Return to home1957 Jan 1,
The state of Saarland, established in 1920 in accordance with the
Treaty of Versailles, joined the Federal Republic of West Germany.
The Nazis had called the area "Westmark." After World War II the
Saarland had come under French administration.
1957 Jan 2, The SF Stock
Exchange merged with the Los Angeles Stock Exchange and formed the
Pacific Coast Stock Exchange.
(SFC, 7/24/98, p.B1)
1957 Jan 3, The Hamilton Watch
Company was the first to introduce an electric watch in Lancaster,
1957 Jan 5, President
Eisenhower, in an address to Congress, proposed offering military
assistance to Middle Eastern countries so they could resist
Communist aggression; this became known as the Eisenhower Doctrine.
1957 Jan 6, Elvis Presley made
another appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show.
1957 Jan 7, Katie Couric,
[Katherine], TV news host (Today), was born in Arlington, VA.
1957 Jan 9, British PM Anthony
Eden resigned in the wake of the Suez crises.
(AP, 1/9/99)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.23)
1957 Jan 10, Rev. Martin Luther
King Jr. organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) to fight facial segregation by means of nonviolent protests.
In 1986 David J. Garrow authored u0093Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther
King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.u0094
(ON, 4/2011, p.4,5)
1957 Jan 10, Harold Macmillan
became prime minister of Britain, following the resignation of
1957 Jan 12, Harry Belafonte
recorded "The Banana Boat Song."
(SFC, 7/11/97, p.D18)
1957 Jan 13, The Wham-O Company
produced the 1st Frisbee. It was initially called the Pluto Platter.
(SFC, 7/1/02, p.B5)(MC, 1/13/02)
1957 Jan 14, Humphrey Bogart
(57), actor, died in Los Angeles of cancer of the esophagus. His
many films included u0093Casablancau0094 and u0093Caine Mutiny.u0094
(SFEC, 5/18/97, Par p.6)(AP, 1/14/07)
1957 Jan 16, Three B-52's
(accompanied at first by two spare aircraft) took off from Castle
Air Force Base in California on the first nonstop, round-the-world
flight by jet planes, which lasted 45 hours and 19 minutes.
1957 Jan 16, Arturo Toscanini
(b.1867), Italian-US conductor (NBC), died in NYC. He led the NBC
Symphony from 1937-1954. In 1978 Harvey Sachs wrote his biography.
In 2002 Sachs edited "The Letters of Arturo Toscanini," his
correspondence with Ada Mainardi.
3/25/01)(WSJ, 4/30/02, p.D7)
1957 Jan 17, A 9-county
commission recommended the creation of BART, the SF Bay Area Rapid
1957 Jan 18, A trio of B-52's
completed the first nonstop, round-the-world flight by jet planes,
landing at March Air Force Base in California after more than 45
1957 Jan 19, Pat Boone sang at
President Eisenhower's inaugural ball.
1957 Jan 20, President
Eisenhower and Vice President Nixon were sworn in for their second
terms of office in a private Sunday ceremony. A public ceremony was
held the next day.
1957 Jan 21, US Pres.
Eisenhower was inaugurated.
(EWH, 1968, p.1210)
1957 Jan 22, Suspected "Mad
Bomber" George P. Metesky, accused of planting more than 30
explosive devices in the New York City area, was arrested in
Waterbury, Conn. He was later found mentally ill and committed to a
mental hospital; he was released in 1973, and died in 1994 at age
(AP, 1/22/98)(AP, 1/22/04)
1957 Jan 22, Israel completed
its evacuation of Egyptian territory, excepting the Gaza Strip and
the area of Aqaba.
(EWH, 1968, p.1242)
1957 Jan 23, Princess Caroline
of Monaco, was born.
1957 Jan 23, Willie Edwards
(25), US black, was murdered by KKK.
1957 Jan, France began sending
troops to Algeria to crush the rebel movement in what came to be
called "The Battle for Algiers."
(SFC, 5/11/01, p.D4)
1957 Feb 1, Friedrich von
Paulus (66), German field marshal (Stalingrad), died.
1957 Feb 5, Joseph Benson
Hardaway (b.1895), animation director and voice actor, died.
Nicknamed "Bugs," he was instrumental in naming the character "Bugs
Bunny" when, while working on the film short "Hare-um, Scare-um," an
animator handed him a model sheet of the rabbit character.
1957 Feb 12, Researchers
announced the development of Borazan, a substance harder than
1957 Feb 14, The Georgia Senate
approved Sen Leon Butts' bill barring blacks from playing baseball
(HN, 2/14/98)(MC, 2/14/02)
1957 Feb 14, The u0093Southern
Leadership Conferenceu0094 was formed in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Officers were elected which included: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as
President, Dr. Ralph David Abernathy as Financial
Secretary-Treasurer, Rev. C. K. Steele of Tallahassee, Florida as
Vice President, Rev. T. J. Jemison of Baton Rouge, Louisiana as
Secretary, and Attorney I. M. Augustine of New Orleans, Louisiana as
General Counsel. In August the name was changed to "Southern
Christian Leadership Conference" at its first convention in
1957 Feb 15, Andrei Gromyko
replaced Dmitri T. Shepilov as the Soviet Foreign Minister.
1957 Feb 16, LeVar Burton,
(Roots, Star Trek Next Generation), was born in Landstuhl, Germany.
1957 Feb 16, A U.S. flag flew
over an outpost in Wilkes Land, Antarctica.
1957 Feb 17, Suez Canal
1957 Feb 18, Robert Mitchum
recorded "Robert Mitchum Calypso - Is Like So," with Mitchum singing
a kind of pidgin English.
(SFC, 7/11/97, p.D18)
1957 Feb 22, A skull was found
by a crew digging a trench for an air conditioning system in
downtown LA. The site was later planned to be used for a new Roman
Catholic cathedral. An anthropologist identified the skull onsite as
characteristic of native Americans prior to the Spanish arrival.
Native Indian groups later contended the site a possible ancient
burial ground and held up the construction plans. In 1997 the skull
was reported lost.
1957 Feb 25, Buddy Holly and
the Crickets recorded "That'll Be the Day."
1957 Feb 25, The US Supreme
Court, in Butler v. Michigan, overturned a Michigan statute making
it a misdemeanor to sell books containing obscene language that
would tend to corrupt "the morals of youth."
1957 Feb 25, Supreme Court
decided 6-3 that baseball is the only antitrust exempt pro sport.
1957 Feb 25, Nobosuke Kishi
(1896-1987) began serving as prime minister of Japan. He continued
for 2 terms to Jul 19, 1960.
1957 Feb 27, Mao made his
speech "On Correct Handling of Contradictions Among People."
1957 Feb, Basil Hirschowitz
(b.1925), South Africa born gastroenterologist, introduced the first
prototype u0093fiberscope.u0094 He had begun work using glass fibers to
transmit light in 1954 while at the Univ. of Michigan. Fiber optics
later revolutionized telecommunications and surgery.
1957 Mar 1, "Ziegfeld Follies
of 1957" opened at Winter Garden NYC for 123 performances.
1957 Mar 1, Kokomo the Chimp
became the Today Show animal editor.
1957 Mar 2, Boxer Carlos Ortiz
won a technical knockout against Lou Filippo (1925-2009). Filippo
was originally awarded a victory in the 1st bout against Ortiz after
being hit after the bell, but a Times reporter questioned a member
of the California State Athletic Commission about that ruling, and
the no-contest decision was invoked. Filippo lost the next fight to
Ortiz about a month later, and retired at 23-9-3 with 8 knockouts
and one no-contest. Both were later named to the Boxing Hall of
Fame. Filippo went on to play a role in all five of the u0093Rockyu0094
1957 Mar 3, Corry Brokken won
Eurovision Song festival with "Just as then."
1957 Mar 5, Britain adopted a
plan to triple nuclear energy production by 1965.
1957 Mar 5, Eamon de Valera's
Fianna Fail-party won election in Ireland. DeValera (1882-1975) was
elected Taoiseach (prime minister) and served his 3rd term as PM.
1957 Mar 6, The former British
African colonies of the Gold Coast and Togoland became the
independent state of Ghana. Ghana, led by Kwame Nkrumah, gained
independence from Britain. US VP Nixon and Martin Luther King
attended the independence ceremony.
(SFC, 12/6/96, p.B1)(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.15)(SSFC,
1957 Mar 8, Israeli troops left
Egypt. Suez Canal re-opened for minor ships.
1957 Mar 9, An 8.1 earthquake
shook the Andreanof Islands, Alaska.
1957 Mar 9, Egyptian leader
Nasser barred U.N. plans to share the tolls for the use of the Suez
1957 Mar 10, Thousands of
soccer fans rioted in Italy.
1957 Mar 11, Charles Van
Doren's 14-week run on the rigged NBC game show "Twenty-One" ended
as he was "defeated" by attorney Vivienne Nearing; Van Doren's take
1957 Mar 11, American explorer
Richard E. Byrd died in Boston at age 68.
1957 Mar 12, German DR accepted
22 Russian armed divisions.
1957 Mar 12, In Israel Rudolf
Kasztner, hailed by admirers as a Holocaust hero for saving
thousands of Jews, was assassinated by Jewish extremists. Critics
had reviled him as a collaborator who "sold his soul." Kasztner, a
Zionist leader in Hungary during World War II, headed the Relief and
Rescue Committee, a small Jewish group that negotiated with Nazi
officials to rescue Hungarian Jews in exchange for money, goods and
1957 Mar 13, The FBI arrested
Jimmy Hoffa on bribery charges.
1957 Mar 13, Bloody battles
followed an anti-Batista demonstration in Havana, Cuba.
1957 Mar 15, Burton Abbot was
executed for the 1955 abduction and killing of 14-year-old Stephanie
(SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C17)
1957 Mar 16, Constantin
Brancusi (b.1876), Romanian-born French sculptor, died. He willed
his studio and work to France.
1957 Mar 17, In the Philippines
a plane crash on Mt. Manunggal in Cebu killed Pres. Ramon Magsaysay
(b.1907). 25 of the 26 passengers and crew aboard were killed.
1957 Mar 19, Pete Seibert
(1924-2002) climbed to a summit in the Colorado Rockies with Earl
Eaton, a uranium prospector, and beheld the area that he later
turned into the Vail ski resort.
(SFC, 7/29/02, p.B5)
1957 Mar 20, Shelton 'Spike'
Lee, film director (Do the Right Thing, Malcolm X), was born.
1957 Mar 20, In Washington
state the Dalles Dam pushed back the Columbia River to reap the
benefits of hydroelectric power. In six hours the islands of Celilo
Falls were gone forever beneath a mockingly tranquil reservoir pool.
1957 Mar 20, Britain accepted a
NATO offer to mediate in Cyprus, but Greece rejected it.
1957 Mar 21, Tennessee
Williams' "Orpheus Descending," premiered in NYC.
1957 Mar 21, US President
Eisenhower and British PM Harold Macmillan began a four-day
conference in Bermuda.
1957 Mar 21, Vice President
Nixon returned to the U.S. after spending three weeks on a tour of
1957 Mar 22, An earthquake,
centered in Daly City, Ca., hit the SF Bay Area and caused extensive
damage to Maryu0092s Help Hospital.
(Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)(CW, Winter 04, p.45)(DCFD,
1957 Mar 23, US army sold its
last homing pigeons.
1957 Mar 25, US Police and
customs agents seized copies of u0093Howlu0094 by Allen Ginsberg. In May
Ferlinghetti was arrested along with City Lights manager Shigeyoshi
Murao (d.1999) on obscenity charges. The defending attorney was J.W.
Ehrlich. By the Fall Judge Clayton Horn found the poem of "redeeming
social importance." Shig later managed City Lights and authored the
occasional "Shig's Review." In 2006 Bill Morgan and Nancy J. Peters
edited u0093Howl On Trial: The Battle for Free Expression.u0094
(SFEC, 11/28/99, BR
p.10)(www.citylights.com/His/CLhowlhist.html)(SSFC, 11/5/06, p.M3)
1957 Mar 25, The Treaties
establishing the European Economic Community and the European Atomic
Energy Community were signed in Rome. The Treaty of Rome enabled
people, goods, services and money to move unchecked throughout the
Union. The Council of Ministers represents the governments of the
members. Major decisions are made by the Council of Foreign
Ministers. A 20-member Commission composed of appointed
representatives of each member state serves as the administrative
arm and members represent the Union. The Commission proposes and
executes laws and policies. A European Parliament is composed of 626
members elected by the electorates of the member states and they sit
in party groups. The Commission proposes, the Parliament advises,
and the Council decides. The goal was to create a common market for
all products but especially coal and steel.
