Timeline 1961

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1961        Jan 3, The United States severed diplomatic relations with Cuba after Fidel Castro announced he was a communist. The US Guantanamo Bay base remained under US control.
    (AP, 1/3/98)(HN, 1/3/99)(MC, 1/3/02)

1961        Jan 4, The Danish barbers' assistants strike ended after 33 yrs. It was the longest strike on record.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1961          Jan 10, Dashiell Hammett (66), author, died in NYC  from throat cancer. In 1983 Diane Johnson authored his biography. His books included “The Maltese Falcon" and “The Thin Man," both of which were turned into films. He wrote “The Maltese Falcon" while living in San Francisco at 891 Post St., which was also given as the address of detective Sam Spade.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0358591/)(SFC, 6/7/04, p.C2)
1961        Jan 10, In San Francisco a 25-foot grey whale died after getting trapped under Pier 50C at Mission Rock Terminal. Humane officers fired soft-nosed and armor piercing bullets into its skull to try to put the animal out of its misery.
    (SSFC, 1/9/11, DB p.42)

1961        Jan 11, There was a race riot at the University of Georgia.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1961        Jan 13, Prof. Ancel Keys of the Univ of Minnesota landed on the cover of Time Magazine for providing a solution to why middle-aged men were dropping dead from heart disease: eat less fat. This led the US government to its first set of dietary guidelines in 1980.
    (Econ, 5/31/14, p.76)

1961        Jan 15, The Supremes signed with Motown Records.
    (MC, 1/15/02)
1961        Jan 15, The hurricane weakened Texas Tower No. 4, a Cold War radar tower, collapsed in the North Atlantic 85 miles southeast of NYC. In 2011 Pres. Obama wrote letter honoring the 28 men killed in the collapse.
    (www.radomes.org/museum/documents/TexasTower.html)(SFC, 2/10/11, p.A4)

1961        Jan 17, In his farewell address, President Eisenhower warned against the  rise of "the military-industrial complex."
    (AP, 1/17/98)
1961        Jan 17, US Pres. Dwight Eisenhower and Canada’s PM John Diefenbaker signed a treaty to jointly control the Columbia River. The treaty was implemented in 1964.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_River_Treaty)
1961        Jan 17, Patrice Lumumba (34), the 1st premier Congo, was murdered after 67 days in office. Pres. Eisenhower allegedly approved the assassination of Congo's Patrice Lumumba. The US and Joseph Mobutu were implicated but no conclusive proof has emerged. Sidney Gottlieb (d.1999 at 80), a CIA deputy, carried a deadly bacteria to the Congo that was used to kill Lamumba. In 2000 the Belgium Parliament opened an inquiry into possible government involvement in the killing of Congo’s Premier Patrice Lumumba. This followed allegations in the new book "The Murder of Lumumba" by Ludo De Witte. In 2001 the inquiry found that King Baudouin knew of the plot but did nothing to stop it. The Katanga government did not announce the death until Feb 13. Moscow charged that UN Sec. Gen. Dag Hammarskjold was involved.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1961)(PCh, 1992, p.979)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)(SFC, 5/3/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/9/01, p.A1)

1961        Jan 19, The 1st episode for "Dick Van Dyke Show" was filmed.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1961        Jan 20, Francis Opulence's "Gloria," premiered in Boston.
    (MC, 1/20/02)
1961        Jan 20, Pres. Kennedy made his inaugural address from the steps of the US Capital. In 2004 Thurston Clarke authored “Ask Not: The Inauguration of John F. Kennedy and the Speech That Changed America." In 2005 Richard J. Tofel authored “Sounding the Trumpet: The Making of John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address."
    (SSFC, 10/24/04, p.M2)(WSJ, 8/24/05, p.D10)
1961        Jan 20, Poet Robert Frost recited his poem "The Gift Outright" [The Outright Gift] at the inauguration of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. Frost, born in San Francisco on March 26, 1874, was the first poet to participate in a presidential inauguration. Awarded the Pulitzer Prize four times, most of Frost's work drew on themes from rural New England life. He died on January 29, 1963. Although 86-year-old Robert Frost had composed a new poem, titled "Dedication," for the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy, he was unable to recite it at the ceremony because he could not read his own typewritten manuscript. A dim typewriter ribbon conspired with Frost‘s failing eyesight and bright glare on a sunny day with snow cover, making it impossible for the poet to read the poem written especially for the occasion. Instead Frost recited from memory his famous poem "The Gift Outright."
    (HNQ, 9/12/98)(HNQ, 1/21/00)

1961        Jan 22, A Portuguese ocean liner, the "Santa Maria," was hijacked in the Caribbean with some 600 passengers aboard; the drama ended eleven days later when the ship docked in Brazil.
    (AP, 1/22/01)

1961        Jan 24, A B-52 carrying two nuclear bombs near Goldsboro, North Carolina encountered a violent gust. The giant plane rolled completely over, came upright, and continued rolling inverted a second time before whipping into a vicious flat spin and breaking up.
    (www.willthomasonline.net/willthomasonline/Broken_Arrows.html)

1961        Jan 25, Walt Disney's "101 Dalmatians" was released.
    (MC, 1/25/02)
1961        Jan 25, President Kennedy held the first presidential news conference carried live on radio and television.
    (AP, 1/25/98)

1961        Jan 26, Wayne Gretzky, NHL great scorer (Oiler, King, Rangers), was born in Brantford, Ont.
    (MC, 1/26/02)
1961        Jan 26, "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" by Elvis Presley peaked at #1.
    (MC, 1/26/02)
1961        Jan 26, Janet G. Travell became the 1st woman personal physician to the US President (JFK).
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1961        Jan 27, Mitch Miller (1911-2010) debuted his TV show, “Sing Along With Mitch." It continued to 1964.
    (SFC, 8/3/10, p.C3)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0054564/)

1961        Jan 30, Dorothy Thompson (b.1893), American journalist and radio broadcaster, died in Lisbon, Portugal. In 1939 she was recognized by Time magazine as the second most influential women in America next to Eleanor Roosevelt. In 2011 Susan Hertog authored “Dangerous Ambition: Rebecca West and Dorothy Thompson, New Women in Search of Love and War."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Thompson)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.69)

1961        Jan 31, In South Carolina 10 black men were arrested for ordering lunch from a whites-only counter at McCrory’s variety store in Greensboro. One man paid a fine and the rest became known as the “Friendship Nine." In 2015 prosecutors sought to vacate their arrests and convictions.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friendship_Nine)(SFC, 1/28/15, p.A10)
1961        Jan 31, Chimpanzee Ham landed safely and became the 1st primate in space after a 16 minute flight aboard a Mercury-Redstone 2 rocket.
    (AH, 2/06, p.14)

1961        Jan, Janio Quadros took the oath as president of Brazil.
    (WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)
1961        Jan, Nepal’s King Mahendra introduced the indigenous Panchayat System (village council). Early in 1961 the king set up a committee of four officials from the Central Secretariat to recommend changes in the constitution that would abolish political parties and substitute a "National Guidance" system based on local panchayat led directly by the king.
    (http://countrystudies.us/nepal/19.htm)

1961        Feb 2, The hijackers of the Portuguese ocean liner the Santa Maria allowed the passengers and crew to disembark in Brazil, 11 days after seizing the ship.
    (AP, 2/2/07)

1961        Feb 4, In the Portuguese colony of Angola fighting erupted as 3 anti-colonial guerrilla movements battled for independence. Rebels butchered Portuguese settlers, including women and children, on remote Angolan plantations. In revenge, Portuguese militias and troops carried out a vicious campaign of repression, despite pressure from the US and UN to pull out of Africa.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A11)(AP, 12/9/07)(Econ, 9/3/11, p.46)

1961        Feb 5, The Soviets launched Sputnik V, the heaviest satellite at 7.1 tons.
    (HN, 2/5/99)
1961        Feb 5, Anthony G. de Rothschild (73), British philanthropist, died.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1961        Feb 6, Sargent Shriver adopted a document, “The Towering Task" by Warren Wiggins (1923-2007), which helped shape the mission of the newly proposed Peace Corps.
    (SFC, 4/16/07, p.B8)

1961        Feb 7, Jane Fonda made her acting debut in the NBC drama "A String of Beads."
    (MC, 2/7/02)
1961        Feb 7, Immanuel Olsvanger (b.1888), Polish-born Jewish folklorist, died in Israel.
    (Econ, 5/18/13, p.87)(http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immanuel_Olsvanger)

1961        Feb 9, Grigory Levenfish (70), Int’l. chess grandmaster from Russia, died.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1961        Feb 10, Niagara Falls hydroelectric project began producing power.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1961        Feb 15, 73 people, including 18 figure skaters from the United States, were killed in the crash of a Boeing 707 in Belgium. The skaters were en route to a world meet in Czechoslovakia.
    (HN, 2/15/98)(AP, 2/15/98)

1961        Feb 16, The United States launched the "Explorer Nine" satellite.
    (AP, 2/16/01)
1961        Feb 16, Wilbert Ridieu (19) robbed the Lake Charles, La., Gulf National Bank. He walked out with $14,000 and 3 hostages, 2 of whom he shot and left for dead. Rideau stabbed to death Julia Ferguson on a rural Louisiana road following the bank robbery. He confessed and was sentenced to death 3 times. Rideau escaped death in the 1970s when the death penalty was outlawed. In 2003 his case was still in court. While in prison Rideau became a self-educated writer and elevated the prison magazine, the Angolite, to national acclaim. In 2005 Rideau was set free for time served after a racially mixed jury found him guilty of manslaughter.
    (NW, 1/13/03, p.52)(AP, 1/16/05)(SFC, 1/17/05, p.A5)
1961        Feb 16, China used it's 1st nuclear reactor.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1961        Feb 20, Percy Aldridge Grainger (78), Australian-US composer, pianist, died.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1961        Feb 22, The Broadway play “Come Blow Your Horn" by Neil Simon opened at the Brooks Atkinson Theater.
    (SFC, 10/28/09, p.D5)(www.ibdb.com/production.php?id=2294)
1961        Feb 22, British Foreign Sec. Douglas-Home said in a "Top Secret" letter to Defense Minister Harold Watkinson that, "It must be fully obvious to the Americans that Hong Kong is indefensible by conventional means and that in the event of a Chinese attack, nuclear strikes against China would be the only alternative to complete abandonment of the colony." The document was made public in 2006.
    (AP, 6/30/06)

1961        Feb 25, Paul Bikel climbed to record 14,100 meters (8.8 miles) in a glider.
    (MC, 2/25/02)
1961        Feb 25, John F. Kennedy named Henry Kissinger national security adviser. Years later, Kissinger was President Nixon's envoy for secret negotiations with North Vietnam. About this time Kennedy also named Adlai Stevenson as ambassador to the UN.
    (HN, 2/25/98)(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A19)

1961        Feb 26, Mohammed V ibn Yusuf (51), sultan, King of Morocco, died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1961        Mar 1, Cellist Jacqueline du Prés made her debut in Wigmore Hall.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1961        Mar 1, President Kennedy established the Peace Corps. The first volunteers were sent to Ghana.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1961)(SFC, 8/7/96, p.A15)(AP, 3/1/98)(SFC, 3/21/98, p.A13)

1961        Mar 2, "13 Daughters" opened at 54th St Theater NYC for 28 performances.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1961        Mar 3, King Hassan II, the 17th of the Alawite dynasty, ascended to throne of Morocco. He succeeded his father Mohamed V.
    (SFEC,11/16/97, p.A21)(SFC, 7/24/99, p.A9)(SC, 3/3/02)

1961        Mar 4, Paul-Henri Spaak resigned as Secretary-General of NATO.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1961        Mar 6, 1st London minicabs were introduced.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1961        Mar 7, Max Hymans (60), WW II resistance fighter, head of Air France, died.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1961        Mar 8, Jean Kerr's "Mary, Mary," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 3/8/02)
1961        Mar 8, US nuclear submarine Patrick Henry arrived at Scottish naval base of Holy Loch from SC in a record under seas journey of 66 days 22 hrs.
    (MC, 3/8/02)
1961        Mar 8, Max Conrad circled the globe in a record time of eight days, 18 hours and 49 minutes in Piper Aztec.
    (HN, 3/8/98)
1961        Mar 8, Thomas Beecham (81), English conductor (Last Night of the Prom), died.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1961        Mar 9, Supremes released "I Want A Guy" & "Never Again."
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1961            Mar 9, Korabl-Sputnik-4, also known as Sputnik 9, was launched with a dog named Chernushka (Blackie) on a one orbit mission. Also onboard the spacecraft was a dummy cosmonaut, mice and a guinea pig.
    (www.spacetoday.org/Astronauts/Animals/Dogs.html)
1961        Mar 9, A mine cave-in in Japan killed 72.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1961        Mar 10, Olga Ivinskaya (d.1995 at 83), the woman who was the model for Lara in Pasternak’s "Dr. Zhivago" wrote a letter to authorities in her own defense while a prisoner in a Soviet gulag. She was arrested for smuggling foreign currency shortly after Pasternak’s death and served 4 years.
    (SFC,11/27/97, p.B3)

