Return to home1951 Jan 1, A
British radio soap opera called “The Archers” began airing following
pilot shows in 1950. The show was about a British farming community
and was still popular as it continued in 2011.
1951 Jan 4, During the Korean
conflict, North Korean and Communist Chinese forces captured the
city of Seoul.
1951 Jan 5, Inchon, South
Korea, the sight of General Douglas MacArthur's amphibious flanking
maneuver, was abandoned by United Nations force to the advancing
1951 Jan 8, A cahow, thought
extinct since 1615, was rediscovered in Bermuda.
1951 Jan 10, [Harry] Sinclair
Lewis (65), American author of 23 novels and 3 plays (Nobel 1930),
died in Rome of a nervous disorder. In 2002 Richard Lingeman
authored "Sinclair Lewis: Rebel from Main Street."
(HNQ, 5/18/98)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.W8)(MC, 1/10/02)
1951 Jan 14, The US Army’s X
Corps under Major Gen. Edward Almond ordered the methodical
destruction of dwellings and other buildings forward of front lines
in South Korea and recommended the use of air power.
(SSFC, 8/3/08, p.A16)
1951 Jan 15, Supreme Court
ruled that the "clear and present danger" of incitement to riot is
not protected speech and can be a cause for arrest.
1951 Jan 15, In South Korea
American bombing and strafing killed Korean refugees at
(SFC, 12/29/99, p.A13)
1951 Jan 16, World's largest
gas pipeline opened from Brownsville Tx, to 134th St, NYC.
1951 Jan 16, French forces
repulsed a Viet Minh offensive near Hanoi.
1951 Jan 17, China refused a
cease-fire in Korea.
1951 Jan 19, In South Korea
American pilots summarized their air strikes at Sansong as
“excellent results.” An investigative commission later found that
the attack, which killed at least 51 villagers and no enemy troops,
was indiscriminate and unjustified.
(SSFC, 8/3/08, p.A16)(AP, 8/3/08)
1951 Jan 20, American bombing
and strafing killed about 300 Korean refugees at Youngchoon. Korean
witnesses later said 300 people were trapped and suffocated in
Gokgyegul. On May 20, 2008, a South Korean Truth and Reconciliation
Commission identified 3 US attacks of indiscriminant use of napalm
that killed at least 228 civilians. The 1st at Wolmi on Sep 10,
1950, a 2nd at Sansong on Jan 19, 1951 and a 3rd at Tanyang on Jan
20, 1951, where at least 167 villagers were killed.
(SFC, 12/29/99, p.A13)(SFC, 1/13/01,
p.A12)(http://tinyurl.com/5crkh9)(SSFC, 8/3/08, p.A16)
1951 Jan 21, Communist troops
forced the UN army out of Inchon, Korea after a 12-hour attack.
1951 Jan 22, Fidel Castro, as a
baseball pitcher, was ejected from a Winter League game after
beaning a batter.
1951 Jan 23, President Truman
created the Commission on Internal Security and Individual Rights,
to monitor the anti-Communist campaign.
1951 Jan 24, Indian leader
Nehru assailed the U.S. and demanded the UN to name Peking as an
aggressor in Korea.
1951 Jan 25, The U.S. Eighth
Army in Korea launched Operation Thunderbolt, a counter attack to
push the Chinese Army north of the Han River.
1951 Jan 27, "Peter Pan" closed
at Imperial Theater NYC after 320 performances.
1951 Jan 27, Atomic testing
began in the Nevada desert as an Air Force B-50D from a base in New
Mexico dropped a one-kiloton nuclear bomb on Frenchman Flats, Clark
County, 65 miles NW of Las Vegas. Over the next 40 years 928 nuclear
devices were exploded at the site.
(AP, 1/27/98)(WSJ, 4/12/05, p.D8)(www.ntshf.org)
1951 Jan 29, Liz Taylor's 1st
divorce was from Conrad Hilton Jr.
1951 Jan 30, Ferdinand Porsche
(b.1875), German car inventor (Porsche), died.
1951 Feb 1, The third A-bomb
test was completed in the desert of Nevada.
1951 Feb 1, The 1st X-ray
moving picture process demonstrated.
1951 Feb 1, Alfred Krupp &
28 other German war criminals were freed.
1951 Feb 1, The UN condemned
the People's Republic of China as aggressor in Korea.
1951 Feb 3, "Victor Borge
Show," debuted on NBC TV.
1951 Feb 9, St. Louis Browns
signed baseball pitcher Satchel Paige (45).
1951 Feb 9, Actress Greta Garbo
got U.S. citizenship.
1951 Feb 10, "John &
Marsha" by Stan Freberg peaked at #21.
1951 Feb 11, Kwame Nkrumah won
the 1st parliamentary election on Gold coast (Ghana).
1951 Feb 11, U.N. forces pushed
north across the 38th parallel once again. Forty-five years after
shipping out to fight in Korea, Col. Harry Summers, Jr., got new
insight into what the war had been all about.
1951 Feb 12, In Iran Shah
Pahlavi married Princess Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari (d.2001 at 69).
They divorced in 1958. In 1991 Soraya authored her autobiography "Le
Palais des Solitudes" (The Palace of Solitudes).
(SFC, 10/26/01, p.D7)
1951 Feb 13, At the Battle of
Chipyong-ni, in Korea, U.N. troops contained the Chinese forces'
offensive in a two-day battle.
1951 Feb 16, NYC passed a bill
prohibiting racism in city-assisted housing.
1951 Feb 16, Stalin contended
that the U.N. was becoming the weapon of aggressive war.
1951 Feb 17, FBI director J.
Edgar Hoover initiated a secret nationwide program intended to
remove politically suspect employees from their jobs. Congress never
authorized the "Responsibilities Program" and over 4 years it
provided governors of nearly every state verbal reports on the
political backgrounds of 908 employees.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F2)
1951 Feb 17, Packard introduced
its "250" Chassis Convertible.
1951 Feb 19, Andre
Paul-Guillaume Gide (b.1869), French novelist and critic, died.
Andre Gide’s novels included "The Immoralist," "Straight Is the
Gate," "Lafcadio's Adventures," "Corydon," "The Counterfeiters" and
his explicit memoir "If It Die…" (1926). In 1999 Alan Sheridan
published the biography "André Gide: A Life in the Present." Gide
won the Nobel Prize in 1947. "There are very few monsters who
warrant the fear we have of them." "Believe those who are seeking
the truth; doubt those who find it." "The color of truth is gray."
(AP, 10/31/97)(AP, 3/24/98)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1
p.8)(WSJ, 4/6/99, p.A24)(SFEC, 6/13/99, BR p.4)(MC, 11/22/01)
1951 Feb 21, SC House urged
that "Shoeless Joe" Jackson be reinstated.
1951 Feb 21, The U. S. Eighth
Army launched Operation Killer, a counterattack to push Chinese
forces north of the Han River in Korea.
1951 Feb 22, The Atomic Energy
Commission disclosed information about the first atom-powered
1951 Feb 26, In the US the 22nd
Amendment to the Constitution, limiting a president to two terms of
office, was ratified. It was a reaction to the 4 terms of Franklin
(TMC, 1994, p.1951)(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)(AP,
2/26/98)(HN, 2/26/98)(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A1)
1951 Feb 26, Bread rationing
began in Czechoslovakia.
1951 Feb 27, Lee Atwater,
Republican National Committee Chairman (1989-91), was born.
1951 Feb 27, The 22nd Amendment
to the US Constitution, limiting a president to two terms of office,
1951 Feb 28, The Senate
committee headed by Estes Kefauver, D-Tenn., Issued a preliminary
report saying at least two major crime syndicates were operating in
the United States.
1951 Feb, King Tribhuvan
(1906-1955) returned to Kathmandu to usher in a new era of democracy
in Nepal after oligarchy finally succumbed to popular demands.
1951 Mar 2, In the 1st NBA
All-Star Game: East beat West 111-94 at Boston.
1951 Mar 2, The U.S. Navy
launched the K-1, the first modern submarine designed to hunt enemy
1951 Mar 4, The US Treasury and
Federal Reserve announced an accord. The agreement restored
independence to the Federal Reserve. In 2001 Martin Mayer authored
"The Fed: The Inside Story of How the World’s Most Powerful
Financial Institution Drives the Markets."
(WS, 6/27/01, p.A14)(http://tinyurl.com/2exjk8f)
1951 Mar 7, Lillian Hellman's
"Autumn Garden," premiered in NYC.
1951 Mar 7, U.N. forces in
Korea under General Matthew Ridgeway launched Operation Ripper, an
offensive to straighten out the U.N. front lines against the
1951 Mar 7, Shah Ali Razmara of
Iran was assassinated.
1951 Mar 8, The Int’l. Table
Tennis Federation banned Egypt for refusing to play Israel.
1951 Mar 10, FBI director J.
Edgar Hoover declined the post of baseball commissioner.
1951 Mar 12, "Dennis the
Menace," created by cartoonist Hank Ketcham, made its syndicated
debut in 16 newspapers.
1951 Mar 12, Communist troops
were driven out of Seoul.
