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Timeline 1946

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1946        Jan 1, Kathleen Casey became the first official US baby boomer following her birth just after midnight. On Oct 15, 2007, Kathleen Casey-Kirschling became the first baby boomer to make an early filing for Social Security benefits.
    (SFC, 10/16/07, p.A8)
1946        Jan 1, In Japan Emperor Hirohito rejected the notion that the emperor is a living god and the notion that the Japanese are superior to other races and destined to govern the world.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.36)(MC, 1/1/02)

1946        Jan 3, John Paul Jones, musician, was born as John Baldwin in Kent, England: film score: Scream for Help; group: Led Zeppelin: Whole Lotta Love, Moby Dick, Ramble On, Immigrant Song, Since I’ve Been Loving You, Black Dog, Rock & Roll, The Battle of Evermore, Stairway to Heaven.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Paul_Jones_%28musician%29)
1946        Jan 3, Don May basketball player, was born: Univ. of Dayton, Indiana Pacers.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)
1946         Jan 3, President Truman called on Americans to spur Congress to act on the on-going labor crisis.
    (HN, 1/3/99)
1946        Jan 3, William Joyce, (Lord Haw Haw), was hanged in Britain for treason. He had broadcast for the Nazis to British and American fighting troops. In 2005 Nigel Farndale authored “Haw-Haw: The Tragedy of William and Margaret Joyce.”
    (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/William-Joyce)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.77)

1946        Jan 5, Diane Keaton, actress (Annie Hall, Little Drummer Girl), was born in LA.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1946        Jan 6, Ho Chi Minh won North Vietnamese elections.
    (HN, 1/6/99)

1946        Jan 8, President Truman vowed to stand by the Yalta accord on self-determination for the Balkans.
    (HN, 1/8/99)
1946        Jan 8-9, The Baltic Camp University was founded in Germany by 40 Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian scientists in Hamburg and Pinneberg. It operated for 3 ˝ years, with classes over 9 semesters.
    (DrEE, 9/21/96, p.3)

1946        Jan 10, The first manmade contact with the moon was made as the US Army bounced radar signals off the lunar surface from Belmar, NJ.
    (www.infoage.org/nyt-01-25-1946p1.html)(AP, 1/10/06)
1946        Jan 10, The first General Assembly of the United Nations convened in London.
    (AP, 1/10/98)
1946        Jan 10, Chiang Kai-shek and the Yenan Communist forces halted fighting in China.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1946        Jan 11, Naomi (Diane) Judd, Grammy Award-winning singer: duo: The Judds, was born: Why Not Me, Have Mercy, LP: Heartland; mother of singers, Wynonna, Ashley-actress.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1946        Jan 17, The United Nations Security Council held its first meeting.
    (AP, 1/17/98)

1946        Jan 18, Katia Ricclarelli, opera soprano (Met Opera), (Falstaff, Othello, Turandot), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1946        Jan 19, Dolly Rebecca Parton, country singer (Dolly, 9 to 5), was born in Sevierville, Ten.
    (MC, 1/19/02)
1946        Jan 19, The first complaint heard by the United Nations Security Council was made by Iran and directed against the Soviet Union. Iran alleged Soviet interference in its internal affairs and the refusal to remove Soviet troops from Iranian territory. The very first session of the UN had begun just days earlier, on January 10, 1946, in London.  The issue was resolved without UN intervention.
    (HNQ, 6/2/00)

1946        Jan 20, France's Charles DeGaulle handed in his resignation.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1946        Jan 22, President Truman set up the Central Intelligence Group. In late 1945 he had coordinated various intelligence reform plans considered in the drafting of the directive that created the CIG. In 1947 it was re-named the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
    (http://tinyurl.com/l3go2n)

1946        Jan 24, The UN established the International Atomic Energy Commission.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1946        Jan 25, The United Mine Workers rejoined the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
    (AP, 1/25/98)

1946        Jan 26, Gene Siskel (d.1999) was born in Chicago. He later achieved recognition as  movie critic with his counterpart Roger Ebert. Siskel and Ebert were first paired together in 1975 for a local PBS show called "Opening Soon at a Theater Near You."
    (SFEC, 2/20/99, p.D8)

1946        Jan 28, Helene Schjerfbeck (b.1862), Finnish painter, died. Her work included a 5 painting series of self-portraits that represented herself at various ages.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helene_Schjerfbeck)

1946        Jan 30, The 1st issue of Franklin Roosevelt dime.
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1946        Jan 31, The UN Security Council voted to allow Iran and the Soviet Union to settle their dispute by direct negotiation.
    (G&M, 1/31/96, p.A-2)

1946        Feb 1, A press conference for what is considered the first computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC), was held at the University of Pennsylvania. The machine took up an entire room, weighed 30 tons and used more than 18,000 vacuum tubes to perform functions such as counting to 5,000 in one second. ENIAC, costing $450,000, was designed by the U.S. Army during World War II to make artillery calculations. The development of ENIAC paved the way for modern computer technology--but even today's average calculator possesses more computing power than ENIAC did. John Mauchley and John "Pres" Eckert supervised the project. In 1999 Scott McCartney published "ENIAC: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World's First Computer."
    (HN, 2/2/99)(WSJ, 6/30/99, p.A24)(SFEC, 8/29/99, BR p.5)
1946        Feb 1, Norwegian statesman Trygve Lie was chosen to be the first secretary-general of the United Nations.
    (AP, 2/1/97)
1946        Feb 1, Yugoslavia and Hungary declared themselves republics.
    (G&M, 2/1/96, p.A-2)

1946        Feb 2, Norwegian Foreign Minister Trygve Lie was confirmed in the post of UN Secretary-General.
    (G&M, 2/2/96, p.A-2)

1946        Feb 4, Garson Kanin's "Born Yesterday," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 2/4/02)
1946        Feb 8, Premier Salazar of Portugal forbade opposition parties.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1946        Feb 9, Stalin announced the new five-year plan for the USSR, calling for production boosts of 50 percent.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1946        Feb 13, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, German director, actor, was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1946        Feb 15, The ENIAC, Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, had its official unveiling. It was created by John Mauchly and Presper Eckert. The first test problem it solved was concerned with the trajectory of a 155-millimeter shell. The problem was programmed by Jean Bartik and Betty Holberton who were part of an all-woman team that had performed the calculations by hand. The US Army had chosen 6 women, including Frances Holberton (d.2001 at 84), to program Eniac. Ms. Holberton later created the C-10 instruction code for the Univac using keyboard commands rather than dials and switches.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.B1)(www.thocp.net/hardware/eniac.htm)(SFC, 12/12/01, p.A27)
1946        Feb 15, Royal Canadian mounted police arrested 22 as Soviet spies.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1946        Feb 16, The 1st commercially designed helicopter was tested at Bridgeport, Ct.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1946        Feb 20, The US Employment Act of 1946 was signed into law. It laid the responsibility of economic stability of inflation and unemployment onto the federal government.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employment_Act_of_1946)

1946        Feb 21, Alan Rickman, actor (Robin Hood Prince of Thieves, Rasputin, Die Hard), was born.
    (MC, 2/21/02)
1946        Feb 21, Anti-British demonstrations took place in Egypt.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1946        Feb 22, George Kennan (1904-2005) sent his “Long Telegram,” actually 5 separate cables, from Moscow to the US State Dept. in Washington explaining that the Soviet regime was among other things fundamentally insecure, opposed to the US, and held designs on the world for violent destabilization. This led to America’s redesign of its foreign policy to contain Soviet hostility firmly over the long term.
    (Econ, 3/26/05, p.85)(Econ, 11/12/11, p.97)

1946        Feb 23, Anti-British demonstration in India drew a crowd of 300,000.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1946        Feb 23, Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita was hanged in Manila, the Philippines, after being found guilty by a US military commission of war crimes.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1946        Feb 24, Argentinians went to the polls to elect Juan D. Peron (50) their president. He held the office until 1955.
    (PCh, 1992, p.899)(AP, 2/24/08)

1946        Feb 26, A race riot in Columbia, TN, killed 2 people and 10 wounded.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1946        Feb 28, The U.S. Army declared that it would use the V-2 rocket to test radar as an atomic rocket defense system.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1946        Mar 1, British Government took control of Bank of England, after 252 years.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1946        Mar 1, In the Netherlands Felix Gulje, head of a construction company, was murdered at his door front.  Rumors had circled that Gulje worked with occupation authorities during the war. After his death it emerged that Gulje had sheltered Jews and given money to hide others. In 2011 Atie Ridder-Visser (96), former resistance member, confessed to the killing.
    (SFC, 6/9/11, p.A3)
1946        Mar 1, Panama accepted its new constitution.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1946        Mar 2, Kingman Douglass became deputy director of CIA.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1946        Mar 2, Dutch troops landed on East Bali.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1946        Mar 2, Ho Chi Minh was elected president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1946        Mar 5, Winston Churchill appeared as Pres. Truman’s guest at Westminster College in Fulton, Mo. and delivered his "Sinews Of Peace" speech later known as the "Iron Curtain Speech:" "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron Curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in ... the Soviet sphere."
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T5)(AP, 3/5/98)

1946        Mar 6, France recognized Vietnam statehood within the Indo-Chinese federation.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1946        Mar 8, The 1st helicopter licensed for commercial use was in NYC.
    (MC, 3/8/02)
1946        Mar 8, Frederick William Lanchester (b.1868) died in England. He was a major contributor to the theory and practice of automobile engineering and aeronautical engineering. He also published works in radio, acoustics, relativity, music and poetry.
    (http://www.lanchester.com/Lanc1.html)

1946        Mar 12, Patricia Hampl, poet and memoirist (A Romantic Education, Virgin Time), was born.
    (HN, 3/12/01)
1946        Mar 12, Liza Minnelli, actress and singer, was born. She was the daughter of actress Judy Garland and director Vincente Minnelli.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97 Par, p.22)

1946        Mar 15, British premier Attlee agreed with India's right to independence.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1946        Mar 16, Erik Estrada, actor (CHiPs, Cross & Switchblade, Lightblast), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1946         Mar 21, The United Nations set up temporary headquarters at Hunter College in New York City.
    (AP, 3/21/97)

1946        Mar 22, First U.S. built rocket to leave the earth’s atmosphere reached a 50-mile height.
    (HN, 3/22/97)
1946        Mar 22, The British mandate in Transjordan came to an end. Britain signed a treaty granting independence to Jordan.
    (AP, 3/22/97)(HN, 3/22/97)

