Return to home1948 Jan 3,
King Michael left Romania. His Peles Castle in Sinaia was
confiscated by the Communists. In 2006 it was returned to the former
(SFC, 10/20/00, p.A16)(SFC, 5/24/06, p.A2)
1948 Jan 4, Britain granted
independence to Burma (later renamed to Myanmar). Aung San had
arranged for national independence on this day but was assassinated
before the event by political rivals. The new rulers tried to limit
citizenship to those whose roots predated 1823 and British rule.
(SFEC, 1/19/97, Par p.4)(AP, 1/4/98)(Econ,
1948 Jan 7, Kenny Loggins,
singer (& Messina-This is it, Footloose), was born in Everett,
1948 Jan 7, US president Truman
raised taxes for the Marshall plan.
1948 Jan 8, Richard Tauber
(55), Austria-British tenor, composer (Lehar), died.
1948 Jan 11, President Harry S
Truman proposed free, two-year community colleges for all who wanted
1948 Jan 12, The Supreme Court
ruled that states could not discriminate against law-school
applicants because of race. The case involved a black woman, Ada
Lois Sipuel (1924-1995), and she earned the right to attend law
school in previously segregated Oklahoma. Her lawyer was Thurgood
1948 Jan 13, T Bone Burnett,
rocker, was born.
1948 Jan 16, Anatoli
Yakovlevich Solovyov, cosmonaut (TM-5,9,15,26, STS 71), was born in
1948 Jan 18, Ghandi broke a
121-hour fast after halting Moslem-Hindu riots.
1948 Jan 23, Director John
Huston's "Treasure of Sierra Madre" starring Humphrey Bogart opened.
1948 Jan 23, The Soviets
refused UN entry into North Korea to administer elections.
1948 Jan 24, Elliott Abrams,
asst. secretary of state, supplied arms to the Contras, was born.
1948 Jan 27, Mikhail
Baryshnikov, ballet dancer, was born in Riga, Latvia.
1948 Jan 27, The 1st tape
1948 Jan 28, A plane chartered
by US Immigration Services left Oakland, Ca., carrying 32 people,
including 28 Mexicans. Many were part of the bracero program and had
finished their government-sponsored work contracts. 20 miles west of
Coalinga an engine exploded, a wing broke off and more than 100
witnesses watched bodies and luggage thrown from the fireball. There
were no survivors.
1948 Jan 28, Charles Taylor,
later president of Liberia (1997-2003), was born in Arthington, near
Monrovia. His family descended from freed American slaves He was the
third of 15 children of an Americo-Liberian father, Nelson Taylor.
His mother, Zoe, was a Gola-woman.
1948 Jan 30, Orville Wright
(b.1871), US aviation pioneer, died. In 1953 McGraw Hill published 2
volumes edited by Marvin W. McFarland: "The Papers of Wilbur and
(WUD, 1994, p.1647)(ON, SC, p.4)(MC, 1/30/02)
1948 Jan 30, Mohandas
Karamchand Gandhi (78) was assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a fellow
Hindu while walking to a prayer meeting in New Delhi a few minutes
after five o'clock in the evening. Godse felt that in trying to
achieve reconciliation between Hindus and Muslims, Gandhi had
betrayed the Hindu cause. Born into a family of merchants, Gandhi
studied law in England, where he was inspired by Henry David
Thoreau's "Civil Disobedience" and developed his own philosophy of
peaceful resistance. After residing and practicing law in South
Africa for 20 years, Gandhi returned to India to campaign for home
rule and reconciliation of all classes and religious groups.
Convinced that India would never be free as part of the British
Empire, he demanded independence as payment for helping Britain win
World War II. Indian independence was achieved in 1947, but riots
broke out between Hindus and Muslims seeking the partition of the
country into India and Pakistan. Mahatma ("Great Soul") Gandhi was
on a hunger strike demanding an end to the violence when he was
murdered. The book "Gandhi the Man" by Eknath Easwaran was published
(AHD, 1971, p.542)(HFA, '96, p.40)(SFC, 1/31/97,
p.A13)(SFC,12/24/97, p.C6) (HNPD, 1/309)
1948 The seven sins according
to Mahatma Gandhi were: 1) wealth without work. 2) Pleasure without
conscience. 3) Knowledge without character. 4) Commerce without
morality. 5) Science without humanity. 6) Worship without sacrifice.
7) Politics without principal.
(SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)
1948 Feb 1, The Palestine Post
building in Jerusalem was bombed.
1948 Feb 2, President Harry
Truman sent to Congress a 10-point civil rights program calling for
measures against lynching, poll taxes and job discrimination.
1948 Feb 2, The United States
and Italy signed a pact of friendship, commerce and navigation.
1948 Feb 4, The island nation
of Ceylon—now Sri Lanka—became an independent dominion within the
1948 Feb 7, Gen. Dwight D.
Eisenhower resigned as Army chief of staff and was succeeded by Gen.
1948 Feb 8, The National
Republicans, who had held the majority of Costa Rica's political
power for decades, were finally voted out of the presidency. The
National Republicans used their strong influence in the Legislative
Assembly to annul the presidential election of rival candidate
Otilio Ulate of the Social Democratic Party.
1948 Feb 11, Sergei Eisenstein
(b.1898 in Latvia), Russian film director, died. He pioneered the
dialectic montage where 2 films shots were arranged to clash in
order to produce an emotional or intellectual response in the
viewer. In 1999 Ronald Bergan published the biography: "Sergei
Eisenstein: A Life In Conflict."
(SFEC, 5/2/99, BR p.1,10)(MC, 2/11/02)
1948 Feb 12, 1st Lt. Nancy
Leftenant became the 1st black in the army nursing corps.
1948 Feb 14, Winthrop
Rockefeller (1912-1973), later governor of Arkansas (1967-1971),
married Barbara Sears (1916-2008), the Pennsylvania-born daughter of
Lithuanian immigrants. They had one child, Winthrop Paul
Rockefeller, but the marriage dissolved in a high-profile divorce in
1954. Barbara Bobo Rockefeller, born as Jievute Paulekiute in
Noblestown, Pa., was featured as Miss Lithuania at the 1933 Chicago
World's Fair. She later was known as Eva Paul.
1948 Feb 15, Mao Zedong's army
1948 Feb 16, NBC-TV began
airing its first nightly newscast, "The Camel Newsreel Theatre,"
which consisted of "20th Century Fox- Movietone News" newsreels.
(AP, 2/16/98)(MC, 2/16/02)
1948 Feb 20, Czechoslovakia's
non-communist minister resigned.
1948 Feb 21, Bill France,
Daytona Beach stock car mechanic and driver, founded the National
Association for Stock Car Racing (NASCAR).
1948 Feb 22, An Arab bomb
attack in Jerusalem killed 50 people.
1948 Feb 25, Communists seized
power in Czechoslovakia in a coup d’etat.
(AP, 2/25/98)(SFC, 3/13/98, p.A6)
1948 Feb 28, Mercedes Ruehl,
actress (Lost in Yonkers, Crazy People), was born in Queens NY.
1948 Feb 28, The last
British troops left India. The First Battalion of the Somerset Light
Infantry passed through the Gateway of India monument in a ceremony.
1948 Feb, The U.S. Air Force
initiated Project Blue Book to investigate the numerous civilian and
military reports of mysterious unidentified flying objects (UFOs).
It was originally known as Project Sign. A year later the unit was
reorganized and renamed Project Grudge. Finally, in 1952, Project
Grudge was upgraded and given the code name Project Blue Book. It
was terminated in 1969.
(AP, 12/17/97)(HNQ, 5/30/00)
1948 Mar 4, Antonin Artaud
(51), French poet, actor (Napoleon), died.
1948 Mar 5, Leslie Marmon
Silko, writer (Ceremony), was born.
1948 Mar 6, During talks in
Berlin, the Western powers agreed to internationalize the Ruhr
1948 Mar 8, The US Supreme
Court, in the case of McCollum vs. the Board of Education, struck
down voluntary religious education classes in Champaign, Ill.,
public schools, saying the program violated separation of church and
state. Judge Robert Jackson warned: "One can hardly respect a system
of education that would leave the student wholly ignorant of the
currents of religious thought that move the world."
(HN, 3/8/98)(WSJ, 8/13/99, p.W11)(AP, 3/8/08)
1948 Mar 10, Author Zelda
Fitzgerald died in a fire at Highland Hospital, NC. She was locked
in on the 3rd floor while undergoing insulin-induced coma therapy.
In 2001 Kendall Taylor authored "Sometimes Madness Is Wisdom: Zelda
and Scott Fitzgerald, a Marriage."
(HN, 3/10/01)(SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.61)
1948 Mar 10, Jan Masaryk
(b.1886), son of the first president of Czechoslovakia and
anti-Communist foreign minister, was found dead in the courtyard of
Czernin Palace in Prague. He had dropped 45 feet from a window and
the case remained unsolved.
1948 Mar 10, Political and
military men gathered at the Tel Aviv headquarters of the Haganah
and put the final touches to Plan Dalet. In 2006 Prof. Ilan Pappe of
the Univ. of Haifa authored “The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine." He
held that Plan Dalet was a plan for the ethnic cleansing of some
800,000 Palestinians in order to allow the formation of the Jewish
(Econ, 11/4/06, p.92)
1948 Mar 11, Reginald Weit
became the 1st black to play in the US Tennis Open.
1948 Mar 11, Jewish Agency of
Jerusalem was bombed.
1948 Mar 12, In Alaska 24
merchant marines and six crewmen were flying from China to New York
City, when their DC-4 slammed into Mount Sanford killing all 30.
Pilots Kevin McGregor and Marc Millican discovered some mummified
remains in 1999 while recovering artifacts to identify the wreckage
they had found two years earlier.
1948 Mar 18, France, Great
Britain and Benelux signed the Treaty of Brussels.
1948 Mar 18, Philips began
experimental TV broadcasting.
1948 Mar 20, "Gentleman’s
Agreement" won the Academy Award for best picture of 1947, as well
as best director (Elia Kazan); Ronald Colman won best actor for "A
Double Life," and Loretta Young won best actress for "The Farmer’s
Daughter." The 20th event was held at the Shrine auditorium in LA.
(AP, 3/20/98)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.D1)
1948 Mar 20, The 1st live
televised musical Eugene Ormandy on CBS.
1948 Mar 20, A televised
concert by NBC Symphony was conducted by Arturo Toscanini.
1948 Mar 20 A severe tornado
moved through Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City destroying 52
(SFC, 3/20/09, p.D8)
1948 Mar 20, The Communist
administration of Lithuania decided on a plan for the organization
of collective farms.
1948 Mar 22, Andrew Lloyd
Webber, Broadway composer, was born. His works include "Phantom of
the Opera" and "Cats."
(AP, 3/22/99)(HN, 3/22/97)
1948 Mar 22, The U.S. announced
a land reform plan for Korea.
1948 Mar 23, John Cunningham
set a world altitude record at 54,492' (18,133 meters).
1948 Mar 24, Israel Galili,
chief of the Haganah, sent orders reminding commanders of the policy
to protect the “full rights, needs, and freedoms of the Arabs in the
Hebrew state without discrimination."
(Econ, 11/4/06, p.93)
1948 Mar 25, The Italians
banned a compromise with Yugoslavia and demanded the return of
1948 Mar 31, David Eisenhower,
Eisenhower's grandson (married Julie Nixon), was born.
1948 Mar 31, Al Gore, Vice
President to President William J. Clinton (1993-2001), was born.
1948 Mar 31, Rhea Perlman,
actress (Zena-Taxi, Carla-Cheers), was born in Brooklyn.
1948 Mar 31, Congress passed a
$6.2 billion foreign aid bill, the Marshall Aid Act, to rehabilitate
(HN, 3/31/98)(MC, 3/31/02)
1948 Mar 31, The Soviet Union
in Germany began controlling the Western trains headed toward
1948 Mar, R.W. Chaney, UC
scientist, and Milton Silverman (1911-1997), science writer,
traveled to China to fetch dawn redwoods (Metasequoia
glyptostroboides), thought to be extinct for 20 million years, from
the only known grove in existence. They brought seedlings back to
California and the trees now thrive.
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)
1948 Apr 2, Emmylou Harris,
American singer, was born.
