Return to home
1960 Jan 1,
French Cameroon gained independence.
(PC, 1992, p.973)(EWH, 1st ed., p.1173)
1960 Jan 2, Sen. John F.
Kennedy of Massachusetts announced his candidacy for the Democratic
1960 Jan 2, John Reynolds set
the age of solar system at 4,950,000,000 years.
1960 Jan 2, Australia recorded
a record temperature of 50.7° C at Oodnadatta.
1960 Jan 4, Albert Camus
(1913-1960), French writer, died in an automobile accident at age
46. He won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1957. His work included
the play “Caligula” and a collection of journalistic pieces for the
clandestine newspaper Combat (1944-1947). In 1997 Oliver Todd wrote
the biography “Albert Camus.” In 1979 Herbert Lottman also wrote a
biography: “Albert Camus.” In 2006 Camus’ WW II pieces, edited by
Jacqueline Levi-Valensi, were published as ”Camus at Combat.” In
2010 Virgil Tanase authored “Albert Camus.”
(SFC, 12/25/96, p.A22)(WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A16)(AP,
1/4/98)(WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P10)(Econ, 1/9/10, p.83)
1960 Jan 9, The foundation
stone for Egypt’s Aswan High Dam was laid.
1960 Jan 12, The San Francisco
Chronicle learned that jazz musician Dave Brubeck had lost $40,000
in bookings on a monthlong Southern tour by his quartet because the
group included black bass player Eugene Wright. Brubeck refused to
drop Wright from his group.
(SSFC, 1/10/10, DB p.42)
1960 Jan 14, The US Army
promoted Elvis Presley to Sergeant.
1960 Jan 19, The US-Japan
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security formalized a US-Japanese
1960 Jan 22, The Johnburg coal
mine caved in and 417 die.
1960 Jan 23, The Bathyscaphe
"Trieste" reached bottom of Pacific at 10,900 m. Jacques Piccard
(1922-2008) and US Navy Lt. Don Walsh descended for 20 minutes
in the Trieste into the Mariana Trench, a 1,500 mile gash in the
Earth’s crust east of the Philippines with a depth of 37,000 feet
below sea level, nearly 7 miles.
(SFC, 10/29/96, p.A11)(SFEC, 11/17/96, BR
1960 Jan, The US stock market
began a 10 month decline of 16%.
1960 Jan, The San Francisco
Examiner (a Hearst newspaper) offered Kenneth Rexroth (1905-1982) a
job writing a weekly column. He accepted and by May 1961 the column
had proved popular enough that he was asked to do two and sometimes
even three per week. Rexroth wrote some 700 columns for the Examiner
until June 1967, when he was fired after writing a particularly
scathing article about the American police.
1960 Jan-Aug, 160,000 refugees
crossed from East Germany to West Germany following food shortages.
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev ordered a wall 103 miles long and
12 feet high to be built with guards and barbed wire to stop the
flow of refugees.
(SFEC, 10/31/99, Z1 p.4)
1960 Feb 1, Four black North
Carolina A&T students staged a sit-in in a dime store in
Greensboro, NC, lunch counter, where they'd been refused service, to
begin the first of the historic 1960s sit-ins.
(AP, 2/1/97)(AH, 2/05, p.16)
1960 Feb 2, The U.S. Senate
approved 24th Amendment calling for a ban on the poll tax.
1960 Feb 3, Candlestick Park,
the new home of the SF Giants baseball team, was officially turned
over to the team.
(SFEC,12/797, Z1 p.4)(SSFC, 1/31/10, DB p.42)
1960 Feb 7, Old handwriting was
found in at Qumran, Jordan, near the Dead Sea. [see 1947]
1960 Feb 8, Congress opened
hearings into payola.
1960 Feb 9, The Hollywood, Ca.,
Walk of Fame began with an installation of its first pink terrazzo
star for, actress Joanne Woodward, at 6801 Hollywood Blvd. The first
eight stars were dedicated in September 1958 and placed in the
sidewalk on the northwest corner of Hollywood Blvd. and Highland
1960 Feb 9, The Angelo Petri,
the world’s largest wine tanker, foundered outside the San Francisco
Golden Gate. It carried a capacity load of 2,383,000 gallons of wine
and vegetable oil. In 1946 the vessel had broken in two near
(SSFC, 2/7/10, DB
1960 Feb 9, Ernst von Dohnanyi
(82), US composer, died.
1960 Feb 10, "Unsinkable Molly
Brown" ended at Winter Garden, NYC, after 532 performances.
1960 Feb 10, Adolph Coors, the
beer brewer, was kidnapped in Golden, Colo.
1960 Feb 11, Jack Paar walked
off his TV show.
1960 Feb 12, Bobby Clark (71),
vaudevillian (World's funniest circus clown), died.
1960 Feb 13, Ella Fitzgerald,
live in concert, recorded "Mack the Knife, Ella in Berlin."
(SFC, 6/16/96, p.A10)
1960 Feb 13, Gerboise Bleue
("blue jerboa") was the name of the first French nuclear test. It
was an atomic bomb detonated in the middle of the Algerian Sahara
desert, during the Algerian War (1954-62).
1960 Feb 16, US nuclear
submarine USS Triton set off on underwater round-world trip.
1960 Feb 17, Martin Luther King
Jr. was arrested in the Alabama bus boycott.
1960 Feb 18, The Eighth Winter
Olympic Games were formally opened in Squaw Valley, Calif., by Vice
President Nixon. A drought of snow ended 2 days before the start of
(AP, 2/18/98)(SSFC, 1/3/10, p.A13)
1960 Feb 19, California Gov.
Edmund G. Brown gave a 60-day stay of execution for San Quentin
inmate Caryl Chessman (39), convicted sex offender and best-selling
author, the Red Light Bandit.” The governor hoped to quiet public
sentiment in Latin America for Pres. Eisenhower’s impending visit.
(SFC, 4/20/02, p.A23)(SSFC, 2/14/10, DB p.42)
1960 Feb 19, UC Regents
retracted the following question from an English aptitude test for
high school applicants: "What are the dangers to a democracy of a
national police organization, like the FBI, which operates secretly
and is unresponsive to public criticism." FBI director J. Edgar
Hoover had organized a covert public relations campaign and put
pressure on Gov. Brown to retract the question.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F3)
1960 Feb 19, Prince Andrew of
Britain, Albert Christian Edward, Duke of York was born.
(HN, 2/19/98)(MC, 2/19/02)
1960 Feb 20, English
archeologist Charles Leonard Woolley (b.1880), best known for his
excavations at Ur in Mesopotamia, died. He was knighted by King
George V in 1935.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.9)
1960 Feb 21, Havana placed all
Cuban industry under direct control of the government.
1960 Feb 23, Whites joined
Negro students in a sit-in at a Winston-Salem, N.C. Woolworth store.
1960 Feb 23, Naruhito, crown
prince of Japan, was born.
1960 Feb 26, USA's David
Jenkins won the Olympics Gold for men's figure skating.
1960 Feb 26, Soviet premier
Khrushchev voiced support for Indonesia.
1960 Feb 27, The U.S. Olympic
hockey team defeated the Soviets, 3-2, at the Winter Games in Squaw
Valley, Calif. The U.S. team went on to win the gold medal.
1960 Feb 27, Adriano Olivetti
(58), Italian engineer, manufacturer, died.
1960 Feb 28, The Eighth Winter
Olympic Games formally closed in Squaw Valley, Calif.
(SSFC, 1/3/10, p.A13)
1960 Feb 29, An 5.7 earthquake
in Morocco's southwest Atlantic coast killed as many as 12,000. The
town of Agadir was destroyed.
1960 Feb, In San Francisco the
Villa Taverna restaurant opened at No. 27 Hotaling as a private
social club to celebrate Italian culture and cuisine. The street was
originally called Jones Alley and had been renamed in honor of Anson
Hotaling, owner of a nearby distillery, who convinced firefighters
in 1906 not to explode nearby structures.
(SSFC, 9/13/09, p.N1)
1960 Mar 1, 1,000 Black
students prayed and sang the national anthem on the steps of the old
Confederate Capitol in Montgomery, Ala.
1960 Mar 2, FBI director J.
Edgar Hoover received a 60-page report on the "political complexion"
of UC Berkeley.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F3)
1960 Mar 3, The 9th largest
snowfall in NYC history dropped14.5".
1960 Mar 3, The French cargo
ship "La Coubre," laden with Belgian weapons, exploded in
Havana Harbor and killed 136  people. The blast was blamed on
(USAT, 10/8/97, p.8A)(SFC, 1/28/00, p.A14)
1960 Mar 4, Lucille Ball filed
for divorce from Desi Arnaz.
1960 Mar 4, In Cuba Alberto
Korda took a photo of Che Guevara at a rally where Castro blamed the
US for the cargo ship disaster of the previous day. The photo later
became famous as a poster of Che and symbol for the Cuban
(USAT, 10/8/97, p.8A)
1960 Mar 5, Elvis Presley ended
his 2-year hitch in US Army.
1960 Mar 6, The Swiss granted
women the right to vote in municipal elections.
1960 Mar 7, Ivan Lendl, tennis
pro (US Open 1985-87), was born in Czechoslovakia.
1960 Mar 9, In Seattle, Wa.,
Clyde Shields (39), was implanted with the 1st kidney dialysis shunt
developed by Dr. Belding H. Scribner (d.2003) and engineer Wayne
Quinton. The process was 1st developed in the 1940s by Dr. Willem J.
Kolff, but had been restricted to operating rooms. Shields lived for
11 more years.
(SFC, 6/21/03, p.A17)
1960 Mar 9, San Francisco Mayor
George Christopher visited Moscow and accepted lavish gifts from
Premier Nikita Khrushchev.
(SSFC, 3/7/10, DB p.46)
1960 Mar 11, Pioneer 5 was
launched into solar orbit between Earth & Venus.
1960 Mar 13, NFL's Chicago
Cardinals moved to St Louis.
1960 Mar 15, Ten nations met in
Geneva to discuss disarmament.
1960 Mar 17, Eisenhower formed
anti-Castro-exile army under the CIA.
1960 Mar 19, "Redhead" closed
at 46th St Theater in NYC after 455 performances.
1960 Mar 21, California state
officials dumped radioactive waste from civilian installations into
the ocean about 50 miles off of San Francisco at a site that the
Navy and other Atomic Energy contractors have been using since 1946.
The waste was mixed with concrete, sealed in 55-gallon steel drums
and dumped in about 7,500 feet of water.
(SSFC, 3/21/10, DB p.46)
1960 Mar 21, Capt. John Eaheart
(32), a US Marine Corps Reserve pilot, crashed in his F9F Cougar
fighter jet and disappeared into Flathead Lake, Wyoming, near the
home of his fiancée’s parents. His remains were found in 2006.
(WSJ, 5/23/06, p.A1)
1960 Mar 21, A police massacre
in Sharpeville, South Africa, left 69 black protestors dead as
people gathered to protest the pass books that the apartheid
government required them to carry at all times. The ANC was
(SFC, 12/5/96, p.C2)(SFEC, 2/9/97, Z1 p.7)(AP,
1960 Mar 22, The 1st patent for
lasers was granted to Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes. Schawlow
and Townes developed their laser, light amplification by stimulated
emission of radiation, while working at Bell labs in 1958.
1960 Mar 23, Explorer 8 failed
to reach Earth orbit.
1960 Mar 24, US appeals court
ruled the novel, "Lady Chatterly's Lover" by D.H. Lawrence, to be
(WSJ, 5/15/95, p. A-16)(MC, 3/24/02)
1960 Mar 25, The 1st guided
missile was launched from a nuclear powered sub, the Halibut.
1960 Mar 26, Iraq executed 30
after attack on President Kassem.
1960 Mar 28, In Glasgow,
Scotland, a factory exploded burying 20 fire fighters.
1960 Mar 31, The South African
government declared a state of emergency after demonstrations led to
the deaths of more than 50 Africans.
1960 Mar 31, Joseph Haas (81),
German opera composer (Totenmesse), died.
1960 Apr 1, The first weather
satellite, TIROS 1, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla.
1960 Apr 1, U Nu was elected
premier of Burma.
Apr 1, France exploded a 2nd atom bomb in the Sahara Desert.
Gerboise Blanche (“white gerboa”) was a surface shot fired in a
seven meter deep pit, which accounted for the strange, Christmas
tree-like shape of the fireball. General Ailleret once again
personally initiated the firing of the device.
1960 Apr 2, Cuba bought oil
1960 Apr 4, In the 32nd Academy
Awards "Ben-Hur," Charlton Heston and Simone Signoret won.
1960 Apr 10, The US Senate
passed a landmark Civil Rights Bill. A history of the civil rights
movement was later written by Tom Dent (d.1998 at 65), 1961 press
liaison for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund.