1961        Mar 13, Pablo Picasso (79) married his model Jacqueline Rocque (37).
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1961        Mar 15, In San Francisco a 12-ton statue of St. Francis, created by Benny Bufano, was removed from the front of St. Francis of Assisi Church at 610 Vallejo St. and taken to Oakland.
    (SSFC, 3/13/11, DB p.42)
1961        Mar 15, South Africa withdrew from British Commonwealth.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1961        Mar 16, "The Agony and the Ecstasy" was published by Irving Stone.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1961        Mar 17, The U.S. increased military aid and technicians to Laos.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1961        Mar 18, The "Poppin' Fresh" Pillsbury Dough Boy was introduced.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1961        Mar 25, "Gypsy" closed at Broadway Theater in NYC after 702 performances.
    (MC, 3/25/02)
1961        Mar 25, Elvis Presley (26) performed live on the USS Arizona, a fund raiser for a memorial. Col. Parker, Presley's manager, came up with the brilliant idea to have Elvis Presley give the benefit concert in the 4,000-seat Bloch Arena next to the entrance to Pearl Harbor.
    (Internet)(MC, 3/25/02)
1961        Mar 25, Sputnik 10 carried a dog into Earth orbit; later recovered.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1961        Mar 26, John F. Kennedy met with British Premier Macmillan, in Washington to discuss increased Communist involvement in Laos.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1961        Mar 27, In San Francisco the hiring of the city’s first Negro milk route driver precipitated name calling an argument between Mayor George Christopher and Terry Francois, head of the local NAACP. The mayor said Teamsters Local 226 would not let Negroes into the union. Christopher, owner of Christopher Dairy Farms, had hired William Garrick (24) to run a route in South San Francisco serving schools and restaurants.
    (SSFC, 3/27/11, DB p.42)

1961        Mar 29, The 23rd amendment, allowing residents of Washington, D.C. to vote for president, was ratified.
    (HN, 3/29/98)
1961        Mar 29, In South Africa Nelson Mandela was acquitted on a treason charge after a 4 year trial .
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1961        Mar 30, The UN adopted its Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs. It included language that prohibited the chewing of coca leaves. It became effective on Dec 13, 1964.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_Convention_on_Narcotic_Drugs)(SFC, 1/19/11, p.A2)
1961        Mar 30, P.J. Melotte, discovered Jupiter's 8th satellite, Pasiphae, died.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1961        Apr 1, Jim Bakker, TV evangelist, married Tammy Faye.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1961        Apr 2, Wallingford Riegger (75), US composer (Bacchangle), died.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1961        Apr 3, Eddie Murphy, actor (SNL, 48 Hours, Beverly Hill Cop, Raw), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1961        Apr 3, In San Francisco thousands of people took part in the 39th Easter Sunrise Service on Mount Davidson.
    (SSFC, 4/3/11, DB p.46)

1961        Apr 7, Tad Szulc (d.2001) wrote a front page NY times article on anti-Castro forces training to fight at Florida bases and predicted a probable invasion on April 18. The invasion took place Apr 17.
    (SFC, 5/24/01, p.C4)
1961        Apr 7, Marian Jordan (62), radio comedienne (Fibber McGee and Molly), died.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1961        Apr 9, Zog I (65), [Ahmed Zogu], King of Albania (1925-39), died in exile in France. His son, Leka Zogu, was sworn in as king by the government in exile.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(MC, 4/9/02)

1961        Apr 11, Folk singer Bob Dylan performed in New York City for the first time, opening for John Lee Hooker. [see Sep 26]
    (HN, 4/11/01)
1961        Apr 11, Israel began the trial of Adolf Eichman in Jerusalem. He was accused of World War II war crimes.
    (WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)(HN, 4/11/98)

1961        Apr 12, Douglas MacArthur was offered baseball commissioner position but declined.
    (HN, 4/12/98)
1961        Apr 12, Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin, Russian cosmonaut, experienced the weightlessness of space for 108 minutes. He orbited the Earth once before making a safe landing. The Russians rocketed Yuri Gagarin, the first man into space. His ship, Vostok I, was guided entirely from the ground.
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, Z1 p.6)(AP, 4/12/97)(HN, 4/12/98)(NPub, 2002, p.20)

1961        Apr 13, "Carnival!" opened at Imperial Theater in NYC for 719 performances.
    (MC, 4/13/02)
1961        Apr 13, US Army Private John A. Bennett was hanged after being convicted of rape and attempted murder of an Austrian girl (11) in 1955.
    (SSFC, 7/9/06, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_A._Bennett)
1961        Apr 13, The U.N. General Assembly condemned South Africa for apartheid.
    (HN, 4/13/98)

1961        Apr 14, Cuban-American invasion army departed Nicaragua.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1961        Apr 14, The Soviet Union made its first live television broadcast.
    (HN, 4/14/98)

1961        Apr 15, "Music Man" closed at Majestic Theater in NYC after 1375 performances.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1961        Apr 15, Anti-Castro Cuban pilots, under the hire of the US CIA, knocked out part of the Cuban air force. 54 people were killed in the attacks on 3 military bases including two airfields and the Antonio Maceo Airport. Two “defecting" B-26 bombers flew to Miami.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, p.A19)(AH, 4/07, p.18)

1961        Apr 16, Selena, Latina singer (Grammy-1994), was born in Texas.
    (MC, 4/16/02)
1961        Apr 16, In the 15th Tony Awards: Becket & Bye Bye Birdie won.
    (MC, 4/16/02)
1961        Apr 16, Fidel Castro declared that Cuba is now a socialist state. Pres. Kennedy called off the CIA air strikes in Cuba. The message did not reach the 1,511 commandos headed for the Bay of Pigs.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, p.A19)(SFC, 2/202/08, p.A3)

1961        Apr 17, In the 33rd Academy Awards "The Apartment" won as best picture. The best actor award went to Burt Lancaster for his role in Elmer Gantry. Elizabeth Taylor won for her role in Butterfield 8.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/33rd_Academy_Awards)
1961        Apr 17, About 1,500 CIA-trained Cuban exiles, Brigade 2506, launched the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in a failed attempt to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. The US clandestinely invaded Cuba in the Bay of Pigs operation and the operation failed completely without any of the promised air support from the United States. Cuban forces killed 200 rebels and captured 1,197 in less than 72 hours. The command vessel Marsopa and supply ship Houston were sunk and an entire battalion was lost. 26 survivors were rescued after 3 days of fighting. A single copy of a CIA report written by inspector general Lyman Kirkpatrick was made public in 1998. The operation, which had been devised during the Eisenhower Administration, was nonetheless endorsed by the new president, John F. Kennedy. In 1979 Peter Wyden wrote “Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story." Portion of the 1961 Taylor Report was made public in 1977 and 1986. Most of the report was made public in 2000 and it showed that the CIA knew that the Soviets knew the exact date of the attack. In 2009 Guadeloupe apologized to Cuba for allowing the CIA to train Cuban exiles on its soil.
    (AP, 4/17/97)(SFEC, 2/22/98, p.A19)(HNQ, 4/11/00)(SFC, 4/29/00, p.A7)(AP, 2/18/09)(AH, 4/07, p.18)(SFC, 4/14/11, p.A5)

1961        Apr 18, Pamella Bordes, British parliament prostitute, was born in New Delhi, India.
    (MC, 4/18/02)
1961        Apr 18, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev sent a letter to Pres. Kennedy with an "urgent call" to end "aggression" against Cuba.
    (SFC, 3/23/01, p.D5)

1961        Apr 19, Cuba’s air force by this time shot down 9 of the invader’s 16 aircraft and US invaders, with ad death toll of 114, began to surrender. Subsequently 36 died in Cuban prisons. Many survivors were released between 1962 and 1965 after private donors paid $53 million in food and medicine for Cuba.
    (AH, 4/07, p.18)
1961        Apr 19, Howard Anderson was executed in Cuba after being convicted of arms smuggling to anti-Communist rebels.
    (WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)(www.cubanet.org/CNews/y02/jan02/09e5.htm)
1961        Apr 19, Cuban forces shot down a B-26 bomber piloted by Captain Thomas Ray north of Larga beach, an area they controlled. Ray was flying the bomber from Nicaragua while on contract to the US CIA. In a 2004 trial in the US, forensics on Ray’s body proved that the cause of his death was a small bullet entry thru the head.
    (WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/kzeh2)

1961        Apr 20, American Harold Graham made 1st rocket belt flight.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1961        Apr 21, The French army revolted in Algeria.
    (HN, 4/21/98)
1961        Apr 21, James Melton (57), opera tenor died.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1961        Apr 22, An uprising of French parachutists was led by Gen. Salan/Challe in Algeria.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1961        Apr 24, President Kennedy accepted "sole responsibility" following Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1961        Apr 25, SF Giants baseball games began to appear on TV.
    (SSFC, 4/24/11, DB p.46)
1961        Apr 25, Robert Noyce patented the integrated circuit.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1961        Apr 25, Mercury-Atlas rocket lifted off with an electronic mannequin. An unmanned Mercury test exploded on launch pad.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1961        Apr 25, France exposed soldiers to a nuclear test, code-named "Gerboise verte" or green gerboa, in the Sahara Desert. In 2010 a French news report, citing a classified defense document, said the exposure was intentional to study how the atomic bomb would affect their bodies and minds. In total, France conducted 210 nuclear tests, both in the atmosphere and underground, in the Sahara Desert and the South Pacific from 1960-1996.
    (AP, 2/17/10)

1961        Apr 26, French paratroopers' revolt was suppressed in Algeria.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1961        Apr 27, United Kingdom granted Sierra Leone independence.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(SFC, 3/11/98, p.A10)(HN, 4/27/98)

1961        Apr 29, ABC's "Wide World of Sports made its debut.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.38)(MC, 4/29/02)
1961        Apr 29, The diesel-powered aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk was commissioned at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. In 1976 the ship was drydocked in Bremerton, Wa., for a year-long overhaul.
    (AP, 8/5/05)(www.kittyhawk.navy.mil/history/history.html)

1961        Apr 30, Willie Mays of the SF Giants hit 4 home runs in a game with the Milwaukee Braves.
    (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A18)
1961        Apr 30, Eastern Airlines began the 1st shuttle flights began between Wash DC, Boston and NYC.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1961        Apr 30, Premier Fidel Castro of Cuba received the Lenin Peace Prize.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1961        May 1, A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Harper Lee, author of "To Kill a Mockingbird."
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1961        May 1, Fidel Castro announced that there would be no more elections in Cuba. Radio Havana was founded.
    (HN, 5/1/98)(WSJ, 6/18/02, p.D9)

1961        May 3, A British Colonial Office telegram stated the general guidance for keeping papers out of the hands of newly elected independent governments. Items should be disposed of if they "might embarrass members of the police, military forces, public servants or others eg police informers; might compromise sources of intelligence" -- or might be used "unethically" by incoming ministers. Under "Operation Legacy", officials in Kenya, Uganda, Malaysia, Tanzania, Jamaica and other former colonial territories were briefed on how to dispose of documents that "might embarrass Her Majesty's government." This was only made public in 2013.
    (AFP, 11/29/13)

1961        May 4,    A group of 13 CORE civil rights activists, dubbed "Freedom Riders" left Washington, D.C., for New Orleans to challenge racial segregation on buses and in bus terminals.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)(MC, 5/4/02)

1961        May 5, Astronaut Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (d.1998 at 74), a Navy commander, became the first American in space as he made a 15-minute suborbital flight in the Freedom 7 Project Mercury capsule launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft reached a maximum altitude of 116.5 miles.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/98)(SFC, 7/23/98, p.A1)(HNQ, 7/11/99)

1961        May 6, George Clooney, actor (Dr Douglas Ross-ER, Batman), was born in Lexington, KY.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1961        May 8, Carmel Snow (b.1887), Irish-born fashion editor, died in New York. In 2005 Penelope Rowlands authored “A Dash of Daring," a biography of Snow.
    (SSFC, 11/27/05, p.D1)(www.irishecho.com/newspaper/story.cfm?id=17435)