1948 Apr 3, Garrick Ohlsson,
pianist (Intl Busoni winner 1969), was born in Bronxville, NY.
1948 Apr 3, The 1st US figure
skating championships were held.
1948 Apr 3, Congress adopted
and President Truman signed the Marshall Plan, which allocated more
than $5 billion in aid for 16 European countries. The Marshall Plan
was begun to aid the European nations in their economic recovery
following WW II. It provided $13.15 billion over 4 years to 17
(SFC, 2/5/97, p.A20)(AP, 4/3/97)(SFEC, 5/25/97,
1948 Apr 4, 84-year-old Connie
Mack challenged 78-year-old Clark Griffith to a race from home to
1st base; it ended in a tie.
1948 Apr 5, WGN TV channel 9 in
Chicago, IL., began broadcasting.
1948 Apr 7, The World Health
Organization (WHO) was founded by the UN. In 1948, the First World
Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day" to
mark the founding of the World Health Organization. Since 1950,
World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April annually.
1948 Apr 9, Chaim Weizmann,
head of the World Zionist Organization, wrote to Pres. Truman
saying: “The choice for our people, Mr. President, is between
statehood and extermination."
(Econ, 1/13/07, p.53)
1948 Apr 9, In Colombia
politician Jorge Eliecer Gaitan Ayala (b.1903) was assassinated
during his 2nd presidential campaign.
1948 Apr 9, In Deir Yassin
about one-third of 750 Palestinians were killed by Jewish fighters
of the National Military Organization, an underground group better
known as the Irgun, and a splinter group called Lehi. The event is
called Al-Nakbah (catastrophe) by the Palestinians. 30 similar
massacres happened on other Palestinian villages. The death toll was
said to be inflated by Jewish forces to invoke fear and cause
(SFC, 3/18/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/25/98, p.A1,11)
1948 Apr 10, Jewish Hagana
repelled an Arab attack on Mishmar HaEmek.
1948 Apr 12, Cartago, Costa
Rica, fell into the hands of Jose Figueres Ferrer, a vociferous
adversary of the National Republicans.
1948 Apr 14, Walter P. Reuther,
Pres (United Auto Workers), was shot at his home. [see Apr 20]
1948 Apr 15, Arabs were
defeated in the first Jewish-Arab battle.
1948 Apr 18, Catherine
Malfitano, soprano (Metropolitan Opera), was born in NYC.
1948 Apr 18, International
Court of Justice opened at Hague, Netherlands.
1948 Apr 19, Teodoro Picado and
Father Benjamin Nunez, an eminent labor leader within Costa Rica,
signed The Pact of the Mexican Embassy, ending an armed uprising.
1948 Apr 20, United Auto
Workers president Walter P. Reuther was shot and wounded at his home
in Detroit. [see Apr 14]
1948 Apr 21, The 1st Polaroid
camera was sold in US.
1948 Apr 24, The
forces of Jose Figueres Ferrer entered San Jose, almost six
weeks after beginning their revolt in southern Costa Rica.
1948 Apr 30, The charter of the
Organization of American States (OAS) was signed in Bogota,
1948 May 1, Glenn Taylor, Idaho
Senator, was arrested in Birmingham Alabama for trying to enter a
meeting through a door marked "for Negroes."
1948 May 1, Christos Ladas,
Greek minister of Justice, was murdered.
1948 May 1, The People's
Democratic Republic of Korea (North Korea) was proclaimed. The
border between North and South Korea was sealed when Kim Il Sung
established his communist regime.
(SFC, 3/12/97, p.A14)(AP, 5/1/97)
1948 May 3, The US Supreme
Court in Shelly v. Kraemer ruled that covenants prohibiting the sale
of real estate to blacks and other minorities were legally
unenforceable. The Supreme Court had allowed the practice in 1926.
(AP, 5/3/97)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.74)(SFC, 1/14/15,
1948 May 4, The Hague Court of
Justice convicted Hans Rauter (SS) of war crimes.
1948 May 5, 1st air squadron of
jets aboard a carrier
1948 May 5, Japan's Children's
Day became a National Holiday.
1948 May 6, 43 communist rebels
were executed in Athens.
1948 May 9, The first
television guide, called TV Forecast, was published by Les Vihon and
3 partners in Chicago. It became the basis for TV Guide which was
consolidated under Walter Annenberg.
(WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 6/18/99, p.W6)
1948 May 11, Haganah took
control of Safed and port of Haifa.
1948 May 11, Edward Ricketts
(Doc Ricketts, 51), marine biologist and friend of John Steinbeck,
died in Monterey, Ca., after his car stalled on railroad tracks and
was struck by a Del Monte Express. He authored "Between Pacific
(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A21)
1948 May 14, US granted Israel
de facto recognition.
1948 May 14, The British
evacuated Israel. The independent state of Israel was proclaimed in
Tel Aviv under Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion as British rule in
Palestine came to an end. Ben-Gurion and 36 fellow members of the
Provisional Council of State signed the Declaration of the
Establishment of the State of Israel. 10 of the member’s signatures
were delayed for 10 days because they were cut off by fighting in
(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(AP, 5/14/97) (SFC, 4/24/98,
p.A17)(HN, 5/14/98)(WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A20)(SFC, 10/12/02, p.A21)
1948 May 15, A 28 year old
British Mandate over Palestine ended.
1948 May 15, Hours after
declaring its independence, the new state of Israel was attacked by
Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon.
1948 May 16, The body of CBS
News correspondent George Polk was found in Salonika Harbor in
Greece, several days after he'd left his hotel for an interview with
the leader of a Communist militia.
1948 May 16, Chaim Weizmann was
elected Chairman of the Provisional State Council of Israel.
Weizmann, born in Russia in 1874, taught chemistry in England and as
a leading Zionist influenced Britain’s Balfour Declaration of 1917
favoring a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Weizmann settled in
Palestine in 1934 and served as president of Israel from 1948 until
his death in 1952.
1948 May 16, PM David
Ben-Gurion appointed Israel Amir (d.2002) to head the fledgling air
force of 8 secondhand light aircraft. Amir held the post for 10
weeks and raised the force to 3,000 personnel.
(SFC, 11/2/02, p.A22)
1948 May 17 The Soviet Union
recognized the new state of Israel.
1948 May 18, "Ballet Ballads"
opened at Music Box Theater in NYC for 62 performances.
1948 May 18, Arab Legion
captured the fort on Mount Scopus.
1948 May 18, Saudi Arabia
joined the invasion of Israel.
1948 May 20, Israel made the
1st use of its Air Force and claimed its 1st war victory with the
defeat of the Syrian army.
1948 May 23, China’s People's
Liberation Army began to encircle the Nationalist defenders in
Changchun, while cutting off air transportation. The siege lasted
for 150 days and ended when the People's Liberation Army under Gen.
Lin Biao entered Changchun after the Nationalist 60th Army and New
7th Army surrendered. Some 160,000 civilians died, mainly of hunger,
trapped in a killing zone outside the city walls.
1948 May 25, Klaus Meine,
rocker (Scorpions-No One Like You), was born in Hanover,
1948 May 25, KPIX went on the
air as the first TV station in Northern Ca.
(SFEC, 5/16/99, Z1 p.4)
1948 May 25, Jacques Feyder
(59), actor, director (kermesse héroique), died.
1948 May 25, Witold Pilecki
(b.1901), founder of the Secret Polish Army (1939), was executed in
Warsaw by Communist secret police. In 1940 he had infiltrated
Auschwitz to spy on what was happening there.
1948 May 26, Entire Hagana arm
forces were sworn-in as Israeli soldiers.
1948 May 26, South Africa
elected a nationalist government with apartheid policy. The National
Party of the Dutch Afrikaners came to power and imposed apartheid.
P.W. Botha (1916-2006) was among those elected to parliament.
p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/yxx4zh)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.56)
1948 May 27, Arabs blew up the
Jewish synagogue Hurvat Rabbi Yehudah he-Hasid.
1948 May 29, Michael Berkley,
composer, broadcaster, was born.
1948 May 29, Anthony Geary,
actor (Luke/Bill-General Hospital), was born in Coalville, UT.
1948 May 29, Linda Esther Gray,
opera singer, was born.
1948 May 29, May Whitty (82),
actress (Gaslight, Mrs. Miniver, Suspicion), died.
1948 May 30, Vanport, Oregon,
was dramatically destroyed when a 200-foot (61 m) section of the
dike holding back the Columbia River collapsed during a flood,
killing 15. The city was underwater by nightfall leaving its
1948 May, Howard Lilly, test
pilot, flew the D-559-1, aka Skystreak, rocket powered aircraft at
Muroc Army Air Field (later Edwards Air Base) in Calif., and was
killed when the rocket engine blew up.
(SFC, 8/5/96, p.A3)
1948 May, India and Pakistan
went to war over the Himalayan region of Kashmir, which was divided
between the two nations at partition. The Pakistani third was known
as Jammu and Kashmir, while India controlled the eastern two-thirds
where 8 million people lived. The region was mostly Muslim.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.A15)(WSJ,
1948 Jun 1, "We The People", TV
Talk Show, radio from ‘36; debuted on CBS.
1948 Jun 1, Israel & the
Arabs agreed to a cease fire.
1948 Jun 2, Albert Innaurato,
playwright, director (Age in Soho), was born in Phila.
1948 Jun 2, Jerry Mathers,
actor (Beaver-Leave It To Beaver), was born in Sioux City, Iowa.
1948 Jun 2, Jamaican-born track
star Herb McKenley set a new world record for the 400 yard dash.
1948 Jun 3, Korczak Ziolkowski
(1908-1982), a self-taught sculptor, began blasting a figure of
Crazy Horse into rock in the Black Hills of South Dakota under an
invitation by the Lakota Sioux. Ziolkowski had worked under Gutzon
Borglum at the Mount Rushmore site. The face of Crazy Horse, at the
site known as Thunder Mountain, was completed and dedicated in 1998.
(SSFC, 7/28/02, Par p.11)(SSFC, 9/9/07, p.C4)
1948 Jun 3, The 200-inch
reflecting telescope at the Palomar Mountain Observatory in
California was dedicated. The nearly 5.1 meter Hale telescope was
operated by Caltech.
(AP, 6/3/97)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.C14)
1948 Jun 3, Newfoundland and
Labrador voted by a slim margin to relinquish status as a British
colony and to become the 10th province of Canada.
1948 Jun 4, Hugh Kenner (d.2003
at 80) met for the 1st time with Ezra Pound in a Washington-area
mental facility. Pound became his mentor and directed him in a
number of literary efforts. In 1951 Kenner turned his thesis into
the book: "The Poetry of Ezra Pound." In 1971 Kenner authored "The
(SSFC, 11/30/03, p.A31)
1948 Jun 7, The Communists
completed their takeover of Czechoslovakia with the resignation of
President Eduard Benes.
1948 Jun 8, The "Texaco Star
Theater" made its debut on NBC-TV with Milton Berle hosting the
first program. Although Berle was initially chosen to be only a
guest host, he was named the show’s permanent host the following
September. Sponsors changed and it became "The Buick-Berle Show" and
then just "The Milton Berle Show." The show lasted to 1956.
(SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.37)(AP, 6/8/98)
1948 Jun 9, Nathaniel Rosen,
cellist (Tchaikovsky-gold-1978), was born in Altadena, Ca.
1948 cJun 9, John Phillips
(1915-1996), photographer for Life Magazine, took pictures of the
ill-fated defense of the Jewish quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem
against Arab troops.
(SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)
1948 Jun 10, The news that the
sound barrier has been broken is finally released to the public by
the U.S. Air Force. Chuck Yeager, piloting the rocket airplane X-1,
exceeded the speed of sound on October 14, 1947.
1948 Jun 14, Lee Wagner, a New
York publisher, launched his TeleVision Guide. It became known as TV
Guide. The Barowski brothers in Philadelphia soon followed with
their TV Digest.
(WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W10)
1948 Jun 18, The United Nations
Commission on Human Rights adopted its Universal Declaration of
Human Rights. It stated in part that: "Everyone has the right to
leave any country including his own and to return to that country."
In 2001 Mary Ann Glendon authored "A World Made New," a history of
the drafting of the declaration.