(HN, 4/10/98)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.A24)
1960 Apr 12, Bill Veeck and
Chicago’s Comiskey Park debuted the "Exploding Scoreboard."
1960 Apr 12, The SF Giants made
their opening day debut in the new Candlestick stadium before 42,000
fans. The stadium was built by Charles Harney (d.1962), a friend of
Mayor Christopher, who also sold 41 acres to the city at $66,853 per
acre. He had purchased the land just a few years earlier at $2,100
per acre. Harney received $7 million for building the stadium and
was named director of the corporation set up to build the stadium.
The stadium was designed by architect John S. Boles. A radiant
heating system for the 2nd tier seats failed to work.
(SFC, 5/3/01, p.A8)(SFC, 4/10/10, DB p.50)(SFC,
1960 Apr 13, The first
navigational satellite was launched into Earth's orbit.
1960 Apr 14, "Bye Bye Birdie"
opened at Martin Beck Theater in NYC for 607 performances.
1960 Apr 14, The 1st underwater
launching of Polaris missile.
1960 Apr 15, The Student
Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organized at Shaw
1960 Apr 19, Baseball uniforms
begin displaying player's names on their backs.
1960 Apr 21, Brazil inaugurated
its new capital, Brasilia, transferring the seat of national
government from Rio de Janeiro. Brazil’s National Bank for Economic
and Social Development (BNDES), founded in 1952, helped fund its
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.3)(AP, 4/21/97)(HN,
4/21/98)(Econ, 4/18/09, p.81)
1960 Apr 24, In the 14th Tony
Awards: "Miracle Worker" and "Fiorello" won.
1960 Apr 25, First submerged
circumnavigation of the Earth was completed by a Triton submarine.
In 1962 Edward Latimer "Ned" Beach (b.19180, Navy captain authored
"Around the World Submerged."
(HN, 4/25/98)(SFC, 12/2/02, p.A19)
1960 Apr 25, Hope Emerson (62),
actress (I Married Joan, Peter Gunn), died.
1960 Apr 27, The 1st atomic
powered electric-drive submarine was launched at Tullibee.
1960 Apr 27, France’s Gen.
Charles de Gaulle flew into San Francisco and was welcomed by a
21-gun salute and some 250,000 people along his downtown motorcade.
(SSFC, 4/25/10, DB p.54)
1960 Apr 27, South Korean pres
Syngman Rhee resigned. The government of Syngman Rhee was toppled.
Parliament began investigations of alleged summary executions during
the 1950-1953 war.
(SFC, 4/21/00, p.A19)(MC, 4/27/02)
1960 Apr 27, Togo, a UN Trust
territory under French administration, gained independence. Sylvanus
Olympio became the 1st chief of state.
(PC, 1992, p.973)(EWH, 1st ed., p.1170)
1960 Apr, The US CIA began
planning an invasion of Cuba that culminated in the 1961 Bay of Pigs
disaster. The initial budget of $4.4 million grew to $46 million.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, p.A19)
1960 Apr, In San Francisco the
new 12-story Jack Tar Hotel opened on Van Ness Avenue. It featured a
2-acre 4th floor patio with a circular swimming pool and rectangular
year-round ice rink. In 1982 it was sold, remodeled and renamed as
the Cathedral Hotel. In 2009 it was slated for demolition to make
way for a new California Pacific Medical Center to open in 2015.
Demolition began in late 2013.
(SFC, 10/31/09, p.C1)(SFC, 11/19/13, p.D1)
1960 May 1, India's Bombay
state split into Gujarat and Maharashtra states.
1960 May 1, A Soviet missile
shot down an American U-2 spy plane near Sverdlovsk with pilot
Francis Gary Powers (1929-1977). Powers was held in the Soviet Union
for 21 months.
(SFC, 8/8/96, p.A11)(AP, 5/1/97)(SFC, 6/16/12,
1960 May 2, Pulitzer prize was
awarded to Alan Drury (Advice & Consent).
1960 May 2, House investigating
committee looked into payola questions.
1960 May 2, Caryl Chessman
(39), convicted sex offender and best-selling author, the Red Light
Bandit,” was executed at San Quentin Prison in California. He became
a best-selling author while on death row. SFC crime reporter Bernice
Davis (d.2002 at 97) later authored “Desperate and the Damned,” an
account of the Chessman case.
(AP, 5/2/08)(SFC, 2/8/02, p.A25)(SFC, 4/20/02,
1960 May 3, The musical "The
Fantasticks" opened at the Sullivan Street Playhouse in Greenwich
Village. It featured the song "Try to Remember" by Tom Jones &
Harvey Schmidt and was 1st produced at Barnard College in 1959. Lore
Noto (d.2002), former actor and agent, produced the show, which
became the world’s longest-running musical. It closed Jan 13, 2002
after 17,162 shows.
(SFC, 7/20/02, p.A20)
1960 May 3, Austria became a
founding member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), along
with Britain, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland. The
agreement took effect in 1994.
11/24/07, SR p.7)
1960 May 6, President
Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1960.
1960 May 6 Britain's Princess
Margaret married Anthony Armstrong-Jones, a commoner, at Westminster
Abbey. They divorced in 1978.
1960 May 6, Jacques Mornard
(Ram¢n Mercader), Trotsky's murderer, was freed in Mexico.
1960 May 7, Fidel Castro
announced Cuba’s resumption of diplomatic relations with the Soviet
(AH, 4/07, p.18)
1960 May 7, Leonid Brezhnev
replaced Marshal Kliment Voroshilov as president of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet.
1960 May 9, The US Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) approved the pill Enovid as safe for birth
control use. The pill was made by G.D. Searle and Company of
Chicago. It was commissioned by Margaret Sanger and funded by
heiress Katharine McCormick. In 2001 Carl Djerassi authored "This
Man’s Pill: Reflections on the 50th Birthday of the Pill." Djerassi
synthesized a key hormone in the pill in Mexico City in 1951.
(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.R6)(AP, 5/9/00)
1960 May 9, US sent a U-2 over
1960 May 10, John F. Kennedy
won the primary in West Virginia.
1960 May 10, USS Nautilus
completed the first circumnavigation of globe under water.
1960 May 11, John D.
Rockefeller Jr. (86), philanthropist, died.
1960 May 11, Israeli soldiers
captured Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires as he returned home from his
job at the Mercedes factory. Eichmann, the Nazi war criminal, was
nabbed by Peter Malkin. Eichmann was taken to Israel where he was
tried, found guilty and hung in 1962.
(SFEC, 11/3/96, Par. p.13)(WSJ, 4/28/97,
p.A17)(HN, 5/11/98)(MC, 5/11/02)
1960 May 13, Phillies
lost their 3rd consecutive 1-0 game
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1960 May 13, Bill Mandel was
brought before a House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
committee at SF City Hall concerning his broadcasts at KPFA radio
and KQED TV about press and periodicals of the Soviet Union. His TV
show was canceled but he continued broadcasting at KPFA. There was a
protest over the hearing and 64 people were arrested as police
turned on fire hoses to quell the disturbance. The event led Frank
Cieciorka (1939-2008) to create his woodcut of a fist that became an
icon of the 1960s. The film “Operation Abolition” was later made
depicting the riots. The ACLU called the film a propaganda job.
9/29/96, DB p.44)(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.D1,4)(SFEC, 3/21/99, Z1
p.4)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.1)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F3)(SFC, 11/29/08,
p.B5)(SSFC, 2/6/11, DB p.42)
1960 May 13, The 1st US
launch of the Delta satellite launching vehicle failed.
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1960 May 14, "At the Drop of a
Hat" closed at John Golden in NYC after 216 performances.
1960 May 14, Some 2-5,000
people marched against the HUAC proceedings at SF City Hall and the
police actions against protestors.
(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.1)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F3)
1960 May 16, A Big Four summit
conference in Paris collapsed on its opening day as the Soviet Union
leveled spy charges against the United States in the wake of the U-2
(HN, 5/16/98)(AP, 5/16/99)
1960 May 17, Connecticut
executed Joseph "Mad Dog" Taborsky in the electric chair for a
series of murders and robberies.
1960 May 17, The YF4H-1 Phantom
fighter and Douglas DC-8 were unveiled.
(NPub, 2002, p.19)
1960 May 18, Eileen Fulton
began playing Lisa on the TV soap "As the World Turns" and continued
for over 30 years.
1960 May 18, Jean Genet’s "Le
Balcon" premiered in Paris France.
1960 May 19, Walt Disney's
movie "Pollyanna" was released in movie theaters.
1960 May 19, The Drifters
recorded "Save the Last Dance For Me".
1960 May 19, DJ Alan Freed was
accused of bribery in radio payola scandal.
1960 May 19, USAF Maj. Robert M
White took the X-15 to 33,222 m.
1960 May 19, Belgian parliament
required a rest day for self employed.
1960 May 22, Chile experienced
a 9.5 earthquake (moment magnitude). A slow earthquake was detected
just before the big one. It caused tsunamis in every coastal town
between the 36th and 44th parallels with a death toll of some 1000
(PCh, 1992, p.977)(SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)(Econ,
1960 May 23, A tidal wave, due
to a 9.5 earthquake off Chile, hit Hilo, Hawaii. It killed 61
people, wiped out the beaches and destroyed 537 buildings. It went
on to hit Japan.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, p.T4)(SSFC, 8/25/02, p.C14)
1960 May 23, Israel announced
Israeli agents had captured former Nazi official SS Lt. Col. Adolf
Eichmann in Argentina. Eichmann was tried in Israel, found guilty of
crimes against humanity, and hanged in 1962. [see May 11]
(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)(AP, 5/23/02)
1960 May 25, Benoît van Innis,
Belgian cartoonist, painter, (New York Post), was born.
1960 May 26, UN Ambassador
Henry Cabot Lodge accused the Soviets of hiding a microphone inside
a wood carving of the Great Seal of the United States that they
presented to the U.S. embassy in Moscow.
1960 May 27, In Turkey a
military coup organized by 37 "young officers" deposed the
government PM Menderes, who was arrested along with all the leading
1960 May 29, Adrian Paul, actor
(Dance to Win, Highlander), was born in London, England.
1960 May 29, Everly Brothers
"Cathy's Clown" hit #1.
1960 May 30, Boris Pasternak
(b.1890), Russian poet, novelist (Dr Zhivago) and translator, died
at age 70.
(WUD, 1994, p.1055)(MC, 5/30/02)
1960 Jun 1, The ABC Television
Network reached 100 affiliates.
1960 Jun 4, The Taiwan island
of Quemoy was hit by 500 artillery shells fired from the coast of
1960 Jun 11, In Pakistan a
house packed with wedding celebrants collapsed killing 30.
1960 Jun 15, The Billy Wilder
movie "The Apartment," starring Jack Lemmon and Shirley MacLaine,
opened in New York.
1960 Jun 23, The Food and Drug
Administration approved Enovid by GD Searle, the first oral
1960 Jun 23, Patrice Lumumba
and the MNC formed the first government, with Lumumba (35) as
Congo's first prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu (1917-1969) as its
1960 Jun 26, The Malagasy
Republic (Madagascar) gained independence from France.
(SFC, 8/19/96, p.A10)(PC, 1992, p.973)
1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland
became independent and five days later was united with Italian
Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
(SFC, 4/10/96, A-5)
1960 Jun 27, Chlorophyll "A"
was synthesized at Cambridge, Mass.
1960 Jun 28, John Elway, NFL
quarterback (Denver Broncos quarterback: Super Bowl XXI, XXII,
XXIV), was born.
1960 Jun 30, Alfred
Hitchcock's film, "Psycho," opened.
1960 Jun 30, Independence was
granted to the Congo. A rebel movement freed the Belgian Congo from
Belgium. In Zaire (Congo) Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961) became the
first post-independence prime minister. He made Joseph Mobutu, a
young military officer, his private secretary. Two months after he
took power a sub-committee of the US National Security Council
authorized the assassination of Lumumba.
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)(SFEM, 5/7/00,
1960 Jun 30, US stopped sugar
imports from Cuba.
1960 Jul 1, Fidel Castro
nationalized Esso, Shell & Texaco in Cuba.
1960 Jul 1, Ghana became an
independent republic within the British Commonwealth and Kwama N.
Nkrumah became the 1st president.
(PC, 1992, p.973)
1960 Jul 1, French and Italian
Somaliland gained independence and united with the Somali Republic.
(PC, 1992, p.973)(Econ, 7/4/09, p.44)
1960 Jul 1, USSR shot down a US
RB-47 reconnaissance plane.
1960 Jul 4, The 50-star flag
made its debut in Philadelphia. A 50th star was added to the
American flag in honor of Hawaii's admission into the Union on
August 21, 1959.
(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1960 Jul 6, Aneurin Bevan
(b.1897), British Labour politician, died. He was a key figure on
the left of the party in the mid-20th century, and prominently
served as the Minister of Health during the creation of the National
Health Service, in which he played a vital part. In 1962 and 1974
Michael Foot authored a 2-volume biography of Bevan.