1951 Mar 13, Israel demanded DM
6.2 billion ($1.5 billion) in German reparations for the cost of
caring for war refugees.
(HN, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)
1951 Mar 13, Alfred Hugenberg,
German RC pres-dir of Krupp, media magnate, died.
1951 Mar 14, During the Korean
War, United Nations forces recaptured Seoul.
1951 Mar 15, General de Lattre
demanded that Paris send him more troops for the fight in Vietnam.
1951 Mar 15, The Iranian
parliament (the Majlis) voted to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil
Company (AIOC) and its holdings, and shortly thereafter elected a
widely respected statesman and champion of nationalization, Mohammed
Mossadegh as Prime Minister.
1951 Mar 16, Mary Louise
Bochnak, the patron saint of embattled nonprofit committee chairmen,
1951 Mar 16, Hastened by short
winter, all spring flowers opened in Minneapolis.
1951 Mar 19, Herman Wouk’s war
novel "The Caine Mutiny" was first published.
1951 Mar 21, Chief of Staff
General George C. Marshall reports that the U.S. military has
doubled to 2.9 million since the start of the Korean War.
1951 Mar 23, U.S. paratroopers
descended from flying boxcars in a surprise attack in Korea.
1951 Mar 23, Wages in France
1951 Mar 24, MacArthur
threatened the Chinese with an extension of the Korean War if the
proposed truce was not accepted.
1951 Mar 26, The United States
Air Force flag design was approved.
1951 Mar 29, Rodgers and
Hammerstein's musical "The King and I" starring Gertrude Lawrence
and Yul Brynner opened at the St James Theater on Broadway and ran
for 1246 performances.
(HN, 3/29/01)(MC, 3/29/02)
1951 Mar 29, In the 23rd
Academy Awards "All About Eve" won for best picture; its director,
Joseph L. Mankiewicz, received his second set of consecutive Oscars
for direction and screenplay. He’d won the previous year for "A
Letter to Three Wives." Judy Holliday won best actress for "Born
Yesterday" while Jose Ferrer was honored as best actor for "Cyrano
(AP, 3/29/01)(MC, 3/29/02)
1951 Mar 29, Julius and Ethel
Rosenberg were convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage. They
were executed in June 1953. Morton Sobell was convicted of
conspiracy in the case and served 18 ½ years in prison. Ronald
Radosh and Joyce Milton later wrote "The Rosenberg File."
(AP, 3/28/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.D10)
1951 Mar 29, The Chinese
rejected MacArthur’s offer for a truce in Korea.
1951 Apr 1, U.N. forces again
crossed the 38th Parallel in Korea.
1951 Apr 3, Christopher Fry's
"Sleep of Prisoners," premiered in Oxford.
1951 Apr 5, Husband and wife
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg of New York City were sentenced to death
by Judge Irving R. Kaufman on charges of selling US atomic secrets
to the Soviet Union, enabling the Soviets to detonate their first
nuclear weapon in 1949. Although the couple consistently claimed to
be innocent, a jury of 11 men and one woman found them guilty on
March 30 on the evidence provided by key government witness David
Greenglass, Ethel Rosenberg's brother. Co-defendant Morton Sobell
was sentenced to 30 years in prison. He was released in 1969. The
Rosenbergs were electrocuted on June 19, 1953, leaving behind two
(CL, 4/5/96)(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)(HNPD,
1951 Apr 5, In San Francisco
the first fully separate food section made its Chronicle debut.
(SSFC, 6/7/09, p.W3)
1951 Apr 7, Janis Ian, [Janis
Eddy Fink], lesbian, folk rocker, was born in NYC.
1951 Apr 11, President Truman
relieved Gen. Douglas MacArthur of his commands in the Far East.
President Truman fired General Douglas MacArthur.
(AP, 4/11/97)(HN, 4/11/98)
1951 Apr 12, The Israeli
Knesset officially designated the 27th of Nissan, a few days after
the end of Passover, as Holocaust Memorial Day.
1951 Apr 17, Olivia Hussey,
actress (Romeo and Juliet, Death on Nile), was born in Buenos Aires.
1951 Apr 17, Mickey Mantle
played his 1st game as a NY Yankee and went 1 for 4.
1951 Apr 19, Gen. Douglas
MacArthur, relieved of his command by President Truman, bid farewell
to Congress, quoting a line from a ballad: "Old soldiers never die;
they just fade away."
1951 Apr 20, Gen. MacArthur
addressed a joint session of Congress after being relieved by
1951 Apr 22, There was a
ticker-tape parade for General MacArthur in NYC.
1951 Apr 22-25, The Battle of
Imjin River in the Korean War. The 1st Battalion of the "Glorious"
Gloucestershire Regiment made a remarkable last ditch stand to allow
the British 29th Brigade to withdraw in the face of the oncoming
1951 Apr 23, In Czechoslovakia
American reporter William N. Oatis (d.1977) was arrested in Prague.
Secret police put him in isolation and deprived him of sleep and
food. Historians agree that this psychological torture coerced his
1951 Apr 25, After a three day
fight in the Battle of Imjim River against Chinese Communist Forces,
the Gloucestershire Regiment was annihilated on "Gloucester Hill,"
1951 Apr 26, Arnold Sommerfeld
(b.1868), German theoretical physicist, died. He pioneered
developments in atomic and quantum physics. His atomic model
permitted the explanation of fine-structure spectral lines.
1951 Apr 29, Ludwig
Wittgenstein (b.1889), Austrian-born philosopher, died in Cambridge,
England. His “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicos” (1921) purported to
address all of philosophy’s major problems. His posthumous work was
edited by Elizabeth Uncombed (d.2001), and included his
"Philosophical Investigations" (1953).
(SFC, 1/16/01, p.C4)(WSJ, 2/28/09,
1951 Apr, In China Monsignor
Eugene Fahy (1912-1996), missionary, was named prefect apostolic for
(SFC, 8/28/96, p.C2)
1951 May 1, Mickey Mantle hit
his 1st HR.
1951 May 1, Some 600,000
marched for peace and freedom in Germany.
1951 May 3, The Festival of
Britain, a national exhibition, officially opened.
1951 May 7, A Pulitzer prize
was awarded to Conrad Richter (The Town).
1951 May 8, Dacron men's suits
1951 May 9, The U.S. Far East
Air Force launched a strike on Sinuiju, North Korea, on the Yalu
1951 May 11, Jay Forrester
patented computer core memory.
1951 May 12, The 1st H Bomb
test was on Eniwetok Atoll. [see Oct 31, 1952]
1951 May 14, The Ernie Kovacs
Show, TV Variety "Ernie in Kovacsland," debuted on NBC.
(MC, 5/14/02)(SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.37)
1951 May 16, Chinese Communist
Forces launched a second step, fifth-phase offensive [in Korea] and
gained up to 20 miles of territory.
1951 May 18, US General Collins
predicted the use of atom bomb in Korea.
1951 May 18, The United Nations
moved out of its temporary headquarters in Lake Success, N.Y., for
its permanent home in Manhattan.
(AP, 5/18/97)(HN, 5/18/98)
1951 May 19, UN began a counter
offensive in Korea.
1951 May 20, During the Korean
War, U.S. Air Force Captain James Jabara, flying an F-28 Saberjet,
became the first jet air ace in history.
1951 May 21, The U.S. Eighth
Army counterattacked to drive the Communist Chinese and North
Koreans out of South Korea.
1951 May 21, Leaders of China
and Tibet signed an agreement promising a high degree of autonomy
for Tibet under Chinese rule. Tibetans later said the agreement was
signed under duress.
(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1951 May 23, Anatoli Karpov,
world chess champion (1975-85), was born in the USSR.
1951 May 23, Peter Ustinov's
"Love of Four Colonels," premiered in London.
1951 May 23, The Dalai
Lama signed the “17-point agreement” in which he agreed to accept
Chinese sovereignty over Tibet.
1951 May 24, Willie Mays at 20
began playing for the New York Giants.
(TMC, 1994, p.1951)(HN, 5/24/98)
1951 May 24, Racial segregation
in Washington D.C. restaurants was ruled illegal.
1951 May 25, Clifford Archer,
bassist (Atlantic Starr-Touch a 4 Leaf Clover), was born.
1951 May 25, New York Giant
Willie Mays went 0 for 5 in his 1st major league game.
1951 May 26, Sally Ride, the
first American woman in space, was born in LA, Calif. She flew on
the Space Shuttle Challenger.
(HN, 5/26/99)(MC, 5/26/02)
1951 May 27, Chinese Communists
forced the Dalai Lama to surrender his army to Beijing.
1951 May 29, C. F. Blair became
the 1st man to fly over the North Pole flight in single engine
1951 May 29, Fanny Brice (59),
Ziegfeld Girl (Baby Snooks Show), died.
1951 May 29, Josef Bohuslav
Foerster (91), composer, died.
1951 May 29, Robert Kahn (85),
1951 May 29, Dimitrios Levidis
(66), composer, died.
1951 May 30, Fernando Lugo,
elected president of Paraguay in 2008, was born in a village of the
San Pedro del parana district.
1951 May, "Crazy People"
premiered on the BBC Home Service. It starred Peter Sellers, Spike
Mulligan, Harry Secombe and Michael Bentine (1924-1996). In 1952 it
became "The Goon Show."
