Timeline 1931

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1931     Jan 3, Hundreds of farmers stormed a small town in depression-plagued Arkansas demanding food.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1931        Jan 5, Alvin Ailey, choreographer (American Dance Theater), was born.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1931        Jan 6, Edgar Laurence Doctorow (E.L. Doctorow), novelist (World's Fair, Ragtime), was born in NYC.
    (www.albany.edu/writers-inst/doctorow.html)

1931        Jan 8, US Sen. Tallant Tubbs of SF introduced a joint resolution urging Congress to repeal the 18th amendment.
    (SFC, 1/6/06, p.F6)

1931        Jan 17, James Earl Jones, actor (Darth Vader, Exorcist II, Soul Man), was born in Miss.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1931        Jan 19, The Wickersham Committee issued a report asking for revisions in the dry law, but no repeal.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1931        Jan 20, Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946) began serving a 2nd term as the 28th governor of Pennsylvania and continued to 1935. His first term was from 1923-1927. Following the of Prohibition in 1933, Pinchot kept restrictions on the sale of alcohol.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.34)

1931        Jan 24, The League of Nations rebuked Poland for the mistreatment of a German minority in Upper Silesia.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1931        Jan 27, Mordecai Richler (d.2001), Montreal author, (Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz), was born.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1931        Jan 29, Winston Churchill resigned as Stanley Baldwin's aide.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1931        Jan 30, Gene Hackman, actor (Bonnie & Clyde, Under Fire, Superman), was born in Calif.
    (MC, 1/30/02)
1931        Jan 30, The United States awarded civil government to the Virgin Islands.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1931        Jan 31, Leonarde Keeler (1904-1949) was awarded a patent for his Keeler Polygraph, a device for lie detection. In 2007 Ken Alder authored “The Lie Detectors: The History of an American Obsession."
    (WSJ, 3/24/07, p.P13)(www.kenalder.com/liedetectors/index.htm)

1931        Feb 1, Boris Yeltsin (d.2007), prime minister of Russia (1991-1992) and the first president of the Republic of Russia (1991-1999), was born in the Ural Mts. of the USSR.
    (SFC, 1/23/96, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boris_Yeltsin)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.98)

1931        Feb 4, Isabel Peron, [Maria Martinez], dancer, president of Argentina, was born.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1931        Feb 6, Rip Torn, actor (Coma, Summer Rental, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof), was born in Tx.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1931        Feb 7, US opera, "Peter Ibbetson," by Deems Taylor premiered at Met Opera NYC.
    (MC, 2/7/02)
1931        Feb 7, Amelia Earhart (33), aviatrix, married George Palmer Putnam (45), divorced heir to a publishing empire in Noank, Conn.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.31)(HN, 2/7/99)

1931        Feb 8, James Dean, stage and film actor who personified "cool" for young people in the 1950s, was born in Marion, In. His films were Rebel Without a Cause, East of Eden and Giant.
    (HN, 2/8/99)(MC, 2/8/02)

1931        Feb 10, New Delhi became the capital of India. [see Mar 26]
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1931        Feb 11, Charles Algernon Parsons (76), British inventor (steam turbine), died.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1931        Feb 12, Japan’s first television broadcast was a baseball game.
    (HN, 2/12/97)

1931        Feb 14, Vic Morrow, actor (Combat, Roots, Twilight Zone the Movie), was born in Bronx, NY.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1931        Feb 15, [Patricia] Claire Bloom, actress (Charly, Look Back in Anger), was born in London.
    (MC, 2/15/02)
1931        Feb 15, The 1st Dracula movie released.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1931        Feb 18, Toni Morrison, Nobel laureate and Pulitzer Prize-winning author (The Bluest Eye, Beloved), was born.
    (AP, 2/18/01)

1931        Feb 20, Congress allowed California to build the Oakland Bay Bridge.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1931        Feb 21, Alka Seltzer was introduced. [see Dec 31]
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1931        Feb 23, Nellie Melba (Helen Mitchell), Australian soprano, died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1931        Feb 26, Otto Wallach (83), German chemist (Nobel 1910), died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1931        Feb 28, Oswald Mosley founded his New Party.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1931        Mar 2, Tom Wolfe, journalist, author (Right Stuff), was born in Richmond, VA.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1931        Mar 2, Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet Secretary-General (1985-91), was born. He was responsible for restructuring the Soviet economy (perestroika) and openness and information (glasnost). Mikhail Gorbachev rose through the ranks of the Communist Party as an expert in agricultural affairs. Born to a peasant family, Gorbachev worked on a farm as a combine operator before going to Moscow State University in 1950. He joined the party in 1952 and, upon graduation with a law degree in 1955, he became a full-time party official. In 1967 he graduated from the Stavropol Agricultural Institute and was named to the party’s Central Committee in 1971. He was promoted to the party Secretariat in 1978, earning a reputation as an innovator as party secretary of agriculture.
    (HN, 3/2/99)(HNQ, 6/17/99)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.A8)

1931        Mar 3, Cab Calloway and his Orchestra recorded "Minnie the Moocher" on Brunswick Records. It was the first recording of the famous bandleader’s theme song. The song was featured prominently in the motion picture, "The Blues Brothers" (1980), starring John Belushi and Dan Ackroyd.
    (HC, Internet, 3/3/98)
1931        Mar 3, Pres. Hoover signed a bill making "The Star-Spangled Banner", written by Francis Scott Key, the national anthem of the United States: act of Congress (46 Stat.L. 1508). The melody was originally an English drinking song, "To Anacreon in Heaven."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.26)(WSJ, 9/13/95, p.B-1)(AP, 3/3/98)(HC, Internet, 3/3/98)(HNQ, 2/16/02)

1931        Mar 5, In Bolivia President Daniel Salamanca Urey (1869-1935) became president.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Salamanca)
1931        Mar 5, Gandhi and British viceroy Lord Irwin signed a pact.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1931        Mar 10, British Labour party removed fascist Sir Oswald Mosley.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1931        Mar 11, Rupert Murdoch, media baron, was born in Melbourne, Australia.
    (WSJ, 6/5/07, p.A20)(www.filmreference.com/film/22/Rupert-Murdoch.html)
1931        Mar 11, The USSR banned the sale or importation of Bibles.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1931        Mar 13, Rosalind Elias, mezzo-soprano, was born in Lowell, Mass.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1931        Mar 17, Stalin threw Krupskaja Lenin out of the Central Committee.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1931        Mar 18, Schick Inc. marketed the first electric razor.
    (AP, 3/18/97)

1931        Mar 19, Nevada legalized gambling a 2nd time to raise tax revenues and stabilize the state’s economy. Gov. Fred B. Balzar signed a measure legalizing casino gambling. The Northern Club on 15 E. Fremont was soon issued the 1st gaming license.
    (HN, 3/19/98)(SFEC, 5/10/98, DB p.64)(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)(AP, 3/19/07)