1960 Jul 7, Theodore Maiman
(1918-2007), a physicist at the Hughes Research Labs in California,
introduced the 1st working laser at Manhattan’s Delmonico Hotel.
(Econ, 6/11/05, TQ p.28)(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.A8)
1960 Jul 8, The Soviet Union
charged Francis Gary Powers, whose U-2 spy plane was shot down over
the country, with espionage.
1960 Jul 9, Roger Woodward (7)
and his sister, Deanne Woodward (17), were rescued from the Niagara
River after being tossed from family friend James Honeycutt's
12-foot aluminum boat. New Jersey tourists John Hayes and John
Quattrochi pulled Deanne Woodward to shore just before the brink.
Honeycutt was swept with Roger Woodward over the Horseshoe Falls and
died. Roger survived the 162-foot plunge.
1960 Jul 9, Khrushchev
threatened to use rockets to protect Cuba from the US.
(PC, 1992, p.973)
1960 Jul 11, Katanga province,
with the support of Belgian business interests and troops, broke
away from the new Congolese government of Patrice Lumumba, declaring
independence under Moise Tshombe leader of the local CONAKAT party.
This led to five years of mayhem.
1960 Jul 13, Massachusetts Sen.
John F. Kennedy won the Democratic presidential nomination at his
party's convention in Los Angeles.
1960 Jul 13, Joy Davidman
(b.1915), American poet, died. Her 2 husband included novelists
William Gresham and C.S. Lewis.
1960 Jul 14, Fire raging
through a Guatemala City, Guatemala, insane asylum and 225 were
killed with 300 severely injured.
1960 Jul 15, John F. Kennedy
accepted the Democratic nomination for president of the United
1960 Jul 15, Lawrence Mervil
Tibbett (63), baritone, died after surgery.
1960 Jul 16, Albrecht von
Kesselring (74), German field marshal (Italy), died.
1960 Jul 16, The 1st UN troops
reached Congo to replace Belgian troops.
1960 Jul 17, Francis Gary
Powers pleaded guilty to spying charges in a Moscow court after his
U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union.
1960 Jul 20, The submarine
George Washington became the 1st submerged sub to fire a Polaris
1960 Jul 21, Francis Chichester
arrived in NY aboard Gypsy Moth II, setting a record of 40 days for
a solo Atlantic crossing.
1960 Jul 21, Sirimavo
Bandaranaike became the first woman prime minister of Ceylon. In Sri
Lanka, an island country in the Indian Ocean formerly known as
Ceylon she served as prime minister twice, 1960-65 and 1970-77.
Under her leadership a republican constitution was adopted in 1972
and the name of Ceylon changed to Sri Lanka.
(HNQ, 5/23/98)(HN, 7/21/98)
1960 Jul 21, Germany passed the
Volkswagen law legislation privatizing Volkswagen. It capped a
shareholder's voting rights at 20%, regardless of the number of
shares held, and required a majority of 80% for "important
decisions." It also gave Lower Saxony, the state in which Volkswagen
is based, a controlling minority stake in the automaker. In 2007 the
European Court ruled that the VW law had to go.
1960 Jul 22, Cuba nationalized
all US owned sugar factories.
1960 Jul 27, Vice President
Nixon was nominated for president at the Republican national
convention in Chicago.
1960 Jul 28, Republican
National convention selected Richard Nixon.
1960 Jul 30, Over 60,000
Buddhists marched in protest against the Diem government in South
1960 Jul 31, Elijah Muhammad,
leader of Nation of Islam, called for a black state.
1960 Jul, The US Congress
created the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal.
(SFC, 5/31/99, p.A7)
1960 Aug 1, Dahomey, just west
of Nigeria, became independent from France with Hubert Maga as
president. It was renamed Benin with the capital at Porto Novo.
(WUD, 1994, p.139)(PC, 1992, p.973)(EWH, 1st ed.,
1960 Aug 3, Niger gained
independence from France. Hamani Diori was president.
(SFC, 8/9/97, p.A12)(SC, 8/3/02)(EWH, 1st ed.,
1960 Aug 5, Upper Volta,
formerly part of French West Africa, became independent under
Maurice Yameogo. In 1984 it was renamed Burkina Faso.
(WUD, 1994, p.139)(PC, 1992, p.973)(EWH, 4th ed.,
1960 Aug 6, Chubby Checker
debuted his version of "The Twist" on the Dick Clark Show. Hank
Ballard did the original in 1958.
1960 Aug 6, Revolutionaries of
the Castro regime seize the Lone Star Industries cement plant
in Mariel, Cuba. [letter by the CEO of Lonestar]
(WSJ, 10/17/95, A-20)
1960 Aug 7, Students staged
kneel-in demonstrations in Atlanta churches.
1960 Aug 7, Ivory Coast became
independent from France. Felix Houphouet-Boigny (b.1905) began to
rule Ivory Coast as prime minister. Houphouet-Boigny led the country
until his death in 1993. Encouragement of investment and stability
made it one of region's most prosperous.
(SFC, 12/25/99, p.A12)(AP, 9/24/02)
1960 Aug 7, Vaino Hannikainen
(60), Finnish composer, died.
1960 Aug 8, The pop song "Itsy
Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polkadot Bikini", sung by Brian Hyland
(16), hit #1. The song was written by Paul Vance and Lee Pockriss.
1960 Aug 9, There was a race
riot in Jacksonville Florida.
1960 Aug 10, Antonio Banderas,
actor (Phila, Evita, Mambo Kings, was born in Malaga, Spain.
1960 Aug 10, The first
successful US Corona spy satellite mission was launched after 12
previous failures [see 1957]. The flight photographed 1.6 million
square miles of the Soviet Union.
(WSJ, 7/6/98, p.A13)(SFC, 8/15/12, p.C8)
1960 Aug 11, Chad became
independent from France, but remained within the French community.
Francois Tombalbaye became the 1st president.
(PC, 1992, p.973)(EWH, 1st ed., p.1173)
1960 Aug 12, Morty Black, heavy
metal rocker (TNT-7 Seas), was born.
1960 Aug 12, USAF Major Robert
M White takes X-15 to 41,600 m.
1960 Aug 12, The first balloon
satellite, the Echo 1, was launched by the US from Cape Canaveral,
Fla. It bounced phone calls from JPL in California to the Bell Labs
in New Jersey.
(AP, 8/12/97)(SFC, 4/9/02, p.A18)
1960 Aug 13, The first two-way
telephone conversation by satellite took place with the help of Echo
1, a balloon satellite.
1960 Aug 13, Central African
Republic became independence from France and David Dacko was named
(MC, 8/13/02)(PC, 1992, p.973)(EWH, 1st ed.,
1960 Aug 13, The Soviet Union
withdrew advisors, aid and other support from China.
(SFC, 10/1/99, p.A14)(MC, 8/13/02)
1960 Aug 15, Congo (formerly
Congo/Brazzaville) declared Independence from France.
1960 Aug 16, Timothy Hutton
(actor: Taps, Made in Heaven, Ordinary People, The Dark Half,
The Temp, Q&A), was born.
1960 Aug 16, American test
pilot Joe Kittinger’s history-making parachute jump was from an
altitude of 102,800 feet, or 19.3 miles. In a gondola lifted by a
360-foot helium balloon, Kittinger reached the highest altitude ever
reached by man in nonpowered flight. His free fall lasted four
minutes and 36 seconds and he became the first man to exceed the
speed of sound without an aircraft or space vehicle. In 1984
Kittinger became the first to fly across the Atlantic Ocean in a
helium balloon alone.
1960 Aug 16, Britain granted
independence to the crown colony of Cyprus. Archbishop Makarios
became the 1st post independence president and chose Spyros
Kyprianou (28) as foreign minister.
(AP, 8/16/97)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A26)
1960 Aug 17, Sean Penn, actor
(Fast Times at Ridgemont High), was born.
1960 Aug 17, American Francis
Gary Powers pleaded guilty at his Moscow trial for spying over the
Soviet Union in a U-2 plane.
1960 Aug 17, Gabon became
independence from France. Leon M'Ba, head of the Gabon Democratic
Block, became the 1st president.
(PC, 1992, p.973)(WSJ, 1/24/97, p.A14)(EWH, 1st
1960 Aug 18, Enovid 10, the 1st
commercial oral contraceptive, debuted in Skokie, Ill.
1960 Aug 18, Beatles gave their
1st public performance at Kaiser Keller in Hamburg.
1960 Aug 19, A tribunal in
Moscow convicted American U2 pilot Francis Gary Powers of espionage.
About 18 months later, the Soviets agreed to release him in exchange
for Rudolph Abel, a Soviet spy convicted 5 years earlier. The
CIA and the Senate cleared Powers of any personal blame for
1960 Aug 19, Korabl-Sputnik-2
(Spaceship Satellite-2), also known as Sputnik 5, was launched. On
board were the dogs Belka ( Squirrel) and Strelka (Little Arrow).
Also on board were 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants. After a
day in orbit, the spacecraft's retrorocket was fired and the landing
capsule and the dogs were safely recovered. They were the first
living animals to survive orbital flight.
1960 Aug 20, Senegal broke from
Mali federation and declared independence.
1960 Aug 23, World's largest
frog (3.3 kg) was caught in Equatorial Guinea.
1960 Aug 23, Broadway
librettist Oscar Hammerstein II (65) died in Doylestown, Pa.
1960 Aug 25, The 17th
summer Olympics opened in Rome. Wilma Rudolph (1940-1994), was the
first African American to win three gold medals in a single
Olympiad. Her athleticism was remarkable since Rudolph contracted
polio as a small child and spent six years in a steel brace. With
therapy and hard work, Rudolph overcame her handicap to excel in
basketball and track. As a celebrity, she worked to break many
gender and racial barriers. Rudolph died of brain cancer.
(WSJ, 7/19/96, p.R6)(HN, 6/23/98)(chblue.com,
1960 Aug 25, AFL began
placing players names on back of their jerseys.
1960 Aug 25, In Congo
demonstrations took place against premier Lumumba.
1960 Aug 26, Knud Jensen (23),
Danish cyclist, collapsed while riding in a 100-km team trial at the
Olympics in Rome. He fractured his skull and died. An autopsy
revealed amphetamines in his blood. His death would led the
International Olympic Committee to begin a program of drug testing
beginning with the 1968 Games held in Grenoble, France and Mexico
1960 Aug 30, East Germany
imposed a partial blockade on West Berlin.
1960 Aug, The CIA recruited a
former FBI agent to approach two of America's most-wanted mobsters
and gave them poison pills meant for Fidel Castro during his first
year in power. This was only made public in 2007 in declassified
papers. The CIA recruited ex-FBI agent Robert Maheu, then a top aide
to Howard Hughes in Las Vegas, to approach mobster Johnny Roselli
and pass himself off as the representative of international
corporations that wanted Castro killed because of their lost
gambling operations. From August to May, 1961, CIA officials
approved several plans to kill Fidel Castro.
(SFC, 7/2/97, p.A5)(AP, 6/27/07)
1960 Sep 1, Robert Bolt's "A
Man For All Seasons," premiered in London.
1960 Sep 3, Niger became
independence from France.
(PC, 1992, p.973)(SFC, 8/9/97, p.A12)
1960 Sep 5, Cassius Clay
captured Olympic light heavyweight gold medal.
1960 Sep 5, Congo’s President
Kasavubu fired Premier Lumumba.
1960 Sep 5, Senegal became
independent from France. Leopold Sedar Senghor (d.2001 at 95), poet
and politician, was elected president of Senegal, Africa.
(PC, 1992, p.973)(HN, 9/5/98)(SFC, 12/21/01,
1960 Sep 8, NASA’s Marshall
Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., was dedicated by President
Dwight D. Eisenhower. This followed the activation of the facility
in July of that year, when a key element of the U.S. Army’s
Ballistic Missile Agency was transferred from the Department of
Defense to NASA. The Marshall Center is named in honor of
General George C. Marshall, who was the Army Chief of Staff during
World War II, U.S. Secretary of State, and a Nobel Prize winner for
his post-World War II "Marshall Plan."
(NASA PR, 8/22/00)
1960 Sep 8, Penguin Books in
Britain was charged with obscenity for trying to publish the D.H.
Lawrence novel Lady Chatterly’s Lover.
1960 Sep 8, German DR limited
access to East-Berlin for West Berliners.
1960 Sep 8, Feroze Gandhi
(b.1912) Indian politician and journalist, died. He had served as
the publisher of The National Herald and The Navjivan newspapers
from Lucknow. He was the husband of Indira Gandhi and the son-in-law
to Jawaharlal Nehru.
1960 Sep 8, Jussi Bjorling,
Swedish epic tenor (Manrico, Cavaradossi, Faust, Rodolfo, Riccardo,
Romeo), died of heart failure at 49.