1957 Mar 27, In the 29th
Academy Awards "Around the World in 80 Days" won the Academy Award
for best picture; Yul Brynner won best actor for "The King and I,"
Ingrid Bergman was awarded best actress for "Anastasia" and George
Stevens received best director for "Giant."
1957 Mar 29, Joyce A.L. Cary
(68), English writer (Horse's Mouth), died.
1957 Mar 30, Tunisia and
Morocco signed a friendship treaty in Rabat.
1957 Mar 31, The original
version of Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Cinderella," starring Julie
Andrews, aired live in color on CBS.
1957 Apr 3, Samuel Beckett's
"Endgame," premiered in London.
1957 Apr 6, NYC ended trolley
1957 Apr 7, The last of New
York Cityu0092s electric trolleys completed its final run from the
cityu0092s borough of Queens to Manhattan.
1957 Apr 10, John Osborneu0092s
play u0093The Entertainer,u0094 starring Laurence Olivier, opened in London.
1957 Apr 10, Egypt reopened the
Suez Canal to all shipping traffic. The canal had been closed due to
wreckage resulting from the Suez Crisis.
1957 Apr 11, The Ryan X-13
Vertijet became the 1st jet to take-off and land vertically.
1957 Apr 13, The
jury-deliberation movie drama "12 Angry Men," starring Henry Fonda,
opened in New York.
1957 Apr 13, Due to lack of
funds, Saturday mail delivery in US was temporarily halted.
1957 Apr 15, Saturday mail
delivery was restored after Congress gave the PO $41 million.
1957 Apr 21, In the 11th Tony
Awards: Long Day's Journey into Night and My Fair Lady won.
Edie Adams won a Tony award for supporting actress as Daisy Mae in
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/11th_Tony_Awards)(SFC, 10/17/08, p.A2)
1957 Apr 27, Mario A. Gianini,
creator of the maraschino cherry, died.
1957 Apr 29, The 1st military
nuclear power plant was dedicated at Fort Belvoir, Va.
1957 Apr, Ricky Nelson sang his
version of u0093Iu0092m Walkinu0094 by Fats Domino on u0093The Adventures of Ozzie
and Harrietu0094 TV show.
(SSFC, 1/15/06, p.C1)
1957 Apr, Mao experimented
under the slogan: u0093Let a hundred flowers bloom, and a hundred
schools of thought contend." Alarmed at the resulting barrage of
criticism, he reversed course and some 300,000 of intellectuals were
jailed or sent to the countryside to do manual labor.
1957 Apr, Jordan's
Western-allied King Hussein suspended parliament for four years
after an attempted leftist coup.
1957 May 2, Crime boss Frank
Costello narrowly survived an attempt on his life in New York; the
alleged gunman, Vincent "The Chin" Gigante, was acquitted at trial
after Costello refused to identify him as the shooter.
1957 May 2, Sen. Joseph R.
McCarthy (48), the controversial Republican from Wisconsin, died at
Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland. McCarthy drank himself to
(AP, 5/2/97)(WSJ, 2/9/00, p.A26)
1957 May 3, A low flying Navy
bomber, while practicing evasion maneuvers, sheared two high-voltage
lines in the East Bay of San Francisco causing a power outage in SF
and the Peninsula.
(SFC, 5/4/09, p.B2)
1957 May 4, It was reported
that NATO has warned the Soviet Union that it would meet any attack
with all available meads including nuclear weapons.
(SFC, 5/4/09, p.B2)
1957 May 4, The Anne Frank
Foundation formed in Amsterdam.
1957 May 6, Eugene O'Neill's
play "Long Day's Journey into Night" won the Pulitzer Prize for
drama; John F. Kennedy's "Profiles in Courage" won the Pulitzer for
biography or autobiography.
1957 May 6, Last broadcast of
"I Love Lucy" on CBS-TV. [see Jun 24]
1957 May 9, Ezio F. Pinza,
Italian bass (La Scala of Milan, NY Met Opera, Broadway musicals),
1957 May 9, Heinrich Campendonk
(b.1889), German-born Dutch artist and a member of the Der Blaue
Reiter group (1911-1912), died.
1957 May 10, Sid Vicious, [John
Simon Ritchie], bassist (Sex Pistols), was born in England.
1957 May 10, Gabriel París
Gordillo (1910-2008) began serving as President of Colombia and as
Chairman of the Colombian Military Junta Government following the
1957 Coup d'état. He was succeeded in August, 1958, by Alberto
1957 May 12, Erich von Stroheim
(b.1885), Austrian-US actor and director, died of cancer in Paris.
His films included "Grand Illusion," "The Merry Widow," and "Greed."
In 2000 Arthur Lennig published the biography "Stroheim."
1957 May 13, Jean Peters
(d.2000 at 73), actress, married Howard Hughes (51) in Tonopah, Nev.
(SFC, 10/21/00, p.A24)
1957 May 15, The 1st British
hydrogen bomb was detonated on Christmas Island in South Pacific.
The 200 - 300 kilotons yield was less than expected.
1957 May 16, Pope Pius XII
published his encyclical Invicti Athletae.
1957 May 18, In the 83rd
Preakness: Eddie Arcaro aboard Bold Ruler won in 1:56.2.
1957 May 22, South Africa
government approved race separation in universities.
1957 May 24, Anti-American
rioting broke out in Taipei, Taiwan.
1957 May 25, "Shinbone Alley"
closed at Broadway Theater in NYC after 49 performances.
1957 May 28, The National
League approved the move of the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants
baseball teams to Los Angeles and San Francisco.
1957 May 29, British-born
Hollywood director James Whale ("Frankenstein") was found dead in
his swimming pool, a suicide; he was 67.
1957 May 29, Algerian rebels
killed 336 collaborators.
1957 May 29, Laos Government of
prince Suvanna Phuma resigned.
1957 May 29, George Bacovia
[Vasiliu] Romanian poet, composer (Plumb), died at 75.
1957 May 30, In California
Santau0092s Village, a Christmas theme park, opened in Scotts Valley. It
filed for bankruptcy in 1977 and finally closed in 1979.
1957 May, Frank Lloyd Wright
(89) traveled to Iraq to design an opera house for Baghdad. His
multi-building scheme was never built.
(WSJ, 8/20/03, p.D12)
1957 May, Two US fighter planes
were scrambled and ordered to shoot down an unidentified flying
object (UFO) over the English countryside. This was only made public
on Oct 20, 2008, when Britain made public secret files on UFOs.
1957 Jun 7, Mrs. Elizabeth S.
Kingsley, double-Crostic puzzle creator, died.
1957 Jun 8, Mao ordered an
"anti-rightist" witch hunt and Deng Xiaoping executed it.
1957 Jun 10, John Diefenbaker,
Progressive Conservative Party, was elected PM of Canada. He served
(CFA, '96, p.81)(HN, 9/18/98)(MC, 6/10/02)
1957 Jun 10, Harold MacMillan
became British PM.
1957 Jun 11, 12 died in a train
crash in Vroman, Colo.
1957 Jun 12, Bandleader Jimmy
Dorsey (53) died in New York.
1957 Jun 13, The Mayflower 2, a
replica of the ship that brought the Pilgrims to America in 1620,
arrived at Plymouth, Mass., after a nearly two-month journey from
1957 Jun 16, There was a French
offensive in Algeria.
1957 Jun 17, The Tuskegee
boycott began as Blacks boycotted city stores.
1957 Jun 17, Mob underboss
Frank Scalice was shot to death at a produce market in the Bronx,
1957 Jun 19, Walt Disneyu0092s
movie "Johnny Tremain" was released in movie theaters.
1957 Jun 24, "I Love Lucy,"
last aired on CBS-TV. [see May 6]
1957 Jun 24, A 37-kiloton
nuclear fission bomb, code-named Priscilla, was exploded in the
Nevada desert at Frenchman Flat. The security of a bank vault was
tested in the experiment. At this time the US was manufacturing 10
nuclear bombs a day.
(SSFC, 8/22/04, p.E1)
1957 Jun 26, Hurricane Audrey
hit Louisiana earlier than expected. It left at least 390 people
dead with 192 missing in Louisiana and Texas.
(SFC, 6/26/09, p.D10)
1957 Jun 27, More than 500
people were killed after Hurricane Audrey slammed through coastal
Louisiana and Texas.
1957 Jun 27, Malcolm Lowry
(b.1909), English novelist, died in Sussex, England. He is best
known for his novel u0093Under the Volcanou0094 (1947). In 2007 Michael
Hofmann edited u0093The Voyage That Never Ends: Malcolm Lowry in His Own
1957 Jun 30, The American
occupation headquarters in Japan was dissolved.
1957 Jul 1, The International
Geophysical Year, an 18-month global scientific study, began. 12
nations established over 60 stations in Antarctica. The beginning of
international cooperation in Antarctica and the start of the process
by which Antarctica becomes "non-national."
1957 Jul 2, Mike Anger, rocker
(The Blow Monkeys-Wicked Ways), was born.
1957 Jul 2, The Seawolf, the
1st submarine powered by liquid metal cooled reactor, was completed.
1957 Jul 2, Grayback, the 1st
submarine designed to fire guided missiles, was launched.
1957 Jul 4, In Italy the new 13
horsepower Fiat 500 (Cinquecento) was launched in Turin. In 1965
Fiat introduced the 500 F model. The car could get 58 mpg from its
(Econ, 7/14/07, p.69)(SSFC, 5/1/11, p.J1)(SFC,
1957 Jul 6, Althea Gibson
(1927-2003) became the first black tennis player to win a Wimbledon
singles title, defeating fellow American Darlene Hard 6-3, 6-2.
(AP, 7/6/97)(SFC, 9/29/03, p.A1)
1957 Jul 8, Irish premier Eamon
de Valera arrested Sinn-Fein leaders.
1957 Jul 8, William Cadbury
(89), chocolate maker, died.
1957 Jul 12, The U.S. surgeon
general, Leroy E. Burney (d.1998 at 91), reported that there is a
direct link between smoking and lung cancer. Dr. John Altshuler
(1931-2004) co-researched the "Joint Report of Study Group on
Smoking and Health," published by the US Public Health Service.
(HN, 7/12/98)(SFC, 8/5/98, p.A17)(SFC, 2/7/04,
1957 Jul 12, Santa Susana in
Los Angeles County began receiving the nationu0092s first commercial
electricity from a small, civilian-owned, nuclear reactor. It was
shut down in 1964 and scientists later reported that the plant might
be responsible hundreds of cancer cases. PG&E had teamed with
General Electric to establish the Vallecitos atomic energy plant,
the worldu0092s 1st privately owned and operated nuclear facility.
(SFC, 4/7/01, p.A5)(SSFC, 4/8/07, p.A18)
1957 Jul 14, Soviet steamer
"Eshghbad" sank in Caspian Sea and 270 drowned.
1957 Jul 15, James M. Cox
(b.1870), 3-time Ohio governor and founder of Cox Enterprises, died.
Cox was defeated in the 1920 Presidential Election by fellow Ohioan
Senator Warren G. Harding of Marion, Ohio. He left his family a
business that included broadcast properties and a string of
1957 Jul 16, Marine Maj. John
Glenn set a transcontinental speed record when he flew a jet from
California to New York in 3 hours, 23 minutes and 8 seconds.
1957 Jul 17, Leona Gage
(1939-2010) of Maryland won the Miss USA title as part of the Miss
Universe Pageant in Long Beach, Ca. Officials soon stripped her of
the title after learning that she was a mother of two and had lied
about her age.
