pareto
principle (also termed the 80-20 rule) and generalized further to
the concept of a Pareto distribution.
1923 Aug 21, Chris Schenkel,
sportscaster (Monday Night Fights), was born in Biuppus, Ind.
1923 Aug 22, Paavo Nurmi of
Finland ran a world record mile (4:10.4).
1923 Aug 23, Richard Adler,
composer, songwriter (Damn Yankees, Pajama Game), was born.
1923 Aug 23, Wolfgang
Sawallisch, conductor (Vienna Symph 1960-70), was born in Munich,
1923 Aug 24, Kate Douglas
Wiggin (66), author (US kindergarten movement), died.
1923 Aug 29, Richard
Attenborough, actor, director (Gandhi, Young Winston), was born in
1923 Aug 29, Alexander
Zemlinsky (1871-1942, Vienna-born composer, completed his 45-minute
Lyric Symphony for Soprano, Baritone, and Orchestra, in Seven Songs
on Poems by Rabindranath Tagore, Opus 18.
1923 Aug 31, Mussolini's troops
1923 Sep 1, Rocky Marciano,
world heavyweight boxing champion (1952-56), was born. He began
boxing at the relatively advanced age of 24, but rose to the
heavyweight title in 1952 with a perfect record. He retained his
crown for 7 years, winning all six of his title defense prizefights,
then retired undefeated in 1959.
(HN, 9/1/99)(MC, 9/1/02)(SC, 9/1/02)
1923 Sep 1, The Japanese cities
of Tokyo and Yokohama were devastated by the Great Kanto earthquake
that claimed 99,000-143,000 lives. The 7.9-8.3 quake off Tokyo's
shoreline killed some 99,300 people.
1923 Sep 3, Mort Walker,
cartoonist (Beetle Bailey, Hi & Lois), was born.
1923 Sep 8, Seven of the 15
ships of Destroyer Squadron 11 were wrecked on a rocky point on the
California Santa Barbara County coast. 23 sailors were killed.
(SFC, 9/9/98, p.D2)
1923 Sep 10, The Irish Free
state joined the League of Nations.
1923 Sep 10, In response to a
dispute with Yugoslavia, Mussolini mobilized Italian troops on Serb
1923 Sep 11, ZR-1 (biggest
active dirigible) flew over NY's tallest skyscraper, Woolworth
1923 Sep 15, Gov. Walton
(b.1881) of Oklahoma declared a state of siege because of KKK
terror. Walton was elected governor in 1922 and impeached in 1923.
1923 Sep 17, Hank Williams,
Sr., singer, songwriter and guitarist known for "Lonesome Blues" and
"Your Cheatin’ Heart," was born.
1923 Sep 17, In Berkeley, Ca.,
a fire began in the Wildcat Canyon and in 2 hours engulfed 584
structures. 50 blocks were engulfed and over 6,000 people were left
(SFC, 9/17/98, p.A20)(SFC, 10/16/99, p.C1)
1923 Sep 21, Gordon Battelle
(b.1883), industrialist and researcher, died following an
appendectomy at a Columbus, Ohio, hospital. In his will, he left the
bulk of his estate, about $1.6 million, to the establishment of
Battelle Memorial Institute, founded in 1929.
1923 Sep 22, Marquess of Ripon,
game hunter, died, after shooting his 52nd grouse.
1923 Sep 26, Sir Aubrey Herbert
(b.1880), Englishman, died. He worked for Albania’s independence and
was twice offered the throne of Albania. He authored the WW 1
journal “Mons, Anzac & Kut."
1923 Sep 28, William Windom,
actor (Farmer's Daughter, Murder She Wrote), was born in NYC.
1923 Sep, SF police raided at 5
St. Louis Alley in Chinatown and captured Ah Kung along with 3 slave
girls valued at $3,500 each.
(SSFC, 9/23/12, DB p.46)
1923 Sep, The Int’l. Criminal
Police Commission (Interpol) formed in Vienna.
1923 Sep, In Japan an orgy of
opportunistic anti-Korean slaughter followed the Sep 1 Great Kanto
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.59)
1923 Oct 4, Charlton Heston
III, American actor, was born. His films included "10 Commandments,"
"Ben Hur" and "Planet of Apes."
(HN, 10/4/98)(MC, 10/4/01)
1923 Oct 5, Philip Berrigan,
militant priest (Chicago 7), was born.