1960 Sep 9, Hurricane Donna hit
the Florida Keys and moved up the coast to New England. It caused 50
US deaths and $387 million in damage.
1960 Sep 10, Abebe Bikila
(1932-1973), barefoot runner from Ethiopia, won the Olympic
1960 Sep 11, The 17th Summer
Olympics closed in Rome. In 2008 David Maraniss authored “Rome 1960:
The Olympics That Changed the World.”
1960 Sep 12, Democratic
presidential candidate John F. Kennedy addressed the issue of
his Roman Catholic faith, telling a Protestant group in Houston, "I
do not speak for my church on public matters, and the church does
not speak for me."
1960 Sep 13, VP Richard Nixon
campaigned in San Francisco and 40,000 came to Union Square as he
promised to keep the US military as the strongest in the world.
(SSFC, 9/12/10, DB p.50)
1960 Sep 13, The US Federal
Communications Commission banned payola. The scandal included Alan
Freed a popular DJ at WABC, he lost his job for allegedly accepting
gifts and money for playing certain records for money. There was
substantial evidence was uncovered to prove that the payola practice
1960 Sep 13, Leo Weiner,
Hungarian composer (Toldi), died at 75.
1960 Sep 14, The "Twist" sung
by Chubby Checker (born as Ernest Evans in 1941) hit #1. It reached
#1 a 2nd time in Jan. 1962.
1960 Sep 14, REITs were created
when President Eisenhower signed into law the REIT Act title
contained in the Cigar Excise Tax Extension of 1960. REITs were
created by Congress in order to give all investors the opportunity
to invest in large-scale, diversified portfolios of income-producing
1960 Sep 14, A Congo coup led
by Col. Mobutu overthrew PM Patrice Lumumba.
1960 Sep 14, Iraq, Iran,
Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela formed OPEC. Fuad Rouhani
(1907-2004) of Iran served as its 1st secretary-general. In 1964 he
was succeeded by Abdul Rahman Bazzaz of Iraq.
(HN, 9/14/98) (WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)
1960 Sep 17, Cuba nationalized
1960 Sep 18, Two thousand
cheered Castro's arrival in New York for the United Nations session.
1960 Sep 19, Cuban leader Fidel
Castro, in New York to visit the United Nations, angrily checked out
of the Shelburne Hotel in a dispute with the management. Castro
accepted an invitation to stay at the Hotel Theresa in Harlem.
1960 Sep 19, India and Pakistan
signed the Indus Waters Treaty.
(Econ, 5/22/10, SR
1960 Sep 20, David Park
(b.1911), a SF Bay Area figurative painter, died at 49. His work
included: "Man in a T-Shirt" and "Untitled" (1958), "Torso"
(1959). He made the 1st serious break with Abstract Expressionism in
his 1950 painting "Kids of Bikes." In 2012 Nancy Boas authored
“David Park: A Painter’s Life.”
(SFEC, 12/1/96, DB p.21)(SFC, 8/23/97,
p.A20)(SFEM, 9/21/97, p.31)(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 5/6/12, p.F7)
1960 Sep 21, Dr. Albert Starr
performed the first successful heart valve replacement in a human.
He and engineer Lowell Edwards had developed the artificial heart
valve in the 1950s.
1960 Sep 22, Mali became an
independent republic. Pres. Modibo Keita was elected the first
president and introduced a one-party dictatorship.
1960 Sep 24, The USS
Enterprise, the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, was launched
at Newport News, Va.
(AP, 9/24/97)(HN, 9/24/98)
1960 Sep 24, The International
Development Association (IDA) was created as part the World Bank to
provide long-term interest-free loans to the world's 81 poorest
1960 Sep 25, Emily Post
(b.1873), etiquette expert, died at 86. A 1941 profile of Emily
Price Post called her "the American dictator of correct behavior,"
an apt description since her book on etiquette sold more than
650,000 copies in its first 20 years. Born into high society, Post
wanted to write novels but she turned to etiquette when she
discovered the poor quality of existing books on the subject. For
her, however, "nothing is less important than the fork you
use"--rather, etiquette was the art of making other people feel
comfortable. Post delivered her message with wit and style in radio
broadcasts and a daily column printed in 160 newspapers. A
1941 profile of Emily Price Post called her "the American dictator
of correct behavior," an apt description since her book on etiquette
sold more than 650,000 copies in its first 20 years. In 2008 Laura
Claridge authored “Emily Post: Daughter of the Gilded Age, Mistress
of American Manners.”
(HNPD, 8/17/00)(WSJ, 10/16/08, p.A13)
1960 Sep 26, Ted Williams hit
his 521st HR off Jack Fisher for his last time at bat.
1960 Sep 26, The first
televised debate between presidential candidates Vice Pres. Richard
M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy took place in Chicago. Diplomat Henry
Cabot Lodge was Nixon’s vice-presidential nominee.
(SFEM, 4/28/96, p.12)(SFC, 5/7/96, p.A-6)(AP,
1960 Sep 26, Fidel Castro made
the longest speech in UN history, 4 hrs, 29 mins.
(WSJ, 8/5/06, p.A9)
1960 Sep 27, Europe's 1st
"moving pavement," (travelator), opened at Bank station.
1960 Sep 27, Sylvia Pankhurst,
feminist, died. She with her mother, Emmeline Pankhurst, had
established the militant Women's Social and Political Union in 1903.
These British suffragettes employed controversial, even violent
methods to win the right to vote. In 1918, women over thirty were
granted the vote, and in 1928, the voting age was lowered to 21, the
voting age of men.
1960 Sep 28, "Millionaire,"
last aired on CBS-TV.
1960 Sep 28, "Sunrise at
Campobello" premiered at Palace theater.
1960 Sep 30, Flintstones
premiered. It was the 1st prime time animation show.
1960 Sep 30, The last "Howdy
Doody Show" (b.1947) with Buffalo Bob Smith was broadcast.
Clarabelle finally talked and said "Goodbye Kids."
(SFC, 9/9/96, p.A18)(MC, 9/30/01)
1960 Sep 30, Mensa, the high IQ
society founded in the UK in 1946, held its 1st meeting in the US at
the Brooklyn home of Peter and Ines Sturgeon with 5 other pioneer
(SSFC, 8/18/02, p.E10)
1960 Sep 30, Fifteen African
nations were admitted to the United Nations.
1960 Oct 1, California Coast
Guardsmen boarded the Coho II at the entrance of SF Bay. The engine
was running and the fishing boat was on automatic pilot, but skipper
Ted Bean (45) was missing. Days earlier E.A. Davison, skipper of the
albacore boat Steelhead, had radioed in panic from the Monterey
fishing grounds saying “The Coho Second me just shot me.”
(SSFC, 9/26/10, DB p.50)
1960 Oct 1, Nigeria gained
independence from Britain (National Day). Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
(1912-1966) became the first prime minister and continued to 1966.
1960 Oct 3, "The Andy Griffith
Show" premiered on CBS. It was directed by Aaron Ruben (1914-2010)
ran to 1968. Don Knotts (d.2006 at 81) played the bumbling Deputy
(WSJ, 1/16/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/3/00)(AP,
2/26/06)(SFC, 2/5/10, p.C7)
1960 Oct 5, A Lockheed Electra
turbo-prop crashed in Boston Harbor and 62 people died. The plane
had flown into a flock of starlings.
(MC, 10/5/01)(SFC, 8/16/03, p.A21)
1960 Oct 7, Democratic
presidential candidate John F. Kennedy and Republican opponent
Richard M. Nixon held the second of their broadcast debates, in
1960 Oct 10, A cyclone hit the
coast of Gulf of Bengal; about 4000 died. [see Oct 31]
1960 Oct 10, The Russian Mars
1960A Probe failed to reach Earth orbit.
(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)
1960 Oct 11, In Cuba bank
president Ernesto Guevara offered sugar magnate Julio Lobo
leadership of Cuba's sugar industry in exchange for keeping one of
his 14 mills and home. Mr. Lobo declined the offer.
(WSJ, 3/11/99, p.A1)
1960 Oct 11, A hurricane
ravaged East Pakistan and some 6,000 died.
1960 Oct 12, Soviet Premier
Nikita Khrushchev disrupted a UN General Assembly session by
pounding his desk with a shoe when a speaker criticized his country.
1960 Oct 13, The Pittsburgh
Pirates won the World Series at Forbes Field with a 9th inning
homerun by Bill Mazeroski. A Univ. of Pittsburgh academic building
was later built on the site.
(WSJ, 3/25/04, p.D1)
1960 Oct 13, Richard M. Nixon
and John F. Kennedy participated in the third televised debate of
their presidential campaign, with Nixon in Hollywood and Kennedy in
1960 Oct 13, Opponents of Fidel
Castro were executed in Cuba.
1960 Oct 14, The idea of a
Peace Corps was first suggested by Democratic presidential candidate
John F. Kennedy to an audience of students at the University of
1960 Oct 14, Cuba nationalized
all sugar assets and made itself custodian of all art and artifacts.
(WSJ, 3/11/99, p.A1)
1960 Oct 14, The Russian Mars
1960B Probe failed to reach Earth orbit.
(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)
1960 Oct 17, A grand jury found
that the popular television game show Twenty-One had provided
contestants with questions and answers before the live programs were
1960 Oct 19, US President
Eisenhower imposed an embargo on exports to Cuba covering all
commodities except medical supplies and certain food products.
1960 Oct 19, Canada and the
United States agreed to undertake a joint Columbia River project to
provide hydroelectric power and flood control.
1960 Oct 19, The United States
and Mexico agreed to the co-construction of a dam on the Rio Grande.
1960 Oct 19, Martin Luther King
Jr. was arrested in an Atlanta sit-in.
1960 Oct 20, The 1st fully
mechanized post office opened in Providence, RI.
1960 Oct 21, The 1st
British nuclear submarine, Dreadnought, was launched at
Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, by her majesty the Queen. Dreadnought
was the first British submarine to surface at the North Pole in
1971. In the 1970s she was fitted to fire Tigerfish torpedoes. She
developed reactor problems in late 1980 and was decommissioned in
1982. She is laid up at Rosyth awaiting disposal.
1960 Oct 25, Martin Luther
King, Jr., was sentenced to four months in prison for a sit-in.
1960 Oct 25, The 1st electronic
wrist watch placed on sale in NYC.
1960 Oct 25, Cuba nationalized
all remaining US businesses.
1960 Oct 21, Democrat John F.
Kennedy and Republican Richard M. Nixon clashed in their fourth and
final presidential debate.
1960 Oct 27, Singer Ben E. King
recorded "Spanish Harlem" and "Stand By Me."
1960 Oct 28, In a note to the
OAS (Organization of American States), the United States charged
that Cuba had been receiving substantial quantities of arms and
numbers of military technicians" from the Soviet bloc.
1960 Oct 29, Chartered C46
carrying Cal State's football team crashed and 16 people were
1960 Oct 30, Guatemala's "La
Hora" reported a plan for the invasion on Cuba.
1960 Oct 31, A cyclone hit the
coast of Gulf of Bengal and about 10,000 died. [see Oct 10]
1960 Oct, In San Francisco the
Co-Existence Bagel Shop closed in North Beach. The owner cited a
sick city administration and a psychopathic police department for
(SFC, 3/21/15, p.C2)
1960 Nov 1, US Pres. Eisenhower
announced that the US would take all steps necessary to defend its
naval base at Cuba’s Guantanamo Bay.
(AH, 4/07, p.18)
1960 Nov 2, Democratic
presidential candidate John F. Kennedy told an audience of 20,000 at
the Cow Palace in Daly City, Ca., that the US should establish a
Peace Corps. The idea was first presented 3 weeks earlier at the
Univ. of Michigan.
1960 Nov 2, A British jury
determined that Lady Chatterly's Lover by D.H. Lawrence is not
obscene. It had been published by Penguin Books.
(HN, 11/2/00)(MC, 11/2/01)
1960 Nov 2, Dimitri Mitropoulos
(64), Greek-US conductor and composer, died.
1960 Nov 3, Tammy Grimes'
"Unsinkable Molly Brown," premiered in NYC.
1960 Nov 3, The first Arhoolie
LP (Long Play, 33 1/3 rpm record) arrived from the pressing plant:
250 copies of Mance Lipscomb’s “Texas Sharecropper and Songster.”
Chris Strachwitz founded Arhoolie Records in Berkeley, Ca.
1960 Nov 3, Felix
Houphouet-Boigny (b.1905) began to rule Ivory Coast as president.
1960 Nov 4, The film "Misfits"
premiered. It was the final movie for Clark Gable and Marilyn
1960 Nov 5, Mack Sennett,
director and producer (Keystone Cops), died.
1960 Nov 8, Massachusetts Sen.
John F. Kennedy was elected 35th president by 118,550 popular votes.