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.B6)
1951 May, Richard L. Garwin
(23) arrived at Los Alamos, N.M., to work on the hydrogen bomb. By
July he had developed a preliminary H-bomb design for Edward Teller.
(SFC, 4/24/01, p.A2)
1951 May, Kid Gavilan (d.2003),
born as Gerardo Gonzalez in Cuba (1926), won the US boxing
welter-weight title in a 15-round decision over Johnny Bratton.
(SFC, 2/15/03, p.A24)
1951 Jun 1, The first
self-contained titanium plant opened in Henderson Nevada.
1951 Jun 7, The fact-finding
Burns committee led by California state Sen. Hugh M. Burns released
a 291-page report that claimed UC had aided and abetted the int’l.
communist conspiracy. UC Pres. Robert Gordon Sproul denied the
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F2)
1951 Jun 8, Paul Bobel, Werner
Braune, Erich Naumann, Otto Ohlendorf, Oswald Pohl, W. Schallenmair
& Otto Schmidt, last Nazi war criminals, were hanged by
Americans at Landsberg Fortress.
1951 Jun 9, After several
unsuccessful attacks on French colonial troops, North Vietnam’s
General Giap ordered Viet Minh to withdraw from the Red River Delta.
1951 Jun 11, Mozambique became
an oversea province of Portugal.
1951 Jun 13, U.N. troops seized
Pyongyang, North Korea.
1951 Jun 14, UNIVAC, the first
computer built for commercial purposes, was demonstrated in
Philadelphia by Dr. John W. Mauchly and J. Prosper Eckert, Jr.
Magnetic tape for data storage was first used on the UNIVAC.
(HN, 6/14/98)(SFC, 6/15/01, p.B3)(Econ, 11/30/13,
1951 Jun 15, 1st commercial
electronic computer was dedicated in Philadelphia. [see Jun 14]
1951 Jun 16, CIO maritime
workers called a national strike. Only essential military cargoes
were exempt from the work stoppage.
(SFC, 6/15/01, WBb p.3)
1951 Jun 17, Joe Piscopo
(comedian, actor: Saturday Night Live, Sidekicks, Wise Guys, Johnny
Dangerously), was born.
1951 Jun 19, President Harry S.
Truman signed the Universal Military Training and Service Act, which
extended Selective Service until July 1, 1955 and lowered the draft
age to 18.
1951 Jun 23, British diplomats
and Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean fled to the USSR.
1951 Jun 23, Soviet U.N.
delegate Jacob Malik proposed cease-fire discussions in the Korean
1951 Jun 24, Persian army took
over nationalized oil installations.
1951 Jun 25, The first
commercial color telecast took place as CBS transmitted a one-hour
special from New York to four other cities. CBS tried a version of
color TV with a design that featured a mechanical rotating color
(AP, 6/25/97)(SFC, 3/18/04, p.E1)
1951 Jun 26, The Soviet Union
proposed a cease-fire in the Korean War.
1951 Jun 27, Ulf Andersson,
International Chess Grandmaster (1972), was born in Sweden.
1951 Jun 27, Sidney M.
Gutierrez, Major USAF, astronaut (STS 40), was born in Albuquerque,
1951 Jun 27, M. Itzigsohn
discovered asteroid #1588, Descamisada.
1951 Jun 28, A TV version of
the radio program "Amos ‘N’ Andy" premiered on CBS. Although
criticized for racial stereotyping, it was the first network TV
series to feature an all-black cast.
1951 Jun 29, The United States
invited the Soviet Union to the Korean peace talks on a ship in
1951 Jun 30, On orders from
Washington, General Matthew Ridgeway broadcast that the United
Nations was willing to discuss an armistice with North Korea. In
1950, as U.S. Marines tried to fight their way out of a Chinese
trap, Korea suffered its worst winter of the century.
1951 Jul 4, The "Capital Times"
in Madison, Wisconsin, reported that one of its reporters was turned
down by 99 out of 100 people he asked to sign a petition made up of
quotations from the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of
Rights. Many said the petition was subversive.
(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1951 Jul 4, In Czechoslovakia
American reporter William N. Oatis was convicted and sentenced to 10
years in a communist prison on trumped-up espionage charges. three
Czech AP colleagues who were sentenced with him. Oatis was pardoned
in May 1953. During the 1960s, Czechoslovak judicial reviewers
exonerated Oatis, but this finding was overturned in 1968 after the
Soviet Union-led invasion of Warsaw Pact troops ousted Alexander
Dubcek's reformist government. In 1990, as the Soviet empire
tottered, he was quietly cleared again. Audio tapes of the 3-day
trial emerged in 2012.
1951 Jul 5, Dr. William
Shockley invented junction transistor at Murray Hill, NJ.
1951 Jul 9, President Truman
asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United
States and Germany.
1951 Jul 10, In San Francisco
Dashiell Hammett, mystery writer, was sentenced to 6 months in
prison for refusing to tell where the Communist party got its bail
money. Hammett, who was born in Maryland in 1894, was a
Pinkerton detective for eight years and served in the Ambulance
Corps in World War I before he began his writing career. Author of
The Maltese Falcon (1930) and The Thin Man (1932), Hammett became
heavily involved in left-wing political activity in 1934. He was
later a trustee of the Civil Rights Congress. Hammett died in 1961.
(SFC, 7/6/01, WBb p.8)(HNPD, 9/24/98)
1951 Jul 10, In London,
England, Randolph Turpin (1928-1966), a black British boxer,
defeated world champion Sugar Ray Robinson. Turpin lost a rematch 64
days later in NY.
(SSFC, 10/28/07, p.M3)(http://tinyurl.com/2sxhce)
1951 Jul 10, Armistice talks
aimed at ending the Korean conflict began at Kaesong.
(AP, 7/10/97)(HN, 7/10/98)
1951 Jul 11, Bonnie Pointer,
singer, was born.
1951 Jul 12, A mob tried to
keep a black family from moving into all-white Cicero, Ill.
1951 Jul 13,
Arnold Schoenberg (b.1874), composer, died. He wrote the book "Style
and Idea" and composed such works as the 21 songs of "Pierrot
Lunaire" based on a poem by Albert Giraud translated into German by
Otto Erich Hartleben, "Moses und Aron" and "Erwartung." In 2002
Allen Shawn authored "Arnold Schoenberg’s Journey."
(LGC-HCS, 1970, p. 562-575)(WSJ, 8/20/96,
p.A8)(WSJ, 1/31/02, p.A16)
1951 Jul 14, The George
Washington Carver National Monument in Joplin, Missouri became the
first national park honoring an African American.
1951 Jul 16, "The Catcher in
the Rye," a coming-of-age novel by J.D. Salinger (1919-2010), was
first published. Holden Caulfield, the main character, became
recognized as the quintessential American teenager.
(SFC, 1/17/97, p.D7)(AP, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 12/15/07,
p.W10)(SFC, 1/29/10, p.A1)
1951 Jul 17, Lucie Arnaz
(actress and Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz' daughter), was born.
1951 Jul 18, Pope Pius XII
established the Archdiocese of Seattle and named Rev. Thomas A.
Connolly as its 1st archbishop.
(SFC, 7/13/01, WBb p.6)
1951 Jul 19, In Omaha, Neb., a
trenching machine sliced through the main transcontinental telephone
cable and disrupted coast-to-coast communication.
(SFC, 7/13/01, WBb p.6)
1951 Jul 20, Jordan's King
Abdullah Ibn Hussein was assassinated in Jerusalem by a
Palestinian extremist. Prince Hussein (15) witnessed the murder.
(AP, 7/20/97)(HN, 7/20/98)(SFC, 2/6/99,
1951 Jul 21, Dalai Lama
returned to Tibet.
1951 Jul 23, French Marshal
Henri Petain (b.1856), who had headed the Vichy government during
World War Two, was shot by firing squad. In 2005 Charles Williams
(AP, 7/23/00)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.84)
1951 Jul 24, Dr. Albert C.
Barnes, eccentric collector of impressionist art, died in an
automobile crash. [see 1925 Barnes] His will specified that his art
collection be kept forever in Lower Merion Township, Pa. In 2004 a
judge allowed trustees to move the collection to Philadelphia.
(WSJ, 11/28/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 12/15/04,
1951 Jul 25, L. Boyer
discovered asteroid #1714 Sy.
1951 Jul 26, Alice in
Wonderland, an American animated film produced by Walt Disney, was
released in New York City and London by RKO Radio Pictures. It was
based primarily on Lewis Carroll's “Alice's Adventures in
Wonderland” with a few additional elements from “Through the
1951 Jul 28, The UN members
adopted the Convention on Refugees. It was not signed by Indonesia.
This was the founding charter for the UN High Commissioner for
Refugees (UNHCR). It spelled out the entitlements of those who flee
their country for fear of being killed or persecuted.
(Econ, 4/22/06, p.43)(Econ, 9/6/08,
1951 Jul 31, Evonne Goolagong,
Australian tennis player and first aborigine in an international
sport, was born.
