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1936 Jan 2, The 1st electron tube to enable night vision was described in St Louis, Mo.
1936 Jan 2, In Berlin, the Nazi officials claimed that their treatment of the Jews was not any of the League of Nation's business.
1936 Jan 4, Billboard magazine published its first music hit parade.
1936 Jan 5, Daggha Bur, Ethiopia, was bombed by the Italians.
1936 Jan 6, The US Supreme Court ruled that the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 is unconstitutional.
(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)(http://public.getlegal.com/daily/history/01-06-2009)
1936 Jan 14, American explorer Lincoln Ellsworth and Canadian pilot Herbert Hollick-Kenyon were rescued by the research ship Discovery II. The pair had made the first flight across Antarctica, 2,300 miles from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea. They landed when their plane's engine faltered, and waited in the previously constructed shelter at Little America for a month to be picked up. After his earlier attempts to cross Antarctica failed, Ellsworth set out with Hollick-Kenyon in the Northrop Gamma monoplane, Polar Star, and succeeded. Part of the area that Ellsworth and Hollick-Kenyon flew over in 1935 has been named the Ellsworth Highlands.
(HNPD, 1/14/99)(AH, 2/06, p.14)
1936 Jan 15, The non-profit Ford Foundation incorporated.
1936 Jan 15, In London, Japan quit all naval talks after being denied equality.
1936 Jan 18, Author Rudyard Kipling (70) died in Burwash, England. His work included "Plain Tales from the Hills," "Barrack-Room Ballads," and the novel "Kim." In 2000 Harry Ricketts authored the biography "Rudyard Kipling: A Life." In 2009 Charles Allen authored “Kipling Sahib: India and the Making of Rudyard Kipling 1865-1900.”
(AP, 1/18/00)(WSJ, 3/30/00, p.A28)(WSJ, 3/14/09, p.W8)
1936 Jan 20, Britain's King George V, served from 1910-1936, died at age 70; he was succeeded by Edward VIII. He is remembered for saying: "Any man who is not a socialist before he is 30 has no heart, and any man who is a socialist after he is 30 has no head."
(AP, 1/20/98)(MC, 1/20/02)(WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)
1936 Jan 22, In San Francisco 5 Filipino men appeared before a municipal judge on vagrancy charges and admitted to intermingling with white girls. Police chief Quinn instructed police officers to take into custody all white girls seen with Filipinos, together with their escorts.
(SSFC, 1/23/11, DB p.42)
1936 Jan 27, Merle Johnson Jr. (d.2001), later known as film actor Troy Donohue, was born.
(SFC, 9/3/01, p.A15)
1936 Jan 27, The US Congress overrode Pres. Roosevelt’s veto and passed a large bonus for veterans of WWI. This provided an economic stimulus for the year, which disappeared in 1937.
(Econ, 6/20/09, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonus_Bill)
1936 Jan 28, Alan Alda, [Alphonso D'Abruzzo], actor (Hawkeye Pierce-M*A*S*H), was born in NYC.
1936 Jan 28, A fellow prison inmate slashed infamous kidnapper Richard Loeb to death.
1936 Jan 29, The first members of baseball's Hall of Fame: Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson & Walter Johnson were named in Cooperstown, N.Y.
1936 Jan 30, Governor Harold Hoffman ordered a new inquiry into the Lindbergh kidnapping.
1936 Jan, Standard Oil of California found some gas and oil at their 1st Saudi Arabia test well, Damman No. 1.
1936 Feb 4, 1st radioactive substance, radium E, was produced synthetically.
1936 Feb 6, Adolf Hitler opened the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. 1061 athletes stood at attention half-hidden by a furious blizzard. Austrian and French athletes gave the Nazi salute in passing the revue stand.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1936_Winter_Olympics)(SSFC, 2/6/11, p.42)
1936 Feb 6, All political parties in Lithuania were forbidden except for the Union of Tautininkai (Homelander’s Union).
1936 Feb 7, President Roosevelt authorized a flag for the office of the vice president.
1936 Feb 8, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru followed Gandhi as chairman of India Congress Party.
1936 Feb 11, Burt Reynolds, actor (Evening Shade, Strip Tease, Cannonball Run), was born in Michigan.
1936 Feb 11, Pumping began for the creation of Treasure Island in SF Bay.
1936 Feb 11, The Reich arrested 150 Catholic youth leaders in Berlin. When the war was over many of the leaders of the Reich were put on trial for the atrocities that had been committed.
1936 Feb 12, In France more than 4.5 million workers came out on strike; 1 million took to the streets, shutting the country down.
1936 Feb 13, The first US Social Security checks were put in the mail. The Social Security Administration had started assigning numbers this year.
(www.ssa.gov/history/1930.html)(SFC, 5/6/08, p.D1)
1936 Feb 13, Leon Blum, shortly before becoming Prime Minister, was dragged from a car and almost beaten to death by the Camelots du Roi, a group of anti-Semites and royalists. The right-wing Action Française league was dissolved by the government following this incident, not long before the elections that brought Blum to power.
1936 Feb 13, San Francisco-based magician Charles Joseph Carter (61), aka “Carter the Great,” died of a heart attack while on tour in Bombay, India.
(SSFC, 2/13/11, DB p.42)
1936 Feb 14, Fanne Foxe, [Annabella Battistella], (Wilbur Mills companion during Congressman’s drunken romp in the fountain), was born in Argentina.
1936 Feb 15, Sonja Henie, Norway, won her 3rd consecutive Olympic figure skating gold.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1936 Feb 15, The temp hit -60ø F (-51ø C) in Parshall, North Dakota for a state record.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1936 Feb 16, Spanish Frente Popular (People's Front) won elections.
1936 Feb 17, Jim Brown, NFL fullback (Cleveland Browns), actor (Dirty Dozen), was born in Ga.
1936 Feb 20, Switzerland bared all Nazis from entering the country.
1936 Feb 23, In Russia, an unmanned balloon rose to a record height of 25 miles.
1936 Feb 24, In Minnesota reporter Walter W. Liggett (b.1886) was murdered in front of his wife and daughter. He had opposed Gov. Floyd Olson, who had been elected to control the Farmer-Labor party. In 1998 his daughter, Marda Liggett Woodbury, published "Stopping the Presses: The Murder of Walter W. Liggett."
(SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.4,10)
1936 Feb 26, Japanese military troops marched into Tokyo to conduct a coup and assassinate political leaders.
(HN, 2/26/99)(SC, 2/26/02)
1936 Feb 27, Ivan P. Pavlov (86), Russian physiologist (reflexes, "drooling dog" Nobel 1904), died.
1936 Feb 28, Samuel Maverick Jr. (99), San Antonio banker, died. During the Civil War he served in Terry's Texas Rangers, a Confederate regiment, He was the last surviving member of that organization. His father was the Texas pioneer Samuel A. Maverick
1936 Feb 28, The Japanese Army restored order in Tokyo and arrested officers involved in a coup.
1936 Feb 29, Jack R. Lousma, astronaut, was born.
1936 Feb 29, Abraham Ruef (71), San Francisco power broker, died. He had served time at San Quentin prison following graft prosecutions in 1906-1908.
(SSFC, 2/27/11, DB p.46)
1936 Mar 1, Giulio Bargellini (b.1869), Italian artist, died in Rome.
1936 Mar 4, The 1st test flight of airship Hindenburg was made in Germany.
1936 Mar 5, A prototype Type 300 Spitfire made it's 1st flight at the Eastleigh Aerodrome in Southampton, England.
(ON, 3/07, p.2)
1936 Mar 6, Marion S. Barry, (Mayor-D-Wash DC), was born.
1936 Mar 7, Adolf Hitler ordered his troops to march into the demilitarized Rhineland, thereby breaking the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Pact.
(WSJ, 10/28/97, p.A22)(AP, 3/7/98)(HN, 3/7/98)
1936 Mar 8, Gabor Szabo, Hungarian jazz pianist (Perfect Circle), was born.
1936 Mar 9, The German press warned that all Jews who voted in the upcoming elections would be arrested.
1936 Mar 13 The first meeting of the Friday the 13th Club founded by Philip Klein, advertising executive, was held. Klein requested that the club self-destruct before the year 2001.