1946        Mar 23, W. Averell Harriman was chosen as the U.S. Ambassador to Britain.
    (HN, 3/23/98)
1946        Mar 23, Gilbert N. Lewis (b.1875), UC Berkeley chemist, died in his lab while working on an experiment with liquid hydrogen cyanide. In 1916 Lewis discovered the covalent bond.
    (SFC, 8/5/06, p.B5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_N._Lewis)

1946        Mar 30, The Allies seized 1,000 Nazis who were attempting to revive the Nazi party in Frankfurt.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1946               Apr 1,  Weight Watchers was formed.
    (OTD)
1946        Apr 1, A U.S. mine worker strike idled 400,000 miners.
    (HN, 4/1/98)
1946        Apr 1, Two large earthquakes shook the Scotch Cap Lighthouse on Unimak Island, Alaska. A resulting tsunami washed away the lighthouse. The Aleutian Islands earthquake also triggered a Pacific-wide tsunami that killed 165 people and caused over $26 million in damages. Tidal waves struck the Hawaiian islands, resulting in more than 170 deaths. 91 people were killed in Hilo.
    (AP, 4/1/98)(Ind, 6/8/02, 5A)(SSFC, 8/25/02, p.C14)(SFC, 4/1/09, p.D8)

1946        Apr 3, Lt. General Masaharu Homma, the Japanese commander responsible for the 65-mile Bataan Death March, was executed outside Manila in the Philippines.
    (AP, 4/3/97)

1946        Apr 5, Vincent Millie Youmans (47), US composer (Tea For Two), died.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1946        Apr 8,    The League of Nations assembled in Geneva for its last session.
    (AP, 4/8/08)

1946        Apr 12, Syria gained independence from France.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1946        Apr 16, On opening day for Baseball in Boston with the Braves vs. the Brooklyn Dodgers, the newly painted seats had not yet dried when guests seated themselves. The Braves management picked up the cleaning tab for all.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, Z1 p.5)
1946        Apr 16, 1st US launch of captured V-2 rocket was at White Sands, NM. It reached 8 km.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1946        Apr 17, The last French troops left Syria.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1946        Apr 18, Jackie Robinson debuted as 2nd baseman for the Montreal Royals.
    (MC, 4/18/02)
1946        Apr 18, US recognized Tito's Yugoslavia govt.
    (MC, 4/18/02)
1946        Apr 18, The League of Nations was dissolved.
    (AHD, 1971, p.744)(AP, 4/18/97)(HN, 4/18/98)

1946        Apr 19, Tim Curry, actor (Rocky Horror Show), was born in Cheshire, England.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1946        Apr 20, 1st baseball game telecast was in Chicago with the Cards vs. Cubs.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1946        Apr 21, John M. Keynes (62), English economist, died. He had recently negotiated a  loan from the US to keep Britain afloat. One condition of the $5 billion loan was that Britain make sterling fully convertible into dollars. In 2000 Robert Skidelsky authored “John Maynard Keynes: Fighting for Britain: 1937-1946.” In 2009 Peter Clarke authored “Keynes: The Twentieth Century’s Most Influential Economist.” Robert Skidelsky authored “Keynes: The Return of the Master.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Maynard_Keynes)(WSJ, 6/20/08, p.A11)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.103)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.84)(Econ, 9/25/10, p.85)

1946        Apr 22, Harlan Fiske Stone (1872-1946), Chief Justice on the US Supreme Court, died.
    (www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/73/)
1946        Apr 22, Dectuplets were born in Bacacay, Brazil, 8 males and 2 females.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1946        Apr 24, The Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, ordered the establishment of the Blue Angels team.  In 1985 funding for the program was $4.2 million, about half the cost of replacements for the two A-4 jets. By 2005 21 pilots died during Angels shows. Navy officials said the super-trained unit and its dazzling displays are valuable in attracting young and talented recruits into the Navy and Air Force. By 2009 on the average, one F/A-18 used approximately 8,000 pounds or 1,300 gallons of JP-5 jet fuel at a cost of roughly $1,378. Fat Albert, which transports the crew to shows, holds 46,000 pounds of fuel.
    (www.navy.com/about/navylife/onduty/blueangels/faq/)(http://tinyurl.com/ydn8pes)

1946        Apr 25, Talia Shire, actress (Adrienne-Rocky, Godfather), was born in Lake Success, NY.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1946        Apr 25, A train crash at Napierville, Illinois, killed 45-48. The "Exposition Flyer" was rammed.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1946        Apr 26, Popular music of the day included: "Oh, What It Seemed to Be" by the Frankie Carle Orchestra with Marjorie Hughes; "Personality" by Johnny Mercer; "Day by Day" by Frank Sinatra; and "Guitar Polka" by Al Dexter.
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)

1946        Apr 27, 1st radar installation aboard a commercial ship was installed.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1946        Apr 28, Allies indicted Hideki Tojo, former premier and war minister of Japan, with 55 counts of war crimes. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East meted out justice to Japanese war criminals at locations throughout Asia.
    (AP, 11/12/97)(HN, 4/28/98)
1946        Apr 28, Kazue Katz became the 1st Japanese woman to marry an American following WW II. Her marriage to Sgt. Frederick Katz in Tokyo required 29 endorsements.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F6)
1946        Apr 28, Domenico Leccisi (d.2008 at 88) and 2 other Italians marked the first anniversary of the death of Mussolini by digging up his body in a Milan cemetery. They passed the body to 2 monks, who buried it in a nearby monastery. The theft sparked a nationwide manhunt for the group. The body was later returned for burial in Predappio, Mussolini’s birthplace.
    (SFC, 11/5/08, p.B15)

1946        Apr 29, In Japan 28 former leaders were indicted in Tokyo as war criminals; seven ended up being sentenced to death.
    (HN, 4/29/98)(AP, 4/29/07)

1946        Apr, George Orwell (1903-1950), English author and journalist, published his essay “Politics and the English Language.”
    (www.orwell.ru/library/essays/politics/english/e_polit)
1946        Apr, The British Labour government authorized a mission to visit suitable sites in its Tanganyika colony to cultivate groundnuts. The British Labour government of Clement Attlee had come up with a plan to cultivate tracts of what later became Tanzania with peanuts in a plan that came to be called the Tanganyika Groundnut Scheme. It was abandoned at considerable cost to the taxpayers when it did not become profitable.
    (AP, 6/1/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanganyika_groundnut_scheme)
1946        Apr, In Japan the Tokyo War Crimes Trial began. Gen’l. Matsui Iwane, one of the military leaders of the 1937 "Rape of Nanking" was convicted and hung. [see May 3, 1946]
    (WSJ, 12/29/97, p.A9)

1946        May 2, Prisoners revolted at California’s Alcatraz prison.
    (HN, 5/2/98)

1946        May 2-1946 May 4, A 3-day siege at Alcatraz prison in San Francisco Bay ended after five people were killed. Six led by bank robber Bernard Paul Coy (46) inmates took 9 guards hostage. Inmate Joe Cretzer shot the 9 hostages but killed only one. He and 2 compeers were later shot and killed. 2 inmates were executed for their part and one served out a life sentence.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(SFC, 8/11/97, p.A12)(SFC, 4/12/14, p.C1)

1946        May 3, The International Military Tribunal for the Far East convened in Tokyo for Japanese War Crimes. 28 defendants were tried. Radhabinod Pal, the judge from India, was the only judge with an international law background and the only judge to find all the defendants innocent on all counts.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A15)(MC, 5/3/02)

1946        May 6, A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Arthur M. Schlesinger ("Age of Jackson").
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1946        May 9, King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy abdicated and was replaced by his son, Umberto II. He served until a June referendum abolished the monarchy.
    (HN, 5/9/98)(SFC, 1/30/01, p.C2)

1946        May 10, Donovan, rocker (Mellow Yellow), was born as Donovan Leitch in Scotland.
    (http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:0ifqxqe5ldhe~T1)
1946        May 10, Birute Galdikas, later renowned as a primatologist, was born in Wiesbaden, Germany to Lithuanian parents.
    (SFC, 1/6/98, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birut%C4%97_Galdikas)

1946        May 11, Robert Jarvik, physician: inventor of the Jarvik artificial heart, was born in Michigan.
    (MC, 5/11/02)
1946        May 11, The first packages from the relief agency CARE (Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe) arrived in Europe, at Le Havre, France.
    (AP, 5/11/97)

1946        May 12, Daniel Libeskind, architect, was born in Poland. His family emigrated to Israel and then to the US where he grew up.
    (SFC, 5/5/05, p.E6)

1946        May 13, US condemned 58 camp guards of Mauthausen concentration camp to death.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1946        May 16, The Irving Berlin musical "Annie Get Your Gun" opened on Broadway starring Ethel Merman as Annie Oakley. The play closed in 1949 after 1,147 performances.
    (AP, 5/16/97)(SFC, 4/24/99, p.A10)

1946        May 17, President Truman seized control of the nation's railroads, delaying — but not preventing — a threatened strike by engineers and trainmen.
    (AP, 5/17/08)

1946        May 25, Janet E[llen] Morris, US sci-fi author (Golden Sword, Tempus), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1946        May 25, Patty Smith Hill (78), songwriter (Happy Birthday To You), died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1946        May 25, Marcel Petiot (b.1897), a French doctor, was beheaded for offering Jews an escape to Argentina, then killing them and getting rid of their bodies, many by incineration. The remains of 26 people were found in his home, but he was suspected of killing more than 60 people. In 1980 Thomas Maeder authored “The Unspeakable Crimes of Dr. Petiot.” In 2011 David King chronicled the hunt for Petiot in "Death in the City of Light."
    (WSJ, 6/9/07, p.P8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcel_Petiot)(Reuters, 11/10/11)
1946        May 25, Transjordan (now Jordan) gained independence from Britain and became a kingdom as it proclaimed its new monarch, King Abdullah Ibn Ul-Hussein.
    (AP, 5/25/97)(HN, 5/25/98)

1946        May 26, A patent was filed in U.S. for H-bomb.
    (HN, 5/26/98)

1946        May 28, Madeleine Le Roux, Broadway actress (Cry Uncle), was born in Wyoming.
    (MC, 5/28/02)
1946        May 28, The US Army Air Force initiated the Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft program (NEPA). Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corp. was selected to study the possibility of developing a long range strategic bomber powered by a nuclear reactor.
    (AH, 2/03, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_Nuclear_Propulsion)

1946        May 29, Robin Johnson, actress (Times Square), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1946        May 29, KVP won the Provincial National elections in Netherlands.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1946        Jun 2, The Italian monarchy was abolished by referendum in favor of a republic.
    (AP, 6/2/97)(HN, 6/2/98)