(AP, 6/18/97)(SFC, 5/30/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 3/1/00,
1948 Jun 18, Columbia Records
publicly unveiled its new long-playing phonograph record in New
1948 Jun 19, The first
successfully produced microgroove 33 1/3 rpm, long-playing, records
were unveiled by Dr. Peter Goldmark of Columbia Records. Plans to
phase out 78's followed. Unlike the average record which held 8
minutes of music, this new record could hold 45 minutes.
(Hartford Courant, 6/21/48, p.7)
1948 Jun 19, Panama & Costa
Rica recognized Israel.
1948 Jun 19, USSR blocked
access road to West Berlin.
(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.A10)(DT, 6/19/97)
1948 Jun 21, The Republican
national convention opened in Philadelphia. The delegates ended up
choosing Thomas E. Dewey to be their presidential nominee.
1948 Jun 21, Lord Mountbatten
resigned as Viceroy of India.
1948 Jun 24, The Republican
National Convention, meeting in Philadelphia, nominated New York
Governor Thomas E. Dewey for president.
1948 Jun 24, Communist forces
with 30 military divisions cut off all land and water routes between
West Germany and West Berlin, prompting the United States to
organize the massive Berlin airlift. Gen’l. Lucius Clay, the local
American commander, ordered an air supply effort. Clay made his
decision based on a recommendation by British military governor
Gen'l. Sir Brian Robertson. The Royal Air Force had already begun a
limited airlift. The airlift story was later told by Alvi Shlaim in:
"The United States and the Berlin Blockade, 1948-1949."
(AP, 6/24/97)(SFC, 5/12/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 6/9/99,
1948 Jun 25, Pres. Harry Truman
signed the Displaced Persons Act of 1948. It was primarily inspired
by anti-Communism and led to a relaxation of US immigration policy.
Following WWII the US took in more than 650,000 displaced Europeans.
1948 Jun 25, The Republican
national convention in Philadelphia chose California Gov. Earl
Warren to be Thomas E. Dewey’s running mate.
1948 Jun 25, The Soviet Union
tightened its blockade of Berlin by intercepting river barges
heading for the city.
1948 Jun 26, The Berlin
Airlift began in earnest as the United States, Britain and France
started ferrying supplies to the isolated western sector of Berlin,
after the Soviet Union cut off land and water routes. The Soviets
had been harassing the French, British and American authorities in
Berlin for weeks, trying to force them from the city. Finally, when
all surface routes to the city were blockaded, it became clear that
an airlift through the Allied sectors was the only way to re-supply
the 2 million West Berliners. In spite of the enormous human and
financial cost, “Operation Vittles" supplied food, fuel and hope to
beleaguered citizens until the Soviet barricades were finally lifted
on May 12, 1949.
1948 Jun 28, Kathy Bates
(Academy Award-winning actress: Misery ; Fried Green
Tomatoes, Home of Our Own, Prelude to a Kiss), was born.
1948 Jun 30, Bell Labs
introduced the point-contact transistor in the New York Times on
p.46 as a replacement for the vacuum tube. Bell Labs had kept it
secret for six months. John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William
Shockley demonstrated their invention, the transistor, for the first
time. John Pierce (d.2002) proposed the name. Transistors, much
smaller than vacuum tubes, allowed the creation of smaller
electronic devices and became a key component of the integrated
circuit, which are found in everything from radios to computers to
any of a number of automated systems. They were awarded the Nobel
Prize in physics for the invention in 1956. William Schockley,
co-developer of the transistor, founded Schockley Semiconductor
Laboratory in Palo Alto. Two of his hires, Robert Noyce and Gordon
Moore, later went on to start Intel Corp. Tim Jackson in 1998
published "Inside Intel." [see Dec 23, 1947]
(SFE, 10/1/95, p.D-5)(SFEC, 8/17/97, BR
p.4)(SFEC,12/14/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/13/98, p.A13)(HNQ, 12/23/99)(HN,
6/30/01)(SFC, 4/9/02, p.A18)
1948 Jun, In SF Blanco’s Cotton
Club under Barney Deasy opened at what is now The Great American
Music Hall. It was intended to be a fancy nightspot with only black
artists and black workers, but open to the public. It opened with a
big splash but only lasted a few months due to price increases for
(SFEC, 2/8/98, DB p.34)
1948 Jun, Cominform expelled
Yugoslavia; Albanian leaders launched an anti-Yugoslav propaganda
campaign, cut economic ties, and forced Yugoslav advisors to leave.
Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia was abrogated;
Hoxha began purging high-ranking party members accused of "Titoism";
Soviet Union began economic aid to Albania.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1948 Jul 1, Brooklyn's Roy
Campanella debuted as catcher.
1948 Jul 1, New York
International Airport at Idlewild, later renamed John F. Kennedy
International Airport, was officially opened.
1948 Jul 1, The fare on New
York City subways doubled from a nickel to ten cents.
1948 Jul 1, Charles D. Harrold,
radio pioneer, died in Oakland, Ca. He broadcast the 1st radio
entertainment program in 1912.
1948 Jul 1, Zahava Rozman,
artist, was born in Tel Aviv, Israel. In 1958 she moved to NYC and
in 1976 graduated from Pratt Inst. with a BFA in Fine Arts.
1948 July 2, At a meeting in
Paris among the foreign ministers of Great Britain, France and the
Soviet Union, Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov walked out of the
meeting and called the Marshall Plan—an American proposal for
economic aid—an "imperialist" plot for the enslavement of Europe.
Put forward by Secretary of State George E. Marshall, the Marshall
Plan was a comprehensive European recovery program supported by the
U.S. The Soviets and their satellites did not attend the Marshall
Plan Conference that convened July 12 in Paris.
1948 Jul 3, Kidnapper Caryl
Chessman was sentenced to death.
1948 Jul 5, The pilot episode
of “My Favorite Husband," with Lucille Ball, aired. It was entitled
“The Cugat's Tenth Wedding Anniversary" It became the gifted
redhead’s first regular radio program on CBS. Regular broadcasting
began on July 23, 1948 and aired on various nights through March 31,
1951. Through most of its life it was sponsored by Jello.
1948 Jul 5, Britain's National
Health Service Act went into effect, providing government-financed
medical and dental care. Aneurin Bevan, Welsh Labour minister of
health, was its political founder. The first NHS patient was treated
at Trafford hospital near Manchester.
(AP, 7/5/98)(Econ, 5/7/11, p.62)
1948 Jul 7, Six female
reservists became the first women to be sworn into the regular U.S.
1948 Jul 8, The 500th
anniversary of the Russian orthodox church was celebrated in Moscow.
1948 Jul 9, Satchel Paige (42)
debuted in majors pitching 2 scoreless inning for Cleveland.
1948 Jul 12, The Democratic
national convention opened in Philadelphia.
1948 July 12, The Marshall Plan
Conference convened in Paris. It was attended by 16 European nations
and established the Committee for European Economic Cooperation.
1948 Jul 14, Israel bombed
1948 Jul 15, President Truman
was nominated for another term of office by the Democratic National
Convention in Philadelphia.
1948 Jul 15, John J. Pershing
(87), [Black Jack], US general (Mexico, WW I), died.
1948 Jul 16, Ruben Blades,
songwriter and actor, was born.
1948 Jul 16, Pinchas Zukerman,
violinist and conductor, was born in Tel Aviv Israel.
(HN, 7/16/01)(MC, 7/16/02)
1948 Jul 17, Southern Democrats
opposed to the nomination of President Truman met in Birmingham,
Ala., to endorse South Carolina Gov. Strom Thurmond.
1948 Jul 20, William Forster,
US Communist Party chairman, was arrested.
1948 Jul 20, Syngman Rhee
(b.1875) was elected president of South Korea. He served to 1960.
(HN, 4/26/98)(MC, 4/26/02)(MC, 7/20/02)
1948 Jul 21, Garry Trudeau,
political cartoonist (Doonesbury), was born.
1948 Jul 21, Arshile Gorky
(b.1904/5), artist, (born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in
Eastern Turkey) died of suicide. He came to the US in 1920 and
assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky. His
works included "Gray Drawing for Pastoral" (1946). His last
paintings were described as "imaginary erotic cosmologies." In 1999
Matthew Spender published the biography "From a High Place: A Life
of Arshile Gorky."
1948 July 23, American pioneer
filmmaker, D.W. Griffith, died in Los Angeles at age 73. He was the
director of such films as "The Birth of a Nation," "Intolerance,"
"Way Down East" and "Orphans of the Storm." The 1915 movie The Birth
of a Nation cost $100,000 to make and, by 1948 it had earned $48
million. The controversial film, which premiered on March 3, 1915,
was based on "The Clansman," a novel by Thomas Dixon, Jr. Griffith,
born on January 22, 1875. Griffith was among the foremost
pioneers and early innovators of motion pictures, producing or
directing some 500 films.
(AP, 7/23/98)(HNQ, 3/2/99)
1948 Jul 24, Henry A. Wallace
accepted the presidential nomination of the Progressive Party in
1948 Jul 25, Steve Goodman,
singer, songwriter (Somebody Else’s Trouble), was born in Chicago.
1948 Jul 26, President Harry
Truman In Executive Order No. 9981 called for "equality of treatment
and opportunity for all persons in the armed forces without regard
to race, color, religion or national origin."
(USAT, 7/23/98, p.8A)(HN, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)
1948 Jul 27, Otto Skorzeny
escaped an anti-Nazi camp at Darmstadt.
1948 Jul 28, Georgia Engel,
actress (Georgette-Mary Tyler Moore Show), was born in Wash DC.
1948 Jul 28, In Ludwigshafen,
Germany, the I.G. Farben chemical plant exploded due to a vapor
explosion from dimethyl ether and 182/209 died.
(HSAB, 1994, p.46)(SC, 7/28/02)
1948 Jul 29, Britain's King
George VI opened the first Olympics since 1936 in London. Germany
and Japan were not invited and the Soviet Union chose not to attend.
Alice Coachman of the US was the first black woman to win a gold
medal when she triumphed in the high jump. Audrey "Mickey"
Patterson-Tyler (1927-1996) was the first black woman to win an
Olympic medal. She won a bronze medal in the 200-meter dash.
(TMC, 1994, p.1948)(WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A1)(SFEC,
8/25/96, p.B5)(AP, 7/29/97)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)
1948 Jul 31, "Brigadoon" closed
at Ziegfeld Theater in NYC after 581 performances.
1948 Jul 31, President Truman
helped dedicate New York International Airport (later John F.
Kennedy International Airport) at Idlewild Field.
(HFA, ‘96, p.34)(AP, 7/31/97)
1948 Aug 3, Whittaker Chambers,
an editor for Time Magazine and a former Communist, told a hearing
of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) that he was a
courier of stolen government documents in a Communist espionage
operation during the 1930s, some of which were supplied by Alger
Hiss. He publicly accused former State Department official Alger
Hiss of having been part of a Communist underground, a charge Hiss
(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A3)(AP, 8/3/97)
1948 Aug 4, A 5 day US southern
filibuster succeeded in maintaining the poll tax.
1948 Aug 5, Alger Hiss
testified that he had never been a Communist, never participated in
espionage and never knew anyone named Whittaker Chambers.
(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A3)
1948 Aug 6, Victoria Manalo
Draves (1924-2010) became the 1st woman to win 2 diving gold medals,
and the 1st Asian American woman to win an Olympic medal.
p.F1)(SFC, 4/28/10, p.C4)
1948 Aug 6, Bob Mathias, later
a US state representative, won the decathlon at the London Olympics.
His unofficial title became "the world's greatest athlete." He won
gold again in 1952.
(AP, 8/6/98)(SFC, 11/10/99, p.E7)(WSJ, 7/23/96,
1948 Aug 10, Allen Funt’s
"Candid Microphone," later titled "Candid Camera," made its
television debut on ABC-TV.
1948 Aug 13, During the Berlin
Airlift, the weather over Berlin became so stormy that American
planes had their most difficult day landing supplies. They deemed it
1948 Aug 14, The summer Olympic
games in London ended.
1948 Aug 15, The Republic of
Korea (South Korea) declared independence.
(AP, 8/15/97)(Econ, 9/27/08, SR p.16)
1948 Aug 16, Famed home-run
slugger George Herman "Babe" Ruth died at age 53 in New York City.
