Return to home1942 Jan 1,
Atlantic Charter members, including the US, Britain, the USSR and 23
other countries all lined up against the Axis, issued a Joint
Declaration stressing their solidarity in the defense against
1942 Jan 2, The Philippine
capital of Manila and the US Naval base at Cavite were captured by
(AP, 1/2/98)(HN, 1/2/02)
1942 Jan 4, Japanese forces
began the evacuation of Guadalcanal
1942 Jan 5, U.S. and Filipino
troops completed their withdrawal to a new defensive line along the
base of the Bataan peninsula.
1942 Jan 5, 55 German tanks
1942 Jan 5, Tina Modotti
(b.1896), Italian born actress, model, photographer and secret
agent, died in Mexico City. She had been expelled from Mexico in
1930 but returned incognito in 1939. In 1999 her biography by Pino
Cacucci was translated into English.
(SFEC, 7/25/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 9/2/06,
1942 Jan 6, The Pan American
Airways "Pacific Clipper" arrived in New York under Captain Robert
Ford. He flew west from New Zealand to avoid Japanese attacks and
became the first commercial pilot to make a round-the-world trip.
The Pacific Clipper was known as a "flying boat." This flight was
31,500 miles and took 209 hours to complete.
1942 Jan 7, Vasili Alexeyev,
weightlifter (Olympic-gold-72, 76), was born in USSR.
1942 Jan 7, The World War II
siege of Bataan began in the Philippines.
1942 Jan 9, US Joint Chiefs of
Staff became established.
Jan 10, Jim Croce, (d.1973) rock vocalist (Time in a Bottle, Workin'
At The Car Wash Blues), was born in Phila.
1942 Jan 11, Japan declared war
against the Netherlands, the same day that Japanese forces invaded
the Dutch East Indies (later Indonesia) at Borneo.
(AP, 1/11/98)(HN, 1/11/00)
1942 Jan 12, President
Roosevelt created the National War Labor Board.
1942 Jan 14, President Franklin
D. Roosevelt ordered all U.S. aliens to register with the
1942 Jan 15, Jawaharlal Nehru
succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as head of India's National Congress
1942 Jan 16, William Knudsen
became the 1st civilian appointed as general in US army.
1942 Jan 16, Actress Carole
Lombard and her mother were among some 20 people killed when their
plane crashed near Las Vegas while returning from a tour to promote
1942 Jan 16, Japan~ez_rsquo~s advance
into Burma began. [see Jan 19]
1942 Jan 17, Muhammad Ali
[Casius Clay], U.S. boxer, "The Greatest," who is the only
three-time heavyweight champion, was born.
1942 Jan 18, General MacArthur
repelled the Japanese in Bataan. The United States took the lead in
the Far East war criminal trials.
1942 Jan 19, Japanese forces
invaded Burma. [see Jan 16]
1942 Jan 20, Top Nazis met at
Grossen-Wannsee, outside Berlin, and there formulated the infamous
"Final Solution" to the Jewish question. Chaired by SS General
Reinhard Heydrich, the one-day conference was designed to address
the Nazi efforts at removing the Jews. The 15 top-ranking men of the
German Reich agreed upon a blueprint for the extermination of
Europe~ez_rsquo~s Jews. Their "final solution" called for exterminating
Europe's Jews. Until this time, the plan had been to deport all Jews
to the island of Madagascar off Africa, but by 1942 this plan was
rejected in favor of transporting Jews to the east where the
able-bodied would become slave laborers for the Reich. SS chief
Heinrich Himmler would be in charge. Those unfit to work would be,
the conference minutes noted, "appropriately dealt with." This
phrase was left unexplained, but there was no doubt of its sinister
meaning. After approving genocide as Nazi policy, the conference
attendees adjourned for lunch. The minutes were taken by Adolf
Eichmann. In 2004 Christopher R. Browning authored "The Origins of
the Final Solution."
(AP, 1/20/98)(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)(HNPD,
1/20/99)(WSJ, 3/23/04, p.D8)(AP, 1/20/12)
1942 Jan 20, There was a
Japanese air raid on Rabaul, New Britain.
1942 Jan 21, Count Basie and
His Orchestra recorded "One O~ez_rsquo~Clock Jump" in New York City for Okeh
1942 Jan 21, A Bronx magistrate
ruled all pinball machines illegal.
1942 Jan 21, In North Africa,
German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel launched a drive to push the
1942 Jan 23, At Novi Sad,
Serbia, some 1200 people (predominantly Jewish), rounded up over a
period of three days, were shot along the shores of the Danube.
Their bodies were dumped into the frozen waters. Sandor Kepiro
(1914-2011), a Hungarian gendarmerie officer, participated in the
mass murder. In 1944 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for his
part in the atrocities, but conviction was later annulled. Kepiro,
who was at the top of the Simon Wiesenthal Center's most-wanted war
criminals list, returned to Hungary in 1996 after living for decades
in Argentina. In 2011 Kepiro (96) was charged with war crimes in the
slaughter, but was cleared by a court on July 18, 2011.
2/14/11)(AP, 7/18/11)(AP, 9/3/11)
1942 Jan 24, A special court of
inquiry into America's lack of preparedness for the Japanese attack
on Pearl Harbor placed much of the blame on Rear Adm. Husband E.
Kimmel and Lt. Gen. Walter C. Short, the Navy and Army commanders.
1942 Jan 26, The first American
expeditionary force to go to Europe during World War II went ashore
in Northern Ireland.
(AP, 1/26/98)(HN, 1/26/99)
1942 Jan 29, German and Italian
troops took Benghazi in North Africa.
1942 Jan, Chile and Argentina
were the only two Latin American countries that did not comply at
once with the Rio de Janeiro Conference recommendation to those
countries who had not already done so to sever diplomatic and
commercial relations with the Axis powers, Germany, Italy and Japan.
Chile eventually broke Axis relations in January 1943 and Argentina
complied in January 1944. The conference of Western Hemisphere
foreign ministers also called for suppression of pro-Axis activity
in the Americas, establishment of an Inter-American defense board
and economic cooperation within the hemisphere.
1942 Jan, The high Nazi
bureaucracy received word of the decision to exterminate all Jews at
the Wannsee Conference.
(WSJ, 12/31/96, p.5)
1942 Jan, In occupied Poland
Samuel Kunz (20) started working as a guard at Belzec prison camp
and continued working there to July, 1943. In 2010 he was charged
with allegedly participating in the murder of more than 430,000 Jews
at the death camp, and was involved in the entire killing process:
From taking victims from trains to pushing them into gas chambers to
throwing their corpses into mass graves, according to court
1942 Feb 1, Planes of the U.S.
Pacific fleet attacked Japanese bases in the Marshall and Gilbert
1942 Feb 2, A Los Angeles Times
column urged security measures against Japanese-Americans, arguing
that a Japanese-American "almost inevitably ... grows up to be a
Japanese, not an American."
1942 Feb 2, US auto factories
switched from commercial to war production.
1942 Feb 4, In Egypt Sir Miles
Lampson, British high commissioner, staged a virtual coup d~ez_rsquo~etat
against King Farouk. In 1998 David Freeman wrote a romantic
historical novel: "One of Us," that was loosely set on this
(WSJ, 2/25/98, p.A20)
1942 Feb 8, Terry Melcher, Rip
Chords, Doris Day's son, was born.
1942 Feb 8, Congress advised
FDR that Americans of Japanese descent should be locked up en masse
so they wouldn't oppose the US war effort.
1942 Feb 8, The Japanese landed
on Singapore. By 1941, Gen. Yamashita was the commanding general of
Japan~ez_rsquo~s Twenty-Fifth Army. His plans for taking Singapore were
1942 Feb 9, The U.S. Joint
Chiefs of Staff held its first formal meeting to coordinate military
strategy during World War II.
1942 Feb 9, FDR reimposed
daylight saving time (DST) in the US calling it "war time" with
clocks turned one hour forward. It remained in effect until Sep 30,
1945. [see 1966]
(AP, 2/9/99)(WSJ, 3/31/05,
1942 Feb 9, The former French
cruise ship Normandie, launched in 1935, burned in New York Harbor
during its conversion to an Allied trip transport ship. It was once
regarded as most elegant ocean liner ever built. In 1947 it was cut
up for scrap. In 2007 John Maxtone-Graham authored ~ez_ldquo~Normandie.~ez_rdquo~
(AP, 2/10/97)(WSJ, 12/8/07, p.W13)
1942 Feb 9, Chiang Kai-shek met
with Sir Stafford Cripps, the British viceroy in India. Detachment
101 harried the Japanese in Burma and provided close support for
regular Allied forces.
1942 Feb 9, Japanese troops
landed near Makassar, South Celebes.
1942 Feb 10, RCA Victor
presented Glenn Miller and his Orchestra with a "gold record" for
their 1941 recording of "Chattanooga Choo Choo," which had sold more
than 1 million copies.
1942 Feb 10, The war halted
civilian car production at Ford. Henry Ford opposed America's entry
into World War II until the attack on Pearl Harbor, which inspired
him to begin an all-out effort to manufacture planes and vehicles
for the war effort.
1942 Feb 10, The former French
liner Normandie capsized in New York Harbor a day after it caught
fire while being refitted for the U.S. Navy.
1942 Feb 11, The German
battleships Gneisenau, Scharnhorst and Prinz Eugen began their famed
channel dash from the French port of Brest. Their journey took them
through the English Channel on their way back to Germany.
1942 Feb 12, Painter Grant Wood
(b.1892), creator of "American Gothic" (1930), died in Iowa City,
Iowa, a day before his 51st birthday.
1942 Feb 12, In Palestine
British police killed Avraham Stern (34), founder of the
breakaway militant Zionist group named Lehi. British forces had
begun shooting members of ~ez_ldquo~Fighters for the Freedom of Israel~ez_rdquo~
(Lehi) after the group had ambushed British soldiers and solicited
fascist and Nazi support for their campaign.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avraham_Stern)(Econ, 5/3/14, p.75)
1942 Feb 12, Three German
battle cruisers escaped via Channel to Brest, N. Germany.
1942 Feb 13, Hitler's invasion
of England was cancelled.
1942 Feb 14, The Japanese
attacked Sumatra. Aidan MacCarthy~ez_rsquo~s RAF unit flew to Palembang, in
eastern Sumatra, where 30 Royal Australian Air Force Lockheed A-28
Hudson bombers were waiting. The elation was short-lived as Japanese
soldiers were parachuting into the jungle that surrounded the
1942 Feb 15, British forces in
Singapore surrendered to Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita.
Yamashita prevailed, when British Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur Percival and
130,000 Empire troops surrendered. It was the largest surrender in
(HN, 2/15/98)(AP, 2/15/98)
1942 Feb 16, German submarines
attacked an Aruba oil refinery and sank the tanker Pedernales.
(MC, 2/16/02)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C11)
1942 Feb 16, Tojo outlined
Japan~ez_rsquo~s war aims to the Diet, referring to "new order of
coexistence" in East Asia. During the Japanese war crimes trials,
Tojo himself took responsibility, as premier, for anything either he
or his country had done. He asserted, however, with the other
defendants, that they~ez_mdash~and Japan~ez_mdash~had made war only in "self-defense."
1942 Feb 17, Sidney Newsom
(b.1877), California architect, died. He and his brother Noble
created homes that recalled Spanish haciendas, English cottages,
French chateaus and American colonial homesteads.
1942 Feb 18, Japanese troop
landed on Bali.
1942 Feb 19, Tommy Dorsey and
his orchestra recorded "I'll Take Tallulah."
1942 Feb 19, President
Roosevelt signed executive order 9066 that gave the military the
authority to relocate and intern Japanese-Americans. The order
resulted in the incarceration of more than 110,000
Japanese-Americans living in California, Oregon, Washington and
Arizona. By the end of March, 1942, the Japanese-Americans were
moved to 10 relocation camps throughout the U.S. interior. The
mass expulsion of Japanese-Americans from the West Coast ended on
January, 2, 1945. [see Feb 20]
(AP, 2/20/98)(SFC, 2/19/98, p.A13)(HNQ, 9/3/99)
1942 Feb 19, Port Darwin, on
the northern coast of Australia, was bombed by about 150 Japanese
warplanes; at least 243 people were killed. General George C.
Kenney, who pioneered aerial warfare strategy and tactics in the
Pacific theater, ordered 3,000 parafrag bombs to be sent to
Australia, where he thought they might come in handy against the
Japanese. Darwin was virtually leveled by 64 bombing raids over 21
(HN, 2/19/98)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T10)(AP, 2/19/08)
1942 Feb 19, Japanese troops
landed on Timor. Australian commandos battled the Japanese with
support from local people. Japanese reprisals killed 60,000
civilians, 13% of the population.
(SFC, 5/17/02, p.A15)(MC, 2/19/02)
1942 Feb 20, Franklin D.
Roosevelt authorized the internment of Japanese Americans on the
West Coast. [see Feb 19]
1942 Feb 20, Lt. Edward O~ez_rsquo~Hare
downed five out of nine Japanese bombers that were attacking the
carrier Lexington, which earned him the Congressional Medal of
Honor. Lieutenant Edward H. "Butch" O~ez_rsquo~Hare became the first Wildcat
1942 Feb 22, President Franklin
Roosevelt ordered Gen. Douglas MacArthur to leave the Philippines.
1942 Feb 22, India~ez_rsquo~s Capt. Sam
Manekshaw (1914-2008) was severely wounded in a counteroffensive
against Japanese forces on the Sittong River in Burma. In 1969
Manekshaw became the 8th chief of the Indian army.
(SFC, 7/1/08, p.B5)
1942 Feb 23, A Japanese
submarine shelled an oil refinery at Ellwood, near Santa Barbara,
Calif., the first Axis bombs to hit American soil.
(HN, 2/23/98)(MC, 2/23/02)
1942 Feb 23, Stefan Zweig
(b.1881), Austrian Jewish writer (Die Welt von Gestern), committed
suicide with his wife in Brazil. Zweig's nostalgic but rather
impersonal memoirs of the "Golden Age of Security", The World of
Yesterday, was published posthumously in 1943. His last novel (The
Ecstasy of Transformation) was published posthumously in Germany in
1982. In 2008 it was translated into English as ~ez_ldquo~The Post-Office
Girl.~ez_rdquo~ In 2014 George Prochnik authored ~ez_ldquo~The Impossible Exile:
Stefan Zweig at the End of the World.~ez_rdquo~
p.W9)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.91)(Econ, 6/14/14, p.76)
1942 Feb 24, The Voice of
America went on the air for the first time with broadcasts in
German. The US State Dept. made William Winter (d.1999) its first
Voice of America three months before the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
(AP, 2/24/98)(SFC, 11/9/99, p.A23)(MC, 2/24/02)
1942 Feb 24, Some 1,600
Pittsburg, Ca., residents of Italian descent were evacuated.
Nationwide some 600,000 of 5 million Italians were undocumented and
deemed "enemy aliens" until Oct 12.
(SSCM, 10/21/01, p.11,19)
1942 Feb 24, The SS Struma was
sunk in the Black Sea by a Soviet torpedo. The ship with over 750
Jewish passengers fleeing Romania, had docked in Istanbul, but was
denied entry to Palestinian territory by colonial power Britain. On
Feb 23 Turkey towed the vessel to the Black Sea and set it adrift.
Only one person survived.
1942 Feb 26, Don Mason, WWII
Navy flier, sent the message: "Sighted sub sank same."
1942 Feb 26, German battle
cruiser Gneisenau was deactivated by bomb.
1942 Feb 26, Werner Heisenberg
informed Nazis about uranium project "Wunderwaffen."
1942 Feb 27, The 1st transport
of French Jews left to Nazi Germany.
1942 Feb 27, Battle of Java Sea
began. 13 US warships sank-2 Japanese.
1942 Feb 27, British Commandos
raided a German radar station at Bruneval on the French coast. The
warrior spies of the Abwehr, Germany~ez_rsquo~s intelligence agency, were the
1942 Feb 28, There was a race
riot at the Sojourner Truth Homes in Detroit.
1942 Feb 28, The German
submarine U-578 torpedoed and sank the US destroyer Jacob Jones off
the New Jersey coast. Only 11 of some 102 crew members survived.