1923 Oct 13, Angora (Ankara)
became Turkey's capital.
1923 Oct 15, Italo Calvino
(d.1985), Italian novelist (Winter's Night a Traveler), was born in
(HN, 10/15/00)(MC, 10/15/01)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M4)
1923 Oct 16, Walt Disney and
his brother Roy O. Disney founded The Disney Company.
(MC, 10/16/01)(WSJ, 2/13/04, p.A8)
1923 Oct 16, John Harwood
patented a self-winding watch in Switzerland.
1923 Oct 20, Herschel Bernardi,
actor (Arnie, Voice of Charlie the Tuna, Front), was born.
1923 Oct 20, Philip Whalen
(d.2002), Zen Buddhist priest and SF Beat poet, was born in
(SFC, 6/27/02, p.A19)
1923 Oct 24, Denise Levertov,
English poet, was born.
1923 Oct 25, The Teapot Dome
scandal came to public attention as Senator Thomas J. Walsh of
Montana, subcommittee chairman, revealed the findings of the past 18
months of investigation. His case would result in the conviction of
Harry F. Sinclair of Mammoth Oil, and later Secretary of the
Interior Albert B. Fall, the first cabinet member in American
history to go to jail. The scandal, named for the Teapot Dome oil
reserves in Wyoming, involved Fall secretly leasing naval oil
reserve lands to private companies. The administration of President
Warren G. Harding was rocked by the Elk Hills Scandal-also known as
the Teapot Dome Scandal or Oil Reserves Scandal. In 1921 and 1922
Harding’s secretary of the interior, Albert B. Fall secretly granted
Mammoth Oil exclusive rights to California’s Teapot Dome oil
reserves and portions of the Elk Hills and Buena Vista Hills
reserves to American Petroleum, in exchange for some $300,000.
Supervision of the oil reserves had been transferred from the Navy
to the Department of the Interior in 1921. Fall was imprisoned for
accepting a bribe in the Elk Hills case and the Supreme court ruled
Harding’s transfer illegal.
(HN, 10/25/98)(HNQ, 4/19/99)
1923 Oct 27, Roy Lichtenstein
(d.1997), ‘pop art’ painter, was born.
(SFC, 9/30/97, p.A7)(HN, 10/27/00)
1923 Oct 29, "Runnin' Wild,"
which introduced the Charleston dance, opened on Broadway.
1923 Oct 29, The Republic of
Turkey was proclaimed under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Turkey
established secular government under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. He
introduced the policy known as Kemalism, which bars any mixing of
religious and public life. The country was predominantly Sunni
(WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-6)(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-9)(WSJ,
8/27/96, p.A10)(HFA, '96, p.40)(AP, 10/29/97)
1923 Nov 1, Victoria de Los
Angeles, Spanish opera soprano, was born.
1923 Nov 1, Goodyear Tire and
Rubber Company bought the rights to manufacture Zeppelin dirigibles.
1923 Nov 2, US Navy aviator,
H.J. Brown, set new world speed record of 259 mph in a Curtiss
1923 Nov 2, Bloody street
fights took place in Aachen. The pro-French separatists were driven
1923 Nov 4, Alfred Heineken,
beer brewer, was born.
1923 Nov 6, Col. Jacob Schick
patented the 1st electric shaver.
1923 Nov 6, European inflation
soared and one loaf of bread in Berlin was reported to be worth
about 140 Billion German Marks. Germany suffered a terrible economic
inflation. Hyperinflation eventually made 4.2 trillion marks worth
(MT, Fall ‘96, p.7)(HN, 11/6/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99,
1923 Nov 8, Jack S. Kilby
(d.2005) was born in Jefferson City, Mo. In 2000 he received the
Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the microchip (1958).
(SFC, 12/11/00, p.A2)(SFC, 6/22/05, p.A5)
1923 Nov 8, Adolf
Schicklgruber (Hitler) launched his first attempt to seize power
with a failed coup in Munich, Germany, that came to be known as the
Beer-Hall Putsch. He proclaimed himself chancellor and Ludendorff
dictator. After the unsuccessful beerhall putsch, he wound up in
jail writing "Mein Kampf." Mein Kampf, was sub-titled Four-and-Half
Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity, and Cowardice. The Nazi
dictator wrote much of Mein Kampf (My Struggle) while in prison in
1923 and 1924 for attempting to overthrow the German government. The
work became the bible of the Nazi Party and a blueprint for the
(TMC, 1994, p.1923)(AP, 11/8/97)(HN,
1923 Nov 9, Dorothy Dandridge,
actress, singer and dancer (Porgy and Bess), was born in Cleveland,
1923 Nov 9, James Schuyler,
poet, novelist and playwright, was born.