1931        Mar 25, In Alabama 9 young black men, arrested at Paint Rock after riding a freight train, were taken to Scottsboro. Victoria Price (21) and Ruby Bates (17), who had worked as prostitutes in Huntsville, were also found on the train dressed as boys. The 9 men were soon charged with raping the 2 white woman, while riding on the freight train.
    (WSJ, 6/20/07, p.A17)(www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/scottsboro/SB_chron.html)
1931        Mar 25, Ida Wells-Barnett (b.1862), black journalist, died. In 1893 she investigated the Kentucky lynching of a black man accused of murdering 2 white girls. In 2008 Paula J. Giddings authored “Ida: A Sword among Lions."
    (WSJ, 3/8/08, p.W8)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWwells.htm)
1931        Mar 25, Fifty people were killed in riots that broke out in India. Gandhi was one of many people assaulted.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1931        Mar 26, Leonard Nimoy, actor (Spock-Star Trek, Mission Impossible), was born in Boston, MA.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1931        Mar 26, Iraq and Trans-Jordan (Transjordan) signed a peace treaty.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1931        Mar 26, New Delhi replaced Calcutta as capitol of British-India. [see Feb 10]
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1931        Mar 27, David Janssen (d.1980), later TV star ("Fugitive," "Harry O"), was born as  (David Harold Meyer) in Naponee, Nebraska.
    (Internet)
1931        Mar 27, Charlie Chaplin received France's distinguished Legion of Honor.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1931        Mar 28, Byron Bancroft Johnson (b.1864), founder of the American League Baseball organization, died. In 1937 he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.
    (ON, 6/09, p.12)

1931        Mar 30, In Scottsboro, Ala., 9 young black men were indicted for rape. By the end of April all were tried, convicted and sentenced to death, except for one age 13, who was sentenced to life in prison. The US Supreme Court later overturned the convictions, but they were convicted at a 2nd trial, even though one of the accused said no rape had occurred. Five convictions were overturned in 1937 after one alleged victim recanted her story. Clarence Norris received a pardon before his death in 1976. In 2013 Alabama’s parole board approved posthumous pardons for the “Scottsboro Boys" during a hearing for three black men whose convictions were never overturned.
    (WSJ, 6/20/07, p.A17)(SFC, 11/22/13, p.A15)

1931        Mar 31, Knute Rockne (43), football player, coach, died in a plane crash.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1931        Mar, United Aircraft-Transport Corp. acquired National Air Transport. 3 months later it bought Varney Air Lines and incorporated as United Air Lines Inc.
    (WSJ, 12/6/02, p.B5)

1931        Apr 1, Rolf Hochhuth, German playwright (Deputy), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1931            Mar 18, Jackie Mitchell became the 2nd female in professional baseball as she signed with the Chattanooga Lookouts, a Tennessee Class AA minor league team. In 1898, Lizzie Arlington played one game, pitching for Reading (PA) against Allentown.
    (www.exploratorium.edu/baseball/mitchell.html)

1931            Apr 1,  Jackie Mitchell became the first female in professional baseball when she signed with the Chattanooga Baseball Club.
    (OTD)
1931        Apr 1, In NYC the Empire State Building opened a month ahead of schedule. A dirigible mast established the height at 1,250 feet above street level.
    (ON, 12/08, p.12)
1931                 Apr 1,  An Earthquake devastated Managua, Nicaragua, killing 2,000.
    (OTD)

1931        Apr 2, Virne "Jackie" Mitchell became the 2nd woman to play for an all-male pro baseball team. In an exhibition game against the New York Yankees, she struck out both Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in an exhibition game in Chattanooga, Tennessee.
    (HN, 4/2/01)(www.exploratorium.edu/baseball/mitchell.html)

1931        Apr 4, Andre Michelin, CEO (Michelin Tires), died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)
1931        Apr 4, George Whitefield Chadwick (76), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1931        Apr 6, Richard Alpert, later known as the spiritual leader Ram Dass, was born in Boston.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.5)
1931        Apr 6, 1st broadcast of "Little Orphan Annie" on NBC-radio.
    (MC, 4/6/02)
1931        Apr 6, 1st Scottsboro (Ala) trial began for 9 blacks accused of rape.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1931        Apr 7, Donald Barthelme (d.1989), US writer, was born in Philadelphia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Barthelme)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W8)
1931        Apr 7, Daniel Ellsberg, anti-war activist and the man who released the Pentagon Papers, was born.
    (HN, 4/7/97)

1931        Apr 12, Spanish voters rejected the monarchy.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1931        Apr 14, In Spain a Republic was declared. King Alfonso XIII of Spain was overthrown and went into exile, and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(HN, 4/14/98)(AP, 4/14/08)

1931        Apr 15, Florian Zabach, violinist (Hot Canary, Club), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1931        Apr 20, British House of Commons agreed to sports play on Sunday.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1931        Apr 22, Egypt signed a treaty of friendship with Iraq.
    (HN, 4/22/98)

1931        Apr 26, NBC Radio presented Lum and Abner for the first time. It came from the fictitious town of Pine Ridge and ran for 24 years. In 1936 Waters, Ark., changed its name to Pine Ridge.
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)
1931        Apr 26, New York Yankee Lou Gehrig hit a home run but was called out for passing a runner, the mistake ultimately cost him the home run crown.
    (HN, 4/26/98)

1931        Apr 27, Hawaii recorded a record 100 degrees in Pahala.
    (SFC, 4/27/09, p.D10)
1931        Apr 27, Igor Oistrach, Russian violinist, son of David Oistrach, was born.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1931        May 1, Singer Kate Smith began her long-running radio program on CBS.
    (AP, 5/1/97)
1931        May 1, New York City's 102-story Empire State Building was dedicated. A 3,000 man construction crew completed the building in one year and 45 days. It was designed by the firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon and financed by John J. Raskob, a former GM executive.
    (SFC, 2/24/96, p.A13)(AP, 5/1/97)(HT, 5/97, p.26)(AP, 5/1/08)

1931        May 3, Frank Hoyt Losey (59), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1931        May 6, Willie Mays, the 'Say hey ' kid who played baseball for the New York Giants, was born. He made a great outfield catch in the 1954 World Series.
    (HN, 5/6/99)

1931        May 7, Teresa Brewer (d.2007), singer, was born in Toledo, Ohio. She had a big hit with “Music, Music, Music" in 1950.
    (SFC, 10/19/07, p.A11)
1931        May 7, Gene [Rodman] Wolfe, US, sci-fi author (Soldier of Arete), was born.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1931        May 8, Franz Lehar's operetta,  "Land of Smiles," premiered in London.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1931        May 12, Eugene-Auguste Ysaye (72), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1931        May 13, Jim Jones (d.1978), leader of religious community in Jonestown, Guyana, was born in Crete, Ind. In 1978 he led 900 of his followers to mass suicide.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.312)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.A18)
1931        May 13, C. Jackson discovered asteroid #1194, Aletta.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)