1942 Feb 28, Japanese landed in
Java, the last Allied bastion in Dutch East Indies.
1942 Feb 28, The Japanese sank
the USS Houston during the Battle of Sunda Strait. The ship carried
1,068 crewmen, but only 291 sailors and Marines survived both the
attack and being prisoners of war. In 2014 Navy divers from
the US and Indonesia confirmed that a sunken vessel in the Java Sea
is the wreck of the Houston.
1942 Feb, The first transport
of Jews arrived at Auschwitz, Poland, and the adjoining Birkenau
camp. Dr. Josef Mengele (d.1979), the "angel of death," worked at
Auschwitz and fled secretly to Sao Paolo, Brazil, after the war.
Rudolf Hoess was the last commander of Auschwitz and kept a diary
that was used in the 1961 trial of Adolf Eichmann.
(SF E&C, 1/15/1995, A-10)(SFC, 4/8/97,
p.A10)(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)
1942 Feb, The Soviet government
established the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC) to drum up
int~ez_rsquo~l. support as the Red Army struggled against the German
onslaught. As the war progressed the group collected evidence of
atrocities and genocide and planned to publish its ~ez_ldquo~Black Book.~ez_rdquo~
Incomplete versions appeared in the 1980s and the first complete
version was published in Lithuania in 1993. In Russia it was
published as ~ez_ldquo~The Unknown Black Book.~ez_rdquo~ In 2008 an English
translation was edited by Joshua Rubenstein and Ilya Altman.
(WSJ, 1/19/08, p.W8)
1942 Mar 1, J. Milton Cage
Jr.~ez_rsquo~s "Imaginary Landscape No 3" premiered in Chicago.
1942 Mar 1, Baseball decided
that players in military can't play when on furlough.
1942 Mar 1, The 3 day Battle
of Java Sea ended as US suffered a major naval defeat. Japanese
troops occupy Kalidjati airport in Java.
(HN, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)
1942 Mar 1, Tito established
the 2nd Proletariat Brigade in Bosnia.
1942 Mar 1, Suriname camp for
NSB people opened to save Jews.
1942 Mar 2, John Irving,
novelist (The World According to Garp), was born.
1942 Mar 2, Lou Reed [Louis
Firbank], vocalist, guitarist (Walk on the Wild Side, Velvet
Underground), was born in Freeport, NY.
1942 Mar 2, 14th Academy
Awards: "How Green was My Valley", Gary Cooper and Joan Fontaine
1942 Mar 2, Admiral Helfrich
departed Java for Ceylon.
1942 Mar 3, Canada's Avro
Lancaster military plane made its 1st combat flight.
1942 Mar 3, The RAF raided the
industrial suburbs of Paris.
1942 Mar 5, Josip Broz "Tito"
established the 3rd Proletariat Brigade in Bosnia.
1942 Mar 5, Japanese troop
marched into Batavia.
1942 Mar 7, Michael Eisner, CEO
(Walt Disney), was born in Mt. Kisko, NY.
1942 Mar 7, Tamara Faye
LaValley (d.2007) was born in International Falls, Minn. She later
married fellow bible college student Jim Bakker. Together they
established a Christian talk variety show, the PTL Club, which
collapsed in 1987 amid a sex and money scandal.
(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.B7)
1942 Mar 7, Japanese troops
landed on New Guinea.
1942 Mar 7, 15 Mk-VB Spitfires
1942 Mar 8, Japanese captured
Rangoon, Burma, during World War II.
(AP, 3/8/98)(HN, 3/8/98)
1942 Mar 9, Construction of the
Alaska Highway began.
1942 Mar 11, As Japanese forces
continued to advance in the Pacific during World War II Gen. Douglas
MacArthur left Corregidor in the Philippines for Australia.
MacArthur, who subsequently vowed, "I shall return," kept that
promise more than 2 1/2 years later. MacArthur relinquished command
in the Philippines to Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Jonathon Wainwright.
(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(AP,
1942 Mar 11, 1st deportation
train left Paris for the Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
1942 Mar 11, Japanese troops
landed on North Sumatra.
1942 Mar 12, Salvatore "the
Bull" Gravano, mobster (testified against John Gotti), was born.
1942 Mar 13, Julia Flikke of
the Nurse Corps became the first woman colonel in the U.S. Army.
1942 Mar 15, Alexander van
Zemlinsky (70), Austrian-US composer (African Dance), died.
1942 Mar 17, John Wayne Gacy,
serial killer (32 boys), was born in Chicago, Ill.
1942 Mar 17, Gen. Douglas
MacArthur arrived in Australia to become supreme commander of Allied
forces in the southwest Pacific theater during World War II.
(AP, 3/17/97) (HN, 3/17/98)
1942 Mar 17, Belzec
Concentration Camp opened. 30,000 Lublin Polish Jews were
1942 Mar 17, The Nazis began
deporting Jews to the Belsen camp.
1942 Mar 18, The third military
draft began in the U.S. because of World War II.
1942 Mar 18, Black players,
Jackie Robinson and Nate Moreland, requested a tryout with the
Chicago White Sox. They were allowed to work out.
1942 Mar 19, FDR ordered men
between 45 and 64 to register for non military duty.
1942 Mar 20-22, There was a
major German assault on Malta.
(MC, 3/20/02)(MC, 3/21/02)(MC, 3/22/02)
1942 Mar 21, Convoy QP9
departed Great Britain to Murmansk.
1942 Mar 23, During World War
II the US government began moving the first of some 112,000
Japanese-Americans from their West Coast homes to detention centers.
(AP, 3/23/97)(AH, 4/07, p.14)
1942 Mar 23, The Japanese
occupied the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean.
(HN, 3/23/98)(SS, 3/23/02)
1942 Mar 23, Some 2,500 Jews of
Lublin were massacred or deported.
1942 Mar 25, Aretha Franklin,
American singer, the "Queen of Soul," was born in Memphis, Tenn.
(HN, 3/25/01)(SSFC, 6/30/02, Par p.30)
1942 Mar 25-26, The 1st 700
Jews from Polish Lvov-district reached concentration camp Belzec.
The Germans began sending Jews to Auschwitz in Poland.
(HN, 3/25/98)(MC, 3/25/02)(SS, 3/26/02)
1942 Mar 26, Erica Jong [Mann],
poet, novelist (Fear of Flying, How to Save Your Own Life), was born
(HN, 3/26/01)(SS, 3/26/02)
1942 Mar 26, 20 tons of
gelignite killed 21 in a stone quarry in Easton, PA.
1942 Mar 26, A German offensive
took place in North-Africa under Colonel-General Rommel.
1942 Mar 27, Michael York,
actor (Cabaret, Logan's Run, 3 Musketeers), was born in England.
1942 Mar 27-28, Allies raided
the Nazi submarine base at St. Nazaire, France.
(HN, 3/27/98)(MC, 3/27/02)
1942 Mar 28, Samuel Ramey, bass
(La Scala, Met Opera), was born in Colby, Kansas.
1942 Mar 28, British naval
forces continued the raid on the Nazi-occupied French port of St.
Nazaire. British Bomber Command launched an attack on the German
city of Lubeck with 234 RAF bombers.
(AP, 3/28/97)(HN, 3/28/98)(MC, 3/28/02)
1942 Mar 28, A British ship,
the HMS Capbeltown, a Lend-Lease American destroyer, which was
specifically rammed into a German occupied dry-dock in France,
exploded, knocking the area out of action for the German battleship
1942 Mar 29, British cruiser
Trinidad torpedoed itself in the Barents Sea.
1942 Mar 29, German submarine
1942 Mar 30, Graeme Edge, rock
drummer (Moody Blues-Your Wildest Dreams), was born in England.
1942 Mar 30, SS murdered 200
inmates of Trawniki labor camp.
1942 Mar, The US government
launched its "Salvage for Victory" campaign to collect tin, rubber,
scrap iron, rags and paper for the war effort.
1942 Mar, British and US
intelligence received information on Nazi plans for the Holocaust:
"It has been decided to eradicate all the Jews." This was part of a
dispatch from a Chilean consul in Prague, Gonzalo Montt Rivas, to
Santiago of a German decree that Jews abroad could no longer be
(SFC, 7/3/01, p.A8)
1942 Mar, Japan established
relations with the Vatican, the 1st non-Christian state to do so.
The first ambassador's name was Ken Harada.
1942 Spring, Soviet soldiers
retreated for 3 days through a corridor 50-yards wide in the Mysnoi
Bor under constant German shelling. The retreat was from a botched
campaign to free Leningrad, 150 miles to the north. The official
death toll was 20,000, but some claim as many as 300,000.
(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)
1942 Apr 1, The U.S. Navy began
a partial convoy system in the Atlantic.
1942 Apr 2, Glenn Miller and
his orchestra recorded "American Patrol" at the RCA Victor studios
1942 Apr 3, Marsha Mason,
actress (Blume in Love, Cinderella Liberty), was born in St Louis,
1942 Apr 3, The Japanese began
their all-out assault on the U.S. and Filipino troops at Bataan.
1942 Apr 7, There was a heavy
German assault on Malta.
1942 Apr 9, In the Battle of
Bataan, some 70,000 soldiers gathered at the bottom of the Bataan
peninsula during World War II. American and Philippine defenders on
Bataan capitulated to Japanese forces; the surrender was followed by
the notorious 55-mile "Bataan Death March" which claimed nearly
10,000 lives. 12,000 American soldiers surrendered to the Japanese
and some 1000 died on the march. [see Apr 10]
(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(AP, 4/9/97)(HN,
4/9/98)(SSFC, 6/17/01, Par p.4)
1942 Apr 10, The 65-mile Bataan
Death March began to a prison camp near Cabanatuan. The prisoners
were forced to march 85 miles in six days with only one meal of rice
during the entire journey. Some 10k-15k soldiers perished on the
march. Bataan is a peninsula of western Luzon in the Philippines. It
was surrendered to the Japanese in this year and retaken by American
forces in 1945. [see Apr 9]
(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.28)(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(SFC,
4/25/97, p.A26)(MC, 4/10/02)
1942 Apr 11, Detachment 101 of
the OSS, a guerrilla force, was activated in Burma.
1942 Apr 12, Japan killed about
400 Filipino officers in Bataan.
1942 Apr 13, Bill Conti,
composer (For Your Eyes Only, Rocky IV), was born in Providence, RI.
1942 Apr 14, Destroyer Roper
sank German U-85 of US east coast.
1942 Apr 15, Kenneth Lay, the
son of a Baptist minister, was born. He grew up in Rush, Missouri,
and in 1986 became the CEO of Texas-based Enron Corp.
(SSFC, 2/3/02, p.A19)
1942 Apr 15, George VI awarded
the George Cross to the citizens of Malta.
1942 Apr 16, The Japanese
occupying army on Java installed film censorship.
1942 Apr 16, Britain~ez_rsquo~s King
George V awarded the Island of Malta the George Cross in recognition
for heroism under constant German air attack. It was the first such
award given to any part of the British Commonwealth.
(HN, 4/16/99)(HNQ, 7/8/01)
1942 Apr 16, Swiss Nazis in
Payerne killed Jewish cattle trader Arthur Bloch. In 2009 novelist
Jacques Chessex (1934-2009) recounted the event in his novel ~ez_ldquo~A Jew
1942 Apr 18, First issue of the
newspaper for U.S. armed forces, Stars and Stripes, was published.
1942 Apr 18, The first US air
strike against Japan, an air squadron from the USS Hornet led by Lt.
Col. James H. Doolittle (d.1993), raided Tokyo and other Japanese
cities. 16 U.S. Army B-25 bombers broke through Japanese defenses to
strike Tokyo and other cities in broad daylight. The North-American
B-25B Mitchells were launched from the deck of the aircraft carrier
Hornet, and after striking their targets, flew on to China. 2 of the
80 men drowned. 3 of 8 captured by the Japanese were executed and 1
died in a prison camp. Doolittle later became the commander general
of the Eighth Air Force. In 1943 Ted Lawson authored ~ez_ldquo~Thirty Seconds
Over Tokyo,~ez_rdquo~ an account of the bombing of Tokyo.
(AP, 4/18/97)(SFC, 5/15/02, p.A23)(SSFC, 3/30/03,
p.A1)(SFC, 8/12/06, p.P8)
1942 Apr 18, The 16th plane of
the Doolittle air strike against Japan landed outside Vladivostok in
the Soviet Union following its mission. Nolan Herndon (1918-2007),
the bombardier, later reported that their plane was used to test the
Soviet resolve as an ally. The 5-man crew was held for over 13
months before escaping to a British Embassy in what later became
(SFC, 10/16/07, p.D8)
1942 Apr 20, Pierre Laval, the
premier of Vichy France, in a radio broadcast, established a policy
of "true reconciliation with Germany."
1942 Apr 20, Heavy German
assault on Malta.
1942 Apr 20, The battle for
Moscow ended. It officially lasted from September 30, 1941, to April
20, 1942, but in reality spanned more than those 203 days of
unremitting mass murder, and marked the first time that Hitler's
armies failed to triumph with their Blitzkrieg tactics. In 2007
Andrew Nagorski authored ~ez_ldquo~The Greatest Battle: Stalin, Hitler, and
the Desperate Struggle for Moscow That Changed the Course of World
(WSJ, 1/11/08, p.W6)
1942 Apr 23, A 4-day allied
bombing of Rostock began.
1942 Apr 23, Luftwaffe bombed
1942 Apr 24, Barbra Streisand,
singer, actress, was born in Brooklyn, NY.
1942 Apr 24, Luftwaffe bombed
1942 Apr 26, Bobby Rydell
(Ridarelli), singer, was born. His songs included: "Wild One," "We
Got Love," and "Volare."
(440 Int~ez_rsquo~l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)
1942 Apr 26, Luftwaffe bombed
1942 Apr 27, The 1st convoys of
Japanese detainees arrived at the Tanforan detention center south of
San Francisco. The assembly center remained in operation for 169
days after which detainees were transferred to relocation camps.
Most of the Tanforan detainees were transferred to Abraham, Utah.
(Ind, 2/2/02, 5A)
1942 Apr 27, Tornado destroyed
Pryor, Oklahoma, killing 100 and injuring 300.
1942 Apr 27, Belgium Jews were
forced to wear stars.
1942 Apr 28, Nightly "dim-out"
began along the East Coast.
1942 Apr 29, Japanese troops
marched into Lashio and cut off the Burma Road.
1942 Apr, Operation Bolero was
the name of the logistics mission to transfer equipment and fighting
men from Canada and the United States to England in preparation for
an cross-Channel invasion in 1943. Started in April, 1942, this
colossal logistical effort was undertaken by the Services of Supply
(SOS), part of the U.S. Army.
1942 Apr, A stenographic record
of Hitler~ez_rsquo~s conferences with his generals from this time until Apr,
1945, was published in 2003 as: "Hitler and His Generals." It was
edited by Helmut Heiber and David M. Glantz."
(WSJ, 2/5/03, p.D10)
1942 Apr, In Germany the
Gestapo closed the Grosse Hamburgerstrasse School, the last Jewish
school operating in Berlin. A film was made in 1996 of surviving
pupils reuniting at the site.
(WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A16)
1942 May 2, Admiral Chester J.
Nimitz, convinced that the Japanese would attack Midway Island,
visited the island to review its readiness.
1942 May 2, Japanese troops
occupied Mandalay Burma.
1942 May 3, Executive Order
9066, signed by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, was issued by Lt.
Gen~ez_rsquo~l. John DeWitt from his headquarters in the SF Presidio. It
called for the evacuation of Japanese-Americans from Los Angeles
effective May 9. Some 110,000-112,000 Japanese-Americans were
settled in 10 relocation camps, the first of which was in Manzanar
in Owens Valley, Ca. In the Bay Area most Japanese-Americans were
sent to the Tanforan racetrack where they were put up in stables and
later relocated to Topaz, Utah. Soon after, the War Relocation
Authority hired Dorothea Lange, a photographer already well-known
for her striking Depression-era photos of migrant workers, to
document the internment process. Lange's poignant photos reflected
her disagreement with government policy and brought her into
conflict with her employers.