He defeated Richard Nixon in the US pres. elections and was the
first Roman Catholic to win the office. Popular legend later held
that the political machine of Richard Daley in Chicago provided the
necessary votes for Kennedy to win Illinois (27 electoral votes) and
the elections. The Electoral College result was 303 to 219. The
Democratic ticket of Kennedy and Johnson received 49.72% of the
popular vote to 49.55% given to Republicans Richard Nixon and Henry
Lodge—a difference of about 118,000 voters nationwide (the deciding
electoral vote was 56.4% to 40.8% in favor of the Democrats).
(SFEC, 8/31/97, p.B5)(AP, 11/8/97)(SFEC, 1/18/98,
Par p.2)(HN, 11/6/98)(SFC, 11/22/99, p.A21)(HNQ, 11/6/00)
1960 Nov 8, Hawaiians voted for
the first time in a US presidential election. John Kennedy beat
Richard Nixon by a margin of 2115 votes.
1960 Nov 10, Pres. Elect John
F. Kennedy named Pierre Salinger (35), a former SF Chronicle
reporter, to be his White House Press Secretary and Andrew T.
Hatcher (37), a negro and former editor of the SF Sun-Reporter, as
associate press secretary.
(SSFC, 11/7/10, DB p.50)
1960 Nov 12, Discoverer XVII
was launched into orbit from California’s Vandenberg AFB. The
Discoverer Program (1959-1962) was a ruse to conceal the Corona
Program, a series of photoreconnaissance spy satellites. Corona was
the first photoreconnaissance program, and a precursor of the
military and civilian space imaging programs of today.
1960 Nov 12, Coup against South
Vietnam president Ngo Dinh Diem failed.
1960 Nov 13, Sammy Davis Jr.
married Swedish actress May Britt.
1960 Nov 13, Fire in movie
theater killed 152 children in Amude, Spain.
1960 Nov 14, President Dwight
Eisenhower ordered U.S. naval units into the Caribbean after
Guatemala and Nicaragua charged Castro with starting uprisings.
1960 Nov 14, New Orleans
integrated two all white schools. Ruby Bridges, a 6-year-old black
girl, entered a previously all-white school flanked by 4 federal
marshals before a phalanx of angry racists. A 1998 Disney movie
"Ruby Bridges" portrayed the event, which was captured by Norman
Rockwell in his painting: "The Problem We all Live With."
(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)(HN, 11/14/98)
1960 Nov 14, 2 passenger trains
collided at high-speed killing 110 in Czech.
1960 Nov 14, OPEC (Organization
of Petroleum Exporting Countries), formed.
1960 Nov 15, The first
submarine with nuclear missiles, the USS George Washington, took to
sea from Charleston, South Carolina.
1960 Nov 15, In San Francisco
groundbreaking ceremonies were held for the $3.2 million, 800-car
underground garage at Portsmouth Square.
(SSFC, 11/14/10, DB p.50)
1960 Nov 16, After the
integration of two all white schools, 2,000 rioted in the streets of
1960 Nov 16, Clark Gable (59),
actor (Gone With the Wind), died.
(WUD, 1994 p.578)(SFC, 11/18/00, p.B7)(MC,
1960 Nov 16, Nnamdi Azikiwe
became the 1st governor-general of Nigeria. He was a member of the
southern Ibo people.
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(EWH, 1st ed., p.1172)
1960 Nov 25, John F. Kennedy
Jr. (d.1999), son of JFK, lawyer, magazine publisher (George), was
born in NYC.
1960 Nov 25, "Amos 'n' Andy"
made its last broadcast on CBS radio.
1960 Nov 25, CBS ended last 4
radio soap operas (Ma Perkins, Right to Happiness, Young Dr Malone
& 2nd Mrs. Burton) and canceled 4 other series.
1960 Nov 27, CBS radio
cancelled "Have Gun Will Travel."
1960 Nov 27, Patrice Lumumba
fled Leopoldville, Congo.
1960 Nov 28, CBS radio expands
hourly news coverage from 5 to 10 minutes.
1960 Nov 28, "Are You Lonesome
Tonight" by Elvis Presley peaked at #1 on the pop singles chart and
stayed there for six weeks; Elvis also released a version of that
song where he breaks up into laughter.
1960 Nov 28, "Last Date" by
Floyd Cramer peaked at #2 on the pop singles chart.
1960 Nov 28, "New Orleans" by
U.S. Bonds peaked at #6 on the pop singles chart.
1960 Nov 28, "Ol' MacDonald" by
Frank Sinatra peaked at #25 on the pop singles chart.
1960 Nov 28, Richard N. Wright
(52), US author (Native son), died in Paris France.
1960 Nov 28, The Islamic
Republic of Mauritania proclaimed independence with Moktar Ould
Daddah as president.
(PC, 1992, p.973)(EWH, 4th ed., p.1233)
1960 Nov 30, In San Francisco
demolition began of the old Fontana spaghetti factory on North Point
Street. It will be replaced by twin 17-story towers, the Fontana
East and Fontana West, each with 130 apartments. The old warehouse,
built between 1868 and 1870, was first used as a woolen mill and
converted to a spaghetti factory around the turn of the century.
(SSFC, 11/28/10, DB p.50)
1960 Dec 1, Patrice Lumumba was
caught in the Congo.
1960 Dec 3, Daryl Hannah, film
star, was born in Chicago, Ill.
(SSFC, 3/14/04, Par p.18)
1960 Dec 3, The Frederick Loewe
& Alan Jay Lerner musical "Camelot" opened on Broadway.
(AP, 12/3/99)(MC, 12/3/01)
1960 Dec 4, The USSR vetoed
Mauritania's application for UN membership.
(EWH, 4th ed., p.1233)
1960 Dec 7, The first episode
of "Coronation Street", the longest running TV soap opera in the
world, was broadcast by Granada.
1960 Dec 9, The Laos government
fled to Cambodia as the capital city of Vientiane was engulfed in
1960 Dec 10, The San Francisco
Chronicle reported that a third of a million fifths of an exotic
moonshine, known as bok chow, were being distilled in Chinatown. A
recent raid at 1555 Mason St. gave up 22 gallons.
(SSFC, 12/5/10, DB p.50)
1960 Dec 14, A U.S. B-52 bomber
set a 10,000 mile non-stop record without refueling.
1960 Dec 16, A United Air Lines
DC-8 and a TWA Super Constellation collided over Staten Island, New
York City. 134 people were killed including 128 people on both
1960 Dec 18, A rightist
government was installed under Prince Boun Oum in Laos as U.S.
resumed arms shipments.
1960 Dec 19, A fire aboard the
USS Constellation, under construction at Brooklyn, killed 50.
1960 Dec 20,
Auschwitz-commandant Richard Baar was arrested in German FR.
1960 Dec 20, National
Liberation Front was formed by guerrillas fighting the Diem regime
in South Vietnam.
1960 Dec 26, Musical "Do Re Mi"
with Phil Silvers premiered in NYC.
1960 Dec 27, France exploded a
3rd atom bomb in the Sahara Desert, code-named Gerboise Rouge (“red
1960 George Herm created his
sculpture "The Librarian."
(SFC, 10/4/96, p.C8)
Christenberry, American artist from Alabama, painted "Tenant House
(SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)
1960 Bruce Conner began his
sculpture "Portrait of Allen Ginsberg." It was completed in 1961.
(SFC, 10/4/96, p.C8)
1960 John Barth authored his
novel “The Sot-Weed Factor.”
(SSFC, 12/18/05, p.M4)
1960 Daniel Bell (1919-2011)
authored “The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas
in the Fifties.”
1960 Edwin Dale Jr. (d.1999 at
75), NY Times journalist, published "Conservatives in Power."
(SFC, 5/11/99, p.A19)
1960 Ernest Dichter
(1907-1991), Viennese psychologist, authored “The Strategy of
Desire.” He had arrived in America in the 1930s and spun his
insights on human instincts into a million-dollar business. He is
often considered to be the "father of motivational research."
1960 Lawrence Durrell
(1912-1990), expatriate British writer, authored “Clea,” the fourth
volume his 4-part Alexandria Quartet (1957-1960).
1960 F.A. Hayek, economist,
wrote "The Constitution of Liberty" (The Challenge to Liberty). Here
he declared the concepts of liberty and responsibility as
(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A18)(WSJ, 4/19/01, p.A16)
1960 Jasper Johns made his
"Painting with Two Balls."
(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)
1960 Sargent Johnson
(1888-1967), African-American artist in SF, made his diorite "Rape."
(SFEC, 4/12/98, DB p.43)
1960 Yves Klein painted
"Untitled Anthropometry (ANT 106)," a white canvas body-printed at
his direction by nude models with blue pigment.
(SFC, 2/10/98, p.E4)
1960 Rex Lardner (d.1998 at 80)
wrote "Out of the Bunker and Into the Trees," a parody of golf and
golfers. His books also included "the Complete Guide to Tennis." He
was the chief radio and TV writer for Ernie Kovacs.
(SFC, 7/31/98, p.D6)
1960 Sylvia Plath published her
first book of poems "The Colossus."
(SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)
1960 "Ezra Pound," a biography
by Charles Norman, poet and biographer, was published.
(SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)
1960 The Lithuanian embassy in
Washington published "Lithuania’s Occupation by the Soviet Union."
(Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)
1960 Herb Caen, SF newspaper
columnist, wrote his 6th book "Only in San Francisco."
(SFEC, 2/2/97, p.A13)
1960 Prof. Earl Wendell Count
(1897-1996) edited "This Is Race: An Anthology of the Int’l.
Literature on the Races of Man."
(SFEC, 12/22/96, p.C12)
1960 William Heyden Easton
(1919-7/7/96), an authority on fossil corrals, published his
textbook "Invertebrate Paleontology."
(SFC, 7/20/96, p.A19)
1960 Clifton Fadiman (d.1999 at
95) first published his "Lifetime Reading Plan."
(WSJ, 7/2/99, p.W13)
1960 Leslie Fiedler (d.2003),
authored "Love and Death in the American Novel." He analyzed the
work of mark Twain, Ernest Hemingway and others.
(SFC, 1/31/03, p.A26)
1960 Hans-Georg Gadamer
(d.2002), German philosopher and influential in hermeneutics (the
study of the understanding and meaning of texts), authored "Truth
(SFC, 3/26/02, p.A24)
1960 Paul Goodman authored
"Growing Up Absurd: Problems of Youth in the Organized Society."
(SFC, 12/4/02, p.A28)
1960 Graham Green (1904-1991)
authored “A Burnt-Out Case,” centered on a leper colony in the
1960 Jack Lalanne (b.1914)
authored “The Jack LaLanne Way to Vibrant Good Health.”
(SSFC, 5/16/10, DB p.58)
1960 George Leonard Herter
(1911-1994), Minnesota-born catalogue writer, published his “Bull
Cook and Authentic Historical Recipes and Practices.” Herter was
later considered the prince of fantasy food historians.
1960 David Kidd (1927-1996)
wrote "All the Emperor’s Horses," an account of the last days of the
ancient regime of China. It was reissued in 1988 as Peking Story.
(SFC, 11/27/96, p.B2)
1960 Harper Lee (b.1926),
American novelist, authored "To Kill a Mockingbird." It was made
into a film in 1962. In 2006 Charles J. Shields authored
“Mockingbird: A Portrait of Harper Lee.”
(HN, 4/28/99)(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.M3)
1960 Gavin Maxwell authored
“Ring of Bright Water,” his classic tale of living with otters.
(Economist, 9/1/12, p.81)
1960 Prof. Herbert McClosky
(1916-2006) of UC Berkeley authored “The Soviet Dictatorship,” a
political analysis of the Soviet Union.
(SFC, 3/17/06, p.B9)
1960 Alan Moorehead authored
"The White Nile," a history of African exploration.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.126)
1960 Vance Packard (1914-1996)
wrote "The Waste Makers," a critique of consumer society.
(SFC, 12/13/96, p.B6)
1960 "Bertillon 166" was the
first novel by Cuban writer Jose Soler Puig (1917-1996). The book
described a day in the life his native city under the government of
Fulgencio Batista. He also wrote "In the Year of January" (1963),
"The Collapse" (1964), "Sleeping Bread" (1975), "The Decaying
Mansion" (1977), "A World of Things" (1982), "The Knot," "Soul
Alone," and "A Woman."
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A20)
1960 Thomas Schelling, game
theorist, authored “The Strategy of Conflict.” In 2005 Schelling won
the Nobel Prize in economics.
(Econ, 10/15/05, p.82)(WSJ, 2/23/08, p.W8)
1960 Bertram Smythies (d.1999
at 86), British naturalist, published "The Birds of Borneo."