1951 Jul, Monsignor Eugene Fahy
(1912-1996), missionary, was seized by the Chinese Communists and
(SFC, 8/28/96, p.C2)
1951 Aug 1, Jim Carroll,
musician and writer of "The Basketball Diaries," was born
1951 Aug 3, Frank Pace, Jr.,
Secretary of the Army, announced that 90 cadets of the United States
Military Academy at West Point, NY, were to be expelled for cheating
during examinations. Many of them were on the football team. In 1996
James Blackwell authored “On Brave Old Army Team: Cheating Scandal
That Rocked the Country - West Point, 1951.”
1951 Aug 5, The United Nations
Command suspended armistice talks with the North Koreans when armed
troops are spotted in neutral areas.
1951 Aug 6, Typhoon floods
killed 4,800 in Manchuria.
1951 Aug 11, The Mississippi
River flooded some 100,000 acres in Ks, Okla, Mo and Ill.
1951 Aug 12, Charles E. Brady
Jr., USN Commander, astronaut, was born in, Pinehurst, NC.
1951 Aug 14, Newspaper
publisher William Randolph Hearst (b,1863) died in Beverly Hills,
Calif. In 2000 David Nasaw authored "The Chief: The Life of William
Randolph Hearst." W.A. Swanberg was the author of the biography
"Citizen Hearst." In 2002 Louis Pizzitola authored "Hearst Over
Hollywood: Power, Passion and Propaganda in the Movies." In 2009
Kenneth Wyle authored “The Uncrowned King: The Sensational Rise of
William Randolph Hearst.”
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A19)(AP, 8/14/98)(SFC, 8/7/99,
p.A9)(WSJ, 6/16/00, p.W8)(SFEC, 7/2/00, BR p.1)(SFC, 3/27/02,
p.D5)(SSFC, 1/11/09, Books p.1)
1951 Aug 15, Artur Schnabel
(69), Austria-US pianist (Reflections on Music), died.
1951 Aug 17, Hurricane winds
drove 6 ships ashore at Kingston, Jamaica.
1951 Aug 18, The 1st
transcontinental wireless phone call was made from SF to NYC by Mark
Sullivan, president of PT&T, and H.T. Killingworth of AT&T.
(SFC, 8/17/01, p.WB6)
1951 Aug 21, Harry Smith, TV
host (CBS Morning Show), was born in Indiana.
1951 Aug 22, Harlem
Globetrotters played in Olympic Stadium at Berlin before 75,052.
1951 Aug 24, Oscar Hijeulos,
novelist, was born. His work included "The Mambo Kings play Songs of
1951 Aug 31, The former enemies
of the world war reconvened in San Francisco to finalize
negotiations on the peace treaty to formally end WW II. Japan agreed
to pay the Int’l. Red Cross about $15 per POW while the allies
agreed not to bring charges against it.
(Park, Spring/95, p.2)(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C4)
1951 Aug 31, The 1st Marine
Division began its attack on Bloody Ridge in Korea. The four-day
battle resulted in 2,700 Marine casualties.
1951 Aug 31, The 1st 33 1/3
(LP) album was introduced in Dusseldorf.
1951 Sep 1, At the Presidio in
San Francisco, the US, Australia, and New Zealand signed the Anzus
Pact, a joint security alliance to govern their relations.
(Park, Spring/95, p.2)(AP, 9/1/97)
1951 Sep 1, PM Ben-Gurion
ordered the establishment of Mossad, the Israeli secret service.
1951 Sep 2, Mark Harmon (actor
Wyatt Earp, Till There Was You, Reasonable Doubts, People magazine’s
Sexiest Man Alive ), was born.
1951 Sep 3, The television soap
opera "Search for Tomorrow" made its debut on CBS. From 1953 to 1955
it featured Don Knotts as the neurotic Wilbur Peterson. The show
ended in 1986 after 4 years on NBC. Larry Haines (1918-2008) played
the neighbor Stu Bergman for most of the show’s run.
(AP, 9/3/98)(SSFC, 2/26/06, p.B7)(SFC, 7/31/08,
1951 Sep 4, President Truman
addressed the nation from the Japanese peace treaty conference in
San Francisco in the first live, coast-to-coast television
broadcast. The broadcast was carried by 94 stations.
(AP, 9/4/97)(HN, 9/4/98)
1951 Sep 4, Juozas Luksa
(b.1921), aka “Skirmantas” or “Daumantas,” Lithuanian partisan, was
killed by Soviet counterintelligence. In 2003, director Jonas
Vaitkus released a movie based on his life, “Utterly Alone.”
1951 Sep 6, William Burroughs
(1914-1997), writer, shot and killed his wife Joan Vollmer (27) in
Mexico City. He claimed to be trying to shoot a glass off her head,
a la William Tell, during a day of drinking and drugs but shot her
in the head.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.B6)(Internet)
1951 Sep 8, A formal Treaty of
Peace was signed by 48 nations of the United Nations and Japan at
the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco. On the same day the
US and Japan signed a Joint Security Pact at the Presidio. The
Soviet delegation refused to sign and said the deal provided for the
exclusive existence of American military bases in Japan.
(Park, Spring/95, p.2)(AP, 9/8/97)(Ind, 9/8/01,
1951 Sep 8, Jurgen Stroop, Nazi
exterminator of Warsaw Ghetto, was hanged on site of the ghetto.
1951 Sep 11, Stravinsky's opera
"Rake's Progress," premiered in Venice.
1951 Sep 11, Florence Chadwick
(1918-1995), American endurance swimmer, swam English Channel from
England to France in 16 hours & 22 minutes [see Aug 6, 1926].
This made her the first woman to swim the English Channel in both
directions, and set a record for the England-France journey. All
told, she swam the English Channel four times and the Catalina
Channel three times.
1951 Sep 13, In Korea, U.S.
Army troops began their assault in Heartbreak Ridge. The month-long
struggle would cost 3,700 casualties.
1951 Sep 13, Lt. Daniel J.
Marini led 40 marines to capture Hill 712 in Korea near Imjin River.
He received a Silver Star in 1997.
(SFC, 1/9/97, p.A18)
1951 Sep 13, American Lt. Alvin
Earl Crane was shot down while on a reconnaissance flight over North
Korea. His remains were returned by North Korea in 1990, but
positive identification by DNA only took place in 2005.
(SSFC, 5/14/06, p.B6)
1951 Sep 13, Arthur Szyk
(b.1894), Poland-born American-Jewish artist, died of a heart attack
after being Investigated by the House Un-American Activities
Committee for being an assumed member of a Communist front
1951 Sep 15, "Gentlemen Prefer
Blondes" closed at Ziegfeld NYC after 740 performances.
1951 Sep 17, Romanian bishop A.
Pacha of Timisoara was sentenced to 18 years.
1951 Sep 18, Dr. Benjamin
Solomon Carson, Sr., African-American neurosurgeon, was born.
1951 Sep 19, Italian civil
servants struck for a pay increase.
1951 Sep 24, The Soviet Union
conducted its 2nd nuclear test.
1951 Sep 26, Prof. Youngblood
demonstrated an artificial heart in Paris.
1951 Sep 27, Persian troops
occupied oil refinery at Abadan.
1951 Sep, Some 90 US Marines
were killed taking a North Korea ridge called Hill 749. [see Sep 13]
(SSFC, 5/25/03, Par p.5)
1951 Oct 1, 1st treaty signed
by woman ambassador, Eugenie Anderson.
1951 Oct 1, The US 24th
Infantry Regiment, last all-black military unit, was deactivated.
1951 Oct 3, Bobby Thompson won
the pennant for the New York Giants by hitting a home run off of
Ralph Branca of the Brooklyn Dodgers at the NY Polo Grounds before
20,000 empty seats. Outfielder Bobby Thomson hit a home run in the
bottom of the ninth inning, beating the Brooklyn Dodgers 5-4 to win
the National League pennant. On Jan 31, 2001, the WSJ confirmed
roomers that the Giants had concealed an electric buzzer and a
telescope to steal the signals of the opposing catchers. In 2006
Joshua Prager authored ”The Echoing Green: The Untold Story of Bobby
Thomson, Ralph Branca and the Shot Heard Round the World.”
(HN, 10/3/00)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.B1)(WSJ, 9/19/06,
1951 Oct 4, Henrietta Lacks, a
black woman, died of cancer in Baltimore. Cells from her body,
later known as HeLa cells, were cultivated for research. In 1974 Dr.
Nelson-Rees (d.2009 at 80), a UC Berkeley geneticist, reported that
the HeLa cells had contaminated other cell cultures in laboratories
around the world. In 1986 Michael Gold authored “A Conspiracy of
Cells,” a chronicle of the Nelson-Rees study. In 2010 Rebecca Skloot
authored “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks.”
(SFC, 1/28/09, p.B10)(SSFC, 2/14/10,
1951 Oct 6, Stalin proclaimed
Russia has an atom bomb.
1951 Oct 7, David Ben-Gurion
formed Israeli government.
1951 Oct 7, Will Kellogg (91),
founder of Kellogg’s Corn Flakes, died in Battle Creek, Mich.
(ON, 2/05, p.11)
1951 Oct 14, The Organization
of Central American States formed.