1957 Jul 17, Lila Bliss found
her daughter, Juliette Hampton Morgan (b.1914), dead next to an
empty bottle of sleeping pills. In 1936 Juliette had signed a pledge
with other women in Montgomery, Alabama, to no longer remain silent
in the face of crime done in their name. In 2007 Mary Stanton
authored u0093Journey Toward Justice,u0094 a biography of Juliette Hampton
(WSJ, 2/17/07, p.P13)
1957 Jul 22, Walter "Fred"
Morrison applied for a patent for a "flying toy" which became known
as the Frisbee.
1957 Jul 22, In El Segundo,
Ca., 2 police officers were shot and killed after pulling over a car
for running a red light. Gerald Mason (68) was arrested in 2003
following fingerprint ID from a new FBI database.
(SFC, 1/30/03, p.A5)
1957 Jul 23, Giuseppe Tomasi di
Lampedusa (b.1896), Sicilian aristocrat and writer, died. His
classic novel u0093Il Gattopardou0094 (The Leopard), was published in 1958.
It included the line: u0093If we want things to stay as they are, things
will have to change.u0094 David Gilmour later authored the biography
u0093The Last Leopardu0094 (1991).
(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P24)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.61)
1957 Jul 25, The monarchy in
Tunisia was abolished in favor of a republic.
1957 Jul 26, Pres. Carlos
Castillo Armas of Guatemala was assassinated.
(WUD, 1994, p.1685)
1957 Jul 26, USSR launched the
1st intercontinental multistage ballistic missile.
1957 Jul 28, The Situationist
International (SI) was formed at a meeting in the Italian village of
Cosio d'Arroscia with the fusion of several extremely small
avant-garde artistic tendencies: the Lettrist International, the
International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus (an off-shoot of
COBRA), and the London Psychogeographical Association. The groups
came together intending to reawaken the radical political potential
of surrealism. The group also later drew ideas from the left
communist group Socialisme ou Barbarie.
1957 Jul 28, The 6th World
Youth Festival opened in Moscow with the motto u0093For Peace and
Friendship.u0094 Some 34,000 participated from 131 countries. The 1st
such conference was held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1947. This
festival also marked the international debut of the song "Moscow
Nights", which subsequently went on to become perhaps the most
widely recognized Russian song in the world.
1957 Jul 29, The International
Atomic Energy Agency was established.
1957 Jul 29, Jack Paar made his
debut as host of NBCu0092s late-night TV show "Tonight" and stayed on
(WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A16)(SFC, 5/7/97, p.E1)(AP,
1957 Jul 31, The Distant Early
Warning Line, a system of radar stations designed to detect Soviet
bombers approaching North America, went into operation.
1957 Jul, Two "unarmed" nuclear
bombs were dropped off Cape May, N.J., by a cargo plane that
developed engine trouble. They were never found.
(SFEC, 11/22/98, Par p.22)
1957 Jul, Work began on San
Franciscou0092s Central Freeway with construction costs at $7.8 million.
It opened in 1959.
(SFC, 8/21/96, p.A16)(SFC, 1/3/07, p.B1)
1957 Aug 1, The United States
and Canada reached agreement to create the North American Air
Defense Command (NORAD).
1957 Aug 1, Lewis Hill (b.1919)
committed suicide in Duncan Mills, Sonoma County, Ca. He had helped
found Pacifica Radio (KPFA).
1957 Aug 5, "American
Bandstand," a teenage dance show hosted by Dick Clark (1929-2012) in
Philadelphia, made its network debut on ABC-TV.
(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.B1)(SFC, 11/10/99, p.E3)(AP,
8/5/07)(SFC, 4/19/12, p.C5)
1957 Aug 6, The Japanese Nikkei
Index pulled ahead of the Dow Jones Index. The Nikkei peaked at
38,915 on Dec 31, 1989.
(WSJ, 9/5/01, p.C1)
1957 Aug 7, Oliver Hardy (65),
the heavier half of the Laurel and Hardy comedy team, died in North
1957 Aug 11, Paul Hindemith's
opera "Harmonie der Welt," premiered in Munich.
1957 Aug 15, The musical "West
Side Story," composed by Leonard Bernstein and based on a concept by
Jerome Robbins, first opened in Washington D.C. The story was by
Arthur Laurents and the lyrics were by Stephen Sondheim.
(SFEM, 5/23/99, p.18)
1957 Aug 19, The first balloon
flight to exceed 100,000 feet took off from Crosby, Minnesota. US
Major David Simons reached 30,933 m. in a balloon.
(HN, 8/19/00)(MC, 8/19/02)
1957 Aug 21, Kim Sledge,
vocalist (Sister Sledge-We are Family), was born in Phila.
1957 Aug 25, Prince Suvanna
Phuma formed a government in LAOS with the Pathet Lao.
1957 Aug 26, Ford Motor Company
revealed the Edsel, its latest luxury car.
1957 Aug 26, The Soviet Union
announced it had successfully tested an intercontinental ballistic
1957 Aug 28, Sen Thurmond began
a 24-hr filibuster against civil rights bill.
1957 Aug 29, Congress passed
the Civil Rights Act of 1957. South Carolina Sen. Strom Thurmond
(then a Democrat) ended a filibuster against a civil rights bill
after talking for 24 hours and 18 minutes. Arnold Aronson (d.1998 at
86) help to lobby for the bill.
(AP, 8/29/97)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.A23)(SSFC,
12/17/00, Par p.15)
1957 Aug 31, The Federation of
Malaya (Malaysia) gained independence from Britain (National Day).
Malaysia established itself as a constitutional monarchy. Article 11
in the constitution gave every person u0093the right to profess and
practice his religion.u0094 Pro-bumiputra (sons of the soil)
discrimination was laid down in the constitution to ease Malaysu0092
fears of being marginalized by Chinese and Indian migrants. A 1988
amendment denied the regular courts all jurisdiction over matters
dealt with by the Muslim sharia courts.
(YN, 8/31/99)(SFC, 11/22/01, p.A29)(AP,
8/31/07)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.11)
1957 Sep 1, Gloria Estefan,
singer (Miami Sound Machine-Conga, 1-2-3), was born in Cuba.
1957 Sep 2, Pres. Eisenhower
signed the Price-Anderson Act, which limited firmsu0092 liability in
commercial nuclear disasters. The Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries
Indemnity Act, a United States federal law, has since been renewed
several times since its passage.
1957 Sep 2, Arkansas Gov. Orval
Faubus called out the National Guard to prevent nine black students
from entering Central High School in Little Rock. Pres. Eisenhower
soon responded with Federal troops to enforce federal law for
integration. The nine students, mentored by Daisy Gatson (d.1999 at
84) went on to lead very productive lives as detailed in a 1997
1957 Sep 4, Arkansas National
guardsmen turned away Black students from Central High School in
Little Rock. 9 students made it into the school on September 24
under the protection of federal troops sent by Pres. Eisenhower. In
2007 Elizabeth Jacoway authored u0093Turn Away Thy Son: Little Rock, the
Crises That Shocked the Nation.u0094
(AH, 10/07, p.61)
1957 Sep 4, Ford Motor Co.
introduced the 1958 Edsel. It was designed by Roy Brown and sold
only 173,000 units through 1960.
(SFEC, 8/31/97, p.D12)(AP, 9/4/97)
1957 Sep 5, Viking Press first
published "On the Road" by Jack Kerouac. Kerouac typed out the
manuscript in 20 days on a single roll of teletype paper. In 1997
his book of notes from the early 1950s: "Some of the Dharma" was
(SFEC, 8/31/97, BR p.8)(SSFC, 1/30/05, p.A19)(AP,
1957 Sep 5, Cuban dictator
Batista bombed the Cienfuegos uprising.
1957 Sep 7, The original
version of the animated NBC peacock logo, used to denote programs
"brought to you in living color," made its debut at the beginning of
"Your Hit Parade."
1957 Sep 8, Pope Pius XII
posted his encyclical On motion pictures, radio, TV.
1957 Sep 9, President
Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass
Congress since Reconstruction.
1957 Sep 9, Nashville's new
Hattie Cotton Elementary School was dynamited.
1957 Sep 12, James Vicary
(b.1915), a market researcher, announced that he had invented a new
way to get people to buy things, whether they wanted them or not. He
called it subliminal advertising and said that he had tested the
process at a New Jersey movie theater. In 1962 he admitted that his
results were fabricated in order to drum up business for his market
research firm. A subliminal projector called a tachistoscope had
been used during World War II in training soldiers to recognize
enemy aircraft. A book published in 1898 (The New Psychology by E.W.
Scripture) laid out most of the principles of subliminal response.
1957 Sep 12, Archbishop
Makarios of Cyprus visited the US.
1957 Sep 14, Pres. Eisenhower
met with Arkansas Gov. Faubus in Rhode Island. Gov. Faubus agree to
cooperate with the presidentu0092s decisions regarding the high schools
of Little Rock.
1957 Sep 16, Qi Baishi
(b.1864), Chinese artist, died in Beijing. In 2011 one of his ink
paintings was auctioned for $65 million.
1957 Sep 17, Two male attorneys
"stood in" as actress Sophia Loren and producer Carlo Ponti were
married by proxy in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Legal issues later forced
an annulment; the couple wed in Sevres, France, in 1966.
1957 Sep 17, The Thai army
seized power in Bangkok.
1957 Sep 19, The United States
conducted its first underground nuclear test, code-named "Rainier,"
in the Nevada desert.
1957 Sep 19, Eight engineers,
who had recently left Shockley Semiconductor, signed papers to form
Fairchild Semiconductor in Santa Clara County. Jean A. Hoerni
(1925-1997) was one of the "Fairchild Eight." He was credited with
building the bridge from the transistor to the integrated circuit.
Eugene Kleiner (d.2003), another co-founder, helped found the
Kleiner Perkins Caufield and Byers venture capital firm in 1972. The
other engineers included Julius Blank (1925-2011), Jay Last, Victor
Grinich (d.2000 at 75), Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce and Sheldon
Roberts. NYC bankers Arthur Rock and Bud Coyle helped the engineers
start Fairchild Semiconductor.
(SFC, 11/11/00, p.A26)(SFC, 11/26/03, p.D1)(SSFC,
9/30/07, p.F1)(SFC, 9/24/11, p.C3)
1957 Sep 20, "M Squad,"
starring Lee Marvin, premiered on NBC-TV.
1957 Sep 20, Jean Julius
Christian Sibelius (b.1865), Finnish composer (Finlandia), died. He
had published no music for the last three decades of his life.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Sibelius)(Econ, 2/18/12, ILp.20)
1957 Sep 21, "Perry Mason,"
starring Raymond Burr, premiered on CBS-TV. The show ran to 1965 and
returned in 1985.
(AP, 9/21/97)(SFC, 8/20/99, p.D6)
1957 Sep 21, Norway's King
Haakon VII died in Oslo at age 85.
1957 Sep 22, The TV series
"Maverick" premiered on ABC.
1957 Sep 22, In Haiti Francois
Duvalier (1907-1971) won the election for the presidency. He spent
14 years in office. His reign of terror exceeded the ruthless
American occupation (1915-1934).
1957 Sep 23, "That'll Be Day"
by Buddy Holly & Crickets reached #1.
1957 Sep 23, Nine black
students who had entered Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas
were forced to withdraw because of a white mob outside. Pres.
Eisenhower signed Executive Order 10730 to send Federal troops to
maintain order and peace while the integration of Central High
School in Little Rock, AR, took place.
1957 Sep 24, The Brooklyn
Dodgers played their last game at Ebbets Field, defeating the
Pittsburgh Pirates 2-to-0.
1957 Sep 24, President Dwight
D. Eisenhower sent federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, to
protect nine black students entering its newly integrated high
1957 Sep 25, With 300 members
of the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division standing guard, nine
black children forced to withdraw from Central High School in Little
Rock, Ark., because of unruly white crowds, were escorted to class.
Vice principle Elizabeth Huckaby (d.1999 at 93) escorted the
children and in 1980 published "Crisis at Central High."
(SFC, 3/26/99, p.D5)(AP, 9/25/07)
1957 Sep 26, The musical "West
Side Story" by Leonard Bernstein and Jerome Robbins opened on
Broadway and ran for 732 performances. The loose adaptation of
William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" produced several hit songs,
including "Maria" and "Tonight". The story was by Arthur Laurents.