(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A20)
1960 William Stokoe Jr.
(1919-2000) authored "Sign language Structure." His work led to the
acceptance of American Sign Language as a genuine language. In 1964
Stokoe co-authored "A Dictionary of American Sign Language on
1960 Joseph Tussman
(1915-2005), professor of philosophy, authored “Obligation and the
Body Politic,” in which he warned of America’s democracy moving
“deeper into the morass of public relations, the projection of
images, and the painless engineering of consent.”
(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.B5)
1960 Gore Vidal published his
satirical fantasy "Visit to a Small Planet." Vidal’s play "The Best
Man" opened on Broadway.
(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)
1960 Theodore H. White
published "The Making of the President."
(WSJ, 7/29/99, p.A26)
1960 Edmund Wilson and Joseph
Mitchell authored “Apologies to the Iroquois.” It memorialized the
seizure by Robert Moses, the unelected head of the New York Power
Authority, of 600 acres by eminent domain for a power reservoir near
1960 C. Van Woodward published
"The Burden of Southern History."
(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.C14)
1960 The Noel Coward play
"Waiting in the Wings" was first performed.
(WSJ, 12/20/99, p.A24)
1960 Angela Lansbury played in
"A Taste of Honey."
(SFEC, 12/8/96, Par p.18)
1960 The musical "Oliver" based
on the Dickens novel "Oliver Twist" premiered in London. It was
written and composed by Lionel Bart (d.1999 at 68).
(SFEC, 4/4/99, p.B12)
1960 Peter Brook directed the
stage show "Irma La Douce."
(WSJ, 6/15/98, p.A26)
1960 Benjamin Britten based his
new opera "A Midsummer Night’s Dream" on the Shakespeare play.
(WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A1)
1960 Alvin Ailey (1931-1989)
first performed his dance "Revelations." In 1996 Jennifer Dunning
wrote his biography: "Alvin Ailey, A Life in Dance."
(SFEC, 12/15/96, BR p.4)
1960 The last Playhouse 90
production was shown on TV. It was a drama of the Warsaw ghetto
titled: "In the Presence of Mine Enemies" and was written by Rod
(WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-14)
1960 "The Porter Wagoner Show"
began on TV and ran for 21 years.
1960 Ray Charles made a hit
with "Georgia on My Mind."
(SSFC, 7/28/02, Par p.20)
1960 Sam Cooke made a hit with
his song: "Wonderful World."
(SFEC, 1/10/99, BR p.9)
1960 Floyd Cramer (d.1997 at
64), studio pianist, had a hit single with the song "Last Date." He
also wrote "San Antonio Rose," "Fancy Pants," and "On the Rebound."
(SFC, 1/1/98, p.A25)
1960 Bob Ferguson (d.2001 at
73) wrote the country song "Wings of a Dove" for Ferlin Husky.
(SFC, 7/25/01, p.C2)
1960 Leonard Kwan (d.2000 at
69) recorded "Slack Key," the world’s first all-instrumental slack
(SFC, 8/17/00, p.A27)
1960 John Lewis directed the
Monterey Jazz Festival and featured Ornette Coleman, John Coltrane,
and Eric Dolphy. Jimmy Lyons and many others in the crowd wailed
that "that stuff isn’t jazz." "Evolution of the Blues" by Joe
Hendricks, commissioned for the festival was first performed. Lalo
Schifrin’s "Gillespiana" suite was also preformed.
(SFC, 6/30/96, B9)(SFC, 9/23/96, D1)
1960 Country singer Hank
Lochlin (1918-2009) made a hit with his song “Please Help Me, I’m
Falling.” It was Billboard’s No. 1 song for 14 weeks.
(SFC, 3/12/09, p.B6)
1960 Loretta Lynn scored her
first hit with "I’m a Honky Tonk Girl."
(SFC, 8/24/96, p.A21)
1960 Rockin’ Robin Roberts
recorded a version of "Louie, Louie" with the Wailers. It became a
regional hit in the Seattle-Tacoma area.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.A19)
1960 Isaac Stern (d.2001 at
81), Russian-Jewish immigrant to the US and legendary violinist,
saved Carnegie Hall from the wrecking ball.
(SSFC, 9/23/01, p.A24)
1960 "We Shall Overcome" became
the anthem of the non-violence movement in the US.
(TMC, 1994, p.1960)
1960 Pan Am constructed its
World Port terminal at Idlewild Airport, which was later renamed to
(Hem., 5/97, p.70)
1960 It was reported that a
rule that required women to wear head coverings in churches was
repealed. No official statement to that effect was actually made.
1960 Pat Robertson started the
Christian Broadcasting Network with the purchase of an idle UHF
broadcast station in Portsmouth, Va.
(WSJ, 8/29/96, p.A7)
1960 Ruses Solomon founded
Tower Records in Sacramento, Ca., by selling records out of his
father’s drugstore. In 2006 the 89-store company was sold for $150
million, with creditors owed $200 million.
(SFC, 10/7/06, p.C3)
1960 Rev. Elwood Kieser founded
Paulist Productions to spread the Catholic faith through film.
(WSJ, 9/26/96, p.B1)
1960 Ira Eaker (1922-2002) and
Allen Zwerdling founded Back Stage, a NYC theater trade paper.
(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A27)
1960 Wilbur Hardee (1917-2008),
opened his first Hardee’s restaurant, in Greenville, NC. The company
went public in 1963.
(SFC, 6/24/08, p.B5)(http://tinyurl.com/6ztal8)
1960 Gil Perkins (d.1999 at
91), actor and stuntman, co-founded the Stuntmen's Association of
(SFC, 4/2/99, p.D6)
1960 The Rockefeller and Ford
foundations joined forces to found the Int’l. Rice Research
Institute (IRRI) in Losa Banos, Philippines.
(Hem., 12/96, p.82)
1960 In Georgia the Cathedral
of the Holy Spirit began as a small church in the Little Five Points
neighborhood of Atlanta. Membership peaked at about 10,000 in the
1990s. By 2007 membership had fallen to about 1,500 in the wake of
sex scandals associated with founding Archbishop Earl Paulk (80).
(SFC, 11/20/07, p.A7)
1960 New York based Greek
Archbishop Iakovos founded the Standing Conference of Canonical
Orthodox Bishops for cooperation and unity.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)
1960 Pamela Churchill Harriman
(1920-1997) married producer Leland Hayward. Hayward died in 1971
and Pamela married Averell Harriman, a former lover. Her biography
was written in 1996 by Sally Bedell Smith: "Reflected Glory: The
Life of Pamela Churchill Harriman."
(SFC, 10/23/96, p.E6)(WSJ, 11/4/96, p.A21)(SFC,
1960 Hugo Gernsback
(1884-1967), Luxembourg-born US publisher and inventor, won his own
Hugo award as "The Father of Magazine Science Fiction."
1960 Donald A. Glaser
(1926-2013) of UC Berkeley, inventor of the bubble chamber, won the
Nobel Prize in Physics.
(SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFC, 3/19/13, p.C6)
1960 Albert John Lutuli
(Luthuli) (c1898-1967), tribal chief and president-general of the
African National Congress, won the Nobel Peace prize.
1960 Alexis Saint-Leger
(1887-1975), Guadeloupe-born French poet and diplomat, won the Nobel
Prize for literature. He wrote under the pseudonym Saint John Perse.
1960 In boxing American Floyd
Patterson defeated Sweden’s Ingemar Johansson in their 2nd meeting.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.B1)
1960 Mohammad Ali (Cassius
Clay) threw his Olympic gold medal for boxing into the Ohio River
after being refused service at a Louisville restaurant.
(SFEC, 9/27/98, Par p.2)
1960 The Oakland Raiders began
play in the fledgling American Football League at Youell Field,
Kezar Stadium and the new Candlestick Park. The team was founded by
developers John Brooks and Wayne Valley.
(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W39)(SFC, 4/24/15, p.D7)
1960 Pete Rozelle (1926-1996)
became the commissioner of the National Football League. He served
(SFC, 12/7/96, p.A1,11)
1960 The Dallas Cowboys
football team played their first season with no wins.
(WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A1)
1960 The Winter Olympics were
held in Squaw Valley.
(SFC, 10/4/97, p.A20)
1960 The Eisenhower
administration created the Arctic National Wildlife Range on 9
million acres of Alaska’s coastal plain and mountains adjacent to
(SSFC, 8/28/05, p.A13)
1960 John F. Kennedy asked his
friend Frank Sinatra for help in the West Virginia primary for
presidential elections. Sinatra asked his friend Sam Giancana to
assist in this matter. The story is documented in a 1995 biography
of Sinatra by his daughter Nancy titled: "Frank Sinatra: An American
Legend." JFK used his young lover Judith Campbell Exner (d.1999 at
65) to carry messages and money to Sam Giancana. The story was told
in a 1997 A&E TV show series titled "Godfathers," that focused
on the biography of Sam Giancana. Exner was introduced to JFK and
Giancana by Frank Sinatra.
(WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 1/8/96, p.B2)(SFC,
12/9/98, p.A7)(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.C7)
1960 Republican Richard Nixon
won the New Hampshire primary over Nelson Rockefeller 89.3 to 3.8%.
Democrat John Kennedy won over Paul Fisher 85.2 to 13.5%.
(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)
1960 Joseph P. Kennedy was
later reported to have held a meeting with Chicago mobster Sam
Giancana to encourage the mob-run unions to vote for JFK. The events
were later described in the 1997 book "The Dark Side of Camelot" by
Seymour Hersh. Hersh excluded controversial documents known as the
"JFK Papers" that were reportedly found in the files of the late New
York lawyer Lawrence Cusack.
(SFEC,11/9/97, p.A12)(SFEC,11/23/97, p.A8)
1960 John F. Kennedy beat
Richard Nixon for the US presidency by 118,574 votes.
(TMC, 1994, p.1960)
1960 Dr. Frances Kelsey
(1914-2015) of the FDA blocked the US sale of thalidomide,
prescribed to relieve morning sickness in pregnant women. In 1962
the Richardson-Merrell drug company withdrew its US application and
the drug was pulled worldwide after babies were born with
flipper-like limbs and other deformities due to the drug.
(SFC, 8/10/15, p.C4)
1960 Ruby Bridges, a 6-year-old
black girl, entered a previously all-white school flanked by 4
federal marshals before a phalanx of angry racists. A 1998 Disney
movie "Ruby Bridges" portrayed the event, which was captured by
Norman Rockwell in his painting: "The Problem We all Live With."
(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)
1960 The Forest Service
designated 6,000 sq. mls. of revitalized grasslands of the US
western plains as National Grasslands. Kiowa National Grassland
occupies 210 sq. mls. of northeastern New Mexico.
(NH, 5/96, p.64)
1960 California voters under
Gov. Pat Brown narrowly approved the $1.75 billion State Water
Project. It involved 22 upstream dams and reservoirs and a pumping
plant to send water into an aqueduct largely for urban use in the
(SFC, 2/12/00, p.A7)(Econ, 10/24/09, p.28)
1960 California ordered smog
control devices on cars. It was the first such law in the country.
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1960 In San Francisco the
20-story Pacific Height Towers, designed by John Sardis, was built
at 2200 Sacramento St.
(SSFC, 6/8/14, p.C3)
1960 SF State College became
one of several under a new California state Master Plan for Higher
(SFEC, 3/21/99, Z1 p.4)(Econ, 8/11/12, p.24)
1960 The California-based Save
the Redwoods League dedicated Avenue of the Giants Parkway in
Humboldt Redwoods State Park after 40-year-long acquisition process.
1960 The US Army completed
Capehart Housing, some 30 duplexes in the Marin Headlands of
(SFCM, 10/3/04, p.14)
1960 The Woodside Community
Church was built in Woodside, Ca. It was designed by Donn Emmons
(d.1997 at 87).
(SFC, 9/3/97, p.A20)
1960 The new King Estates
Middle School opened in Oakland, Ca.
(SFC, 10/31/00, p.A1)
1960 Harold Dobbs (1918-1994)
served as acting mayor of San Francisco. A close political ally of
Mayor George Christopher, Dobbs served on several occasions as
Acting Mayor in Christopher's absence and was considered heir
apparent to the mayor's office. In 1963 Dobbs lost his first run for
mayor in a three-way race behind Congressman Jack Shelley.
1960 Ralph Stackpole presented
the new city of Pacifica, Ca., with 2 working models of his 1939
Expo statue of the same name.
(Ind, 1/23/99, p.5A)
1960 The SF Bay was reduced to
548 sq. miles by silting, diking, draining and filling.
(SFC, 11/4/98, p.A29)
1960 Developer T. Jack Foster,
to finance the development of Foster City, persuaded California
state Sen. Richard Dolwig (R.-Redwood City) to pass a bill creating
the Estero Municipal Improvement District, which was authorized to
issue over $85 million in bonds through 1967.