1951 Oct 15, The situation
comedy "I Love Lucy" premiered on CBS. It ran through to 1961.
Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz bought their television studio, Desilu,
from Howard Hughes.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, T8)(AP, 10/15/97)(SFEC, 5/24/98,
DB p.37)(WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W9)
1951 Oct 15, Dr. Carl Djerassi
(27), Prof. of chemistry at Stanford Univ., developed the birth
control pill in Mexico City while working for Palo Alto based Syntex
Corp. He synthesized norethindrone, a steroid oral contraceptive. In
2001 Carl Djerassi authored "This Man’s Pill: Reflections on the
50th Birthday of the Pill." Djerassi synthesized a key hormone in
the pill in Mexico City in 1951. Serle won FDA ok to market the pill
May 11, 1960.
(SJSVB, 4/8/96, p.8)(SSFC, 10/14/01, Par
p.13)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.R6)
1951 Oct 16, Pakistan’s PM
Liaquat Ali Khan (b.1896), son of a Punjabi prince, was assassinated
in Rawalpindi, ushering in a period of political instability.
1951 Oct 17, The Egyptian army
fired on British troops.
1951 Oct 18, Terry McMillan,
novelist, was born. His work included "Waiting to Exhale."
1951 Oct 19, President Truman
signed an act formally ending the state of war with Germany.
1951 Oct 20, Saudi Arabia’s
modern railway was inaugurated. It was initially run by Saudi oil
company, Aramco, but subsequently transferred to the state and since
1968 has been operated as a public corporation and was extended to
the capital, Riyadh.
1951 Oct 22, An earthquake hit
Formosa and 100 people were killed.
1951 Oct 24, Jan de Hartog's "4
Poster," premiered in NYC.
1951 Oct 24, Dr. Albert W.
Bellamy, chief of Radiological Services for the California State
Civil Defense, held a press conference to assure state residents
that there would be no ill effects from the atomic test explosions
near Las Vegas.
(SFC, 10/19/01, WB p.6)
1951 Oct 25, Ransom Wilson,
flutist and conductor, was born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
1951 Oct 25, In a general
election, England’s Labour Party lost to Conservatives. Winston
Churchill became prime minister, and Anthony Eden became foreign
1951 Oct 25, Peace talks aimed
at ending the Korean Conflict resumed in Panmunjom after 63 days.
1951 Oct 26, Rocky Marciano
defeated Joe Louis at Madison Square Garden.
1951 Oct 26, Winston Churchill
was re-elected British PM. [see Oct 25]
1951 Nov 1, Johnny Mercer's
"Top Banana," premiered in NYC.
1951 Nov 1, A new US federal
law took effect that required bookies, lottery operators and
punchboard dealers to purchase a $50 gambling stamp.
(SFC, 1/25/02, p.G6)
1951 Nov 1, The 1st atomic
explosion, witnessed by troops, was at Yucca Flat, Nevada. Members
of the 1st Battalion, 188th Airborne Infantry Regiment from Ft.
Campbell, Kentucky, were the first unwitting test participants to be
sent to that facility by the Atomic Energy Commission and The
Department of Defense in a series of nuclear tests, code named
1951 Nov 1, The Algerian
National Liberation Front began guerrilla warfare against the
1951 Nov 10, Direct-dial,
coast-to-coast telephone service began as Mayor M. Leslie Denning of
Englewood, N.J., called his counterpart in Alameda, Calif.
1951 Nov 12, "Paint Your Wagon"
opened at Shubert Theater NYC for 289 performances.
1951 Nov 12, The U.S. Eighth
Army in Korea was ordered to cease offensive operations and begin an
1951 Nov 14, United States and
Yugoslavia signed a military aid pact.
1951 Nov 14, French
paratroopers captured Hoa Binh, Vietnam.
1951 Nov 16, Glenn T. Seaborg
(1912-1999) and Edwin McMillan (1907-1991) of UC shared the Nobel
Prize in Chemistry for their discoveries in the chemistry of
transuranium elements beginning with plutonium, the first element
ever known to be heavier than uranium. In 1974 Seaborg co-discovered
element 106, named seaborgium.
(SFC, 10/6/98, p.A22)(SFC, 2/27/99, p.A17)(SFC,
11/16/01, WB p.G4)
1951 Nov 17, The UC Board of
Regents voted to drop the special loyalty oath required of all
employees since April 1950.
(SFC, 11/16/01, WB p.G4)
1951 Nov 17, Britain reported
the development of world’s first nuclear-powered heating system.
1951 Nov 18, "See it Now"
premiered on TV.
1951 Nov 18, Chuck Connors,
former Cubs 1st baseman and future TV star of Rifleman, became the
1st player to oppose the major league draft.
1951 Nov 18, Two 4-engine
Korean airlift planes collided above Oakland Municipal Airport. One
plane crashed and the crew of 3 were killed. The other made an
emergency landing at SFO.
(SFC, 11/16/01, WB p.G4)
1951 Nov 18, British troops
occupied Ismailiya, Egypt. [see Jan 20, 1952]
1951 Nov 25, Truce line mapped
at talks in Panmunjom, Korea.
1951 Nov 26, Illona Staller,
Italian member of Parliament (La Cicciolina), was born in Budapest,
(MC, 11/26/01)(AP, 11/26/02)
1951 Nov 27, 1st rocket to
intercept an airplane was fired at White Sands, NM.
1951 Nov 27, Cease-fire and
demarcation zone accord was signed in Panmunjom, Korea.
1951 Nov 28, John Van Druten's
"I am a Camera," premiered in NYC.
1951 Dec 1, Benjamin Britten's
opera "Billy Budd," premiered in London.
1951 Dec 4, Copland-Robbins'
"Pied Piper," premiered in NYC.
1951 Dec 4, Superheated gases
rolled down Mount Catarman (Philippines), killing 500.
1951 Dec 5, "Dragnet" premiered
1951 Dec 5, "Shoeless" Joe
Jackson, of baseball's "Black Sox" scandal, died.
1951 Dec 8, "Tree Grows in
Brooklyn" closed at Alvin Theater, NYC, after 267 performances.
1951 Dec 11, Joe DiMaggio
announced his retirement from baseball.
1951 Dec 13, After meeting with
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, President Harry S. Truman vowed to
purge all disloyal government workers.
1951 Dec 17, Raul and Carlos
Salinas, aged 5 and 3, played with their friend Gustavo Zapata at
their home in Mexico City. While playing they snatched a rifle from
a closet and shot a servant just below the eye, killed her and
continued playing. Newspaper reports of the time indicated that
Carlos pulled the trigger.
(WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-6)
1951 Dec 18, North Koreans gave
the Allies a list of 3,100 POWs.
1951 Dec 20, Bechtel scientists
at a military facility in Idaho powered up a small nuclear reactor
and lit 4 light bulbs. It was the 1st fission reactor to generate a
usable amount of electricity.
(SFC, 5/12/05, p.C1)
1951 Dec 24, Gian Carlo
Menotti’s "Amahl and the Night Visitors," the first opera written
specifically for television, was first broadcast by NBC.
1951 Dec 28, The U.S. paid
$120,000 to free four fliers convicted of espionage in Hungary.
1951 Dec 30, The half-hour Roy
Rogers Show premiered on NBC. Production ended in 1957 after some
100 episodes. Roy and Dale Evans ended every show with the song
"Happy Trails To You."
(SFC, 7/7/98, p.D5)
1951 Dec 31, The 1st battery to
convert radioactive energy to electrical was announced.
1951 Ellsworth Kelly painted
"Cite," long strokes on paper cut into 20 squares and arranged
(SFC, 10/29/96, p.F3)
1951 Franz Kline painted
"Painting No. 11," an elegantly understated work in which a burst of
white light pours from a smudgy black lattice.
(WSJ, 12/16/94, A-12)
1951 Salvador Dali, Surrealist
painter, completed his "Christ of St. John of the Cross." It is at
the Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum in Scotland. He also did
"Portrait of Mrs. Jack Warner." The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg,
Fla., houses the largest collection of Dali’s artwork.
(T&L, 10/80, p. 59)(WSJ, 11/8/96, p.C1)(Hem.,
1951 John Langley Howard
(d.1999), SF artist, painted the triptych "The Rape of the Earth."
(SFC, 11/26/99, p.B9)
1951 Barnett Newman (d.1970),
abstract expressionist, painted the 18x8 work "Cathedra." It was
later placed in the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and in 1997 was
slashed across with a carpet knife. In 1986 his painting "Who’s
Afraid of Red, Yellow and Blue III" was slashed at the same museum.
1951 Mark Rothko painted his
work "Untitled." It sold for $3.3 million in 1998.
(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W12)
1951 Ben Shahn painted his
"Composition for Clarinets and Tin Horn."
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1951 Theodor Adorno
(1903-1969), German philosopher, authored “Minima Moralia,”
Reflections From a Damaged Life,” in which he called all traditional
experience of the world into question.
(WSJ, 4/18/08, p.W5)
1951 Isaac Asimov authored his
sci-fi novel “Foundation” (1951), the first of trilogy that began as
a series of short stories published from 1942-1950. It imagined a
science called psycho-history which enabled practitioners to
precisely predict the behavior of large groups of people.