(SFEC, 10/13/96, Par p.19)
1936 Mar 13, William Alexander Coulter (b.1849), Irish-born maritime artist, died, in Ca.
(SFC, 7/4/05, p.B1)(www.edanhughes.com/biography.cfm?ArtistID=145)
1936 Mar 14, Hitler told a crowd of 300,000 that Germany’s only judge is God and itself.
1936 Mar 18, Frederik Willem de Klerk, president of the Republic of South Africa, was born in Johannesburg. He initiated the abolition of apartheid.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 19)(HN, 3/18/99)
1936 Mar 19, The USSR signed a pact of assistance with Mongolia against Japan.
1936 Mar 21, Alexander Konstantinovich Glazunov (70), composer (Chopiniana), died.
1936 Mar 22, May Britt, actress (Young Lions), wife of Sammy Davis Jr., was born in Sweden.
1936 Mar 22, Roger Whittaker, country singer (Durham Town), was born in Nairobi, Kenya.
1936 Mar 22, In Alameda, Ca., Chief Engineer George W. Alberts was found murdered aboard the freighter S.S. Point Lobos. District Attorney Earl Warren prosecuted the case and 4 defendants were convicted and sentenced to prison.
(SFEM, 6/1/97, p.16-21)
1936 Mar 23, Italy, Austria and Hungary signed Pact of Rome.
1936 Mar 25, Britain, the U.S. and France signed a naval accord in London.
1936 Mar 26, A 200" telescope lens was shipped by the Corning Glass Works from New York to Cal Tech.
1936 Mar 26, Mary Joyce ended a 1,000 mile trip by dog in Alaska.
1936 Mar 26, New Zealand radio aired a parliamentary debate for the 1st time.
1936 Mar 28, Mario Vargas Llosa, Peruvian novelist (Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter, Death in the Andes), was born.
1936 Mar 29, Judith Guest, novelist (Ordinary People), was born.
1936 Mar 29, Richard Rodney Bennett, composer, was born in Broadstairs, Kent, England.
1936 Mar 29, Nazi propaganda claimed 99% of Germans voted for Nazi candidates.
1936 Mar 29, Italy firebombed the Ethiopian city of Harar.
1936 Mar 30, Britain announced a naval construction program of 38 warships. This was the largest construction program in 15 years.
1936 Mar 31, Marge Piercy, poet and novelist, was born.
1936 Apr 3, Bruno Hauptmann, convicted for the kidnapping of the Lindbergh baby, was electrocuted in Trenton, N.J. The execution took 4 shocks and left Hauptman badly burned. He claimed his innocence until he died. In 1976 NBC aired a show titled The Lindbergh Kidnapping Case and Anthony Scaduto published "Scapegoat." In 1982 PBS made the documentary Who Killed the Lindbergh Baby and in 1985 Ludovic Kennedy published "The Airman and the Carpenter." In 1996 a docudrama was aired by HBO based on the Kennedy book.
(WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)(AP, 4/3/97)(SSFC, 4/3/11, DB p.46)
1936 Apr 5, Tupelo, Mississippi, was virtually annihilated by a tornado and 216 died.
1936 Apr 6, A tornado killed 203 and injures 1,800 in Gainesville, Georgia.
1936 Apr 10, John Madden, NFL coach (Oakland Raiders), sports commentator (CBS, FOX), was born.
1936 Apr 10, A 200" mirror blank arrived in Pasadena for Mt. Palomar.
1936 Apr 11, Rodgers' & Hammerstein's musical "On Your Toes," premiered in NYC.
1936 Apr 15, A number of cars on the road between Tulkarm and Nablus were held up by Arab highwaymen. After the armed robbers had removed valuables from the occupants of the cars, three Jews were forced to sit together in a truck where they were shot by the bandits in cold blood. One was killed outright and another died later from his injuries.
1936 Apr 18, Pan-Am Clipper began regular passenger flights from SF to Honolulu.
1936 Apr 18, Ottorino Respighi (56), Italian composer (Pines of Rome), died.
1936 Apr 19, Clarence Darrow. Lawyer and social reformer Clarence Darrow voiced the opinion that "There is no such thing as justice—in or out of court" in an interview for the New York Times.
1936 Apr 19, Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Jaffa, Palestine.
1936 Apr 20, Serious rioting took place on the borders between Jaffa and Tel-Aviv, in particular in the Catton, Manshieh and Saknat Abu Kebir quarters.
1936 Apr 21, James Clayton Dobson, Christian conservative leader, was born in Shreveport, Louisiana. He became an American psychologist and chairman of the board of Focus on the Family, a nonprofit organization founded in 1977 and based in Colorado Springs, Colorado. In 2007 his radio show pulled in 6 million listeners a week.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Dobson)(Econ, 3/3/07, p.40)
1936 Apr 22, Glen Campbell, American country music singer (By the Time I get to Phoenix, Galveston), was born in Arkansas.
1936 Apr 23, Roy Orbison, rocker (Pretty Woman), was born in Vernon, Tx.
1936 Apr 26, Carol Burnett, actress, was born.
(440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)
1936 Apr 28, Kenneth White, poet and essayist, was born.
1936 Apr 29, Zubin Mehta, conductor (NY Philharmonic 1976), was born in Bombay, India.
1936 Apr 30, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that the Park-O-Meter has been recommended by Chief Administrative Officer Alfred Cleary. A trial plan called for 50 meters on Market St. charging 10 cents for 20 minutes.
(SSFC, 4/24/11, DB p.46)
1936 May 1, In New Orleans the FBI under J Edgar Hoover arrested kidnapper and gunman Alvin Karpis (1907-1979). Known for his alliance with the Barker gang in the 1930s, he was the last "public enemy" to be taken. Karpis was born to Lithuanian immigrants in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and was raised in Wichita, Kansas. In August he was imprisoned at Alcatraz. Karpis was released on parole in 1969 and deported to Canada.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvin_Karpis)(SSFC, 7/31/11, DB p.42)
1936 May 2, Michael Rabin, violinist (In Memorium), was born in NYC.
1936 May 2, "Peter and the Wolf," a symphonic tale for children by Sergei Prokofiev, had its world premiere in Moscow.
1936 May 2, With the Italian invasion Ethiopia’s Emp. Haile Selassie left for French Somaliland. He went into exile for 5 years during which time he was based in Bath, England.
1936 May 3, Joe DiMaggio (21) of San Francisco made his major-league debut as NY Yankee and got 3 hits.
(MC, 5/3/02)(CHA, 1/2001)(WSJ, 3/9/99, p.A1)
1936 May 3, The Popular Front in France achieved a majority of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies, which led to the formation of the first Popular Front ministry under Leon Blum.
1936 May 4, El Cordobes (Manuel Benitez), Spanish matador, was born.
1936 May 5, Edward Ravenscroft patented screw-on bottle cap with a pour lip.
1936 May 5, Italian troops occupied Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
1936 May 6, The Hindenburg airship departed Germany and on the 9th on May, it arrived at Lakehurst, N.J., having completed the first scheduled transatlantic dirigible flight.
1936 May 9, Albert Finney, actor, was born in Salford, UK. He starred in "Murder on the Orient Express" and "Tom Jones."
(HN, 5/9/99)(MC, 5/9/02)
1936 May 9, Glenda Jackson, actress (Women in Love), was born in Cheshire, England.
1936 May 9, Fascist Italy took Addis Abba and annexed Ethiopia as Benito Mussolini celebrated in Rome.
(AP, 5/9/97)(HN, 5/9/98)
1936 May 12, Frank Stella, painter, was born in Massachusetts.
(HN, 5/12/01)(SFC, 6/17/04, p.E5)
1936 May 12, Tom Snyder, newscaster and television host, was born.
1936 May 14, Bobby Darin (d.1973), singer (Mack the Knife), was born in the Bronx as Walden Robert Cassotto.
1936 May 14, In San Francisco a fire at the Shamrock Club, 560 Geary St., left 4 people dead as flames from dancer Betty Blossom’s torches ignited drapes hanging from the ceiling.
(SSFC, 5/8/11, p.46)
1936 May 16, San Francisco Municipal Judge Lazarus condemned dance hall operators who made white girls dance with Filipinos. He had just held Terry Santiago (22) to answer a charge of assault with intent to murder for stabbing Norma Kompisch (22) 22 times with an 8-inch butcher knife, despite her cries for mercy. Lazarus had recently call Filipinos “savages.”
(SSFC, 5/15/11, DB p.46)
1936 May 17, Dennis Hopper, actor (True Grit, Blue Velvet, Easy Rider), was born in Kansas.
1936 May 18, Alick Maclean (63), composer, died.
1936 May 21, In Japan police arrested a Tokyo a geisha named Sada Abe (31), charging that she knifed to death her unfaithful lover, Kichizo Ishida, and cut off his genitals, which she carried around in her sash for 3 days before being caught.