1931        May 14, Denys Finch-Hatton, British adventurer and lover to writer Isak Dinesen (Karen Blixen), died when his plane crashed shortly after take-off from Kenya’s Voi airport. In 2007 Sara Wheeler authored “Too Close to the Sun: The Audacious Life and Times of Denys Finch Hatton."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denys_Finch_Hatton)(SFC, 5/14/07, p.M4)

1931        May 18, Japanese pilot Seiji Yoshihara crashed his plane in the Pacific Ocean while trying to be the first to cross the ocean nonstop. He was picked up seven hours later by a passing ship.
    (HN, 5/18/99)

1931        May 22, Canned rattlesnake meat 1st went on sale in Florida.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1931        May 25, John Gabriel, actor (Cat Gang, Fantasies), was born in Niagara Falls, NY.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1931        May 27, Auguste Piccard and Knipfer made the first flight into the stratosphere by balloon.
    (HN, 5/27/98)(SFEC, 3/21/99, p.A2)

1931        Jun 7, Lang Jeffries, actor (Skip-Rescue 8), was born in Ontario, Canada.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1931        Jun 9, Robert H. Goddard patented a rocket-fueled aircraft design.
    (HN 6/9/98)
1931        Jun 9, Britain’s HMS Poseidon submarine sank during exercises of the coast of China. It was raised by the Chinese in 1972. In 2012 Steven Schwankert authored “The Real Poseidon Adventure: China’s Secret Salvage of Britain’s Lost Submarine."
    (SFC, 8/4/12, p.A2)

1931        Jun 12, Al Capone and 68 of his henchmen were indicted for violating Prohibition laws. Capone was indicted on 5,000 counts of prohibition & perjury.
    (HN, 6/12/98)(MC, 6/12/02)

1931        Jun 13, Santiago Rusinol (b.1861), Spanish Catalan post-impressionist painter, author, and playwright., died.
    (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0750803/)

1931        Jun 17, British authorities in China arrested Indochinese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1931        Jun 18, Fernando Henrique Cardoso was born. He served 2 terms as president of Brazil (1994-2002)
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)

1931        Jun 19, The first commercial photoelectric cell was installed in West Haven Ct.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)

1931        Jun 20, Olympia Dukakis, actress (Moonstruck, Cemetery Club), was born in Lowell, Mass.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1931        Jun 21, Margaret Heckler, U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services in the Reagan administration, was born.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1931        Jun 23, Wiley Post and Harold Gatty flew in a single-engine plane, the Winnie Mae, from New York on a round-the-world flight and returned to New York on July 1 after 8 days, 15 hrs, and 51 min., a new world record.
    (AP, 6/23/97)(ON, 12/03, p.10)(NPub, 2002, p.12)

1931        Jun 24, The Soviet Union and Afghanistan signed a treaty of neutrality.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

1931        Jun 26, Colin Henry Wilson, British author (The Outsider) , was born.
    (HN, 6/26/01)

1931        Jul 1, Ice vending machines were introduced in LA.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1931        Jul 2, Robert Ito, actor (Sam-Quincy ME), was born in Vancouver, BC.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1931        Jul 4, James Joyce (22) married Nora Barnacle (20) in London. They legalized their 26-year common-law marriage at the Kensington Registry Office in London.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.69)

1931        Jul 6, Della Reese, singer, actress (Della Reese Show, Royal Family), was born in Detroit.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1931        Jul 10, Alice Munro, Canadian writer (Open Secrets, Friend of my Youth), was born.
    (HN, 7/10/01)

1931        Jul 11, Tab Hunter, actor, was born in NYC, the son of Charles Kelm and Gertrude Gelien. In 2005 he authored “Tab Hunter Confidential," co-written with Eddie Muller.
    (www.filmbug.com/db/279434)(SFC, 11/7/05, p.C3)

1931        Jul 13, A major German financial institution, Danabank, failed, leading to the closing of all banks in Germany until August 5. By the end of the 1931, approximately six million Germans are out of work.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1931        Jul 20, The trial of Constance May Flood Gavin, an alleged illegitimate daughter, began in San Mateo, Ca., for a daughter’s share in James L. Flood estate. Before closing arguments Judge George Buck ordered a directed verdict in favor of the Flood family. 10 jurors refused to sign the verdict. Buck lost elections the following year to Maxwell McNutt, the lawyer for Constance. Gavin later received a $1.2 million out-of-court settlement.
    (SMMB)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.A28)

1931        Jul 27, Grasshoppers in Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota destroyed thousands of acres of crops.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1931        Jul 28, Congress made "The Star-Spangled Banner" our 2nd national anthem.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1931        Jul 28, Clyde Panghorn and Hugh Herndon took off from Roosevelt Field, NY, in an attempt to set a round-the world speed record. They got delayed in Siberia and changed their plan to pursue a record non-stop flight from Japan to the US. Herndon's mother, an heiress of Standard Oil Company money, financed most of the trip.
    (ON, 1/03, p.10)
1931        Jul 28, Hubert Wilkins, Australian explorer, set out from England for Norway aboard the submarine Nautilus. The ship was the former US WW I vessel O-12. Wilkins planned to reach the North Pole but failed. [see Aug 28]
    (ON, 1/02, p.8)

1931        Jul-Nov, The Huang He River (Huang Ho, Yellow River) in China flooded more than 40,000 sq. miles and more than a million people were killed.
    (HFA, '96, p.71)(http://socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/geography/huangheriver.htm)

1931        Aug 1, Tom Wilson (cartoonist of Ziggy), was born.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1931        Aug 2, Spanish Catalonia agreed by over 99% for autonomous status.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1931        Aug 3, Alex Cord, actor (Brotherhood, Fire, Street Asylum), was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1931        Aug 7, Leon Bismarck "Bix" Beiderbecke (29), jazz cornetist (In Mist), died. In 1974 Richard M. Sudhalter authored "Bix: Man and Legend."
    (WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W12)(MC, 8/7/02)

1931        Aug 9, In Germany two Berlin police officers were shot and killed during a Communist demonstration. In 1993 Erich Mielke (d.2000 at 92), former head of the East German Stasi, was convicted for participating in the shooting.
    (SFC, 5/26/00, p.D3)

1931        Aug 15, Roy Wilkins joined NAACP as asst. secretary.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1931        Aug 20, Donald King, American promoter of boxing, was born.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1931        Aug 21, Nancy Hadley, actress (Love That Jill, Joey Bishop Show), was born in LA, Calif.
    (SC, 8/21/02)
1931        Aug 21, Babe Ruth hit his 600th HR as the Yanks beat Browns 11-7.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1931        Aug 23, Hamilton O. Smith, molecular biologist, was born in NYC. He is credited with helping ‘open the door’ on genetic engineering.
    (HN, 8/23/00)( http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/timeline/1970_Smith.shtml)