(SFC, 10/30/96, p.C2)(SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC,
11/19/96, p.A17)(HNPD, 4/24/99)
1942 May 3, The Luftwaffe
1942 May 3, Nazis executed 72
in reprisal in Sachsenhausen, Netherlands. Johan H. Westerveld,
lt.-Col, leader Order Service, was among the executed.
1942 May 4, The U.S. began food
1942 May 4,
The Battle of the Coral Sea, the first naval clash fought entirely
with carrier aircraft, began during World War II.
(AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)
1942 May 5, Tammy Wynette,
country singer (Stand by your Man), was born in Redbay, Alabama.
1942 May 5, Sales of sugar
resumed in the United States under a rationing program.
(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/98)
1942 May 5, General Joseph
Stilwell learned that the Japanese had cut his railway out of China
and was forced to lead his troops into India.
1942 May 5, The first Japanese
soldiers landed on the Philippine island of Corregidor defended by
only 13,000 soldiers under Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Wainwright. More than 1,000
Americans and Filipinos died in defense of the island.
(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)
1942 May 6, Ariel Dorfman,
Chilean writer (Death and the Maiden), was born.
1942 May 6, On Corregidor US
Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Jonathan Wainwright surrendered his forces, some 15,000
Americans and Filipinos, to the Japanese. This began a 3-year ordeal
for 4 doctors as POWs under the Japanese. In 2005 John A. Glusman
authored ~ez_ldquo~Conduct Under Fire,~ez_rdquo~ and account of their survival as
(AP, 5/6/97)(SSFC, 7/10/05,
1942 May 7, In the Battle of
the Coral Sea, Japanese and American navies attacked each other with
carrier planes. It was the first time in the history of naval
warfare where two enemy fleets fought without seeing each other.
This battle stopped Japanese expansion.
(HN, 5/7/99)(MC, 5/7/02)
1942 May 7, A Nazi decree
ordered all Jewish pregnant women of Kovno Ghetto executed.
1942 May 7, Felix Paul von
Weingartner, Austria conductor, composer, died.
1942 May 8, Battle of the Coral
Sea between the Japanese Navy and the U.S. Navy ended as a tactical
victory for the Japanese. They sank more tons of ships than the U.S.
did. It was a strategic victory for the U.S. in that the Japanese
were halted in their drive south. The aircraft carrier Lexington was
sunk by Japanese air attack at Coral Sea.
(HN, 5/8/99)(MC, 5/8/02)
1942 May 8, German summer
offensive opened in Crimea.
1942 May 9, John Ashcroft,
later Missouri governor (1984-1992) senator (1995-2000) and US
Attorney Gen~ez_rsquo~l (2001-2004), was born in Chicago, Ill.
(USAT, 11/5/04, p.4A)
1942 May 12, A Nazi U-boat sank
an American cargo ship at mouth of Mississippi River.
1942 May 12, David Ben-Gurion
left the Jewish state in Palestine.
1942 May 12, The Soviet Army
launched its first major offensive of the war and took Kharkov in
the eastern Ukraine from the German army. The occupation lasted
until Aug 23, 1943.
(HN, 5/12/99)(MC, 5/12/02)
1942 May 12, 1,500 Jews were
gassed in Auschwitz.
1942 May 13, Pitcher Jim Tobin
belted 3 HRs in a game.
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1942 May 13, A helicopter made
its 1st cross-country flight.
1942 May 14, Aaron Copland~ez_rsquo~s
"Lincoln Portrait" was first performed by the Cincinnati Symphony
Orchestra, conducted by Andre Kostelanetz, who had commissioned the
1942 May 14, US Congress voted
to establish the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC).
1942 May 14, The British, in
retreat from Burma, reached India.
1942 May 15, Gasoline rationing
went into effect in 17 states, limiting sales to 3 gallons a week
for nonessential vehicles.
(AP, 5/15/97)(HN, 5/15/98)
1942 May 17, Dutch SS vowed
loyalty to Hitler.
1942 May 18, New York ended
night baseball games for the rest of World War II.
1942 May 18, Allied forces
bombed the harbor city of Kupang (Koepang), Timor.
1942 May 19, Sir Joseph Larmor
(b.1857), professor of mathematics, died in Ireland. His
contributions bridged the old and the new physics. He published
three papers all entitled ~ez_ldquo~A dynamical theory of the electric and
luminiferous medium~ez_rdquo~ between 1894 and 1897. These papers presented
his theory of the electron, which gained further weight in 1897 when
J J Thomson experimentally identified the electron.
(http://tinyurl.com/y9y5wg)(WSJ, 10/13/06, p.A13)
1942 May 20, Glenn Miller and
His Orchestra recorded "(I've Got a Gal in) Kalamazoo" at Victor
Studios in Hollywood.
1942 May 20, US Navy 1st
permitted black recruits to serve.
1942 May 20, Japan completed
the conquest of Burma.
1942 May 25, Bill Young,
rocker, was born.
1942 May 25, Brian "Blinky"
Davison, rocker, was born.
1942 May 26, John R. Brinkley
(b.1885), Kansas scam artist, died in Texas. He was known as the
~ez_ldquo~goat gland doctor~ez_rdquo~ for touting sexual vitality with goat gland
implants. He also built one of the nation~ez_rsquo~s 1st radio stations KFKB
(Kansas Folks Know Best), and ran for governor there in 1930 and
1932. In 2002 R. Alton Lee authored ~ez_ldquo~The Bizarre Careers of John R.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_R._Brinkley)(WSJ, 5/24/02, p.W11)
1942 May 26, Tank battle at Bir
Hakeim: African corps vs. British army.
1942 May 27, Nazi overlord and
SS general Reinhard Heydrich was killed in Prague by Czech
commandos, who had parachuted into Czechoslovakia and ambushed his
car. Hitler promptly ordered the deaths of 10,000 residents of
Lidice, near Prague. Heydrich died of his wounds a week later. The
commandos had been sheltered in Lidice and as a result the entire
population was either executed or driven out. This has become a
hallmark of Nazi brutality. Heydrich was the man charged with "The
Final Solution of the Jewish Problem." Heydrich was responsible for
the development of an espionage system outside Germany. As an SS
general he was the first administrator of the concentration camps
and the program to eliminate Jews from Europe.
(HNQ, 10/20/99)(MC, 5/27/02)
1942 May 27, German General
Erwin Rommel began a major offensive in Libya with his Afrika Korps.
1942 May 28, Jean F. van Royen,
German secretary PTT (camp Amersfoort), died.
1942 May 29, Kevin Conway,
actor (Flash Point, Cage of Angels), was born in NYC.
1942 May 29, The movie "Yankee
Doodle Dandy," starring James Cagney, premiered at a war-bonds
benefit in New York.
1942 May 29, Bing Crosby, the
Ken Darby Singers and the John Scott Trotter Orchestra recorded
Irving Berlin~ez_rsquo~s "White Christmas" in Los Angeles for Decca Records.
1942 May 29, Actor John
Barrymore died in Hollywood at age 60.
(HN, 5/29/00)(AP, 5/29/01)
1942 May 29, The German Army
completed its encirclement of the Kharkov region of the Soviet
Union. The Red Army had lost over 250,000 men including many
1942 May 30, US aircraft
carrier Yorktown left Pearl Harbor.
1942 May 30, The Royal
Air Force launched the first 1,000 plane raid over Germany. 1,047
RAF bombers bombed Cologne.
(HN, 5/30/98)(MC, 5/30/02)
1942 May 30, Reichsfuhrer
Heinrich Himmler arrived in Prague.
1942 May 31, In Australia 3
midget submarines slipped into the Sidney Harbor after being
launched from a fleet of five larger Japanese submarines offshore.
Two were spotted and attacked, leading the two-man crews to commit
suicide. A 3rd midget submarine managed to fire two torpedoes at the
US heavy cruiser USS Chicago, one of which exploded beneath an
Australian depot ship HMAS Kuttabul, killing 21 sailors. In 2006 the
M24 midget submarine was found by scuba divers in deep waters off
the coast. In 2007 the Australian government decided to leave the
M24 and its 2 Japanese sailors undisturbed on the seabed.
(AFP, 11/24/06)(AFP, 5/23/07)
1942 May 31, Luftwaffe bombed
1942 May, Japanese documents in
1998 revealed that their military used poison gas in a northern
China battlefield. China claimed that poison gas was used 2,900
(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A14)
1942 Jun 1, America began
sending Lend-Lease materials to the Soviet Union.
1942 Jun 1, The US Supreme
Court, in Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson, struck down
Oklahoma~ez_rsquo~s Habitual Criminal Sterilization Act.
1942 Jun 2, The American
aircraft carriers Enterprise, Hornet and Yorktown moved into their
battle positions for the Battle of Midway.
1942 Jun 3, Japanese
carrier-based planes strafed Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands as
a diversion of the attack on Midway island.
1942 Jun 4, The Battle of
Midway began. It was Japan~ez_rsquo~s first major defeat in World War II.
Four Japanese carriers were lost. The carrier USS Yorktown was hit
by 3 Japanese bombs and put on tow to Pearl Harbor. It was torpedoed
three days later and sank in waters 16,650 deep. The Yorktown was
found in 1998 by a team led by oceanographer Robert Ballard, who had
also found the Titanic and the Bismarck. The story of the Battle of
Midway was told by Walter Lord in "Incredible Victory." In 2005
Alvin Kernan authored ~ez_ldquo~The Unknown Battle of Midway.~ez_rdquo~
(AP, 6/4/97)(HN, 6/4/98)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A3)(SFEC,
6/4/00, p.C1)(WSJ, 11/29/05, p.D8)
1942 Jun 6, The 1st nylon
parachute jump was made in Hartford, Ct., by Adeline Gray.
1942 Jun 6, Japanese troops
landed on Kiska, Aleutians.
1942 Jun 6, Japanese forces
retreated in the World War II Battle of Midway.
1942 Jun 7, The USS Yorktown
was sunk off of Midway Atoll.
(F, 10/7/96, p.174)
1942 Jun 7, The Japanese
invaded Attu and Kiska in the Aleutian Islands.
1942 Jun 8, Andrew Weil,
physician and author (Spontaneous Healing), was born.
1942 Jun 8, Bing Crosby
recorded "Adeste Fideles" and "Silent Night" in Los Angeles for
1942 Jun 8, In Paris on the
first day Helene Berr was forced to wear the yellow star to
distinguish Jews: "My God, I didn't know this would be so hard. I
was very brave all day. I held my head high and looked people so
straight in the eyes they turned away. But it's hard ... This
morning, I went out with Mother. Two kids in the street pointed at
us saying 'Hey? You see? Jewish.'"
1942 Jun 9, German-Neth press
reported that 3 million Dutch were sent to East-Europe.
1942 Jun 9, The Japanese high
command announced that "The Midway Occupation operations have been
1942 Jun 10, German
Gestapo massacred 173 male residents of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, in
retaliation for the killing of SS Gen Reinhard Heydrich. All
together, 340 people died in the Nazi reprisal (192 men, 60 women
and 88 children). The death toll resulting from the effort to avenge
the death of Heydrich is estimated at 1,300. This count includes
relatives of the partisans, their supporters, Czech elites suspected
of disloyalty and random victims like those from Lidice.
1942 Jun 11, The United States
and the Soviet Union signed a lend-lease agreement to aid the Soviet
war effort in World War II.
1942 Jun 11-Oct 20, In Malta
the German and Italian air blockade and repeated bombing failed to
break the people-who lived in caves and catacombs through the worst.
Hitler~ez_rsquo~s planned airborne invasion-Operation Hercules-was finally
1942 Jun 12, American bombers
struck the oil refineries of Ploesti, Rumania for the first time.
1942 Jun 12, Anne Frank
received her diary as a birthday present in Amsterdam.
1942 Jun 13, President
Roosevelt created the Office of War Information, and appointed radio
news commentator Elmer Davis to be its head. The OSS, Office of
Strategic Services, was formed.
(AP, 6/13/97)(MC, 6/13/02)
1942 Jun 13, Four men landed on
a Long Island beach from a German submarine with plans to sabotage
NYC~ez_rsquo~s water system and industrial sites across the Northeastern US.
[see Jun 27]
(SFC, 11/30/01, p.A1)
1942 Jun 13, Delegates from the
Six Nations Confederacy (Iraquois League) assembled in conference to
draft a formal declaration of war. The following day, on the steps
of the United States Capitol, a spokesman of the Confederacy said it
has entered World War II on its own consent and terms.
1942 Jun 13, 1st V-2 rocket
launch from Peenemunde, Germany, reached 1.3 km.
1942 Jun 14, Anne Frank began
1942 Jun 14, The first bazooka
rocket gun, produced in Bridgeport, Ct., demolished a tank from its
1942 Jun 15, Xaviera Hollander,
[DeVries], celebrity "author" (Happy Hooker), was born in Surabaya,
1942 Jun 16, Lt. Edwin P.
Ramsey led the last US cavalry charge at the village of Morong in
the Philippines. His mounted platoon of 27 men routed a force of
hundreds of Japanese soldiers.
(SFEC, 2/23/97, BR p.4)
1942 Jun 16, The SS Port
Nicholson was headed for New York with 71 tons of platinum valued at
about $53 million when it was sunk off Maine in an attack that left
six people dead. The platinum was a payment from the Soviet Union to
the US for war supplies.
1942 Jun 17, Rod Padgett, poet,
1942 Jun 17, Yank a weekly
magazine for the U.S. armed services, began publication. Hartzell
Spence (d.2001 at 93), executive editor of Yank, a new US Army
publication, soon introduced the term "pinup" for the photo inserts
of beautiful women and added the "Sad Sack" cartoon strip.
(HN, 6/17/98)(SFC, 5/29/01, p.A17)
1942 Jun 17, Four men landed on
a Florida beach from a German submarine with plans to sabotage US
industrial sites. [see Jun 27]
(SFC, 11/30/01, p.A1)
1942 Jun 18, Roger Ebert, film
critic, was born in Urbana, Ill.
(SFEC, 3/7/99, Par p.26)
1942 Jun 18, Paul McCartney,
songwriter and singer and member of the Beatles, was born. He went
on to form Wings before heading on to a solo career.
1942 Jun 18, The U.S. Navy
commissioned its first black officer, Harvard University medical
student Bernard Whitfield Robinson.
1942 Jun 18, Eric Nessler of
France stayed aloft in a glider for 38h 21m.
1942 Jun 18, John Kubris (28),
Czech resistance fighter, killed Nazi SS leader Reinhard Heydrich,
1942 Jun 18, Adolf Opalka,
Czech resistance fighter, was shot down.
1942 Jun 19, Prime Minister
Winston Churchill arrived in Washington D.C. to discuss the invasion
of North Africa with President Roosevelt.
1942 Jun 19, In Czechoslovakia
PM Alois Elias, sentenced to death in October 1941 for high treason
and espionage, was executed. In 2006 his ashes were buried with
1942 Jun 20, Brian Wilson
(Beach Boys), was born.
1942 Jun 20, Adolf Eichmann
proclaimed the deportation of Dutch Jews.
1942 Jun 21, President
Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill met in Washington, DC.
1942 Jun 21, German General
Erwin Rommel captured the port city of Tobruk in North Africa and
25,000 Allied troops.
(HN, 6/21/98)(Camelot, 6/21/99)
1942 Jun 22, The first delivery
of V-Mail was in 1942.
(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.32)
1942 Jun 22, A Japanese
submarine shelled Fort Stevens, Oregon, at the mouth of the Columbia
(HN, 6/22/98)(MC, 6/22/02)
1942 Jun 22, A Jewish Brigade,
attached by British Army, formed.
1942 Jun 24, Mick Fleetwood
(musician: drums: group: Fleetwood Mac: Dreams, Don't Stop), was
1942 Jun 24, The German Africa
Corps occupied Egypt.
1942 Jun 25, Major General
Dwight Eisenhower was appointed commander of US forces in Europe.
1942 Jun 25, Some 1,000 British
Royal Air Force bombers raided Bremen, Germany, during World War II.
1942 Jun 26, The Grumman F6F
Hellcat fighter flew for the first time.
1942 Jun 27, Bruce Johnston,
rocker (Beachboys-In My Room), was born.