1923 Nov 11, Eternal flame was
lit for the tomb of unknown solder at the Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
1923 Nov 12, Adolf Hitler was
arrested for his Nov 8 attempted German coup.
(HN, 11/12/98)(MC, 11/12/01)
1923 Nov 15, Germany introduced
the gold mark. Its issuance was severely restricted by the new
Rentenbank. This allowed paper money to settle down to a rate of 4.2
trillion to the dollar by the end of the year.
(Econ, 9/14/13, p.91)
1923 Nov 18, Alan Shepard, the
first American astronaut in space, was born in East Derry, NH.
(HN, 11/18/98)(MC, 11/18/01)
1923 Nov 19, Oklahoma Governor
Walton was ousted by state senate for anti-Ku Klux Klan measures.
1923 Nov 20, Nadine Gordimer,
Nobel Prize-winning South African novelist, was born.
1923 Nov 20, Garrett Morgan
invented and patented a traffic signal.
1923 Nov 22, Pres. Coolidge
pardoned WW I German spy Lothar Witzke, who was sentenced to death.
1923 Nov 23, German army
commander Gen. Von Seeckt banned the NSDAP & KPD.
1923 Nov 25, Transatlantic
broadcasting from England to America for the first time.
1923 Nov 29, International
commission headed by American banker Charles Dawes was set up to
investigate the German economy.
1923 Dec 2, Maria M. Callas
(d.1977), opera singer (Norma, Traviata, Medea, Lucia, Tosca), was
born in NYC.
1923 Dec 4, Cecil B. DeMille's
1st version of "Ten Commandments" premiered.
1923 Dec 6, A presidential
address was broadcast on radio for the first time as President
Coolidge spoke to a joint session of Congress.
1923 Dec 13, Phillip Anderson,
physicist, was born.
1923 Dec 21, Nepal changed from
British protectorate to independent nation.
1923 Dec 27, Alexandre-Gustave
Eiffel (b.1832), engineer (Eiffel Tower, Statue of Liberty), died in
1923 Dec 28, George Bernard
Shaw's "St. Joan," premiered in NYC.
1923 Dec 31, BBC began using
the Big Ben chime ID.
1923 Dec 31, The Sahara was
crossed by an automobile for the first time.
1923 Peter Joachim Frohlich was
born in Germany. He emigrated to the US in 1941 under the name Peter
Jack Gay. He later published "The Enlightenment: An Interpretation"
in 2 volumes (1966-1969) and the 5-volume "The Bourgeois Experience:
Victoria to Freud." In 1998 he published the memoir "My German
Question: Growing Up in Nazi Berlin."
(SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.4)
1923 Poet James Shuyler was
born in Chicago. In 1998 David Lehman published "The Last
Avant-Garde: The Making of the New York School of Poets."
(WSJ, 9/18/98, p.W8)
1923 Dr. Barnes set up an
exhibit of his collection of paintings in Philadelphia to introduce
the foundation that would house the art and promulgate his theories
of art. Critics ridiculed the paintings and Barnes closed the
foundation to everyone. It was not opened again until 1960. [see
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.84)
1923 Wassily Kandinsky
(d.1944), Russian artist credited with the invention of abstract
art, created his watercolor "Aquarelle Movementee." It sold in 1999
for $1.3 million.
(WSJ, 8/13/99, p.W10)
1923 Henri Matisse painted "The
Hindu Pose," where a topless woman posed cross-legged in the
artist’s Cote d’Azur apartment. The painting sold for $14.8 mil on
(WSJ, 5/9/95, p.B-6)
1923 Picasso painted the
portrait "Olga Picasso," the Russian ballerina, who was his first
(WSJ, 5/18/01, p.W8)
1923 Max Ernst created his
Surrealist work "Men Shall Know Nothing of This," a floating
conjunction of human nether parts.
(WSJ, 2/25/02, p.A17)
1923 Florine Stettheimer
painted "Portrait of Myself."
(WSJ, 7/18/95, p.A-12)
1923 Picasso painted "Olga," a
stunning pastel of his wife in a nice blue dress.
(WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-13)
1923 Henry Ossawa Tanner,
African-American artist, painted "Two Disciples at the Tomb."
(WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A20)
1923 Photographers Edward
Weston (1886-1958) and Tina Modotti (1896-1942) set up shop in
(WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A16)
1923 Elmer Rice wrote his play
"The Adding Machine."
(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)
1923 Jorge Luis Borges
(1899-1986), Argentine poet, published his first book of verse:
"Fervor de Buenos Aires."
(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.3)
1923 Robert Frost’s “New
Hampshire," a Pulitzer Prize-winning volume of poems, included
several of his most well-known poems: "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy
Evening" and “Census Taker."
1923 Marianne Moore (b.1887),
American poet, wrote the poem "Marriage." In 1998 her the book: "The
Selected letters of Marianne Moore" was edited by Bonnie Costello,
Celeste Goodridge and Cristanne Miller.
(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)
1923 Ezra Pound wrote his poem:
"The pure products of America go crazy."
(SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.6)
1923 W.B. Yeats wrote his poem
"Leda and the Swan."
(SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)
1923 Le Corbusier (1887-1965),
Swiss-French architect and writer, authored “Vers une architecture"
(Towards an Architecture) (1923).
1923 J.B.S. Haldane wrote
"Daedalus, or Science and the Future."
(NH, 4/97, p.6)
1923 Rudyard Kipling authored
“The Irish Guards in the Great War," a history of the unit that his
son fought and died for in WW I.
(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)
1923 Edwin Lefevre authored
"Reminiscences of a Stock Operator." It was fictional account based
on interviews with real-life trader Jesse Livermore.
(USAT, 7/16/03, p.2B)
1923 Felix Salten (1869-1945) a
Viennese Jew, wrote his antifascist allegory "Bambi, A Life in the
Woods." It was translated into English by Whittaker Chambers (28)
and published by Simon & Schuster in 1928. In 1942 it was
made into an animated Disney.
1923 P.G. Wodehouse (1881-1975)
authored "Leave It to Psmith."
(NW, 8/20/01, p.56)
1923 Charlotte Siepmann (d.1999
at 88) and C.K. Ogden authored "Meaning of Meaning," an early
formulation of the linguistic system that became known as Basic
(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A20)
1923 Frank Willard (1958)
created the Moon Mullins comic strip for the Chicago Tribune. The
strip continued with other artists following Willard’s death until
(SFC, 9/19/07, p.G6)
1923 Walt Disney began
producing his “Alice" comedies and continued with the series to
1927. Virginia Davis (1919-2009), hired at age four, appeared in 13
of the “Alice" films. These included “Alice’s Day at Sea," “Alice
the Peacemaker," and “Alice’s Wild West Show." Disney and his
Laugh-O-Gram company were based in Kansas City, Ms., when the series
(SFC, 8/19/09, p.D5)
1923 Louis Armstrong recorded
with the King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band: "King Oliver and His Creole
(WSJ, 1/3/95, p. 8)(SFC, 7/4/97, p.D9)
1923 Bessie Smith recorded her
big hit "Downhearted Blues."
(SFEC, 3/15/98, DB p.39)
1923 George Antheil used
synchronized piano rolls for his "Ballet Mechanique." The piece was
scored for 10 pianos and an airplane propeller. He later used the
principle of spreading a signal over many frequencies in a 1942
patent that later became the basis for spread spectrum technology
used in modern wireless communications.
(WSJ, 2/21/97, p.B15B)(WSJ, 4/23/98, p.A16)
1923 Alban Berg composed his
opera "Wozzeck." [see 1926 premiere] It was based on a 1836 play by
Georg Buchner and featured the rhythmic speechsong called
Sprechstimme. Berg's opera was composed in 1925.
(WSJ, 2/19/97, p.A15)(SFC, 11/4/99, p.B1)
1923 Manuel de Falla composed
"Master Peter’s Puppet Show," (El Retablo de Maese Pedro). It was
intended as a puppet theater forged with the poet, Federico Garcia
(SFC, 8/25/97, p.E1)
1923 Darius Milhaud premiered
"La Creation du Monde" (the Creation of the World) with 19 members
of the Orchestre du Theatre du Champs-Elyssees. Fernand Leger
designed the décor and costumes. The jazz age ballet was created by
Milhaud, Blaise Cendrars and Jean Borlin.