(SFEC,12/21/97, Z1 p.5)
1936 May 22, M. Scott Peck (d.2005), psychiatrist and author of “The Road Less Traveled” (1978), was born in New York.
(SFC, 9/28/05, p.B7)
1936 May 22, Alexander Mackay and Joseph Kristy were hanged at San Quentin prison. Mackay and Kristy had once kidnapped prison officials in an escape attempt.
(SSFC, 5/22/11, DB p.46)
1936 May 25, Tom T. Hall, country singer, writer (Harper Valley PTA), was born in Olive Hill, KY.
1936 May 25, Jan Levoslav Bella (52), composer, died.
1936 May 27, Louis Gossett Jr., actor (Officer & Gentleman, Deep), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
1936 May 27, The Cunard liner Queen Mary left Southampton, England, for NY on its maiden voyage. In 1968 it became a 365-room hotel moored at Long Beach, Ca.
(AP, 5/27/97)(MC, 5/27/02)(SSFC, 9/14/03, p.C1)
1936 May 28, Fred Chappell, poet and novelist, was born.
1936 May 29, Arlene McQuade, actress (Rosalie-Goldbergs), was born in NYC.
1936 Jun 1, The Queen Mary arrived in N.Y. on its maiden voyage.
1936 Jun 2, Sally Kellerman, actress (M*A*S*H, Back to School), was born in Long Beach, Cal.
1936 Jun 2, Gen Anastasio Somoza took over as dictator of Nicaragua.
1936 Jun 3, Larry McMurtry, novelist (The Last Picture Show, Terms of Endearment), was born.
1936 Jun 3, Britain’s Air Ministry placed a £1.25 million order for 310 Spitfire fighters.
(ON, 3/07, p.2)
1936 Jun 4, Leon Blum became the first socialist and the first Jew to serve as Prime Minister of France.
1936 Jun 5, SF Bay Bridge worker George Zink (40) of 325 Capistrano Ave. plunged to his death becoming the 22nd man killed on the transbay bridge construction.
(SFC, 6/5/11, p.42)
1936 Jun 11, Chad Everett, actor (Medical Center, Airplane II), was born in South Bend, In.
1936 Jun 11, Presbyterian Church of America was founded at Philadelphia.
1936 Jun 14, G.K. Chesterton (b.1874), English poet-essayist, died at his home in Beaconsfield, England. His poems included “The Secret People” (1915). As president of the Distributist League, he promoted the idea that private property should be divided into smallest possible freeholds and then distributed throughout society.
(Econ, 4/2/05, p.51)(www.online-literature.com/chesterton/)
1936 Jun 18, Mobster Charles ‘Lucky’ Luciano was found guilty on 62 counts of compulsory prostitution.
1936 Jun 18, In San Francisco Wally the elephant (25) was shot to death following the June 16 trampling death of Fleishhacker Zoo keeper Edward Brown (42).
(SSFC, 6/12/11, DB p.46)(SSFC, 6/19/11, DB p.46)
1936 Jun 18, Maxim Gorkei (Aleksvey Maksimovich Pyeshkov [aka Gorky], b.1868], Russian dramatist, died. "A good man can be stupid and still be good. But a bad man must have brains."
(WUD, 1994 p.611)(HN, 3/16/98)(AP, 2/23/01)(NG, 7/04, p.132)
1936 Jun 19, Max Schmeling of Germany knocked out Joe Louis in their first fight in NYC.
1936 Jun 19, A total solar eclipse darkened Russian skies.
(NG, 7/04, p.132)
1936 Jun 20, Jesse Owens of US set a 100 meter record at 10.2 sec.
1936 Jun 21, The first Herb Caen (age 20) column appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle. He replaced J.E. "Dinty" Doyle. Executive editor Paul C. Smith had hired Caen to write a radio column.
(SFC, 6/5/96, p.C1)(SFEC, 2/2/97, p.A12)(SSFC, 6/7/09, p.W2)
1936 Jun 21, Pan Am and Boeing signed a $3 million contract for 6 Model 314 aircraft, the largest ever built in the US.
(SFEM, 2/13/00, p.38)
1936 Jun 22, Kris Kristofferson, singer/actor, was born.
1936 Jun 22, San Francisco Mint janitor W.F. Williams was buried under 7 tons of gold pieces in an accident that would likely lead to his death.
(SSFC, 6/19/11, DB p.46)
1936 Jun 22, Harry Froboess dove 110 meters from an airship into the Bodensee & survived.
1936 Jun 26, The 1st flight of Fw61 helicopter.
1936 Jun 30, The novel "Gone with the Wind" by Margaret Mitchell was published in New York.
1936 Jun 30, The Walsh-Healey Act was passed by the US congress, guaranteeing all US federal workers an 8-hour day and a 40-hour work week.
1936 Jun 30, Haile Selassie asked the League of Nations for sanctions against Italy.
1936 Summer, The Art Olympiad was staged in Amsterdam by such artists as John Heartfield, Max Ernst and Ferdnand Leger as a protest against the Berlin games.
(WSJ, 7/30/96, p.A12)
1936 Jul 4, The League Council voted to end economic sanctions against Italy with the collapse of Ethiopia. The cancellation of economic sanctions against an aggressor state marked the failure of collective security under the League and was a harbinger of conflict in the upcoming years.
1936 Jul 9, June Jordan, poet and author, was born.
1936 Jul 9, David Joel Zinman, composer, conductor (Balt Symphony-1983), was born in NYC.
1936 Jul 11, Triborough Bridge linking Manhattan, the Bronx and Queens opened.
1936 Jul 16, 1st x-ray photo of arterial circulation was made in Rochester, NY.
1936 Jul 17, Gen. Francisco Franco was flown from the Canary Islands, where he served as military governor, to Spanish Morocco where he led a rebellion against the elected Popular Front. This began the Spanish civil war. The first word of the rebellion was reported by Lester Ziffren (1906-2007) of the United Press. The rebel Nationalist movement under Francisco Franco gained support from the fascist regimes in Italy and Germany in opposition.
(SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(SFC, 7/13/01, WBb p.3)(WSJ, 11/24/07, p.A8)
1936 Jul 20, Turkey signed a treaty, the Montreux Convention, by which it agreed not to interfere with transit through the Bosporus. It granted ships unrestricted passage except in times of war.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A23)(WSJ, 7/28/05, p.A7)(http://tinyurl.com/6lyog2)
1936 Jul 22, Tom Robbins, novelist (Another Roadside Attraction, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues), was born.
1936 Jul 23, Don Drysdale, pitcher (LA Dodgers-Cy Young 1962), was born in Van Nuys, Calif.
1936 Jul 25, The 115 acre Orchard Beach opened in the Bronx.
1936 Jul 25, G. Neujmin discovered asteroid #3761.
1936 Jul 29, RCA showed the 1st real TV program (dancing, film on locomotives, Bonwit Teller fashion show and monologue from Tobacco Road and comedy). [see Nov 6]
1936 Aug 1, The 11th Olympic games, dubbed "The Nazi Games," opened in Berlin with a ceremony presided over by Adolf Hitler. Jesse Owens won four gold medals including the 100-meter dash--becoming the world's fastest man. Owens also set new Olympic records in the long jump, the 200-meter dash and the 4 x 100-meter relay. It had been 36 years since a track-and-field athlete had won three gold medals in one Olympics. The games were filmed by Leni Riefenstahl and the torch relay was introduced by Joseph Geobbel’s Propaganda Ministry. Berlin’s homeless and itinerant Gypsies were sent into concentration camps. The game of Kabaddi was played as a demonstration sport.
(TMC, 1994, p.1936)(WSJ, 7/30/96, p.A12)(Hem, 6/96, p.104)(AP, 8/1/97)(HNPD, 8/1/98)
1936 Aug 2, French aviator Louis Bleriot (b.1872) died. He made the first crossing of the English Channel from Calais to the grounds of Dover Castle in 1909.
(ON, 6/07, p.9)
1936 Aug 3, The State Department urged Americans in Spain to leave because of that country’s civil war.
1936 Aug 4, Jesse Owens (1913-1980) won his 2nd Olympic medal (long jump) at the Berlin Olympics.
1936 Aug 5, Jesse Owens won his 3rd Olympic medal (200m sprint) at the Berlin Olympics.
1936 Aug 7, The United States declared non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War.
1936 Aug 9, Jesse Owens won his fourth gold medal at the Berlin Olympics as the United States took first place in the 400-meter relay.