1942 Jun 27, The FBI announced
the capture of eight Nazi saboteurs who had been put ashore from 2
submarines, one off New York~ez_rsquo~s Long Island and the other off of
Florida. The men were tried by a military court and 6 were secretly
executed in a DC jail. Ernest Burger and George Dasch were sentenced
to 30 years in prison for their help in revealing the plot. They
were pardoned in 1948 by Pres. Truman.
(AP, 6/27/97)(SFC, 11/30/01, p.A18)
1942 Jun 27, The Allied Convoy
PQ-17 left Iceland for Murmansk and Archangel. As their escorts
turned away, the ships of the doomed Allied convoy PQ-17 followed
orders and began to disperse in the Arctic waters.
1942 Jun 28, German troops
launched an offensive to seize Soviet oil fields in the Caucasus and
the city of Stalingrad.
1942 Jun 30, Col-gen Von
Paulus' 6th Army stormed into the Ukraine.
1942 Jun, The US authorized an
additional 200 blimps, most of which were built by Goodyear Co. of
Akron, Ohio. When the war began the Navy had 10 blimps.
(Ind, 1/27/00, 5A)
1942 Jun, Four men waded ashore
on a Florida beach wearing nothing but bathing trunks and German
army hats. In 2011 declassified British intelligence files described
how the men were part of Nazi sabotage teams sent to the US to
undermine the American war effort (See June 13 and June 27).
1942 Jun, British Flight
Sergeant Denis Copping (24), made a "fairly flawless emergency
landing" of his American-built Kittyhawk P-40 in the desert of
western Egypt. It was part of General Montgomery's British forces,
mobilized to fight the Afrika Korps of Germany's Rommel. In 2012 the
plane was found almost intact" in a vast sea of sand and rock.
1942 Jun, In Poland by this
month 100,000 people of the Warsaw ghetto had died due to disease or
(SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)
1942 Summer, Members of Kiev~ez_rsquo~s
Dynamo soccer team were brought out from forced labor to play a
series of exhibition games. The last game was against Flakelf, a
Luftwaffe team, which lost to Dynamo 5-2. Dynamo members were later
arrested. One died of torture and 3 more were killed near the Babi
Yar ravine. In 2002 Andy Dougan authored "Dynamo: Triumph and
Tragedy in Nazi-Occupied Kiev."
(WSJ, 9/6/02, p.W10)
1942 Jul 1, Genevieve Bujold,
actress (King of Hearts, Choose Me, Coma), was born in Montreal.
1942 Jul 1, German troops
captured Sevastopol, Crimea, in the Soviet Union.
1942 Jul 2, Allied convoys
QP-13 and PQ-17 passed each other while the German battleships
Tirpitz and Hipper prepared to attack PQ-17 in the North Atlantic.
1942 Jul 4, Irving Berlin~ez_rsquo~s
musical review "This Is the Army" opened at the Broadway Theater in
1942 Jul 4, Allied convoy PQ-17
scattered when its escort ships were withdrawn, leaving the convoy
to face German U-boats alone.
1942 Jul 4, 1st American
bombing mission over enemy-occupied Europe (WW II). US air offensive
against Nazi-Germany began.
1942 Jul 5, 1st performance of
Heitor Villa-Lobos' Choros 6/9/11.
1942 Jul 5, Ian Fleming
graduated from a training school for spies in Canada.
1942 Jul 6, Anne Frank's family
went into hiding in After House, Amsterdam.
1942 Jul 9, Anne Frank (13),
her family and 4 other Jews went into hiding in the attic above her
father's office in an Amsterdam warehouse.
(HN, 7/9/01)(MC, 7/9/02)
1942 Jul 10, General Carl
Spaatz became the head of the U.S. Air Force in Europe.
1942 Jul 10, Himmler ordered
the sterilization of all Jewish woman in Ravensbruck Camp.
1942 Jul 11, In the longest
bombing raid of World War II, 1,750 British Lancaster bombers
attacked the Polish port of Danzig. The Polish submarine Orzel
escaped from internment and went on to fight the Germans against
1942 Jul 12, Richard Stoltzman,
clarinetist (Tashi), was born in Omaha, Nebraska.
1942 Jul 13, Harrison Ford,
actor (Star Wars, Indiana Jones, Frantic), was born in Chicago, Ill.
1942 Jul 13, 5,000 Jews of
Rovno, Polish Ukraine, were executed by Nazis.
1942 Jul 13, SS shot 1,500 Jews
in Josefov, Poland.
1942 Jul 15, A group of 19
merchant ships were being escorted by the US Navy and Coast Guard
from Norfolk, Va., to Key West, Fla., to deliver cargo for the war
effort. En route Convoy KS-520 was attacked by the German U-576 off
of Cape Hatteras near North Carolina. The German submarine damaged
two ships and sank Bluefields. In retaliation, a US naval aircraft
bombed the U-576. The two ships sank to the ocean floor 30 miles off
the cape. All 45 members of U-576 were lost. Wreckage of the two
ships was found on Aug 30, 2014.
1942 Jul 15, The first supply
flight from India to China over the 'Hump' was flown to help China's
1942 Jul 16, Jews were
transported from Holland to an extermination camp.
1942 Jul 16, The first
large-scale roundups of Jews began under protests by only a
half-dozen Catholic church leaders. French police rounded up some
13,000 Jews over 2 days in Paris, many of whom were first holed up
in harsh conditions at Paris' Vel d'Hiv, or the Winter Velodrome
(SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A22)(Econ, 7/24/04, p.49)(AP,
1942 Jul 18, The German
Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, the first jet-propelled aircraft to
fly in combat, made its first flight. Walter Nowotny was a rising
your star in the Luftwaffe, chosen by Hitler to be the point man to
lead the new jet fighter under the tutelage of General of Fighters
Adolf Galland who was assigned to prove the airplane in battle. The
Axis hopes were dashed when Nowotny was attacked by American pilots
during landing and crashed. Col. Edward R. "Buddy" Haydon was one of
those American pilots.
1942 Jul 19, German U-boats
were withdrawn from positions off the U.S. Atlantic coast due to
effective American anti-submarine countermeasures.
1942 Jul 20, Time put Russian
composer Dmitri Shostakovitch on its cover.
1942 Jul 20, The first
detachment of the Women~ez_rsquo~s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), later known
as WACs, began basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.
(HN, 7/20/02)(AP, 7/20/02)
1942 Jul 22, Gasoline rationing
involving the use of coupons began along the Atlantic seaboard.
1942 Jul 22, The Americans
approved Operation Torch, the British alternative to an invasion of
Europe. The design of Operation Torch was to secure all of North
Africa for the Allies. In 2002 Rick Atkinson authored "An Army At
Dawn," an account of Operation Torch.
(HN, 2/26/98)(WSJ, 11/19/02, p.D6)
1942 Jul 22, Warsaw Ghetto Jews
(300,000) were sent to death at Treblinka extermination Camp.
1942 Jul 23, Harry James and
his Orchestra recorded "I Had the Craziest Dream" in Hollywood for
1942 Jul 23, Treblinka
Concentration Camp was destroyed.
1942 Jul 24, The Soviet city of
Rostov was captured by German troops.
1942 Jul 26, Roman Catholic
churches protested the Dutch bishops~ez_rsquo~ stand against the spread of
1942 Jul 26, RAF bombed
1942 Jul 27, Benny Goodman and
his Orchestra and vocalist Peggy Lee recorded "Why Don't You Do
Right" in New York for Columbia Records.
1942 Jul 27, The advance of
German army was halted in the first battle of El Alamein, Egypt.
1942 Jul 30, President
Roosevelt signed a bill creating a women~ez_rsquo~s auxiliary agency in the
Navy known as "Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service" or
WAVES for short.
1942 Jul 30, The US
passenger-freighter Robert E. Lee with 268 passengers was sunk by
the German U-166 submarine. 15 crew members and 10 passengers died.
In 2001 wreckage of the U-166 was found in the Gulf of Mexico and it
appeared that it was sunk by Coast Guard PC-566 right after the
attack. U-166 had 52 crew members. [see Aug 1, 1942]
(SFC, 6/9/01, p.A5)
1942 Jul 30, German SS
einsatzgruppen death battalions killed 25,000 Jews in Minsk,
1942 Jul 31, At midnight the
record studios fell silent in a struggle with James Caesar Petrillo
(d.1984), head of the American Federation of Musicians. Petrillo
insisted that the record industry pay a ¼ to ¾ cent royalty to the
musicians union. Decca signed an agreement in Aug, 1943, and
Columbia and Victor surrendered Nov 11, 1944.
(WSJ, 7/31/02, p.D10)
1942 Jul 31, The German SS
gassed some 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
1942 Jul, Dr. Paul Fildes led a
British test of anthrax in a bomb on Gruinard Island in northwest
Scotland. The island became contaminated from tests and Britain
acquired it for £500. Cleanup was undertaken in 1986 and the island
was returned to its original owners in 1990.
(WSJ, 10/18/01, p.A23)(Econ, 5/8/04, p.78)
1942 Jul, Maurice Papon
(1910-2007), French civil servant, in his first report to German
occupiers, noted that he had ~ez_ldquo~dejudaised~ez_rdquo~ 204 businesses, while 493
others were ~ez_ldquo~in the process of dejudaisation.~ez_rdquo~
(Econ, 2/24/07, p.99)
1942 Jul, Hitler made his
fateful decision to split the armies engaged in the offensive and to
occupy the city of Stalingrad with the weaker of the 2 groups.
(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P8)
1942 Aug 1, Jerry Garcia, lead
singer of the Grateful Dead, was born.
1942 Aug 1, Ensign Henry C.
White, while flying a J4F Widgeon plane, sank U-166 as it approaches
the Mississippi River, the first U-boat sunk by the U.S. Coast
Guard. In the summer of 1942, German submarines put saboteurs ashore
on American beaches. [see Jul 30, 1942]
(HN, 8/1/98)(SFC, 6/9/01, p.A5)
1942 cAug 1, Jose Diaz, a young
Mexican national, was killed in southern Ca. His death was
associated with a brawl between the Downey Boys and the 38th Street
gang. 24 young men from the 38th Street neighborhood were indicted
in the Sleepy Lagoon murder case and a dozen men served 21 months in
prison before their convictions were overturned. The vent formed the
basis for a play by Luis Valdez and the film "Zoot Suit."
(SFC, 5/23/01, p.C5)
1942 Aug 2, Isabel Allende,
author of "The House of the Spirits," was born.
1942 Aug 4, The 1st train with
Jews departed Mechelen, Belgium, to Auschwitz.
1942 Aug 5, Janusz Korczak and
the children he cared for were taken away by the Nazis from an
orphanage in the Warsaw Ghetto. He chose to stay with the children
in his care as they went together into the gas chambers at
Treblinka. In 2002 a memorial in Warsaw was dedicated to Korczak and
1942 Aug 6, Goering proclaimed
occupied areas "thoroughly empty to plunder."
1942 Aug 6, The Soviet city of
Voronezh fell to the German army.
1942 Aug 7, Garrison Keillor,
American humorist and writer, was born.
1942 Aug 7, B.J. (Billy Joe)
Thomas, singer (Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head, Hooked on a
Feeling), was born.
1942 Aug 7, The U.S. 1st Marine
Division under General A. A. Vandegrift landed on the islands of
Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomon islands. This was the first
American amphibious landing of the war and the start of the first
major allied offensive in the Pacific during World War II. The
initial landing party included Navajo Codetalkers. This was the 1st
land Japanese defeat of WWII; Japan was building an air base with
designs on isolating the Australian continent.
(AP, 8/7/97)(HN, 8/7/98)(WSJ, 10/12/99,
1942 Aug 7, Transport 16
departed with French Jews to Nazi-Germany.
1942 Aug 7, The Nazi 36th
Police Battalion, made up of ethnic Estonians, massacred some 2,500
Jews at Novogrudok, Belarus (according to the Simon Wiesenthal
(SSFC, 2/15/04, p.A4)
1942 Aug 8, U.S. Marines
captured the Japanese airstrip on Guadalcanal.
1942 Aug 8, Six convicted Nazi
saboteurs who had landed in the United States were executed in
Washington, D.C. Two others received life imprisonment.
1942 Aug 8, Gerhart Riegner
(d.2001 at 90), World Jewish Congress official in Geneva, cable the
US vice consul to describe Hitler~ez_rsquo~s plan to deport an estimated 4
million Jews to Eastern Europe and to annihilate them.
(SFC, 12/4/01, p.A19)
1942 Aug 9, Mahatma Gandhi and
50 others were arrested in Bombay after the passing of a "quit
India" campaign by the All-India Congress.
1942 Aug 9, Carmelite nun
Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, whose given name was Edith Stein
(b.1891), was executed by the Nazis at Auschwitz for her Jewish
heritage. A Roman Catholic convert from Judaism, Stein was an
educator, nun, philosopher and spiritual writer and is generally
regarded as a modern saint and martyr. Born in Germany on October
12, 1891, she joined the Carmelites in 1934 and wrote a number of
important philosophical and spiritual works, including "Finite and
Eternal Being." With Hitler~ez_rsquo~s 1942 order for the arrest of all
non-Aryan Catholics, Stein was seized and shipped to the
concentration camp at Auschwitz where she died in the gas chamber
with her sister Rosa. A woman of singular intelligence and learning,
she left behind a body of writing notable for its doctrinal richness
and profound spirituality. She was beatified by Pope John Paul II at
Cologne on May 1, 1987. She was made a saint in 1998.
(HNQ, 10/6/98)(SFC, 10/12/98, p.A1)
1942 Aug 10, Gen. Bernard Law
Montgomery became commandant British 8th leader in N. Africa.
1942 Aug 11, Some 999 Jews were
taken from Mechelen transit camp in Belgium.
1942 Aug 11, During World War
II, Vichy government official Pierre Laval publicly declared that
"the hour of liberation for France is the hour when Germany wins the
1942 Aug 11, The German
submarine U-73 attacked a Malta bound British convoy and sank the
HMS Eagle, one of the world's first aircraft carriers.
1942 Aug 11-Sep 30, The SS
began exterminating 3,500 Jews in Zelov Lodz, Poland.
1942 Aug 12, British premier
Churchill arrived in Moscow to meet Stalin.
1942 Aug 13, Walt Disney's
animated feature "Bambi" premiered at Radio City Music Hall in New
1942 Aug 14, Dwight D.
Eisenhower was named the Anglo-American commander for Operation
Torch, the invasion of North Africa.
1942 Aug 15, The Japanese
submarine I-25 departed Japan with a floatplane in its hold. It was
assembled upon arriving off the West Coast of the US, and used to
bomb U.S. forests.
1942 Aug 16, The US Navy L-8
patrol blimp crash-landed at 419 Bellevue St., Daly City, Ca., after
drifting in from the ocean. The ship~ez_rsquo~s crew, Lt. Ernest Dewitt Cody
(27) and Ensign Charles E. Adams (38), were missing and no trace of
them was ever found.
(GDCH, 1986, p.17)(Ind, 5/3/03, p.5A)
1942 Aug 17, U.S. Eighth Air
Force bombers attacked Rouen, France.
1942 Aug 17, Marine Raiders
attacked Makin Island (Kiribati) in the Gilbert Islands from two
submarines. [see Aug 18]
1942 Aug 18, Carlson's Raiders
landed on Makin (Kiribati) in the Gilbert islands and killed 350
Japanese. [see Aug 17]
1942 Aug 18, Japan sent a
crack army to Guadalcanal to repulse the U.S. Marines fighting
1942 Aug 19, 19 US Marines died
during a commando raid on Makin atoll in the Gilbert Islands. The
raid was 2,000 miles behind enemy lines and 9 Marines were left
behind. The 1943 movie, ~ez_ldquo~Gung Ho,~ez_rdquo~ was based on the raid and
starred Randolph Scott as Lt. Col. Evans Carlson, leader of the
raid. In 2001 the bodies of 13 Marines, who died on Makin, were
reburied at Arlington National Cemetery.