(SFEM, 6/9/96, p.32)(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T8)(Econ,
1923 The Freer Gallery in
Washington was established as the nation’s national museum of Asian
art. The center of the collection was amassed by Charles Lang Freer
(1854-1919), a self-made railroad magnate living in Detroit.
(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W10)(WSJ,
1923 The Clements Library
opened in Ann Arbor. Its first director was Randolph G. Adams. The
library was designed by Albert Kahn and was paid for by William L.
Clements to house his extensive book collection. The Univ. of Mich.
agreed to pay for its maintenance, staff salaries and fund
acquisitions. It acquired about this time the collection of Henry
Vignaud, US Consul in Paris, who had amassed a 50,000 piece
collection of historic explorations and discoveries.
(MT, Sum. ‘98, p.8)
1923 The first suburban
shopping center opened, the Country Club Plaza, in Kansas City, Mo.
It was built in the architectural style of Seville, Spain.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 11/13/96, p.B1)
1923 Economics Laboratory
(later Ecolab) was founded in St. Paul, Minnesota, by Merrit Osborn,
a former traveling salesman. Its first product was Absorbit, an
instant carpet cleaner. In 2012 its revenues reached $12 billion.
(Econ, 10/5/13, p.70)
1923 Francis Meynell, a British
book designer and publisher, founded Nonsuch Press with his wife
Vera, and friend David Garnett. The following year they brought out
“The Week-End Book," a handbook for the rural explorer. The last
edition was published in 1955.
(WSJ, 6/3/06, p.P8)
1923 The Chocolate
Manufacturers Association was founded.
(WSJ, 11/25/03, p.B10)
1923 Irving Fisher, economist,
established the Number Institute, a company that would develop and
sell index numbers for measuring price levels and other economic
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)
1923 Amelia Earhart became the
16th woman to be issue a pilot’s license by the Federation
(ON, 12/07, p.8)
1923 Harry MacElhone (d.1958)
bought a bar in Paris at 5 rue Dannou behind the opera and named it
Harry’s New York Bar. It later became a hangout for the "Lost
Generation." His son, Andrew, (1923-1996) took over 1958. Andrew’s
son Duncan (d.1998 at 44) took over in 1989. Cocktails such as the
French 75 (named after a WW I artillery piece), the Bloody Mary and
the Side Car were invented there.
(SFC, 9/20/96, p.A22)(SFC, 3/28/98, p.B12)
1923 The Converse shoe company,
founded in 1908, renamed its All-Stars basketball shoe to Chuck
Taylor All-Star. In 2003 the company was sold to Nike.
(WSJ, 7/10/03, p.A6)(SFC, 12/10/04, p.D1)
1923 William Butler Yeats,
Irish poet, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T6)
1923 Yankee stadium was built
in the Bronx of NYC.
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-8)
1923 The NY Yankees defeated
the New York Giants in the World Series 4 games to 2.
(SFC, 10/16/99, p.C1)
1923 The Lausanne Treaty
provided for the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey,
and Crete was populated only by Greeks.
(WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)
1923 Silent Cal Coolidge took
over and the country pursued its prosperous, merry ways: rocking to
the Charleston, playing mah-jongg, reading Mencken, staggering
through dance marathons, making bathtub gin, getting tangled in a
new-fangled thing called Cellophane.
(TMC, 1994, p.1923)
1923 The US Supreme Court ruled
that the Constitution protects the right to "bring up children."
(SFEC, 7/27/97, Z1 p.6)
1923 The 682-foot Shenandoah
was built by the U.S. Navy. Two years later the dirigible broke
apart in mid-air, killing 14 persons aboard. The Los Angeles was
built for the Navy in Germany and delivered in 1924. The Akron was
commissioned in 1931 and was, at the time, the world’s largest
airship at 785 feet. During a thunderstorm in 1933, the Akron was
destroyed, killing 73 of the 77 persons aboard.
1923 US Pres. Warren Harding
authorized a 22-million-acre National Petroleum Reserve as an
emergency oil supply for the US Navy near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. In
2015 ConocoPhillips became the first company y to draw from the
(Econ, 12/11/04, p.28)(SFC, 3/4/16, p.A9)
1923 Special Indian
Commissioner H.J. Hagerman organized the first Navajo Tribal Council
which gave him power to act for them in auctioning oil leases. The
tribal government was established following the discovery of oil on
(SFEC, 5/4/97, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 11/14/11, p.D4)
1923 In Arkansas a man was
taken from his coffin and put back into the electric chair after he
was found still to be breathing.