1957 Sep 26, Dag Hammarskjold
was re-elected secretary-general of UN.
1957 Sep 29, The New York
Giants played their last game at the Polo Grounds, losing to the
Pittsburgh Pirates, 9-to-1. The Giants moved to San Francisco.
1957 Sep 29, The Brooklyn
Dodgers played their last game before moving to Los Angeles, losing
to the Phillies 2-1 in Philadelphia.
1957 Sep 29, In Montgomery,
West Pakistan (later renamed to Sahiwal, Pakistan), an express train
collided with stationary oil train and 250 people were killed.
(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(AP, 2/18/04)
1957 Oct 1, The motto "In God
We Trust" began appearing on US paper currency.
1957 Oct 1, B-52 bombers began
full-time flying alert in case of USSR attack.
1957 Oct 2, The World War II
drama "The Bridge on the River Kwai," directed by David Lean,
premiered in Britain. The film opened in the United States the
1957 Oct 3, The comedy series
"The Real McCoys" premiered on ABC-TV. Richard Crenna began playing
the married Luke on "The Real McCoys." The 6-year series starred
Walter Brennan as head of a West Virginia clan that moves to the LA
San Fernando Valley.
(SFC, 1/20/03, p.B4)(AP, 10/3/07)
1957 Oct 3, Willy Brandt was
elected mayor of West Berlin.
1957 Oct 4, The television
series "Leave It to Beaver" premiered on CBS. It ended in 1963 after
6 season. Joe Connelly (d.2003 at 85), writer-producer, co-created
the show. It featured Jerry Mathers (9) as Beaver, Tony Dow (12) as
his older brother Wally, Hugh Beaumont as the father and Barbara
Billingsley (1915-2010) as the mother. Frank Bank (1942-2013) played
Lumpy, a foil to Beaver and Wally. Ken Osmond played Wallyu0092s friend
(AP, 10/4/97)(SFC, 2/15/03, p.A25)(SSFC,
10/17/10, p.C9)(SFC, 4/18/13, p.D5)
1957 Oct 4, The TV series
u0093Trackdownu0094 featured Robert Culp (1930-2010). It was based in part
on files of the Texas Rangers. The series continued to 1959.
1957 Oct 4, Jimmy Hoffa was
elected president of the Teamsters Union.
1957 Oct 4, The Space Age and
"space race" began as the Soviet Union launched Sputnik (traveler),
the first man-made space satellite. The satellite, built by Valentin
Glushko, weighed 184 pounds and was launched by a converted
Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). Sputnik, developed under
the chief scientist Sergei Korolyov, orbited the earth every 96
minutes at a maximum height of 584 miles. The event was timed to
celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution. In 1958,
it reentered the earth's atmosphere and burned up. It was followed
by 9 other Sputnik spacecraft.
(WSJ, 10/7/96, p.B4)(SFC, 8/2/97, p.A12)(SFEC,
9/28/97, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/3/97, p.A8)(AP, 10/4/97)(HN, 10/4/98)(AP,
1957 Oct 7, A fire in the
Windscale plutonium production reactor (later called Sellafield)
north of Liverpool, England, spread radioactive iodine and polonium
through the countryside and into the Irish Sea. Livestock in the
immediate area were destroyed, along with 500,000 gallons of milk.
At least 30, and possibly as many as 1,000, cancer deaths were
subsequently linked to the accident. PM Harold Macmillan ordered the
disaster hushed up.
(HN, 10/7/00)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.76)(Econ,
1957 Oct 8, The Brooklyn
Baseball Club announced it was accepting an offer to move the
Dodgers from New York to Los Angeles.
1957 Oct 8, Jack Soble,
confessed Soviet spy, was sentenced in NYC to 7 years for espionage.
1957 Oct 10, President Dwight
D. Eisenhower apologized to Komla Agbeli Gbdemah, the finance
minister of Ghana, after the official had been refused service in a
Dover, Del., restaurant.
1957 Oct 10, The Milwaukee
Braves won the World Series, defeating the New York Yankees in Game
1957 Oct 10, The TV series
"Zorro," starring Guy Williams as the masked hero, debuted on ABC.
1957 Oct 13, CBS-TV broadcast
"The Edsel Show," a one-hour live special starring Bing Crosby
designed to promote the new, ill-fated Ford automobile. It was the
first special to use videotape technology to delay the broadcast to
the West Coast.
1957 Oct 14, Lester Bowles
Pearson (1897-1972, former president of the UN General Assembly
(1952-1953) and later Canadian PM (1963-1968) won the Nobel Peace
Prize for his role in defusing the Suez crisis.
1957 Oct 16, Britain's Queen
Elizabeth II and Prince Philip began a visit to the United States
with a stopover at the site of the Jamestown settlement in Virginia.
1957 Oct 17, The movie
"Jailhouse Rock," starring Elvis Presley, had its world premiere in
1957 Oct 17, French author
Albert Camus was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.
(WUD, 1994, p.524)(AP, 10/17/97)
1957 Oct 17, Britain's Queen
Elizabeth and Prince Philip visited the White House.
1957 Oct 19, "Damn Yankees"
closed at 46th St. Theater NYC after 1,022 performances.
1957 Oct 20, Walter
Cronkite began hosting his weekly documentary: u0093The Twentieth
Century.u0094 In 1967 the title was changed to u0093The Twenty-First
Centuryu0094 and it ran through 1970.
1957 Oct 21, The film
"Jailhouse Rock" starring Elvis Presley opened.
1957 Oct 22, Conrad Adenauer
was re-elected chancellor of West-Germany.
1957 Oct 24, Christian Dior
(52), French fashion magnate and inventor of the postwar "New Look,"
died in Italy. He was succeeded by his favorite assistant, Yves
(SFC, 1/9/97, p.E7)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.D3)(MC,
1957 Oct 25, The movie musical
"Pal Joey," starring Frank Sinatra, Rita Hayworth and Kim Novak, was
1957 Oct 25, Mob boss Albert
Anastasia, the "Lord High Executioner" of "Murder Inc.," was shot to
death in a barber shop inside the Park Sheraton Hotel in New York.
1957 Oct 26, The Russian
government announced that Marshal Georgi Zhukov, the nationu0092s most
prominent military hero, had been relieved of his duties as Minister
of Defense. Khrushchev accused Zhukov of promoting his own "cult of
personality" and saw him as a threat to his own popularity.
(AP, 10/26/97)(HN, 10/26/98)
1957 Oct 26, Nicos Kazantzakis
(b.1885), writer (The Last Temptation of Christ), died.
1957 Oct 29, Louis B. Mayer
(b.1885), Belarus born MGM producer, died. In 2005 Scott Eyman
authored u0093Lion of Hollywood: The Life and Legend of Louis B. Mayer.u0094
1957 Oct 29, Hand grenade
exploded in Israel's Knesset (Parliament).
1957 Oct 31, Jamaica, a
musical, opened on Broadway at Imperial Theater. The book was by Yip
Harburg and Fred Saidy, lyrics by Harburg, and music by Harold
Arlen. Lena Horne (1917-2010) starred in the musical. It continued
for 558 performances.
1957 Oct, Pres. Eisenhower
federalized the Arkansas National Guard and ordered them to return
to their armories, which effectively removed them from the control
of Gov. Faubus.
1957 Nov 1, World longest
suspension bridge opened in Mackinac Straits, Mich.
1957 Nov 2, The 1st titanium
mill opened in Toronto, Ohio.
1957 Nov 3, Canada fired up the
National Research Universal (NRU) nuclear reactor near Ottawa. The
200 MWt reactor began producing medical and industrial
radioisotopes, including molybdenum-99, a critical isotope used for
1957 Nov 3, The Soviet Union
launched into orbit Sputnik Two, the second manmade satellite; a dog
on board named Laika, the first animal in space, was sacrificed in
the experiment. Sputnik 2 remained in orbit another 162 days before
burning up. Safe reentry process had not yet been developed.
(TMC, 1994, p.1957)(AP, 11/3/97)(HN, 11/3/98)
1957 Nov 3, Wilhelm Reich
(b.1897), Austria-born psychoanalyst, died in the US. His work was
based on the sexual energy in people that he called "Orgone." In
1999 Farrar, Straus & Giroux published: "American Odyssey:
Letters and Journals 1940-1947."
1957 Nov 8, Romance of the
Skies, a Pan Am luxury airliner enroute to Hawaii from San
Francisco, crashed in the Pacific Ocean. Only a handful of bodies
and some wreckage were found. A crew of 6 and 38 passengers had been
booked on the flight.
(SSFC, 11/4/07, p.A1)
1957 Nov 15, US sentenced
Soviet spy Rudolf Ivanovich Abel to 30 years and $3,000 fine.
1957 Nov 15, Soviet Premier
Khrushchev asserted Soviet superiority in missiles, challenging the
U.S. to a rocket-range shooting match.
1957 Nov 16, Edward Gein
butchered his last victim. Gein, a handyman in Plainfield, Wis.,
liked to dig up fresh graves, cut the skin off corpses, wear the
skin on his own body and dance in the moonlight. He was picked up in
this year and evidence showed that heu0092d been collecting body parts
for years. He had skulls on bedposts, a human heart in a saucepan,
and a lady out in his barn dressed like a deer. The 1974 film "Texas
Chainsaw Massacre" was based on his story.
(SFC, 5/18/96, p.E-4)(MC, 11/16/01)
1957 Nov 18, Antonin Novotny
(1904-1975) was appointed president of Czechoslovakia and served to
1957 Nov 21, A student strike
began at the Central Univ. of Venezuela (UCV) against the electoral
fraud of the dictatorship of Marcos Perez Jimenez. This soon led his
1957 Nov 25, President
Eisenhower suffered a slight stroke. [see Nov 26]
1957 Nov 26, President
Eisenhower suffers a minor stroke. [see Nov 25]
1957 Nov 27, Caroline
Kennedy-Schlossberg, attorney, JFK & Jackie's daughter, was
1957 Nov 27, Army withdrew from
Little Rock, Ark., after Central HS integration.
1957 Nov 28, "Look Homeward,
Angel" with Anthony Perkins premiered in NYC.
1957 Nov 29, John Coltrane and
the Thelonius Monk quartet performed together for a show at Carnegie
Hall. Tapes of the performance, recorded by Voice of America, were
mislabeled and lost until 2005.
(SFC, 10/4/05, p.E8)
1957 Nov 29, Erich Wolfgang
Korngold (60), Austrian-US composer (Kathrin, sound tracks for
Captain Blood, Don Juan), died.
1957 Nov 29, Adolfas
Ramanauskas-Vanagas, born in the US in 1918, was shot to death in
Vilnius for partisan activities in southern Lithuania.
1957 Nov 30, An assassination
attempt on Indonesian Pres. Sukarno killed 8.
1957 Nov, Gordon Gould
(d.2005), a Columbia Univ. doctoral student under Dr. Townes, came
up with a process for concentrating visible light as opposed to
microwaves of a maser. He was the 1st to use the term laser.
(Econ, 6/11/05, TQ p.28)
1957 Nov, William E. Schirmer
(b.1891), SF Bay Area architect, died in a car crash along with his
wife when a drunk driver crossed a center line.
(SFC, 8/2/08, p.F6)
1957 Nov, Communist bosses
gathered in Moscow. Mao Zedong predicted that between a third and a
half of the worldu0092s population might be killed in a nuclear
conflagration, but that most survivors would be living in the
socialist block and u0093imperialism would be razed to the ground.u0094
1957 Dec 2, The Shippingport
Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, the first full-scale
commercial nuclear facility to generate electricity in the US, went
critical. [see July 12] It was taken out of service in 1982.
(SSFC, 4/8/07, p.A18)(AP, 12/2/07)
1957 Dec 3, Maria Ridulph (7)
disappeared while playing in Sycamore, Illinois. In April, 1958, two
people foraging for mushrooms found her remains. In 2011 prosecutors
in Sycamore charged Jack Daniel McCullough (71), a former police
officer, in the abduction of Ridulph after an ex-girlfriend's
discovery of an unused train ticket blew a hole in his alibi. At the
time, McCullough's name was John Tessier. On Sep 14, 2012,
McCullough was convicted of the murder. On Dec 9 McCullough was
sentenced to life in prison.