(SFC, 6/14/09, p.H2)
1960 A fire swept the old
Madden & Lewis boatyard in Sausalito, Ca., and devastated the
studio of David Morris (d.1999 at 88). Morris had served as the head
of the arts section of the WPA in the 1930s.
(SFC, 2/25/99, p.C2)
1960 Otis Chandler (32),
great-grandson of Gen. Otis Chandler, became the 4th publisher of
the LA Times. In 2001 Dennis McDougal authored "Privileged Son: Otis
Chandler and the Rise and Fall of the LA Times."
(SSFC, 6/24/01, DB p.66)
1960 Hugh Hefner (b.1926), in
partnership with Victor Lownes and restaurateur Arnold Morton
(d.2005), opened the 1st Playboy Club in Chicago.
(SFC, 5/30/05, p.B4)
1960 The Univ. of Chicago’s
business school launched its Center for Research in Security Prices
following a donation by banker Louis Engel.
(Econ, 11/20/10, p.90)
1960 Allied Capital, a
private-equity firm for business development companies (BDCS), went
public. Such firms were exempt from corporate taxes as long as the
bulk of profits were distributed to shareholders.
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.78)
1960 Stanford R. Ovshinsky and
his wife Iris founded Energy Conversion Devices (ECD) in Rochester
Hills, Michigan. In the 1980s the company introduced a nickel-metal
hydride battery (NiMH) for consumer use and made it available for
automobiles in the early 1990s. The technology made hybrid vehicles
possible. By 2006 sales for the solar division, United Solar Ovonic,
reached $90 Million.
(WSJ, 10/13/04, p.C1)(WSJ, 11/27/06, p.A1)(Econ,
12/2/06, TQ p.33)
1960 The Dart Container Corp.
was incorporated by W.A. Dart. It grew to control more than half of
the US polystyrene-cup market.
(WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A1)
1960 Marc Bohan took over Dior
as a fashion designer for jet setters.
(WSJ, 1/20/03, p.B1)
1960 Isadore Sharp founded the
Four Seasons luxury hotel chain.
(WSJ, 4/8/02, p.A1)
1960 Pan American World Airways
was contracted to provide service to a chain of Micronesian islands.
(WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A23)
c1960 Trucker Malcom McClean of
North Carolina put freight containers on a cargo ship and launched
the container ship business. His company became Sea-Land.
(WSJ, 3/15/00, p.B1)
1960 US car makers introduced
some small cars, among them the Comet, Falcon and Corvair.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1960 William G. White
(1913-1996) took over the leadership of Consolidated Freightways and
turned the company into a leader in the trucking industry.
(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A28)
1960 TRW became the first US
company to produce a rack-and-pinion steering system.
(F, 10/7/96, p.70)
1960 Builder Del Webb opened
the Sun City retirement community near Phoenix, Ariz.
(WSJ, 10/13/04, p.D6)
1960 Wells Fargo was acquired
by the American Trust Company, which shifted the bank’s focus to
retail banking. Wells at the time had 12 offices in California,
while American Trust had 102. The Wells Fargo name was kept.
(SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)
1960 IBM Pres. Thomas J. Watson
committed $5 billion to develop the System/360 new computer line.
(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.A1)
1960 Bob Bemer, programmer at
IBM, created the software "escape sequence" that allowed computers
to break from one alphabet to another. He later led efforts to
establish the universal character set called ASCII, named the COBOL
programming language, and helped develop the standard for the 8 bit
(WSJ, 6/20/97, p.B1)
1960 Hans Freudenthal, Dutch
mathematician, designed the Lincos artificial language. It was
designed to communicate with aliens.
(Wired, 8/96, p.88)
1960 James Cooke Brown designed
Loglan, an artificial language to test the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
that language influences the thoughts of the speaker. The Lojban
language later grew out of Loglan for the purpose of studying
artificial intelligence. It used the same grammar but a completely
(Wired, 8/96, p.88)
1960 George Kozmetsky (d.2003
at 85) and Henry Singleton of Litton Industries formed Teledyne
Corp. Kozmetsky and his wife Ronya formed the RGK Foundation in
(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A1)
1960 The Xerox model 914
plain-paper copier made its debut. It was invented by Chester
Carlson and had been nursed along by Batelle research institute of
Ohio and Haloid, a NY manufacturer of photographic paper. In 1961
Haloid became Xerox.
(WSJ, 8/6/04, p.W8)
c1960 The Visible Man toy was
created by Marcel Jovine (d.2003 at 81) and was soon followed by
(SFC, 1/28/03, p.A15)
1960 Jane Goodall began her
study of chimpanzees in the Gombe reserve of Tanzania.
(SFEC, 12/15/96, zone 1 p.3)
1960 Stanley Milgram began
experiments at Yale Univ. on the psychology of torture. His
groundbreaking article “Behavioral Study of Obedience,” was
published on Oct 15, 1963, in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology.
His experiments created a paradigm for considering how cruel people
can be when they are “only obeying orders.” In 2004 Thomas Blass
authored “The Man Who Shocked the World: The Life and Legacy of
(SSFC, 7/4/04, p.M6)(SAM, 10/08, p,24)
1960 William F. House led a
team that perfected the cochlear implant, a device that transforms
sound into electrical signals that stimulate the auditory nerve in
(SFC, 7/18/00, p.A8)
1960 Garnis Curtis (d.2012 at
93), UC Berkeley geologist, and colleague Jack F. Evernden used
their new potassium-argon dating technique to date Zinjanthropus to
1.85 million years of age.
(SSFC, 3/3/13, p.C2)
1960 The population of the
world again doubled from what it was in 1900 to 3.2 billion. It was
expected that by the year 2000 there would be 6 to 7 billion human
beings on the planet.
1960 The Int’l. Bureau of
Weights and Measures defined the meter as 1,650,763.73 wavelengths,
in a vacuum, of light emitted by the unperturbed atomic energy level
transition 2p10 to 5d5 of the krypton-86 isotope.
(NH, 2/05, p.24)
1960 A tidal wave hit Hilo,
Hawaii, and wiped out the beaches along with a section of downtown.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, p.T4)
1960 Two planes crashed over
Staten Island N.Y. killing 134 people.
(TMC, 1994, p.1960)
1960 Richard Buckley (b.1906),
monologist known as Lord Buckley, died. In 2002 Oliver Trager
authored "Dig Infinity! The Life and Art of Lord Buckley."
(SFC, 7/9/02, p.D1)
1960 Alvin Pleasant Carter,
legendary country musician (A.P. Carter), died in his Virginia
mountain cabin. His brother Ezra pressed his 3 daughters and
Maybelle Carter to form a 2nd generation Carter Family music group.
Johnny Cash was Maybelle’s son-in-law.
(SSFC, 8/4/02, p.M3)
1960 Eddie Cochran (21),
guitarist, died following a car crash in a hired car in England. His
hit songs included "Summertime Blues" and "C’mon Everybody." His
girlfriend, songwriter Sharon Sheeley and rocker Gene Vincent,
(SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)
1960 Zora Neale Hurston
(b.1903), black author, died. Her 1942 autobiography was titled
"Dust Tracks on a Road." In 1977 Robert Hemenway authored a
biography of Hurston. In 2002 Cora Kaplan edited "Zora Neale
Hurston: A Life in Letters." In 2002 Valerie Boyd authored the
biography "Wrapped in Rainbows."
(WSJ, 12/20/02, p.W8)(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M1)
1960 Dimitri Mitropoulos
(b.1897), conductor of the NY Philharmonic, died. he was succeeded
by Leonard Bernstein.
(WUD, 1994, p.918)(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B11)
1960 St. John Philby died in
Beirut from a heart attack. He had orchestrated the Aramco oil deal
in Saudi Arabia.
(WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)
1960 Martin Ramirez (b.1885 in
Mexico), outsider artist, died in a state mental hospital. He was
picked up in LA in 1930 and locked up for the rest of his life. He
began to draw around 1948 with any material he could get and was
discovered in 1954 by a prof. of psychology at Cal State in
Sacramento. His pencil-and-crayon drawings became some of the
highest-priced works in the field.
(WSJ, 3/11/98, p.A18)
1960 Richard Wright (b.1908),
novelist who wrote about the abuses of blacks in white society, best
known for "Native Son" (1940), died in Paris. In 2001 Hazel Rowley
authored the biography: "Richard Wright."
(HN, 9/4/98)(SSFC, 8/12/01, DB p.61)(SFC, 9/5/01,
1960 In this year 17 former
African colonies became independent members of the UN.
(SSFC, 2/11/07, p.C1)
1960 Albania sided with China
on a Sino-Soviet ideological dispute; consequently Soviet economic
support was curtailed and Chinese aid was increased.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1960 The new American Embassy
in London, designed by Eero Saarinen, was completed. His
designed for the building, officially titled the U.S. Chancellery,
was completed in 1955.
(WSJ, 10/8/08, p.D9)
1960 Britain ended its 2-year
national service program. Conscription in the United Kingdom existed
for two periods in modern times. The first was from 1916 to 1919,
the second was from 1939 to 1960. During World War I and World War
II it was known as War Service or Military Service. From 1948 it was
known as National Service.
1960 The British farthing went
out of circulation.
(Econ, 5/12/12, p.78)
1960 Britain had 16 banks. Then
years later the number dropped to six.
(Econ, 5/19/12, p.83)
1960 The Central American
Common Market was set up by a treaty between El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua, and later Costa Rica. It fell apart by the end
of the decade.
1960 China launched its first
rocket despite a cutoff of Soviet aid amid a political falling-out.
1960 China completed the
construction of the Sanmenxia Dam on the middle-reaches of the
Yellow River near Sanmenxia on the border Shanxi and Henan Province.
Soon after completion, sediment-accumulation threatened the benefits
of the dam. Silt balance was achieved in 1970. Two more bottom
sluices began operating in 1990 along with another in 1999 and the
final in 2000.
1960 Colombia’s a domestic spy
agency, created in 1953, was reconstructed as the DAS by President
Alberto Lleras Camargo.
1960 Following the revolution
Ramon Grau Alsina (d.1998 at 80) and his sister founded the
underground Pedro Pan organization for Cuban parents to send their
children to live in the US.
(SFC, 11/6/98, p.D5)
1960 In Egypt Pres. Gamal Abdel
Nasser nationalized the country’s media. Mustafa Amin (d.1997 at 83)
and his twin brother Ali published 5 of the best-selling
publications prior to the seizure and were highly critical of
(SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)
1960 The Aswan High Dam was
begun. Lake Nasser behind it stores 170 billion cubic meters of
water at top level, enough to satisfy Egypt’s needs for about three
years. The Aswan High Dam forced the relocation of 60,000 Egyptian
Nubians. New settlements were built in the desert away from the
river with irrigation canals for farming.
(NG, May 1985, Farouk El-Baz, p.595)(NG, May
1960 In Finland 3 teenage
camping companions were found stabbed to death inside a tent by Lake
Bodom. A 4th survived with multiple stab wounds. In 2005 Nils
Gustafsson (63), the survivor, was charged with murdering his 3
1960 The magazine Hara-Kiri was
founded as a monthly French version of Mad.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.76)
1960 Raymond Queneau, French
author, inspired the formation of Oulipo: the Ouvroir de Litterature
Potentiale (the workshop for potential or hypothetical literature).
In 1999 the "Oulipo Compendium," edited by Harry Matthews and
Alastair Brotchie, was published.
(SFEC, 5/9/99, BR p.8)
1960 Pres. de Gaulle granted
independence to all its colonies in Africa.
(WSJ, 1/24/97, p.A14)
1960 In France Jacques Foccart
(1913-1997) was named secretary-general for African affairs. He held
the office until 1974.
1960 Homag, a German firm for
making wood-working machines, was founded in Schopfloch. Its shares
were floated on the stock market in 2007.
1960 Germany paid 115 million
Deutschmarks — equivalent to about $330 million in 2015 — as part of
a treaty with Greece meant to compensate victims of Nazi atrocities,
including Greek Jews.
1960 In Guatemala rebellious
army officers took to the hills and began the long attempt to
overthrow a tyrannical regime.
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)
1960 In India the film
"Mughal-e-Azam" (Emperor of the Moghuls) was released. It became one
of Bollywood's greatest classics. In 2004 it was re-released in a
color version. The film was set in Lahore at a time when Muslims
ruled India. It was shown in Pakistan for the 1st time in 2006.
(AP, 11/8/04)(Reuters, 4/23/06)
1960 Yukio Mishima (1925-1970),
Japanese writer, authored “Utage No Ato “After the Banquet), a
somewhat disguised account of certain aspects of an actual political
1960 Japan’s PM Nobusuke Kishi
strengthened Japan’s alliance with America. His grandson, Shinzo
Abe, became PM of Japan in 2006. During the 1930s Kishi had run
industrial policy in Manchuria and in the 1940s oversaw forced-labor
(Econ, 10/7/06, p.31)
1960 In Latin America the
military brass met for their first Conference of American Armies.