(AP, 8/9/97)(HN, 8/9/98)
1936 Aug 12, Hans Haacke, artist (Right to Life, Dripper Boxes), was born in Cologne, Germany.
1936 Aug 12, John Poindexter, US Chief of Staff, was born.
1936 Aug 12, 120° F (49° C), Seymour, Texas (state record).
1936 Aug 12, Diver Marjorie Gestring became the youngest Olympic gold medalist (13y 268d).
1936 Aug 14, Rainey Bethea was hanged in the last US public execution.
1936 Aug 16, The 11th Olympic games closed in Berlin.
1936 Aug 16, Spanish poet Garcia Lorca was arrested in Granada. He disappeared shortly thereafter. The 1997 film "The Disappearance of Garcia Lorca" was an attempt to depict the circumstances of his disappearance. Lorca was the author of "Gypsy Ballads," "Blood Wedding" and "The Poet." Spanish poet Federico Garcia Lorca was shot by Franco's troops after being forced to dig his own grave.
(LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.12B)(HN, 8/19/98)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.2)
1936 Aug 18, Federico Garcia Lorca was shot and killed by a Francoist squad on the outskirts of Grenada and buried in an unmarked grave along with 3 other prisoners. His dramatic works included "Blood Wedding," "Yerma," Dona Rosita the Spinster," and "The House of Bernarda Alba." In 1998 the biography "Lorca: A Dream of Life" by Leslie Stainton was published in London.
(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.3)
1936 Aug 19, A trial against Ljev Kamenev and Grigori Zinoviev, for alleged "Trotskyism," opened in Moscow.
1936 Aug 21, Wilt Chamberlain (d.1999 at age 63), four-time MVP for the National Basketball Association, was born in Philadelphia. From 1952-1955 he led Overbrook High School to a 56-3 record.
(HN, 8/21/98)(SFC, 10/13/99, p.D4)
1936 Aug 21, Mart Crowley, playwright (Boys in the Band), was born.
1936 Aug 24, FDR gave the FBI authority to pursuit fascists and communists.
1936 Aug 26, The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, calling for most British troops to leave Egypt, except those guarding the Suez Canal, was signed in Montreux, Switzerland. It was abrogated by Egypt in 1951.
1936 Aug 29, John McCain, later Arizona Senator and 2008 US presidential candidate, was born at the Coco Solo Naval Air Station in the Panama Canal Zone.
1936 Aug 31, Marva Collins, innovative educator who started Chicago’s one-room school, Westside Preparatory, was born.
1936 Aug, Pres. Roosevelt accepted his re-nomination and gave his "rendezvous with destiny" speech in Philadelphia.
(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.C17)
1936 Sep 2, The 1st transatlantic round-trip air flight took place. [see Sep 6]
1936 Sep 6, Aviator Beryl Markham flew the first east-to-west solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. [see Sep 2]
1936 Sep 7, Rock legend Buddy Holly (d. Feb 3, 1959) was born Charles Hardin Holley in Lubbock, Texas. His hit songs included "That'll Be the Day," "Oh Boy" and "Maybe Baby."
(AP, 9/7/97)(WSJ, 2/25/99, p.A16)
1936 Sep 7, Some 60,000 workers marched in the San Francisco Labor Day parade as some 250,000 spectators watched.
(SSFC, 9/4/11, DB p.50)
1936 Sep 11, President Roosevelt dedicated Boulder Dam (now Hoover Dam) by pressing a key in Washington to signal the startup of the dam’s first hydroelectric generator in Nevada. The Dam was completed ahead of schedule. It was the first and most important link in a chain of dams, canals and aqueducts built to harness the Colorado River. The colossal mass of concrete is wedged into Black Canyon on the Arizona-Nevada border, 32 miles SE of Las Vegas. Paul L. Wattis, headed the construction company that built Boulder Dam.
(AP, 9/11/97)(HNQ, 4/3/02)(SFC, 6/6/02, p.A22)
1936 Sep 12, Bill Sam (34) was hanged at San Quentin Prison for the murder of his wife in Stockton 2 years earlier. The Chinese man said he killed her to spare his son the stigma of having estranged parents.
(SSFC, 9/11/11, DB 46 p.46)
1936 Sep 14, Irving G. Thalberg (37), film producer and husband to actress Norma Shearer (d.1983), died of pneumonia. In 1937 Hollywood established the Thalberg Memorial Award people whose work reflected a "consistently high quality." In 2009 Mark A. Viera authored “Irving Thalberg: Boy Wonder to Producer Prince.”
(WSJ, 2/9/01, p.W1)(SSFC, 7/25/04, Par p.2)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.103)
1936 Sep 21, The German army held its largest maneuvers since 1914.
1936 Sep 21, The Spanish fascist junta named Franco generalissimo, supreme commander. [see Oct 1]
1936 Sep 24, Jim Henson, Greenville Miss, muppeteer, was born. Puppeteer Henson created the "Muppets" in 1954. (Sesame Street, Muppet Show)-18 Emmys, 17 Grammys, 4 Peabody Awards and 5 Ace Awards (National Cable Television Association) The famous voice of Kermit the Frog, died suddenly in May 1993.
(HN, 9/24/98)(MC, 9/24/01)
1936 Sep 25-1936 Oct 13, The Tripartite Agreement between the US, the UK, and France established that the subscribing nations agree to buy and sell gold freely with each other in exchange for their own currency.
1936 Sep 27, Franco troops conquered Toledo.
1936 Sep 29, Silvio Berlusconi, later 2-time PM of Italy, was born to middle-class parents in Milan.
(WSJ, 3/30/06, p.A12)
1936 Sep 30, Pinewood Studios opened in Buckinghamshire England.
1936 Sep, Robert Capa's photograph of a falling Spanish Civil War militiaman was first published by French magazine Vu, and later in Life magazine. The caption on the legendary photojournalist's "Falling Militiaman" said it depicted the moment a Republican rifleman was mortally wounded. In 2009 Spanish researchers who studied events surrounding the picture believed it may have been staged.
1936 Sep, In Salinas, Ca., fascists and agencies of law and order oversaw a 15-day period of “ruthless” dictatorship under the guise of a “red scare.”
(SSFC, 9/18/11, p.42)
1936 Oct 1, General Francisco Franco was proclaimed the head of an insurgent Spanish state.
1936 Oct 2, Johnnie Cochran, attorney (OJ Simpson defense attorney), was born.
1936 Oct 5, Václav Havel, Czech dissident dramatist, was born. He became the first freely elected president of Czechoslovakia in 55 years (1989-92).
1936 Oct 10, The Arab Higher Committee issued a manifesto to end riots in Palestine. The committee had been formed in opposition to growing Jewish immigration into Palestine.
1936 Oct 13, Cliff Gorman, actor (Boys in the Band, Lenny, Angel), was born in Jamaica, NY.
1936 Oct 16, Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953) of the US won the Nobel Prize in Literature "for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy." His work includes "A Long Day's Journey Into Night" and "The Iceman Cometh."
1936 Oct 19, H.R. Ekins of the New York World-Telegram beat out Dorothy Kilgallen of the New York Journal and Leo Kieran of The New York Times in a round-the-world race on commercial flights that lasted 18 1/2 days.
1936 Apr 14, Anne Sullivan (b.1866), teacher to Helen Keller, died in Forest Hills, NYC.
(ON, 2/10, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Sullivan_Macy)
1936 Oct 21, Pan Am inaugurated the first passenger flight from California to the Philippines with 9 passengers.
(SFEM, 2/13/00, p.37)
1936 Oct 21, The first fatality in the construction the Golden Gate Bridge took place when Kermit Moore was killed by a falling piece of equipment.
(SSFC, 5/20/12, p.E10)
1936 Oct 26, At Boulder Dam the first of the five power units to be installed under the initial plan went into operation.
1936 Oct 28, President Roosevelt rededicated the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary.
1936 Oct 31, The Literary Digest published a poll that predicted that Alfred Landon, the governor of Kansas, would win over Pres. Roosevelt with 57% of the popular vote.
(WSJ, 10/2/06, p.B1)(www.historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5168/)
1936 Oct, Dutch-born Peter Debye (1884-1966), won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies on the structure of molecules. In 1938, as Chairman of the German Physical Society, he had a letter sent out under his name requesting that the domestic Jewish members voluntarily resign. In 1940 he moved to the US. In 2006 he emerged in a book, "Albert Einstein in the Netherlands." which contained evidence of pro-Nazi actions. In 2008 the Terlouw Committee, appointed by the Dutch Ministry of Education, reviewed the allegations and issued its report clearly stating that Debye was neither a Nazi collaborator nor a Nazi sympathizer.