1961        May 9, In a speech to the National Association of Broadcasters, Federal Communications Commission chairman Newton N. Minow condemned television programming as a "vast wasteland."
    (AP, 5/9/97)

1961        May 10, "Beyond the Fringe," premiered in London.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1961        May 11, Pres. Kennedy authorized American advisors to aid South Vietnam against the forces of North Vietnam.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F4)

1961        May 13, Dennis Rodman, NBA forward (Chicago Bulls), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)
1961        May 13, Gary Cooper (60), 2 time Academy award winning actor (High Noon), died.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1961        May 14, A bus carrying the 1st group of Freedom Riders was bombed and burned in Alabama.
    (HN, 5/14/98)(MC, 5/14/02)

1961        May 15, 36 Unification church couples were wed in Korea.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1961        May 17, Cuban leader Fidel Castro offered to exchange prisoners captured in the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion for  500 bulldozers.
    (AP, 5/17/01)(MC, 5/17/02)

1961        May 18, "Donnybrook!" opened at 46th St Theater in NYC for 68 performances.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1961        May 18, Henry O'Neill, actor (Lady Killer, Nothing But Trouble), died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1961        May 20, A white mob led by Claude Henley attacked a busload of "Freedom Riders" in Montgomery, Ala., prompting the federal government to send in U.S. marshals to restore order.
    (AP, 5/20/97)(HN, 5/20/98)(SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A3)

1961        May 21, Governor Patterson declared martial law in Montgomery, Alabama.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1961        May 22, The 1st revolving restaurant, Top of The Needle in Seattle, opened.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1961        May 24, The 27 Freedom Riders, civil rights activists, were arrested in Jackson, Mississippi.
    (HN, 5/24/98)(MC, 5/24/02)

1961        May 25, President Kennedy summoned a joint session of Congress and asked the nation to work toward putting a man on the moon by the end of the decade. In 2011 John Logsdon authored “John F. Kennedy and the Race to the Moon."
    (AP, 5/25/97)(Econ, 5/21/11, p.36)
1961        May 25, NASA civilian pilot Joseph A. Walker took the X-15 to 32,770 meters.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1961        May 26, Civil rights activist group Freedom Ride Coordinating Committee was established in Atlanta.
    (AP, 5/26/98)
1961        May 26, A USAF bomber flew the Atlantic in a record of just over three hours.
    (AP, 5/26/98)

1961        May 28, Amnesty International, a human rights organization, was founded. It won a Nobel Prize in 1977. Amnesty Int’l. was spawned when British lawyer Peter Benenson learned that two students in Portugal had been imprisoned for seven years for drinking a toast to liberty despite being under a dictatorship.
    (HN, 5/28/98)(AP, 11/20/12)
1961        May 28, SF lawyer Willie Brown (27) charged that he has been rebuffed by salesmen while trying to look at a model home in the Forest Knolls tract of San Francisco.
    (SSFC, 5/29/11, DB p.46)

1961        May 29, Melissa Etheridge, US singer, songwriter, guitarist (Never Enough), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1961        May 29, David Palmer, heavy metal drummer (ABC, AC/DC), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1961        May 29, Uuno Kalervo Klami (60), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1961        May 30, Rafael Leonides Trujillo Molina (69), Dominican Republic dictator (1930-61), was murdered. In his final years he had installed Joaquin Balaguer as vice president and then as president. Balaguer fled to exile in NYC following the assassination.
    (SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(SFC, 7/15/02, p.B6)(MC, 5/30/02)

1961        May 31, South Africa became an independent republic.
    (AP, 5/31/97)

1961        Jun 1, R.C., "Surrender" by Elvis Presley peaked at #1 on the U.K. pop singles chart.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)
1961        Jun 1, FM multiplex stereo broadcasting was 1st heard. (MC, 6/1/02)

1961        Jun 2, George S. Kaufman (72), playwright, director, Pulitzer prize winner, died.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1961        Jun 3, JFK and Khrushchev met in Vienna.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1961        Jun 4, A Soviet K-19 nuclear submarine with 139 crew members experienced a nuclear accident. 22 later died from radiation poisoning. In 2001 the US film "K-19: The Widowmaker" loosely depicted the accident.
    (SFC, 4/20/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A20)

1961        Jun 6, Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (b.1875), one of the founders of modern psychiatry, died in Zurich. “As far as we can discern, the sole purpose of human existence is to kindle a light in the darkness of mere being." In 1997 Richard Noll published "The Aryan Christ: The Secret Life of Carl Jung." Frank McLynn published "Carl Gustav Jung, A Biography." In 2003 Deirdre Bair authored "Jung: A Biography." In 2004 Sonu Shamdasani authored “Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology." In 2009 “The Red Book" was published. It was edited by Sonu Shamdasani and duplicated Jung’s original manuscript, which he worked on from 1914 to 1930.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, BR p.3)(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.M6)(Econ, 3/13/04, p.84)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.89)(Econ, 9/27/14, IL p.8)

1961        Jun 7, Robert Griffith, producer of Pajama Game, died.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1961        Jun 11, Norm Cash became the 1st Detroit Tiger to hit a ball out of Tiger Stadium.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1961        Jun 12, The US TV show “PM East and PM West" began airing on the Westinghouse network.
    (SFC, 6/5/11, DB p.42)

1961        Jun 16, Dave Garroway was fired as Today Show host.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1961        Jun 17, Soviet ballet star Rudolf Nureyev (d.1993) defected from the Soviet Union at the Paris Le Bourget airport while traveling with the Leningrad Kirov Ballet. In 1998 Diane Solway covered this event in her biography: "Nureyev."
    (WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 11/1/98, p.A17)(AP, 6/17/08)

1961        Jun 19, R.C., "Little Egypt (Ying-Yang)" by The Coasters peaked at #23 on the pop singles chart.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)
1961        Jun 19, R.C., "Peanut Butter" by The Marathons (The Vibrations) peaked at #20 on the pop singles chart.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)
1961        Jun 19, R.C., "Rama Lama Ding Dong" by The Edsels peaked at #21 on the pop singles chart.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)
1961        Jun 19, The U.S. Supreme Court struck down a provision in Maryland's constitution requiring state officeholders to profess a belief in the existence of God.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)
1961        Jun 19, Kuwait regained complete independence from Britain along with  Qatar, Bahrain
    (NG, 5/88, p.662)(DTnet, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/98)

1961        Jun 24, Iraq demanded dominion over Kuwait.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1961        Jun 25, Jazz trio Paul Motion, drums, Bill Evans, piano, and Scott LaFaro recorded a performance at the Village Vanguard in NYC in which each man functioned as an equal rather than as an accompaniment to the leader. The recording changed the idea of the piano trio.
    (WSJ, 1/24/06, p.D8)

1961        Jun 26, Greg LeMond, US bicyclist (Tour de France winner-1986, 1989, 1990), was born.
    (MC, 6/26/02)
1961        Jun 26, A Kuwaiti vote opposed Iraq’s annexation plans.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1961        Jun 30, Lee de Forest (87), inventor of the 3-element vacuum tube (1906), died.
    (SSFC, 6/26/11, DB p.42)

1961        Jun, Producers Albert Broccoli and Harry Saltzman purchased rights to adopt most of Ian Fleming’s novels and short stories into films. In the 1970s Saltzman sold his rights to MGM. Dr. No, their 1st Bond film, came out in 1962.
    (WSJ, 11/18/06, p.A1)(www.sylvanmason.com/thunderball/thunderball-years.htm)

1961        Jul 1, Carl Lewis (Olympic Gold Medalist: 100 meter & 200 meter sprints, long jump & 4x100 meter relay [1984]; 100 meter in 9.93 seconds, a world record, long jump, 4x100 meter relay [1988], long jump and 4x100 relay [1992]; Olympic Hall of Famer; AP Male Athlete of the Year [1983, 1984]), was born.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1961        Jul 1, Diana Frances Spencer, the princess of Wales, was born near Sandringham, England. She died August, 1997, in a car crash in Paris at age 36.
    (AP, 7/1/98)
1961        Jul 1, British troops landed in Kuwait to aid against Iraqi threats.
    (HN, 7/1/98)
1961        Jul 1, Louis-Ferdinand Celine (b.1894), French physician, author, anti-Semite, died. His books included “Journey to the End of Night" (1932).
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/lfceline.htm)(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)

1961        Jul 2, Jimmy McNichol, actor (Fitzpatricks, California Fever), was born in LA, Calif.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1961        Jul 2, Novelist E. Hemingway shot himself in the head at his home in Ketchum, Idaho. Boozing and physical trauma led to depression, electroshock therapy and suicide. In 1964 his novel "A Moveable Feast was published. In 1974    Jose Luis Castillo-Puche published "Hemingway in Spain." His novel "True at First Light" was based on his 1953 safari in Africa and was to be published Jul 21 1999, the centennial of his birth. His book "The Garden of Eden" and "Islands in the Stream" were also published after his death. His novel "Dangerous Summer" was based on the rivalry between two matadors, Antonio Ordonez (d.1998) and Luis Miguel Dominguin.  In 1976 his son Gregory (d.2001) authored "Papa: A Personal Memoir."
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A11)(TMC, 1994, p.1961)(AP, 7/2/97)(SFC, 8/5/98, p.E3)(SFC, 8/25/98, p.A2)(SFC, 12/21/98, p.B5)(WSJ, 6/18/99, p.W13)(SFC, 10/6/01, p.A18)

1961        Jul 7, James R. Hoffa was elected president of Teamsters.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1961        Jul 8, John Profumo, Britain’s Secretary of State for War, met Christine Keeler, at a party at Cliveden. Profumo kept in contact with Keeler and they eventually began an affair.
    (http://spartacus-educational.com/PRprofumo.htm)

1961        Jul 11, China and North Korea signed the Treaty on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance.
    (www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/yzs/gjlb/2701/default.htm)

1961        Jul 14, Pope John XXIII published his encyclical Mater et magistrate.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1961        Jul 15, Spain accepted equal rights for men and women.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1961        Jul 17, Ty Cobb (74), baseball great (Detroit Tigers), died of cancer in Atherton, Ca. He was the first man elected into Baseball’s Hall of Fame.
    (SSFC, 7/17/11, p.42)

1961        Jul 18, In Spain ETA’s first violent action tried to derail a train carrying supporters of dictator Gen. Francisco Franco.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1961        Jul 21, Capt. Virgil "Gus" Grissom became the second American to rocket into a suborbital pattern around the Earth, flying on the Mercury 4 Liberty Bell 7. The Mercury capsule sank in the Atlantic, 302 miles from Cape Canaveral and Grissom was rescued by helicopter. The space capsule was recovered in 1999.
    (AP, 7/21/97)(OGA, 11/24/98)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.A6)(WSJ, 7/21/99, p.A1)

1961        Jul 23, Woody Harrelson, actor (Woody Boyd-Cheers), was born in Midland, Tx.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1961        Jul 24, Roger Maris hit 4 home runs in a doubleheader.
    (MC, 7/24/02)
1961        Jul 24, A US commercial plane was hijacked to Cuba and began a trend.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1961        Jul 25, Katherine Kelly Lang, actress (Brooke-Bold & Beautiful), was born in LA, Calif.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1961        Jul 28, Scott E. Parazynski, MD, astronaut, was born in Little Rock, Ark.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1961        Jul 28, Mickey Cohen, Los Angeles gangster, arrived at Alcatraz. Three weeks earlier he was sentenced to 15 years in prison for income tax evasion.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, DB p.42)

1961        Jul 31, Ireland formally applied for membership in the European Community.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1961/index_en.htm)
1961        Jul 31, Israel welcomed its 1,000,000th immigrant.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1961        Jul, Len Kleinrock wrote a paper on packet switching at MIT where he analyzed the so-called store-and-forward systems.
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, z1 p.3)
1961        Jul, A French law guaranteed populations in France's overseas territories free exercise of their religion and respect for their beliefs and customs as long as they are not contrary to general principles of law.
    (AP, 9/23/05)

1961        Aug 2, In San Francisco a shooting at 924 Grant Ave. in Chinatown left George Kwan (56) dead and Peter Kwan (52) wounded. They were both members of the Four Families Association. Lew Fook You (55), also an association member, was taken into custody.
    (SSFC, 7/31/11, DB p.42)

1961        Aug 3, Britain’s Parliament adopted the Suicide Act of 1961, which decriminalized suicide in the UK, but made assisting one punishable by up to 14 years in jail.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide_Act_1961)

1961        Aug 4, Barack Obama, later US Senator from Illinois, was born in Honolulu to a black Kenyan father and a white American mother. He lived most of his early life in Hawaii. From ages six to ten, he lived in Jakarta, Indonesia with his mother and Indonesian stepfather.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama)