(AP, 7/3/11)(AP, 9/14/12)(AP, 12/11/12)
1957 Dec 5, The William Inge
play, u0093The Dark at the Top of the Stairs,u0094 opened at New York's
Music Box Theatre and ran for a total of 468 performances, closing
on January 17, 1959. It was directed by Elia Kazan. The drama was
reworked by Inge from his earlier play, Farther Off from Heaven,
first staged in 1947 at Margo Jones' Theatre '47 in Dallas, Texas.
1957 Dec 5, NYC became the 1st
city to legislate against racial or religious discrimination in
housing market with its Fair Housing Practices Law.
1957 Dec 6, AFL-CIO members
voted to expel the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. The union
had been expelled because of racketeering by its executives,
including union president Dave Beck and vice president James R.
Hoffa. The criminal activity was disclosed during a special Senate
committee investigation of racketeering and organized crime in
labor-management relations. The Teamsters were readmitted in Oct,
1987, but disaffiliated themselves from the AFL-CIO in 2005.
(HNQ, 1/8/99)(AP, 12/6/07)
1957 Dec 6, America's first
attempt at putting a satellite into orbit failed as Vanguard TV3
rose only about four feet off a Cape Canaveral, Fla., launch pad
before crashing back down and exploding.
1957 Dec 9, Japan [announced?]
its 1st ambassador to Israel.
1957 Dec 11, The movie "Peyton
Place," based on the novel by Grace Metalious, had its world
premiere in Camden, Maine, where most of it had been filmed.
1957 Dec 17, The United States
successfully test-fired the Atlas intercontinental ballistic missile
for the first time.
1957 Dec 18, Alex Guinness,
William Holden and Jack Hawkins starred in the film "Bridge on the
River Kwai." It premiered at the RKO Palace Theater in New York City
and later won multiple Oscars.
(WSJ, 2/27/96, p.A19)(SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.8)(AP,
1957 Dec 18, The Shippingport
Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, the first nuclear facility to
generate electricity in the United States, went on line [see July
1957 Dec 19, The musical play
"The Music Man," starring Robert Preston, with book and songs by
Meredith Willson, opened on Broadway at the Majestic Theater for
1,375 performances. Mason City, Iowa, Willson's home town, unveiled
Music Man Square in 2002
(AP, 12/19/97)(MC, 12/19/01)(SSFC, 3/14/04,
1957 Dec 20, Elvis Presley was
given a draft notice to join US Army for National Service.
1957 Dec 25, Frederick Law
Olmsted (87), US architect (Central Park, NYC), died.
1957 Dec 25, Ramdane Abane
(b.1920), Algerian Berber revolutionary leader, was assassinated in
1957 Dec 26, The Ingmar Bergman
film "Wild Strawberries," starring Victor Sjostrom, opened in
1957 Dec 29, Singers Steve
Lawrence and Eydie Gorme were married in Las Vegas.
1957 AndreĎ Makine, writer, was
born in Siberia. He emigrated to Paris in 1987 where he authored
"Dreams of My Russian Summers" (1994), "The Crime of Olga Arbyelina"
(1998) and "Music of a Life" (2002).
(SSFC, 8/18/02, p.M3)
1957 Francis Bacon painted his
"Study for Portrait of Van Gogh, V."
(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.29)
1957 Alexander Calder
(1898-1976) made his black standing piece "Seven-Foot Beastie."
1957 Roy De Forest painted the
racially charged "Itu0092s a Long Way to Alabama."
(SFEC, 9/29/96, DB p.44)
1957 Don Martin (d.2000 at 68),
one of Mad's maddest cartoonists, began working for Mad. Martin left
Mad in 1987 and published his Don Martin cartoon magazine in 1994.
(SFC, 1/8/00, p.A20)
1957 Alberto Giacometti made a
bronze portrait bust of his brother Diego.
(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A17)
1957 Jasper Johns painted
"Drawer" and "Book."
(SFEC, 11/24/96, C15)
1957 David Park painted his
(SFC, 10/22/98, p.E6)
1957 Picasso created a suit of
45 pictures based on Velasquezu0092s "Las Meninas" over a 4-month
(WSJ, 7/17/01, p.A16)
1957 Ted Hughes (1930-1998),
British poet, published his first book of poetry "Hawk in the Rain."
It re-defined the shape of post-war English poetry.
(SFC, 10/30/98, p.A17)(Econ, 11/8/03, p.83)
1957 John Osborne wrote his
play "The Entertainer."
(WSJ, 11/27/96, p.A10)
1957 Gary Becker (b.1930),
Nobel prize winning economist (1992), authored u0093The Economics of
(Econ, 11/15/08, p.92)
1957 Rolf Blomberg published
"Buried Treasure and the Anacondas," an account of the search for
Inca treasure in the Llanganati Mountains of Ecuador.
(SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)
1957 Herb Caen, SF newspaper
columnist, wrote his 5th book "Caenu0092s Guide to San Francisco."
(SFEC, 2/2/97, p.A13)
1957 Lawrence Durrell
(1912-1990), expatriate British writer, authored u0093Justine,u0094 the
first volume his 4-part Alexandria Quartet (1957-1960).
1957 Lawrence Durrell authored
u0093Bitter Lemons.u0094 The autobiographical work described the three years
(1953u00961956) he spent on the island of Cyprus.
1957 Leon Festinger authored u0093A
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance.u0094 The basic idea behind cognitive
dissonance theory is that people do not like to have dissonant
cognitions. As a result, when someone does experience two or more
dissonant cognitions (or conflicting thoughts), they will attempt to
do away with the dissonance.
(WSJ, 12/4/06, p.B1)
1957 John Fleming (d.1997 at
77), an intu0092l. legal scholar, wrote "The Law of Torts," a classic
work on personal injury law.
(SFC, 9/27/97, p.C2)
1957 E. Franklin Frazier
published his work: "Black Bourgeoisie."
(Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 37)
1957 Arthur Frommer
self-published his first travel book "Europe on $5 a Day." It had
begun as a guidebook for GIu0092s.
(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T2)(SSFC, 5/6/07, p.G3)
1957 Stanford Prof. Edward
Gintzton (d.1998 at 82) wrote his textbook "Microwave Measurement."
He was a pioneer in the development of medical linear accelerators
for the treatment of cancer and co-founded Varian Associates (1948).
(SFC, 8/18/98, p.A18)
1957 Martin Luther King wrote
his autobiography "Stride Toward Freedom."
(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.14)
1957 "The Copernican
Revolution" by Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1923-1996) was published.
(SFC, 6/21/96, p.E2)
1957 Theodore Geisel (aka Dr.
Seuss) wrote "The Cat in the Hat" and "How the Grinch Stole
(SFC, 3/28/97, p.D2)(WSJ, 12/24/98, p.B1)
1957 William Gibson published
"The Miracle Worker," the story of Helen Keller.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.3)
1957 Richard Hoggart (b.1918),
British academic, authored u0093The Uses of Literacy,u0094 a pioneering work
of cultural criticism and look at the English working class after
1957 Carl G. Jung (1875-1961),
Swiss-born psychoanalyst, authored u0093The Undiscovered Self.u0094
1957 Carl G. Jung (1875-1961),
Swiss-born psychoanalyst, published his work u0093Memories, Dreams,
1957 Janos Kornai (b.1928),
Hungarian economist, authored u0093Overcentralization.u0094 This was the 1st
book by an economist behind the Iron Curtain to examine the command
of u0093actual socialismu0094 and to criticize central planning.
(WSJ, 1/30/07, p.B15)
1957 C.Y. Lee authored his
novel "The Flower Drum Song," a story of San Franciscou0092s Chinatown.
It inspired a Rogers and Hammerstein musical and was made into a
film in 1961.
(SFC, 9/18/02, p.A1)
1957 Max Lerner authored
"America as a Civilization."
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)
1957 Art Linkletter
(1912-2010), radio and TV talk-show pioneer, authored u0093Kids Say the
Darndest Thingsu0094 (1957).
(SFC, 5/27/10, p.C4)
1957 Norman Mailer published
his essay "The White Negro" in Dissent.
(WSJ, 2/24/97, p.A20)
1957 James Michener (d.1997 at
90) wrote his novel "The Bridge at Andau," and co-authored "Rascals
in Paradise." He also published his "Selected Writings."
1957 The book u0093The Sultan in
Omanu0094 by Jan Morris (b.1926), British travel writer, was published.
It was set in 1955 and described the Sultanu0092s traveling party after
a brief war.
1957 Wright Morris won the
National Book Award for his epic novel "The Field of Vision."
(SFC, 5/1/98, p.D7)
1957 Vladimir Nabokov authored
his novel u0093Pnin,u0094 the story of a master failer.
(WSJ, 2/16/08, p.W10)
1957 Vance Packard (1914-1996)
wrote "Hidden Persuaders," a critique of advertising and the
consumer society. Packard revealed physiological techniques used by
advertisers, including subliminal messages.
(SFC, 12/13/96, p.B6)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.107)
1957 Darcy Ribeiro,
anthropologist (1923-1997), wrote "Indigenous Language and Cultures
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20)
1957 Ayn Rand (1905-1982) wrote
her novel "Atlas Shrugged."
(SFEC, 7/26/98, BR p.3)
1957 Martin Russ authored "The
Last Parallel," an memoir of combat in the Korean War.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, Par p.18)
1957 Ian Pierre Watt (d.1999 at
82), professor at Stanford, authored "The Rise of the Novel." His
work also included "Myths of Modern Individualism" and "Essays on
Conrad." A collection of his essays, "Critical History: The Career
of Ian Watt," was published after his death.
(SFC, 12/16/99, p.A33)
1957 Evelyn Waugh authored "The
Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold." "He abhorred plastics, Picasso,
sunbathing and Jazzu0097everything in fact that had happened in his
(WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A11)
1957 In East Germany Ruth
Werner (d.2000), Communist spy in Britain during WW II, authored a
novel of her early years: "An Unusual Girl."
(SFC, 7/11/00, p.A23)
1957 "The Bald Singer" began
running at the La Huchette theater in Paris. It was still being
performed in 1996.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, T9)
1957 The first Lithuanian Folk
Dance Festival in the US was held.
(Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.5)
1957 The ballet "Sonate a
trois" by Maurice Bejart was based on Jean-Paul Sartreu0092s play "No
Exit." The music was from the "Sonata for Piano and Percussion" by
(SFC, 11/8/96, p.C5)
1957 The ballet "Agon" with
music by Stravinsky was produced by George Balanchine.
(WSJ, 6/19/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/10/00, p.A24)
1957 Benjamin Britten wrote his
ballet "The Prince of the Pagoda's."
(SFEC, 1/17/99, DB p.29)
1957 The Broadway show "Square
Root of Wonderful" by Carson McCullers featured the debut of Mark
Lenard (1918-1996), later Sarek of Vulcan, the father of Mr. Spock.
(SFC, 11/27/96, p.B2)
1957 The Broadway musical
"Jamaica" with Lena Horne was directed by Robert Lewis.
1957 Capital Records put out a
12-inch album titled u0093Birth of the Cool.u0094 It included recordings
from 1949-1950 singles by a NYC nonet under Miles Davis.
(WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W12)
1957 Jonel Perlea (1900-1970),
Romania-born composer, became the principal conductor of the
Connecticut Symphony and continued there for ten years.
1957 The jazz opera "Shinbone
Alley" opened on Broadway. It was written by Joe Darion with music
by George Kleinsinger.
(SFC, 6/22/01, p.D4)
1957 The Broadway show "Time
Remembered" starred Richard Burton, Helen Hayes and Susan Strasberg.
It was based on the play "Leucadia" by Jean Anouilh.
(SFC, 8/12/00, p.A22)
1957 "Eugenia" with Tallulah
Bankhead was produced on Broadway by Randolph Carter.
(SFC, 10/24/98, p.A22)
1957 Marvin Mirisch (d.2002 at
84) and his brothers, Walter and Harold (d.1968), launched a film
production outfit that led to 68 movies over the next 17 years.
(SFC, 11/21/02, p.A25)
1957 "Half Gun, Will Travel"
began to run on TV and continued for 6 years.