(Econ, 4/22/17, p.23)
1923 California passed
legislation allowing local governments to remove bodies from areas
where new burials had been banned.
(SFC, 4/14/18, p.C1)
1923 California prohibited gun
shops from displaying handguns or handgun ads in shop windows. In
2018 a federal judge ruled that the law violates freedom of speech.
(SFC, 9/13/18, p.D6)
1923 The city of Berkeley Ca.,
under town marshal Gus Vollmer, introduced the use of lie-detector
(SFC, 4/29/08, p.A1)
1923 Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle,
film comedian, was acquitted after 3 trials of the 1921 murder of
actress Virginia Rappe.
(SFC, 5/6/03, p.A17)
1922 Earle C. Anthony, a Los
Angeles Packard dealer, commissioned from France the 1st neon signs
in the US for his dealership.
(SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T6)
1923 Porter Blanchard
(1886-1973), a Massachusetts silversmith, moved to Burbank, Ca. He
soon opened a studio featuring silver and pewter work that became
part of the California Arts and Crafts movement.
(SFC, 5/9/07, p.G7)
1923 In San Francisco Julius
Roz (c.1943), an Italian immigrant, began work on his Telegraph Hill
turreted restaurant, Julius’ Castle. Food service began in 1924. It
was designed by Louis Mastropasqua. In 1980 the SF Planning
commission bestowed landmark status on the structure. The hillside
restaurant at 302 Greenwich was closed in 2007. In 2017 the SF
Planning Commission voted to allow the restaurant to reopen.
3/28/01, p.5)(SFC, 5/13/05, p.F2)(SFC, 7/8/17, p.C1)
1923 The San Francisco Mining
Exchange at 350 Bush St., designed by Timothy Pflueger, was
(SFC, 8/25/18, p.C1)
1923 The Fitzhugh building was
built on the corner of Geary and Powell at Union Square. The site
later was taken by Saks Fifth Ave.
(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)
1923 The palazzo-style Shriners
Hospital for Children was opened in the Sunset as a combined meeting
hall and care facility for disabled children. The 5-acre site on
19th Ave. had an annex attached in 1969. In 1997 it planned to leave
for new quarters in Sacramento. Developers planned to demolish it
for 152 housing units. [1st source said 1924]
(SFC, 2/6/97, p.A17)(SFC, 5/20/97, p.A12)(SFC,
1923 John W. Stacey founded
Stacey’s Bookstore in the Flood Building at Market and Powell. In
the 1950s the store moved to 851 Market St. On Jan 6, 2009, the
store announced it would close in March, 2009, due to competition
and economic conditions.
(SFC, 1/7/09, p.B1)
1923 In San Francisco the Union
Espanola, a Spanish cultural center, was founded as a non-profit
corporation. For decades it was located on Broadway, but in 1985
moved to Alemany Boulevard.
(SSFC, 8/5/12, p.G3)
1923 The O’Shaughnessy Dam on
the Tuolumne River was completed. The first Hetch Hetchy water began
flowing to the Bay Area in 1934.
(Ind, 3/11/00, p.5A)(SFC, 9/15/02, p.A20)
1923 Florida took delivery of
its first and only electric chair to execute convicts.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A26)
1923 Barney Pressman pawned his
wife's wedding ring in NYC to lease a Seventh Ave. store selling
discounted men's suits. In 1993 Barney's opened a $270 million
Madison Ave. showcase store.
(WSJ, 2/11/04, p.B1)
1923 In South Dakota Gov.
William McMaster bought cut rate gas from a Chicago distributor and
began selling it at a state depot for 16 cents a gallon. Standard
Oil was charging 26.6 cents (equal to about $3.16 in 2008), which he
called “highway robbery." Standard oil cut its price to 16.6 cents
and other states began to demand the same price. McMaster and
Standard eventually negotiated a price of 20 cents a gallon.
(WSJ, 3/31/08, p.B1)
1923 Doane Robinson, the aging
superintendent of the South Dakota State Historical Society,
proposed a massive mountain memorial carved from stone so large it
would put South Dakota on the map.
1923 The American Cotton Oil
Company sold the cotton-seed oil business and formed Gold Dust
Corp., a soap maker.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1923 Caleb Bradham sold the
Pepsi-Cola trademark and business for $35,000. He was forced into
bankruptcy after sugar prices plummeted from 22 ½ cents a pound to 3
(SFC, 2/18/98, p.B2)
1923 Alfred P. Sloan Jr.
(1875-1966), a ball-bearing magnate, became president of a troubled
GM and brought in corporate management and tight financial controls.