1961        Aug 7, Soviet premier Khrushchev predicted that the USSR economy would surpass that of the US.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1961        Aug 9, The United Kingdom applied for membership in the European Community.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1961/index_en.htm)

1961        Aug 10, Denmark formally applied for membership in the European Community.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1961/index_en.htm)

1961        Aug 12, Pete De Freitas, rocker (Echo and the Bunnymen-Heaven Up Here), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)
1961        Aug 12, Roy Hay, guitarist (Culture Club-Do You Really Want to Hurt Me), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)
1961        Aug 12, East German troops began stringing barbed wire around East Berlin. In 2004 William F. Buckley authored "The Fall of the Berlin Wall." [see Aug 15]
    (WSJ, 3/18/04, p.D10)

1961        Aug 13, East Germany closed the Brandenberg Gate sealing off the border between the city's eastern and western sectors in order to halt the flight of refugees. Two days later, work began on the Berlin Wall.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(TMC, 1994, p.1961)(AP, 8/13/97)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F4)

1961        Aug 14, An East German soldier, Hans Conrad Schuhmann (Schuman), jumped a 3-foot barbed wire barrier to West Berlin to join his family. His photograph made int’l. headlines. He committed suicide in 1998.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A25)(SFEC, 10/31/99, Z1 p.4)

1961        Aug 15, East German workers began building the Berlin Wall. [see Aug 12]
    (AP, 8/15/01)

1961        Aug 16, Martin Luther King protested for black voting rights in Miami.
    (MC, 8/16/02)
1961        Aug 16, Some 250,000 West Berliners demonstrated against East Berlin.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1961        Aug 17, The Kennedy administration established the Alliance for Progress.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1961        Aug 18, Learned Hand (b.1872), Chief judge of US court of Appeals, died. In 1994 Stanford Prof. Gerald Gunther (d.2002) authored the biography "Learned Hand, the Man and the Judge."
    (AP, 12/13/97)(SFC, 8/2/02, p.A27)

1961        Aug 20, East Germany began erecting a 5' high wall along the border with the west to replace the barbed wire put up Aug 13.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1961        Aug 23, East Germany imposed new curbs on travel between West and East Berlin.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1961        Aug 24, Johannes Vorster, a former Nazi leader, became South Africa's minister of justice.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1961        Aug 25,  Brazilian president Janio Quadros resigned. He was replaced by vice-president Joao Goulart.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)

1961        Aug 26, The official International Hockey Hall of Fame opened in Toronto.
    (AP, 8/26/97)

1961        Aug 27, Francis the Talking Mule was the mystery guest on "What's My Line."
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1961        Aug 30, President John F. Kennedy appointed General Lucius D. Clay as his personal representative in Berlin.
    (HN, 8/30/98)
1961        Aug 30, A UN Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness opened for signatures. It entered into force on Dec 13, 1975. By 2007 only 34 countries had signed it.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2tdgb6)(Econ, 12/1/07, p.75)

1961        Aug 31, A concrete wall replaced the barbed wire fence that separated East and West Germany, it would be called the Berlin wall.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1961        Aug, The Soviets launched Vostok-2 with cosmonaut Gherman Titov (d.2000 at 65). He circled the planet 17 times in a 25-hour flight.
    (SFC, 9/22/00, p.D7)

1961        Sep 1, TWA Flight 529, a Lockheed Constellation L-049 propliner, crashed shortly after takeoff from Midway Airport in Chicago, killing all 73 passengers and 5 crew on board; it was at the time the deadliest single plane disaster in US history.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TWA_Flight_529)
1961        Sep 1, The Soviet Union ended a moratorium on atomic testing with an above-ground nuclear explosion in central Asia.
    (AP, 9/1/01)
1961        Sep 1, Eero Saarinen (51), Finnish-US architect (Dulles Airport), died.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1961        Sep 2, Ramona Price (7) of Santa Barbara, Ca., vanished as she walked to her new home. Police later believed that she was likely a victim of notorious child serial killer Mack Ray Edwards, who hanged himself on death row at San Quentin in 1972. In 2011 Four teams of specially-trained sniffer dogs identified what cops are calling an ‘area of interest’ near an overpass at U.S. 101 in Goleta.
    (SFC, 6/15/11, p.C5)(http://tinyurl.com/3ppmkvx)

1961        Sep 4, US Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act, which reorganized US foreign assistance programs including separating military and non-military aid. The Act mandated the creation of an agency to administer economic assistance programs. On November 3, 1961, President John F. Kennedy established the US Agency for International Development (USAID).
    (www.usaid.gov/about_usaid/usaidhist.html)

1961        Sep 5, President Kennedy signed a law against hijacking. It called for the death penalty for convicted hijackers.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1961        Sep 8, Frank Rosenthal (1929-2008), friend of Chicago mobsters, appeared before a Senate hearing on gambling and organized crime. He invoked the Fifth Amendment 38 times.
    (SFC, 10/17/08, p.B8)

1961        Sep 10, Jomo Kenyatta returned to Kenya from exile, during which he had been elected president of the Kenya National African Union.
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1961        Sep 13, An unmanned Mercury capsule was orbited and recovered by NASA in a test for the first manned flight.
    (HN, 9/13/98)
1961        Sep 13, Battles took place between UN and Katanga troops in Congo.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1961        Sep 14, SF vice squad stage an early morning raid at the Tay-Bush Inn, a restaurant at Bush and Taylor, and jailed 103 people. All but 14 were men accused of dancing together and kissing. Of 242 patrons 139 escaped. Police arrested 103 of an estimated 242 patrons in the “biggest action of its kind." Charges against all but 2 of those arrested were later dropped.
    (SSFC, 8/14/11, DB p.42)(SFC, 6/21/13, p.C3)

1961        Sep 15, The US resumed underground nuclear testing. Operation Nougat began a series of 45 nuclear tests conducted (with one exception) at the Nevada Test Site.
    (www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Operation_Nougat)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F4)

1961        Sep 17, The situation comedy "Car 54, Where Are You?" premiered on NBC. Al Lewis (d.2006) played Officer Schnauzer opposite Fred Gwynne’s Officer Francis Muldoon. The series ran to 1963.
    (AP, 9/17/01)(SSFC, 2/5/06, p.A2)
1961        Sep 17, In Turkey PM Adnan Menderes (b.1899) was hanged following the 1960 military coup.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.65)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adnan_Menderes)

1961        Sep 18, Dag Hammarskjold, Secretary-General of the UN, was killed in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). He was flying to negotiate a cease-fire in the Congo. Hammarskjold was the son of a former Swedish prime minister. In 1953, he was elected to the top UN post and in 1957 was reelected. During his second term, he initiated and directed the United Nation's vigorous role in the Belgian Congo. Hammarskjold had sent Conor O’Brien (1919-2008), an Irish diplomat, to the Congo where a rebellion was openly being backed by Belgium and secretly by Britain and France. O’Brien ordered in UN troops, but the mission ended in disarray and the UN repudiated the mission. O’Brien recounted his version of the events in his book “To Katanga and Back" (1962).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dag_Hammarskj%C3%B6ld)(AP, 9/18/97)(SSFC, 12/21/08, p.B6)

1961        Sep 19-20, Betty (d.2004) and Bernard Hill returned home to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, from a trip in Canada and seemed to have lost memory of 2 hours of the drive. Under hypnosis 3 years later they recounted being kidnapped and examined by aliens. Their story led to the 1966 book “Interrupted Journey" by John G. Fuller.
    (SFC, 10/19/04, p.B6)(www.nicap.dabsol.co.uk/hill.htm)

1961        Sep 20, James Meredith was refused access as a student in Mississippi. [see Sep 20 1962]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1961        Sep 22, President John Kennedy signed a congressional act establishing the Peace Corps. The government-funded volunteer organization was created to fight hunger, disease, illiteracy, poverty, and lack of opportunity around the world.
    (HN, 9/22/98)(MC, 9/22/01)
1961        Sep 22, Marion Davies, actress (Not So Dumb, 5 & 10), died  of cancer at 64.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1961        Sep 26, Roger Maris hit HR #60 off Jack Fisher, tying Babe Ruth's record.
    (MC, 9/26/01)
1961        Sep 26, Nineteen-year-old Bob Dylan made his New York singing debut at Gerde’s Folk City. [see April 11]
    (HN, 9/26/00)

1961        Sep 27, Hilda Doolittle (b.1886), American poet, died in Zurich. In 1984 poet Barbara Guest (d.2006) authored the biography “Herself Defined: The Poet H.D. and Her World."
    (SFC, 2/20/06, p.B3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H.D.)

1961        Sep 28, Richard Nixon jumped into the race for governor of California and said he would not run for president in 1964.
    (SSFC, 9/25/11, DB p.42)
1961        Sep 28, "Dr. Kildare," starring Richard Chamberlain and Raymond Massey, and "Hazel," starring Shirley Booth, premiered on NBC TV.
    (AP, 9/28/01)

1961        Sep 30, A bill for the 1773 Boston Tea Party was paid by Mayor Snyder of Oregon. He wrote a check for $196, the total cost of all tea lost.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1961        Sep, The US Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $1.15 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)
1961        Sep, Yevgeny Yevtushenko (b.1933), Russian poet, published his poem “Babi Yar" at the height of the Khrushchev thaw. It recalled the 1941 massacre of over 33,000 Jews at ravine in Kiev, Ukraine.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babi_Yar)
1961        Sep, The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), took over from the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC). It consisted of 20 European and North American countries. Its vocation was to build strong economies in its member countries, improve efficiency, hone market systems, expand free trade and contribute to development in industrialized as well as developing countries. The forerunner of the OECD was the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), which was formed to administer American and Canadian aid under the Marshall Plan for reconstruction of Europe after World War II.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bo5c8)(Econ, 9/17/11, p.62)

1961        Oct 1, Pat Robertson’s Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) first aired.
    (AH, 4/07, p.30)(www.cbn.com/700club/showinfo/staff/patrobertson.aspx)
1961        Oct. 1, Roger Maris of the New York Yankees hit his 61st home run off of Tracy Stallard during a 162-game season. It compared to Babe Ruth's 60 home runs during a 154-game season. The ball was caught by Sal Durante (19) who offered it to Maris. Maris declined and Durante sold it for $5000 to a restaurateur named Sam Gordon, who donated the ball to the Baseball Hall of Fame.
    (AP, 10/1/97)(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.B1)(MC, 10/1/01)
1961        Oct 1, A believed extinct volcano erupted in Tristan da Cunha.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1961        Oct 2, The medical drama ``Ben Casey,'' starring Vince Edwards and Sam Jaffe, premiered on ABC.
    (AP, 10/2/01)

1961        Oct 3, "The Dick Van Dyke Show," also starring Mary Tyler Moore, made its debut on CBS.
    (AP, 10/3/01)

1961        Oct 4, In San Francisco comedian Lenny Bruce was arrested on charges of using lewd and obscene language following his first act at the Jazz Workshop in North Beach. Police code No. 205 was cited. Bail was set at $367.50. Bruce was successfully defended by attorney Albert Bendich.
    (SSFC, 10/2/11, DB p.42)(SFC, 1/14/15, p.D3)

1961        Oct 6, JFK advised Americans to build fallout shelters from atomic fallout in the event of a nuclear exchange with the Soviet Union.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1961        Oct 7, "Bye Bye Birdie" closed at Martin Beck Theater NYC after 607 performances.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1961        Oct 8, In San Francisco Rev. Patrick Peyton, who traveled the world holding what he called “Rosary Rallies," led a rosary at the polo field of Golden Gate Park and drew an estimated crowd of 500,000. In 2011 some 1,000 people celebrated the rally’s 50th anniversary.
    (SSFC, 10/16/11, p.C9)

1961        Oct 9, US members of communist party were obliged to report themselves to Police.
    (MC, 10/9/01)
1961        Oct 9, Volcano eruptions continued on Tristan de Cunha in the South Atlantic. [see Oct 1]
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1961        Oct 11, Leonard "Chico" Marx, comedian (Marx Brothers), died at 74.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1961        Oct 14, "How to Succeed in Business" opened at 46th St NYC for 1415 performances.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1961        Oct 15, Pres. Kennedy called out military reserves in the wake of the Berlin crises. Football star Jack Kemp was exempted due to a shoulder injury. He went on to lead the San Diego Chargers to a division title passing for 2,686 yards and 15 touchdowns.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.A10)