(SFC, 12/26/00, p.A1)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.A3)
1942 Aug 19, About 5,000
Canadian and 2,000 British soldiers launched a disastrous raid
against the Germans at Dieppe, France. Over 3,600 men perished
in this battle. The information gathered from this landing was
considered valuable for planning the successful Allied landings in
Northern Africa, Sicily, and Normandy, France. Brit. Col. Pat
Porteous (d.2000) received a Victoria Cross for his valor in the
attack which was aimed at gaining experience for the later D-Day
(AP, 8/19/97)(HN, 8/19/98)(SFC, 10/16/00,
1942 Aug 19, Gen. Paulus
ordered the German 6th Army to conquer Stalingrad.
1942 Aug 20, Isaac Hayes,
composer (Shaft), was born in Covington, TN.
1942 Aug 20, Plutonium was
first weighed. Glenn T. Seaborg was a co-discoverer of Plutonium.
(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.36)(SFC, 8/26/97, p.A17)
1942 Aug 21, U.S. Marines
turned back the first major Japanese ground attack on Guadalcanal in
the Battle of Tenaru.
1942 Aug 22, Brazil declared
war on the Axis powers. She was the only South American country to
send combat troops into Europe.
1942 Aug 22, Mikhailmichel
Fokine (b.1880), Russian ballet dancer, choreographer, died.
1942 Aug 23, Patricia McBride,
ballerina (NYC Ballet Co), was born in Teaneck, NJ.
1942 Aug 23, The 1st US flights
landed on Guadalcanal.
1942 Aug 23, German forces
began an assault on the major Soviet industrial city of Stalingrad.
From Aug. to Feb. 1943, The Battle of Stalingrad, 600 miles
southeast of Moscow, was fought and ended with the encirclement and
destruction of the German 6th Army Group. Stalingrad has since been
renamed to Volgograd. In 1998 Antony Beevor published "Stalingrad:
The Fateful Siege." The German in charge was Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Friedrich
Paulus. 600 Luftwaffe bombers killed some 40,000 people in the first
week of fighting.
(WSJ, 2/21/96, p.A-15)(WSJ, 7/8/98, p.A13)(HN,
1942 Aug 24, In the battle of
the Eastern Solomons, the third carrier-versus-carrier battle of the
war, U.S. naval forces defeated a Japanese force attempting to
screen reinforcements for the Guadalcanal fighting.
1942 Aug 25, German SS
began transporting Jews of Maastricht, Neth.
1942 Aug 25, W. van Daalen,
opposition leader on Celebes, was beheaded.
1942 Aug 26, Haile Selassie
issued a new proclamation outlawing slavery in Ethiopia. Slavery was
first outlawed in 1924.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)(http://nazret.com/history/)
1942 Aug 26, Haile Selassie
established the State Bank of Ethiopia.
1942 Aug 26, 7,000 Jews were
rounded up in Vichy, France.
1942 Aug 26, Japanese troops
landed on New Guinea, Milne Bay.
1942 Aug 26, A Russian counter
offensive began in Moscow.
1942 Aug 27, Cuba declared war
on Germany, Japan and Italy.
1942 Aug 29, The American Red
Cross announced that Japan had refused to allow safe conduct for the
passage of ships with supplies for American prisoners of war.
1942 Aug 31, The British army
under General Bernard Law Montgomery defeated Field Marshal Erwin
Rommel~ez_rsquo~s Afrika Korps in the Battle of Alam Halfa in Egypt.
1942 Aug 31, U boats sunk this
month 108 ships (544,000 ton).
1942 Aug, Following the
Battle of Midway, American forces at Guadalcanal--code-named
"Cactus"--took delivery of 12 Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bombers and
their escort of 19 Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighters, the advance
squadrons of Marine Air Group (MAG) 23. Within 12 hours the
fledgling "Cactus Air Force" helped finish off a Japanese infantry
1942-1943 Aug-Feb, The Battle of Guadalcanal
transformed the US military services to world class status. The
story of WW II is told in "Clash of Titans: World War II at Sea" by
Walter J. Boyne.
(WSJ, 6/1/95, p.A-12)
1942 Aug, Irene Nemirovsky
(39), French-Jewish author, died at Auschwitz. She had recently
authored "Suite Francaise" while waiting in rural France for what
she knew was her imminent arrest and deportation. It is a powerful
account of the effect on ordinary people of the military collapse of
June 1940, the panicked flight from Paris and the arrival of the
German army. It was finally published in France in 2004 and
Nemirovsky was awarded a top French literary award. In 2006 Jonathan
Weiss authored ~ez_ldquo~Irene Nemirovsky: Her Life and Works.~ez_rdquo~
(AFP, 11/8/04)(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.M1)(SSFC,
1942 Sep 1, A federal judge in
Sacramento, Calif., upheld the wartime detention of
Japanese-Americans as well as Japanese nationals.
1942 Sep 2, German troops
1942 Sep 4, Soviet planes
bombed Budapest in the war~ez_rsquo~s first air raid on the Hungarian
1942 Sep 5, Eduardo Mata,
Mexico City Mexico, conductor (Improvisaciones), was born.
1942 Sep 5, Werner Herzog,
director (Burden of Dreams, Stroszek, Woyzeck), was born.
1942 Sep 5, British & US
bombed Le Havre & Bremen.
1942 Sep 7, The Red Army pushed
back the German line northwest of Stalingrad. The Krummer Lauf
allowed German infantry and motorized artillery units to actually
fire around corners.
1942 Sep 9, A Japanese float
plane, launched from a submarine, made its first bombing run on a
U.S. forest near Brookings, Oregon. Japanese planes drop incendiary
bombs on Oregon in an attempt to set fire to the forests of the
Northwest. The forests failed to ignite, but Pacific Coast citizens
stepped-up their blackout drills in preparation for future Japanese
(HN, 9/9/99)(MC, 9/9/01)
1942 Sep 10, RAF dropped
100,000 bombs on Dusseldorf.
1942 Sep 10, British troops
landed on Madagascar.
1942 Sep 11, Wheeler Bryson
Lipes (1921-2005), a US Navy pharmacist's mate, saved the life of
sailor Darrell Dean Rector (19) by operating, following a medical
manual, in the officer~ez_rsquo~s mess aboard the Seadragon below the surface
of the South China Sea. George Weller (d.2002), war correspondent,
won the Pulitzer in 1943 for his account of the operation. The films
~ez_ldquo~Destination Tokyo~ez_rdquo~ (1943) and ~ez_ldquo~Run Silent, Run Deep~ez_rdquo~ (1958)
memorialized the surgery.
(AP, 12/20/02)(SFC, 4/19/05, p.B5)
1942 Sep 12, Free-Poland &
Belgium asked Pope to condemn Nazi-war crimes. He did not.
1942 Sep 13, Battle of Edson's
Ridge began at Guadalcanal.
1942 Sep 14, The 3-day Battle
of Edson's Ridge at Guadalcanal continued.
1942 Sep 14, Armies of Nazi
Germany began their siege of the Russian city of Stalingrad. [see
Sep 2, 13]
1942 Sep 15, The USS Wasp was
torpedoed by a Japanese submarine at Guadalcanal; the US Navy ended
up sinking the badly damaged aircraft carrier.
1942 Sep 16, The Japanese base
at Kiska in the Aleutian Islands was raided by American bombers.
1942 Sep 17, US Army Lt. Gen.
Leslie R. Groves (1896-1970) made a temporary Brigadier General and
was placed in charge of the Manhattan Engineer District, which
became known as the Manhattan Project, the fledgling US atomic bomb
1942 Sep 17, British Prime
Minister Winston Churchill met with Soviet Premier Josef Stalin in
Moscow as the German Army rammed into Stalingrad.
1942 Sep 20, In France a
shipment of 1,000 French and foreign Jews, including 163 children,
was arranged. They were sent to Drancy, north of Paris, and then to
(SFC, 2/1/97, p.A14)
1942 Sep 21, British forces
attacked the Japanese in Burma.
1942 Sep 21, Nazis executed 116
hostages in Paris.
1942 Sep 23, At Auschwitz Nazis
began experimental gassing executions.
1942 Sep 23, The Russian
counter offensive at Stalingrad began.
1942 Sep 25, The War Labor
Board ordered equal pay for women in the United States.
1942 Sep 27, Glenn Miller and
his Orchestra performed together for the last time, at the Central
Theater in Passaic, N.J., prior to Miller~ez_rsquo~s entry into the Army.
1942 Sep 27, The S.S. Stephen
Hopkins, a Liberty Ship with an all-San Francisco crew, engaged the
German raider Stier and her tender, Tannenfels. It shelled and
brought down the Stier and hit the Tannenfels before it was sunk. Of
a crew of 58, only 15 survived. They reached the shore of Brazil
after a 31-day voyage in an open lifeboat.
(SFC, 9/27/96, p.B1)
1942 Sep 27, Australian forces
defeated the Japanese on New Guinea in the South Pacific.
1942 Sep 30, Adm. Nimitz' B-17
found Guadalcanal by consulting a National Geographic map.
1942 Sep 30, The German SS
exterminated some 3,500 Jews in Zelov Lodz, Poland, in 6 week
1942 Sep, More than 400
villagers died of bubonic plague in China~ez_rsquo~s eastern Zhejiang
province after Japanese warplanes of medical Unit 731 dropped germ
bombs. Unit 731 was stationed on the outskirts of Harbin, China,
until the Soviet Union entered the war. The unit deposited typhus
into the water supply flowing into Manchuria. In 2000 Yoshio
Shinozuka testified to seeing men infected with the plague and then
being dissected while still alive. Harbin had 26 affiliates across
China and its germ bombs (anthrax, cholera, typhus and bubonic
plague) killed an estimated 270,000 people. Biological warfare
activities of Unit 731 were unknown to most Japanese citizens until
1981, when author Seiichi Morimura exposed its dark history in a
book, "The Devil's Gluttony".
(SFEC, 12/8/96, p.C8)(SFC, 8/30/97, p.A12)(SFC,
8/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/22/00, p.D6)(SFC, 6/12/01, p.A8)(AP,
1942 Sep, In Albania the
Communist Party organized a National Liberation Movement as a
popular front resistance organization.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1942 Sep, Japanese detainees
from the California assembly center at Tanforan race track began
their transfer to Abraham, Utah, 140 miles south of SLC.
(Ind, 2/2/02, 5A)
1942 Sep, In Theresienstadt,
Czechoslovakia, some 50,000 Jews were held by the German SS in
crowded conditions and half the inmates died that year from disease.
1942 Sep, 98 U-boats were sunk
1942 Sep, Michael Kolnhofer
joined the German Waffen-SS and served as an armed guard at the
Sachsenhausen concentration camp near Berlin until Jan, 1944.
1942 Oct 1, Bell P-59 Airacomet
fighter, 1st US jet, made its maiden flight.
1942 Oct 1, Little Golden Books
(children books) began publishing.
1942 Oct 1, At Frobisher Bay,
Baffin Island, Canada, the US Air Force Crystal II Radar Base was
established as part of the defensive DEW Line Project. The air base
was closed in 1963. The site was renamed Iqaluit in 1987 and in 1999
became the capital city of the Inuit-run territory of Nunavut.
1942 Oct 1, The German Army
ground to a complete halt within the city of Stalingrad.
1942 Oct 2, The "Queen Mary"
sliced the cruiser "Curacao" in half, killing 338.
1942 Oct 3, President Roosevelt
established the Office of Economic Stabilization and authorized
controls on farm prices, rents, wages and salaries.
1942 Oct 3, In Germany the
rocket-development team of Werner von Braun conducted the 1st
successful test flight of an A-4/V-2 missile from the Peenemunde
test site. It flew perfectly over a 118-mile course to an altitude
of 53 miles (85 km). The 13-ton, 46-foot long V2 rocket was the
world~ez_rsquo~s 1st long-range ballistic missile.
(HN, 10/3/98)(AM, 5/01, p.63)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.A5)
1942 Oct 5, 5,000 Jews of
Dubno, Russia, were massacred.
1942 Oct 7, Maxwell Anderson's
"Eve of St Mark," premiered in NYC.
1942 Oct 7, US and British
government announced the establishment of United Nations.
1942 Oct 7, A single salvo
Katyusha rocket destroyed a Nazi battalion in Stalingrad.
1942 Oct 8, Fight at Matanikau,
Guadalcanal (John Hersey Into the Valley).
1942 Oct 10, 1,300 Austrian
Jews were transported to Theresienstadt.
1942 Oct 11, In the World War
II Battle of Cape Esperance in the Solomon Islands, U.S. cruisers
and destroyers decisively defeated a Japanese task force in a night
(AP, 10/11/97)(HN, 10/11/98)
1942 Oct 12, Louis Armstrong
(40) married Lucille Wilson (24).
(SFEM, 1/25/98, p.69)
1942 Oct 12, During World War
II, President Roosevelt delivered one of his so-called "fireside
chats" in which he recommended drafting 18- and 19-year-old men.
1942 Oct 12, US Navy defeated
Japanese in WW II Battle of Cape Esperance.
1942 Oct 12, During World War
II, Attorney General Francis Biddle announced that Italian nationals
in the United States would no longer be considered enemy aliens.
1942 Oct 13, In the first of
four attacks, two Japanese battleships sail down the slot and
shelled Henderson field on Guadalcanal, in an unsuccessful effort to
destroy the American Cactus Air Force.
1942 Oct 15, Dirk Bannink,
nurse and local councilor Deventer, Netherlands, was executed.
1942 Oct 16, The ballet
"Rodeo," with music by Aaron Copland and choreography by Agnes de
Mille, premiered at New York's Metropolitan Opera House.
1942 Oct 16, In India a cyclone
devastated Bengal and about 40,000 lives were lost.
1942 Oct 17, In Switzerland
Eduard von Steiger, Justice Minister and minister of police, told
leaders of the Swiss Fatherland Assoc. that the government had
decided on a "fundamental slowing" of Jewish immigration.
(SFC, 6/10/98, p.a10)
1942 Oct 18, Hitler orders
allied commandos to be killed.
1942 Oct 19, The Japanese
submarine I-36 launched a floatplane for a reconnaissance flight
over Pearl Harbor. The pilot and crew reported on the ships in the
harbor, after which the aircraft was lost at sea.
1942 Oct 21, Eight American and
British officers landed from a submarine on an Algerian beach to
take measure of Vichy French to the Operation Torch landings.
1942 Oct 22, The 1st ships of
invasion fleet for Oran (Algeria) left Scotland.
1942 Oct 23, Michael Crichton,
writer, was born. His work includes "Jurassic Park" and "The
1942 Oct 23, The Western Task
Force, destined for North Africa, departed from Hampton Roads,
Virginia. The command of the Western Task Force, part of an invasion
of North Africa during World War II known as Operation Torch, was
given to General George Patton. Placed under the command of General
George Patton, the Western Task Force had the advantage of having a
man at the top who would stop at nothing to see that the mission was
accomplished, a quality that would be needed in the days ahead.
Naval operations were in the hands of Rear Adm. H. Kent Hewitt, an
easygoing man who, in the beginning, found it difficult to work with
Patton, but with increasing familiarity became a solid partner.
(HN, 10/23/98)(HNQ, 12/8/00)
1942 Oct 23, Ralph Rainger
(41), pianist and song writer, was among 12 people killed when their
DC-3 crashed after being clipped by a B-34 bomber flown by Army Lt.
William Wilson, who had wanted to thumb his nose at Louis Reppert, a
flight school buddy and co-pilot of the DC-3. An Army court-martial
panel later exonerated Wilson, who had been charged with
manslaughter. Rainger~ez_rsquo~s songs included ~ez_ldquo~Love in Bloom~ez_rdquo~ and ~ez_ldquo~Thanks
for the Memories,~ez_rdquo~ which Bing Crosby made a hit in 1934.
(WSJ, 12/30/08, p.D7)
1942 Oct 23, During World War
II, Britain launched a major offensive against Axis forces at El
Alamein in Egypt.
1942 Oct 24, The 2nd day of
battle at El Alamein (Egypt).
1942 Oct 25, In the 3rd day of
battle at El Alamein (Egypt), the British continued an offensive
1942 Oct 25, Battle of
Henderson Field, Guadalcanal began.
1942 Oct 25, Field marshal
Erwin Rommel returned to North-Africa.