1946        Jun 3, A Supreme Court decision struck down Virginia’s segregation statute on interstate buses. The case stemmed from the 1944 incident where Irene Morgan was jailed for refusing to give up her bus seat.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.D2)
1946        Jun 3, Intl. Military Tribunal opened in Tokyo against 28 accused Japanese war criminals.
    (MC, 6/3/02)
1946        Jun 3, US Supreme court ruled that race separation on buses is unconstitutional.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1946        Jun 4, Juan Peron was installed as Argentina’s president.
    (HN, 6/4/98)
1946        Jun 4, A giant eruption occurred on the surface of the sun and was photographed by the coronograph of the High Altitude Observatory of the Univ. of Colorado.
    (SCTS, p.84)

1946        Jun 7, Bill Kreutzman, drummer (Grateful Dead-Uncle John's Band), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1946        Jun 9, In Thailand King Ananda was assassinated. Bhumibol Adulyadej (b.1927) ascended the throne as a teenage King after his older brother’s death.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, C3)(AP, 6/12/06)

1946        Jun 10, Jack Johnson, 1st black heavyweight champion (1908-1915), died in car accident. In 2004 Geoffrey C. Ward authored “Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson.” In 2005 Ken Burns premiered the PBS documentary: “Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson.”
    (SSFC, 11/7/04, p.M1)(SFC, 1/17/05, p.D6)
1946        Jun 10, Italy replaced its abolished monarchy with a republic.
    (AP, 6/10/97)
 
1946        Jun 14, Donald Trump, New York real estate mogul, was born in NYC.
    (SSFC, 11/14/04, Par p.30)

1946        Jun 15, The US Navy Blue Angels team made its 1st public performance at Craig Field in Jacksonville, Fla. Adm. Nimitz had picked Capt. Roy Vorris (1919-2005) to organize the group.
    (SFC, 10/29/99, p.A3)

1946        Jun 17, Barry Manilow Grammy Award-winning singer, was born as Barry Alan Pincus. His songs included: I Write the Songs [1975], Mandy, Looks Like, Copacabana.
    (MC, 6/17/02)
1946        Jun 17, SW Bell inaugurated mobile telephone commercial service in St Louis.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1946        Jun 19, "Anna & The King Of Siam", Motion Picture, with Irene Dunne & Rex Harrison, opened in theaters.
    (DT, 6/19/97)
1946         Jun 19, The first title match in boxing to be televised takes place in New York City, as Joe Louis defeated Billy Conn for the heavyweight championship. Three NBC TV stations carried the fight.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Conn)

1946        Jun 20, Andre Watts, pianist, was born.
    (HN, 6/20/01)

1946        Jun 21, Bill Veeck bought the Cleveland Indians for $2.2 million.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1946        Jun 24, Mary McLeod Bethune was named director of the Division of Minority Affairs for the National Youth Administration by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The well-known educator thus became the first Black woman ever to head a US government agency.
    (www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/135bethune/135facts1.htm)
1946        Jun 24, Lt. Col. Ellison S. Onizuka (astronaut: mission specialist aboard ill-fated Space Shuttle Challenger), was born.
    (MC, 6/24/02)
1946        Jun 24, Fred M. Vinson (1890-1953) was sworn in as Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court.
    (www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/85/)

1946        Jun 25, Ho Chi Minh traveled to France for talks on Vietnamese independence.
    (HN, 6/25/98)

1946        Jun 28, Gilda Radner (d.1989), actress (Emmy Award-winning comedienne, actress: Saturday Night Live [1977-78]; Haunted Honeymoon [w/husband Gene Wilder]), was born in Detroit, Mich. "I wanted a perfect ending. ... Now I’ve learned, the hard way, that some poems don’t rhyme, and some stories don’t have a clear beginning, middle and end. Life is about not knowing, having to change, taking the moment and making the best of it, without knowing what’s going to happen next. Delicious ambiguity."
    (AP, 5/20/98)(MC, 6/28/02)

1946        Jun-Sep 100,000 Jews left Poland and traveled through Czechoslovakia to displaced persons camps in Germany. Their story is told in some detail by Bernard Wasserstein in his: Vanishing Diaspora: The Jews in Europe Since 1945.
    (WSJ, 3/20/96, p.A-14)

1946        Jul 1, Deborah Harry (singer: group: Blondie: The Tide is High, Rapture, Heart of Glass, Sunday Girl), was born.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1946        Jul 1, Ron Silver, actor (Reversal of Fortune, Entity, Silkwood, Best Friends), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1946        Jul 1, The United States exploded a 20-kiloton atomic bomb near Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean. The energy released by any one of the ten or so major earthquakes every year is about 1,000 times as much as the Bikini atomic bomb.
    (DD-EVTT, p.76)(WUD, 1994, p.147)(AP, 7/1/97)

1946        Jul 2, Ron Silver, actor (Gary-Rhoda, Dear Detective, Baker's Dozen), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1946        Jul 2, Anthony Overton (81), publisher, cosmetics manufacturer, banker, died.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1946        Jul 4, Ron Kovic, disabled Vietnam veteran, author (Born on 4th of July), was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1946        Jul 4, Michael Milken, partner (Intl Capital Access Group), was born in LA, Calif.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1946        Jul 4, The Philippines became independent of U.S. sovereignty. The Philippines, which officially became a territory of the United States in 1902, gained its independence. In 1932 a movement to implement Philippine independence began to grow. The Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934, providing for independence after 12 years, was unanimously accepted and a Philippine constitution approved by President Roosevelt in February 1935. Manuel Quezon was elected the first president of the Philippines on September 17, 1935. In 1937 a Joint Preparatory Commission on Philippine Affairs was established by Roosevelt to recommend a program for economic adjustment. The Republic of the Philippines was inaugurated.
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.A14)(AP, 7/4/97)(HNQ, 11/9/99)
1946        July 4, A postwar pogrom in Kielce, Poland, left 42 people, mostly Jews, dead and 50 wounded. Army and security officers took part in the attack that was sparked by the false story of Walenty Blaszcyk that his son had been kidnapped by Jews. The event is considered as Europe’s last pogrom. In 2001 Jan Tomascz Gross authored “Neighbors,” the story of the Kielce Jews, who were herded into a barn that was set alight.
    (WSJ, 3/20/96, p.A-14)(SFC,10/17/97, p.D3)(Econ, 2/2/08, p.59)

1946        Jul 5, The bikini bathing suit, created by former civil engineer Louis Reard, made its debut during a fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris. Model Micheline Bernardini wore the skimpy two-piece outfit. Its name correlated with the July 1 American atom bomb test on Bikini Atoll. Réard wanted his design to have a similar explosive affect. According to New York Times columnist William Safire, the swimsuit caused more debate, concern and condemnation than the atomic bomb.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.D17)(TMC, 1994, p.1946)(AP, 7/5/97)(SFEC, 1/17/99, Z1 p.1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HNQ, 4/6/02)

1946        Jul 6, George Walker Bush Jr., Gov-R-TX, US Pres., was born.
    (MC, 7/6/02)
1946        Jul 6, Sylvester Stallone (actor: Rocky series, Rambo series, etc.), was born.
    (MC, 7/6/02)
1946        Jul 6, Jamie Wyeth, artist (An American Vision-Boston), was born in Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1946        Jul 7, William Durkin (1916-2006) rescued Howard Hughes (1905-1976) from the fiery wreckage of an XF-11 reconnaissance plane that Hughes was testing over Beverly Hills.
    (SFC, 5/1/06, p.B8)
1946        Jul 7, Italian-born Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini was canonized as the first American saint. She was the founder of the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart.
    (AP, 7/7/97)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)

1946        Jul 8, Aleksander V. Aleksandrov (63), Russian composer, conductor, died.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1946        Jul 12, Benjamin Britten's "Rape of Lucretia," premiered in Glyndebourne.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1946        Jul 13, Alfred Stieglitz (82), US photographer, art dealer (Camera Work), died. He was an art dealer, curator, publisher, proselytizer for modern art and for photography as an art. He also married Georgia O’Keeffe and promoted her art.
    (NH, 10/96, p.36)(www.fact-index.com)(Econ, 10/30/04, p.85)
1946         Jul 13, The first Karlovy Vary Int’l. Film Festival  (Mezinárodní Filmový Festival Karlovy Vary) was held in Czechoslovakia. Its first two years were non-competitive showcases. The competition was started in 1948 and with the exceptions of 1953 and 1955 the festival was held annually until 1958. From 1960 on to 1992 it was alternating with the Moscow Film Festival, being celebrated annually again since 1994.
    (www.imdb.com/Sections/Awards/Karlovy_Vary_International_Film_Festival/)

1946        Jul 14, Dr. Benjamin Spock's "Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care" was published.
    (MC, 7/14/02)
1946        Jul 14, Heart Mountain, Wyoming, Japanese-American draft resisters were released from McNeil Island.
    (SFC, 10/26/01, p.A28)

1946        Jul 15, Linda Ronstadt (singer: group: The Stone Poneys: Different Drum; solo: Blue Bayou, You're No Good, When Will I Be Loved, It's So Easy, Ooh Baby Baby, Hurt So Bad; actress: Pirates of Penzance), was born in Tucson, Arizona.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linda_Ronstadt)

1946        Jul 16, US court martial in Dachau condemned 46 SS to hang for the Malmedy massacre of disarmed GIs.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1946        Jul 17, Chinese communists opened a drive against the Nationalist army on the Yangtze River.
    (HN, 7/17/98)
1946        Jul 17, Dragoljub "Draza" Mihailovic (53), Yugoslav gen. (Nazi), was executed.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1946        Jul 22, Paul Schrader, screenwriter and film director (Taxi Driver), was born.
    (HN, 7/22/02)
1946        Jul 22, Jewish extremists, that included Menachem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir, blew up a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, which housed British administrative offices. 90-92 people were killed and included Britons (28), Arabs and Jews. The admitted terrorists were members of a Zionist organization called Lehi (Lohamei Herut Israel), earlier known as the Stern Gang.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(AP, 7/22/97)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C5)

1946        Jul 25, The United States detonated a 2nd atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific in the first underwater test of the device. [see July 1]
    (AP, 7/25/97)
1946        Jul 25, In Monroe, Georgia, 2 black couples were killed by Ku Klux Klansmen. Pres. Truman ordered an FBI investigation and 55 suspects were named in the lynching of Roger and Dorothy Malcolm and George and Mae Murray Dorsey, but no one was ever charged. Dorothy Malcolm was pregnant.
    (SFC, 7/26/05, p.A5)