1961        Oct 17, NY Museum of Modern Art hung Henri Matisse's "Le Bateau" upside-down It wasn't corrected until December 3rd.
    (MC, 10/17/01)
1961        Oct 17, Paris police beat and killed dozens of Algerian demonstrators and threw some bodies into the Seine. The police were commanded by Maurice Papon. Papon said some 30 bodies had been recovered from the Seine but that they had been killed in fighting between rival Algerian nationalist groups. In 1999 France agreed to open its archives on the issue. Police killed 210 Algerians who were protesting against police oppression and the curfew imposed against their community in Paris. On Oct 17, 2011, Algeria's post office issued a new stamp to commemorate the massacre.
    (WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A1)(SFC, 5/6/99, p.A15)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.99)(AFP, 10/17/11)

1961        Oct 18, Wynton Marsalis, jazz and classical trumpeter (Grammy 1983), was born in New Orleans, La.
    (MC, 10/18/01)
1961        Oct 18, Sigurd Varian (1901-1961), co-inventor of the klystron tube with his brother, Russel, died in a small plane crash in Mexico. Sigurd and Russel had founded Varian Associates in 1948.
    (www.geocities.com/neveyaakov/electro_science/varian_sigurd.html)   
1961        Oct 18, An emergency crisis was proclaimed in South Vietnam due to a communist attack.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1961        Oct 21, Bob Dylan recorded his first album in a single day at a cost of $400.
    (HN, 10/21/00)

1961        Oct 25, Peter Jensen (75), co-inventor of the loud speaker, died.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1961        Oct 26, Britain introduced a time-limited parliamentary session for Prime Minister's Questions. It was initially two sessions of 15 minutes each on Tuesday and Thursday. PM Tony Blair later changed it to a single 30-minute joust on Wednesdays.
    (AP, 10/26/11)

1961        Oct 27, The USS Constellation, a Kitty Hawk-class supercarrier, was commissioned with Captain T. J. Walker in command.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Constellation_%28CV-64%29)
1961        Oct 27, The 1st Saturn launch vehicle made an unmanned flight test.
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1961        Oct 27, Outer Mongolia and Mauritania become the 102nd and 103rd members of UN.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1961        Oct 28, Ground was broken for Municipal (Shea) Stadium for NY Mets.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1961        Oct 30, The Soviet Union tested a hydrogen bomb, the "Tsar Bomba," with a force estimated at about 50 megatons. This was the largest explosion ever recorded and broke a 3-year nuclear test moratorium.
    (AP, 10/30/06)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A22)
1961        Oct 30, The Soviet Party Congress unanimously approved a resolution ordering the removal of Josef Stalin's body from Lenin's tomb.
    (AP, 10/30/97)
1961        Oct 30, UN unanimously elected U Thant acting UN Secretary General.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1961        Oct 31, A US Federal judge ruled that Birmingham, Alabama, laws against integrated playing fields were illegal.
    (MC, 10/31/01)
1961        Oct 31, Augustus Edwin John (b.1878), Welsh painter, draughtsman, and etcher, died. For a short time around 1910, he was an important exponent of Post-Impressionism in England. In 1974 Michael Holroyd authored the biography: “Augustus John."
    (WSJ, 1/21/07, p.P9)

1961        Nov 1, Pres. J.F. Kennedy signed executive order 10971 creating a board of three members to investigate a dispute between TWA and certain of its employees.
    (www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/jfkeo/eo/10971.htm)
1961        Nov 1, A prohibition on tattooing went into effect in NYC because of its role in the spread of hepatitis.
    (SSFC, 10/9/11, DB p.42)

1961        Nov 2, James Thurber (b.1894), humorist (The Male Animal), died at age 66. In 1975 Burton Bernstein authored "Thurber: A Biography." In 2003 Harrison Kinney and Rosemary A. Thurber edited "The Thurber Letters."
    (MC, 11/2/01)(WSJ, 8/1/03, p.W10)

1961        Nov 3, President John F. Kennedy established the US Agency for International Development (USAID). [see Sep 4]
    (www.usaid.gov/about_usaid/usaidhist.html)
1961        Nov 3, New Braunfels, Texas, began hosting its Wurstfest, an annual sausage festival, to drum up business for local merchants. The festival was set to always begin on the Friday before the first Monday in November. By 2007 the 1 day festival had expanded to 10 days with well over 100,000 visitors.
    (SSFC, 10/7/07, p.D8)

1961        Nov 5, India's premier Nehru arrived in NY.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1961        Nov 8, Pres. Kennedy concluded talks with India’s PM Nehru.
    (www.historycentral.com/Documents/sixties/118.html)
1961        Nov 8, Imperial Airlines Flight 201/8, a Lockheed Constellation L-049 four-engine propliner, aircraft crashed as it attempted to land at Byrd Field, near Richmond, Va. It was chartered by the US Army to transport new recruits to Columbia, South Carolina, for training.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Airlines_Flight_201/8)

1961        Nov 9, Paddy Chayefsky's "Gideon," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1961        Nov 10, Andrew Hatcher was named associate press secretary to President John F. Kennedy.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1961        Nov 11, Congolese soldiers murdered 13 Italian UN pilots.
    (MC, 11/11/01)
1961        Nov 11, Molotov, Malenkov & Kaganovich were kicked out of Russia's communist party.
    (MC, 11/11/01)
1961        Nov 11, Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1961        Nov 12, Nadia Comaneci, [Gheorghe], Romanian gymnast (1st 10/Olymp-gold-1976), was born.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1961        Nov 14, President Kennedy increased the number of American advisors in Vietnam from 1,000 to 16,000.
    (HN, 11/14/00)

1961        Nov 16, US House Speaker Samuel T. Rayburn died in Bonham, Texas, having served as speaker since 1940 except for two terms.
    (AP, 11/1697)
1961        Nov 16, Great Britain limited immigration from Commonwealth countries.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1961        Nov 18, JFK sent 18,000 military "advisors" to South Vietnam.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1961        Nov 24, The UN adopted bans on nuclear arms over American protest.
    (HN, 11/24/98)

1961        Nov 26, Pro Baseball Rules Committee voted 8-1 against legalizing the spitball.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1961        Nov 28, Ernie Davis became the first African American to win the Heisman Trophy.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1961        Nov 29, Freedom Riders were attacked by white mob at bus station in Miss.
    (MC, 11/29/01)
1961        Nov 29, Enos the chimp was launched from Cape Canaveral aboard the Mercury-Atlas 5 spacecraft, which orbited earth twice before returning.
    (AP, 11/29/97)

1961        Nov 30, Soviets vetoed a UN seat for Kuwait, pleasing Iraq.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1961        Nov, The US stock market began a 7 month decline of 25%.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)
1961        Nov, In Germany Heinz Felfe (b.1918), the head of counter-intelligence at the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) and a veteran of the Nazi special forces, was arrested as an agent of the KGB.
    (Econ, 9/2/06, p.50)(http://tinyurl.com/jmnpe)
1961        Nov, India’s PM Jawaharlal Nehru visited with Walt Disney in Disneyland.
    (SSFC, 5/1/05, p.F3)

1961        Dec 1, The Territory of New Guinea (Papua) declared independence from the Netherlands.
    (WUD, 1994, p.962)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A8)

1961        Dec 2, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declared himself a Marxist-Leninist who would lead Cuba to Communism.
    (AP, 12/2/97)

1961        Dec 3, In the SF Bay Area Francis Patrick Kennedy jumped off the Golden Gate Bridge and landed on the ground near Lime Point in Marin County. He survived the 200-foot leap and doctors gave him a 50-50 chance of pulling through. Kennedy died 10 days later.
    (SSFC, 12/4/11, DB p.46)

1961        Dec 9, SS Col. Adolf Eichmann was found guilty of war crimes in Israel.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1961        Dec 11, "Please, Mr. Postman" by Marvelettes was released.
    (MC, 12/11/01)
1961        Dec 11, A U.S. aircraft carrier carrying Army helicopters arrived in Saigon. This was the first direct American military support for South Vietnam's battle against Communist guerrillas. JFK provided 425 US military helicopter crewmen to South Vietnam to provide training and support for South  Vietnamese forces.
    (AP, 12/11/97)(MC, 12/11/01)
1961        Dec 11, Adolf Eichmann was found guilty of war crimes in Israel.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1961        Dec 12, Martin Luther King Jr & 700 demonstrators were arrested in Albany, Ga.
    (MC, 12/12/01)
1961        Dec 12, Frantz Fanon (b.1925), Martinique-born writer, psychiatrist, and revolutionary died in Washington, DC. His work foretold of Third World liberation struggles. His book “Wretched of the Earth" (1961) celebrated anti-colonial revolutionaries. In 2008 John Edgar Wideman authored his novel “Fanon" based on Fanon’s life.
    (SSFC, 10/5/03, p.M2)(WSJ, 2/15/08, p.W2)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/fanon.htm)(Econ, 4/17/10, SR p.16)

1961        Dec 13, Beatles signed a formal agreement to be managed by Brian Epstein.
    (MC, 12/13/01)
1961        Dec 13, Anna Mary Robertson Moses (b.1860), US painter and folk artist known as Grandma Moses, died in Hoosick Falls, New York.
    (SFC, 3/26/97, z1 p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grandma_Moses)

1961        Dec 15, Adolf Eichmann, the former German Gestapo official accused of a major role in the Nazi murder of 6 million Jews, was sentenced by a Jerusalem court to be hanged. Adolf Eichmann was the administrator of the so-called Final Solution and supervised the transportation of prisoners to concentration camps.
    (AP, 12/15/97)(HN, 12/15/98)

1961        Dec 18, Britain's EMI Records originally rejected the Beatles.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1961        Dec 19, The UN General Assembly adopted Resolutions 1714 (XVI) for the formation of its World Food Program (WFP).
    (www.fao.org/docrep/46140E/46140e06.htm)

1961        Dec 20, Moss Hart (b.1904), US dramatist (You can't take it with you), died. His 1959 autobiography was titled “Act One."
    (www.ibdb.com/person.asp?ID=6153)(WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P8)

1961        Dec 21, JFK & British PM MacMillan met in Bermuda.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1961        Dec 23, Fidel Castro announced Cuba he would release 1,113 prisoners from failed 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion in exchange for $62M worth of food and medical supplies.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1961        Dec 25, Rheinhold Ruedenberg (b.1883), MIT electrical engineer, died. He patented the principle of electron-microscope imaging in 1931 for Siemens and Halske.
        (www.msu.edu/~daggy/cop/bkofdead/obits-ru.htm)(www.timelinescience.org/years/1950.htm)

1961        Dec 26, Nepal’s King Mahendra appointed a council of five ministers to help run the administration. Several weeks later, political parties were declared illegal.
    (http://countrystudies.us/nepal/19.htm)

1961        Dec 27, Styne-Comden-Green musical "Subways are for Sleeping," premiered.
    (MC, 12/27/01)
1961        Dec 27, Tony Bennett, starring in the Venetian Room of the SF Fairmont Hotel, made his 1st solo public performance of “I Left My Heart in San Francisco."  The song was written by George Cory and Douglass Cross in 1954 and had languished in obscurity for years.
    (SSFC, 2/4/07, p.F1)(SFC, 1/25/12, p.A11)(SFC, 2/16/12, p.A13)

1961        Dec 28, Tennessee Williams' "Night of the Iguana," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1961        Dec 31, "lrma La Douce" closed at the Plymouth Theater in NYC after 527 performances.
    (MC, 12/31/01)
1961        Dec 31, Beach Boys played their debut gig under that name. The Beach Boys band was formed with brothers Brian, Carl and Dennis Wilson, cousin Mike Love and friend Al Jardine. Their hit "Surfin" came out the same year.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, DB p.50)(MC, 12/31/01)
1961        Dec 31, The Marshall Plan expired after distributing more than $12 billion in foreign aid.
    (AP, 12/31/97)

1961        Dec, The Mike Douglas Show began in Cleveland, Ohio. The TV show ended in 1982. In 1999 he authored the memoir “"I’ll be Right Back: Memories of TV’s Greatest Talk Show." Mike Douglas (born in 1925 as Michael Delaney Dowd Jr.) died in 2006.
    (SFC, 8/12/06, p.B6)
1961        Dec, The Woodrow Wilson Bridge opened on I-95 over the Potomac River between Maryland and Virginia. The 6-lane bridge was demolished in 2006 following the completion of one of 2 new 6-lane drawbridges.
    (SFC, 8/30/06, p.A2)

1961        David Berg (d.2002 began his "The Lighter Side of" comic strips for Mad Magazine and continued for 365 subsequent issues.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

1961        Richard Diebenkorn painted his "Yellow Porch."
    (SFC, 10/9/97, p.E1)

1961         Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997), American pop artist, painted "Look Mickey," his first picture to employ a comic strip as subject matter. Hi also did "Popeye."
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A7)(SFC, 1/16/99, p.E8)