He is credited with turning baseball from a game of speed and skill
to one of power. During a flamboyant major league career that began
as a pitcher with the Boston Red Sox in 1914 and ended with his
retirement from the Boston Braves in 1935, the Babe hit an
astonishing total of 714 homers, a feat that was not surpassed until
Henry Aaron of the Atlanta Braves broke Ruth’s record in 1974. The
fans loved the warm-hearted Babe Ruth, who had a reputation as a
hard drinker, carouser and womanizer. In 1931, at the height of his
career with the Yankees, Ruth earned $80,000, which made him the
highest-paid ballplayer in history. At a special "Babe Ruth Day"
just two months before his death, the cancer-stricken Babe donned
his uniform for the last time and appeared before a cheering crowd
at Yankee Stadium. In 2006 Leigh Montville authored “The Big Bam," a
biography of Babe Ruth.
(SFC, 10/15/96, p.A19)(AP, 8/16/97)(HNPD,
8/16/98)(WSJ, 5/9/06, p.D6)
1948 Aug 16, Harry Dexter
White, former assistant US Treasury Secretary, died of a heart
attack. White had helped write the UN Charter. A few days
earlier he had testified before the House-Un-American Activities
Committee and denied leaking secrets to Soviet intelligence. Later
evidence confirmed that he had worked for Soviet intelligence. In
2004 R. Bruce Craig authored "Treasonable Doubt," a study of White.
(WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)
1948 Aug 17, Former State
Department official Alger Hiss faced his chief accuser, Whittaker
Chambers, during a closed-door meeting in New York of the House
Un-American Activities Committee, and repeated his denial that he'd
ever been a Communist agent.
1948 Aug 19, Tipper Gore, wife
of vice president Al Gore (1993-01), was born.
1948 Aug 20, Robert Plant
(Honeydrippers: Rockin' at Midnight; Led Zeppelin: Stairway to
Heaven, etc.), was born.
1948 Aug 20, The United States
ordered the expulsion of the Soviet Consul General in New York,
Jacob Lomakin, accusing him of attempting to return two consular
employees to the Soviet Union against their will.
1948 Aug 23, Count Bernadotte
asked for aid for fugitives to Palestine. [see Sep 17]
1948 Aug 23, The World Council
of Churches (WCC) was formed in Amsterdam to help reconcile
differences among Christians. Delegates of 147 churches assembled to
merge the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement.
Church leaders had agreed in 1937 to establish a World Council of
Churches, based on a merger of the Faith and Order Movement and Life
and Work Movement organizations. Headquarters were later established
1948 Aug 24, Edith Mae Irby
became the University of Arkansas’ first African-American student.
1948 Aug 27, Former US
Chief Justice Charles Evans (86) Hughes died in Osterville, Mass.
1948 Aug, Earl V. Shaffer
(d.2002) became the 1st person to walk the Appalachian Trail,
created in 1937, in one continuous hike over 123 days. He repeated
the effort in 1965 and in 1998 at age 79. He later authored the
memoir "Walking With Spring."
(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)(SFC, 5/28/02, p.A18)
1948 Sep 1, Chinese
Communists formed the North China People's Republic.
1948 Sep 2, Christa McAuliffe,
the first civilian passenger on a space mission, was born in Boston,
Mass. During that 1986 mission, she and the six other crew members
on the space shuttle Challenger perished in an explosion shortly
1948 Sep 3, Donald Brewer,
musician-drums, songwriter-Silver Bullet Band, Flint, Grand Funk
Railroad, was born. We're an American Band, Walk like a Man, Shinin'
On, Some Kind of Wonderful, Bad Time.
1948 Sep 4, Queen Wilhelmina
abdicated the Dutch throne for health reasons.
1948 Sep 6, Queen Juliana
(1909-2004) of the Netherlands was crowned, two days after the
abdication of her mother, Queen Wilhelmina. Juliana abdicated in
(AP, 9/6/98)(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.B7)
1948 Sep 9, The Democratic
People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) emerged out of Soviet
occupation. Kim Il Sung established the Democratic People's Republic
of Korea in the northern half of the Korean peninsula. Kim Du Bong
stood as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People’s Assembly.
1948 Sep 10, Mildred Gillars,
accused of being Nazi wartime radio broadcaster "Axis Sally," was
indicted in Washington, D.C., on treason charges. She was later
convicted, and served 12 years in prison.
1948 Sep 11, Mohammed Ali
Jinnah (b.1876, 1st governor of Pakistan (1947-48), died.
1948 Sep 13, Republican
Margaret Chase Smith of Maine was elected to the U.S. Senate,
becoming the first woman to serve in both houses of Congress.
1948 Sep 14, A groundbreaking
ceremony took place in New York at the site of the United Nations'
1948 Sep 15, Gerald Ford upset
Rep. Bartel J. Jonkman in the Michigan 5th Dist Rep. primary.
1948 Sep 15, Ansel Adams in
California shot his famous photograph “Autumn Moon: The High Sierra
from Glacier Point."
(SFC, 9/19/05, p.A1)
1948 Sep 17, Count Folke
Bernadotte (b.1895) of Sweden, the UN mediator for Palestine, was
assassinated in Jerusalem by members of the extreme Zionist Stern
Group. Yehoshua Zettler (d.2009 at 91), one of the founding members
of the group, masterminded the assassination.
1948 Sep 18, Margaret Chase
Smith became the first woman elected to the Senate without
completing another senator’s term when she defeated Democratic
opponent Adrian Scolten. Smith was also the only woman to be elected
to and serve in both houses of Congress.
1948 Sep 18, Ralph J. Bunche
was confirmed as acting UN mediator in Palestine.
1948 Sep 19, Jeremy Irons,
England, actor (French Lieutenant's Woman), was born.
1948 Sep 19, Moscow announced
it would withdraw all soldiers from Korea by the end of the year.
1948 Sep 21, Milton Berle made
his debut as permanent host of the TV vaudeville show "The Texaco
Star Theater" on NBC on Tuesday nights. [see Jun 8, 1948]
(AP, 9/21/98)(SFC, 5/29/00, p.E4)
1948 Sep 24, Mildred Gillars,
accused of being Nazi wartime radio propagandist "Axis Sally,"
pleaded innocent in Washington, D.C., to charges of treason. Gillars
ended up serving 12 years in prison.
1948 Sep 25, Iva Toguri
D'Aquino (b.1916), a Japanese-American suspected of being wartime
radio propagandist "Tokyo Rose," arrived in SF aboard the General
Hodges and was taken away by FBI agents. On Sep 9, 1949, she was
found guilty of speaking into a microphone concerning the loss of US
ships. She was sentenced to 10 years in prison and a $10,000 fine.
She was released in 1956 and pardoned by Pres. Ford in 1977.
(AP, 9/5/99)(AH, 10/02, p.28)
1948 Sep 26, Olivia Newton-John
singer and actress, was born. (You're the One that I Want, If Not
for You, Let Me Be There, I Honestly Love You, Have You Never Been
Mellow, Please Mr. Please, Physical, Magic; actress: Grease, Xanadu,
Two of a Kind).
1948 Sep 29, Bryant Gumbel,
broadcast journalist, best known for the "Today Show," was born.
1948 Sep, In India
Vallabhbhai Patel, as Acting Prime Minister while Nehru was touring
Europe, ordered the Indian Army to integrate Hyderabad. The action
was termed Operation Polo. Thousands of Razakar forces were killed,
but Hyderabad was comfortably secured into the Indian Union.
1948 Oct 1, The California
Supreme Court in Perez v. Sharp voided a state statue banning
1948 Oct 2, Donna Karan,
fashion designer (Coty Award-1977), was born in Forest Hills, NY.
1948 Oct 2, "Finian's Rainbow"
closed at 46th St Theater NYC after 725 performances.
1948 Oct 2, In New York the 1st
Grand Prix at Watkins Glen was held. Cameron Argetsinger (1921-2008)
was the main driving force behind the race which was won by Frank
Griswold. Formula racing continued there until bankruptcy in 1981.
Two year later Corning Glass Works revived the Watkins Glen race
course in partnership with Int’l. Speedway Corp.
1948 Oct 4, Thomas Merton
(1915-1968), Trappist monk in Kentucky, published his first book:
"The Seven Storey Mountain."
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.3)(WSJ, 10/2/98, p.W15)
1948 Oct 6, "Polonaise" opened
at Alvin Theater NYC for 113 performances.
1948 Oct 6, The play “Summer
and Smoke" by Tennessee Williams received its first Broadway
performance at the Music Box Theatre in New York City, in a
production staged by Margo Jones and designed by Jo Mielziner with
Tod Andrews, Margaret Phillips, Monica Boyar and Anne Jackson
(1925-2016). The play ran for 102 performances and, at the time.
1948 Oct 6, An American B-29
crashed near Waycross, Ga., during a test flight from Robins AFB.
Details of the flight were kept as military secrets and formed the
basis for the 1953 U.S. vs. Reynolds case. Details were later
declassified and no military secrets were revealed.
1948 Oct 6, A 7.3 earthquake
hit Ashgebat, Turkmenistan, and killed an estimated 110,000 people.
Stalinist media at the time claimed only 35,000 deaths.
1948 Oct 10, Carlos Prio became
Cuba’s last democratically elected president. He was ousted by
Batista in 1952.
1948 Oct 11, The musical comedy
"Where's Charley?," starring Ray Bolger and featuring songs by Frank
Loesser, opened at St James Theater NYC for 792 performances.
(AP, 10/11/98)(MC, 10/11/01)
1948 Oct 14, Large scale
fighting took place between Israel and Egypt.
1948 Oct 15, China's Red army
1948 Oct 16, Moscow Jews held a
demonstration honoring Israeli ambassador Golda Meir.
1948 Oct 18, [Heinrich A.H.]
Walther von Brauchitsch, German field marshal, died.
1948 Oct 21, The Israeli
offensive, Operation 10 Plagues, liberated Beersheba (Be’er Sheva)
from Egyptian control.
1948 Oct 24, Franz Lehar,
Austrian-Hungarian composer (Wiener Frauen), died at 78.
1948 Oct 28, Flag of Israel was
1948 Oct 29, The Russians,
having found out about the US-UK Venona system for breaking Soviet
codes, changed their codes and cipher machines, making this Black
Friday for code-breakers.
1948 Oct 31, By this
date some 20 people died and 6,000 were made ill by smog from steel
and zinc plants in Donora, Pennsylvania. Between October 26 and
October 31, 1948, an air inversion trapped fluoride effluent from
the Zinc Works. In three days, 18 people died. After the inversion
lifted, another 50 died. Hundreds more finished the rest of their
lives with damaged lungs and hearts. Both plants closed in 1966. In
2002, “When Smoke Ran Like Water" was published by Devra Davis.
1948 Oct 31, Halloween in the
Castro District of SF began as a children’s costume contest at
Cliff’s Variety store.
(SFC, 11/3/06, p.B7)
1948 Oct, Samuel Beckett began
writing "En Attendant Godot." He finished it in Jan, 1949 and
translated it into English as "Waiting for Godot" in 1953.
(WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)
1948 Oct, The Int’l. Union for
the Protection of Nature was formed. In 1956 it changed its name to
the Int’l. Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUPN).
1948 Nov 1, During the
Chinese Civil War (1945-1949) Mao's Red army conquered Mukden,
(DoW, 1999, p.113)
1948 Nov 2, President Truman
was elected 33rd president in an upset. He won re-election by a
narrow margin over Republican challenger Thomas E. Dewey. The
Chicago Daily Tribune had been so sure of Dewey's victory that they
had printed front-page "Dewey Defeats Truman" articles before the
final results were in. Truman defeated Dewey by 2.2 million popular
votes and 114 electoral votes. During the presidential election
campaign, almost everyone expected New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey
to win and few had faith in a victory for incumbent Harry S. Truman.
While Truman went on a "whistle stop" tour across the United States,
giving more than 350 speeches, Dewey's confident campaign was more
reserved. Prof. Frank Kofsky later wrote "Harry Truman and the War
Scare of 1948." Henry Wallace was the candidate for the Progressive
Party. In 2000 Zachary Karabell authored "The Last Campaign: How
Harry Truman Won the 1948 Election."