1946        Jul 26, President Truman ordered the desegregation of all US forces.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1946        Jul 27, Gertrude Stein (72), US-French author, poet (Ida, Tender Buttons), died in France. Her work included the murder mystery "Blood on the Dining-Room Floor" and “The Biography of Alice B. Toklas” (1933). She once said of Oakland, Ca.: "There is no there there." Painter Francis Rose carved the headstone on her grave at the Pere Lachaise cemetery. A biography of Stein by Linda Wagner-Martin was published in 1996 titled "Favored Strangers." In 2007 Janet Malcolm authored “Two Lives: Gertrude and Alice.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gertrude_Stein)(SFC, 6/9/96, Z1 p.5)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 9/25/07, p.D6)

1946        Jul 28, Linda Kelsey, actress (Kate-Day by Day), was born in Minneapolis, Minn.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1946        Jul 30, Jeffrey Hammond-Hammond, rock bassist (Jethro Tull), was born.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1946        Jul, The US lent Britain $3.75 billion. The money was expected to last 3-5 years but after 19.5 months Britain withdrew the last $100 mil.
    (FT, 3/4/98, p.13)
1946        Jul, Albania signed a treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia; Yugoslav advisors and grain began pouring into Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1946        Jul, Hungary’s hyperinflation peaked at 42 quadrillion per cent a month.
    (http://goldnews.bullionvault.com/inflation_history_Zimbabwe_USA_101620073)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.57)

1946        Aug 1, President Truman signed the Fulbright Program into law, establishing the scholarships named for Arkansas Sen. William J. Fulbright (d.1995).
    (AP, 8/1/97)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.2)
1946        Aug 1, President Truman established the Atomic Energy Commission. Physicist John Simpson (d.2000 at 83) helped develop the 1946 McMahon Act, which called for civilian control of atomic energy.
    (AP, 8/1/97)(SFC, 9/2/00, p.A23)(http://tinyurl.com/66tsq)

1946        Aug 10, Francis V. Keesling (1908-1997), Washington lobbyist for the city of San Francisco, successfully got Congress to pass a bill that allowed Chinese male citizens living in the US to bring over their wives.
    (SFC, 4/3/97, p.C2)

1946        Aug 13, Britain transferred illegal immigrants bound for Palestine to Cyprus.
    (MC, 8/13/02)
1946        Aug 13, H.G. Wells (b.1866), sci-fi author (Time Machine), died in London.
    (AP, 8/13/00)

1946        Aug 16, A riot in Calcutta left some 3-4,000 Moslems and Hindus dead.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1946        Aug 19, Bill Clinton, US President from 1992-2000, was born as William J. Blythe III in Hope, Arkansas. He was the son of Virginia Cassidy Blythe and William Jefferson Blythe II. Clinton’s father was killed in a traffic accident prior to his birth. His mother married Roger Clinton when Bill was 4 years old.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.23)(SFEC, 3/9/96, Z1 p.5)(WUD, 1994 p.1698)(HNQ, 1/1/02)

1946        Aug 20, Connie Chung (Yu-Hwa) journalist: CBS Evening News, was born in Washington, DC.
    (Internet)

1946        Aug 21, Lev Alburt, USSR International Chess Master (1976), was born.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1946        Aug 29,  J.E. Feenstra, Nazi military police commandant, was executed.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1946        Sep 1, Barry Gibb, singer (BeeGees-Stayin' Alive), was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)
1946        Sep 1, The SF 49ers under coach Lawrence “Buck” Shaw, played their first home game at Kezar Stadium before a crowd of 45,000. They beat the Chicago Rockets 34-14.
    (SSFC, 1/22/12, p.A2)(www.49ers.com/team/history/founder.html)

1946        Sep 2, Nehru formed a government in India.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1946        Sep 6, Terence Rattigan's "Winslow Boy," premiered in London.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1946        Sep 8, In San Francisco four boys playing near the Paramount Theater found a package containing body parts of Ramon Lopez (52), a flower dealer from San Leandro. Police found 14 pairs of nylons at his room in the Mint Hotel. His skull was found 18 years later at Hunters Point.
    (SFC, 2/17/09, p.A11)
1946        Sep 8, Bulgaria ended its monarchy. The monarchy was abolished in a referendum called by communists installed by the Soviet Army. Georgi Dimitrov became the 1st premier of communist Bulgaria. In 2003 Ivo Banac edited "The Diary of Georgi Dimitrov."
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A19)(MC, 9/8/01)(WSJ, 6/6/03, p.W9)

1946        Sep 11, The 1st mobile long-distance car-to-car telephone conversation.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1946        Sep 15, Tommy Lee Jones, actor (Executioner's Song, Bloody Monday, Fugitive), was born in San Saba, Texas.
    (www.britannica.com)
1946        Sep 15, Oliver Stone, film director and screenwriter, was born. His work included "Platoon" and "JFK."
    (HN, 9/15/00)

1946        Sep 19, Winston Churchill made a speech in Zurich where he said: If Europe were once united in the sharing of its common inheritance there would be no limit to the happiness, prosperity, and glory of which its 300 or 400 million people would enjoy."
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A22)

1946        Sep 20, The first Cannes Film Festival was held.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1946        Sep 20, President Harry S Truman asked Sec. of Commerce Henry A. Wallace to resign, due to Wallace’s comments about Russia on September 12.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1946        Sep 20, Churchill argued for a "US of Europe." [see Sep 19]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1946        Sep 21, The Cleveland Indians played their final game in League Park, ending a 55-year stay.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1946        Sep 22, Evelyn Dick was charged with butchering her husband.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1946        Sep 30, An international military tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany, found 22 top Nazi leaders guilty of war crimes. Ribbentrop and Goering were sentenced to death. American psychiatrist Leon Goldensohn interviewed many of the participants and in 2004 the interviews were published as “The Nuremberg Interviews: An American Psychiatrist’s Conversations with the Defendants and Witnesses.”
    (AP, 9/30/99)(SSFC, 1/30/05, p.A13)

1946        Sep, Britain, France and the United States set up the Tripartite Gold Commission to oversee the return of some $4 billion in gold plundered by the Nazis from European treasuries. The commission closed in 1998.
    (SFC, 9/10/98, p.C2)

1946        Oct 1, Tim O’Brien, novelist, was born. His work included "The Things They Carried" and "In the Lake of the Woods."
    (HN, 10/1/00)
1946        Oct 1, Twelve Nazi war criminals were sentenced to be hanged at Nuremberg trials-- Karl Donitz, Hermann Goring, Alfred Jodl, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachin von Ribbentrop, Fritz Saukel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Julius Streicher, and Alfred Rosenberg. Karl Donitz was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (HN, 10/1/98)(http://uboat.net/men/doenitz.htm)
1946        Oct 1, The diary of Hitler confidant Alfred Rosenberg, once held by Nuremberg prosecutors as evidence, vanished after the trial. Nuremberg prosecutor Robert Kempner (d.1993) was long suspected by US officials of smuggling the diary back to the United States. In 2013 The US government recovered 400 pages from the long-lost diary.
    (Reuters, 6/10/13)

1946        Oct 4, Susan Sarandon, American film actress, was born.
    (HN, 10/4/00)

1946        Oct 6, Pres. Truman questioned Great Britain Jews about Palestine.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1946        Oct 8, Dennis Kucinich, US Congressmen for Ohio, was born in Cleveland. He stood as a presidential candidate in 2004 and in 2008.
    (SSFC, 2/29/04, p.D2)(WSJ, 1/25/08, p.A1)

1946        Oct 9, The Eugene O’Neill drama "The Iceman Cometh" opened at the Martin Beck Theater in New York.
    (AP, 10/9/97)
1946        Oct 9, The 1st manufactured electric blanket sold for $39.50.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1946        Oct 10, Ben Vereen, actor and dancer (Pippin, Roots, Webster), was born in Miami, Fla.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1946        Oct 12, The cheapest sight and sound receivers on display carried a $225 price tag. For this Radio Corp. of America offered a table model set which showed a picture about four by five inches.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)
1946        Oct 12, Joseph W. Stilwell, US general in China, died.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1946        Oct 15, Nazi war criminal Hermann Goering poisoned himself hours before he was to have been executed.
    (AP, 10/15/97)

1946        Oct 16, Ten Nazi war criminals condemned during the Nuremberg trials were hanged. The defendants included: Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring, who was sentenced to death but committed suicide the morning of the execution; former deputy Führer Rudolph Hess, sentenced to life imprisonment; Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, hanged; head of the armed forces high command Wilhelm Keitel, hanged; writer and "philosopher" of National Socialism Alfred Rosenberg; U-boat Admiral Karl Dönitz, 10-year imprisonment; Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, life imprisonment; Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Shirach, 20-year imprisonment; procurer of slave labor Fritz Sauckel, hanged; and Alfred Jodl, chief of staff of the German high command, hanged. The hanging was badly botched as most Nazis slowly strangle to death. Also hanged were: Hans Frank, Governor-General of occupied Poland; Wilhelm Frick, Hitler's Minister of the Interior; Julius Streicher, rabid anti-Semite editor of Der Sturmer; Arthur Seyss-Inquart (54), Nazi leader of occupied Holland; Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Austrian Nazi and  SS leader.
    (AP, 10/16/97)(HN, 10/16/98)(HNPD, 10/20/99)

1946        Oct 18, Aaron Copland's 3rd Symphony, premiered.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1946        Oct 20, Anne Murray, country singer (Snowbird), was born in Springhill, Nova Scotia.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1946        Oct 22, Two British ships sank near Albania. British destroyers hit mines off Albania's coast. The United Nations and the International Court of Justice condemned Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(MC, 10/22/01)

1946        Oct 23, The United Nations General Assembly convened in New York for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing Meadow.
    (AP, 10/23/97)
1946        Oct 23, A Vatican document advised French church authorities on how to handle information requests from Jewish officials, asking them not to put anything in writing: “Children who have been baptized must not be entrusted to institutions that cannot ensure their Christian education.” The document surfaced in 2004.
    (SFC, 1/1/05, p.A12)

1946        Oct 25, Karl Popper spoke at Cambridge before the weekly meeting of the Moral Science Club on the subject: "Are There Philosophical Problems?" Ludwig Wittgenstein took issue with the presentation and a heated exchange followed. In 2001 David Edmonds and John Eidinow authored "Wittgenstein’s Poker: The Story of a Ten-Minute Argument Between Two Great Philosophers."
    (SSFC, 12/30/01, p.M3)

1946        Oct 27, Peter Martins, Danish dancer and choreographer, was born.
    (HN, 10/27/00)

1946        Oct 28, German rocket engineers began work in the USSR.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1946        Nov 1, Father Wojtyla, who became Pope John Paul II on Oct 16,1978, was ordained in Krakow, Poland.       
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)