1936 Nov 1, The Rodeo Cowboy’s Association was founded.
1936 Nov 1, In a speech in Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini described the alliance between his country and Nazi Germany as an "axis" running between Rome and Berlin after Count Ciano’s visit to Germany.
(AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)
1936 Nov 2, Rose Elizabeth Bird (d.1999), future California Supreme Court Justice, was born on a chicken farm in Arizona.
1936 Nov 2, The first high-definition public television transmissions began from Alexandra Palace in north London by the BBC.
(HN, 11/2/98)(MC, 11/2/01)
1936 Nov 3, President Roosevelt was re-elected for second term in a landslide over Republican challenger Alfred M. "Alf" Landon. Landon ran on a "wrong-headed" economic program. Roosevelt received 60.8% of the popular vote and an astounding 98.5% of the Electoral College defeating Republican Alfred Landon, the governor of Kansas. In terms of winning the largest percentage of electoral votes, the presidential election of 1936 was the biggest landslide of the 20th century.
(TMC, 1994, p.1936)(SFC, 8/23/96, p.A28)(AP, 11/3/97)(HN, 11/3/98)(HNQ, 11/7/00)
1936 Nov 5, French writer Andre Gide criticized the Soviet regime.
1936 Nov 6, RCA displayed TV for press.
1936 Nov 7, Gwyneth Jones, soprano (Die Walkure, Isolde), was born, Pontnewyndd, Wales.
1936 Nov 7, Battle of Madrid began.
1936 Nov 9, Mary Travers, folk singer (Peter Paul & Mary), was born in Louisville, Ky.
1936 Nov 9, In China Ruth Harkness and her party found a 3-lb giant panda cub, eyes not yet open, in a hollow tree. They named the cub Su-Lin - Chinese for "something very cute."
1936 Nov 11, A British Royal Commission arrived in Palestine to investigate the underlying cause of the anti-Jewish riots. The Arab Higher Committee called a boycott of the commission’s inquiry.
1936 Nov 12, The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge opened. It cost $78 million and was the longest bridge ever attempted.
(SFC, 11/11/96, p.A13)(MC, 11/12/01)
1936 Nov 15, Nazi Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Komintern pact.
1936 Nov 18, The main span of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco was joined.
1936 Nov 18, Germany and Italy recognized the Spanish government of Francisco Franco.
1936 Nov 19, Dick Cavett, talk show host, was born Kearney, Neb.
1936 Nov 19, German Luftwaffe bombed Madrid and continued bombing to Nov 23.
1936 Nov 20, Don DeLillo, author, was born. His work includes "White Noise" and "Libra."
1936 Nov 23, "Life," the magazine created by Henry R. Luce, was first published. It was based on a German model: The Munich Illustrated Press.
(SFC,11/19/97, p.C5)(AP, 11/23/97)
1936 Nov 23, U.S. abandoned the American embassy in Madrid, Spain, which was engulfed by civil war.
1936 Nov 24, Noel Coward's "Tonight at 8:30," premiered in NYC.
1936 Nov 24, Pacifist and anti-fascist writer Carl Von Ossietzky, sent to a concentration camp, was awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
1936 Nov 27, Great Britain’s Anthony Eden warned Hitler that Britain would fight to protect Belgium.
1936 Nov 28, "Pennies From Heaven" hits #1 on the pop singles chart by Bing Crosby.
1936 Nov 30, Abbie Hoffman, aka Free, Yippie, activist and author (Steal this Book), was born.
1936 Nov 30, London’s famed Crystal Palace, constructed for the International Exhibition of 1851, was destroyed in a fire.
1936 Nov, Robert Johnson, Mississippi blues guitarist, recorded his first of 5 sessions.
(SFC, 9/23/98, p.E3)
1936 Nov-1936 Dec, In Spain hundreds of Franco supporters were killed at Paracuellos. Between 2,000 and 4,000 suspected supporters of the coup against the Second Spanish Republic, were killed by the Republican Army. The Soviet NKVD was later implicated.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracuellos_massacre)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.86)
1936 Dec 1, Bell Labs tested coaxial cable for TV use.
1936 Dec 1, EW Brundin & FF Lyon obtained patents on the soil-less culture of plants.
1936 Dec 5, Albert Walter Jr. (22) was executed by hanging at San Quentin, Ca. He had admitted to strangling a girl in San Francisco nearly 6 months earlier.
(SSFC, 12/4/11, DB p.46)
1936 Dec 5, Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Georgian SSR, Kazakh SSR & Kirghiz SSR became constituent republics of Soviet Union.
1936 Dec 5, The New Constitution in the Soviet Union promised universal suffrage, but the Communist Party remained the only legal political party.
1936 Dec 8, NAACP filed suit to equalize the salaries of black and white teachers.
1936 Dec 8, Anastasio Somoza was elected president of Nicaragua. The Somoza family led Nicaragua until 1979.
(SFC, 10/15/96, p.A1)(MC, 12/8/01)
1936 Dec 10, Edward VIII abdicated to marry Wallis Warfield Simpson, an American born divorcee. [see Dec 11]
1936 Dec 11, Brian Richard Boylan, author, adventurer and director, was born.
1936 Dec 11, Hannibal Harris, man of letters, epic poet, was born.
1936 Dec 11, An eerie glow over Chicago took place that some believe was a rare display of the Aurora Borealis.
1936 Dec 11, Britain's King Edward VIII abdicated the throne in order to marry American divorcee Wallis Warfield Simpson. Edward VIII had been king of Great Britain and Ireland for less than a year when he abdicated the throne to marry "the woman I love,"--the twice-divorced American Wallis Warfield Spencer Simpson. The eldest child of King George V and Queen Mary, Edward met the Baltimore-born Mrs. Simpson in 1931 while she was still married to her second husband. Their relationship caused much consternation among British traditionalists since the Church of England forbade divorced persons to remarry and would not recognize a marriage between Edward and Mrs. Simpson. After his ascension to the throne on January 20, 1936, Edward VIII expressed his desire to marry Mrs. Simpson and, if he could not do so and remain king, he said he was "prepared to go." After his abdication, Edward was awarded the title Duke of Windsor by his brother, King George VI. Edward and Mrs. Simpson were married in June 1937.
(HFA, ‘96, p.44)(WUD, 1994, p. 454)(AP, 12/11/97)(HNPD, 12/11/98)
1936 Dec 12, Chang Hsueh-liang (d.2001 at 101), a northern military commander (aka Zhang Xueliang), kidnapped Chiang Kai-shek to force him into an alliance to repel Japanese forces. The Xi’an incident coup ended after 2 weeks. The incident led the Nationalists and the Communists to make peace so that the two could form a united front against the increasing threat posed by Japan. Chang was later court-martialed and sentenced to prison. He was taken to Taiwan in 1949 and kept under house arrest.
(SFC, 10/16/01, p.B2)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xi%27an_Incident)
1936 Dec 12, Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek declared war on Japan.
1936 Dec 17, Edgar Bergen and his dummy, Charlie McCarthy, hit overnight success on the Rudy Vallee radio show.
1936 Dec 18, Su-Lin, the 1st giant panda to come to US from China, arrived in SF. The giant panda, captured by Ruth Harkness, was the 1st ever seen in the US. In 2005 Vicki Constantine Croke authored “The Lady and the Panda.”
(http://femexplorers.com/full_article.php?article_id=17)(SSFC, 7/17/05, p.F2)
1936 Dec 22, Hector Elizondo, actor (American Gigolo, Young Doctors in Love), was born in NYC.
1936 Dec 24, The 1st radioactive isotope medicine was administered in Berkeley, Ca.
1936 Dec 26, The Palestine Orchestra was formed. It grew to become the Israeli Philharmonic.
(SFC, 1/8/98, p.E1)(MC, 12/26/01)
1936 Dec 27, Lee Salk, doctor (CBS TV), was born.
1936 Dec 28, Benito Mussolini sent planes to Spain to support Francisco Franco’s forces.
1936 Dec 30, The United Auto Workers union staged its first sit-down strike, at the Fisher Body Plant No. 1 in Flint, Mich. Walter and Victor Reuther and other union activists withstood violent confrontations with the police to force GM to recognize and negotiate with the trade union.