He introduced the ideas of model changes and offering a car "for
every purse and purpose."
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 1/11/99,
p.R42)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)
1923 The Warner Brothers,
Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack, incorporated and produced their film
"The Gold Diggers."
(SFC, 7/8/98, p.D4)
1923 Wells Fargo merged with
Union Trust Company and stayed solvent through the depression.
(SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)
1923 The Alaska Railroad was
completed and opened Denali National Park to the public.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.T6)
1923 Benz & Cie introduced
a diesel truck with a 50-horsepower engine.
(WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)
1923 The Army proved a point
when Lieutenants Kelly and Macready flew the first non-stop
continental flight from New York to San Diego.
1923 Edwin Hubble used the
100-inch telescope at Mt. Wilson to establish that the Milky Way is
only one of many galaxies in the universe. He was able to resolve
individual stars of the Andromeda galaxy.
(JST-TMC,1983, p.8)(NH, 11/96, p.78)
1923 The Milky Way chocolate
candy bar was invented.
(Econ, 5/30/15, p.66)
1923 Arthur Compton, American
physicist, discovered the Compton effect where a high energy quantum
will eject an electron from an atom and rebound with less energy (a
1923 Dutch physicist Dirk
Coster (1889-1950) and Hungarian chemist George Charles de Hevesy
(1889-1966) found element 72, Hafnium. It was identified in zircon
(a zirconium ore) from Norway, by means of X-ray spectroscopic
analysis. It was named in honor of the city in which the discovery
was made, from the Latin name "Hafnia" meaning
1923 Dr. Vladimir Zworykin
invented the iconoscope, a necessary component of television.
(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C4)
1923 Diphtheria was reported to
have been transmitted by an accidental needle stick.
(SFC, 4/13/98, p.A6)
1923 Commercial mining of
vermiculite, a mineral used for insulation and the leavening of
garden soil, began in Libby, Montana.
(SFC, 5/9/09, p.A6)
1923 A group of scientists
successfully petitioned the governor of the Panama Canal Zone to set
aside Barro Colorado Island for scientific research. It became one
of the first protected tropical forests in the world. In 1946 The
Smithsonian was designated as its manager.
(Smith., 5/95, p.10)
1923 Andre Malraux, while doing
archeological research in Cambodia, was arrested for dislodging 7
heads from a temple with a handsaw, a chisel and crowbar.
(WSJ, 7/3/97, p.A9)
1923 J. Harlen Bretz, American
geologist, discovered that the strange geology the Scablands in
Eastern Washington state were a result of huge floods. He was unable
to identify the source of the flooding. "Fully 3,000 sq. miles of
the Columbia Plateau were swept by a glacial flood."
(Smith., 4/1995, p.51-52)
1923 Violence exploded in a
north Florida black community of 120 people as a white mob tried to
string up a black man for information on an alleged rape. At least 6
black and 2 white died and almost every building was burned. Nine
survivors won a $2 million settlement in 1995.
(SFC, 9/24/97, p.C2)
1923 Amanullah Khan changed his
title from Amir to Padshah (King).
1923 Albania's Sunni Muslims
broke ties with Constantinople and pledged primary allegiance to
(www, Albania, 1998)
1923 French courtesan Maggie
Meller (aka Marguerite Alibert) was acquitted in a high profile
trial at London's Old Bailey despite the evidence stacked against
her. She had blackmailed the Prince of Wales, later Edward VIII, to
avoid the gallows after murdering Egyptian Prince Fahmy Bey, her
playboy husband. Six years before her trial, Meller had an affair
with the British prince. In 1991 Andrew Rose authored "Scandal at
the Savoy." In 2013 Rose authored his follow-up "The Prince, The
Princess, and The Perfect Murder."
1923 Britain’s King George V
chose Stanley Baldwin (1867-1947) for the premiership instead of
6/11/03, p.D10)(ON, 11/05, p.2)
1923 A Burma State Secrets Act,
pertaining to trespassing in a prohibited area with prejudicial
purpose, was enacted as Burma (later Myanmar) was a British colony.
1923 Pablo Neruda was appointed
as Chile’s consul to Burma.