(SFC, 11/20/99, p.C1)
1960 Malaysia introduced the
Internal Security Act (ISA) to stem a communist insurgency. It
allowed authorities to detain people indefinitely without trial.
(SFC, 4/25/01, p.A12)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.52)
1960 In Nepal malaria was
eradicated. Illiterate tribes on the Terai plains were displaced by
higher-caste hordes streaming down from the hills and became serfs
in their own land.
1960 Islamabad was designed as
the forward capital of Pakistan to replace Karachi. Islamabad and
the ancient Gakhar city of Rawalpindi stand side by side, displaying
the country’s past and present.
1960 Arequipa, Peru, was hit by
another earthquake. [see Chile, May 22, 1960]
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)
1960 Naftali Herts Kon (b.1910)
was imprisoned in Warsaw on fabricated charges of spying for Israel.
He had just completed a report from Romania on the persecution of
political opponents and Jews. Kon had spent the years between 1949
and 1956 at Soviet labor camps among other persecuted intellectuals.
He died in Israel in 1971, never having recovered from the loss of
1960 South Korea’s population
was about 25 million.
(Econ, 7/17/10, SR p.10)
1960 The Lutheran Church of
Sweden ordained its first female ministers.
(SFC, 10/16/12, p.A2)
1960 The West Indies Associated
States were formed from the former British colony of St.
(WUD, 1994, p.961)
1960s In 1987 Todd Gitlin authored "The Sixties:
Years of Hope, Days of Rage."
(SSFC, 3/17/02, p.M2)
1960s The quarterly journal The
Eventorium Muse was published. It featured the poetry of Frank
Kuenstler (1928-1996). He also published the poetry books "Lens,"
"Fugitives" and "Miscellany."
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A20)
1960s Darcy Ribeiro,
anthropologist (1923-1997), wrote his 6-volume work "Studies
of the Anthropology of Civilization."
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20)
1960s Leni Riefenstahl, German
filmmaker, published a collection of photographs of the Nuba tribe
of southern Sudan.
(SFC, 9/10/03, p.A19)
1960s Alexander Schindler
(d.2000 at 75), US Jewish reform leader, authored "The Torah: A
(SFC, 11/17/00, p.D7)
1960s Czech director Ivan
Passer did "Intimate Lightning."
(WSJ, 1/24/97, p.A13)
1960s Prof. Frank Kofsky
(d.1997 at 62) wrote "John Coltrane and the Jazz Revolution of the
1960s." He also wrote "Black Music, White Business."
1960s The King Family was
featured on ABC TV. The show featured Alyce King Clarke (1916-1996),
one of the King Sisters who sang through five decades.
(SFC, 8/24/96, p.A21)
1960s Dion DiMucci, rock-pop
singer, popularized "Runaround Sue," "The Wanderer," and "Abraham,
Martin and John." He initially sang with The Belmonts and in 1996
worked with a band called Little Kings.
(SFC, 7/12/96, p.D5)
1960s Singer and minstrel
Donovan Leitch made hits with his songs: "Sunshine Superman," "Hurdy
Gurdy Man," "Atlantis," and "Mellow Yellow."
(SFEC, 10/13/96, DB p.47)
1960s The Serendipity Singers
toured with the Kingston Trio and the New Christy Minstrels. They
recorded "Don’t Let the Rain Come Down." Lead singer Dennis E.
Arnold died in 1997 at 49.
(SFC, 9/30/97, p.A13)
1960s Taj Mahal began
performing with his R&B band around Boston coffeehouses and
later earned a degree in animal husbandry.
(SFEC, 8/31/97, DB p.9)
1960s John Sinclair founded the
White Panther Party and managed the MC5 rock group.
(SFEC, 7/21/96, DB p.35)
1960s Rev. Paul Van Buren
(d.1998 at 74), an Episcopal professor at Temple Univ., was a
leading exponent of the ‘death of God" school of theology.
(SFC, 7/2/98, p.C5)
1960s US pres. Lyndon B.
Johnson visited Malaysia. In honor of his visit a new plantation was
named LBJ. The plantation was later sold for the development of an
information technology zone called the Multimedia Super Corridor.
(WSJ, 1/8/97, p.A12)
1960s A payola scandal brought
down the empire of popular disk jockey Alan Freed after it was
revealed that he had accepted money from record companies to play
(SFC, 2/12/00, p.A21)
1960s The US Army Corps of
Engineers, at the behest of state and federal governments,
crisscrossed the remnants of Florida’s Kissimmee River with dykes,
ditches and levees.
(Econ, 10/8/05, p.31)
1960s Eugene Stoner (1922-1997)
invented the Stoner 63, an automatic weapon that could be converted
from a light rifle into a rapid-firing gun. He developed M-16
(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.B8)
1960s Four revolutions were
being enacted around the world: 1)The radical movement in the West.
2) The movement in Czechoslovakia against totalitarianism. 3)
National liberation movements in Southeast Asia. 4) Liberation
theology in Latin America. Paul Berman focuses on the first two in
his 1996 book "A Tale of Two Utopias, The Political Journey of the
Generation of 1968."
(SFEC, 1/5/97, BR p.4)
1960s The CIA gave the Tibetan
exile movement $1.7 million a year. The Dalai Lama’s share was
$180,000. The payments were part of a program to undermine communism
worldwide and were apparently stopped by the Nixon administration in
(SFC, 9/30/98, p.A10)
1960s Four American soldiers
defected to North Korea.
(SFC, 6/18/96, p.A12)
1960s In Bridgeport, Conn., the
Rev. Laurence Brett molested young Frank Martinelli. In 1997 the
Bridgeport Roman Catholic Diocese was found guilty for breach of
duty and failure to investigate for other victims and awarded
Martinelli (50) $750,000. The good Rev. could not be found.
(SFC, 8/26/97, p.E4)
1960s Tino De Angelis hocked
and sold billions of pounds of non-existent salad oil in a major
scandal of the period.
(WSJ, 7/10/02, p.A8)
1960s Billy Sol Estes mortgaged
nonexistent farm equipment in a major scandal of the decade.
(WSJ, 7/10/02, p.A8)
1960s Big Top peanut butter
produced a glass mug to hold its product with a picture of Hopalong
Cassidy, the old singing cowboy star.
(SFC, 2/18/98, Z1 p.3)
1960s A walking catfish
(Clarias batrachus), imported from Bangkok, walked away from a fish
farm west of Deerfield Beach, Florida. By 2002 it had spread to 20
counties in South Florida.
(SFC, 7/4/02, p.A2)
1960s The DoodelMaster Magic
Screen toy, made in England, was acquired by Ohio Art Toy and
renamed Etch A Sketch.
(SFC, 6/15/00, p.C6)
1960s Philip Kraczkowski
(1916-1996) designed the head of the G.I. Joe figure for the Hasbro
(SFC, 10/11/96, p.A24)
1960 The new antibiotic
methicillin was introduced. In 1961 strains of Staphylococcus aureus
resistant to Methicillin (MRSA) were first reported.
1960s Edward Lorenz, MIT
meteorologist, popularized the notion of the butterfly effect: where
a small turbulence, such as a butterfly flapping its wings, can set
in motion atmospheric events that can climax in a hurricane.
(SFC, 8/15/03, p.A6)
1960s Robert B. Leighton
(1919-1997) led the team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the
Mars probes, Mariner IV, VI, and VII. He was the inventor of the
Leighton dishes, a type of telescope that enabled astronomers to
analyze an unexplored area of the electromagnetic spectrum. He also
wrote the text "Principles of Modern Physics."
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)
1960s The black hole in the
center of the Milky Way was named Sagittarius A after it was found
to be a compact source of radio waves. It was estimated to have a
mass equal to 2.6 million suns and be about 6 million miles across
and some 26,000 light years away.
(SFC, 1/8/98, p.A6)
1960s On the island of Bonaire,
Netherland Antilles, turtles became legally protected in the mid
(SFEC, 10/6/96, T8)
1960s In Brazil Carlos
Marighella and Carlos Lamarca founded revolutionary groups. They
financed their operations by robbing banks and kidnapped foreign
ambassadors as exchange for jailed colleagues.
(SFC, 6/14/96, p. A17)
1960s Many Nepalese migrated to
Bhutan for economic reasons.
(Econ, 10/25/03, p.39)
1960-1962 The Stanford Radio Telescope Dish, built
by SRI, took three years to complete. Its mission was to do
observational radio science. It participated in the Pioneer space
program and was used to study solar winds.
(SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-11)
1960-1962 In China in the famine of this period an
estimated 30 million people died.
(SFC, 10/14/97, p.A19)
1960-1963 In Cambodia Prince Norodom Sihanouk
repressed the Communist party and Pol Pot and other leaders fled to
(SFC, 6/14/97, p.A15)
1960-1966 On TV Hanna-Barbera introduced "The
Flintstones" animated cartoon series which ran for a record 166
episodes. This was surpassed in 1997 by "The Simpsons." Jean Vander
Pyl (d.1999 at 79) spoke the voice of Wilma, Pebbles and Mrs. Slate,
the wife of Fred's boss. The theme music was composed by Hoyt Curtin
(d.2000 at 78).
(USAT, 1/13/97, p.1D)(SFC, 8/26/98, z1 p.6)(SFC,
4/14/99, p.AC5)(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.C17)
1960-1966 Marina City, a pair of cylindrical
apartment towers, was constructed built. The design was by Bertrand
Goldberg (d.1997 at 84).
(SFC, 10/11/97, p.A19)
1960-1966 The Ska era of music in Jamaica. The
musicians included guitarist Ernest Ranglin, saxophonist Tommy
McCook and trombonist Don Drummond.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, DB p.38)
1960-1967 Bobby Darin, singer, and Sandra Dee,
actress, were married. Their story was later told by their son in
the book "Dream Lovers."
(SFEC, 11/10/96, Par p.2)
1960-1969 In 2008 Peter Doggett authored “There’s
a Riot Going On: Revolutionaries, Rock Stars, and the Rise and Fall
of the ‘60s.” The title was taken from the 1971 album by Sly and the
(SFC, 10/3/08, p.E5)
1960-1970 In 2000 Maurice Isserman and Michael
Kazin authored "America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s."
(SFEC, 6/11/00, BR p.2)
1960-1979 The US CIA launched a secret domestic
spying program dubbed MHCHAOS aimed at the US anti-war underground
press. The events were later described in the 1997 book by Angus
McKenzie (d.1997): "Secrets: The CIA’s War at Home."
1960-1970 The Toyota Motor Company, formed as a
division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works in the 30s, acquired several
competing companies including Hino, Nippondenso and Daihitsu during
the 60s and 70s in a huge expansion that included marketing more
cars overseas. The “Toyota Way,” its corporate culture, embodied 5
elements: Kaizen (continuous improvement), Genchi genbutsu (go to
the source for facts), Challenge, Teamwork, and Respect for other
(HNQ, 9/28/00)(Econ, 1/21/06, Survey p.11)
1960s-1970s In Russia Vladimir Soloukhin, writer,
published a series of essays lamenting the loss of ancient
monuments. His essays sparked a grassroot interest in preserving the
past and the formation of the All-Russian Society for the Protection
of Monuments of History and Culture (VOOPIK).
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.34)
1960s-1973 Thanom Kittikachorn (d.2004) ran
Thailand in the 1960s and early 1970s with his son, Col. Narong
Kittikachorn, and Narong's father-in-law, Field Marshal Praphas
1960-1972 Some 90 cancer patients at the Univ. of
Cincinnati Gen’l. Hospital were administered doses of radiation. The
project was funded by the Defense Dept. for data on how radiation
might affect troops. A federal judge approved a $4.3 million
settlement in 1997 to the relatives of the patients along with a
1960-1990 80 billion tons of carbon was put into
the atmosphere. This amount was equaled in the period from 1860 to
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.41)
1960-1990s Peter Schrag, retired editor of the
Sacramento Bee, published in 1998 the book "Paradise Lost:
California’s Experience and America’s Future." In it he brought
together the disparate political and social events of the last four
decades in the state.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.3)
1960-1995 Robert Fogel of the Univ. of Chicago
argued that America was undergoing its fourth religious revival and
that it started about 1960 and was still continuing. The period from
1890-1930 marked in his mind the 3rd Great Awakening in America.
This was from his Bradley lecture at the American Enterprise
(WSJ, 10/6/95, p.A-10)
1960-2000 Madagascar lost half of its forests over
(Econ, 3/1/14, p.94)
1960-2005 The fault line in American
politics shifted from class to values.
(Econ, 5/21/05, p.29)
1960-2006 US inflation over this period caused the
buying power of $1,000 in 1960 money to match $6,818 in 2006.
(WSJ, 12/16/06, p.S5)
1960-2009 South Korea’s fertility rate fell during
this period form 6 children per woman to 1.15.
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.78)
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