(AP, 12/30/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A11)
1936 Gloria Steinem, feminist and founder of Ms. magazine, was born.
(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C5)
1936 Yves St. Laurent, fashion designer, was born in Oran, Algeria.
(SFC, 1/9/97, p.E7)
1936 Salvadore Dali painted "Soft Construction with Boiled Beans."
(WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)
1936 Aaron Douglas, a Harlem Renaissance painter, created his work "Into Bondage."
(SFC, 1/16/98, p.D1)
1936 The comic stripe character "The Phantom", was created by Leon Falk, (aka Lee Falk).
(SFC, 3/16/99, p.A17)
1936 Helen Lundeberg painted "Plant and Animal Analogies" done in the Dada-Surrealist style.
(SFE Mag., 2/12/95, p. 8)
1936 Georgia O’Keeffe painted "Red Hills with Pedernal" and ""Gerald’s Tree I."
(SFEC, 8/10/97, p.T5,7)
1936 Ben Shahn painted his gouache "East Side Soap Box."
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1936 Raphael Soyer painted "Office Girls."
(WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)
1936 Stanley Spencer, English artist, painted "Self-Portrait With Patricia Preece."
(SFC, 10/14/97, p.B5)
1936 The first comprehensive catalogue of Cezanne’s work was published in Paris by Italian scholar Lionello Venturi.
(WSJ, 2/10/96, p.A16)
1936 Dorothy Lange took her photo "Migrant Mother" for the Farm Security Administration. The shot featured Florence Thompson (d.1983) of Modesto with her 3 daughters. In Sep, 1998 the photo was used on a postal stamp as 1 of 15 honoring the 1930s.
(SFC, 10/6/98, p.B10)
1936 George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart wrote the play "You Can't Take It With You."
(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)
1936 Clare Boothe Luce wrote his play "The Women."
(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)
1936 Eugene O’Neill wrote his play "A Touch of the Poet." He later wrote: "The Iceman Cometh," "Moon for the Misbegotten," and "Long Day’s Journey Into Night."
(WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-18)
1936 James M. Cain published "Double Indemnity."
1936 Marquis Childs, American journalist, authored “Sweden: The Middle Way.” It chronicled his research on the reform policies of the Swedish Social Democratic Party based on his visits to the country as a reporter.
(Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.3)
1936 Agatha Christie authored her novel “Murder in Mesopotamia.” During the 1930s she accompanied her husband Max Mallowan, British archeologist, on excavations in southern Iraq and later wrote an account of their work titled “Come Tell Me How You Live” (1946).
(MT, summer 2003, p.12)
1936 John Maynard Keynes, English economist, published "The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money." It taught that the classic model of Adam Smith was a special case and only applied in times of full employment. At other times he asserted that the economy needed a large and activist government to steer it on the road of full employment. He advised governments to increase money supply to overcome Depression. His theories played a part in Roosevelt's New Deal which helped revive the US economy.
(WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A18)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1936 "The Story of Ferdinand" by Munro Leaf was published.
(SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)
1936 George Orwell wrote the novel "Keep the Aspidistra Flying." The 1998 film "A Merry War" was based on the novel.
(SFC, 9/18/98, p.C10)
1936 An edited version of the diary of Nijinsky (1889-1950) was published by his wife, Romola. The dancer went mad at age 29 and began his diary. In 1998 complete versions were published in English following a French edition in 1995.
(WSJ, 9/21/98, p.A26)(SFEC, 3/14/99, p.D5)
1936 Dawn Powell wrote her novel "Turn, Magic Wheel."
(WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)
1936 Terence Rattigan (1911-1977) wrote his play "French Without Tears."
(SFC, 6/23/97, p.E3)
1936 Israel Joshua Singer (b.1893), Polish-born writer and older brother of Isaac Bashevis Singer, authored his novel “The Brothers Ashkenazi.” It was later considered to be the best Russian novel written in Yiddish.
(WSJ, 2/7/09, p.W12)
1936 "New Directions in Prose & Poetry" was published by James Laughlin (d.1997 at 83). It was an anthology of experimental writing and the first work from the new New Directions publishing house.
1936 A poetry movement called “the Activists” began in the SF Bay Area. It was led by Lawrence Hart (1900-1996). The movement faded with the rise of the Beat Poets in the 1950s.
(SSFC, 9/4/05, p.F3)
1936 The multi-airlines magazine "Airlanes" was begun to popularize passenger flying.
(Hem, 11/02, p.53)
1936 Life Magazine began publishing at 10 cents a copy.
(SFC, 2/17/98, p.B8)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C5)
1936 Phyllis Pearsall printed 10,000 copies of her "A to Z Maps of London." She had walked more than 3,000 miles of roads throughout the city to compile the maps which were a great success.
(SFC, 8/31/96, p.A23)
1936 Walter D. Edmonds (d.1998 at 94) published his novel "Drums Along the Mohawk." It was made into a film in 1939.
(SFC, 1/29/98, p.B2)
1936 Raymond Firth (1901-2002), New Zealand-born anthropologist, authored "We the Tikopia,’ a study of the organization of some 1,200 Tikopia islanders of the British Solomons. He later wrote 9 more books on the Tikopia.
(SFC, 3/19/02, p.A20)
1936 Graham Green (1904-1991), English writer, authored “Journey Without Maps,” a travel account about a 350-mile, 4-week walk through the interior of Liberia and Sierra Leone in 1935.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Burnt-Out_Case)(Econ, 9/4/10, p.90)
1936 Halldor Laxness, Iceland novelist, published "Salka Valka".
(SFC, 2/11/98, p.A24)
1936 Margaret Mitchell published "Gone with the Wind." She wrote the work from a house on Peachtree St. in Atlanta where she lived from 1925-1932.
(TMC, 1994, p.1936)(SFC, 7/10/96, p.A4)
1936 Kate O’Brian published her novel "Talk of Angels." It was set in 1922 Spain and was banned in Ireland due to a sympathetic lesbian character and an adulterous romance. A film based on the book was set to open in 1997. O’Brian authored 11 books between 1931 and 1963.
(SFEC, 8/10/97, BR p.10)
1936 John Dos Passos authored the “The Big Money,” the third volume of his “U.S.A.” trilogy.
(WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W10)
1936 John Steinbeck published his novel "In Dubious Battle."
(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.D6)
1936 Samuel Morris Steward (1909-1993) authored his novel “Angels on the Bough,” a depiction of a girl of easy virtue among Columbus, Ohio, bohemians. It got him fired from the State College of Washington.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phil_Andros)(SSFC, 8/22/10, p.F1)
1936 The New York Drama Critics’ Circle began to pick the year’s best play from those put on anywhere in New York City. The choice in this year was "Winterset" by Maxwell Anderson.
(WSJ, 5/13/96, p. A-16)
1936 George S. Kaufman and Edna Ferber co-wrote the Broadway comedy "Stage Door." Kaufman and Moss Hart co-wrote the family-farce "You Can’t Take It With You." Kaufman also helped out, uncredited on Claire Booth’s catty, all gal "The Women."
(WSJ, 2/9/96, p.A-10)
1936 "Ten Million Ghosts" by Sidney Kingsley starred Orson Welles on Broadway.
(SFC, 12/25/96, p.A22)
1936 The opera "Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk" by Shostokovich was banned by Soviet authorities. Pravda called it "muddle instead of music."
(WSJ, 1/24/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-12)
1936 Antony Tudor (d.1987) choreographed the ballet "Jardin aux lilas."
(SFC, 9/22/96, DB p.31)
1936 Hennie Youngman, comedian, began appearing on the Kate Smith radio show.
(SFEM, 1/25/98, p.67)
1936 Sergei Rachmaninoff composed his Third Symphony.
(WSJ, 1/14/02, p.A16)
1936 Richard Strauss composed a stately hymn for the Olympics in Berlin.
(WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-12)
1936 Webern composed his "Variations for Piano."
(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)
1936 Basie’s small group recorded "Lady Be Good."
(SFC, 8/22/96, F4)
1936 Bing Crosby recorded "I Got Plenty o’ Nuthin" and "It Ain’t Necessarily So" from "Porgy and Bess" on the Decca label.
(SFEM, 5/11/97, p.30)
1936 Bennie Goodman added Lionel Hampton (1908-2002) to his trio that included pianist Teddy Wilson and drummer Gene Krupa. Their performance together helped break the color barrier that kept black and white musicians apart.
(AH, 4/01, p.25)(SSFC, 9/1/02, p.A1)
1936 Marion Sumner (d.1997 at 77), mountain fiddler, made his radio debut at station WCPO in Cincinnati playing with the Haley Brothers.
(SFC, 8/21/97, p.C4)
1936 The Richmond Art Center (RAC) was started in Richmond, Ca., by Hazel Salmi. In 1951 the center got a permanent home at 2540 Barrett Ave.