1957 John Hart (1917-2009)
starred as Hawkeye in the TV series u0093Hawkeye and the Last of the
Mohicans.u0094 Lon Chaney Jr. played Chingachgook.
(SFC, 9/24/09, p.D5)
1957 MGM closed its cartoon
studio in a panic over diminishing audiences due to television.
William Hanna and Joe Barbera (1911-2006) formed their own company
and began making cartoons for TV. The Hanna-Barbera TV cartoon
program "Ruff & Reddy" began.
(SFC, 6/3/97, p.B4)(WSJ, 12/21/06, p.D8)
1957 Terrytoons produced the
"Tom Terrific" cartoons series until 1959. Lionel Wilson (d.2003 at
79) was the voice. It ran on Captain Kangaroo.
(SFC, 5/31/03, p.A20)
1957 Sea Hunt with Lloyd
Bridges (d.1998) began as a TV series. It ran to 1961. It was mostly
filmed at the Marineland of the Pacific in LA.
(SFC, 3/11/98, p.A4)
1957 Elvis Presley appeared a
2nd time on the Ed Sullivan TV Show.
1957 Lawrence Harvey Zeigler,
later known as Larry King, began sweeping floors for at a radio
station in Miami.
(WT-NWA, 7/01, p.43)
1957 Stripper Tempest Storm,
born as Annie Banks in Eastman, Georgia, signed a $100,000 contract
in SF to tour the burlesque circuit. In 1987 she published her
autobiography: "The Lady Is a Vamp."
(SFC, 7/15/99, p.B7)
1957 Barney Wilen, French
saxophonist, sat in with Miles Davis on a session for "Ascenser pour
lu0092Echafaud" (Elevator for the Scaffold), a classic film by Louis
(SFC, 5/28/96, p.A15)
1957 Harry Belafonte sang his
"Banana Boat Song."
(SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.64)
1957 The Coasters sang "Down in
(SFC, 11/20/02, p.A21)
1957 Sammy Cooke made a hit
with "You Send Me." He had just switched from gospel music to pop.
Clifton White (d.1998 at 76), guitarist and band leader, led the
band behind Cookeu0092s music.
(SFC, 4/798, p.A21)
1957 Johnny Heartsman recorded
"Johnnyu0092s House Party," a top 20 R&B hit.
(SFC, 1/1/97 p.C2)
1957 Bobby Helms recorded
"Jingle Bell Rock."
(SFC, 12/24/99, p.C8)
1957 The Kingston Trio singing
group formed in and around Palo Alto, Calif.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, DB, p.52)
1957 Buddy Knox had a hit with
his song "Party Doll."
(SFC, 8/12/96, p.D1)
1957 John Lennon met Paul
McCartney and invited him to join his Quarrymen. McCartney soon
introduced Lennon to George Harrison.
(SFC, 12/1/01, p.D1)
1957 Thelonious Monk recorded
alone on Round Midnight. A CD was later released titled Thelonious
Monk, Thelonious Himself (Riverside Original Jazz Classics). Monk
also wrote "Crepuscule with Nellie," a ballad to his wife (d.2002).
(WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 6/28/02, p.A26)
1957 Frank Sinatra sang "All
(SFC, 11/2/96, p.E4)
1957 Don Stover (1928-1996),
blue grass banjo player, recorded "Knee Deep in Bluegrass," with
Bill Monroe. His bands included the Coal River Valley Boys, the
Lilly Brothers Band and the White Oak Mountain Boys with whom he
recorded "Things in Life."
(SFC, 11/13/96, p.C3)
1957 Richard Berry recorded
"Louie, Louie" with the Pharaohs on Flip Records. It was intended as
the B-side of "You Are My Sunshine." It sold about 130,000 copies.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.A19)(SFC, 4/11/98, p.C5)
1957 Margaret Hillis (d.1998 at
76) founded the Chicago Symphony Chorus.
(SFC, 2/7/98, p.21)
1957 The Santa Fe Opera opened
with its first season.
(WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A10)
1957 Martin Stone (d.1998 at
83) founded WVIP Radio in Mount Kisco, N.Y. He produced "Howdy
Doody" at NBC in the late 40s and early 50s and "Author Meets the
(SFC, 6/19/98, p.B6)
1957 In Toledo, Ohio the Craig
Memorial Bridge, a drawbridge over the Maumee River, became a major
link for trucks between Ohio and Michigan.
(USAT, 10/9/98, p.20A)
1957 Canyon Dam, 30 miles NE of
San Antonio, Tx., was completed.
(SFC, 7/5/02, p.A4)
1957 In northern California the
Almaden Air Force Station was established on Mount Umumhum, a
44-acre site just south of Los Gatos. The site had played a role in
the creation story of the local Amah Mutsun Indians. The base was
decommissioned in 1979. In 2010 a cleanup of toxic paint and
asbestos began under a $3.2 million federal grant.
(SFC, 7/10/10, p.A1)
1957 Eichler Homes in
California began to offer an atrium as a sales booster.
(SFEM, 11/3/96, p.14)
1957 In California the first
American plastic home was exhibited in Disneyland's Tomorrowland.
(WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W10)
1957 On the West Coast the Beat
Generation wore beards and sandals and experimented with Zen and pot
with Jack Kerouacu0092s "On the Road" (1956) as their Bible. The
character Elmo Hassel was Herbert Huncke, beat poet and addict.
(TMC, 1994, p.1957)(SFC, 8/9/96, p.D1)
1957 California state prison
guards formed the California Correctional Officers Association,
mainly as a social organization. The group became politically active
in the 1970s and in 1982 formally organized as a labor union.
(SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A7)
1957 In San Francisco the
Franciscan Crab Restaurant was built at Pier 43˝. The front design
by Hewitt C. Wells featured a prow-like shape.
(SSFC, 3/24/13, p.C2)
1957 Mrs. Leonard "Etya"
Gechtoff, owner of the East and West Gallery in SF coined the term
"beatnik" following the launch of Sputnik. For the self-labeled Beat
Movement of the 1950s and '60s, "beat" originally meant "exhausted."
It was later sometimes interpreted as "beatific" and also derisively
as "beatnik." Centered in the Bohemian artist communities in
California and New York, the movement was social and literary with
adherents adopting a style of seedy dress and the "hip" vocabulary
of jazz musicians. Major figures of the movement were novelist Jack
Kerouac and poet Allen Ginsberg.
1957 Newspaper columnist Herb
Caen picked up the term "beatnik" to describe the Beat poets of San
1957 In San Francisco Cyril
Magnin, mercantile family head, and George Killion, chief executive
of American President Lines, founded the World Trade Club. In 2006
the club dissolved due to declining membership and financial losses.
(SFC, 10/24/06, p.B3)
1957 The C.A. Thayer, a
3-masted wooden schooner, made its last voyage to SF from Puget
Sound under the command of Adrian F. Raynaud (d.1997 at 102). The
ship was berthed at the SF Maritime National Historic Park. It was
built as a lumber schooner in Eureka, Ca., in 1895 and made its last
commercial voyage as a cod fishing boat in 1950. In 2007 it was
re-christened at the Hyde Street Pier following a $14 million
rebuild in Alameda.
(SFC,12/9/97, p.A24)(SFEC, 7/12/98, DB p.31)(SFC,
1957 The United Church of
Christ was formed as a combination of the Congregational-Christian
Church, the Evangelical Church and the Reformed Church. These were
outgrowths of the German Reformed Church (1793) and the German
Evangelical Synod of North America (1872).
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)
1957 Rev. Billy Graham led a
New York Crusade at Madison Square Garden that was televised
(SFEC, 9/21/97, Z1 p.3)
1957 Martin Luther King helped
found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
(WSJ, 11/3/97, p.A20)
1957 Carlo Gambino (d.1976)
became head of the Gambino crime family and was later the model for
Don Corleone in the film "The Godfather."
(SSFC, 8/11/02, Par p.4)
1957 Andrew Eliot Rice (d.2010
at 87) helped form the Society for Intu0092l. Development, an
organization for fostering development programs around the world.
(SFC, 6/12/10, p.D8)
1957 Billy Barty (d.2000 at 76)
founded Little People of America, an advocacy group for dwarfs.
(SSFC, 12/24/00, p.B5)
1957 Leo Castelli (d.1999 at
91) opened his art gallery on East 77th Street in NYC. He became the
arbiter of a new movement, Neo-Dada, that quickly transformed to the
Pop Art scene.
(WSJ, 8/25/99, p.A16)
1957 GQ, a men's fashion
magazine was founded.
(SFC, 6/12/03, p.A25)
1957 Life magazine printed R.
Gordon Wassonu0092s u0093Seeking the Magic Mushroomu0094 detailing his
experiences at a religious ritual in Mexico. Wasson, a
vice-president of J.P. Morgan, experienced the hallucinogenic
psilocybin mushroom during a trip to Mexico in 1955.
(WSJ, 7/11/06, p.B10)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.78)
1957 National Geographic
Magazine published a picture of flamingos that inspired Donald
Featherstone of Leominster, Mass., to start a business making
plastic models for yard ornaments. The plastic flamingo was designed
at Union Products in Mass. In 1958.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, zone 1 p.2)(SFC, 7/14/99, p.8)
1957 Tatyana (d.1982) and
Maurice Grosman set up the Universal Limited Art Editions
lithography workshop (ULAE) in a Long Island carriage house.
(SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)
1957 Commercial jet travel
began to grow.
1957 Tang, a dry breakfast
beverage in crystal form, was introduced.
(SFEC, 1/3/99, DB p.27)
1957 Ben Eisenstadt, founder of
Cumberland Packaging Corp., with his son Marvin and chemist Paul
Kracauer developed a saccharine-based sweetener that was initially
geared toward diabetics. It later became known as Sweetu0092N Low, which
became a registered trademark of Cumberland Packaging Corp. in 1970.
In 2006 Rich Cohen authored u0093Sweet and Low: A Family History.u0094
(SSFC, 4/23/06, p.M6)(Econ, 1/30/10,
1957 Boxer Middleweight Sugar
Ray Robinson lost, won and lost his title.
(SFC, 11/2/96, p.E4)
1957 Reporters William Lambert
(d.1998 at 78) and Wallace Turner won a Pulitzer Prize for
investigative reporting for their series on Dave Beck, the president
of the Intu0092l. Brotherhood of Teamsters. They exposed that Teamsters
and racketeers had combined forces to take over the Portland City
government. The articles in the Oregonian were later used by Robert
Kennedy for his probe on the Teamsters.
(SFC, 2/10/98, p.A22)
1957 The 29th Academy Awards
were held at the Pantages Theater in Hollywood. Ingrid Bergman won
for her role in Anastasia.
(SFC, 3/15/02, p.D1)
1957 Mr. Magoo, a near-sighted
cartoon character, won his 2nd academy award.
(WSJ, 7/31/97, p.A1)
1957 A group of scientists and
supporters from around the world gathered in Pugwash, Nova Scotia,
to call attention to the risks of nuclear war. In 1995 scientists in
London had issued a manifesto declaring that researchers must take
responsibility for their creations, such as the atomic bomb. The
manifesto served as the philosophical origin for the Pugwash
(WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-15)(SFC, 9/2/05, p.B5)
1957 Pres. Eisenhower named
Elbridge Durbrow (d.1997 at 93) as ambassador to South Vietnam, the
newly divided southern portion of Indochina. He served there until
(SFC, 5/24/97, p.A20)
1957 Pres. Eisenhower gave
authority to senior military commanders to retaliate with nuclear
weapons if the president could not be reached or was unable to
respond to a nuclear attack against the US in a policy known as
"pre-delegation authority." A memo to this effect was dated Dec 19,
(SFC, 3/21/98, p.A2)(SFC, 9/2/98, p.A5)
1957 Pres. Eisenhower approved
the execution of John Bennett, an Army private convicted of raping
and attempting to kill an 11-year-old Austrian girl. He was hanged
1957 Vice-president Richard
Nixon was stoned in Caracas.
(TMC, 1994, p.1957)
1957 Pres. Eisenhower appointed
Dr. Katherine B. Oettinger (d.1997 at 94) chief of the Childrenu0092s
Bureau in the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW). The
bureau was abolished in 1967 under Pres. Johnson.