1931        Aug 25, Regis Philbin, later TV host (Who Wants to be a Millionaire), was born in NYC.
    (SSFC, 12/31/06, Par p.22)

1931        Aug 28, John Shirley-Quirk, baritone (Death in Venice), was born in Liverpool, England.
    (MC, 8/28/01)
1931        Aug 28, Hubert Wilkins, Australian explorer, reached within 550 miles of the North Pole in the submarine Nautilus. [see Nov 30]
    (ON, 1/02, p.8)

1931        Aug, Dorothy Harrison Eustis purchased property in Morristown, New Jersey, to establish a training facility for "Seeing Eye" dogs.
    (ON, 12/03, p.6)
1931        Aug, Clyde Panghorn and Hugh Herndon landed at Japan's Tachikawa Airport and were arraigned for landing illegally. They paid fines of $1,050 apiece to be released.
    (ON, 1/03, p.10)

1931        Sep 12, Kristin Hunter, author, was born. Her work included "God Bless the Child" and  "The Survivors."
    (HN, 9/12/00)
1931        Sep 12, George Jones, country singer, was born.
    (HN, 9/12/00)
1931        Sep 12, Ian Holm, actor (Henry V), was born in Ilford, Essex, England.
    (MC, 9/12/01)
1931        Sep 12, In Honolulu, Hawaii, Thalia Massie, wife of a Navy officer, accused 5 nonwhite island men of gang rape. A trial that followed resulted in a hung jury. On Jan 8, 1932 a vigilante group that included the Massie’s killed, Joseph Kahahawai, one the rape suspects.
    (SFC, 5/28/05, p.E1)

1931        Sep 15, The British naval fleet mutinied at Invergordon over pay cuts.
    (MC, 9/15/01)

1931        Sep 16, Omar Mukhtar (b.1862), Libyan hero, was hanged by Italian authorities in the concentration camp of Solluqon. From 1912 he had led an insurrection against Italian invaders.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omar_Mukhtar)

1931        Sep 17, The 1st LP record was demonstrated by RCA Victor in NYC. The venture failed.
    (MC, 9/17/01)
1931        Sep 17, Anne Bancroft (d.2005), film actress, was born as Anna Maria Italiano in NYC.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0000843/)

1931        Sep 18-1931 Sep 19, The Mukden Incident was initiated by the Japanese Kwangtung Army in Mukden. It involved an explosion along the Japanese-controlled South Manchurian Railway. It was soon followed by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and the eventual establishment of the Japanese-dominated state of Manchukuo. The neutrality of the area, and the ability of Japan to defend its colony in Korea, was threatened in the 1920s by efforts at unification of China. Within three months Japanese troops had spread out throughout Manchuria. The occupation ended at the conclusion of the Second World War in 1945.
    (HNQ, 11/27/98)

1931        Sep 19, Japan invaded Manchuria and established a puppet state called Manchukuo, which lasted until the end of WWII. Nobosuke Kishi, later PM of Japan, oversaw the development of Japanese-occupied Manchuria in the 1930s.
    (SSFC, 9/23/12, p.A4)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.26)                   

1931        Sep 21, Larry Hagman, Fort Worth Tx, actor (I Dream of Jeannie, JR-Dallas), was born.
    (MC, 9/21/01)
1931        Sep 21, Britain went off the gold standard. The pound devalued 20%.
    (AP, 9/21/97)(WSJ, 1/10/09, p.W8)

1931        Sep 24, Anthony Newley, actor (Dr Doolittle, Garbage Pail Kids, Stop the World) and composer, was born in England.
    (MC, 9/24/01)
1931        Sep 24, The DJIA dropped 7.1%
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)

1931        Sep 25, Barbara Walters, television news personality best known for her one-on-one interviews with famous personalities, was born.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1931        Sep 28, In Peking  some 200,000 demonstrators demanded a declaration  of war on Japan.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1931        Oct 1, Spain established general female suffrage.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1931        Oct 3, Carl August Nielsen, composer, died at 66.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1931        Oct 4, The comic strip "Dick Tracy," created by Chester Gould (1900-1985), made its debut.
    (AP, 10/4/97)(www.internationalhero.co.uk/d/diktracy.htm)
1931        Oct 4, Aerial circus star Clyde Pangborn and playboy Hugh Herndon, Jr. set off in Miss Veedol to complete the first nonstop flight across the Pacific Ocean from Sabishiro Beach in Misawa City, Japan. A young boy gave Panghorn 5 apples from Misawa City.
    (ON, 1/03, p.10)(www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=7495)

1931        Oct 5, Clyde Pangborn and Hugh Herndon, Jr. belly landed Miss Veedol, a Bellanca CH-200 monoplane, in Wenatchee, Wa., to complete the first nonstop flight across the Pacific Ocean from Japan. They won a $25,000 prize from the Japanese Ashi Shimbun newspaper. Panghorn sent apple cuttings from Wenatchee's Richard Delicious apples to Japan which were soon distributed across Japan.
    (ON, 1/03, p.10)(www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=7495)

1931        Oct 7, Desmond Tutu, South African Black archbishop who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, was born.
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1931        Oct 10, William Walton's "Belshazzar's Feast," premiered in Leeds.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1931        Oct 11, Some 100,000 extreme right Germans formed the "Harzburger Front."
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1931        Oct 12, The Rio de Janeiro 98-foot statue of Christ the Redeemer was unveiled atop Corcovado Mountain as a belated monument to 100 years of independence from Portugal (1822). It was designed by Brazilian artist Carlos Oswald and French sculptor Paul Landowski.
    (SSFC, 9/30/01, p.T2)(SFC, 10/14/03, p.D7)

1931        Oct 13, Noel Coward's "Cavalcade," premiered in London.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1931        Oct 16, Anne LeRoi (32) and Hedvig (Sammy) Samuelson (24) were murdered, cut up and shipped in trunks to Los Angeles where they were found 3 days later. Winnie Ruth Judd (d.1998 at 93), known as the "Trunk Murderess," was sentenced to death for the murders in 1932 but pleaded insanity to avoid execution. She was paroled in 1971. It was later alleged that she took the blame to cover up for a man she was dating.
    (SFC, 10/25/98, p.A15)

1931        Oct 17, Mobster Al Capone was convicted of income tax evasion and sentenced to 11 years in prison. He was released in 1939.
    (AP, 10/17/97)