(SFC, 3/25/11, p.F1)(http://www.therac.org/)
1936 The film "China Clipper" with Humphrey Bogart was released. It had been shot in the SF Bay Area.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, DB, p.39)
1936 The SF Symphony performed with George Gershwin in his "Concerto for Piano and Orchestra in F Minor."
(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.35)
1936 French Conductor Pierre Monteux began a 17-year tenure with the SF Symphony.
(SFEC, 8/10/97, p.B9)
1936 The "Marriage of Figaro" with Ezio Pinza was performed by the SF Opera. It was the first Mozart opera performed in the new house.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.35)
1936 In San Francisco the Merced Manor Reservoir was built at 2920 23rd Ave.
(SSFC, 7/1/12, p.C2)
1936 The entire streetcar line through Daly City was shifted and new pavement was laid over the center lines on Mission St. Later service ceased beyond the Top of the Hill, which remained the terminus for SF car 14. [through at least 1973]
(GTP, 1973, p.74)
1936 Finnochio's nightclub opened at 506 Broadway. It became world famous for its female impersonators.
(SFC, 11/4/99, p.A1)
1936 Eddie Shipstad (d.1998 at 91), his brother Roy and Oscar Johnson founded the Ice Follies based in SF.
(SFC, 8/25/98, p.B2)
1936 The S.S. Ohioan ran ashore near the Point Lobos overlook.
(G, Winter 96/97, p.3)
1936 Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Fallingwater house near Mill Run in Western Pennsylvania. He was warned by structural engineers that there was not enough support for the cantilevered floors, but dismissed their warnings. Sag began immediately after construction and in 1997 steel support beams were added as a temporary measure. Edgar Kaufmann Jr. later published "Fallingwater, A Frank Lloyd Wright House."
(WSJ, 10/24/97, p.B18)(SFEC, 2/20/00, p.T10)
1936 The 16,000-mile Pan-American Highway project began. It left a 54-mile gap in the jungle of the Panamanian province of Darien.
(Econ, 10/2/04, p.38)
1936 Ernest Hemingway designed his own bush jacket made by Willis & Geiger Outfitters.
(NH, 9/96, p.17)
1936 The Lindy Hop was a popular dance.
(TMC, 1994, p.1954)
1936 Soetsu Yanagi founded the Japan Folk Arts Museum in Tokyo.
(SFC, 4/28/96, B-7)
1936 Consumer Reports Magazine was founded.
1936 The Girl Scouts negotiated a contract with a commercial baker for cookie sales. From the early 1930s to this time they had sold some homemade cookies.
(SFC, 3/29/97, p.E4)
1936 Texas held a centennial celebration and named Dallas as the official "Centennial City."
(HT, 4/97, p.46)
1936 The Henry Ford Foundation was established. In 1997 it held $8 billion in assets.
(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-8)(WSJ, 1/27/97, p.A1)
1936 Jul 25, Sir Henry Wellcome (b.1853), co-founder of the pharmaceutical firm Burroughs Wellcome (1880), died. The Wellcome Trust was established following his death.
1936 Hart Schaffner introduced pants with the zip-up fly.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)
1936 Marjory B. Farquhar (d.1999) became the first woman to climb the Higher Cathedral Spire in Yosemite. Her oral history is on file at UC Berkeley.
(SFC, 1/25/99, p.A20)
1936 The Bendix Race title went to Louise Thaden and Blanche Noyes. A top event during the period known as aviation's Golden Age, the flight took them 14 hours and 55 minutes, and they won both the $4,500 first prize and the $2,500 "consolation" money that had been offered to encourage women to enter the contest. Since no one thought a woman could actually come in first, the Bendix organizers called the $2,500 a "consolation prize," an incentive for the first woman to cross the finish line.
1936 The first US fitness club opened in California and pioneered such exercises as the jumping jack.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1936 The 1st Fields Medal in mathematics, the mathematics equivalent to the Nobel Prize, was awarded to Lars Valerian Ahlfors (1907-1996), Finish-born mathematician and Jesse Douglas of MIT. At the 1924 International Congress of Mathematicians in Toronto, a resolution was adopted that at each ICM, two gold medals should be awarded to recognize outstanding mathematical achievement. Professor J. C. Fields, a Canadian mathematician who was Secretary of the 1924 Congress, later donated funds establishing the medals, which were named in his honor.
1936 The Coast Guard cutter Potomac was converted to a presidential yacht.
(SFC, 3/12/97, p.A19)
1936 Ira C. Eaker was the first person to make a transcontinental instrument flight. Later, as a general in World War II, Eaker became a proponent of daytime bombing, participating himself in a bombing raid over German-occupied Rouen, France--the first such raid conducted by American heavy bombers in Europe. "I don’t want any American mothers to think I’d send their boys to someplace where I’d be afraid to go myself," said Eaker.
1936 The US Forest Service was authorized to purchase 13,200 acres of delta forest in Mississippi. [See 1961]
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.63)
1936 Congress authorized co-ops, member-owned utilities, to serve sparsely populated areas.
(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A1)
1936 A federal court made it legal for physicians to prescribe contraceptives.
1936 The Robinson-Patman Act was passed. The antitrust law forbade price discrimination by wholesalers on the basis of a retailer’s size.
(SFC, 4/25/01, p.E1)
1936 At its peak the WPA Federal Writers' Project employed nearly 6,700 people. In 1972 Jerre Mangione authored “The Dream and the Deal,” an account of the project. In 2009 David A. Taylor authored “Soul of a People: The WPA Federal Writers' Project Uncovers Depression America.”
(WSJ, 2/17/09, p.A13)
1936 The last public hanging in the US took place in Kentucky.
(ON, 10/02, p.5)
1936 A Hopi Tribal Council was formed over the objection of the Hopi elders.
(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
1936 A crusade begun by Minerva Hoyt, "The Apostle of the Cactus," led to the creation of the Joshua Tree National Monument.
(Sp., 5/96, p.127)
1936 In the US labor strikes and sit-ins got severe with blood shed.
(TMC, 1994, p.1936)
1936 In Marin county Ca., the Tudor-style Mill Valley City Hall and firehouse opened thanks to a federal job-creation program.
(SFC, 9/1/08, p.A12)
1936 A long and violent agricultural strike by the lettuce shed workers occurred in Salinas, Ca.
(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.D6)
1936 Henry Talmadge Link (1889-1983) took over the Dixie Furniture Co. in Lexington, NC. Other men joined Link and in the 1950s the corporation was broken up into 4 companies, each specializing in a different type of furniture.
(SFC, 7/25/07, p.G2)
1936 Liquor makers agreed voluntarily to stop advertising on radio. TV advertising was halted in 1948. The agreement held until 1996 when Seagram Co. began running both radio and TV ads.
(SFC, 10/19/96, D1)
1936 Airstream Trailer Co., founded Wally Merle Byam (d.1962), produced its 1st commercial model, the Clipper. Byam made his 1st Airstream when he riveted shiny aluminum to a steel frame on wheels. The first gathering of Airstream enthusiasts was held in Huntsville, Ala., in 1988 and attracted 2,741 trailers.
(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.A12)(NW, 7/14/03, p.61)
1936 Moses Annenberg bought the Philadelphia Enquirer, a reputed bible of Republican politics.
(SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)
1936 Japan kicked out GM and Ford after passing protectionist law.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1936 Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1936 Cord Model 810 as the number 5 favorite car.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1936 Delco introduced the first in-dash car radios.
(F, 10/7/96, p.69)
1936 The first Betty Crocker [a General Mills advertising icon] made her appearance.
(WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A6)
1936 The first drive-in restaurant named Bob’s Big Boy opened.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1936 Gold Dust Corp., a soap maker, was renamed Hecker Products Corp.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1936 H.W. Dudley, a scientist for Bell Labs, invented the "voice coder" or "voder," 1st electronic speech synthesizer.
(SFC, 7/26/00, p.D3)
1936 Portuguese neurologist Antonio Egas Moniz (1874-1955) performed the first prefrontal brain lobotomy. It was later rejected as a valid medical technique. Moniz won the Nobel Prize in 1949 for his development of prefrontal leucotomy (lobotomy).
1936 Psychiatrist Walter Freeman and his partner Jerry Watts became the first American doctors to perform a prefrontal lobotomy. In 1960 Freeman performed a lobotomy on Howard Dully (12), after Dully’s stepmother complained of Howard’s hyperactivity. In 2007 Howard Dully and Charles Fleming authored “My Lobotomy.”