1946        Nov 2, Giuseppe Sinopoli, conductor, was born in Venice, Italy.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1946        Nov 3, Emperor Hirohito proclaimed a new Japanese constitution. It became effective on May 3, 1947.
    (http://history.hanover.edu/texts/1947con.html)

1946        Nov 4, Robert Mapplethorpe, US photographer, was born.
    (MC, 11/4/01)
1946        Nov 4, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established. Julian Huxley, biologist, was the first secretary-general.
    (HN, 11/4/98)(SFC, 10/8/99, p.A12)

1946        Nov 5, US Republicans took control of the Senate and the House in midterm elections.
    (AP, 11/5/97)
1946        Nov 5, John F. Kennedy (D-Mass) was elected to House of Representatives.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1946        Nov 6, Sister Maria Innocentia Hummel (b.1909 as Berta Hummel), German nun and artist, died. She became famous for her artwork which was used to create the Hummel figurines beginning in 1935.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Innocentia_Hummel)

1946        Nov 7, Willis Linn Jepson (b.1867), “Profound Scholar, Inspiring Teacher, Indefatigable Botanical Explorer,” died in Berkeley, Ca. “In the ordered beauty of nature he found enduring communion.”
    (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/history/biog/jepson/jepson_the_botany_man.html)

1946        Nov 9, Pres. Truman ended a wage and price freeze.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1946        Nov 10, Baldassare Forestiere, creator of the Forestiere Underground Gardens in Fresno, Ca., died in Fresno.
    (WSJ, 8/28/08, p.D11)(www.forestiere-historicalcenter.com/Forestierebio.html)

1946        Nov 12, Walt Disney's "Song Of South" released.
    (MC, 11/12/01)
1946        Nov 12, 1st "autobank" (banking by car) opened (Chicago).
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1946        Nov 13, The 1st artificial snow was produced from a natural cloud at Mt. Greylock, Mass.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1946        Nov 14, Manuel de Falla (69), Spanish composer (Vita Breve, Atl ntida), died.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1946        Nov 15, Joseph McCarthy's HUAC interrogated astronomer Harlow Shapley.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
1946        Nov 15, The 17th Paris Air Show opened at the Grand Palais des Champs-Elysees. It is the first show of this kind since 1938.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1946        Nov 20, Lillian Hellman's "Another Part of the Forest," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1946        Nov 23, French Navy fire in Haiphong, Vietnam, killed 6,000.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1946        Nov 24, Ted Bundy (d.1989), serial murderer, was born Burlington, Vt.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1946        Nov 25, Supreme Court granted Oregon Indians land payment rights from the U.S. government.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1946        Nov, A US Air Force Douglas C-53 Skytrooper carrying four crew members and eight passengers crashed on the Swiss Gauli Glacier. A rescue mission used an aircraft for the first time to land on the glacier and led to the creation of Switzerland's air rescue services. There were some injuries but no fatalities.
    (AP, 8/9/12)

1946        Dec 2, Gianni Versace, fashion designer (Versace), was born.
    (MC, 12/2/01)
1946        Dec 2, The U.S. and Britain merged the German occupation zones.
    (HN, 12/2/98)
1946        Dec 2, The Protocol to the International Convention on the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) was signed was signed in Washington, DC. The International Whaling Commission (IWC), formed in 1948, prohibited the hunting of gray whales worldwide when their numbers were down to the thousands. Scientific studies and the commercial reality of fewer whales led to the implementation of bans on hunting many whale species such as the humpback whale in 1963 followed in 1965 by a hunting ban on the blue whale (the largest creature known to have ever existed). The IWC adopted a moratorium on whaling in 1982. Although the IWC attempted to ban all commercial whaling in 1986, some countries refused to agree.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)(www.iwcoffice.org/commission/convention.htm)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.65)

1946        Dec 3, The Oakland, Ca., General Strike shut down the city for 2 days when 2 large department stores resisted a unionized workforce.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, Par p.6)

1946        Dec 5, Jose Carreras, opera tenor (I Lombardi, Werther, Three Tenors), was born in Barcelona, Spain.
    (MC, 12/5/01)
1946        Dec 5, President Truman created the Committee on Civil Rights by Executive Order #9808.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1946        Dec 7, The president of the United Mine Workers, John L. Lewis, ordered all striking miners back to work.
    (HN, 12/7/98)
1946        Dec 7, A fire broke out at the Winecoff Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia, killing 119 people, including hotel founder W. Frank Winecoff.
    (AP, 12/7/04)

1946        Dec 10, Damon Runyon (66), New York-based syndicated newspaper columnist and author (Guys & Dolls), died.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.A2)(MC, 12/10/01)

1946        Dec 11, The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund  (UNICEF) was established. The organization received a Nobel Prize in 1965.
    (AP, 12/11/97)(MC, 12/11/01)
1946        Dec 11, Spain was suspended from the UN.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1946        Dec 12, Tide laundry detergent was introduced.
    (MC, 12/12/01)
1946        Dec 12, A United Nations committee voted to accept a six-block tract of Manhattan real estate offered as a gift by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to be the site of U.N. headquarters.
    (AP, 12/12/97)

1946        Dec 14, Patty Duke, American actress, was born. She started her career at seven and won an Oscar for her portrayal of Helen Keller in "The Miracle Worker." He went on to star in television's "The Patty Duke Show."
    (HN, 12/14/99)
1946        Dec 14, The United Nations General Assembly voted to establish the U.N. headquarters in New York City. The UN adopted a disarmament resolution prohibiting the A-bomb.
    (AP, 12/14/97)(HN, 12/14/98)
1946        Dec 18, Stephen Biko, South African anti-apartheid activist, was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1946        Dec 19, Noel Coward's musical "Pacific 1860," premiered in London.
    (MC, 12/19/01)
1946        Dec 19, War broke out in Indochina as troops under Ho Chi Minh launched widespread attacks against the French. The French retook Hoa Binh with a drop by airborne forces. They abandoned it in October 1950 in the panic following Viet Minh victories on Colonial Route 4.
    (AP, 12/19/06)(http://maoist.wikia.com/wiki/Vo_Nguyen_Giap)(www.historynet.com/the-hoa-binh-campaign.htm)

1946        Dec 20, The Frank Capra film "It’s A Wonderful Life," starring James Stewart and Donna Reed, had a preview showing for charity at New York City’s Globe Theatre, a day before its "official" world premiere.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.C9)(AP, 12/20/97)
1946        Dec 20, Uri Geller, psychic and fork bender, was born in Israel.
    (MC, 12/20/01)
1946        Dec 20, Viet Minh and French forces fought fiercely in the Annamite section of Hanoi in Vietnam .
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1946        Dec 21, Frank Capra's "It's a Wonderful Life," premiered.
    (MC, 12/21/01)
1946        Dec 21, An earthquake and tidal wave killed 1,086 in Japan.
    (HN, 12/21/98)(MC, 12/21/01)

1946        Dec 23, Highest ridership in NYC subway history took place with 8.8 million passengers.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1946        Dec 24, The 4th French republic was established.
    (MC, 12/24/01)
1946        Dec 24, US General MacNarney gave 800,000 "minor Nazis" amnesty.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1946        Dec 25, Jimmy Buffett, singer and writer, was born in Pascagoula, Miss. He recorded "Margaritaville" in 1977.
    (SSFC, 4/28/02, Par p.22)
1946        Dec 25, Comedian W.C. Fields (b.1879) died in Pasadena, Calif., at age 66/67. In 2003 James Curtis authored "W.C. Fields: A Biography."
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.56)(AP, 12/25/97)(MC, 12/25/01)(SSFC, 3/16/03, p.M3)
1946        Dec 25, Chiang offered a new Chinese constitution in Nanking pledging universal suffrage.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1946        Dec 26, The Flamingo Casino opened. Billy Wilkerson designed the Flamingo and sold a controlling interest to Bugsy Siegel when his money ran out. It was the 3rd hotel casino built on the Las Vegas strip.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, DB p.64)(SSFC, 3/11/01, p.T8)

1946        Dec 28, The French declared martial law in Vietnam.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1946        Dec 31, President Truman officially proclaimed the end of hostilities in World War II.
    (HN, 12/31/98)(AP, 12/31/97)

1946        Dezso Aczel, a Hungarian survivor of the Holocaust, was taken into the household of Bernhardt and Charlotte Kluger in Weiden, Germany. Aczel was dying of TB but managed to paint a canvas (5’ x 7’) with Hitler as a classical angel of death hovering over a horde of agonized bodies painted in a German Expressionistic style. It was untitled but signed Aczel, 1946. The painting was sold to a Miami collector of Judaica named Reuven Prager. It’s history was researched by Bara Zetter-Sapir. Later research found that the painting was actually painted by Hungarian painter Ferenc Kecskes. Aczel provided the imagery and compositional ideas while Kecskes executed the painting. The painting was sold to 2 Jewish men from Munich, who probably embellished their acquisition account. Aczel emigrated to Canada in 1949 and was later found and interviewed by Zetter-Sapir for the whole story.
    (MT,3/95, p.15)(MT, 6/96, p.9)

1946        Dubuffet painted his "Men and Trees Sleepwalking," a nocturnal scene of a house surrounded by trees. In 1996 it sold for $1.2 mil.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.E3)

1946        Georgia O’Keeffe painted "In the Patio No. 1."
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.B1)

1946        New York School painter Mark Rothko painted his oil on canvas "The Source." He received his first one-man show at the SF Museum of Art this year.
    (SFC,1/21/97, p.B1)(SFC,11/21/97, p.C1)

1946        Geoffrey Barraclough authored “The Origins of Modern Germany.”
    (WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P10)

1946        Lucius Beebe authored "The Stork Club Bar Book." The NY Stork Club was owned by Sherman Billingsley. In 2000 Ralph Blumenthal authored "Stork Club: America’s Most Famous Nightspot and the Lost World of Café Society."
    (SFEM, 4/16/00, p.47)

1946        Alistair Cooke began writing his "Letter from America." It was initially supposed to be a 13-week BBC radio series which described American life to Britons.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, Z1 p.7)

1946        Buck Dawson wrote "Saga of the All-American," a history of the US Army 82nd Airborne Division.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.9)

1946        Eduardo De Filippo wrote his play "Filumena."
    (WSJ, 11/12/97, p.A20)

1946        Cheikh Anta Diop, a Senegalese humanist and scientist, began his research into African history. He later published "The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality," "Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology," and "The Cultural Unity of Negro Africa."
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 34)