1931        Oct 18, Legendary inventor Thomas Alva Edison died at the age of 84. Edison was  the first to create a machine that projected motion pictures. With his motion  picture projector and George Eastman's photographic film, the first picture, called "The Sneeze," was recorded in Edison's mobile studio. The very short silent film paved the way for the motion  picture industry. Edison's many inventions also included the incandescent light bulb and the  phonograph; he was credited with holding 1,093 patents. His ideas were granted patents every  year for 65 years, from 1868 to 1933--unparalleled in American history. In 1998 Paul Israel authored “Edison: A Life of Invention."
    (AP, 10/18/97)(HNPD, 10/18/99)(Sm, 3/06, p.105)

1931        Oct 19, John Le Carré, British novelist who wrote The Spy Who Came in from the Cold.
    (HN, 10/19/99)
1931        Oct 19, Al Capone was convicted. [see Oct 17]
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1931        Oct 20, Mickey Mantle, baseball great who played for the New York Yankees, was born.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1931        Oct 24, Al (Alphonse) Capone, prohibition era Chicago gangster, was sentenced to 11 years in prison for tax evasion.
    (HN, 10/24/98)(MC, 10/24/01)
1931        Oct 24, The George Washington Bridge, connecting New York and New Jersey, was officially dedicated. It opened to traffic the next day.  A second lower deck was added in 1962.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington_Bridge)(AP, 10/24/08)

1931        Oct 25, The George Washington Bridge, linking New York City and New Jersey, opened to traffic. It was completed at a cost of $59 million and 12 lives. The US Post Office featured a commemorative stamp. It was described as the most beautiful bridge in the world.
    (http://www.nycroads.com/crossings/george-washington/)(SFC, 9/3/98, p.A19)

1931        Oct 26, Eugene O'Neill's "Mourning Becomes Electra," premiered in NYC. He adopted the Aeschylus "Oresteia" trilogy to a New England family, the Mannons, in the days just after the American Civil War. The three parts were called "Homecoming," "The Hunted" and "The Haunted."
    (WSJ, 5/16/97, p.A16)(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)(MC, 10/26/01)

1931        Oct 31, Dan Rather, news anchor (CBS Evening News, 60 Minutes), was born in Wharton Texas.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1931        Nov 1, Dupont introduced synthetic rubber. [see Nov 3]
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1931        Nov 3, The 1st commercially produced synthetic rubber was manufactured. [see Nov 1]
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1931        Nov 6, Mike Nichols, film and stage director, was born. His work included "The Graduate."
    (HN, 11/6/00)

1931        Nov 7,  Mao Tse Tung proclaimed  the Chinese People's Republic.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1931        Nov 8, Morley Safer, TV newscaster (60 Minutes), was born.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1931        Nov 12, Maple Leaf Gardens opened in Toronto, Ontario, Canada as the new home of the Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League.
    (MC, 11/12/01)
1931        Nov 12, The Sibelius-Ashton ballet "Lady of Shalott," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1931        Nov 17, Lindbergh inaugurated Pan Am service from Cuba to South America in a Sikorsky flying boat American Clipper.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1931        Nov 19, Xu Zhimo (34), Chinese poet, was killed in a plane crash while flying from Nanjing to Beijing. He left behind four collections of verse and several volumes of translations from various languages. His poem “On Leaving Cambridge" made famous a willow tree on the ground’s of King’s College.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xu_Zhimo)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.114)

1931        Nov 20, AT&T began commercial teletype service.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1931        Nov 20, Japan and China rejected the League of Council terms for Manchuria at Geneva.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1931        Nov 22, Ferde Grofe's "Grand Canyon Suite," premiered.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1931        Nov 29, The Spanish government seized large estates for land redistribution.
    (HN, 11/29/98)

1931        Nov 30, Bill Walsh, NFL coach (SF 49ers) and sportscaster, was born.
    (MC, 11/30/01)
1931        Nov 30, His Master's Voice and Columbia Records merge into EMI.
    (MC, 11/30/01)
1931        Nov 30, The submarine Nautilus was sunk near Bergen, Norway. Hubert Wilkins, Australian explorer, had used the ship in a failed attempt to sail beneath the North Pole.
    (ON, 1/02, p.8)

1931        Nov, "The Joy of Cooking" by Irma Louise Rombauer was first published.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, BR, p.3)

1931        Dec 2, Paul-Marie-Theodore-Vincent D'indy (80), French count and composer, died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1931        Dec 3, Miles Laboratories introduced Alka Seltzer. [see Feb 21]
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, Z1 p.8)(MC, 12/3/01)

1931        Dec 4, "Frankenstein" opened at Mayfair.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1931        Dec 5, Reverend James Cleveland, considered the "King of Gospel," was born.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1931        Dec 7, A report indicated that Nazis would ensure "Nordic dominance" by sterilizing certain races.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1931        Dec 8, Coaxial cable was patented.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1931        Dec 9, Japanese army attacked the Chinese province of Jehol.
    (MC, 12/9/01)
1931        Dec 9, Spain became a republic.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1931        Dec 10, Jane Addams became a co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, for her efforts as the president of the Women’s International league for Peace and Freedom. She was the first American woman so honored. She was also known for her work as a social reformer and pacifist, and founded the Hull House in Chicago. The co-recipient was Nicholas Murray Butler.
    (HN, 9/6/98)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A16)(AP, 12/10/06)
1931        Dec 10, Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947), presidential advisor and president of Columbia Univ. (1902-1945), was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on behalf of the Briand Kellogg Pact (1929), a treaty that denounced war as an instrument of national policy. In 2006 Michael Rosenthal authored “Nicholas Miraculous," a biography Butler.
    (SSFC, 8/15/04, p.D11)(WSJ, 1/25/06, p.D10)

1931        Dec 12, Under pressure from the Communists in Canton, Chiang Kai-shek resigned as President of the Nanking Government but remained the head of the Nationalist government that held nominal rule over most of China.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1931        Dec 23, Wilson Bentley (1865-1931), photographer of snow flakes, died at his farm in Jericho, Vermont. He had just published a book of 2,453 of his finest snow crystal photos.
    (ON, 11/04, p.6)

1931        Dec 25, New York’s Metropolitan Opera broadcast an entire opera over radio for the first time: "Hansel und Gretel" by Engelbert Humperdinck.
    (AP, 12/25/97)

1931        Dec 26, The Pulitzer Prize-winning musical play "Of Thee I Sing" opened on Broadway.
    (AP, 12/26/01)

1931        Dec 29, The identification of heavy water was publicly announced by H.C. Urey.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1931        Dec 30, Richard Christ, writer, was born.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1931        Lady Caroline Blackwood was born in Northern Ireland. She later married British painter Lucian Freud, American composer Israel Citkowitz, and American poet Robert Lowell. In 2001 Nancy Schoenberger authored "Dangerous Muse: The Life of Lady Caroline Blackwood."
    (SSFC, 7/15/01, DB p.61)