1961        Piero Manzoni signed his sealed tins of "Merda d’Artista."
    (SFC, 2/10/98, p.E4)

1961        Nell Sinton (b.1910) painted the abstract oil "Greenhouse."
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.C3)

1961        Maurice Albertson, Pauline Birky and Andrew Rice authored “New Frontiers for American Youth: Perspective on the Peace Corps." Their work laid the groundwork for the basic design of the Peace Corps.
    (SFC, 6/12/10, p.D8)

1961        "Academic Women" by Prof. Jessie Bernard (1903-1996) was published. She soon retired but continued writing. Her works included "The Sex Game," "The Female World," "The Future of Marriage," and "The Future of Motherhood."
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A21)

1961        Julia Child, Simone Beck and Louisette Bertholle published the first volume of: "Mastering the Art of French Cooking."
    (SFEM, 8/10/97, p.23)

1961        "The Soft Machine" by William Burroughs was published.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.B6)   

1961        Craig Claiborne (d.2000 at 79), food journalist for the New York Times, authored "The New York Times Cookbook."
    (SFC, 1/24/00, p.A15)

1961        The children’s classic "James and the Giant Peach" by Roald Dahl was published.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, Par p.9)

1961        Robert Dahl (1915-2014), American political theorist, authored “Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City" (1961). The book examined the political workings of New Haven, Conn.
    (SFC, 2/10/14, p.C4)

1961        Robert Donovan (d.2003 at 90), newspaperman, authored "PT-109: John F. Kennedy in World War II."
    (SFC, 8/9/03, p.A15)

1961        Stanford Prof. Martin Esslin (d.2002 at 83) authored "The Theatre of the Absurd."
    (SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)

1961        Fritz Fischer, German historian, authored “Griff nach der Weltmacht" (Bid for World Power).
    (Econ, 7/26/14, p.48)

1961        Jay Wright Forrester (b.1918), MIT computer engineering pioneer, authored Industrial Dynamics. In the book he described the bullwhip effect, whereby changes downstream in an economic chain are multiplied upstream.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jay_Forrester)

1961        Erving Goffman wrote "Asylums," which asserted that the abnormal behavior of psychiatric patients was mostly a consequence of hospitalization.
    (WSJ, 7/18/97, p.A14)

1961        Robert A. Heinlein (1906-1988) authored his sci-fi masterpiece “Stranger in a Strange Land." It was about a human child raised on Mars by Martians and brought to Earth.
    (WSJ, 1/26/07, p.D7)

1961        Joseph Heller published "Catch-22."
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A2)

1961        Raul Hilberg (1926-2007), American historian, authored “The Destruction of the European Jews." It is largely held to be the first comprehensive historical study of the Holocaust.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, p.18)(http://tinyurl.com/2vmhbq)

1961        Richard Hughes authored his historical novel "The Fox in the Attic," based on Hitler’s failed 1923 putsch.
    (NW, 8/20/01, p.56)

1961        Jane Jacobs authored "The Death and Life of Great American Cities." It was based on her experiences in Greenwich Village.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.4)(WSJ, 10/11/00, p.24)

1961        "The Phantom Tollbooth" by Norton Juster was published. It was illustrated by Jules Feiffer.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)

1961        Irene Kampen (d.1998 at 75) wrote her first of ten books on her life following a divorce: "Life Without George." The books became the basis for the TV sitcom: "The Lucy Show" (1962-1974), which followed Lucille Ball’s divorce with Desi Arnaz.
    (SFC, 2/10/98, p.A22)

1961        Theodora Kroeber authored “Ishi in Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America." Ishi came out of hiding in northern California on Aug 28, 1911.
    (SFC, 9/6/14, p.C1)

1961        Stanislaw Lem wrote "Memoirs Found in a Bathtub." He pondered the growing vulnerability of civilization to a disruption of its information flow.
    (WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A23)

1961        Oscar Lewis, American anthropologist, authored "The Children of Sanchez." He had interviewed a poor, problem-plagued Mexican family for the book, which became a social science landmark, defining what came to be known as "the anthropology of poverty."
    (AP, 1/26/04)

1961        A.J. Liebling (1904-1963), America’s pre-eminent press critic, authored “The Press."
    (WSJ, 4/5/08, p.W8)

1961        Nicole Hughes Maxwell (d.1998 at 92) wrote "Witch Doctor’s Apprentice: Hunting for Medicinal Plants in the Amazon," an account of her experiences in the upper Amazon with native Indians and their medicines.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, p.B6)

1961        James Michener (d.1997 at 90) wrote "Report of the County Chairman."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)

1961        Walker Percy authored his novel "The Moviegoer."
    (SSFC, 4/20/03, p.M3)

1961        Benjamin Quarles (1904-1996), historian, published "The Negro in the American Revolution."
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B2)

1961        "Where the Red Fern Grows" by Wilson Rawls was published.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)

1961        Rosser Reeves (1910-1984) authored “Reality in Advertising." He originated the marketing concept called “the unique selling proposition."
    (WSJ, 3/3/07, p.P8)(http://tinyurl.com/378ozc)

1961        Harold Robbins (d.1997) wrote his novel "Carpetbaggers," based on the life of Howard Hughes.
    (SFC,10/15/97, p.C4)

1961        J.D. Salinger published "Franny and Zooey."
    (SFC, 11/23/98, p.E2)

1961        William Saroyan published his autobiography: "Here Comes There Goes You Know Who."
    (SFEM, 4/27/97, p.11)

1961        Norbert A. Schlei (1929-2003), later legal counsel to presidents Kennedy and Johnson, authored "Studies in World Public Order."
    (SFC, 4/21/03, p.B4)

1961        D.W. Sciama published his book "The Unity of the Universe."
    (TNG, Klein, p.154)

1961        Muriel Spark published her novel "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie."
    (WSJ, 4/11/97, p.A12)

1961        John Updike wrote "Rabbit Run."
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, BR p.3)

1961        Kurt Vonnegut wrote his novel "Mother Night."
    (SFC, 11/15/96, p.C3)

1961        Joseph Weber, prof. of physics at Univ. of Maryland, published his "Gravitational Relativity and Gravitational Waves."
    (TNG, Klein, p.130)

1961        Gerald J. Whitrow (d.2000 at 87), mathematician and philosopher, published "The Nature of Time."
    (SFC, 6/27/00, p.A23)

1961        John Wilson (d.1999 at 80) published "Ghana's Handicapped Citizens." Wilson, himself blind, and his wife Jean lived in Ghana in 1950 and began treating people who were blinded from an infection, ocular onchocerciasis, caused by a buffalo gnat.
    (SFC, 12/7/99, p.B4)

1961        Loretta Young, film and TV actress, authored "The Things I Had to Learn."
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.B10)

1961        Anneli Cahn Lax (d.1999 at 77) began editing the New Mathematical Library Series for the Mathematical Association of America. 36 volumes were published by 1995.
    (SFC, 10/1/99, p.D6)

1961        Harold Pinter wrote his play "The Collection."
    (SFC, 6/16/98, p.D1)

1961        Tennessee Williams wrote his play "The Night of the Iguana" based on his experiences in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. It was produced on Broadway by Charles Bowden and starred Bette Davis and Margaret Leighton.
    (WSJ, 3/22/96, p.A-10)(AAM, 3/96, p.84)(SFC, 12/25/96, p.A22)

1961        Ossie Davis wrote and starred in his play "Purlie Victorious."
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, Par, p.24)

1961        The Third Edition of Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary crystallized contemporary ideas about language and usage.
    (SSFC, 3/18/01, DB p.49)

1961        The Bob Merrill musical "Carnival" with Anna Maria Alberghetti won this year’s Best Musical Award from the New York Drama Critics Circle. It was initially an MGM property called "Lilli."
    (SFC, 2/19/98, p.A22)

1961        Frank Loesser and Abe Burrows produced the Broadway hit "How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying." The play lampooned life at the fictional Worldwide Widget Co.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, DB p.40)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1961        Ray Charles made a hit with "Unchain My Heart," written by Bobby Sharp and "Hit the Road Jack."
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, Par p.20)(SFC, 4/19/04, p.E1)

1961        Ernie K-Doe (d.2001 at 65, born as Ernest Kador in New Orleans), rhythm-and-blues singer, made a hit with the song "Mother-in-Law."
    (SFC, 7/10/01, p.A15)

1961        The Frank Loesser song "I Believe in You" was a hit song from a Broadway musical.
    (WSJ, 5/18/99, p.A24)

1961        The Marvelettes sang "Please Mr. Postman."
    (SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

1961        The musical "Kean" was written by George Forrest and Robert Wright.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.C2)

1961        The show "Milk and Honey" was produced.
    (WSJ, 8/12/98, p.A13)

1961        The Broadway play "They Might Be Giants" was written by James Goldman.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)

1961        Frederick Knott (d.2002 at 86), playwright, wrote "Write Me a Murder." It ran for 25 weeks on Broadway.
    (SFC, 12/24/02, p.A16)

1961        Stan Freberg recorded his musical comedy "The United States of America (1789-1918)." It was a history lesson with a comic touch and beloved by high school teachers history teachers. Vol. 2 came out in 1996.
    (SFEC, 8/18/96, DB p.42)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)

1961        Anthony Newley (d.1999), co-wrote with Leslie Bricusse the London musical "Stop the World - I Want to Get Off," which included the hit songs "What Kind of Fool Am I" and "Gonna Build a Mountain."
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.C4)

1961        A "Bozo the Clown" show began on Chicago’s WGN-TV. The last show was taped in 2001.
    (SFC, 6/13/01, p.E3)
1961        The Joey Bishop Show began on NBC. It was cancelled in 1964. CBS took it over and cancelled it in 1965. The late night real life Joey Bishop Show ran from 1967-1969.
    (SFC, 10/19/07, p.A11)

1961        Joan Baez released her 2nd album "Joan Baez Vol. 2." She later published her autobiography: "And a Voice to Sing With."
    (SFEM, 11/1/98, p.12)(SFEM, 11/1/98, p.12)

1961        Leslie Bricusse wrote the hit song "What Kind of Fool Am I."
    (WSJ, 2/2/00, p.W8)

1961        Dave Brubeck recorded "Take Five."
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.C14)

1961        Eddie Harris (1934-1996), tenor saxophonist, recorded the theme music for the film Exodus. He later invented the "saxobone," a saxophone with a trombone mouthpiece and the electric sax. He later wrote much of the music on "The Bill Cosby Show."
    (SFC, 11/8/96, p.A25)

1961        Patsy Cline (d.1963) recorded the Willie Nelson (b.1933) song "Crazy." Willie then wrote "Funny How Time Slips Away."
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.67)

1961        Curtis Mayfield and the Impressions had a hit with the doo-wop song "Gypsy Woman."
    (SFC, 12/28/99, p.C1)

1961        Faron Young sang "Hello Walls," a tune written by Willie Nelson.
    (SFC, 12/12/96, p.C8)

1961        The Tokens recorded their hit "The Lion Sleeps Tonight." It was based on a South African song, "Mbube," recorded in 1939.
    (NH, 6/97, p.66)

1961        Columbia Records issued the first Robert Johnson (d.1938) LP titled "King of the Delta Blues Singers." His music is on "The Complete Plantation Recordings" (Chess/MCA).
    (NH, 9/96, p.54)(HT, 5/97, p.41)

1961        Diana Ross, vocalist, signed with Motown Records. Since that time she has released 58 albums.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, DB p.49)

1961        Jimmy Rogers was the first inductee into the Country Music Hall of Fame in Nashville, Tenn.
    (WSJ, 9/26/97, p.A20)

1961        The new LAX Airport was dedicated by Pres. Lyndon Johnson. The facility included a modern central structure called the "Theme Building" with an elevated circular restaurant.
    (CG, #206, 1991)
1961        In SF the two curved, 17-story Fontana Towers were built over Aquatic Park by Robert D. Fraser (d.2000 at 80). The construction blocked view from Russian Hill. City officials slapped a 40-foot height limit along the waterfront.
    (SFC, 10/22/04, p.A20)(SSFC, 4/27/08, p.B3)

1961        In NYC the skyscraper at 1 Chase Manhattan Plaza, commissioned by David Rockefeller, was completed. In 2013 the Chinese conglomerate Fosun Int’l. agreed to buy it for $725 million.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.72)

1961        The Rebel Railroad opened in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee. It changed hands a number of times and grew to become Dollywood in 1986, a theme park partly owned by singer Dolly Parton.
    (DFP, 7/28/96, p.J3)