1946        Peter Drucker (1909-2005) published his seminal study of General Motors: “The Concept of the Corporation.” In it he introduced the idea of decentralization as a principle of organization, in contrast to the practice of command and control in business.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept_of_the_Corporation)(Econ, 11/19/05, p.72)

1946        Geraldine Townsend Fitch and Theodore H. White authored “Blunder Out of China.”
    (http://blog.librarylaw.com/librarylaw/court_cases/)

1946        William Gresham authored the best-seller “Nightmare Alley.” It was made into a 1947 film starring Tyrone Power and Joan Blondell.
    (SSFC, 1/1/06, p.M6)

1946        Margaret Halsey (1911-1997) published "Color Blind: A White Woman Looks at the Negro." She wrote that at the heart of racism was the need for a cheap labor supply and a fear of blacks’ sexuality.
    (SFC, 2/8/97, p.A24)

1946        John Hersey authored “Hiroshima,” an account of the 1945 atomic bomb strike on the city.
    (Econ, 5/24/14, p.79)

1946        Halldor Laxness (1902-1998) of Iceland published "Independent People." It helped him win the Nobel Prize in literature in 1955.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halld%C3%B3r_Laxness)

1946        Denise Levertov (d.1997 at 74) published her first volume of verse: "The Double Image."
    (SFC,12/23/97, p.D4)

1946        Curzio Malaparte, an Italian fascist intellectual, authored “Kaputt,” an autobiographical novel that described the cruelty of Nazi fanaticism.
    (WSJ, 1/19/08, p.W8)

1946        Carey McWilliams authored “Southern California: An Island on the Land.” It contained a chapter about the Los Angeles water scandal from the turn of the century, which in 1971 helped inspire Robert Town to write the screenplay for “Chinatown” (1974).
    (SFC, 9/25/09, p.E2)

1946        George Mikes (1912-1987), a Hungarian living in England, published “How to Be An Alien.” It was about a foreigner’s view of England.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.110)

1946        The Gormenghast series of three novels by English writer Mervyn Peake (1911-1968) began with “Titus Groan,” which was followed by Gormenghast (1950) and Titus Alone (1959). They featured Castle Gormenghast, and Titus Groan, the title character of the first book.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gormenghast_%28series%29)

1946        John Rewald published his "History of Impressionism."
    (WSJ, 2/10/96, p.A16)

1946        William Carlos Williams authored his epic poem "Paterson."
    (ON, 4/02, p.6)

1946        The Japanese internment camps (b.2/19/1942), established under the 1942 US Executive Order 9066, closed. Financial losses to those held were later estimated at $500 million in 2001 dollars. Mine Okubo authored "Citizen 13660," an illustrated account of her experiences at Japanese internment camps in California and Utah. In 2001 Greg Robinson authored "By Order of the President."
    (SFC, 2/26/01, p.A24)(WSJ, 10/8/01, p.A25)

1946        Dr. Benjamin Spock (1903-1998) published his "Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care."
    (SFC, 3/17/98, p.A5)

1946        Mickey Spillane (1918-2006), comic book writer, authored his first Mike Hammer detective novel, “I, the Jury.”
    (SFC, 7/18/06, p.B5)

1946        Robert Penn Warren (1905-1989) published his Pulitzer Prize winning novel "All the King’s Men." It was based on the life of Huey Long of Louisiana. In 1949 it was turned into a movie. In 1997 Joseph Blotner wrote Warren’s biography.
    (WSJ, 8/26/06, p.P8)(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P12)

1946        Theodore H. White and Annalee Whitmore (d.2002 at 85), war correspondents, authored "Thunder Out of China," an examination of China’s role in WW II.
    (SFC, 2/11/02, p.B5)

1946        The term intentional fallacy, an important principle of New Criticism, was first used by W.K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley in their essay "The Intentional Fallacy," in which they said: "the design or intention of the author is neither available nor desirable as a standard for judging the success of a work of literary art." The phrase "intentional fallacy" is somewhat ambiguous, but it means "a fallacy about intent" and not "a fallacy committed on purpose."
    (WSJ, 8/2/08, p.W9)

1946        The musical "Gypsy Lady" was written by George Forrest and Robert Wright.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.C2)

1946        The musical "St. Louis Woman" was based on a novel by Arna Bontemps. The music was by Harold Arlen and the lyrics by Johnny Mercer and featured the Nicholas Brothers tap dancing duo in lead roles.
    (WSJ, 5/6/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 1/29/06, p.B7)

1946        George Balanchine left the Ballet Russe after 2 years and founded the New York City Ballet. He married Maria Tallchief (21) whom he developed into the nation’s grand ballerina in such performances as: "Four Temperments" (music by Hindemith), "Orpheus," "Firebird," "Swanlake," "Nutcracker," "Scotch Symphony," and "Sylvia Pas de Deux." In 1997 Maria Tallchief wrote her memoir: "Maria Tallchief: America’s Prima Ballerina."
    (WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 10/10/00, p.A24)
1946        George Balanchine created his one-act work "La Sonnambula." It was inspired by the music of Vittorio Rieti, which was based on the "La Sonnambula" opera of Vincenzo Bellini.
    (WSJ, 10/31/01, p.A22)

1946        Accordionist Joe Smiell (b.1925), born in Pittsburgh, Pa., put together a brass band in the SF Bay Area to play traditional music of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His son Joseph joined the band in 1972.
    (SFC, 9/14/10, p.D1)(www.buttonboxmusic.com/Pages/JSmiell.html)

1946        Muddy Waters began working regularly at clubs in Chicago playing an amplified electric guitar and local studios began recording his songs.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.6)

1946        Gross movie revenues for the year were $1,692 million with 4,067 million admissions and average ticket price was $0.42.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)

1946        Jinx Falkenburg (d.2003) and husband Tex McCrary pioneered talk radio programming with the "Hi Jinx" morning show at WEAF in NYC.
    (SFC, 8/29/03, p.A28)   

1946        7,000 TV sets were sold as commercial TV became established.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1946)

1946        Syd Cassyd formed the Television Arts and Sciences Academy. He envisioned it to as a tool for enlightenment, education, science and technology.

1946        Paul Fagan opened the six-room Kauiki Inn for his friends on the island of Maui. It was later expanded and renamed the Hotel Hana-Maui. He then constructed a ballpark in the center of Hana and brought over his baseball team for spring training.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, p.T8)   

1946        Nathan Safir founded KCOR-AM radio and helped develop KCOR-TV the first full-time Spanish language radio and TV stations in the US.
    (SFC, 9/11/96, p.C2)

1946        Benjamin Britten composed his opera "The Rape of Lucretia."
    (WSJ, 8/7/01, p.A12)

1946        Teddy Edwards (d.2003 at 78) recorded the 1st bop solo for tenor sax with Howard McGhee's ensemble's recording of "Up in Dodo's Room."
    (SFC, 4/24/03, A21)

1946        Bill Monroe recorded his song, "Blue Moon of Kentucky," as a stately Southern waltz.
    (WSJ, 9/16/96, p.A14)

1946        Ella Mae Morse (b.1924) recorded her hit "House of Blue Lights." It was later considered influential in the evolution of rock-'n-'roll.
    (SFC, 10/19/99, p.A23)

1946        Les Paul (1915-2009) and the Andrew Sisters recorded the hit song “Rumors Are Flying.”
    (SFC, 8/14/09, p.D6)

1946        Bobby Troup (1918-1999) wrote his song “(Get Your Kicks on) Route 66.” It was first recorded by Nat King Cole.
    (SSFC, 12/25/11, p.N6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Route_66_%28song%29)

1946        Chuck Wayne was the guitarist in the Woody Herman Herd band. They recorded the Ralph Burns 3-part composition "Summer Sequence." Wayne had discovered be-bop from pianist George Washington in a Dixieland band led by clarinetist Joe Marsala after 2 years in the army.
    (SFC, 8/2/97, p.A21)

1946        Kurt Weill composed "Street Scene," a hybrid of operatic and musical-theater styles.
    (WSJ, 10/24/01, p.A20)

1946        Ben Weber composed "Fantasia" (Variations), that represented the lyrical and soft-grained side of serialism.
    (WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A20)

1946        Actress Mitzi Gaynor got her start in San Francisco with the Civic Light Opera Company’s “Roberta.” She went on to become a stage and screen star.
    (SSFC, 6/29/08, DB p.58)

1946        The 1940 opera "Betrothal" by Prokofiev had its premiere in Prague. The plot was based on the 1775 comedy "The Duenna" by Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
    (SFC, 11/25/98, p.D1)

1946        In Arizona the Thunderbird School of Global Management was founded on Thunderbird Field, a former air-force base.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6tcn89a)(Econ, 6/29/13, p.60)

1946        The Nevada Club (d.1997) in downtown Reno opened. It used slot machines made by the Jennings company of Chicago.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, p.D3)

1946        Yakov Malkiel (d.1998 at 83) founded the journal "Romance Philology." He helped create the UC Berkeley linguistics department in 1952 and over his life published 822 works.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.D7)

1946        William Schuman founded the Juilliard String Quartet   
    (SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-2)

1946        Allmore Aaron (d.1997 at 83) and his brother Len founded the Aaron Brothers art and framing store in Hollywood. They sold the chain in 1977 which grew to 72 stores in 1997.
    (SFC, 5/2/97, p.B2)

1946        Warren E. Avis (1915-2007) founded the Avis Rent-A-Car System to bring rental cars directly to airline passengers at Willow Run Airport in Ypsilanti, Mich., and Miami Int’l. Airport.
    (WSJ, 4/28/07, p.A6)

1946        The Claremont Men’s College was founded in southern California by Donald C. McKenna (d.1997 at 90) and others for returning veterans with an emphasis on business and public affairs. The college began admitting women in 1981.
    (SFC,11/27/97, p.B8)

1946        Vance "Pinto" Colvig served as the voice of Bozo the Clown when Capitol Records executive Alan Livingston created Bozo for recordings. For years, promoter and entertainer Larry Harmon (d.2008), who bought the rights to Bozo, claimed to have both created the character and being the original.
    (AP, 5/28/04)(SFC, 7/4/08, p.B8)

1946        Roger Straus (d.2004) and John Farrar founded a publishing firm. They later brought in Bob Giraux as editor-in-chief. Straus headed Farrar, Straus and Giraux until his death.
    (Econ, 6/5/04, p.81)

1946        David Barham (1913-1991) founded Hot Dog on a Stick at Muscle Beach in Santa Monica, Ca.
    (WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dave_Barham)

1946        Paul Falknor Iams (1915-2003), self-taught animal nutritionist, started Iams Food Co.
    (SFC, 11/3/04, p.B15)