1931        Osama bin Laden was born in Jidda to a Syrian mother. He was the 17th of 51 children of Muhammad bin Laden, a baggage carrier, who left Yemen in 1931. Muhammad and his brothers were the founders of a prosperous construction company. In 2004 Jonathan Randal authored “Osama: The Making of a Terrorist."
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.B9)(WSJ, 9/2/04, p.D16)

1931        Pierre Bonnard painted his Self-Portrait, "The Boxer" and "Still Life in front of a Window."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)

1931        Salvador Dali painted "La Solitude." This became the first Dali painting to enter an American public collection, the Wadsworth Athenium in Hartford, Conn. under director A. Everett "Chick" Austin in 1932. The Wadsworth Athenium museum was the first American museum to show Surrealist art in the 1931 show "Newer Super-Realism."
    (WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/10/00, p.A24)

1931        Arthur G. Dove painted his: "Ferry Boat Wreck."
    (WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)

1931        Frida Kahlo painted "Frida and Diego Rivera." It is on exhibit at the SF Museum of Modern Art.
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, SFE Mag. p.21)

1931        Man Ray created his painting “"Observatory Time – The Lovers." It featured the lips of Lee Miller hovering over a landscape almost like a UFO.
    (SFC, 7/14/12, p.E2)

1931        Matisse made his bronze "Head of Marie-Theresa."
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1931        Georgia O’Keeffe painted "Horse’s Skull With White Rose."
    (SFC, 7/16/97, p.E3)

1931        Picasso (1881-1973) transformed the features of his mistress Marie-Therese Walter into a series of monumental plaster heads, later cast in bronze), which simultaneously evoke male and female genitalia. He also painted "Woman with Yellow Hair" this year.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.100)(WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)

1931        Historian James Truslow Adams published "The Epic of America." here he coined the term ‘the American Dream."
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.E5)

1931        Jean de Brunhoff (d.1937), French painter, published “Histoire de Babar, le petit elephant" (The Story of Babar, the Little elephant). He illustrated the Babar stories which were invented by his wife Cecille (d.2003).
    (SFC, 4/15/03, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/11/08, p.W12)

1931        Henry Steele Commager (d. 1998 at 95), American historian, wrote "The Growth of the American Republic" with Samuel Eliot Morison.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.D8)

1931        Noel Coward stayed at the Sassoon House in Shanghai for four days and wrote his "Private Lives." It premiered this same year in London.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 84)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C5)

1931        Dashiell Hammett authored his mystery thriller “The Glass Key." It was made into a film in 1942.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, DB p.51)(WSJ, 4/15/06, p.P16)

1931        Irmgard Keun (22), German writer, authored "The Artificial Silk Girl." It was banned by the Nazis in 1933. A new English translation was made in 2002.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.M4)

1931        Irma S. Rombauer published the first volume of "Joy of Cooking."
    (SFC,11/12/97, Z1 p.1)

1931        Writer Lincoln Steffens published his "Autobiography." It was an enormous success.
    (HNQ, 10/4/98)

1931        Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950) published her poetry collection "Fatal Interview."
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, DB p.59)

1931        Nathanael West (1902-1940) wrote his first novel "The Dream Life of Balso Snell."
    (WSJ, 8/11/97, p.A12)

1931        Tap dancer Chuck Green (d.1997) moved to New York and became a protege of John Bubbles of "Buck and Bubbles" fame. He later danced with the Lionel Hampton band and in his own act "Chuck and Chuckles."
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)

1931        The Broadway show "Everybody’s Welcome" featured the song "As Time Goes By" by Herman Hupfield.
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A21)

1931        The George Gershwin musical "Of Thee I Sing" was premiered. It won a Pulitzer Prize.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.D5)

1931        Odon von Horvath wrote his musical play "Tales From the Vienna Woods."
    (WSJ, 10/30/03, p.D10)

1931        Gerald Marks (1901-1997), Tin Pan Alley composer, wrote his song "All of Me."
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A14)

1931        Cole Porter's "New Yorkers" featured Elisabeth Welch and the song "Love for Sale."
    (SFC, 7/18/03, p.A29)

1931        Roy Rogers (formerly known as Leonard Slye) arrived in California from Ohio. The singing group Sons of the Pioneers, which included Bob Nolan, Roy Rogers and Dick Spencer, later recorded "Tumblin' Tumbleweed," "Cool Water," and other songs.
    (BAAC, 8/27, p.1)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.A24)

1931        Igor Stravinsky composed his "Violin Concerto" and musical drama "Persephone."
    (WSJ, 4/17/01, p.A18)

1931        William Grant Still was the first African-American to write a symphony and have it performed by a major orchestra.
    (WSJ, 2/09/99, p.A20)

1931        The first electric guitar, the Rickenbacker "frying pan," was made.
    (NH, 6/97, p.64)(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.C5)

1931        In San Francisco the El Rey Theatre, designed by architect Timothy Pfleuger, was built at 1970 Ocean Ave. It closed in 1977 and the structure was taken over by a Pentecostal church.
    (SSFC, 1/13/13, p.C5)
1931         In San Francisco Seals Stadium at 16th and Bryant streets, a $1.5 million single-deck cement structure, was designed by H.J. Brunnier. The baseball stadium had a public address system and lights for night games. It was also home to the Mission Reds until 1938. Seals Stadium was demolished in 1959.
    (SFEC,12/797, Z1 p.4)(SSFC, 10/4/09, p.50)

1931        Sarah Joslyn inherited $10 million and used a third of it to build a grand pink-marble, art-deco 150,000 sq. ft. cultural center in Omaha, Nebraska.
    (WSJ, 1/9/95, A-10)

1931        The Trans-African Railroad was completed.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1931        Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney (d.1942) founded the Whitney Museum in her New York Greenwich Village townhouse. In 2000 Flora Miller Biddle authored "The Whitney Women and the Museum They Made."
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)

1931        The USS Constitution (aka Old Ironsides) was restored and visited ports on both coasts until 1934.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.14)

1931        In Detroit, Mich., Wallace D. Fard started a movement that later became the Nation of Islam. He was succeeded by Elijah Muhammad, who stressed the evil of white people and the need for black self-sufficiency.
    (WSJ, 10/24/03, p.A8)

1931        Jehovah’s Witnesses adopted their name.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, Z1 p.8)

1931        The Commonwealth Club of California established its California Book Awards to foster and recognize literature in the Golden State,
    (SFEC,11/2/97, BR p.13)
1931        Construction began on San Francisco’s Municipal Pier at Aquatic Park. 634 pilings attached to pre-cast concrete created calm waters for swimming.
    (SFC, 10/3/08, p.B7)(SFC, 11/14/15, p.C2)
1931        Rosalie Meyer Stern donated 12 acres of land at 19th Ave. and Sloat Blvd. to San Francisco for open-air concerts and as a tribute to her late husband. Architect Bernard Maybeck was consulted in developing the grove. The Trocodero Clubhouse demonstrates Stick-Eastlake architecture.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.6)(SFC, 10/2/13, p.D5)