1942 Oct 26, Japanese planes
badly damaged the US ship Hornet in the Battle of Santa Cruz
Islands, in the South Pacific Solomon Islands. 300 survivors were
rescued by the destroyer Barton. The Hornet sank early the next
(HN, 10/26/98)(AP, 10/26/07)(SFC, 10/14/05, p.B6)
1942 Oct 26, In the Battle of
Santa Cruz the USS South Dakota shot down a record 32 enemy planes
1942 Oct 26, Japanese attacked
Guadalcanal, sinking two U.S. carriers. It was the 2nd day in the
Battle of Henderson Field.
(HN, 10/26/98)(MC, 10/26/01)
1942 Oct 26, Mitchell Paige
(1918-2003), US Marine platoon sergeant, held his position against
Japanese forces at Guadalcanal as all his men were killed or
wounded, until reinforcements arrived. He received a battlefield
commission and later a Medal of Honor. In 1975 he authored the
autobiography "A Marine Named Mitch."
(SFC, 11/19/03, p.A29)
1942 Oct 26, In the 4th day of
the battle at El Alamein (Egypt) the Australians made a
1942 Oct 27, In the 5th day of
battle at El Alamein: heavy battles and Australians advanced.
1942 Oct 27, In Starachowice,
Poland, Nazi soldiers separated out weak Jews from the strong. The
strong were sent to work and the weak were sent to the extermination
camp at Treblinka.
(WSJ, 11/25/03, p.A1)
1942 Oct 28, The 6th day of the
battle at El Alamein. British offensive under Montgomery.
1942 Oct 29, The Alaska highway
was completed. [see Nov 21]
1942 Oct 29, In the 7th day of
battle at El Alamein Montgomery led an assault.
1942 Oct 29, Nazis murdered
some 16,000 Jews in Pinsk, Soviet Union.
1942 Oct 30, On the 8th day of
battle at El Alamein a new Australian assault began.
1942 Oct 31, David Ogden
Stiers, actor (Winchester-M*A*S*H, Doc), was born in Peoria, Ill.
1942 Oct 31, 94 U boats were
sunk this month (619,000 ton).
1942 Oct 31, the 9th day in
battle at El Alamein (Egypt).
1942 Oct, Pres. Roosevelt
signed special legislation that allowed General Motors to take a
complete tax write-off for the loss of Opel, its Nazi subsidiary.
The tax reduction amounted to some $22.7 million, an amount equal to
about $285 billion in 2007.
(SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)
1942 Oct, Under the command of
Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond, the U.S. Army's 92nd Infantry
Division began combat training and went into action in Italy in the
summer of 1944. The 92nd was the only African-American infantry
division to see combat in Europe in World War II. Nicknamed "Buffalo
Soldiers," the 92nd, which had fought in France during World War I,
was once again activated in 1942. More than 909,000 black Americans
were selected for duty in the racially segregated U.S. Army during
World War II. The vast majority of African Americans in uniform were
assigned to segregated construction or supply units or placed in
units that performed unpleasant duties such as graves registration.
The 92nd continued a long and proud tradition by retaining the
buffalo as its divisional symbol. Its circular shoulder patch, which
featured a black buffalo on an olive drab background, was called The
Buffalo--as was the division~ez_rsquo~s official publication. The 92nd even
kept a live buffalo as a mascot.
(HNQ, 1/22/99)(HNQ, 6/20/01)
1942 Oct, In Albania
non-communist nationalist groups formed to resist the Italian
(www, Albania, 1998)
1942 Oct, In Belarus on Yom
Kippur 2,900 Jews were killed in Domachevo.
(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.A23)
1942 Oct, An advance team of 4
Norwegian commandos parachuted into Norway as part of Operation
Grouse to destroy the German-operated heavy-water Vemork plant on
the Mane River near Rjukan.
(ON, 4/07, p.2)
1942 Oct, In Poland by this
month some 300,000 occupants of the Warsaw ghetto had been shipped
off to the gas chambers at Treblinka.
(SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)
1942 Nov 1, The 10th day of
battle at El Alamein (Egypt).
1942 Nov 2, Lt. General Dwight
D. Eisenhower arrived in Gibraltar to set up an American command
post for the invasion of North Africa.
1942 Nov 2, An amphibious
PBY-5A aircraft foundered in rough weather, in the waters
surrounding what is now the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve
in the eastern Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The plane was based at
Presqu'Ile, Maine, in the US, and serviced an airfield in the
village of Longue-Pointe-de-Mingan, Quebec. Four of the crew escaped
the flooding plane and were rescued by local fishermen rowing out
from shore in open boats in rough seas. Five others perished,
trapped inside. In 1941 and 1942, the US had constructed a series of
airfields in Eastern Canada to ferry aircraft to Allied air forces
in Northern Europe, as part of the so-called "Crimson Route."
Wreckage of the downed plane was found in 2009. In 2012 remains of
the other crew members were recovered.
(AFP, 8/7/09)(SFC, 7/31/12, p.A2)
1942 Nov 2, 11th day of battle
at El Alamein, Egypt: British made an assault on Tel el Aqqaqir.
Montgomery defeated Rommel in battle of Alamein Egypt.
1942 Nov 3, The 12th day of
battle at El Alamein (Egypt): Scottish assault.
1942 Nov 3, Martin Cruz Smith,
novelist, was born. His work included "Gorky Park."
1942 Nov 4, The 13th day of
battle at El Alamein: Axis Africa corps retreated from El Alamein in
North Africa in a major victory for British forces commanded by
Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.
1942 Nov 5, Art Garfunkel,
American singer and actor, was born. He teamed with Paul Simon in
the 1960s to form the group 'Simon and Garfunkel.'
1942 Nov 5, George M. Cohan
(64), composer, actor, dancer, died.
1942 Nov 5, Richard Carver
(28), the stepson of Britain~ez_rsquo~s Gen. Montgomery, was captured by the
Afrika Corps, a day after the battle of El Alamein. A year later
after serving time in an Italian prison, he journeyed some 400 miles
to reunite with Gen. Montgomery. In 2009 Tom Carver, his son,
authored ~ez_ldquo~Where the Hell Have You Been~ez_rdquo~ Monty, Italy and One Man~ez_rsquo~s
1942 Nov 5, Nazis raided on
Greek Jews in Paris.
1942 Nov 7, FDR became the 1st
US president to broadcast in a foreign language, French.
1942 Nov 8, Operation Torch
began during World War II as U.S. and British forces landed in
French North Africa. Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Eisenhower landed with American troops
in Algiers, Casablanca.
(AP, 11/8/97)(HN, 11/6/98)(WSJ, 6/4/98,
1942 Nov 8, Hitler proclaimed
the fall of Stalingrad from Munich beer hall.
1942 Nov 8, Vichy-France
dropped diplomatic relations with US.
1942 Nov 9, Transport #44
departed with French Jews to Nazi Germany.
1942 Nov 10, US and British
troops occupied Oran, Algeria.
1942 Nov 10, Winston Churchill
delivered a speech in London in which he said, "I have not become
the King's First Minister to preside over the liquidation of the
1942 Nov 10, Admiral Jean
Darlan ordered French forces in North Africa to cease resistance to
the Anglo-American forces. Admiral Jean Francois Darlan, leader of
the armed forces of Vichy France, was assassinated in Algiers in
1942 Nov 11, 745 French Jews
were deported to Auschwitz.
1942 Nov 11, French warrant
officer Marcel Bigeard (1916-2010) escaped from German captivity,
made his way to Senegal, in what was then French West Africa, and
was commissioned into Gen. Charles de Gaulle's Free French
1942 Nov 11, Germany completed
its occupation of France.
1942 Nov 12, The World War II
naval Battle of Guadalcanal began. The Allies eventually won a major
victory over the Japanese. The battle was described by Ira Wolfert
in news reports and his 1943 book "Battle for the Solomons."
(SFC,11/28/97, p.B8)(AP, 11/12/07)
1942 Nov 13, US Pres. Roosevelt
signed a measure lowering the minimum draft age from 21 to 18.
1942 Nov 13, Lt Gen. Dwight D.
Eisenhower flew to Algeria to conclude an agreement with French
Admiral Jean Darlan. The Admiral was assassinated soon after.
1942 Nov 13, A 3-day between
Japanese and US naval forces took place off Guadalcanal Island in
the Solomon Island chain. Rear Adm. Daniel Callaghan, aboard the San
Francisco heavy cruiser and Capt. Cassin Young, the ships commanding
officer were killed, but the US Navy won the battle.
(SFC, 12/11/12, p.C3)
1942 Nov 14, Last Vichy French
troops in Algeria surrendered.
1942 Nov 15, Daniel Barenboim,
Israeli pianist and conductor, was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
(HN, 11/15/00)(MC, 11/15/01)
1942 Nov 15, An American fleet
defeats a Japanese naval force in a clash off Guadalcanal. The five
Sullivan brothers, onboard USS Juneau, were all killed in the
1942 Nov 17, Martin Scorsese,
film director, was born. His films include "Taxi Driver" and "Raging
1942 Nov 18, Jeffrey Siegel,
pianist (Chicago Symph), was born in Chicago Ill.
1942 Nov 18, Thornton Wilder's
"Skin of our Teeth," premiered in NYC.
1942 Nov 18, An AT-7 Beechcraft
military training plane crashed in the Mendel Glacier in
California~ez_rsquo~s Kings Canyon National Park. The 4-member training
flight left Mather Field in Sacramento, Ca., and was never heard
from again. On Sep 24, 1947, a hiker discovered wreckage of the
plane on a glacier in Kings Canyon. On Oct 16, 2005, a climber on
the Mendel Glacier discovered a body believed to be one of the crew
members. He was later identified as Leo M. Mustonen (22) of
Brainerd, Minn. The others were John M. Mortenson (25) of Moscow,
Idaho, William R. Gamber (23) of Fayette, Ohio, and Ernest G. Munn
of St. Clairsville, Ohio. A 2nd body was found under receding snow
in 2007 and was identified Ernest G. Munn.
(SFC, 10/20/05, p.A14)(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.B2)(SFC,
11/12/05, p.A1)(SFC, 2/9/06, p.A4)(SFC, 8/21/07, p.B2)(SFC, 3/10/08,
1942 Nov 19, Calvin Klein,
fashion designer (Calvin Klein Jeans, CK), was born in Bronx, NYC.
1942 Nov 19, Sharon Olds, poet,
was born. Her work included "The Dead and The Living" and "The
1942 Nov 19, Bruno Schulz
(b.1892), Polish writer and graphic artist, was shot dead by a
German officer, a rival of Schulz~ez_rsquo~s German protector. In 1992
Theatre de Complicite created their play ~ez_ldquo~The Street of Crocodiles~ez_rdquo~
based on the life and work of Schulz.
1942 Nov 19, During World War
II, Russian forces launched their winter offensive against the
Germans along the Don front. Soviet forces took the offensive at
(AP, 11/19/97)(HN, 11/19/98)
1942 Nov 20, Joseph Biden,
later US Senator for Delaware, was born in Scranton, Pa. In 2008
Barack Obama named Biden as his vice presidential running mate.
(SSFC, 8/24/08, p.A15)
1942 Nov 20, Meredith Monk,
choreographer, composer and performing artist, was born in Lima,
1942 Nov 20, British 8th Army
recaptured Benghazi, Libya.
1942 Nov 20, Hitler named field
marshal Erich von Manstein to command.
1942 Nov 20, The 26th Russian
Armored Corps recaptured Perelazovski. A million Russians breached
German lines in a Soviet army offensive.
1942 Nov 21, Tweety Bird,
cartoon character, was born.
1942 Nov 21, The
Alaska-Canadian Highway across Canada was formally opened.
(HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.42)(AP, 11/21/97)
1942 Nov 22, Gen-major Rodin's
26th Panzer corps recaptured Ostrov. Hitler ordered Rommel's Africa
Korps to fight to last man.
1942 Nov 23, The film
"Casablanca" premiered in New York City. [see Nov 26]
1942 Nov 23, US Coast Guard
Woman's Auxiliary (SPARS) was authorized.
1942 Nov 23, Gen. Von Paulus
asked Hitler's permission to surrender at Stalingrad. The German 4th
and 6th Army were surrounded at Stalingrad.
1942 Nov 24, Field marshal
Erich von Manstein arrived in Starobelsk.
1942 Nov 26, The film
Casablanca with Ingrid Bergman and Humphrey Bogart was made. It had
its world premiere at the Hollywood Theater in New York. It was
based on a play by Murray Burnett (d.1997 at 86) titled: "Everybody
Comes to Rick~ez_rsquo~s." The 1931 song "As Time Goes By" by Herman Hupfield
was used. It won an Oscar for best movie.
(SFC, 2/14/97, p.D5)(SFC, 9/30/97, p.A21)(AP,
1942 Nov 26, President
Roosevelt ordered nationwide gasoline rationing, beginning Dec 1.
1942 Nov 26, The German ship SS
Donau prepared to leave the Oslo wharf with 332 Norwegian Jews bound
for death camps.
1942 Nov 27, Jimi Hendrix, rock
musician famous for "All Along the Watch Tower" and "Foxy Lady," was
born in Seattle, Wa.
(HN, 11/27/98)(SFC, 11/28/02, p.E13)
1942 Nov 27, During World War
II, the French navy at Toulon scuttled its ships and submarines to
keep them out of the hands of the Nazis.
1942 Nov 28, 491 people died in
a fire that destroyed the Cocoanut Grove nightclub in Boston. The
cause of the fire was never officially determined, though many
blamed a busboy who survived the blaze.
(AP, 11/28/97)(DT, 11/28/97)
1942 Nov 29, Coffee rationing
went into effect in the U.S., and lasted until the next summer.
1942 Nov, A Royal Air Force
bomber and 2 gliders, carrying 34 British commandos, crash landed in
Norway. This was part of Operation Freshman, which planned a raid on
the heavy-water plant at Vemork. The survivors were captured by
German soldiers and executed by the Gestapo.
(ON, 4/07, p.2)
1942 Nov, In Balkaria, Central
Asia, a valley-full of women and children were hunted down in
several villages and butchered by the joint NKVD and Red Army task
force under the command of captain Nakin. This became known as the
(Econ, 4/3/10, p.86)(http://tinyurl.com/y7b5tse)
1942 Nov, In Bronsk, Poland,
2500 Jews living in a shtetl (small village), were rounded up by the
Nazis and gassed at Treblinka. In 1996 a 3-hr Frontline documentary
film was aired that revisited the sight of the vanished Jewish life.
(SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.6)(SFC, 4/17/96, p.E-3)
1942 Nov, German troops arrived
in Tunisia. The nation was home to some 100,000 Jews at the time.
The Germans imposed anti-Semitic policies that included fines,
forcing Jews to wear Star of David badges and confiscating property.
More than 5,000 Jews were sent to forced labor camps, where 46 are
known to have died. About 160 Tunisian Jews in France were sent to
European death camps.
1942 Dec 1, Nationwide gasoline
rationing went into effect in the United States.
(AP, 12/1/97)(HN, 12/1/98)
1942 Dec 2, A self-sustaining
nuclear chain reaction was demonstrated for the first time at the
University of Chicago. On the squash court underneath a football
stadium of the University of Chicago, the first nuclear chain
reaction was set off. At 3:45 p.m., control rods were removed from
the "nuclear pile" of uranium and graphite, revealing that neutrons
from fissioning uranium split other atoms, which in turn split
others in a chain reaction. The reaction was part of the Manhattan
Project, the United States' top-secret plan to develop an atomic
bomb. The group of scientists was led by Enrico Fermi and they
proved that building an atomic bomb would be feasible. Dr. Alexander
Langsdorf was one of the designers of the first 2 nuclear reactors
that followed the first sustained nuclear chain reaction at the
Univ. of Chicago. The first and last atomic bombs ever used in war
were dropped on Japan in 1945.
(TMC, 1994, p.1942)(SFC, 5/26/96, p.C-10)(AP,
1942 Dec 2, The Allies repelled
a strong Axis attack in Tunisia, North Africa.
1942 Dec 4, President Roosevelt
ordered the dismantling of the Works Progress Administration, which
had been created to provide jobs during the Depression.