1957 Herbert Brownell, US
attorney general, resigned. He was replaced by William P. Rogers
(d.2000 at 87). Rogers later served as sec. of state under Pres.
(SFC, 1/4/01, p.C3)
1957 The US began its Corona
project, a secret attempt to put a reconnaissance satellite into
orbit. Pres. Eisenhower put it on fast track in 1959. The first 12
launch attempts failed. In 1960 a successful flight photographed a
large part of the Soviet Union. In 1998 2 books were published on
the project: "Eye in the Sky" a collection of essays edited by 3
experts and "The Corona Project" by Curtis Peebles. Details on
corona were declassified in 1995.
(WSJ, 7/6/98, p.A13)(SFC, 8/15/12, p.C8)
1957 The US FDA approved the
drug Propoxyphene. It was marketed as the pain killer under the name
Darvon and Darvocet. In 2009 an FDA advisory committee voted 14-12
against continued marketing following safety concerns which linked
the drug to sometimes serious and fatal heart rhythm abnormalities.
In 2010 US drug makers agreed to stop marketing the drug.
(SFC, 11/20/10, p.A7)
1957 The US Mail Special
Delivery increased to $.30 for the guaranteed immediate delivery.
(SFC, 6/7/97, p.A6)
1957 In the US Arkansas Gov.
Orville Faubus called out the National Guard to prevent school
integration at Little Rock High School and Eisenhower responded with
Federal troops to enforce federal law for integration.
(TMC, 1994, p.1957)(SFC, 5/19/95, C-15)
1957 The US Senate investigated
the Teamsters and leaders Dave Beck and Jimmy Hoffa.
(TMC, 1994, p.1957)
1957 William Proxmire
(1915-2005), Wisconsin Democrat, won a special election to fill the
seat of US Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy. Proxmire served until 1989.
(SFC, 12/16/05, p.A4)
1957 The legal term "informed
consent" was first used by attorney Paul Gebhard (d.1997 at 69) in a
court proceeding of Salgo vs. Leland Stanford Jr. Univ. The ruling
in the case defined the term "full disclosure."
(SFC, 8/26/97, p.A22)
1957 The FBI closed its
investigation on Jay Lovestone (d.1999), a former Communist turned
CIA informer, after 6 years of wiretaps. Lovestone worked as an
executive secretary for the AFL's Free Trade Union Committee which
was primarily supported by CIA funds.
(WSJ, 5/19/99, p.A20)
1957 Mississippi created the
Sovereignty Commission to fight against the Civil Rights movement.
It informed the police about planned marches and encouraged police
harassment of African-Americans who cooperated with civil rights
(WSJ, 6/11/99, p.A8)
1957 Bill and Daisy Myers
became the first Black couple to buy a house in Levittown
(Willingboro), Pa. State police were required to protect them. They
lived there until 1961. In 1999 Daisy was given a reception and an
apology from the Bristol Township Mayor Sam Fenton. Levittown was
created by William Levitt, who kept costs down by bringing in ready
made walls and buying appliances directly from manufacturers. In
2009 David Kushner authored u0093Levittown: Two Families, One Tycoon,
and the Fight for Civil Rights in Americau0092s Legendary Suburb.u0094
(SFC, 12/9/99, p.A6)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.28)(WSJ,
1957 Hondo Oil Co., led by
Robert O. Anderson (1917-2007), discovered the
quarter-billion-barrel Empire-Abo oilfield in southeast New Mexico.
(WSJ, 12/8/07, p.A7)
1957 The founders of Insta
Burger King in Miami changed its name to Burger King and introduced
the broiled Whopper.
(SFC, 8/10/96, p.A20)
1957 Chrysler pioneered a
Highway Hi-Fi system that actually played records.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1957 In the US the first coupon
clearing house was created. The first consumer coupon was an offer
for a free glass of Coca-Cola issued in the mid 1890s.
(WSJ, 2/16/08, p.A12)
1957 Ford introduced the Edsel.
It was the first car designed using market research. Americans
rejected the car.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1957 Fritz Wankel brought out
his rotary engine.
(SFC, 11/2/96, p.E4)
1957 Jackie Robinson, baseball
star, became vice president of Chock Full Ou0092Nuts. In 1996 his widow,
Rachel, co-wrote with Lee Daniels: "Jackie Robinson: An Intimate
Portrait." In 1997 Arnold Rampersad published Jackie Robinson, A
(SFEC, 12/15/96, BR p.10)(SFEC,10/19/97, BR p.1)
1957 AT&T introduced its
1957 Seymour Cray (1925-1996)
co-founded Control Data Corp. where he built the first computer to
use radio transistors instead of vacuum tubes.
(SFC, 9/24/96, p.A6)
1957 Eight engineers left
Shockley Semiconductor to form Fairchild Semiconductor. Jean A.
Hoerni (1925-1997) was one of the "Fairchild Eight," founders of the
Fairchild Semiconductor Corp. He was credited with building the
bridge from the transistor to the integrated circuit. Victor Grinich
(d.2000 at 75) helped form Fairchild. Eugene Kleiner (d.2003),
another co-founder, helped found the Kleiner Perkins Caufield and
Byers venture capital firm in 1972. Others included Jay Last, C.
Sheldon Roberts and Julius Blank.
(SFC, 2/5/97, p.A20)(SFC, 11/11/00, p.A26)(SFC,
1957 Hoover produced its best
selling model, the Convertible (Model 65), an upright vacuum cleaner
that could be converted with a hose for above the floor cleaning.
(SFC, 7/19/08, p.F2)
1957 Ken Olson, a former MIT
engineer, received $70,000 from American Research & Development
(ARD) to develop Digital Equipment Corp. (DEC) in return for a 70%
(WSJ, 5/21/08, p.A17)
1957 The Hewlett-Packard Corp.
went public and began operating its new site at Stanford Research
(SFC, 3/3/99, p.A11)
1957 A Monsanto sponsored
all-plastic House of the Future became part of Disneyu0092s
(SFC, 7/14/96, p.T3)
1957 Joseph F. Cullman III
(d.2004) took over as head of Philip Morris until 1978. Under his
leadership Marlboro Country advertising was adopted and profits led
to 1st place ranking.
(SFC, 5/4/04, p.B7)
1957 The birth control pill
developed by Dr. Djerassi in 1951 was approved in the US for
treating menstrual problems.
(SJSVB, 4/8/96, p.8)
1957 Dr. Hilary Koprowski of
the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia developed an oral polio vaccine
and tested it in Africa (Congo). The Wister polio vaccine was given
to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo from 1957-1960. A later
theory held that reuse of needles during the immunization program
caused AIDS via u0093serial passageu0094 that transformed the SIV virus into
HIV. In 1999 Edward Hooper authored u0093The River,u0094 a detailed
hypothesis for the origin of AIDS in Africa. Hooper suspected that
the Wister polio vaccine, produced from monkey kidney cells,
contained SIV virus. In 2000 a computerized study indicated that the
AIDS virus was introduced to humans about 1930.
(SFC, 2/2/00, p.A19)(SFC, 1/15/01, p.A11)(SFC,
1957 Thalidomide was officially
introduced to the market. It was discovered by Chemie Gruenethal, a
German pharmaceutical firm, and marketed as a sedative with no side
effects. It was later linked to severe birth defects. In 2001 Trent
Stephens and Rock Brynner authored "Dark Remedy," a history of
(WSJ, 2/1/00, p.A20)
1957 The landmark paper
"Synthesis of the Elements in Stars" was published in the journal
Reviews of Modern Physics by Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle.
(NH, 8/96, p.65)
1957 Roger Revelle and Hans
Suess published a paper in which they explained the resistance of
seawater to absorb carbon dioxide.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.30)
1957 Leo Esaki, Nobel laureate,
discovered that electrons could "tunnel" through solid barriers via
tiny electrical devices and the "semiconductor tunnel diode" was
(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A1)
1957 Bruno Pontecorvo, Italian
physicist, suggested that neutrinos could come in different types,
known to physicists as flavors. His hypothesis was proved in 1998 in
Japan. Pontecorvo had defected to the Soviet Union seven years
(Econ, 2/1/14, p.71)
1957 James Lovelock, British
scientist, built an electron capture detector. Initially built to
detect minute quantities of fatty acids, it instead detected the
impurities that lay in between the lipids. It thus became useful for
detecting traces of pesticides and CFCs.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.194)
1957 In California Iron
Mountain mine owners blamed the federal government for fish kills.
They held that the Shasta federal dam caused the buildup of
pollutants and that previously flows from Spring Creek were rendered
harmless by dilution in the Sacramento River.
1957 Alvin Leonard (d.2008 at
90) began serving as the public health director of Berkeley, Ca.,
and continued there until 1970.
(SFC, 5/29/08, p.B5)
1957 A fire at the Colorado
Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant released some plutonium in the
smoke. The fire was kept secret until 1969 when another fire
released more plutonium.
(SFC, 8/27/99, p.A3)
1957 George Mason Univ. began
as an extension of the Univ. of Virginia. It became independent in
(WSJ, 3/31/06, p.W11)
1957 Sir Edmund Hillary was
part of a joint New Zealand-British ice trek that drove farm
tractors on the Skelton Glacier to the South Pole.
(SFC, 1/14/99, p.C2)
1957 On the Gulf Coast a
hurricane named Audrey killed over 500 people.
(TMC, 1994, p.1957)
1957 Mob boss Albert Anastasia
of Murder Inc. was gunned down by 2 hitmen in a New York barbershop.
(SFC, 11/2/96, p.E4)(WSJ, 5/1/97, p.B1)
1957 Miguel Covarrubias,
Mexican muralist, died. His work included murals for the 1939-1940
Worldu0092s Fair in San Francisco.
(SFC, 4/20/01, p.A19)
1957 Harrison Ford, film actor
from 1915-1932, died. Most of his work was in silent films.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)
1957 Rosalind Franklin (37),
scientist, died. She made the 1st x-ray image that revealed the
double helix structure of DNA (1953). In 2002 Brenda Maddox authored
"Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA."
(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M2)
1957 George Gustav Heye
(b.1876), collector of Indian artifacts, died. He and a few rich
friends set up a foundation in 1922 that established the Museum of
the American Indian. The museum closed in 1994 and the Smithsonian
acquired the collection.
(WSJ, 9/21/04, p.D8)
1957 Adaline Kent (b.1900),
surrealist sculptor, died. Her work included "Scribe" (1944).
(SFC, 11/17/01, p.D10)
1957 Wolfgang Korngold
(b.1897), composer of opera, ballet and film scores, died.
(WSJ, 4/2/01, p.A20)
1957 Peter B. Kyne (b.1880),
author, died. He wrote 25 novels and over 1,000 short stories, a
number of which were turned into Hollywood movies. Kyne was born in
San Francisco and grew up in San Mateo County where most of his work
(Ind, 7/19/03, p.3A)
1957 Bernard Maybeck (.b1862),
architect, died. Most of his Arts and Crafts style homes were done
in Berkeley, Ca., where he lived.
(SFC, 1/29/03, p.F7)
1957 Julia Morgan (b.1872),
architect, died. She was born in San Francisco and raised in
(SFC, 7/18/00, p.A8)(SFC, 6/18/04, p.F4)
1957 Eliot Ness, former FBI
agent, died at age 57 of a heart attack.
(SFC, 9/11/97, p.A3)
1957 Max Ophuls (b.1902),
German born film director, died in France. He made films in Germany,
France, Netherlands and the US.
(SFEC, 9/5/99, DB p.50)
1957 Diego Rivera, artist, died
in Mexico City.
(Hem., 1/96, p.50)
1957 Dorothy Sayers (b.1893),
British detective novelist, died. Her main hero was Lord Peter
(NW, 8/20/01, p.56)
1957 Arturo Toscanini (b.1868),
Italian conductor, died. He led the NBC Symphony from 1937-1954. In
1978 Harvey Sachs wrote his biography. In 2002 Sachs edited "The
Letters of Arturo Toscanini," his correspondence with Ada Mainardi.