(AP, 11/2/97)(SFC,11/26/97, p.C6)(SFC, 10/12/98,
p.A17)(HN, 11/2/98)(HNPD, 11/2/98)(SFEC, 5/14/00, BR p.5)
1948 Nov 3, The Chicago Tribune
printed the headline "Dewey defeats Truman." Later votes threw the
election in the opposite direction. And later editions of other
papers ran pictures showing Truman holding up the Tribune and
grinning ear to ear.
1948 Nov 4, T.S. Eliot won the
Nobel Prize for literature.
1948 Nov 4, The International
Military Tribunal for the Far East was concluded.
(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A15)
1948 Nov 12, Hideki Tojo,
former Japanese premier and military dictator through World War II,
and several other World War II Japanese leaders were sentenced to
death by an international war crimes tribunal. In 1998 a film about
Gen’l. Tojo was produced titled: "Pride, the Fateful Moment."
(HFA, '96, p.20)(AHD, p.1351)(AP, 11/12/97)(WSJ,
4/30/98, p.A15)(HN, 11/12/98)
1948 Nov 12, Umberto Giordano
(81), composer (Andrea Chenier), died.
1948 Nov 14, Charles, Prince of
Wales and heir to the throne of England, was born.
1948 Nov 15, William Lyon
Mackenzie King retired as prime minister of Canada after 21 years;
he was succeeded by Louis St. Laurent.
1948 Nov 16, Steve Railsback,
actor (Blue Monkey, Helter Skelter, Green Monkey, Escape 2000), was
1948 Nov 16, President Harry S.
Truman rejected four-power talks on Berlin until the blockade was
removed. Truman relied heavily on Dean Acheson for his most
significant foreign policy achievements.
1948 Nov 16, Operation Magic
Carpet began with the 1st plane from Yemen carrying Jews to Israel.
1948 Nov 17, Howard Dean,
governor of Vermont (1991-2002), was born.
(SFC, 6/24/03, p.A4)
1948 Nov 17, Britain's House of
Commons voted to nationalize steel industry.
1948 Nov 23, Dr. Frank G. Back
in NYC patented a lens to provide zoom effects.
1948 Nov 24, In Venezuela Gen.
Pérez Jiménez and Lt. Colonel Carlos Delgado Chalbaud staged a
coup. A military junta headed by Delgado Chalbaud, Luis Felipe
Llovera Páez and Pérez Jiménez overthrew the elected president
Rómulo Gallegos and ruled for the next four years.
1948 Nov 28, "Hopalong Cassidy"
TV western premiered on NBC television [see Jun 24, 1949].
1948 Nov 28, The Polaroid Land
Camera, created by Dr. Edwin Land, went on sale in Boston.
1948 Nov 29, The popular
children's television show, Kukla, Fran and Ollie, moved to the NBC
1948 Nov 29, The NYC
Metropolitan Opera was televised for the first time as the season
opened with "Othello." It featured Ramon Vinay, Licia Albenese, and
Leonard Warren and was conducted by Fritz Busch
(HN, 11/29/98)(MC, 11/29/01)
1948 Nov 30, Communists
completed the division of Berlin, installing the government in the
1948 Nov, Communist Party of
Albania renamed itself the Party of Labor of Albania.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1948 Nov, In Israel hundreds of
residents left Kufr Birim, a Maronite village just south of the
Lebanese border. Israeli troops told Kufr Birim residents they must
leave for security reasons, but would be allowed to return after two
weeks. Their return never materialized.
1948 Dec 1, Costa Rica’s
President José Figueres Ferrer abolished the military after victory
in a civil war.
1948 Dec 2, T. Corgaghessan
Boyle, novelist and short story writer, was born. His work included
1948 Dec 3, The "Pumpkin
Papers" came to light. The House Un-American Activities Committee
announced that former Communist spy Whittaker Chambers had produced
microfilm of secret documents hidden inside a pumpkin on his
1948 Dec 3, Sam Shockley
(b.1909) and Miran Edgar Thompson (b.1917), 2 Alcatraz inmates, were
executed at the San Quentin gas chamber for a 1946 escape attempt in
which 2 guards and 3 prisoners were killed.
1948 Dec 3, Chinese refugee
ship "Kiangya" exploded in East China Sea killing 1,100. [see Dec 4]
1948 Dec 4, SS Kiangya hit a
mine in Whangpoo River, China. It sank and 2,750 were killed. [see
1948 Dec 6, The "Pumpkin spy
papers" were found on the Maryland farm of Whittaker Chambers. They
became evidence that State Department employee Alger Hiss was spying
for the Soviet Union.
1948 Dec 7, Yoko Morishita,
prima ballerina (Baterina No Habataki), was born.
1948 Dec 8, Jordan annexed
Arabic Palestine. The old city of East Jerusalem came under
Jordanian control until 1968. Transjordan was given to a client Arab
family, the Hashemites (led by King Hussein’s grandfather), and was
run out of Mecca by the Saudis. The country now has an ethnic
Palestinian majority. Elections chose a body evenly divided between
Jordan and the Palestinian territories.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A14)(AP,
1948 Dec 8, UN approved the
recognition of South Korea.
1948 Dec 9, U.S. abandoned a
plan to de-concentrate industry in Japan.
1948 Dec 9, The Convention on
the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was approved
by the UN General Assembly. It entered into force on Jan 12, 1951.
p.A14)(Econ., 4/18/15, p.54)
1948 Dec 10, The U.N. General
Assembly adopted its Universal Declaration on Human Rights.
1948 Dec 11, United Nations
General Assembly Resolution 194 was passed near the end of the 1948
Arab-Israeli War. The resolution expresses appreciation for the
efforts of UN Envoy Folke Bernadotte after his assassination by
members of the Stern Gang. It was later often quoted in support of
the Palestinian right of return.
1948 Dec 12, Charles Templeton
Crocker (b.1884), multi-millionaire grandson of the Central Pacific
(and Southern Pacific) railroad magnate and banker, Charles Crocker
(1822-1888), died. He authored "The Cruise of the Zaca" in 1933.
1948 Dec 12, British soldiers
surrounded the Sungai Rimoh rubber estate in Batang Kali, shot 24
Malaysian rubber plantation workers and set the village on fire. In
1970 Britain’s incoming Conservative administration dropped a police
investigation, claiming a lack of evidence. In 2012 relatives of
killed workers lost their High Court battle for a full inquiry by
the British government.
1948 Dec 15, Former State
Department official Alger Hiss was indicted by a federal grand jury
in New York on charges of perjury. They charged that he lied in
denying that he gave Chambers confidential documents and that he had
spoken with Chambers in Feb and Mar of 1938. A first trial ended in
a hung jury. (Hiss, accused of lying about dealings with confessed
Communist spy Whittaker Chambers, was convicted in 1950 and served
nearly four years in prison.) The grand jury testimony was ordered
unsealed in 1999.
(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A3)(AP, 12/15/98)(SFC, 5/14/99,
1948 cDec 15, Richard Nixon, a
California Congressman and member of HUAC, made an influential
appearance before the Alger Hiss grand jury.
(SFC, 10/13/99, p.A3)
1948 Dec 15, The French brought
the first nuclear reactor into service.
1948 Dec 17, The Smithsonian
Institution accepted the Wright brothers' plane, the Kitty Hawk.
1948 Dec 18, Janet Fay was
hammered to death by Honeymoon Killers.
1948 Dec 20, U.S. Supreme Court
announced that it had no jurisdiction to hear the appeals of
Japanese war criminals sentenced by the International Military
1948 Dec 21, The state of Eire
(formerly the Irish Free State) declared its independence.
1948 Dec 21, Seishiro Itagaki,
Japanese General and minister of War, was hanged.
1948 Dec 23, Hideki Tojo,
Japanese Prime Minister and military dictator through World War II,
and six other Japanese war leaders were executed by Hanging in
Tokyo. In 1998 a film about Gen’l. Tojo was produced titled: "Pride,
the Fateful Moment."
(HFA, ‘96, p.20)(AHD, p.1351)(WSJ, 4/30/98,
1948 Dec 26, Hungarian Cardinal
Mindszenty was arrested.
1948 Dec 27, Gerard Depardieu,
actor (Get Out Your Handkerchiefs, Danton, Green Card), was born in
1948 Dec 28, Premier Nokrashy
Pasha of Egypt was assassinated by a member of the outlawed Moslem
Brotherhood because of his failure to achieve victory in the war
1948 Dec 29, Tito declared
Yugoslavia would follow its own Communist line.
1948 Dec 30, The Cole Porter
musical "Kiss Me, Kate" opened on Broadway at the New Century
Theater and ran for 1,077 performances. It was based on
Shakespeare’s "The Taming of the Shrew" and was written by Bella
Spewack (d.1990 at age 91), who helped originate the Girl Scout
cookie. The songs "Too Darn Hot" and "I Hate Men" were featured.
(WSJ, 5/8/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 6/3/98, p.CA1,4) (AP,
1948 The Perry Como Show made
its debut on TV. It ran for 15 years to1963. Como died in 2001 at
(SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A27)
1948 Alexander Calder
(1898-1976) made his mobile "Roxbury Flurry."
1948 Willem de Kooning
(1904-1997), abstract artist, had his first one man show at the Egan
Gallery in New York.
(SFC, 3/20/97, p.A6)
1948 Walt Kelly began drawing
his "Pogo" comic strip for newspapers. He was an animator for Disney
in the late 30s when he started drawing the Pogo characters that
appeared in comic books in the 1940s.
(SFC, 3/10/99, Z1 p.6)
1948 Mark Rothko’s paintings
have by now developed to the style by which he is universally known
(abstract expressionist). His canvasses, often as large as a wall,
consist of bands of color that float mysteriously in an
1948 Ben Shahn painted his
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1948 Andrew Wyeth painted
"Christina’s World" in Maine.
(WSJ, 6/16/00, p.W12)
1948 The Kinsey Report "Sexual
Behavior in the Human Male" was published.
(TMC, 1994, p.1948)(SFEM, 2/9/97, p.27)
1948 Herb Caen, SF newspaper
columnist, wrote his 1st book "The San Francisco Book."
(SFEC, 2/2/97, p.A13)
1948 The first publication of a
story in English by Jorge Luis Borges was published in Ellery
Queen’s Mystery Magazine: "The Garden of Forking Paths."
(WSJ, 9/21/98, p.A26)
1948 Elizabeth Bowen
(1899-1973), Irish-British writer, authored “The Heat of the Day."
It was set amidst the London Blitz of WWII.
(Econ, 7/13/13, p.74)
1948 Dale Carnegie (1888-1955)
authored “How to Stop Worrying and Start Living."
(Econ, 11/2/13, p.90)
1948 The book “Cheaper by the
Dozen," co-written by Ernstine Gilbreth Carey (1908-2006) and her
brother Frank, became a best-seller. It documented the adventures of
their family, which included 6 boys and 6 girls and management
expert parents. Film versions were made in 1959 and 2003.
(SFC, 11/7/06, p.B5)
1948 Govindas Vishnoodas Desani
(1909-2000), Kenya-born Pakistani writer in England, authored “All
About Hatterr," his novel of an absurdist and mystical odyssey in
India. In 1968 he was invited to teach at the Univ. of Texas and
spent 11 years there.
(SSFC, 12/2/07, p.M1)
1948 Prof. Earl Wendell Count
(1897-1996) wrote "4,000 years of Christmas," a 95-page book that
collected strands of myth and folklore into a narrative that linked
the modern celebration to the ancient festival.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, p.C12)
1948 William Faulkner published
his novel "Intruder in the Dust."
(SFC, 6/29/99, p.D3)
1948 Norman Mailer (b.1923)
published his novel "The Naked and the Dead."
(USAT, 5/6/98, p.1D)(SFEC, 12/26/99, BR p.7)
1948 H.L. Mencken published
(WSJ, 12/24/98, p.A8)
1948 Allan Nevins and John
Kraut put together a volume of essays titled "the Greater City: New
York, 1898-1948," to commemorate the 50th anniversary of
(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A10)
1948 Robert O’Brien authored
“This Is San Francisco."
(SFC, 4/5/14, p.C2)
1948 Alan Paton authored the
South African novel "Cry the Beloved Country."
(WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)
1948 Dawn Powell wrote her
novel "The Locusts Have No King."
(WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)
1948 Lewis Fry Richardson,
British physicist, authored a paper on the mathematics of war. He
showed that the probability of wars having a particular number of
casualties followed a mathematical relationship known as a power
law. This was probably the first rigorous analysis of the statistics
(Econ, 7/23/05, p.74)(Econ, 4/2/11, p.76)
1948 Babe Ruth published his
(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)
1948 Paul A. Samuelson (b.1915)
published "Economics: An Introductory Analysis."
1948 Carl Sandburg authored
novel "Remembrance Rock."
(NW, 8/20/01, p.56)
1948 Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.
authored "The Vital Center."
(WSJ, 11/16/00, p.A24)
1948 Stanford Prof. Frederic
Spiegelberg authored “The Religion of No Religion." Spiegelberg and
his book had a major influence on Richard Price (1930-1985) and
Michael Murphy (b.1930), co-founders of the Esalen Institute (1962)
at Big Sur, Ca.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.75)
1948 MIT Prof. Dirk J. Struik
(d.2000 at 106) authored the 2-volume work: "A Concise History of
(SFC, 10/26/00, p.D2)
1948 P.G. Taylor wrote
"Forgotten Island," an account of Clipperton Island.
(NH, 12/96, p.70)
1948 John R. Tunis authored
“Highpockets," a novel centered around baseball.
(WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P10)
1948 A.E. van Vogt (1912-2000)
authored the sci-fi story "The World of Null-A."
(SFC, 2/5/00, p.A19)
1948 Prof. Richard Watson Jr.
(d.2000 at 85) and Prof. Arthur Ferguson of Duke Univ. published the
1st volume of a 7-volume history of the US Air Force.
(SFC, 9/25/00, p.B2)
1948 Richard M. Weaver authored
“Ideas Have Consequences."
(Econ, 9/18/04, p.43)
1948 Dorothy West (d.1998 at
91), a member of the Harlem Renaissance, published her first novel:
"The Living Is Easy."
(SFC, 8/19/98, p.C4)
1948 Norbert Wiener,
mathematician, wrote "Cybernetics or Control and Communication in
the Animal and the Machine."
(Wired, 2/98, p.176)
1948 Bertram Wolfe authored
"Three Who Made a Revolution," a critique of Communism.
(SFC, 1/17/00, p.C2)
1948 The play "Summer And
Smoke" by Tennessee Williams was produced. It was made into a film
in 1961 with Geraldine Page.
(WSJ, 9/66/96, p.A12)
1948 Red Buttons appeared on
Broadway in the musical “Hold It."
(SFC, 7/14/06, p.B9)
1948 Kitty Carlisle sang in the
US premier of Benjamin Britten’s opera “The Rape of Lucretia."
(SFC, 4/19/07, p.A2)
1948 In the Tony Awards the
play "Mr. Roberts" won over "A Streetcar Named Desire."
(WSJ, 5/13/96, p. A-16)
1948 The musical "Magdalena"
was written by George Forrest and Robert Wright.
(SFC, 10/13/99, p.C2)
1948 The radio show "My
Favorite Husband" featured Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, T8)
1948 In Chicago Clint Youle
(d.1999 at 83) became television's first weatherman.
(SFC, 7/27/99, p.A17)
1948 A Greek Orthodox church
was built on Chicago’s south side. In 1972 it was purchased by the
Nation of Islam and renovated under the name Mosque Maryam. In 2008
Minister Louis Farrakhan opened the mosque to the public in a
(SSFC, 10/19/08, p.A2)
1948 The TV show "Stop Me If
You’ve Heard This One" featured Morey Amsterdam.
(SFC, 10/29/96, p.B2)
1948 The TV show “Studio One"
began broadcasting on TV and featured a new play every week. The
show continued to 1958.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W9)
1948 In Boston, Mass., Bess. L.
Hawes (1921-2009) and Jacqueline Steiner co-wrote the political hit
“Charlie on the MTA.’’ The song became a big hit for the Kingston
Trio in 1959.
1948 In NYC a group of young
jazz players gathered at the apartment of Gil Evans on West 55th and
crafted a music that was later tagged as “the birth of the cool."
Miles Davis led the group that also included Gerry Mulligan, John
Lewis and John Carisi. This followed the recent disbanding of band
led by Claude Thornhill (d.1965), in which Gill Evans was an
(WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W12)
1948 The Les Paul (1915-2009)
song “Lover" topped the record charts. He used a new self-developed
recording technique that combined 2 of his own versions of the song.
It was the first song to be recorded on 8 tracks.
1948 Richard Strauss composed
his "Four Last Songs," and Shostokovich composed a suite of songs
based on Jewish folk poetry.
(WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-12)
1948 Darius Milhaud, composer,
recorded "L’Homme et son desir" for vocal quartet, 12 instrumental
soloists and 15 percussionists.
(SFEM, 6/9/96, p.32)
1948 The Mills Brothers made a
minor hit with the song “You never miss the water till the well runs
dry." Written by Paul Secon.
(WSJ, 3/10/07, p.A4)
1948 Igor Stravinsky composed
1948 Muddy Waters recorded a
new version of “Country Blues." It was released under the ttitle “I
Feel Like Going Home." It reached #11 on the “Most Played Rqace
(ON, 8/20/11, p.6)
1948 Kurt Weill and Arnold
Sundgaard (1910-2006) premiered their folk opera "Down in the
Valley" at Indiana Univ.
(SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 11/10/06, p.B8)
1948 Ella Fitzgerald recorded
"How High the Moon."
(SFC, 6/15/96, p.D2)
1948 Redd Stewart (d.2003)
co-wrote "Tennessee Waltz" with Pee Wee King to the melody of King's
"No Name Waltz," while on a road trip from Nashville to Texarkana. A
1950 recording by Patti Page sold a reported 3 million copies.
(SFC, 8/6/03, p.A18)
1948 Don Tosti (1923-2004),
jazz musician born as Edmundo Martinez Tostado, made the 1st
million-selling Latin song “Pachuco Boogie."
(SFC, 8/4/04, p.B7)
1948 Paul Williams (d.2002 at
87) recorded "The Huckelbuck." It was released in 1949 and was later
considered an important precursor of rock ‘n’ roll. It was written
by Andy Gibson and adopted without credit from Charlie Parker’s
"Now’s the Time."
(SFC, 10/7/02, p.A19)
1948 The Frankie Yankovic
recording of "Just Because" sold over a million.
(SFC, 10/15/98, p.C6)
1948 In Hollywood a building on
Vine opened as the home of the Don Lee Mutual Broadcasting Co. In
2000 it was purchased by the Academy of Motion Pictures for $20
million and was renamed the Pickford Center. It then became the home
of the Academy archives.
(SFC, 3/26/03, p.D8)
1948 Buckminster Fuller and his
students erected the first geodesic dome near Ashville, N.C.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.8)
1948 Virginia Cherill, former
actress, married decorated war ace Florian Martini.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C12)
1948 Loretta Lynn, later famed
country singer, married miner and moonshine runner O.V. "Mooney"
Lynn (1927-1996) at age 13.
(SFC, 8/24/96, p.A21)
1948 Moses Asch (d.1986)
founded Folkway Recordings to capture America’s native music for
posterity. After his death the label was taken over by the
(WSJ, 4/21/98, p.A21)
1948 Hot Rod magazine was
(SFC, 2/11/02, p.B5)
1948 The New York City Ballet
(WSJ, 11/2/98, p.A32)
1948 Marilyn Monroe was
proclaimed Artichoke Queen in Salinas, Ca., when she visited for a
(SFC, 3/13/98, p.A23)
1948 Anthony E. Pratt’s game of
"Clue" was first published by the British Waddington’s company.
(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C14)
1948 The Wechsler intelligence
test was developed.
(WSJ, 6/5/97, p.A1)
1948 The American Research
Council in Egypt was founded.
(WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-8)
1948 The Hells Angels
motorcycle club was founded.
(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W6)
1948 The Morris and Gwendolyn
Cafritz Foundation was founded in Washington D.C. by the Cafritz
real estate company to support arts, education and social programs
in the DC area.
(SFC, 4/1/97, p.A17)
1948 Arthur E. Raymond (d.1999
at 99), airplane designer, helped found the Rand Corp. He was the
lead designer of the DC-1 in 1932.
(SFC, 3/27/99, p.C2)
1948 The heirs of Sun Oil’s
Joseph Newton Pew began to create a foundation in his name. They
envisioned an institution to advance conservative views in the
(WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A6)
1948 Julia Child enrolled in
the Cordon Bleu Cooking School in Paris.
(SFC, 10/20/99, Z1p.4)
1948 Richard (d.1998 at 89) and
Maurice McDonald (d.1971) started the McDonald’s chain of fast food
restaurants in San Bernadino, California. Ray Kroc purchased the
chain in 1955.
(SFC, 7/15/98, p.A20)
1948 Ann Curtis (1926-2012) of
San Francisco won two gold medals and one silver in swimming at the
(SFC, 9/25/96, p.E10)(SFC, 1/31/15, p.C2)
1948 Owen Guinn Smith (d.2004),
WW II pilot, won a gold medal in the pole vault. He used a bamboo
pole on a windy and rainy London day and won at 14 feet, 1 ¼ inches.
(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A18)
1948 In London, England,
Joaquin Capilla (19) of Mexico won a bronze medal for platform
1948 The Cleveland Indians won
the World Series.
(SFC, 10/28/04, p.A7)
1948 Bill Garrett became the
first African American to play a varsity sport in the Big Ten. He
was recruited by basketball coach Branch McCracken under the urging
of Indiana Univ. Pres. Herman B. Wells.
(SFC, 3/20/00, p.A21)
1948 The Winter Olympic were
held at St. Moritz, Switz., for a 2nd time.
(SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E14)
1948 Paul Hermann Muller
(d.1965), a Geigy pesticide researcher in Switzerland, won the Noble
Prize in medicine for his 1939 synthesis of DDT.
(ON, 11/01, p.6)
1948 The UN promulgated the
International Bill of Rights, a universal declaration of human
(MT, Dec. ‘95, p.16)
1948 The Paris Convention
Against Genocide was enacted.
(SFC, 4/28/96, A-13)
1948 Pres. Truman beat Thomas
E. Dewey in the elections.
(TMC, 1994, p.1948)
1948 IRS chief Joseph Nunan was
convicted of tax evasion for not reporting the $1800 bet he won on
the re-election of Harry Truman. In 1998 the IRS compiled a Who’s
Who of white-collar crime since 1919, but only for "official use."
(SFC, 6/2/98, p.A7)
1948 Echelon began with a
secret international agreement between the US, Britain, and Canada
to collate electronic intelligence. Australia and New Zealand
signing up later. By 2005 it consisted of a global network of
computers that automatically searched through millions of
intercepted for pre-programmed keywords or fax, telex and e-mail
1948 Maurice Papon was the top
French official in Corsica and authorized American planes loaded
with weapons bound for Israel to land on the island.
1948 Senator J. Strom Thurmond
received 38 votes as the Dixiecrat candidate for president. His
platform was mostly based on unyielding support for racial
(SFC, 12/26/96, p.C16)
1948 Lyndon Johnson‘s nickname
"Landslide Lyndon" was coined because of his slim victory in the
1948 primary election for the senate. While Johnson finished second
in the first round of the Texas Democratic primary of 1948, a runoff
election was required. In the runoff election, Johnson won the
majority of the more than 1 million ballots cast by a mere 87 votes,
thus earning him the ironical nickname "Landslide Lyndon." Although
the vote was contested, Johnson was awarded the victory and went on
to win election to the U.S. Senate. Johnson was reelected to the
senate twice and became Vice President under John Kennedy in 1961.
Upon the assassination of Kennedy in 1963, Johnson became President.
In the 1964 presidential election, Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater
in a true landslide, garnering 43 million popular votes to
Goldwater‘s 27 million. Johnson did not seek reelection in 1968.
1948 Richard Nixon pursued
Alger Hiss for perjury in Congressional hearings.
(TMC, 1994, p.1948)
1948 The US half-dollar began
to feature an image of Ben Franklin, which replaced the Walking
(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)
1948 Abraham Ribicoff
(1910-1998) of Connecticut was elected to the US House of
1948 Chester Bowles (1901-1986)
was elected governor of Connecticut and served one term, during
which time he signed into law an end to segregation in the state
1948 US Marine Capt. Cranford
Dalby (1922-2008) was assigned to a navy missile test center at
Point Mugu, Ventura County, Ca. There he organized an informal
“Marine Guided Missile Unit," which proceeded to devise a
radar-guided remote bombing device called AN/MPQ14. The device was
widely used during the Korean War.