1951 J.D. Bold wrote "Phrase
Book, Grammar and Dictionary of Finagle," a pidgin language used by
miners in South Africa.
(WSJ, 4/15/98, p.A9)
1951 Albert Camus (1913-1960),
Algeria-born French novelist, wrote "The Rebel." The book asserted a
revolt against absurd nonsense and against commitments indifferent
to the suffering that revolutionary steamrollers caused.
(WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A16)(Econ, 1/9/10, p.83)
1951 Nirad C. Chaudhuri (d.1999
at 101) published "The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian."
(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A20)
1951 William Faulkner authored
“Requiem for a Nun.” The past is never dead, it’s not even past.”
(Econ, 7/17/10, p.87)
1951 Louis Feldstein published
"Face of a Hero." In England it was titled "The Sky Is a Lonely
Place." The book had many similarities to Joseph Heller’s 1953 book
(SFC, 4/28/98, p.A2)
1951 Erich Hoffer (1902-1983),
a self-educated longshoreman, authored “The True Believer,” his
thoughts on the nature of mass movements.
(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.W8)
1951 Leon Howard wrote a
biography on Herman Melville.
(WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A14)
1951 Jack Kerouac produced his
"On the Road" manuscript during a 3-week Benzedrine and coffee
binge. It was written on a 120-foot-long scroll that sold for $2.43
million in 2001.
(SFC, 5/23/01, p.A1)
1951 Darcy Ribeiro,
anthropologist (1923-1997), wrote "Art of the Kadiweu Indians."
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20)
1951 "Amphibians of Western
North America" by Robert Stebbins was published.
(Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.23)
1951 John Steinbeck authored
"The Log from the Sea of Cortez" based on a 1940 trip he made there
with marine biologist Doc Ricketts (d.1948). He also wrote most of
"East of Eden" in his Manhattan townhouse and Long Island beach
(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A21)(SFC, 10/15/03, p.D1)
1951 "God and Man at Yale" by
William F. Buckley was published by Henry Regency (1912-1996).
Regency has been considered the godfather of modern conservatism.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A15)(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.B1)
1951 Eric Hoofer (d.1983), San
Francisco longshoreman-philosopher, wrote "The True Believer,"
a critical view of mass movements. It was later considered a classic
of social philosophy.
(SFC, 1/22/00, p.A15)
1951 L. Ron Hubbard published
his first book on Scientology.
(WSJ, 5/12/97, p.A15)
1951 "From Here to Eternity" by
James Jones was published. It was made into a film in 1953. The 1998
film "A Soldier’s Daughter Never Cries" was based on an
autobiography by his daughter.
(TMC, 1994, p.1951)(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)(SFEC,
9/20/98, DB p.49)
1951 James Michener (d.1997 at
90) wrote his novel "Return to Paradise."
1951 Beckett’s "Waiting for
Godot" was first produced in Paris.
1951 William F. Buckley Jr.
(b.1925), Yale graduate, authored “God and Man at Yale.” It exposed
the extraordinarily irresponsible educational attitude that
prevailed at his alma mater.
1951 Graham Greene, English
novelist, authored “The End of the Affair.”
(Econ, 7/13/13, p.74)
1951 Eugene Ionesco, a Paris
dwelling Romanian, wrote his dark comedy "The Lesson."
(SFC, 5/4/96, p.E-1)
1951 "A World Apart" by Polish
author Gustaw Herling-Grudzinski was first published in English. It
told of his years in a soviet gulag. He later founded the literary
magazine Kultura that was banned in Poland until 1989 and in 1990
wrote Journal Written at Night.
(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A12)
1951 Vladimir Nabokov
(1899-1977) published his memoir under the title “Conclusive
Evidence.” In 1996 it was republished as “Vladimir Nabokov: Novels
and Memoirs 1941-1951: The Real Life of Sebastian Knight, Bend
Sinister, Speak, Memory,” in a 3-volume set. The individual chapters
had been published from 1936-1951.
1951 C. Van Woodward authored
"Origins of the New South."
(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.C14)
1951 Edwin Way Tale traveled
with spring which rolls north 15 miles per day in his book: "North
with the Spring."
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.77)
1951 Louise de Gilmore authored
"Madame de," a tale of love and betrayal in the haute monde (high
(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)
1951 A.E. van Vogt (1912-2000)
authored the sci-fi story "The Weapon Shops of Icier."
(SFC, 2/5/00, p.A19)
1951 The Readers’ Subscription
club was founded. It sent out books recommended by W.H. Auden,
Jacques Barzun and Lionel Trilling. In 2001 Arthur Krystal edited "A
Company of Readers," a collection of essays from the club’s monthly
(WSJ, 8/6/01, p.A11)
1951 "The Rose Tattoo,"
originally titled "The Eclipse of May 29, 1919." by Tennessee
(SFC, 11/1/96, p.C1)
1951 The film "Journal d'un
Cure de Campagne" (Diary of a Country Priest) was directed by Robert
Bresson. It was based on a 1937 book by Georges Bernanos.
(SFC, 12/22/99, p.A27)
1951 Paul Harvey (d.2009 at
90), news commentator and talk-radio pioneer, began his "News and
Comment" for ABC Radio Networks.
1951 "The Honeymooners" first
appeared as a TV sketch featuring Jackie Gleason on the DuMont
Network's Cavalcade of Stars. It was written by Harry Crane (d.1999
(SFC, 9/15/99, p.C4)
1951 Jack LaLanne (b.1914)
began hosting a daily exercise show on San Francisco’s KGO TV
(SFC, 10/8/09, p.A16)
1951 The TV show "See It Now"
was co-produced by Edward R. Murrow and Fred W. Friendly (d.1998 at
82). Murrow was on camera and Friendly was behind-the-scenes. The
show was cancelled in 1958.
(SFC, 3/5/98, p.A24)
1951 "Superman and the Mole
Men," starred George Reeves in the first Superman TV episode.
(SFC, 12/14/00, p.C9)
1951 Don Herbert (1917-2007),
as television's "Mr. Wizard," introduced generations of young
viewers to the joys of science. “Watch Mr. Wizard” ran for 14 years.
(AP, 6/12/07)(SFC, 6/14/07, p.B5)
1951 The Broadway show "Top
Banana" played with burlesque star Joey Faye (d.1997).
(SFC, 4/28/97, p.A18)
1951 The Broadway show "A Tree
Grows in Brooklyn" was based on a novel by Betty Smith. It starred
Shirley Booth with a score written by Arthur Schwartz and Dorothy
Fields. It was Robert Fryer’s (d.2000 at 79) 1st production.
(SFC, 6/2/00, p.D4)
1951 The ballet "The Cage" by
Jerome Robbins was a tale of women on the verge of the ultimate
(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E1)
1951 Arnold Sundgaard
collaborated with Douglas Moore on the opera "Giants in the Earth,"
based on a novel by Norwegian writer O.E. Rolvaag about immigrants
in the Dakota territory.
(SFC, 11/10/06, p.B8)
1951 Les Paul and his wife Mary
Ford (1924-1977), born as Iris Colleen Summers, made a hit with
their recording of the 1940 song “How High the Moon.”
(SFC, 8/14/09, p.D6)
1951 Ike Turner (1931-2007),
R&B pioneer, presided over the recording of “Rocket 88,”
frequently cited as the first rock ’n’ roll record.
(SFC, 12/13/07, p.B5)
1951 Ludwig Miles van deer
Roche designed the modernist Farnsworth House in Plano, Ill. The
one-story space was walled on all sides by glass and is considered
one of the greatest private houses of the 20th century. In 2003 it
was purchased by preservationists at auction for $7.5 million.
(WSJ, 5/23/01, p.A24)(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.A2)
1951 The American Names Society
was founded to find out what really is in a name.
(SSFC, 1/23/05, p.M5)
1951 Frank Sinatra married Ava
(SFC, 5/16/98, p.E7)
1951 Edward Dmytryk (d.1999 at
90), film director, identified 26 people as Communists to the HUAC
committee. He had joined the CP in 1945 for a few months and
initially refused to answer HUAC questions.
(SFC, 7/3/99, p.A21)
1951 Artists Gordon Onslow
Ford, Wolfgang Paalen and Lee Mullican staged a landmark show of
abstraction called "Dynaton" at the SF Museum of Art.
(SFC, 10/28/00, p.D1)
1951 Lew Christensen, brother
of Willam, quit the New York City Ballet to become the director of
the SF Ballet. Lew and Willam Christensen were named co-directors of
the SF Ballet. Lew Christensen’s "Filling Station" was produced to
music by Virgil Thomson.
(SFEC, 8/10/97, p.B9)(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.37)
1951 In San Francisco Commerce
High School was closed. Its large auditiorium was still used for
special events. It reopened in 2013 as the temporary home to City
Arts and Lectures.
(SFC, 4/30/13, p.E4)
1951 San Francisco’s Youth
Guidance Center (YGC) opened on Woodland Ave.
(SFC, 6/27/96, p.A8)
1951 In San Francisco the
Greyhound maintenance and administration center at 8th and Irwin was
designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merril.