1961        SunBurst Resort was built on the periphery of Scottsdale, Arizona.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.42)

1961        The Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) was formed consolidating the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church.
    (WSJ, 5/11/01, p.W17)

1961        Fred Turner (1933-2013), operations manager for McDonald’s Corp., founded Hamburger University in a restaurant basement in Elk Grove, Illinois.
    (Econ, 1/26/13, p.82)

1961        W.E.B. Du Bois, Black American writer and reformer, renounced his American citizenship and spent his last remaining years in the West African country of Ghana. Born in Massachusetts on February 23, 1868, Du Bois earned three degrees at Harvard, including a Ph.D., and taught history at Atlanta University from 1896-1910. He took a militant position on race relations, founded the Niagara Movement, edited the Crises magazine, was a longtime official in the NAACP and author of numerous important works. Du Bois died in Accra, Ghana, August 27, 1963.
    (HNQ, 5/11/99)

1961        Robert R. Gros (d.1997 at 82), a PG&E executive and government advisor, gave his "The Winds of Freedom Speech" for which he won the Freedom Foundations award for memorable speeches. He won the award five times. His 1963 winning speech was "Freedom’s Friends and Foes."
    (SFC, 4/24/97, p.A26)

1961        In boxing American Floyd Patterson defeated Sweden’s Ingemar Johansson in their 3rd meeting.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.B1)

1961        California surfers started skateboarding.
    (SFE Zone 3, 2/12/95, p. 8)

1961        A baseball team record for home runs was set by the New York Yankees with 240 (Mantle, Maris, Berra, et. al.).
    (SFEM, 9/22/96, p.6)

1961        The Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, a blind librarian, shared the Prix Formentor with Samuel Beckett. English translations of Borges’ work appeared in 1962.
    (SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.1)

1961        Melvin Calvin (b.1911), US chemist, won the Nobel Prize for his work on photosynthesis.
(MC, 4/8/02)
1961        Robert Hofstadter of Stanford won the Nobel Prize in Physics.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)
1961        Ivo Andric of Yugoslavia won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)     

1961        An International Agreement was signed called the Antarctic Treaty. The treaty did not settle claim disputes on the land, but shelved the issue to the future with a 50 year moratorium on mineral and oil exploration.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 28)

1961        The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was started.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-10)

1961        The government Food Stamp program began as a pilot project.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, zone 1 p.5)

1961        The administration of Pres. Kennedy had IRS commissioner Mortimer Caplin organize the "Ideological Organizations Audit Project." Its purpose was to examine the finances of radical left and radical right groups. The results of the audits were used to then accept or deny tax free status to various groups.
    (WSJ, 1/28/97, p.A18)

1961        Pres. John F. Kennedy designated the military testing grounds at Cape Canaveral, Florida, as a permanent launch site of the new US space program. About 6,000 Dusky Seaside Sparrows inhabited the local marshes. The last one, named Orange Band, died at Discovery Island, the zoo at Walt Disney World in June of 1987.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.189)

1961        Pres. Kennedy named Eugene M. Zuckert (d.2000 at 88) Secretary of the Air Force.
    (SFC, 6/8/00, p.C7)

1961        Pres. Kennedy named John McCone head of the CIA.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)

1961        Congress voted a minimum-wage increase from $1.00 to $1.25 an hour over a two-year period.
    (HNQ, 11/5/99)

1961        Project Stormfury, a US government hurricane modification program, conducted initial tests on Hurricane Esther with a Navy plane releasing silver iodide crystals. Some reports indicate winds were reduced by 10 percent to 30 percent. Project Stormfury was abandoned in the 1980s after spending hundreds of millions of dollars.
    (AP, 9/23/05)

1961        Arizona state congressman Stuart Udall was tapped to serve as the interior secretary for Pres. Kennedy. His brother, Mo Udall, won the seat in a close special election.
    (SFC, 12/14/98, p.A5)

1961        The White House denied reports that "The Twist" was being danced at a White House party. Chubby Checker had made the dance a major hit.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, DB p.65)

1961        Connecticut Governor Abraham Ribicoff resigned to serve as a member of Pres. Kennedy’s Cabinet. He served as HEW secretary for one year.
    (SFC, 2/23/98, p.A5)
   
1961        A covert operation was launched by the CIA to infiltrate North Vietnam. The Saigon station led by William Colby began recruiting Vietnamese commandos who could speak the local dialects. The operation was taken over by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1964 and run by colonels of the military’s Special Operations Group. In Dec 1965 the colonels began crossing off the names of some 200 missing commandos and listed them as dead. In 1996 the financial records of the operation, known as OPLAN 34-A, were declassified at the request of John Mattes, a lawyer representing 300 living commandos.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, p.A-14)

1961        The US Omnibus Housing Act established the Dept. of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Jack Conway (d.1998 at 80), labor leader and social activist, helped draft the act. It enabled the FHA to insure mortgages on condominiums.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.D8)(WSJ, 8/18/05, p.A1)

1961        The US FCC approved FM stereo for radio.
    (SFC, 12/30/99, p.E3)

1961        The US Federal Wire Act prohibited interstate wagering via phone or telegraph wires. It was later applied to wagers via the Internet.
    (SFC, 7/20/00, p.A12)(Econ, 7/22/06, p.61)
1961        The US passed anti-racketeering laws. US Code defined racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ggeab)(Econ, 10/7/06, p.78)

1961        Americas’ Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) prosecuted insider trading for the first time after a company employee tipped his broker that the firm would be cutting its dividend. The broker was fined $3000 and suspended for 20 days.
    (Econ, 10/15/11, p.83)

1961        Richard Masato Aoki (1938-2009), a Japanese-American, began working as an FBI informant (1961-1977) in the SF Bay Area. He became an early member of the Black Panthers (1967) gave the Panthers some of their first guns.
    (SFC, 8/20/12, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/9g5u4zn)(SFC, 9/8/12, p.C2)
1961        In San Francisco construction began on the Diamond Heights development project.
    (SFC, 4/17/13, p.E5)
1961        San Francisco dug an underpass at Fillmore and Geary St. turning Geary into an 8-lane expressway. In 2014 a plan was afoot to restore Geary to its former boulevard status.
    (SFC, 2/6/14, p.A1)
1961        In San Francisco new policemen were being hired for $591 per month with periodic raises up to $641 at the end of four years. Requirements this year included the ability to lift a 150-pound bag of sand.
    (SSFC, 10/23/11, p.42)
1961        Sylvia McLaughlin, Kay Kerr (d.2010 at 99) and Esther Gulick (d.1995) founded the Save the Bay Association in an effort to stop plans by the city of Berkeley to create 2,000 new acres by filling in shallow bay waters. Their efforts led to the 1965 McAteer-Petris Act, which placed a moratorium on filling the San Francisco Bay.
    (SFCM, 10/5/03, p.13)(SFC, 5/10/04, p.B5)(SFC, 1/3/11, p.C4)
1961        Dave Karp (b.1916) opened his first hardware store on Cole Street near Golden Gate Park. By 2012 the family-owned chain numbered 4 SF stores.
    (SSFC, 6/10/12, p.A2)
1961        In California a Kansas City company opened a manufacturing plant in Merced to fabricate cooling towers for industrial use. In 1969 the plant began treating the wood it used with chromium 6, arsenic and copper to combat insects and bacteria. In 1975 Baltimore Aircoil Co., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., bought the plant. In 1985 Merck sold its subsidiary and the plant to Amsted Industries. In 1986 a consultant found evidence of chromium and arsenic contamination at the site. In 1989 state regulators noted high levels of chromium 6 and arsenic in the water of a drainage pond and reported that storm water flowed from the pond into a canal running by homes in the Beachwood area of Merced. Chromium use continued until May 1991. In February 2007 the regional water board mailed notices to residents saying the plant had caused significant chromium and arsenic pollution. As of 2008 some 20 people were dead or dying of cancer in the Beachwood area. A $38 million cleanup effort was in progress. Merck and Amsted faced a lawsuit.
    (SSFC, 12/14/08, p.A14)
1961        The US Bureau of Reclamation completed Trinity Dam creating Trinity Lake in northern California. The lake flooded the towns of Trinity Center, Stringtown and Minersville.
    (SFC, 9/12/11, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_Lake)

1961        Hawaii created America’s first state-wide system for regulating land use.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.46)
1961        Castle & Cooke bought out Dole’s operations on Lanai, Ha. In 1973 it unveiled plans to transition Lanai from pineapples to luxury resorts.
    (SFC, 6/27/12, p.D6)

1961        A&P grocery heirs Charles and Marie Robertson gave Princeton Univ. $35 million to educated graduate students for careers in government. In 2008, as the fund reached $600 million, a suit was settled by the descendants of the donors, who alleged that the school had strayed from the original intent of the gift. Legal fees were put at $40 million.
    (SFC, 12/11/08, p.A16)

1961        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1961 Dodge Dart as the number 7 worst American-made car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1961        Black & Decker, founded in 1910, introduced the 1st cordless, battery-powered drill for home use. Alonzo Decker Jr. (d.2002) served as CEO from 1964-1975.
    (SFC, 3/20/02, p.A25)

1961        Coca-Cola introduced Sprite to the US market. It had originated in Germany as Fanta Klare Zitrone and was intended to compete with 7-Up.
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.68)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprite_(soft_drink))

1961        Engineer Harry Ferguson’s all-wheel-drive racer appeared in Formula One competition.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1961        Mattel toys introduced the Ken doll, and marketed it as Barbie’s boyfriend.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, Z1 p.2)

1961        Mercury Records was bought by Philips Classics.
    (WSJ, 2/3/97, p.A12)

1961        Merrill Lynch Securities under Michael McCarthy (d.1998 at 94) was the first American firm to establish a securities office in Tokyo.
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.A24)

1961        Pampers, the 1st mass-market disposable diaper, was introduced.
    (WSJ, 12/27/01, p.A1)

1961        The 1st Six Flags park opened in Texas. By 2004 there were 31 in the US and Europe with 39,500 seasonal employees.
    (WSJ, 8/31/04, p.B1)

1961        Raymond Loewy, industrial designer for Studebaker Corp., assembled a 4-man team in Palm Springs to design a new sports coupe called the Avanti. Thomas Kellogg (d.2003 at 71) was a member of the team. The Avanti was introduced in April 1962 to compete with GM’s Corvette. It was cancelled after two years with sales under 6000 units. In 1991 Studebaker produced 6 Avanti convertibles during an attempt at reorganization.
    (SFC, 8/19/03, p.A19)(SSFC, 9/25/11, p.K1)

1961        Robert Rempel (1925-2005) co-founded Spectra-Physics, which became the 1st company to make lasers.
    (SFC, 6/6/05, p.B3)

1961        United Airlines merged with Capital Airlines and became the world’s largest commercial airline.
    (WSJ, 12/6/02, p.A1)

1961        The Washington Post bought Newsweek Magazine for $15 mil.
    (WSJ, 8/23/96, p.A1)

1961        Lorry Lokey founded Business Wire as a way for companies to disseminate their news releases. In 2006 Warren Buffett agreed to buy the company.
    (SFC, 1/17/06, p.C1)

2001        California-based Webvan, a grocery home delivery service founded in 1999, collapsed after expanding at breakneck speed. In 2009 it was resurrected by Amazon.
    (Econ, 11/30/13, p.61)
1961        Dana Ulery (b.1938) became the first female engineer at the NASA Jet Propulsion laboratory in Pasadena.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)

1961        For the past 33 years, scientists have been seeking signs of intelligent elsewhere in the universe. SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) began. It was later expanded under the new name HRMS (High Resolution Microwave Survey).
    (NG, Jan. 94, p.40)

1961        Becton Dickinson introduced its first plastic disposable syringe called the Plastipak.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.A4)
1961        The birth control pill developed by Dr. Djerassi in 1951 was approved in the US by the FDA to be sold as a birth control device. He later wrote a sci-fi tetrology.
    (SJSVB, 4/8/96, p.8)(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.3)
1961        Johnson & Johnson introduced Tylenol for adults.
    (SFC, 11/1/05, p.D7)
1961        Strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to Methicillin (MRSA) were first reported.  The antibiotic methicillin had only become available in 1960.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.87)(www.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_WTX026108.html)
1961        An oral vaccine against polio invented by Dr. Albert Sabin began to be administered to school children. The oral vaccine contained a live but weakened version of the polio virus to induce immunization. It was later found to cause polio in a handful of individuals every year.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A10)
1961        Roche's researchers in New Jersey published a report stating that Valium (Daizepam) had only mild side-effects, including fatigue, dizziness and rash, but these were results based on only seven patients. Diazepam (Valium) was approved for use in 1963. In the late 1950s chemist Leo Sternbach (1908-2005) made the discovery that led to Valium while working for Hoffmann-La Roche.
    (http://anxiety-panic.com/history/h-1960.htm)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diazepam#Inventor)
1961        The Hayflick limit was discovered by Leonard Hayflick at Philadelphia’s Wistar Institute. He demonstrated that a population of normal human fetal cells in a cell culture divide between 40 and 60 times then enter a senescence phase.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hayflick_limit)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.95)