1946        In Ohio William Powell, a black man, began hand building his Clearview Golf Club. The club opened for 9-hole play in 1948. By 1978 he had expanded to 18 holes. In 2001 it was added to the national register of historic places.
    (WSJ, 10/25/08, p.W6)(www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-75087113.html)

1946        Emily Greene Balch (1867-1961), American lawyer, share the Nobel Peace Prize with John Raleigh Mott. Balch helped in one way or another with many projects of the League of Nations - among them, disarmament, the internationalization of aviation, drug control, the participation of the United States in the affairs of the League.
    (AP, 10/9/09)(http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1946/balch-bio.html)
1946        John Raleigh Mott (1865-1955), organizer (YMCA), shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Emily Greene Balch.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1946/mott-bio.html)
1946        Wendell M. Stanley and John H. Northrup of UC Berkeley won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Northrop (b.1891), US biochemist, won for his work on crystallized enzymes.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
    (AP, 10/9/09)
1946        Hermann Hesse (1877-1962), Swiss-born German philosopher poet and author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature "for his inspired writings which, growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style."
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1946/)

1946        The National Basketball Association (NBA) was founded.
    (WSJ, 11/1/96, p.A1)

1946        The Boston Red Sox lost the World Series.
    (SFC, 10/28/04, p.A7)

1946        William Saroyan was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for his novel "The Times of Your Life." He refused the award. The novel was turned into a film in 1948.
    (SFEM, 4/27/97, p.10)

1946        The Allies formed the International Tracing Service to identify and document victims of the Nazi persecution. In 1955 the service was turned over to the Swiss-based Int’l. Committee of the Red Cross.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.C13)

1946        The Congressional Reorganization Act was passed.
    (SFC, 2/10/97, p.A20)

1946        A US Congress Recision Act took away citizenship and benefits promised by Pres. Roosevelt to Filipinos who had been drafted to fight under Gen. MacArthur. It was enacted in part because of a $200 million grant to the Philippines following the war.
    (SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A25)(SFC, 12/30/03, p.A15)

1946        The US Agricultural Marketing Act of this year established grade standards for fruits and vegetables including peanuts.
    (http://tinyurl.com/qjuu2)

1946        John F. Kennedy at 29 was elected Congressman from Massachusetts.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1946)

1946        Ronald Reagan was a sponsor and director of the Committee for a Democratic Far East Policy. The organization had been designated as subversive by the Attorney General under Executive Order 10450. He was also a member of the American Veterans Committee, whose California chapter was cited as "communist dominated."
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)

1946        A US Navy Radiological Defense Laboratory decontamination center was established at the SF naval shipyard Hunters Point.
    (SFC, 4/8/05, p.F2)

1946        The Balcones Research Center was established in Austin, Texas. It carried out government-supported defense and electronics research. Tracor, a big defense firm, grew out of this and itself spun off some 20 technology related firms, which established Austin as a high-tech business cluster.
    (Econ, 10/14/06, p.17)

1946        A US district court case in Orange County, Ca., Mendez vs. Westminster, ruled that race-based housing restrictions were illegal. State law had allowed segregation against Mexican Americans. Restrictions after WW I had confined blacks in LA to the south and east sides creating near-ghettos in areas such as Watts, Inglewood and Compton. The Mendez case was upheld on April 14, 1947, and was used to support the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education.
    (Econ, 7/23/05, p.29)(SFC, 5/9/07, p.A15)
1946        The US Grand National Rodeo began an uninterrupted string of yearly shows at the Cow Palace in Daly City, Ca.
    (SFC, 2/28/08, p.A11)
1946        In northern California the coast batteries around the SF Bay were deactivated.
    (SFC, 6/13/08, p.A22)

1946         Labor strikes were the worst in US history.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1946)

1946        In Georgia Lawrence D. Duke Sr. (d.1999 at 86), ass't. state attorney general, successfully campaigned against the state charter for the KKK and the Columbians Inc., a virulent anti-black and anti-Jewish Klan offshoot.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.D6)

1946        Robert Byrd (1917-2010) was elected to the West Virginia state House of Delegates.
    (Econ, 7/3/10, p.82)

1946        A $345 million suspension bridge, designed by Othmar Ammann, was approved to cross the Verrazano Narrows between Brooklyn and Staten Island, NYC. The Brooklyn side would be anchored on Old Fort Hamilton and the Staten Island side on Fort Wadsworth. Fort Lafayette was cleared to make room for the Brooklyn tower. In 1960 the rest of Fort Lafayette was leveled. Rubble was ferried to Staten Island side to facilitate the construction of the west tower. 
    (AH, 2/06, p.72)

1946        The first African American switchboard operator was hired by Pacific Telephone.
    (SFC, 1/11/99, p.A18)

1946        Crown Cork & Seal Co. introduced the 1st seamless, lined and lithographed aerosol canister, the Spra-tainer. Aaron Lapin (d.1999 at 85) of Clayton Corp. used the canister to hold his whipping cream and named the product Reddi-wip, which he sold through milk men in St. Louis.
    (SFC, 7/15/99, p.A25)

1946        Georges Doriot (1899-1987), a French-born Harvard professor, took public his Boston-based American Research & Development Corporation, America’s first venture fund.  In 1972 ARD was taken over by Textron. In 2008 Spencer E. Ante authored “Creative Capital: Georges Doriot and the Birth of Venture Capital.”
    (WSJ, 5/21/08, p.A17)(Econ, 3/14/09, SR p.9)

1946        GM’s Chevrolet division was the first automobile company to advertise on network television.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1946        The Mattel toy company was co-founded by Ruth Handler, her husband Elliot, and Harold “Matt” Mattson. The name came from a combination of Matt and Elliot. In 2009 Jerry Oppenheimer authored “Toy Monster: The Big, Bad world of Mattel.”
    (WSJ, 2/18/09, p.A15)

1946        John Baugh (1916-2007) and his wife Eula Mae launched Zero Foods to deliver frozen food to businesses in Houston. In 1970 Baugh persuaded eight similar firms to merge with his to form Systems Services Company (SYSCO).
    (Econ, 12/14/13, p.74)

1946        Michelin patented its radial tire.
    (Econ, 9/11/04, p.60)

1946        William E. Moore (1917-2004) founded Kelly-Moore Paint in San Carlos, Ca., with William Kelly, his former retired boss at Glidden.
    (SFC, 11/25/04, p.B5)

1946        The last DC-3 airplane was built. It was introduced in 1935 and many were still in use in 2001.
    (SFC, 1/26/01, p.A12)

1946        James Chapman (1916-1996), regional director for Ford Motor Co., hired Babe Ruth as consultant to Ford’s sponsorship of American League Junior Baseball.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A19)

1946        Russian immigrant Dietrich Gustav Rempel opened Rempel Manufacturing on Morgan Avenue in Akron, Ohio. He produced a line of latex squeak toys under the Sunnyslope name. Artist Fred G. Reiner designed his toys.
    (SFC, 12/21/05, p.G6)(SFC, 4/12/06, p.G4)

1946        Dr. Jules Stein, founder of Music Corp. of America hired Lew Wasserman (1913-2002) as director of advertising and public relations. Wasserman went on to expand the company as MCA Inc. into a major entertainment conglomerate.
    (SFC, 6/4/02, p.A18)

1946        Walter Reuther was elected president of the United Auto Workers. He proceeded to lead a 113-day strike at GM, the longest national strike against one of the Big Three.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1946        Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983) put together his prototype Dymaxion House (dynamic maximum tension).
    (WSJ, 12/4/01, p.A16)

1946        Chemist H.B. Parmele reported to his superiors at Lorillard Tobacco Co. that: "Certain scientists and medical authorities have claimed for many years that the use of tobacco contributes to cancer development in susceptible people. Just enough evidence has been presented to justify the possibility of such a presumption."
    (SFC, 6/16/96, p.B10)

1946        Dr. Wolff of Cornell Univ. discovered that migraines and other headaches involve the enlargement of cranial blood vessels.
    (WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A5)

1946        Vitamin C was first marketed in pill form.
    (SFC, 12/21/96, p.E4)

1946        C.D. Atkins (d.2000), Edwin L. Moore and Louis MacDowell, researchers for the Florida Citrus Commission, were granted a patent for developing a process for making orange juice concentrate. The research was done in a federal lab and they assigned the patent to the government.
    (WSJ, 6/22/00, p.A22)

1946        The new U of M Survey Research Center began with a monthly survey of consumer attitudes about the economy.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.4)

1946        The Smithsonian was designated as the manager of the Canal Zone Biological Area and renamed it as the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI).
    (Smith., 5/95, p.10)

1946        A Coast Guard airplane crashed in the Bank of Manhattan Building.
    (HT, 5/97, p.28)

1946        Elie Nadelman (b.1882), Polish-born sculptor, died. He moved to Paris in 1904 and to the US in 1914 with the support of Helena Rubenstein. His work included "The Dancer" (1920-1924).
    (WSJ, 5/15/03, p.D8)

1946        Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (b.1895), renowned photographer and the founding head of the Institute of Design in Chicago, died.
    (SFC, 7/20/02, p.D10)

1946        The International Court of Justice, the main judicial organ of the United Nations, was established.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judges_of_the_international_court_of_justice)

1946         The People's Assembly proclaimed Albania a "people's republic"; purges of non-communists from government positions began. The People's Assembly adopted a new constitution. Enver Hoxha became prime minister, defense minister, foreign minister and commander-in-chief.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1946        Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei, potentate, was born. He is the latest ruling member of one of the world's oldest dynasties. His assets total some $30 billion.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1946        A dissenting Mormon sect from Utah set up a community practicing polygamy in Bountiful, BC, Canada. In 2009 2 leaders of the Bountiful commune appeared in court to answer criminal charges.
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.44)
1946        Ben Weider (d.2008 at 85) and his brother Joe, Canadian body builders, co-founded the International Brotherhood of Body Builders (IFBB). In 1968 they brought Austrian body builder Arnold Schwarzenegger to California.
    (SSFC, 10/19/08, p.B6)
1946        Lincoln Toys began operating in Walkerville, Ont., and continued to 1958.
    (SFC, 10/1/08, p.G6)

1946        In Croatia Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac (d.1960) was imprisoned by the Communists and sentenced to 16 years of hard labor for his support of the Ustasha fascists. He was declared a martyr in 1998 by Pope John Paul II.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.A8)

1946        Dahomey (later Benin) became an Overseas Territory of France.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/3638535.stm)