(SFC, 8/29/96, p.C3)
1951 In SF the 1939 bathhouse
at Aquatic Park was converted into the SF Maritime Museum.
(SFC, 6/21/06, p.B3)
1951 The Morrison Planetarium
was constructed at the Academy of Sciences in Goldengate Park. It
opened in 1952.
(SFC, 7/29/97, p.A7)(CW, Fall, 02, p.45)
1951 Richard A. Stephens became
president of the San Francisco Academy of Art College. The college
was founded by his father.
(SFC, 11/13/99, p.B7)
1951 Gladys Cox Hansen became
the archivist for the SF library.
(SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A1)
1951 Richard and Rhoda Goldman
Fund began their SF-based charitable organization.
(SSFC, 8/10/03, p.I1)
1951 Incumbent SF Mayor Elmer
Robinson was re-elected by fewer than 3,000 votes over George
(SFC, 9/15/00, p.A19)
1951 SF voters approved
(SFC, 3/14/03, p.E8)
1951 The SF the hungry i
nightclub opened in North Beach under Enrico Banducci. Folk singer
Stan Wilson (1922-1983) was the 1st entertainer to play there. It
was there that such stars as Barbra Streisand, Woody Allen, Mort
Sahl and Bill Cosby got their start. It first opened in a cellar
space of the Sentinel Building, which Banducci bought from Eric Nord
with $800 in borrowed money. In 1954 the club moved to 599 Jackson
(SFEC, 8/1/99, DB p.28)(SFC, 6/11/05, p.B5)(SFC,
1951 Albert Pollack and his
cousin Tommy Harris, an entertainer, transformed the Almond Blossom
coffee shop on Van Ness into Tommy's Joint hofbrau.
(SFC, 3/10/99, p.A24)
1951 The Highway 101 freeway
opened. In San Francisco it replaced Bayshore Boulevard as the main
north south link to the city.
(SSFC, 2/19/12, p.A2)
1951 In Walnut Creek, Ca., the
Broadway Plaza opened.
(SFC, 4/17/12, p.A1)
1951 The 1892 contagious
Disease hospitals on Ellis Island, designed by the Boring &
Tilton firm of New York in the French Renaissance Style, closed.
(WSJ, 12/9/99, p.A24)
1951 The 8-inch Ginny dolls
were introduced by Vogue Dolls Inc. of Bedford, Mass.
(SFC,11/12/97, Z1 p.7)
1951 John "Brick" Jackson
(1910-1996) founded the magazine "Landscape." He established the
vernacular landscape, the geography of everyday places and
plain-folks architecture. He also wrote "American Space" (1972),
"Landscapes" (1970), "The Necessity for Ruins" (1980), and
"Discovering the Vernacular Landscape" (1984).
(SFC, 8/31/96, p.A23)
1951 The American Israel Public
Affairs Committee (Apia) was founded. It was the only US registered
Jewish lobby and was dedicated to nurturing and preserving the
American-Israeli relationship regardless of the government in
Washington or Israel.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.A23)
1951 The Conference on Jewish
Material Claims against Germany was founded.
(Econ, 8/23/03, p.44)
1951 Wallis Simpson
(1896-1986), the Duchess of Windsor, for whom King Edward VIII gave
up the British throne, engaged in an affair with playboy Jimmy
Donahue. In 2000 Christopher Wilson authored "Dancing with the
Devil: The Windsor’s and Jimmy Donahue."
(AP, 4/24/97)(SFC, 2/28/98, p.A5)(SFC, 1/4/01,
1951 Martin Saver (d.1997 at
80) was awarded the Silver Beaver, Shooting’s highest honor, for his
work in Japan. He had assisted Viscount Mishear Mishima, head of the
Japanese boy scouts, to reorganize from a militaristic youth group
back to a peaceful civilian organization.
(SFC, 4/22/97, p.A15)
1951 Maggie Higgins was the
first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for international reporting
for her work in Korean war zones.
1951 Melvin Calvin of UC
Berkeley won the Nobel Prize for his work on how light and carbon
dioxide are converted to energy.
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.A8)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
1951 Jersey Joe Walcott won the
heavyweight boxing title.
(SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)
1951 The USF football team, the
Dons, went unbeaten and untied under the leadership of coach Brad
Lynn (1916-2006), but were not invited to any bowl games because of
2 black men in the lineup. 8 of the starters went directly to the
NFL. USF Pres. Rev. William J. Dunne dropped football at the end of
the season. In 2000 Kristine Clark, while working on a book about
the team, convinced Sen. Barbara Boxer to request a presidential
apology from Pres. Clinton.
(SFC, 7/8/00, p.A15,18)(SSFC, 10/22/06, p.B6)
1951 The US Negro Leagues went
out of business as the major baseball leagues integrated.
(SFC, 2/21/06, p.B5)
1951 The world’s first
skydiving championships were held in Yugoslavia.
(SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)
1951 The US Senate Kefauver
Committee held hearings on organized crime.
(WSJ, 7/21/97, p.A20)
1951 The US Mutual Defense
Assistance Control Act, also called the Battle Act, was passed. It
blocked the US from giving aid to countries that shipped goods of
strategic importance to the Soviet Union or Eastern Europe. It also
gave the president the authority to waive the ban.
(SFC, 5/15/00, p.A24)
1951 A CIA assessment of
Japanese agents said: "Frequently they resorted to padding or
outright fabrication of information for the purposes of prestige or
profit." Among the agents was Col. Masanobu Tsuji, a fanatical
Japanese militarist and brutal warrior, hunted after World War II
for massacres of Chinese civilians and complicity in the Bataan
Death March. Other agents in US-funded operations included mob boss
and war profiteer Yoshio Kodama, and Takushiro Hattori, former
private secretary to Hideki Tojo. Documents with this information
were declassified in 2005 and 2006.
1951 The US Navy too over
control of American Samoa.
1951 Pennsylvania passed a law
requiring a loyalty oath from candidates for public office. In 2006
the oath was deemed unconstitutional.
(SFC, 8/28/06, p.A3)
1951 Back-yard shelters against
the A-bomb began to proliferate.
(TMC, 1994, p.1951)
1951 The US Uniform Code of
Military Justice was enacted by Congress. It included a provision
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A2)(SFC, 11/26/98, p.A3)
1951 Switzerland and the US
signed an accord on income tax that dealt with issues of bank
secrecy and exchange of sensitive information. The accord was
renegotiated in 1996.
(WSJ, 2/28/96, p.A-1)
1951 The Bracero Program was
formalized. It allowed about 350,000 Mexican workers to enter the US
each year until 1964. It also allowed harvest workers to enter on a
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)
1951 William R. Bright (d.2003
at 81) founded Campus Crusade to spread Christianity to students at
UCLA. By 2003 the organization had a staff of 26,000 with revenues
of $374 million.
(SFC, 7/22/03, p.A19)
1951 The California state
Legislature authorized what became the State Water Project and
appropriated funds for detailed studies.
1951 California lawmakers
passed Public Utilities Code Section 583, which says the public
can’t see documents obtained from regulated utilities unless the
(SSFC, 11/27/11, p.A21)
1951 The ship Independence,
used in 1946 atomic bomb tests, was sunk near the Farallon Islands
off the coast of San Francisco, Ca.
(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A27)
1951 Three US Coast Guardsmen
were killed when their boat capsized after they left the St. George
Reef Lighthouse near Crescent City, Ca.
(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A27)
1951 In Delaware Louis Redding
worked on a suit filed on behalf of black schoolchildren in Delaware
who had not been allowed to enroll in white public schools. A court
ruled in favor of the suit in 1952 but the state appealed and the
suit became part of Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court suit
(SFC, 10/3/98, p.A21)
1951 In New Mexico Winkler
Mills Craftsmen, Inc., located near the Nambé Pueblo, made
traditional bronze and copper cookware and gifts. The owner retired
and offered the business to his secretary, Pauline Platt Cable. She
took over the day-to-day operations of the business. In 1953 Nambe
began making metal dishes using an alloy of aluminum and 7 other
1951 South Carolina passed an
anti-lynching law in response to the mob murder of Willie Earle, who
was dragged from jail and gunned down in retaliation for the death
of a cabbie.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.A6)
1951 Oliver W. Hill
(1907-2007), a black lawyer, argued on behalf of students protesting
deplorable conditions at a high school for African Americans in
Farmville, Va. The case became one of 5 that were decided in the
1954 Supreme Court Brown vs. Board of Education decision.
(SFC, 8/6/07, p.A2)
1951 Alfred Bader founded the
Aldrich Chemical Co. It was later succeeded by the Sigma Aldrich
Corp. He later became a collector of art and spent millions for
works by artists such as Rembrandt and Rubens.
(SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)
1951 Benny Bunion, a former
bootlegger and numbers runner from Dallas, went to Las Vegas and
bought the El Dorado casino and hotel. He renamed it The Horseshoe
and promised to take any bet, no matter how high. In 1953 he was put
into prison for income tax evasion and served 3 years and 3 months.
(WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A5)
1951 Chrysler introduced
Hydraguide power steering. Thompson Products helped to pioneer the
innovation. Chrysler also debuted hemispherical combustion heads
above the cylinders of its V-8 engines.