1942 Dec 4, U.S. bombers struck
the Italian mainland and Naples for the first time in World War II.
(AP, 12/4/97)(HN, 12/4/98)
1942 Dec 5, Arthur
Seyss-Inquart ordered students in Nazi Germany to work.
1942 Dec 6, Peter Handke,
playwright and poet, was born.
1942 Dec 7, Harry Chapin, rock
vocalist (Taxi, Cat's in the Cradle), was born in NYC.
1942 Dec 7, The U.S. Navy
launched the USS New Jersey, the largest battleship ever built.
1942 Dec 9, Dick Butkus, NFL
hall of fame linebacker (Bears) and sportscaster, was born in
1942 Dec 9, The Aram
Khachaturian ballet "Gayane," featuring the surging "Saber Dance,"
was first performed by the Kirov Ballet.
1942 Dec 10, George W. Merck,
former president of Merck Pharmaceutical and head of the War
Research Service, requested the Chemical Warfare Service to develop
a biological warfare program.
(AH, 6/03, p.46)
1942 Dec 18, Hitler met with
Mussolini and Pierre Laval.
1942 Dec 19, British advanced
40 miles into Burma in a drive to oust the Japanese from the colony.
1942 Dec 20, 1st Japanese began
the bombing of Calcutta.
1942 Dec 21, The US Supreme
Court ruled all states had to recognize divorces granted in Nevada.
1942 Dec 22, The Soviets drove
German troops back 15 miles at the Don River.
1942 Dec 24, Jean LXF Darlan,
French admiral and leader of the armed forces of Vichy France, was
murdered by Gaullists in Algiers.
(HN, 7/5/98)(MC, 12/24/01)
1942 Dec 25, Pope Pius XII
issued an encyclical with a strong attack on Nazism but no explicit
mention of Jews.
(WSJ, 5/8/97, p.A23)
1942 Dec 27, The 1st Japanese
women camp at Ambarawa went into use.
1942 Dec 28, Ober Kommando
Wehrmacht ordered strategic flights out of the Caucasus.
1942 Dec 30, Five thousand
screaming girls shouted "Frankie! Frankie!" when Sinatra appeared
with Benny Goodman~ez_rsquo~s band at New York~ez_rsquo~s Paramount Theater.
(SFC, 5/16/98, p.A13)
1942 Dec 31, After five months
of battle, Emperor Hirohito allowed the Japanese commanders at
Guadalcanal to retreat.
1942 Dec, Dr. Ira Baldwin
(1896-1999), plant bacteriologist at the Univ. of Wisconsin, was
selected to head US biological warfare.
(AH, 6/03, p.46)
1942 Dec, Hu Jintao was born in
China~ez_rsquo~s eastern Anhui province. He served as vice-president under
Jiang Zemin and became president in 2003.
(SSFC, 3/11/01, p.D8)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.46)
1942 John Irving, author, was
born in Exeter, N.H. In 1978 he authored his novel "The World
According to Garp," which was made into a 1982 film.
(SSFC, 7/8/01, DB p.66)
1942 Edward Hopper painted his
(WSJ, 6/28/95, p.A-16)
1942 Henri Matisse created his
painting ~ez_ldquo~Danseuse dans le fauteuil.~ez_rdquo~ It sold for $22 million at a
Sotheby~ez_rsquo~s auction in 2007.
(SFC, 11/8/07, p.E3)
1942 Frank R. Paul did the
"City of the Future" cover for an issue of Amazing Stories sci-fi
(SFEC, 1/3/99, DB p.27)
1942 Maxfield Parrish painted
~ez_ldquo~The Study for the River at Ascutney.~ez_rdquo~ It was stolen in 1984 and
turned up un 2004 valued at around $50,000.
(SFC, 9/9/04, p.A1)
1942 Gordon Parks,
photographer, writer, composer and filmmaker, shot "American
Gothic," a photo of a charwoman in a government building posed
against an American flag with a mop and a broom.
1942 John Malcolm Brinnin
(d.1998 at 81) published his first collection of poems: "The Garden
(SFC, 6/29/98, p.A19)
1942 Francis Chase Jr. authored
~ez_ldquo~Sound and Fury,~ez_rdquo~ an informal history of radio broadcasting.
(WSJ, 11/1/08, p.W12)
1942 Robert Frost published his
collection of poems titled: "A Witness Tree."
(WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-12)
1942 Margaret Walker Alexander
(1915-1998), black author, was wrote her poem "For My People."
(SFC, 12/1/98, p.B2)
1942 Charles MacArthur wrote
his play "Johnny On the Spot."
(WSJ, 7/31/97, p.A16)
1942 Thornton Wilder wrote his
play "The Skin of Our Teeth." It was an allegory of the history of
the human race experienced by a New Jersey family.
(WSJ, 7/1/98, p.A1)
1942 Albert Camus (1913-1960),
Algeria-born French writer, authored "The Stranger" and "The Myth of
Sisyphus." He established himself as a spokesman for a philosophy of
the absurd along with Jean-Paul Sartre.
(WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P14)
1942 Camilo Jose Cela (d.2002),
Spanish author, published "The Family of Pascual Duarte" in
Argentina because it was considered too violent and crude for Spain.
Cela won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1989. Cela~ez_rsquo~s style was
called "tremendismo" and clashed with the lyrical writing of
previous Spanish writers.
(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A23)
1942 Peter Drucker (1909-2005),
Austria-born management visionary, authored his 2nd book ~ez_ldquo~The Future
of Industrial Man.~ez_rdquo~
(Econ, 11/19/05, p.72)
1942 Marion Hargrove (d.2003 at
83) authored "See Here, Private Hargrove," a light-hearted account
of Army basic training. It became a best-seller and was made into a
(SFC, 8/29/03, p.A28)
1942 Rudolph H. Hartman, an
investigator for the Treasury Dept., wrote a report titled "The
Kansas City Investigation: Pendergast's Downfall, 1938-1939" as a
report to his superiors, Elmer Irey and Treasury Sec. Henry
Morgenthau. In 1999 Robert H. Ferrell published an edition of the
(WSJ, 7/19/99, p.A13)
1942 The Hungarian novel
"Embers" by Sandor Marai was published in Budapest. Marai committed
in San Diego in 1989. An English translation was published in 2001.
(WSJ, 10/26/01, p.W10)
1942 Alfred Kazin (1915-1998)
authored ~ez_ldquo~On Native Grounds,~ez_rdquo~ a history of the rise of literary
realism in America.
1942 Beryl Markham (d.1986)
authored "West With the Night," an memoir of her life as a hunter,
horse trainer and aviator in Africa.
(SFC, 3/9/02, p.A24)
1942 Mary McCarthy published
her first novel "The Company she Keeps."
(SFEC, 4/30/00, BR p.3)
1942 Samuel Eliot Morison wrote
"Admiral of the Ocean Sea." It is on Christopher Columbus and
supports Watling Island as the historic landfall San Salvador.
(NH, 10/96, p.23)
1942 Charles Norman
(1904-1996), poet and biographer, published his volume of war
poetry: "The Savage Century."
(SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)
1942 Robert Musil, Austrian
author of "The Man Without Qualities" set in Vienna around 1913,
died. His book was unfinished but got published in short form in
English in 1953. A full 2 volume set ($60) was published in 1995.
(WSJ, 4/12/95, A-12)
1942 Dawn Powell wrote her
novel "A Time to Be Born."
(WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)
1942 Joseph Schumpeter
(1883-1950), former Austrian minister of finance (1919-1920),
authored "Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy," in which he
predicted the decline of the family. He introduced here the concept
of ~ez_ldquo~creative destruction:~ez_rdquo~ that old ways of doing things are
constantly being swept away for new ones.~ez_rdquo~
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Schumpeter)(Econ, 11/24/07, SR
1942 John Steinbeck wrote "The
Moon Is Down." The book was not a success, nor was his "The Short
Reign of Pippin IV" successful.
(SFEC, 6/21/98, DB p.35)
1942 Robert St. John
(1902-2003), American war journalist, authored "From the Land of
Silent People," an account of his war experiences in the Balkans.
(SFC, 2/10/03, p.B5)
1942 Jean Anouilh wrote his
play "Antigone." It was staged in Paris in 1944 during the German
(SFC, 9/27/96, p.C6)(WSJ, 8/12/98, p.A13)
1942 The opera Brundibar by
Hans Krasa was 1st performed at a Prague orphanage. It had been
intended for a 1938 government competition. It was later performed
at the Terezin concentration camp. Krasa died at Auschwitz Oct 17,
(WSJ, 2/7/03, p.D8)
1942 Agnes de Mille
choreographed the ballet "Rodeo."
(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B1)
1942 The film "Mrs. Miniver"
with Greer Garson was directed by William Wyler. It won 5 awards
including an Oscar for best picture of the year. Garson won an Oscar
for her role. The film was based on the life of Joyce Anstruther
(1901-1953), pen name Jan Struther, who wrote for London~ez_rsquo~s Times
newspaper in the late 1930s. In 2002 Ysenda Maxtone Graham authored
"The Real Mrs. Miniver: Jan Struther~ez_rsquo~s Story."
(SFEC, 3/23/97, DB p.38)(SFC, 3/14/01, p.E1)(TVM,
1975, p.382)(SSFC, 11/3/02, p.M6)
1942 The film "My Gal Sal"
starred Victor Mature and Rita Hayworth and was directed by Irving
Cummings. It was a gay 90s musical about song writer Paul Dresser.
Joseph C. Wright (d.1985) received an Oscar for color art direction.
In 2014 the gold Oscar was sold at auction for $79,200. As of 1950
the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences prohibited Oscar
recipients and their heirs from selling the statues without first
offering them back to the academy for $1.
(TVM, 1975, p.394)(SFC, 8/10/99, p.A20)(SFC,
1942 The US Dept. of
Agriculture produced the film ~ez_ldquo~Hemp for Victory,~ez_rdquo~ which urged
farmers to grow hemp after Japan~ez_rsquo~s seizure of the Philippines
(Econ, 6/23/07, p.40)
1942 Helen Forrest (d.1999 at
82) was rated the top female vocalist by Down Beat with Frank
Sinatra as the top male. Forrest published her autobiography:
"Springtime in the Rockies," in 1982.
(SFC, 7/13/99, p.A19)
1942 Saunders Samuel King
(d.2000 at 91), Oakland gospel singer, made a hit with "S.K. Blues."
It was the same year that his wife, Margie King, killed herself.
(SFC, 9/4/00, p.B4)
1942 Aram Khatchaturian
composed "Gayane" that included "Sabre Dance."
1942 Richard Strauss, German
composer, wrote his final opera "Capriccio" with a libretto by
Clemens Krauss. In the work a poet and composer declare their love
for a countess who will decide the "words vs. music" debate.
(WSJ, 1/21/98, p.A20)
1942 Bing Crosby recorded
"White Christmas." It became the top-selling single record until the
1997 "Candle In the Wind" by Elton John and Bernie Taupin was
re-written for the funeral of Princess Diana.
(SFC, 1/29/98, p.C1)
1942 Ella Mae Morse (1924-1999)
recorded her hit "Cow-Cow Boogie." It was the 1st million-seller for
(SFC, 10/19/99, p.A23)
1942 The first Hewlett Packard
factory was built in Silicon Valley.
(SFC, 1/8/98, p.C3)
1942 Kaiser Shipyards in
Richmond, Ca., set a ship construction record by building the Robert
E. Peary Liberty Ship in 4 days and 15 hours. A total of 747 ships
were built at the Richmond facility. The improved Victory ships were
developed late in the war and in 1998 the Red Oak Victory cargo ship
was de-mothballed for exhibit at the Richmond Point Molate Naval
(SFC, 7/13/98, p.A12)
1942 W. Donald Fletcher
(1908-1996) and Van Duyn Dodge founded the Coro Foundation to
encourage citizen involvement and more capable political leadership.
(SFC, 8/29/96, p.C4)
1942 The Stanford basketball
team won the NCAA championship.
(SFC, 3/27/98, p.A1)
1942 US and Filipino forces
held the island of Corregidor for five months under Japanese siege.
(NG, 10/1988, geographica)
1942 French North Africa was
taken by an expeditionary force led by Eisenhower.
(TMC, 1994, p.1942)
1942 The US government declared
potato chips to be an essential food.
(WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A4)
1942 The US Congress outlawed
the opium poppy. There was a time before this when the US Dept. of
Agriculture taught farmers how to grow opium.
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.E3)
1942 The US government halted
all passenger car and civilian truck production.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1942 Congress passed the
Stabilization Act, which limited wage increases to keep prices in
check during the war. The act permitted the adoption of
employer-paid insurance plans in lieu of wage increases.
(WSJ, 8/18/97, p.A14)
1942 A Revenue Act was passed
that for the first time subjected working-class Americans to federal
(WSJ, 3/11/98, p.A20)
1942 The US Federal Reserve
agreed, at the Treasury~ez_rsquo~s request, to hold Treasury notes to 2.5% or
below. This continued to 1951.
(Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)
1942 The US Supreme Court ruled
that subsistence wheat farming fell under federal regulation because
it affected the interstate wheat trade. In 2005 the court used the
same logic against medical marijuana.
(Econ, 6/11/05, p.31)
1942 James Francis Byrnes,
after serving as a U.S. Supreme Court Justice in 1941 and ~ez_lsquo~42, went
on to become director of the Office of Economic Stabilization and
secretary of state. Byrnes, a close associate of President
Franklin D. Roosevelt, left the bench to lead the Office of Economic
Stabilization in 1942-~ez_lsquo~43 and then the Office of War Mobilization
from 1943-~ez_lsquo~45. Byrnes was a key leader in the U.S. mobilization for
war and a close confidante to FDR on foreign policy. He served as
secretary of state for President Harry Truman from 1945-~ez_lsquo~47.
1942 Fred Korematsu, a shipyard
welder from Oakland, refused to obey the US government internment
order for Japanese Americans. He was arrested, convicted of a felony
and interned in Utah. He reopened the case in 1983 and got his
(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W27)
1942 Clare Boothe Luce (d.1987)
was elected to Congress.
(SFEC, 6/1/97, BR p.4)
1942 Robert C. Byrd of West
Virginia began winning elections when his local chapter of the Ku
Klux Klan picked him as its leader. He was elected a US Senator in
(Econ, 11/15/08, p.36)
1942 The US FDA approved
Premarin, an estrogen drug made from the urine of pregnant mares.
(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.R3)
1942 Japanese pilot, Nobuo
Fujita (d.1997 at 85), flew bombing runs over Oregon and set fires
in the coastal forests. In 1962 he visited the area he had bombed
with deep shame and sincere apologies and gave his 400-year-old
samurai sword to the town of Brookings.
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B13)
1942 In California Earl Warren
was elected governor. A 1997 biography was written by Ed Cray:
"Chief Justice: A Biography of Earl Warren."
(SFEC, 6/8/97, BR p.1)
1942 Construction began on the
new Friant Dam near Fresno, Ca. Completion of the dam in 1944 ended
the salmon run on the San Joaquin River. Legislation in 2008 hoped
to restore the river~ez_rsquo~s salmon run.
(SFC, 5/8/08, p.B1)
1942 In San Francisco the
Sacramento-Clay cable car line made its last run between the Ferry
Building and the Western Addition.
(SFC, 2/8/14, p.C1)
1942 Camp Lejeune, a US Marine
Corps Base, was established near Jacksonville, N.C.
1942 In Wyoming the Heart
Mountain Relocation Center began to serve as an internment camp for
some 10,000 Japanese Americans. It~ez_rsquo~s story was later documented by
Mamoru Inouye in "The Heart Mountain Story" with photographs by
Hansel Mieth and Otto Hagel.
(SFC, 2/17/98, p.E4)
1942 Anthony W. LeVier (d.1998
at 84) flew the first P-38 Lightening, which saw combat over
Britain. He also flew the first T-33 Thunderbird.
(SFC, 2/11/98, p.A24)
1942 Igor Sikorsky, founder of
Sikorsky Aircraft in Stratford, Conn., produced a film that promoted
the capabilities of his VS-300 helicopter.