1931        Ellery J. Chun (d.2000 at 91) designed the 1st Hawaiian aloha shirt for mass-production and sale at his family’s store in Honolulu. He put a trademark to the aloha shirt name in 1936.
    (SFC, 6/8/00, p.C7)(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.B13)(SSFC, 8/25/02, p.C8)

1931        Willis & Geiger Outfitters were awarded a US Army & Air Force contract for A-2 flight jackets.
    (NH, 9/96, p.17)

1931        Karl Bosch (b.1874), German chemist (BASF), received the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 8/27/02)
1931        Friedrich C.R. Bergius (d.1949 at 64), chemist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1931        Ten years of comparative peace ended when Japan attacked and seized Manchuria to ensure a supply of natural resources.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1931)(SFC, 7/18/96, p.E6)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(SFC, 12/2/97, p.A22)

1931        Harvey H. Bundy, father of McGeorge Bundy, became the assistant secretary of state under Pres. Herbert Hoover.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A22)   

1931        The Davis-Bacon Act passed in the US. It was later described as a pro-union measure that inflated the cost of federal construction contracts by setting "prevailing wage" requirements.
    (WSJ, 11/20/95, p.A-10)

1931        The US Dept. of Commerce issued a pamphlet titled “Employment for Americans in Soviet Russia." In the early 1930s hundreds of American immigrated to the Soviet Union in search of jobs and a new life. Many ended up in mass graves. In 2008 Tim Tzouliadis authored “The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin’s Russia."
    (Econ, 8/9/08, p.80)(SFC, 9/1/08, p.E3)

1931        The Capital Research & Management mutual fund was founded in Los Angeles. By 2008 it was the largest US manager of stock and bond mutual funds with over $1.1 trillion under management.
    (WSJ, 1/16/08, p.A10)
1931        A.P. Giannini regained control Transamerica Corp. after ousting CEO Elisha Walker who planned to liquidate the organization to stave off bankruptcy.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.B1)
1931        The 1st successful case for desegregation in schools was Roberto Alvarez vs. the Board of Trustees of the Lemon Grove School District in San Diego.
    (SFC, 4/12/04, p.E8)

1931        Anton Cermak became mayor of Chicago. He was assassinated March 8, 1933.
    (Econ, 3/18/06, Survey p.12)(www.cermak.com/mayor/index3.html)

1931        In NYC the new Waldorf Astoria at 301 Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan was completed. The 47-story, 190.5 m (625 ft) Art Deco landmark was designed by architects Schultze and Weaver. In October 2014 it was announced that the Anbang Insurance Group of China had purchased the Waldorf Astoria for US$1.95 billion, making it the most expensive hotel ever sold.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waldorf_Astoria_New_York)
1931        A NYC gangland war ended with the assassinations of warring gang leaders Salvatore Maranzano and Joseph Masseria. Lucky Luciano took over the Masseria organization and Joseph Bonanno (d.2002), age 26, took over the Maranzano operations. Luciano organized a "Commision" to resolve internal mob disputes.
    (SSFC, 5/12/02, p.A23)
1931        NYC mobster Frank Costello by this time was raking in $25 million from his 25,000 slot machines.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, SR p.10)

1931        Over 3,000 banks failed in the US this year.
    (SFEC, 11/5/00, pen 2)

1931        The Canandaigua (N.Y.) National Bank and Trust Co. inspired confidence in panicky depositors by stacking $1 million in bills behind its tellers.
    (WSJ, 5/8/95, p.A-14)

1931        Ernest Van Tassel establishes a macadamia nut processing factory on Puhukaina Street in Kakaako; nuts sold as Van's macadamia nuts.
    (www.hawaiiag.org/history.htm)

1931        Castro Convertible Corp. began operating in New York as a maker of convertible sofa beds. It was sold to Krause’s Furniture in 1993. Krause closed in 2002.
    (SFC, 11/19/08, p.G6)

1931        Lawrence Gelb brought over Nestle’s Clairol hair dye.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, Z1 p.8)

1931        US automakers produced their 50 millionth US car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1931        Ford stopped making Model A’s.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, Z1 p.8)

1931        Robert May, copywriter for Montgomery Ward, introduced Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer as a poem for children in the stores.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.A12)

1931        Orchard Supply Hardware (OSH) started as a cooperative by 30 farmers who contributed $30 each and rented a warehouse in San Jose, Ca. It became a retailer in the 1950s and was acquired by Sears in 1996.  In 2012 Orchard began trading as a public company.
    (SFC, 5/10/05, p.D3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchard_Supply_Hardware)

1931        Frederick August Otto Schwartz (FAO Schwartz) moved to uptown NYC to its flagship Fifth Avenue store. In 1986 it moved across the street.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1931        The Graf Zeppelin began regular passenger service between Germany and Brazil.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.108)

1931        Matson Navigation Co. built an ocean liner that was renamed the Lurline in 1963. The ship was earlier known as the Monterey and the Matsonia. Plans to turn it into a $45 million four-star hotel in SF dimmed in 2000 as its scrap value reached $3.5 million.
    (SFC, 6/28/00, p.A1)

1931        Sears started Allstate Insurance Co. Employees received group life insurance.
    (WSJ, 11/18/04, p.B1)

1931        A rubber called Lastex came on the market and changed the bra industry.
    (SSFC, 10/28/07, p.E3)

1931        The Bosch Semaphore was introduced. It was an orange arm that drivers could pop out the window to signal turns.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1931        Ernst Ruska, a student at Berlin’s Technical Univ., found that a magnetic coil could focus a beam of electrons in much the same way that a glass lens focuses light. This later led to his use of a pair of magnetic lenses and a detector to produce the first electron microscope. Rheinhold Ruedenberg (1883-1961) patented the principle of electron-microscope imaging for Siemens and Halske.
    (www.msu.edu/~daggy/cop/bkofdead/obits-ru.htm)(www.timelinescience.org/years/1950.htm) (I&I, Penzias, p.204)

1931        Ernest Lawrence tested the first cyclotron at UC Berkeley, Ca. The device measured 30cm in circumference.
    (Econ, 9/13/08, p.87)

1931        Edwin Hubble made his first measurements for calculating the age of the universe and came up with the figure of 1 billion years.
    (JST-TMC,1983, p.11)

1931        In the US 20,000 people committed suicide.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1931)

1931        There were a record 21 hurricanes this year.
    (SFC, 9/13/96, p.D24)

1931        A baked clay statuette from about 900BC was found in a northern Nigerian village called Nok. From the name of this village the Nok culture is identified.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)