(SFC, 11/5/08, p.B15)
1948 Idaho put “World Famous
Potatoes" on its car license plates. Its potato business was mostly
due to the efforts of J.R. Simplot (1909-2008), later known as the
spud king of America.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._R._Simplot)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.105)
1948 Michigan passed a law that
prohibited women from serving alcoholic drinks in bars. In was
overturned by a 1971 Supreme Court decision on an Idaho case that
showed discrimination against one gender.
(SFC, 10/12/02, p.A21)
1948 The John Murtha Airport
opened in Jonestown, Pennsylvania. From 1989-2009 Congressman John
Murtha steered some $150,000,000 to the airport. In 2009 there were
a total of 18 commercial flights per week, all of which went to
Dulles Airport in Washington, DC.
(http://tinyurl.com/nsdv8k)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.26)
1948 Robert Mitchum, Hollywood
actor, was busted for marijuana possession.
(SFC, 7/2/97, p.E2)
1948 Composer Hans Eisler was
deported from the US by the House Un-American Activities Committee
for non-cooperation. He went to East Germany and composed the East
German national anthem.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, DB p.64)
1948 Russel Long won the senate
seat that had been occupied by both his mother and father.
(SFC, 9/21/96, p.E4)
1948 Sec. of the Interior J.A.
Krug signed a contract relinquishing Indian reservation land for the
(SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.7)
1948 Puerto Rico gained the
right to choose its own governor and elected Munoz Marin. He held
office until 1965. Luis Munoz Marin, ended the practice of teaching
all high school subjects in English. From 1900 to 1948 all high
school subjects had been taught in English.
(SFC, 3/26/97, p.C3)(AFP, 5/9/12)
1948 Burt Baskin (1913-1967)
and Irvine Robbins (1917-2008) combined their ice cream parlors in
Glendale and Pomona, Ca., to form the Baskins-Robbins ice cream
1948 In Seattle Clara Fraser
(d.1998 at 74), led a strike against Boeing and pressured the union
to represent women and minorities. After the strike she was
blacklisted and hounded from job to job by the FBI.
(SFC, 4/15/98, p.C3)
1948 TV advertising by liquor
makers was halted. The agreement held until 1996 when Seagram Co.
began running both radio and TV ads.
(SFC, 10/19/96, D1)
1948 Dinky Toys made the first
garbage truck toy, a Bedford refuse wagon.
(SFC, 2/4/98, Z1 p.6)
1948 The Hearst Corp. acquired
WBAL-TV, Baltimore, one of the country's first television stations.
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)
1948 The Tilden Merry-Go-Round
began operating in the Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The
carousel was built in 1911 in Tonawanda, NY, and operated in Urbita
Springs, Ca., from 1912-1920. It then moved to San Diego for 10
years, then to Long Beach for 2 years and Los Angeles for 3 years.
It then went into storage until it was moved to Tilden.
(SSFC, 8/14/11, p.C2)
1948 The San Francisco Folk
Music Club (SFFMC) was founded by Dave Rothkop as the legitimate
child of Hiroshima and the Cold War. Believing that music is the one
language capable of transcending national egotism, a small group of
high schoolers began meeting in each others’ homes. In 1959 the Club
was reorganized by Herb Jager on a somewhat more formal level. In
mid-l962 Faith Petric took responsibility for keeping the Club
functioning and in 1964 started publication of the Folknik
(http://www.sffmc.org/)(SFC, 9/30/02, p.A14)
1948 In San Francisco the new
I. Magnin store at Geary and Stockton opened. It was designed by
(SSFC, 12/31/06, p.E5)
1948 In San Francisco the
Pacific Coast’s first cancer ward opened at Laguna Honda Home.
Patients were made available for experimental research.
(SFC, 8/26/08, p.B5)
1948 Hills Pet Nutrition was
founded by Kansas veterinarian Mark Morris. After 20 years the
company introduced its Science Diet brand. In 1976 it was acquired
(WSJ, 11/3/97, p.A6)
1948 Henry (d.1976) and Esther
(1920-2006) Snyder opened In-N-Out Burgers in Baldwin Park, LA
County. They numbered 152 stores in 2001 as their 1st SF outlet
opened. By 2006 the chain numbered 202 restaurants. In 2009 Stacy
Perman authored “In-N-Out Burger: A Behind-The Counter Look at the
Fast-Food Chain That Breaks All the Rules.
(SFC, 3/3/01, p.D1)(SFC, 8/15/01, p.B1)(SFEC,
3/23/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/12/06, p.A6)(WSJ, 4/15/09, p.A13)
1948 Robert Peterson
(1926-2007) founded Hot Rod magazine while trying to promote the
custom-designed car show at the Los Angeles Armory. In 1949 he
launched Motor Trend magazine. The Peterson Automotive Museum opened
in LA in 1994.
(SFC, 3/26/07, p.B5)
1948 General Motors agreed to
annual cost-of-living pay increases.
(Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)
1948 General Motors began
regaining control over Opel operations in Germany. GM collected some
$33 million in war reparations for Allied bombing of its German
(SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)
1948 Paul’s Auto Wash, the
first car wash in the US, opened in Detroit.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1948 Harley Jefferson Earl
(1893-1969) introduced automobile tail fins in 1948. He was a
Hollywood builder of custom cars and became GM’s VP of styling from
1940-1959. His design philosophy was "You can design a car so that
every time you get in it, it’s a relief—you have a little vacation
for a while."
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1948 The Eckert-Mauchly
Computer Corp. was established and began creating UNIVAC, Universal
Automatic Computer, the first general-purpose computer. They hired
Jean Bartik and Betty Holberton to do the programming. It would be
used to compile the 1950 census.
(WSJ, 11/22/96, p.B1)
1948 Spud Melin (d.2002) and
Richard Knerr (1925-2008) started a mail-order toy company in
southern California named Wham-O to market sling-shots. In 1982 they
sold the company to Kransco Manufacturing for $12 million.
(SFC, 7/1/02, p.B5)(WSJ, 1/19/08, p.A10)
1948 William Rosenberg (d.2002
at 86) opened a doughnut shop called Open Kettle in Quincy. Mass. 2
years later the name was changed to Dunkin’ Donuts. In 1955 he began
selling franchises and helped create the Int’l. Franchise Assoc.
(SFC, 9/23/02, p.B5)
1948 The Ogilvy & Mather
advertising firm was established. In 1989 it was swallowed by WPP, a
British advertising giant. Founder David Ogilvy (d.1999 at 88) later
published a series of books titled "Ogilvy on Advertising."
(SFC, 7/22/99, p.C4)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.80)
1948 Two Milwaukee lawyers
founded Manpower after they failed to find extra administrative help
for an urgent legal brief. By 2009 the company had over 4,000
offices in 82 countries.
(Econ, 1/6/07, p.57)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.74)
1948 Aaron and Florence Zacks
(1911-2007) formed R.G. Barry Corp. in Pickerington, Ohio, to
manufacture foam rubber shoulder pads for women’s clothing. They
soon expanded to produce foam rubber slippers.
(WSJ, 2/17/07, p.A4)
1948 Richard Bolt and Leo
Beranek, professors at MIT, established a small acoustics consulting
firm and soon added a former student of Bolt’s, Robert Newman. In
1949 BBN won its first major consulting contract, designing the
acoustics for the UN General Assembly Hall. In 2008 Leo Beranek
authored “Riding the Waves: A Life in Sound, Science and Industry."
1948 H.B.G. Casimir, Dutch
physicist, deduced the necessity of a quantum-mechanical effect
arising from the zero-point energy of the harmonic oscillators that
are the normal modes of the electromagnetic field. The Casimir force
was first measured in 1997 and can be seen in a gecko's ability to
stick to a surface with just one toe.
1948 Theoretical physicists,
taking into account the rate of expansion of the universe, predicted
that 15 billion years after the Big Bang the universe should have
cooled off to a temperature just 3 degrees above absolute zero.
George Gamow and Ralph Alpher predicted that radiation from the very
hot early stages of the universe should still be around today. It
was this radiation that Penzias and Wilson found in 1965. George
Gamow first described the Big Bang.
(BHT, Hawking, p.118)(NH, 12/96, p.76)(WSJ,
1948 The steady-state theory of
the universe was first proposed by Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold
(d.2004) and Fred Hoyle. The theory holds that the universe is
expanding and that matter is continuously being created to keep the
mean density of matter in space constant. Sir Fred Hoyle, English
astronomer-author: "There is a coherent plan in the universe, though
I don't know what it's a plan for."
(Wired, 2/98, p.174)(AP, 2/3/99)(Econ, 7/3/04,
1948 Robert Herman (1915-1997)
predicted the existence of residual, cosmic, blackbody radiation
left over from the Big Bang.
(SFC, 2/24/96, p.A17)
1948 Albert Baez (1912-2007),
Mexican-American physicist, and Paul Kirkpatrick co-invented the
X-ray reflection microscope for the study of living cells.
(SSFC, 3/25/07, p.B3)
1948 Claude Shannon, the father
of coding theory, published a paper which showed the maximum
theoretical rate at which information can be transmitted without
error. By 2004 real codes began approaching Shannon’s theoretical
(Econ, 7/3/04, p.65)
1948 The Pap test for cervical
cancer was invented by George Papanicolaou.
(WSJ, 8/13/98, p.A1)
1948 The US government launched
a heart study in Framingham, Mass., amid an epidemic of heart
disease, to compile reams of health data on a group of people in
their 30s, 40s and 50s, and hope that over time links would emerge
between their lifestyles and heart health. Discoveries by the long
term study included: Cigarette smoking, high blood pressure and high
cholesterol and diabetes raise the risk of heart disease, and
physical exercise lowers the risk. In 2009 researchers reported that
the data showed that loneliness spreads very much like a
(AP, 11/30/07)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.90)
1948 The U of M Survey Research
Center, later the Institute for Social Research (ISR), began its
National Election Studies, a biennial survey and analysis of voter
(MT, Fall. ‘97, p.4)
1948 The 1st Law School
Admissions Test (LSAT) was administered in the US.
(WSJ, 3/29/01, p.B1)
1948 Dwight D. Eisenhower, WW
II general, became president of Columbia Univ.
(SSFC, 8/15/04, p.D11)
1948 Oral history was founded
as an academic field at Columbia Univ.
(SFC, 10/28/08, p.B5)
1948 Archeologists found ears
of popcorn 5,600 years old in the Bat Cave in New Mexico.
(HFA, ‘96, p.66)
1948 James Houston, Canadian
author, flew into the Arctic Circle and spent 14 years with Inuit
people. In 1996 he published "Confessions of an Igloo Dweller,
Memories of the Old Arctic."
(SFC, 9/1/96, BR p.4)
1948 A blues guitarist was
murdered in Pittsburgh. This incident formed the setting for the
play "Seven Guitars" by August Wilson, which won the 1995-96 best
play award by the New York Drama Critics’ Circle.
(SFC, 5/14/96, E-4)
1948 Al Gard (b.1900), American
caricature artist, died. 24 of his caricatures of Broadway stars
were kept at Sardi’s restaurant in NYC.
(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)
1948 Aldo Leopold, American
naturalist, died. "Land then is not merely soil; it is a fountain of
energy flowing through a circuit of soils, plants, and animals."
(SFC, 9/4/96, p.A3)(Ind, 6/27/00,12A)
1948 The Int’l. Whaling
Commission (IWC) was founded by 7 countries with large whaling
fleets. It included America, Australia, Britain, France, Norway,
South Africa and the USSR.
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.15)
1948 Albanian Communist Party
leaders voted to merge Albanian and Yugoslav economies and
(www, Albania, 1998)
1948 In the months preceding
the war between Israel and the Arab states some 10,000 Arab homes in
West Jerusalem were looted and seized.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.D6)
1948 Australia’s produced its
first locally made car, a Holden FX. In late 2013 Holden, a part of
General Motors, said it would quit in 2017.
(Econ, 2/15/14, p.58)
1948 Composer Benjamin Britten
(1913-1976) co-founded the Aldeburgh Festival with Sir Peter Pears
and writer Eric Crozier. In 1967 Britten and Pears created a
permanent home at Snape, 5 miles from Aldeburgh, by converting a
Victorian maltings into an 832-seat venue. By 1972 the Britten-Pears
young artist program welcomed young players from around the world.