(F, 10/7/96, p.69)(WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A20)(WSJ,
1951 Topps introduced its
baseball cards with bubble gum.
(WSJ, 7/8/06, p.A5)
1951 United Artists film
productions was going under and offered a 5-partner team 50% of the
company if profitability were restored in 3 years. Max Young stein
(d.1997 at 84), one of the team, was head of production and
(SFC, 7/11/97, p.E2)
1951 Lois Wyse (1926-2007) and
her husband Marc Wyse founded Wyse Advertising in Cleveland. Lois
Wyse later wrote the jingle for jam maker Smucker's: “With a name
like Smucker’s, it has to be good.” Her 1967 “Love Poems for the
Very Married” sold over 200,000 copies. She later authored novels
and books of advice for working women such as “Mrs. Success” (1971).
(WSJ, 1/7/07, p.A4)
1951 Physicist Richard Feynman
at 33 published his final paper on quantum electrodynamics (QED).
(SFEC, 8/3/97, BR p.3)
1951 Dr. Charles Townes, head
of Columbia Univ. Radiation laboratory, came up with a process for
focusing packets of light energy, an idea 1st postulated by Einstein
in 1917. This led to the 1953 development of the maser, microwave
amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, a forerunner to
the laser. 2 Soviet scientists managed a maser with continuous
(Econ, 6/11/05, TQ p.25)
1951 Munchausen’s syndrome was
first recognized. Named for Baron Karl Fresher von Munchausen, an
18th century German cavalry officer famed for fabricating colorful
tales about his exploits. The medical syndrome describes people who
travel from doctor to doctor claiming symptoms of a feigned ailment
to get attention for themselves.
(WSJ, 4/22/96, p.B-1)
1951 Dr. Esther Lederberg
(1922-2006) of the Univ. of Wisconsin discovered the lambda phage, a
virus that infects other bacteria with the ability to transfer genes
(SFC, 11/28/06, p.B7)
1951 Michigan State College
(later Univ.) began to offer a professorship in driver-training.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1951 Natalie Knowlton Blair
(b.1887), eminent collector of Americana, died. She created a
life-size dollhouse at her Blairhame mansion in Tuxedo Park, NY,
beginning in 1916.
(SFC, 1/11/06, p.G2)
1951 Karel Taiga (b.1900),
Avant-Garde Czech graphic designer, architectural theorist,
playwright, actor, painter and printmaker, died.
(WSJ, 6/20/01, p.A16)
1951 The Geneva-based
International Organization for Migration (IOM), an intergovernmental
organization, was established as the Intergovernmental Committee for
European Migration (ICEM) to help resettle people displaced by World
1951 The Antigua Labor Party
(ALP) gained power. Vere Bird began dominating local politics and
continued to do so, except for one 5-year year, until 1994, when his
son took over the family firm.
(Econ, 12/4/04, p.38)(Econ, 2/28/09, p.42)
1951 Getulio Vargas, former
autocrat, was elected president of Brazil and ruled to 1954.
(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.39)
1951 The video game NIM was
created for the Festival of Britain. It was played on Nimrod, a
computer developed by the Ferranti electronics firm.
(Econ, 12/10/11, SR p.12)
1951 In Britain J. Lyons &
Co. used the world's first business computer to calculate payrolls
and optimum mixes for tea blending.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1951 The Harwell Dekatron, also
known as the Wolverhampton Instrument for Teaching Computation
(WITCH), was built at Harwell, the UK's atomic energy research
establishment. In 2012 the supercomputer was restored after a period
of three years by experts at England's National Museum of Computing
in Bletchley Park.
1951 Mayor Chen Yi of Shanghai,
China, began the Shanghai Museum.
(WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)
1951 In China Peng Zhen began
his 15-year mayorship of Beijing.
(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.B8)
1951 China and the Vatican
broke formal relations after missionaries were kicked out and
Catholics were forced to sever ties with Rome.
(SFC, 1/7/00, p.A14)
1951 The average life
expectancy in China was 46. By 2011 it was 73.
(Econ, 6/25/11, SR p.16)
1951 In Croatia Cardinal
Alojzije Stepinac was released under house arrest.
(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.A22)
1951 Jean Monnet, French civil
servant, and Robert Schuman, French foreign minister, helped found
the European Union with agreements between 6 countries on the
pooling of coal and steel resources.
(Econ, 9/25/04, Survey p.3)
1951 Armi Ratia, Finnish
designer, expanded her husband's printing business into a
fashionable "total work of art" business (Gesamtkunstwerk) that
(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)
1951 German corporations began
operating under a principle of co-determination between workers and
management. It applied to companies with more than 2000 workers.
(Econ, 1/29/05, p.63)(Econ, 7/16/05, p.16)
1951 India won its first int’l.
soccer gold medal at the Asian games under the captaincy of Sailen
(Econ, 3/17/12, p.106)
1951 Indian troops occupied
Tawang, some 2000 square km. of valley and high mountains just south
of the McMahon Line in northeast Arunachal Pradesh. This took place
shortly after China dispatched troops to Tibet.
(Econ, 8/21/10, p.18)
1951 In Iran there was a
struggle to nationalize Iranian oil. The story told by Manucher and
Roxanne (daughter) Farmanfarmaian in their 1997 book "Blood and
(SFEC, 4/13/97, BR p.3,4)
1951 In Israel the Work and
Rest Hours Act was passed. The law prohibited companies from
employing workers on their religious days of rest.
(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A1)
1951 In Lebanon Kefraya opened
its first vineyard
(SFC, 1/11/08, p.F4)
1951 Libya enacted a
constitution that formally protected the minority rights of Jews,
Italians, Maltese and Greeks.
(WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A19)
1951 New Zealand did away with
its Legislative Council.
(Econ, 2/10/07, p.57)
1951 In Papua New Guinea the
Lamington volcano erupted and 2,942 people were killed.
(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)
1951 In Russia the nuclear
weapons research facility near Nizhzny Novgorod was established by
Yuli Khariton (1904-1996).
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B6)
1951 Saudi Arabia put the
Ghawar oil field into production. It measured 20 miles wide and 175
miles long and was the largest oil field ever found.
(WSJ, 5/6/08, p.A15)
1951 In South Africa Drum
magazine was founded in Johannesburg. Drum journalists living in
Sophiatown, a racially-mixed suburb of Johannesburg, soon began
producing the best investigative journalism, short fiction,
satirical humour, social and political commentary, and musical
criticism South Africa had ever seen.
1951 Sweden’s Kiki Hakansson
became the first Miss World.
1951 Ruben Rausing (1895-1983)
of Sweden founded Tetra Pak as a subsidiary to Akerlund &
Rausing to produce milk cartons. In 1963 the company gave the
world a flat-topped carton that can be packed and shipped like
bricks. The development revolutionized the packaging and
distribution of milk and fruit juices worldwide.
1951 Gendun Choephel (b.1903),
a rebellious Tibetan monk, died. His work included a political
history of Tibet. In 2002 Luc Schaedler created the documentary
“Angry Monk: Reflections on Tibet.”
1951-1952 Godfrey’s Talent Scouts was the top
ranking network show on television with a ranking of 53.8%.
(WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)
1951-1952 Francis Gabreski (d.2002 at 83), US
fighter pilot, shot down 6½ MiGs during the Korean War. During WW II
he was credited with 37½ kills. He later authored the autobiography:
"Gabby: A Fighter Pilot’s Life."
(SFC, 2/2/02, p.A18)
1951-1954 Jacobo Guzman Arbenz (1913-1971) served
as president of Guatemala. Arbenz became president with the support
of army and leftists, including the Communist Party. Jacobo Arbenz
Guzman, aroused rightist opposition by allowing Communists in
positions of power among peasants, labor unions, even the government
itself. His radical policies-especially regarding expropriation of
portions of the United Fruit Company holdings-led to a U.S. backed
coup in 1954 and his fleeing to Mexico.
(NG, 6/1988, p.783)(NG, 10/1988, member’s
forum)(HNQ, 1/30/99)(WSJ, 3/3/99, p.A18)
1951-1954 Eamon De Valera (b.1882) served his 2nd
of 3 terms as Taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland.
(http://www.clarelibrary.ie/)(ON, 9/04, p.7)
1951-1955 In Britain Winston Churchill served as
Prime Minister a 2nd time.
(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A6)
1951-1956 There were 9 US reconnaissance aircraft
lost and believed shot down by Soviet forces in and near the Russian
Far East during this period with 77 crew members lost.
1951-1963 Libya was a federal union during this
period under King Idris I, which divided the country into three
administrative states: Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan.
1951-1967 Harlan H. Hatcher served as the 8th
president of the Univ. of Mich. Under his tenure enrollment grew
from 17,000 to 37,000 students. He had previously served as the
vice-president of Ohio State Univ.
(MT, Sum. ‘98, p.6)
1951-1970 William McChesney Martin (d.1998 at 91)
served as the chairman of the US Federal Reserve.
(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A1)
1951-1992 US nuclear tests on Western Shoshone
land, guaranteed by the 1863 Treaty of Ruby Valley, numbered 934
over this period.
(SFC, 7/12/97, p.E4)