(HN, 3/25/01)(WSJ, 4/30/02, p.D7)
1957 James Whale (67), English
director, died of suicide in Hollywood. His films included
"Frankenstein," "Show Boat" and "The Invisible Man." Later
biographies of Whale included: "James Whale: A New World of Gods and
Monsters" by James Curtis; "James Whale: A Biography, or The
Would-Be Gentleman" by Mark Gatiss; and "Father of Frankenstein" by
Christopher Bram. The 1988 film "Gods and Monsters" was a mixture of
fact and fiction about the last months of horror director James
(USAT, 9/15/98, p.1D)(SFEC, 11/1/98, Par p.18)
1957 Argentina signed a treaty
with the Vatican that created the post of military bishop.
(Econ, 4/2/05, p.34)
1957 In Britain Reg Smythe
(d.1998 at 81), began the Andy Capp comic strip in the northern
editions of the Daily Mirror.
(SFC, 6/16/98, p.A22)
1957 Britain launched its 1st
sub-orbital Skylark rocket. The last Skylark, #441, was launched
near Kiruna, Sweden, in 2005.
(Econ, 5/7/05, p.74)
1957 In British Guyana the
Peopleu0092s Progressive Party won elections and Dr. Jagan and his wife
won cabinet posts.
(SFC, 3/7/97, p.A24)
1957 The words "freedom of
migration" were struck from Chinau0092s constitution. This effectively
confined the peasants to the land where they were born. Authorities
did not loosen up until 1983.
(USAT, 2/13/97, p.8A)
1957 The Chinese Catholic
Patriotic Association (CCPA) was established to ensure that Chinese
Catholics not act contrary to the interests of their country.
1957 China under Mao Zedong set
up its reform-through-labor system, known as laojiao.
(Econ, 1/12/13, p.13)
1957 Chinau0092s Dongzhang
Reservoir in Fuqing Province was filled. Prehistoric tombs were
(Arch, 1/05, p.12)
1957 A flu pandemic began in
China and killed 1-4 million people. It caused about 70,000 deaths
in the United States. First identified in China in late February
1957, the Asian flu spread to the United States by June 1957.
1957 In Cuba the Capri Hotel
was built in Havana. It became one of the flashiest mob joints of
the time. Charles Tourine managed the nightclub and Nicholas di
Costanzo ran the casino. Both were associated with Meyer Lansky and
(SSFC, 2/16/14, p.A10)
1957 The Cuban urban
underground was led by Frank Pais, an aspiring schoolteacher turned
(WSJ, 7/10/02, p.D8)
1957 Denmark banned nuclear
weapons from its soil.
1957 Egypt became the first
country in the Arab world to elect a woman to parliament.
(Econ, 10/15/11, p.29)
1957 The Clemenceau, a French
aircraft carrier, first set sail. It was taken out of service in
1997. In 2006 dismantling efforts faced problems. French officials
said there are 45 tons of asbestos on the ship, but
environmentalists put that number at up to 1,000 tons.
1957 Germanyu0092s independent
central bank, Bundesbank, was founded. It became a trailblazer for
modern central banks.
(Economist, 10/6/12, p.87)
1957 In Zwickau, East Germany,
the first Trabant car was manufactured. Production ceased in 1991.
(SSFC, 6/17/07, p.A2)
1957 Indar Jit Rikhye
(1920-2007), UN peacekeeper from India, became chief of staff of UN
forces along the Suez Canal. Prior to this each national liaison
officer reported to their own governments.
(Econ, 6/9/07, p.99)
1957 Albert Metzger, owner of
the Cecil Hotel in Alexandria, was kicked out of Egypt "with only
two suitcases." The hotel had been founded by his father in 1929.
The Cecil palace, which once attracted Alexandria's rich
cosmopolitan elite, was nationalized by late president Gamal Abdel
Nasser after Egypt's nationalist revolution in 1952. In 2007 the
Metzger family regained control of the 86-room four-star hotel run
by French company Accor.
1957 In Honduras the military
ousted the civilian president.
(SFC, 8/9/99, p.A8)
1957 In Hungary Bela Biszku
became interior minister in the wake of the anti-Soviet revolution,
when over 220 people who participated in the uprising were executed
and many thousands imprisoned or persecuted. Biszku continued
serving as interior minister to 1961. In 2014 he faced charges with
war crimes over the suppression of the 1956 uprising.
(AP, 1/27/11)(AP, 3/18/14)
1957 Run Run Shaw (1907-2014)
moved from Singapore to Hong Kong and built a studio that produced
hundreds of films including u0093The One-Armed Swordsmithu0094 and u0093Five
Fingers of Death,u0094 which began a global craze for the martial arts.
(Econ, 1/11/14, p.38)
1957 The state of Kerala
in southwest India elected a Communist administration.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 596)
1957 Iraq commissioned Le
Corbusier to design the Baghdad Gymnasium as a small part of a
planned Olympic city. It was only completed in 1982, under the rule
of Saddam Hussein, under the guidance of Georges-Marc Presente, an
associate of Le Corbusier, who ensured the strict application of the
designer's clean, industrial, modernist principles.
1957 Iraqi Shiite scholar
Mohammed Baqr al Sadr founded the Daawa movement.
(WSJ, 4/28/05, p.A1)
1957 In Israel the Jewish town
of Upper Nazareth was built on confiscated Palestinian land for the
purpose of domination over Palestinian Nazareth. The 1997 book
"Overlooking Nazareth: The Ethnography of Exclusion in Jalilee"
(sic) by Dan Rabinowitz describes the relations between Arabs and
(MT, Fall. u009197, p.16)
1957 The Italian Mille Miglia
automobile race, begun in 1927, was cancelled following the crash of
a Ferrari driven by the Marquis de Portago. He and his co-driver
were killed along with 10 bystanders when the car ran off the road
at 90 mph.
(SFC, 4/28/98, p.A13)
1957 At this time only 2% of
Italian homes had refrigerators. By 1974 this increased to 94%.
(Econ, 12/13/08, p.63)
1957 Shusaku Endo (1923-1996)
wrote "Umi to Dokuyaku." It was published in English as "The Sea and
Poison" in 1972.
(SFEC, 9/30/96, p.A23)
1957 Saburo Sakai (d.2000 at
84) authored "Samurai." Sakai, a fighter pilot, reportedly shot down
as many as 64 allied planes during WW II.
(SFC, 10/10/00, p.A21)
1957 The Japanese film u0093Black
Riveru0094 starred Tatsuya Nakadai and was directed by Masaki Kobayashi.
(WSJ, 7/2/08, p.B13)
1957 The film "Kisses" by
Yasuzo Masumura (d.1986 at 62) marked the director's debut.
(SFC, 9/2/97, p.E1)
1957 The film "The Lower
Depths" starred Toshiro Mifune in a version of the Gorky story. It
was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
(SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1957 The Japanese film "Throne
of Blood" (Kumonosujo) starred Toshiro Mifune in the Kurosawa
directed reworking of Macbeth in the stylized manner of Noh drama.
It was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
(SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.44)(SFC,12/25/97,
p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1957 The Japanese film
u0093Untamedu0094 starred Tatsuya Nakadai and was directed by Mikio Naruse.
(WSJ, 7/2/08, p.B13)
1957 Dr. Tomin Harada
successfully pressed the government to enact a law to provide
medical treatment to atomic bomb survivors.
(SFC, 6/29/99, p.A19)
1957 The Barisan Nasional
Coalition began ruling Malaysia.
(Econ, 8/13/11, p.40)
1957 Ibrahim Nasir (31) became
prime minister of the Maldives, a British protectorate.
1957 Ernesto P. Uruchurtu, aka
the Iron Mayor of Mexico City, opened a new building for street
vendors but left out fruit seller Rico Guillermina (1933-1996) and
hundreds of others. She began a crusade and formed the Civic
Association of Street Vendors which supported the PRI, who in return
disregarded the laws controlling street sales.
(SFC, 9/7/96, p.A19)
1957 No one in Monaco pays
income taxes except French citizens who arrived after this year.
(SFC, 1/8/97, p.C1)
1957 Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
became Nigeria's first and only prime minister. He held the position
until January 1966 when he was assassinated in the country's first
military coup d'etat.
1957 Paraguay began receiving
economic support from Taiwan in exchange for supporting Taiwan at
1957 Jose Cojuangco, the father
of Corazon Aquino, promised various Philippine government agencies
that lent him money to buy Hacienda Luisita, a 14,800 acre sugar
plantation, that he would sell much of the land to the peasants who
worked it. He never did so.
(Econ, 12/10/05, p.49)
1957 East-West Games were held
(SFC, 9/21/04, p.B7)
1957 The Flerov Laboratory of
Nuclear Reactions was founded in the Joint Institute for Nuclear
Research in Dubna, Russia.
1957 Soviet leader Nikita
Khrushchev allowed the Chechens back to the Caucasus and the
Checheno-Ingush republic was set up.
(SFC, 5/13/97, p.A12)
1957 In the USSR a nuclear
waste container exploded at the Mayak plant in the Chelyabinsk
region of the southern Urals and 20 million curies of deadly
strontium and cesium were released. This was about 40% of the amount
later released at Chernobyl. Some 9,200 square miles were
(SFC, 5/26/01, p.A8)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.E1)
1957 South African reporter
Henry Nxumalo (b.1917) was stabbed to death while investigating
abortions. He was famous for his investigative pieces. Fondly called
"Mr Drum", Nxumalo once enlisted as a farm worker to expose the
brutality of white farmers. Nxumalo's life story was portrayed in a
2004 film called "Drum."
1957 Mohammed Wardi (26) began
his singing career in Sudan. He became known as the Golden Throat
and blended Nubian music into the Arabic language.
(SFC, 9/21/07, p.A12)
1957 In Syria the Yarmouk
Palestinian camp was created. It became the larges of 9 and evolved
into a densely populated residential district just five miles (eight
km) from the center of Damascus.
1957 The first team of 6
Tibetans trained at a Saipan US CIA base and then airdropped back
into Tibet with modern weapons and radios.
(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1957-1958 Henry Moore, sculptor, created his
piece: "UNESCO Reclining Figure."
(SFEC, 7/19/98, BR p.9)
1957-1958 Isaac Bashevis Singer published "Shadows
on the Hudson," a Yiddish novel in serial form in the Jewish Daily
Forward. It was translated to English in 1997 and covered a circle
of Jewish refugees in NYC in 1947-49.
(WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)
1957-1958 The International Geophysical Year was
organized by the International Council on Scientific Unions.
(NOHY, 3/1990, p.235)
1957-1958 An English team including Sir Edmund
Hillary traverses the continent of Antarctica for the first time.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 28)
1957-1959 The TV series "Whirleybirds" starred Ken
Tobey (d.2002 at 85) as the co-owner of a helicopter for hire.
(SFC, 12/25/02, p.A29)
1957-1960 Miles Davis and Gill Evans collaborated
to produce their masterpieces: "Miles Ahead," "Porgy and Bess," and
"Sketches of Spain."
(SFC, 9/1/96, DB p.42)
1957-1960 In China some 3,000 scholars and
government officials were incarcerated at the Jiabiangou forced
labor camp in the northwestern desert. Only a few hundred outlived
the camp. In 1997 Xianhui Yang (b.1946) began speaking survivors and
over the next 5 years interviewed nearly 100. In 2000 he published a
collection in China of 13 stories. In 2009 u0093Woman From Shanghai:
Tales of Survival From a Chinese Labor Campu0094 was published in
(SFC, 9/2/09, p.E2)
1957-1961 Gunsmoke is the top ranking network show
on television for four seasons with rankings of 43.1, 39.6, 40.3,
(WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)
1957-1963 The Sheri Lewis Show ran on NBC.
(SFC, 8/4/98, p.A1)
1957-1963 Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs and
Gregory Corso lived in Paris. In 2000 Barry Miles authored "The Beat
Hotel," an account of their years at the 9 Rue Git-leCoert managed
by Madame Rachou.
(SFEC, 7/9/00, BR p.5)
1957-1964 In China Jean Pasqualini spent these
years in a labor camp after being sentenced to 12 years detention
for "counter revolutionary activities." His 1973 book "Prisoner of
Mao" described his experiences.
(SFC, 10/14/97, p.A19)
1957-1967 Jimmy Hoffa led the Teamsters Union.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C9)