(SFC, 9/10/07, p.C5)
1936 The last time a wild camel was seen in Nevada.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, DB p.67)
1936 A major flood hit Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania soon passed a 10% tax on alcohol in an emergency measure to help cover the flood damage. Repairs were completed in about 5 years, but the tax remained and was later increased twice to 15% and then 18%.
(WSJ, 6/29/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/15/08, p.A11)
1936 The hottest summer on record in the US had an average temp. of 74.33 deg.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.53)
1936 John Gilbert, silent film screen star, died at age 36.
(SFC, 8/13/98, p.E1)
1936 Maria Severa, the 1st great fadista, died. Fado music is about heartsickness and yearning and has been called the "Portuguese blues."
(SSFC, 1/28/01, p.T10)
1936 Writer Lincoln Steffens, author of "The Shame of the Cities," died.
1936 The Mayan city of Caracol was discovered in Belize.
(SFEC, 6/1/97, p.T3)
1936 In Bolivia the YPFB (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos) was created with the exclusive right to explore, produce and distribute hydrocarbons.
(WSJ, 2/14/97, p.A8)
1936 London’s Gatwick Airport opened. It featured direct rail to London, a round terminal on a circular island in the airfield, and could service 6 planes simultaneously.
(Hem., 5/97, p.79)
1936 England tried out automatic teller machines (ATMs) but they could only be used for cash deposits.
(SFC, 7/13/96, p. E3)
1936 James Lees-Milne (1908-1997), British architectural historian, was appointed the National Trust’s first Country Houses secretary. He began publishing his diaries in the 1970s.
(WSJ, 7/1/06, p.P6)
1936 Attendance to greyhound racing peaked in Britain at about 38 million.
(Econ, 3/29/08, p.74)
1936 Leon Blum introduced the 2-week paid holiday for all French workers. In the early 1980s this was extended to 5 weeks.
(Econ, 7/17/10, p.59)
1936 France underwent a round of nationalization. Similar rounds of nationalization again took place in 1945-46 and 1981.
(Econ, 10/25/08, p.18)
1936 The German documentary film "Olympia" was made by Leni Riefenstahl.
(WSJ, 11/8/99, p.A48)(SFC, 9/10/03, p.A19)
1936 The 76,000 seat Berlin Olympic Stadium was designed by Albert Speer.
(SFC, 1/9/02, p.A5)
1936 In Germany Jewish emigrants were only allowed to keep 10 marks.
(WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A8)
1936 Germany’s Reichspost launched the world’s first public videophone service. It was developed by Dr. Georg Schubert and opened using square displays of 8 inches (20 cm), but which quickly closed in 1940 due to the WWII.
(Econ, 10/9/10, p.91)(http://tinyurl.com/2ceklpr)
1936 In Greece a military government took power.
(SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)
1936 In Iraq King Ghazi I witnessed a coup against his prime minister.
(NW, 9/8/03, p.32)
1936 In Iraq King Ghazi I built a radio station at his Al Zuhour Palace. This area later became know as the Green Zone following the US invasion in 2003.
(SFC, 6/2/10, p.A3)
1936 Pierre Gemayel founded the Phalange Party to exert Christian power in Lebanon. It dominated Christian politics for decades after Lebanon's independence from France in 1943.
1936 The Arab Revolt of 1936 was a culmination of actions by Haj Amin al-Husseini (1895-1974), the Mufti of Jerusalem, who recruited and commanded a national movement of violence aimed at forbidding all compromise with Jews.
(WSJ, 6/26/08, p.A13)
1936 Ragnar Sohlman (1870-1948) became managing director of Sweden’s Nobel Foundation and served to 1946.
(ON, 4/07, p.7)
1936 Some 700 Soviet advisors were sent to Spain in an attempt to run and control the economy, government and armed forces. By the end of the civil war most were killed by Stalin’s purges.
(WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)
1936 Stalin imposed a ban on abortion in the USSR.
(SSFC, 8/24/03, p.A11)
1936 The USSR began using Vozrozhdeniye Island in the Aral Sea to test deadly germs. In 1988 anthrax from Sverdlovsk was shipped in and buried there.
(SFC, 3/24/03, p.A5)
1936 Stalin’s purges began.
(WSJ, 7/18/96, p.E6)
1936-1937 John Knox, new Harvard Law school graduate, worked as a clerk for Supreme Court Justice James C. McReynolds, a grouch, racist and anti-Semite. He later wrote a memoir of his clerkship that was published in 2002: "The Forgotten Memoir of John Knox."
(WSJ, 5/31/02, p.W12)
1936-1937 In the Jewish Autonomous Region of Siberia the entire political leadership and membership of the writer’s club of Birobidzhan disappeared into labor camps.
(WSJ, 7/18/96, p.E6)
1936-1939 Under Stalin the number of people shot or sent to the gulag in this period was in the vicinity of five million. A biography of Stalin was written in the 1980s by Dmitri Volkogonov (d.1995). He also wrote biographies of Lenin (1994) and Trotsky: "The Eternal Revolution" (1992).
(WSJ, 2/29/96, p.A-14)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.4)
1936-1937 Leon Blum, a socialist intellectual, was the head of the Popular Front government. The 1999 book "Burden of Responsibility" by Tony Judt included an analysis of Blum.
(WSJ, 1/28/99, p.A16)
1936-1939 The Spanish Civil War has been commonly referred to as "a rehearsal for World War II" by historians because of the intervention by Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and the Soviet Union, and their use of the war to test new weapons and military techniques. It was fought between the liberal Second Spanish Republic government and right-wing rebel forces, including the fascist Falangists, monarchists and Nationalists. The rebels had the support of the Roman Catholic Church, in addition to Germany and Italy. The Government supporters, called Loyalists, had the support of communists, socialists, anarchists, the Soviet Union and volunteers from around the world who formed the International Brigades. Between 400,000 and 1 million were killed in the war, ultimately won by the rebels. In 2008 Paul Preston authored “We Saw Spain Die: Foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War.” In 2012 Paul Preston authored “The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain.”
(HNQ, 9//00)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.97)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.86)
1936-1939 The International Brigades of about 40,000 volunteers went to Spain to fight fascism [in the Spanish Civil War] and restore the legal government overturned by Franco. Of these the American Abe Lincoln Brigade had about 2,800 volunteers of whom more than half died. Some 500,000 to 1 million people died in the war. Veterans of the Brigades later published the "Volunteer."
(SFC, 6/3/96, p.E2)(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(SFC, 12/23/98, p.C5)
1936-1939 The Soviets brought to Spain both Russian commanders and the NKVD to suppress Trotskyists and anarchists who were fighting the volunteers. In 1998 William Herrick (83) published his memoir "Jumping the Line." Included in the work is his story of the time he spent with the Lincoln Battalion in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The events were fictionalized in his 1969 novel "Hermanos." In 2001 the Soviet Union’s role was documented in "Spain Betrayed" edited by Ronald Radosh, Mary R. Habeck and Grigory Sevostianov.
(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)
1936-1939 The term "fifth column" was first applied during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-'39. As the forces of General Francisco Franco laid siege to Madrid, General Emilio Mola referred to a "fifth column" that would sabotage the city's defenses and help his forces, which were marching in four columns, take the city. Thereafter, the term has been used to refer to a clandestine, subversive force at work within a country to further the military and political aims of an enemy.
1936-1939 Turkish forces used a bombing and strafing campaign to crush a Kurdish rebellion. Some 13,806 people were killed in the southeastern town of Dersim, now known as Tunceli. The military's campaign in Dersim was followed by forced migrations and massacres as well as policies of assimilation.
1936-1941 Italy occupied Ethiopia.
(CNT, Nov.,1994, p.260)
1936-1947 Alger Hiss worked for the US State Dept.
(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A3)
1936-1947 Mirza Ali Khan (d.1960), a Wazir of North Waziristan known as the Faqir of Ipi, led a freedom struggle that at one point sucked in some 40,000 British Indian troops. The struggle was only quelled by brutal aerial bombing.
(Econ, 1/2/10, p.19)
1936-1970 The postminimalist artist Eva Hesse (1936-1970). The SFMOMA purchased her sculpture "Untitled, Unfinished or Not Yet" (1966) for $2.2 million in 1997.
1936-1996 Tom Forman, comic strip writer. He wrote the comic strip "Motley’s Crew" that was drawn by Ben Templeton. It was a satirical social commentary as seen through the eyes of blue-collar worker Mike Motley and was printed regularly by 250 newspapers.
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A19)