1946        In England Lancelot Ware (d.2000 at 85), Oxford postgraduate student, and barrister Roland Berrill (d.1961) founded the High IQ Club, later known as Mensa.
    (SFC, 8/19/00, p.A19)(www.mensa.org/)
1946        Churchill coined the phrase "Iron Curtain," to describe the borders of the USSR.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1946)
1946        In England V.S. Pritchett became the director of the weekly New Statesman. He had begun contributing to the left-wing weekly in 1926.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A21)
1946        The British M16 intelligence agency absorbed the Special Operations Executive.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.34)
1946        Allan Nunn May (d.2003 at 91), British atomic scientist, was unmasked as a Soviet spy. In 1942 he joined a team of Cambridge scientists for the Manhattan Project and was recruited by the Soviets in Montreal in 1943. may was sentenced to 10 years of hard labor and served 6.
    (SFC, 1/25/03, p.A17)
1946        Heathrow Airport, an air base near London for fighter planes during WWII, was converted to civilian use. A modified Avro Lancastrian bomber made the first scheduled flight.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.91)(Econ, 3/30/13, p.55)

1946        French archeologist Pierre Montet (d.1966) resumed his excavations at Tanis, Egypt, and continued work there until 1951. In 1958 he published an account of his discoveries titled “La Necropole Royale de Tanis.”
    (Arch, 5/05, p.25)

1946        Pablo Picasso began designing pottery in Vallauris, France. The area had been a pottery center since Roman times.
    (SFC, 12/10/08, p.G4)
1946        The Jean Delannoy film "La Symphonie Pastorale," adapted from a Gide novel, won Cannes' top prize. The film told the story of a blind orphan who falls in love with a married pastor.
    (AP, 6/19/08)
1946        France outlawed brothels.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.47)
1946        The Lido nightclub opened on the Champs-Elysees in Paris.
    (SFC, 11/22/02, p.D9)
1946        France granted Malians French citizenship and limited self-rule.
    (www.angelfire.com/ri/georgev/bg8.html)

1946        Heinrich Springer and his son Axel founded a newspaper in Hamburg that grew to become Axel Springer Verlag AG, Germany’s biggest and most influential newspaper group.
    (WSJ, 10/20/04, p.A1)
1946        In Germany the conservative Christian Social Union was founded as a more inclusive heir to the Bavarian People’s Party.
    (Econ, 8/18/07, p.43)

1946        The Hong Kong airline Cathay Pacific began operations with two DC3 planes.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.96)
1946        Eric Halpern, a Jewish émigré from Austria, started the Far Eastern Review in Hong Kong. In 1987 it was taken over by Dow Jones. In 2004 it ended as a weekly publication and re-emerged as a monthly. In 2009 Dow Jones announced its closure.
    (Econ, 9/26/09, p.58)

1946        Hungary’s Prime Minister Laszlo Bardossy was executed for his role in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Jews.
    (SFC, 5/5/01, p.D2)

1946        The Republic of Indonesia stripped all royal families of power.
    (SSFC, 2/17/08, p.A20)

1946        In Iran Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi separated from his Egyptian wife, Queen Fawzieh. He took up with Parvin Ghaffari in a 3-year affair later documented by Ghaffari in her 1997 book "Until Darkness."
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.C1)

1946        The Italian film “Paisan” was directed by Roberto Rossellini (1906-1977). It was comprised of 6 short films dealing with the Allied liberation of Italy.  This was the 2nd film of his war trilogy.
    (SFC, 1/22/10, p.E2)
1946        In Italy Umberto II (d.1983) ruled for just 26 days before he was sent into exile. Italy established itself as a republic.
    (SFC, 5/6/97, p.A11)(SFC, 6/3/96, p.A12)
1946        Enrico Piaggio designed the 1st Vespa motor scooter as a practical solution to transportation needs in postwar Italy. Corradino D’Ascanio, helicopter pioneer, came up with the idea for the 2-wheeled Vespa scooter.
    (SFC, 8/16/03, p.F1)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.64)
1946        In Italy the Carpigiani firm, a maker of ice-cream making machines, was founded. Bruto Carpigiani (d.1945) had designed the first machine and his brother Poerio did the marketing.
    (Econ, 8/18/07, p.55)
1946        In Italy Mediobanca was founded to rebuilt the country’s industry in the aftermath of WWII.
    (Econ, 6/14/14, p.68)

1946        In Japan parliamentary elections were held and women were allowed to vote for the first time. 39 female legislators were elected.
    (SFC, 7/30/99, p.D8)
1946        Under Japan's land reform, landlords who owned more than the permitted amount had to sell the excess land to the government at a fixed price. The government then sold it at the same price, giving first preference to any tenant who had been farming the land.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.43)(http://tinyurl.com/cz3ul47)
1946        In Japan the Keidanren (Business Federation) was formed to be the mouthpiece of business interests. The Keizai Doyukai (Association of Corporate Executives) also formed.
    (Econ, 5/31/08, p.68)
1946        Tokyo Telecommunications, the precursor to Sony Corp., was established in Japan.
    (WSJ, 3/7/05, p.A8)

1946        Jordan recognized the Muslim Brotherhood as a charity.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.50)

1946        Kurd leader Mustafa Barzani fled Kurdistan with hundreds of followers to the Soviet Union.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)

1946        Tyrannosaurus bataars, dating to 70Mil BC, were first discovered during a joint Soviet-Mongolian expedition in Mongolia’s Omnogovi Province.
    (SFC, 6/20/12, p.A8)

1946        In Slovakia Vojtech Tuka was executed. He had been the prime minister of pro-Nazi Slovakia during the war.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.A12)

1946        Choi Hong Hi (1918-2002), helped found the South Korean Army. He developed the tae kwon do (to kick with the foot, to strike with the fist, art) martial arts style in the 1940s and named it in 1955.
    (SFC, 7/2/02, p.A17)

1946        The Swiss government agreed to turn over half of some German assets in vaults to help war refugees and other victims. The agreement was not kept.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A10)

1946        The Muslim Brotherhood, founded in Egypt in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna (d.1949), opened a branch in Syria. Branches soon began spreading across the globe.
    (WSJ, 12/8/95, p.A-8)(WSJ, 9/21/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A20)(Econ, 6/4/05, p.44)

1946        Thailand’s Democratic Party (DC) was founded as a conservative, royalist party.
    (Econ, 8/4/12, p.37)

1946        The UN created a list of “non-self-governing” states. It consisted of territories reported as dependencies by colonial powers. By 2013 the list was reduced to just 16 territories officially on queue for decolonization.
    (Econ, 5/25/13, p.41)

1946-1948    Wayne Miller (27) on a Guggenheim fellowship documented the South Side of Chicago in photographs.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.6)
1946-1948    US scientific researchers infected hundreds of Guatemalan mental patients with sexually transmitted diseases. The researchers were trying to determine whether the antibiotic penicillin could prevent syphilis infection, not just cure it. The practice only came to light in 2010 thanks to the work of an academic researcher. On Oct 1, 2010, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius issued a formal apology to Guatemala, and to Guatemalan residents of the United States. A 2011 report said 2,082 people were infected with syphilis, gonorrhea or chancroid. Previous studies had said about 1,300 people were exposed, including soldiers, prostitutes, prisoners and mental patients.
    (www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39456324/ns/health-sexual_health/)(AP, 12/7/11)

1946-1949    Some 12 million ethnic Germans were expelled from their homes in eastern Europe after WW II.
    (Econ, 11/3/07, p.60)
1946-1949    The Greek Civil War uprooted some 700,000 refugees. The Cham were ethnic Albanians drive from Greece after WW II. Their expropriated property was worth about $3.25 million.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)(SFC, 3/22/00, p.A10)

1946-1950    C. Girard Davidson was ass’t. secretary of the Interior under pres. Truman. He was also part of an advisory group to the president that recommended recognition for the state of Israel, and a veto of the Taft-Hartley Labor Act [passed in 1947] that among other things barred union-employer contracts that required all workers to be union members.
    (SFC, 9/26/96, p.C2)

1946-1952    Miguel Aleman Valdez was president of Mexico. He was known as the "Enterprise President." He gave the PRI a pro-business cast and an odor of corruption.
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)

1946-1952    Richard Nixon served in the US Congress as Congressman and Senator from California. In 1999 Irwin F. Gellman published "The Contender: Richard Nixon, The Congress Years, 1946-1952."
    (WSJ, 8/9/99, p.A16)

1946-1953    Trygve Lie of Norway served as the Secretary-General of the UN.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.A1)

1946-1958    The US conducted 67 nuclear test blasts at the Bikini and Eniwetok atolls over this period. The tests in the northern Marshall Islands released radioactive iodine said to be 150 times worse than the contamination from Chernobyl in 1986. A Nuclear Claims Tribunal was later set up by the government of the US and the Marshall Islands to compensate those displaced or suffering health problems due to the tests. The 150 million dollars the US provided for paying settlements ran out in 2005. The US State Department said there is no obligation to pay more.
    (SFC, 3/8/99, p.A16)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.38)(AFP, 12/12/08)

1946-1960    The show "Hometown Jamboree" ran on radio and television. It was produced by Cliffie Stone (d.1998) and gave career boosts to such stars as Tennessee Ernie Ford, Johnny Cash, Eddy Arnold, Jim Reeves and Tex Ritter.
    (SFC, 1/20/98, p.A18)

1946-1961    The Tanganyika Territory was a British trusteeship.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1452)

1946-1970    Some 62,000 steel drums of nuclear waste were dumped into the oceans from 1946-1970. In 1976 EPA scientists reported that they had discovered plutonium in the ocean sediment off the SF coast and radioactive cesium leaking from containers 120 miles east of Ocean City, Md.
    (SFC, 8/17/01, p.WB6)

1946-1977    PCBs were released into the Hudson River by 2 General Electric plants and were buried in sediment along 197 miles that was later declared a Superfund site. The EPA expected GE to dredge some 35 miles at a cost of some $1 billion. GE fought the cleanup law and was also involved in Superfund sites at Hoboken NJ and Milford NH. Cleanup of the Hudson River began in 2009 at an estimated cost of $750 million, to be paid by GE. The sludge was scheduled to be buried in West Texas.
    (SFC, 11/29/00, p.A10)(SFC, 5/16/09, p.A5)(SFC, 6/22/09, p.A9)

1946-1989     Romania under Communist rule imprisoned some 617,000 political prisoners during this period. Some 120,000 died in the gulags.
    (SFC, 7/12/13, p.A3)

1946-1992    Charles Hillinger worked for the Los Angeles Times. He was assigned as a roving reporter in the early 50s and by 1969 expanded to a world beat. His 1998 "Hillinger’s California: All 58 Counties" was one of 2 books compiled from his 6,000 plus columns.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, p.D1,8)

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