(SFC, 7/15/04, p.E11)
1923 In Shanghai the Hong Kong
and Shanghai Banking Corp., the 2nd largest banking institution in
the world, erected a new office building.
(SFCM, 3/20/05, p.25)
1923 In Egypt Arab feminists
returned from a women’s conference in Rome and dumped their head
coverings at the Cairo train station. A whole generation was
inspired to follow suit.
(WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A1)
1923 Coco Chanel launched
Chanel No. 5 perfume in Paris.
(WSJ, 10/13/03, p.B1)
1923 Francois Flameng (b.1856),
French painter, died. He painted imagined scenes from the domestic
life of Napoleon Bonaparte.
(MT, Fall/03, p.13)
1923 In Germany the Berlin
Tempelhof Airport was opened. Its 3-storey brick terminal was
completed in 1929 and is considered the first modern airport
(Hem., 5/97, p.68)
1923 German researchers Franz
Fischer and Hans Tropsch, working at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute,
developed a process for converting coal to gas, which was then used
to make synthetic fuels.
1922 Carl Wieselsberger, German
physicist, described a method of suspending models on an airstream,
i.e. the ground effect.
(Econ, 9/8/07, TQ
1923 Iraq's Department of
Antiquities was established along with Baghdad’s Iraq Museum.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.D3)(NH, 6/03, p.44)
1923 Vladimir Jabotinsky,
founder of the Zionist movement, wrote that Zionists could never
reach a voluntary agreement with Arabs on sharing land. He said
Arabs would yield to Jews “when there is no longer any hope of
getting rid of us, because they can make no breach in the iron
(Econ 5/20/17, SR p.11)
1923 Japan’s Norinchukin Bank
was set up as a quasi-public institution to manage the deposits of
millions of farmers, fisherman and forest workers. By 2006 it was
Japan’s 4th largest commercial bank with assets of $525 billion.
(Econ, 2/18/06, p.72)
1923 Roy Chapman Andrews made
his Gobi Desert expedition and discovered the Ukhaa Tolgod basin of
Mongolia with fossils from the late Cretaceous, i.e. 80 Million ago.
(THM, 4/27/97, p.L4)
1923 Tamara Geva (d.1991),
Russian ballet dancer, married George Balanchine, ballet
choreographer. The couple traveled to East Prussia in 1924 with the
Soviet State Dancers and then defected to Paris where they joined
Sergei Diaghilev and the Ballet Russes.
(SFC,12/13/97, p.A23)(Econ, 4/12/08, p.94)
1923 In Saudi Arabia King Fahd
was born in Riyadh.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)
1923 A new City Hall was built
in Stockholm, Sweden, in an amazing mix of bricks and gilt mosaic.
(SSFC, 10/18/09, p.M4)
1923 An int'l. border agreement
with Syria was reached.
(SFEC, 9/5/99, p.A12)
1923 In Thailand the Bangkok
Snake Farm was established to help Thais co-exist with native
poisonous snakes. Venom was harvested to produce antivenin. It is
the 2nd oldest such farm in the world. An older one was in Brazil.
(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)
1923 In Turkey Mustafa Kemal
Ataturk formed the pro-secular Republican People’s Party (CHP).
(Econ, 5/3/08, p.61)
1923 Homosexuality was made
legal in Turkey. It was also legalized in the Ottoman Empire from
the mid-nineteenth century.
1923-1924 Frances and Robert Flaherty, who made
the documentary "Nanook of the North," settled in Samoa to make the
silent-film classic "Moana: A Romance of the Golden Age."
(WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)
1923-1925 Mina Loy wrote her autobiographical
work: "Anglo-Mongrels and the Rose."
(SFEC, 12/22/96, BR p.6)
1923-1925 George Antheil composed his "Jazz
(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)
1923-1928 Gilbert Murray (b.1866), Australian born
scholar served as the chairman of the League of Nations.
1923-1929 Calvin Coolidge became the 30th
President of the US. He was elected Vice-President under Harding in
1921, and assumed the presidency upon Harding’s sudden death.
(A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo, 153)
1923-1939 The Fraunfelter China Co. operated in
Zanesville, Ohio, during most of this period. Charles Fraunfelter
opened the business when he purchased Ohio Pottery, where he had
worked since 1915.
(SFC, 12/21/05, p.G6)
1923-1963 Arthur "Pop" Harris worked the numbers
to compile the Dow Jones averages every hour on the hour over this
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-26)