1942 Dennis Pulestin (d.2001 at
95) helped design the DUKW amphibian landing craft commonly known as
(SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A27)
1942 Hecker Products Corp., a
soap maker, acquired and took the name of Best Foods.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1942 Heidi Schoop (1906-1996)
began her Heidi Schoop Art Creations in Hollywood and continued to
1958. She made plaster dolls, then pottery figurines and bowls. The
Swiss-born ceramic artist fled Nazi Germany in the 1933,
(SFC, 1/7/09, p.G2)(http://tinyurl.com/7v266s)
1942 The Kodacolor process
produced the 1st color print.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)
1942 Lionel Corp. of New Jersey
ceased the production of toy electric trains to save metal for the
war effort. The company went out of business in 1969 and sold the
(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.W14)
1942 Napalm, a jellied
gasoline, was developed by Harvard and Army chemists who combined
naphthene and palmitate. It was later used in the Vietnam war.
(SFC, 4/4/01, p.A3)
1942 Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber
(d.1998 at 86), research physicist at the Univ. of Illinois,
discovered that spontaneous fission is associated with the emission
(SFC, 2/7/98, p.21)
1942 Four engineers at Standard
Oil, including Donald L. Campbell (d.2002 at 98), invented a process
called fluid catalytic cracking, which became essential to
increasing the yield of high-octane gasoline from crude oil.
(SFC, 9/20/02, p.A25)
1942 Dr. Paul Hodges
(1894-1997) introduced a photo-timer that automatically calculated
the optimal X-ray exposure for a high-quality diagnostic image. He
was the founding chairman of the radiology department at the Univ.
of Chicago Medical Center and also invented an X-ray film viewer and
an automatic film exposure instrument.
(SFC, 1/27/97, p.A20)
1942 Hedy Lamarr, actress, and
George Antheill, composer, patented a shielding concept in wireless
radio communications. It later provided the foundation for
spread-spectrum technology used in modern wireless communications.
(WSJ, 2/21/97, p.B15B)
1942 A circus fire sent crazed
elephants stampeding through downtown Cleveland.
(SFC, 6/2/96, p.T-11)
1942 Samuel P. Welles (d.1997),
paleontologist, discovered and described the first known skeleton of
Dilophosaurus wetherilli. The reptile was later featured as the
poison-spitting dinosaur in the film "Jurassic Park." He wrote many
books and articles on the Mesozoic dinosaurs.
(SFC, 8/13/97, p.C2)
1942 Moses Annenberg, owner of
the Philadelphia Enquirer, died. His son Walter took over as editor
(SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)
1942 Charlie Christian (25),
jazz electric guitarist, died of tuberculosis. In 2002 a four-CD set
was released titled: "Charlie Christian: The Genius of the Electric
(WSJ, 10/4/02, p.W13)
1942 Bruce Fahnestock was
killed by an American fighter plane that mistook his ship for a
Japanese vessel. He and his brother Sheridan had been engaged since
the 1930s by the American Museum of Natural History to document the
indigenous music of the South Pacific Islands.
(Nat. Hist. 3/96, p.24)
1942 Joseph A. Faurot (70),
former NYC detective, died. He introduced fingerprint technology
from London to NYC and the rest of the US.
(ON, 4/04, p.11)
1942 Photographer Tina Modotti
(SFEM, 6/30/96, p.6)
1942 Lev Nussimbaum (37),
Orientalist and writer (aka Essad Bey or Kurban Said), died in
Italy, while researching a biography of Mussolini. In 2005 Tom Reiss
authored ~ez_ldquo~The Orientalist,~ez_rdquo~ a biography of Nussimbaum, whose books
included the novel ~ez_ldquo~Ali and Nino~ez_rdquo~ (1937), translated to English in
(WSJ, 2/17/05, p.D8)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B3)
1942 Walter Richard Sickert
(b.1860), English Impressionist painter, died. In 2002 Patricia
Cornwell, crime writer, reported that he was Jack the Ripper, the
murderer of 5 London prostitutes in 1888.
(WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)(SSFC, 2/24/02, Par p.2)
1942 Sabina Spielrein,
Russian-Jewish psychoanalyst and theorist, died. She was a patient
of Jung and a friend of Freud and is credited by some to have been
the real inventor of such concepts as the Freudian death instinct
and the Jungian notion of the universal myth. She was burned to
death with her daughters by the Nazis in the synagogue of her native
(WSJ, 3/22/96, p.A-10)
1942 Emil von Stauss (65),
chief of Deutsche Bank, died. He was a friend of Hitler and helped
finance the Nazi war machine. He had acquired a 9% stake in the
Wertheim retail chain in a forced sale.
(WSJ, 3/29/02, p.A8)
1942 Andree Geulen-Herscovici
was a teacher in Brussels when she witnessed a Gestapo raid on a
school. That prompted her to join a rescue organization and for more
than two years she took in over 300 Jewish children and hid them in
Christian homes and monasteries under assumed identities. In 2007
Geulen-Herscovici (86) was granted honorary Israeli citizenship.
1942 In Brazil Companhia do
Vale do Rio Doce, a state mining concern, was founded. It was
pivotal in developing the Amazon Basin.
(SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)
1942 Sir William Beveridge
(1879-1963) in his Social Insurance and Allied Services, aka the
Beveridge Report, laid the foundations of Britain~ez_rsquo~s post-war welfare
state. In 1953 he authored ~ez_ldquo~Power and Influence.~ez_rdquo~
1942 Nikolaus Pevsner
(1902-1983), German-born British architectural researcher, authored
~ez_ldquo~An Outline of European Architecture.~ez_rdquo~
1942 Oxfam was started by a
group in Oxford, and began as the "Oxford Committee for Famine
Relief". In towns all over the UK, groups of people collected
parcels of food and clothes to send to families whose lives had been
destroyed by the war.
1942 Thomas Peirson Frank
(d.1951), chief engineer for London County Council, was knighted for
leading work to repair London~ez_rsquo~s flood defenses hit in German air
raids. Details of his job were kept under wraps. He later became
president of the Institution of Civil Engineers. He died in 1951.
1942 British forces in Burma
crated and buried some 60 Spitfire aircraft to keep them out of the
hands of the invading Japanese. In 2012 aviation enthusiast David J.
Cundall signed an agreement with the Myanmar government for their
1942 British forces in India
built a 100-km road from Imphal to Moreh, Manipur state, on the
Burma border to help its soldiers flee advancing Japanese troops.
(Econ, 11/15/14, p.43)
1942 After capturing and
imprisoning Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh in 1942, the
Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek was pressured into
releasing him by America~ez_lsquo~s Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The
OSS was formed during WWII to engage in intelligence operations and
was the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Ho Chi
Minh was leading Vietnamese resistance against the Japanese and was
captured while in China setting up his Communist-inspired Viet Minh
movement. The OSS sought his release so he could continue his fight
against the Japanese. The Viet Minh also benefited from U.S. arms
1942 Alice Sommer Herz (39) of
Prague and her son were sent to the Nazi camp at Theresienstadt. It
was established by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city of
Terezin, Czechoslovakia. In 2011 a new documentary about Alice
Sommer Herz was made public. In 2010 Alice, the world's oldest
Holocaust survivor, was about to celebrate her 107th birthday.
"Music is God," she said.
1942 A treaty set the
1,050-mile border between Ecuador and Peru, but a 49-mile stretch in
the Cordillera del Condor region was not demarcated.
(SFC, 10/17/98, p.A14)
1942 The French police rounded
up some 13,000 Jews in Paris including some 4,000 children. In 2010
the film ~ez_ldquo~La Rafle~ez_rdquo~ portrayed these events through the eyes of Jo
Weisman (11), who later escaped from an internment camp near
(Econ, 3/20/10, p.60)
1942 In France the Nazis banned
English language films. "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" was the last
English-language film shown.
(WSJ, 5/20/97, p.A18)
1942 In Germany artifacts of
the German Baroque were taken from the Green Vault in Dresden to
Fortress Konigstein. In 1958 the Soviets returned the lot to
(Econ, 9/16/06, p.95)
1942 The Biblical Zoo in
Jerusalem was created by Aharon Shulov as a center for children of
(SFC, 6/3/96, p.A19)
1942 Rommel and Montgomery
faced off in Egypt and Libya.
(TMC, 1994, p.1942)
1942 In Indonesia there was a
Japanese internment camp for women on the island of Sumatra. 200 of
the 600 inmates died of disease of starvation. Helen Colijn told of
her stay there in the 1997 book "Song of Survival: Women Interned."
Her experiences inspired the 1997 film "Paradise Road."
(SFEC, 4/13/97, Par p.16)(SFC, 4/18/97, p.A19)
1942 In the Netherlands the
Catholic hierarchy of Amsterdam spoke against the Nazi treatment of
Jews. This led to a redoubling of roundups and deportations.
(WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)
1942 In Northern Ireland Joe
Cahill and 5 other IRA members were sentenced to death for the
killing of a police officer. Tom Williams was hanged and the rest
had their sentences commuted to life. Cahill was freed in 1949.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.B4)
1942 American rabbi Judah
Magnes (d.1948) helped found a political party in Palestine called
Ihud (Unity). He argued for a single binational state to be shared
by Arabs and Jews.
(Econ, 3/16/13, p.25)
1942 In Poland Jan Karski
(d.2000 at 86), former Polish diplomat, disguised as a Nazi guard
and snuck into the Izbica death camp and twice entered the Warsaw
Ghetto. He witnessed the mass killings and torture of Jews and
reported his story to political and religious leaders in the West.
His book "Story of a Secret State" appeared in the US in 1944.
(SFC, 7/15/00, p.A23)
1942 In Scotland the testing of
anthrax was sanctioned on the island of Gruinard amid fears the
Germans might attack the UK with biological or chemical weapons. A
film was made of their work and it remained classified until 1997.
1942 Nazi documents of this
year showed that the Einsatzgruppe, a Nazi-run Serbian police unit,
killed 6,280 Serbian Jewish women and children who were held as
prisoners at Semlin Camp. In two months, those women and children
allegedly were taken from a camp and forced into a specially
designed van, in which they were gassed with carbon monoxide. The
unit was allegedly run by Peter Egner, who emigrated to the US in
1960, and received citizenship in 1966 [see 1941]. In 2010 Serbia
issued an international warrant for the arrest of Egner (88), who
has denied the accusations.
(AP, 4/14/09)(AP, 4/2/10)(AP, 11/26/10)
1942 Switzerland passed a
euthanasia law to enable those with just a few weeks to live the
opportunity of a dignified death. Swiss law made assisted suicide
lawful under some conditions.
(WSJ, 11/22/02, p.A1)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.59)
1942 Switzerland outlawed
capital punishment for civilians.
(SFC, 7/20/12, p.A2)
1942 Switzerland legalized
1942 Thailand declared war on
Britain and US, but Thai ambassador in Washington refuses to deliver
declaration to US government.
1942 The Ukrainian Insurgent
Army, or UPA, was created and battled both Soviet and Nazi forces
during the war. Hostility toward the partisans later ran deep
because they initially sought support from the Nazis, believing the
Germans would grant Ukraine independence.
1942-1943 In Norway under the Quisling government
767 Jews were deported to Auschwitz. An estimated 1,100 Jews fled to
Sweden and bureaucrats looted the possessions of 1,179 Jewish
families and 71 Jewish companies.
(SFC, 6/25/97, p.A10)
1942-1943 Irena Sendler (29), posing as a
nurse, visited the Warsaw Ghetto and persuaded parents that their
children had better chances of survival outside its walls. She and
20 helpers smuggled some 2,500 children out of the ghetto and placed
them with Polish families. In 2003 Sendler was awarded Poland's
highest order. In 2007 Sendler (97) was honored by parliament at a
ceremony during which Poland's president said she deserves the Nobel
(AP, 11/11/03)(AP, 3/14/07)
1942-1944 The Jasenovac concentration camp
southeast of Zagreb was commanded by Capt. Dinko Sakic for 8 months.
Croatia extradited him from Argentina in 1998. Sakic commanded the
Stara Gradiska concentration camp and was deputy commander of the
Jasenovac camp. Sakic was found guilty in 1999 of carrying out or
condoning the torture and slaying of inmates.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.A20)(SFC, 6/17/98, p.C2)(SFC,
11/3/98, p.C12)(SFC, 3/16/99, p.A9)(SFC, 10/5/99, p.A12)
1942-1944 SS Captain Bruno Melmer was in charge of
valuables stolen from Nazi victims. Gold objects were turned over to
the Reichsbank, which sent it to the Degussa smelting company for
processing into gold bars.
(SFC, 5/26/98, p.A6)
1942-1944 Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Eduard Dietl (d.1944) led the
German 20th mountain army and was later found to be responsible for
the slaughter of hundreds of prisoners in northern Europe.
(SFC, 3/19/97, p.A14)
1942-1944 Maurice Papon, Vichy police supervisor
in Bordeaux, was later charged with the arrest and deportation of
1,690 French Jews. Under the Vichy regime some 75,000 (76,000) were
deported to Nazi death camps. Rene Bousquet was the national Vichy
(SFC, 1/24/97, p.A15)(WSJ, 10/1/97, p.A1)
1942-1945 Ronald Reagan, a second lieutenant in
the army reserve during WWII, did not serve in combat because of his
disqualification due to poor eyesight. Reagan, who had become
a Hollywood star through his roles in the films Knute Rockne-All
American Hero (1940) and King~ez_rsquo~s Row (1941), made armed forces
training films from 1942-45. Born in Tampico, Illinois, on February
6, 1911, Reagan went on to become the 40th president of the United
1942-1945 The Manzanar Internment Camp in Inyo
County was one of ten that held some 120,000 Japanese-Americans
during this period. The Tule Lake Segregation Camp was another. In
1999 Marnie Mueller, born in the Tule Lake camp, published the novel
"The Climate of the Country," set at Tule Lake in this time. In 2000
Lawson Fusao Inada edited "Only What We Could Carry: The
Japanese-American Internment Experience." In 2000 Kimi Kodani Hill
edited "Topaz Moon: Chiura Obata~ez_rsquo~s Art of the Internment."
(SFC, 7/29/97, p.A18)(SFEC, 5/2/99, BR p.5)(SFEC,
10/1/00, BR p.5)
1942-1945 Some 22,000 Japanese-Canadians were
interred during WW II. Their property was confiscated and sold to
pay for the camps. At the end of the war they were not allowed to
return to their former communities. The 1981 novel "Obasan" by Joy
Kogawa was about their experiences.
(SFC, 2/8/99, p.E1,3)
1942-1945 The US promised Filipino fighters
citizenship with full military benefits during WW II. Shortly after
the war the US Congress withdrew this pledge.
(SFEC,12/14/97, Z1 p.4)
1942-1945 J.G. Ballard (b.1930), English novelist
born in Shanghai, was interned by the Japanese. His 1984
autobiographical novel "Empire of the Sun" described his
(SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.10)
1942-1945 Victor Klemperer (b.1881), a professor
in Dresden, in 2000 authored part 2 of his diaries that covered this
period: "I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years, 1942-1945."
His first volume went up to 1941 and was published in 1998.
(WSJ, 3/22/00, p.A20)
1942-1945 Jose Arturo Castellanos (d.1977 at 86),
Salvadoran diplomat in Geneva, gave citizenship certificates to as
many as 40,000 Jews during the Holocaust. In 2010 Israel named him
posthumously as one of the "Righteous Among the Nations."
1942-1945 In Taiwan the Kinkaseki copper mine was
worked by prisoners of war under Japanese dictate. Of the 523 men
who went into the mine in Dec 1942, only about 100 were alive at the
end of the war.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A25)
1942-1964 The "Bracero Program," run under the
auspices of the US Dept. of Labor, sent Mexican workers to the US to
help the labor shortage created by World War II. From 1942-1949 10%
of their wages was deposited with the National Bank of Rural Credit,
Banrural (Banco Nacional de Credito Agricola, a predecessor of
Banrural). Workers in 1999 demanded to know the status of the fund.
Mexican banking officials in 1999 reported no evidence of the funds.
In 2001 a suit for $500 million was filed for deposits and interest
(SFC, 8/6/99, p.A16)(SFC, 10/6/99, p.A16)(SSFC,
7/15/01, p.A4)(SFC, 1/16/04, p.A19)