1931         A ring was found by Percy Newberry in a Cairo antiquities shop the bore an inscription indicating that [c1350BC] Aye and Ankhesenaten were married.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)

1931        Ralph Barton (b.1891), American caricature artist, died.
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)

1931        Melvil Dewey (80) creator of the Dewey Decimal classification system, died.
    (ON, 3/04, p.12)

1931        Thomas Edison, inventor, died.
    (WSJ, 1/17/97, p.A1)

1931        Mary Harris (b.1837), aka Mother Jones, died. In 2001 Elliot J. Gorn authored "Mother Jones: The Most Dangerous Woman in America."
    (SSFC, 2/25/01, BR p.5)

1931        F.W. Murnau (42), German film director, was killed in a car crash in California.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, BR p.6)

1931        Francis Marion "Borax" Smith, founder and developer of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, died. He consolidated the SF Bay Area trolley lines into the Key System, built the East Bay water system and helped build the Claremont Hotel. His Arbor Villa in Oakland was demolished in 1932.
    (SFC, 11/6/98, p.D5)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.A19)

1931         In Albania Zog refused to renew the First Treaty of Tirana. Italians continued with political and economic pressure.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1931        Albania’s King Zog escaped an assassination attempt in Vienna.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

1931        Arnhem Land in northern Australia was made an Aboriginal reserve.
    (SFEC, 2/28/99, p.T1)

1931        In Austria a run on Credit Anstalt bank set off a chain of events that took Britain off the gold standard and raised fears that America might follow. Its failure rippled around the world and intensified the Depression.
    (Econ, 10/04/08, p.83)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.86)
1931        Austria and Germany dropped out of the gold standard. By 1936 the gold standard was dead.
    (Econ, 7/5/14, p.57)

1931        The Gold Standard was abandoned by Britain, Denmark, Finland and Japan.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1931)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)
1931        In London, England, the Abbey Road recording studio was established at the former residence of an English nobleman.
    (Sky, 9/97, p.53)
1931        British chancellor Philip Snowden (864-1937) put forth an emergency austerity budget with tax rises and spending cuts.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.77)
1931        Montagu Norman (1871-1950), governor of the Bank of England (1920-1944), proposed the creation of an international lender empowered to lend to governments and banks in need of capital. The idea was rejected by France and America.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.78)
1931        There was a mass trespass in England’s northern Peak District.
    (SFC, 6/21/99, p.A7)
1931        Francis Ingall (d.1998 at 89) led his Lancers in a charge on horseback at the Battle of Karawal near the Khyber Pass against Afridi tribesmen. It was the final such attack by a regiment of the British Army. He later authored "The Last of the Bengal Lancers."
    (SFC, 9/25/98, p.D4)

1931        Saskatchewan was the 3rd most populous province in Canada, but then the depression and drought ushered in 8 decades of decline.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.51)

1931        Einar Weigener, a Danish painter, had his sex altered in the first surgical procedure of its kind.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.5)

1931        Slavery was officially abolished in Ethiopia (1930 by the Ethiopian calendar).
    (www.law.emory.edu/WAL/Advocacy/day1.htm)

1931        The French publication Le Cancer Americaine railed against the inhumanity of American life.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.75)
1931        The French Exposition Coloniale was held.
    (Hem., 7/95, p.27)

1931        Albert Speer at 26 joined the Nazi Party. He later became the architect of German war production. He is best known as the author of "Inside the Third Reich." In 1995 Gitta Sereny completed a biography on Speer titled "Albert Speer: His Battle with Truth."
    (WSJ, 9/25/95, p.A-12)

1931        India held a census that measured castes, as colonial Britain still ruled. India’s 2010 census also included a question on caste.
    (AP, 5/27/10)
1931        Hindu nationalist B.S. Moonje (1872-1948), traveled to Rome and was much influenced by the ideology of fascism. Upon his return to India he set out organize the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) paramilitary along similar lines.
    (www.socialsciencecollective.org/footfalls-fascism/)(Econ, 1/31/15, p.14)

1931        The Iraqi Air Force was founded. It was later considered the best in the Arab world battling the British in 1941 and Israel in 1948 and 1967.
    (AP, 8/31/09)

1931        A US all-star baseball team came to Japan and played before capacity crowds. It was organized by sportswriter Fred Lieb and National League umpire "Beans" Reardon.
    (www.ebbets.com/product/USTourOfJapan1931Ballcap/Ballcaps)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.60)

1931        Cementos Mexicanos, later called Cemex, was formed when two companies in Monterey joined forces, including one founded by Lorenzo Zambrano Gutierrez.
    (WSJ, 12/11/08, p.A14)

1931        Randoplh Hearst, American newspaper magnate, purchased a collapsing former Trapist monestary in Spain, the Santa Maria de Ovila, for $97,000. Plans to rebuilt the 16th century chapter house at his mother’s Wyntoon estate went on hold with the Great Depression. Hearst later gifted the crated stones to San Francisco. In 1994 SF agreed to loan the stones to Cistercian monks at Vina, near Chico, Ca. In the spring of 2012 the scaffolding of rebuilt structure in Vina came down.   
    (SFC, 12/26/12, p.A1)

1931        On the Pacific island of Tench missionaries put a stop to the local tradition of preventing old age by sending out to sea for drowning those who turned 40.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.E3)

1931        USSR leader Joseph Stalin turned Abkhazia into an autonomous region of Georgia. Beria, his secret police chief, later resettled Georgians from the western part of the country in Abkhazia.
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.64)

1931-1932    Rockwell Kent (1882-1971), American artist, illustrator and printmaker, spent his first Arctic winter painting and exploring in the settlement of Igdlorssuit, Greenland. In 1935 he authored “Salamina," a memoir of his first Arctic winter in Greenland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockwell_Kent)

1931-1933    In 2007 it was reported that British scientists began conducting experiments in the early 1930s to determine whether mustard gas damaged Indians' skin more than British soldiers'. They went on for more than 10 years at a military site in Rawalpindi (later a part of Pakistan).
    (AP, 9/1/07)

1931-1935    Jackson Pollock worked on his painting "Untitled (Self-Portrait)."
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)   

1931-1941    The Group Theater was a left-wing, socially conscious experimental product of the Great Depression. Director Robert Lewis was a founding member.
    (SFC,11/25/97, p.A22)

1931-1944    Jorge Ubico took over Guatemala as dictator. He liked to ride around the country in his motorcycle and had all the potholes fixed. He ended debt peonage for Indians and clamped down on corruption.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, Z1 p.2)(WSJ, 3/3/99, p.A18)

1931-1989    Thomas Bernhard, Austrian writer. He was "one of Austria’s most uncompromisingly pessimistic postwar writers." His last novel is titled "The Extinction," translated and published in English in 1995.
    (WSJ, 10/5/95, p.A-12)

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