7/26/99, p.A21)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.84)
1948 The Commonwealth
Development Corporation was founded by the British government with
an aim to demonstrate "the power of enterprise and private capital
to reduce poverty in the poorest places of the world."
1948 Britain nationalized the
(Econ, 1/22/05, p.81)
1948 British carmaker Rover
developed the Jeep-like Land Rover.
(WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1948 Trevor Wilkinson
incorporated TVR Engineering, a small British carmaker. He left the
company in 1962 and in 1965 it was sold to Martin Lilly.
(SFC, 6/16/08, p.B3)
1948 The British Jaguar XK120
was introduced as the world’s fastest standard production car. It
was the brainchild of Jaguar founder Sir William Lyons.
(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.H1)
1948 The London-based Mondo
company began producing rubber balls for a local fistball game. It
grew to become a major maker of prefabricated running track.
(SFC, 3/17/11, p.72)
1948 In Burma a conflict for
power began that involved the Karen, a group of people from eastern
and southern Burma.
(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)(WUD, 1994, p.779)
1948 In Canada the Giant Mine
in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, opened for the production of
gold. Canada took over the mine in 1999 after it went bankrupt.
(Econ, 9/27/14, p.38)
1948 Ceylon became a member of
the British Commonwealth.
(SFC, 6/20/96, p.A8)
1948 Czech runner Emil Zatopek
(1922-2000) won a gold and a silver medal at the Olympic games in
1948 Congolese musician Antoine
Kolosoy (1925-2008), aka Papa Wendo, wrote his hit song
"Marie-Louise," a eulogy to the sister of his guitarist. He is
considered the "Father" of Congolese rumba.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wendo_Kolosoy)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.66)
1948 Jaroslav Skala
(1916-2007), a psychiatrist, established the first Czech center for
treatment of people addicted to alcohol as part of a clinic in
Prague. He headed the institution until his retirement in 1982.
1948 Marie Provaznikova, Czech
athlete, became the first to defect from a Communist country during
the Olympics in London.
1948 Ctirad Masin (1930-2011),
his brother Josef and Milan Paumer became part of a resistance cell
after the communists took power in Czechoslovakia. They killed two
policemen while trying to capture arms in a police station, and also
killed a cashier during a robbery to raise funds for their sabotage
operations. In 1953, they fled to the West, killing 3 police
officers in East Germany during their escape as tens of thousands of
police searched for them. 2 other members of the cell were captured,
sentenced to death and executed.
1948 Axel Axgil (1915-2011),
born Axel Lundahl-Madsen, was among the founding members of gay
rights group LGBT Danmark.
1948 The 10-nation Western
European Union defense alliance was formed. It was set to close in
(SFC, 6/4/99, p.A14)(Econ, 6/26/10, p.63)
1948 Neste Corporation, an oil
refining and marketing company, was founded in Espoo, Finland, as
the state petrol company. By 2017 it had operations in 14 countries.
1948 Longchamp, a French
leather-goods company, began operations.
(Econ, 2/10/07, SR p.12)
1948 Wernher von Braun, German
rocket physicist, authored “Das Marsproject" (The Mars Project), a
technical specification for a manned mission to Mars.
(Econ, 6/1/13, p.77)
1948 A documentary film on the
Nuremberg war trials was written and directed by Stuart Schulberg.
It was never released theatrically in the US. In 2011 Schulberg’s
daughter Sandra Schulberg and Josh Waltezky restored it under the
title "Nuremberg: Its Lesson Today."
(SFC, 1/20/11, p.E8)
1948 In Germany at the
Nuremberg War Trials deputy chief prosecutor Robert Kempner wrote in
a letter that 15 tons of Nazi gold were rushed out of Berlin before
the fall of the capital in 1945. He said 6 ½ tons were sent to von
Ribbentrop’s castle in Fuschl, Austria, where it was allegedly
turned over to American troops. Two tons were sent to
Schleswig-Holstein and allegedly handed over to British troops. No
record of either shipment was found by researchers of the World
Jewish Congress (WJC). Three tons were sent to the German side of
Lake Constantine and then to Switzerland. The rest was sent to other
(SFC, 8/22/96, p.E4)
1948 In Germany Henri Nannen
(1914-1996) founded the weekly illustrated Zickzack Magazine that
later was renamed Stern.
(SFC, 10/15/96, p.A19)
1948 The Federal Republic of
Germany defaulted on its sovereign debt. The
Colm-Dodge-Goldsmith-Plan was implemented in the summer to put the
currency reform into force.
(http://tinyurl.com/49qqg7o)(Econ, 1/15/11, p.78)
1948 In Hungary the Manfred
Weiss Steelworks was nationalized and renamed after Matyas Rakosi
(1892-1971), Hungary’s Stalinist leader.
1948 In northern India the Dera
Sacha Sauda religious sect was founded.
(Econ, 3/12/15, p.39)
1948 India passed electricity
laws that limited private involvement.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A10)
1948 India established an
Atomic Energy Commission.
(SFC, 5/28/98, p.A9)
1948 In India Jawaharlal Nehru
poured the first concrete for the Hirakud dam across the Mahanadi
River. Some 180,999 people were displaced for the dam.
(Econ, 9/7/13, p.44)
1948 Kolkata-based Hindustan
Motors began making the Ambassador car, modeling it after the
British Morris Oxford III. In 2013 only 2,214 of the vehicles were
sold. Production was halted in 2014 pending restructuring and
clearing of its debts.
1948 Arshad al-Umari served as
prime minister of Iraq.
(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.A1)
1948 In Israel Chaim Herzog
(1918-1997) founded Israel’s military intelligence service.
(SFC, 4/18/97, p.E2)
1948 Soon after independence
Israel began to evacuate Jews from Yemen and other middle Eastern
countries to Israel.
(SFC, 8/28/97, p.C2)
1948 The UN Truce Supervision
Organization (UNTSO) was established to observe the cease-fire
following the war that followed Israel's creation.
1948 Charles Winters, a Miami
businessman, broke US law to supply B-17 bombers to Jews fighting in
Israel’s war of independence. In 1949 he was convicted for violating
the Neutrality Act, for which he was fined $5,000 and sentenced to
18 months in prison. In 2008 Pres. Bush granted Winters a posthumous
(SFC, 12/24/08, p.A3)
1948 The Italian film “Germany
Year Zero" was directed by Roberto Rossellini (1906-1977). It was
the 3rd of his war trilogy and was about the privations of German
survivors in postwar Berlin.
(SFC, 1/22/10, p.E2)
1948 In Italian general
elections the Communist Party won 31% of the vote.
(Econ, 6/11/11, SR p.9)
1948 Italy’s new constitution
outlawed the Fascist Party. It spread power equally between the
lower Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. It also gave significant
autonomy to four distinct regions: Sicily, Sardinia, Valle d’Aosta
and Trentino-Alto Adige/Sudtirol.
(WSJ, 6/17/04, p.A15)(Econ, 11/26/16, p.20)
1948 Japan enacted a Eugenics
Protection Law to "avoid the birth of defective offspring." The law
was rescinded in 1996 after some 844,939 people were sterilized.
1948 Occupation authorities
gave Japan's financial markets a Glass-Steagall act, in the form of
Article 65 of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1948. Article 65
prohibited banks from participating in the domestic securities
industry, from holding more than five percent of a securities
company, and from selling equity or underwriting securities.
1948 Momofuku Ando (1910-2007)
founded Nissin Food Products. In 1958 the company introduced Chicken
Ramen, the first instant noodle.
(SSFC, 1/7/07, p.B6)
1948 Constantine Jurgela
(b.1904), Lithuania-born historian, authored “History of the
1948 Nepal established
diplomatic relations with the US.
1948 Pakistan established its
Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) to protect the country against
foreign and domestic security threats.
(WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A6)
1948 Pakistan’s first budget
devoted 75% to military spending.
(Econ 7/22/17, SR p.5)
1948 Alfredo Stroessner was
exiled by Paraguay dictator Higinio Morinigo, who was soon toppled
by other military officers. Stroessner returned.
(SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10)
1948 Peruvian politician Victor
Raul de la Torre, following the rise of a dictator, found refuge in
a Colombian embassy in Lima for 6 years as army tanks surrounded the
(Econ, 8/25/12, p.26)
1948 The Soviet Union under
Stalin cancelled Victory Day celebrations that had marked the May 9,
1945, end of WW II.
(Econ., 5/2/15, p.43)
1948 In Russia Stalin began
anti-Jewish purges. Jewish activities were put on par with criminal
(WSJ, 7/18/96, p.E6)
1948 In Russia the Mayak plant
in the southern Urals began processing weapons grade plutonium. By
1997 it had released more than 5 times the radioactivity of all
above-ground atomic tests put together. Substances such as
strontium-90 and cesium-137 had seeped into waterways and ground
water and traces were detected in the Arctic Ocean over 600 miles
1948 The Soviet Union imposed a
“Friendship Treaty" that limited Finnish sovereignty. It was
abandoned in 1992.
(Econ, 7/9/16, p.43)
1948 South Korea adopted
legislation to punish anyone praising North Korea with up to seven
years in prison.
(Econ, 1/17/15, p.39)
1948 In South Korea some 14,000
people were killed during a government crackdown on a leftist
uprising. Fighting between leftist guerrillas and government forces
took place on the southern island of Jeju and estimates of those
killed ranged from several to 50 thousand.
(SFC, 8/29/01, p.A9)
1948 South Korean Shin Kyuk-Ho
founded Lotte Co. Ltd. in Tokyo. He expanded Lotte to his home
country with the establishment of Lotte Confectionery in Seoul on
April 3, 1967 and built the company into a sprawling giant that by
2017 had dozens of units focused on food, retail and hotels in South
Korea and Japan.
1948 The Int’l. Maritime
Organization (IMO) was set up. Preventing pollution was one of its
original aims. An international conference in Geneva adopted a
convention formally establishing IMO (the original name was the
Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, or IMCO, but
the name was changed in 1982 to IMO).
1948 Robert Ford (1923-2013),
British radio operator, was hired by the Tibetans to create a modern
communications network. In 1950 he was imprisoned by Chinese
authorities and spent five years in jail.
(Econ, 10/5/13, p.98)
1948 The Western European Union
(WEU) was founded as a defensive arm for postwar Europe. It led to
the formation of NATO. In 1992 its tasks were re-defined to cover
humanitarian and rescue missions, peacekeeping and crisis
(SFC, 2/17/99, p.A8)
1948 Yugoslavia set up
the Goli Otok (Barren Island) prison camp off the coast of Croatia
for political prisoners. In 1956 the island, known as the Adriatic
Alcatraz, ended its days as a political prison and was turned into a
high-security facility for the hardest criminals. Nearly 600
prisoners of all ex-Yugoslav nations, Serbs, Croats, Bosnians,
Slovenes, Macedonians and Montenegrins, were later estimated to have
died on the island from torture and disease.
1948-1949 In Costa Rica Jose Figueres Ferrer
fought for democracy. The war arose in a dispute between dictator
Rafael Angel Calderon, who had stolen an election, and the social
democratic partisans of Figueres
(WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A19)
1948-1949 Jordan seized the West Bank and Egypt
occupied the Gaza Strip.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B12)
1948-1949 Iraqi troops participated in the Arab
League invasion of the new state of Israel. Iraq joined Transjordan
and other Arab states to fight Israel. Most of Iraq’s 120,000 Jews
fled to Israel or the West.
(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A10)
1948-1951 The Communist Party was banned in India
during this period.
(Econ, 1/23/10, p.82)
1948-1957 Louis St. Laurent of the Liberal Party
became the 12th Prime Minister of Canada.
(CFA, ‘96, p.81)
1948-1968 The old city of East Jerusalem was under
Jordanian control. Transjordan was given to a client Arab family,
the Hashenites (led by King Hussein’s grandfather), and was run out
of Mecca by the Saudis.
(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A14)
1948-1980 Jean Huston (1914-1998) served as a
curator and later chief of the Schomburg Center for Research in
Black Culture. Ms. Huston was the 2nd woman to graduate from Barnard
College (1935) after writer Zora Neale Hurston.
(SFC, 2/7/98, p.21)