1961        Otto Wichterle, Czech chemist, introduced the world’s 1st soft plastic contact lenses.
    (Econ, 3/12/05, TQ p.12)

1961        Murray Gell-Mann proposed the "eightfold way," a scheme to relate particles by mathematical symmetries.
    (NG, May 1985, p. 650)

1961        Guy Mountfort (d.2003) and 3 other Britons: zoologist Sir Julian Huxley, broadcaster Peter Scott and wildlife advocate Max Nicholson, founded the Swiss-based World Wildlife Fund (Worldwide Fund for Nature).
    (AP, 5/1/03)(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.8)

1961        46,650 acres of second growth forest were added to the 13,200 acres of virgin forest in the Mississippi delta and the Delta National Forest was officially established. The forest service then proceeded to contract with lumber companies to cut down the trees. Only a 160 acres of virgin timber on three parcels now remain under special management as Research Natural Areas.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.63)

1961        Geologist John Sealy Livermore (1918-2013), along with a Newmont Mining colleague, discovered widely dispersed gold particles near Carlin, Nevada. Their find became known as the Carlin Trend. By 2013 it had produced over 70 million ounces of gold valued at around $85 billion.
    (SFC, 3/13/13, p.E5)

1961        The American crocodile became protected in Florida.
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.37)

1961        A Homo neanderthalensis skull was found at the Amud cave in Israel in 1961 that dated to 40-50,000 years of age.
    (NH, 4/97, p.22)

1961        A B-52 crashed near Eureka, N.C. and part of a an "unarmed" nuclear bomb was lost and left buried there. In 1998 Stephen I. Schwartz published "Atomic Audit," which included an account of 11 missing nuclear bombs.
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, Par p.22)

1961        Gary Cooper, film actor, died.
    (SFC, 3/8/00, p.C8)

1961        John Graham (b.1881), artist, died.
    (SFC, 6/28/02, p.D1)

1961        Dashiell Hammett (b.1894), American author, died. His work include "The Maltese Falcon," "The Glass Key," "The Thin Man," "The Continental Op," and "The Dain Curse." In 1981 Richard Layman authored a Hammett biography. In 1996 Joan Mellen published the dual biography "Hellman and Hammett." In 2001 the "Selected Letters of Dashiell Hammett 1921-1960" was published.
    (WUD, 1994, p.641)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A15)(WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A17)(SFCM, 4/15/01, p.4)

1961        Moss Hart (b.1904), American playwright, director and librettist, died. He and George S. Kaufman, wrote plays such as "You Can't Take it with You" and "The Man who came to Dinner." His autobiography was titled "Enter Laughing." "The self-hatred that destroys is the waste of unfulfilled promise." A 1959 autobiography was titled "Act One." In 2001 Steven Bach authored the Hart biography "Dazzler: The Life and Times of Moss Hart."
    (WUD, 1994, p.648)(SFEC, 7/13/97, DB p.11)(AP, 8/18/98)(HN, 10/24/00)(WSJ, 4/24/01, p.A22)(SSFC, 4/29/01, DB p.80)

1961        Sam Rayburn (b.1882), U.S. Democrat congressman from Texas and the Speaker of the House of Representatives (1940-46, 1949-53), died. Rayburn served as Speaker of the House for 17 years over three terms. He was elected to his House seat first in 1912 and was reelected 24 times, serving a total of 48 years and 8 months." When you get too big a majority, you’re immediately in trouble."
    (HN, 1/6/99)(HNQ, 4/7/00)(AP, 2/10/97)

1961        Eero Saarinen, architect, died. Many of Saarinen's unfinished projects--including the Dulles International Airport terminal building near Washington, D.C. and the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial (Gateway Arch) in St. Louis--were completed by John Dinkeloo and Irish-born Kevin Roche. Roche studied architecture in Dublin, graduating in 1945. He pursued postgraduate work at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago after briefly working for firms in Dublin and London. In 1950, he joined Eero Saarinen and Associates, becoming the firm's principal associate from 1954 until Saarinen's death in 1961. Roche and Dinkeloo worked on Saarinen's projects throughout the early 60s, but started their own firm, Kevin Roche, John Dinkeloo and Associates, in 1966, where they designed headquarters buildings for Ford and General Foods as well as other corporate structures.
    (HNQ, 1/28/01)

1961        Anna May Wong (b.1905), film actress, died. In 2004 Graham Russell Gao Hodges authored "Anna May Wong: From Laundryman's Daughter to Hollywood Legend."
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M6)

1961        Marius de Zaya (b.1880), caricature artist, died.
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)

1961        Albanian leader Enver Hoxha broke with Nikita Khrushchev over Khrushchev’s repudiation of Stalin’s legacy. Diplomatic relations were severed and Soviet aid to Albania was ended. For a time Albania found an ally in China.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1961        King Zog of Albania died in exile in France. His son, Leka Zogu, was sworn in as king by the government in exile.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)

1961        The Antarctic Treaty entered into force. It was adopted to put on hold the issue of ownership in the pursuit of peace and science.
    (WSJ, 3/30/05, p.D12)(www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=1187)

1961        In Australia the Packer family bought The Bulletin magazine (1880-2008), scrapped its racist masthead ("Australia for the White Man"), and entered a period of strong growth, high circulation and influence.
    (AP, 1/24/08)

1961        A Vienna Convention barred the taxing of foreign diplomatic staff.
    (AP, 9/15/02)

1961        The Arab states of Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait became independent.
    (NG, 5/88, p.662)

1961        In Belarus the Gomel Jewish cemetery was destroyed when a sports stadium was built. The remains lay largely undisturbed until the spring of 2008 when reconstruction began and a bulldozer turned up the first bones. Workers said they had no choice but to consign the bones to city dumps.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

1961        Hurricane Hattie destroyed much of Belize City. The capital was moved inland to Belmopan in response.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.B2)

1961        James Blades (1901-1999), English percussionist, authored "Orchestral Percussion Technique."
    (SFC, 5/25/99, p.B2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Blades)
1961        British economist Ronald Coase (1910-2013) authored “The Problem of Social Cost."
    (Econ, 9/7/13, p.73)
1961        Ludovic Kennedy (1919-2009), Scotland-born writer, authored “10 Rillington Place," the story of Timothy Evans, who was hanged on 1950 for a murder he did not commit. The book was later said to have played a role in ending capital punishment in Britain.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/SPYkennedyL.htm)(Econ, 10/24/09, p.99)
1961        The Beatles recorded their 1st commercial record, "My Bonnie." Brian Epstein, a Liverpool record store manager, became the Beatles’ manager.
    (SFC, 12/1/01, p.D1)
1961        The British television show “The Avengers" began and continued to 1969. The theme music was composed by British jazz artist John Dankworth.
    (SFC, 2/8/10, p.C3)(http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0060708/)
1961        In London the Post Office Tower was completed. It was designed by Eric Bedford (d.2001) and was later renamed the British Telecom Tower.
    (SFC, 8/17/01, p.D5)
1961        Britain’s Shrewsbury School mates Christopher Booker, Richard Ingrams and Willie Rushton founded “Private Eye" magazine. Paul Foot (1938-2004) joined the trio in 1967.
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.74)
1961        In Britain a group of spies were arrested and microfilm was found of documents from the Admiralty.
    (SFC, 12/6/96, p.B8)
1961        The Archigram group, formed by 6 friends in London, was named after their architectural broadsheet telegrams. The group included Ron Herron, Peter Cook, David Greene, Dennis Crompton, Michael Webb and Warren Chalk. Their work was delivered in a comic book style and based on the message that architecture was not eternal, but temporary and disposable.
    (WSJ, 4/23/98, p.A16)
1961        Britain’s Jaguar Cars Ltd. Launched the Jaguar E-Type, designed by Malcolm Sayers.
    (Econ, 5/18/13, IL p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaguar_E-Type)

1961        In British Guyana the People’s Progressive Party again won elections and Dr. Jagan was sworn in as prime minister. He vowed to achieve independence and install a socialist regime. The US CIA undertook a destabilization campaign with organized labor unrest, sabotage and disinformation that led to race riots between East Indians and blacks that left nearly 100 dead.
    (SFC, 3/7/96, p.A24)(SFC, 5/29/97, p.A4)

1961        In Canada the New Democratic party (NDP) was formed as an uneasy alliance of prairie populists and urban trade unionists.
    (Econ, 8/27/11, p.31)
1961        Isadore Sharp opened the 1st Four Seasons Hotel in Toronto, Canada. In 2006 he joined with partners in a $3.7 billion buyout offer to take the company private. In 2007 Sharp unloaded all but a 5% stake when the company went private. By 2009 the chain had 83 hotels in 35 countries. In 2009 he and Alan Philips authored “Four Seasons: The Story of a Business Philosophy."
    (SFC, 11/7/06, p.C3)(WSJ, 4/28/09, p.A11)

1961        In Chile Paul Schaefer, former WW II German corporal, founded the "Colonia Dignidad" -the Dignity Colony, a reclusive German-speaking colony on a 34,000 acre site in the Andean foothills. He had fled Germany while under investigation for allegations of sexually molesting children. In 2005 Schaefer was arrested in Argentina and extradited to Chile.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A14)(AP, 3/13/05)

1961        In Cuba construction began on a dance building designed by Italian architect Vittorio Garatti as one of five adjacent arts complexes personally requested by Fidel Castro, who dreamed of building the world's finest art school on the golf course of a country club seized by his revolution. Work was abruptly halted in 1965, with the ballet school lacking only windows, doors and floors. In 2012 dancer Carlos Acosta pledged to rescue the dance school and turn it into an international center for culture and dance.
    (AP, 11/3/12)
1961        A cactus curtain was planted around the US Guantanamo Base to discourage Cuban defection.
    (SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A7)

1961        Carlos Julio Arosemena (d.2004) rose to the presidency of Ecuador following the ouster of President Velasco Ibarra in a military coup.
    (AP, 3/5/04)   

1961        In France Andre Malreaux, minister of cultural affairs under Pres. de Gaulle, initiated the clean-up of Paris.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, T-5)
1961        In France the Boisset Family Estates was founded in Burgundy. By 2012 the company controlled over 20 wineries in the US, Canada and Europe.
    (SSFC, 3/11/12, p.N3)

1961        Gerhard Richter (b.1932), German artist, defected to the West. By 2011 he was considered the world’s foremost living painter.
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.104)
1961        Germany sold its state-owned Volkwagen car company. 60% of the cash from the sale was put into a national charitable foundation to support science.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.64)

1961        A civil war began in Guatemala.
    (WSJ, 3/22/96, p.A-1)

1961        India wrested Goa and Diu from Portugal.
    (SSFC, 3/19/06, p.F6)
1961        India outlawed the dowry as an institutionalized marital custom to help reduce gender-driven abortions.
    (SFC, 12/6/02, p.J1)
1961        India stopped public funding for Anglo schools.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.51)
1961        Bharat Forge incorporated in India. By 2006 it was the world’s second biggest maker of forgings for car engine and chassis components.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, Survey p.8)(www.bharatforge.com/insidepages/company/history.asp)
1961        M.S. Swaminathan, adviser to India’s minister of agriculture, invited Norman Borlaug, a plant geneticist who had improved the yield on Mexican wheat, to visit India.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.29)

1961        Ireland’s PM Sean Lemass made his son-in-law, Charles J. Haughey, a Cabinet minister.
    (AP, 6/13/06)

1961        Israel’s secret service, Mossad, sent a parcel bomb to Alois Brunner (b.1912), a fugitive Nazi. It cost him an eye. Another parcel bomb in July, 1980, took four fingers. He was last seen alive by reliable witnesses in 1992, and by journalists in 1996.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alois_Brunner)

1961        Calisto Tanzi dropped out of university to concentrate on the a family delicatessen business near the Parma railway station: Calisto Tanzi & Sons - Salamis and Preserves. In 1966 Calisto Tanzi adopted the new ultra-high temperature (UHT) Swedish pasteurizing technique to produce long-life milk. In 2003 the company filed for bankruptcy.
    (WSJ, 12/22/03, p.A6)(WPR, 3/04, p.18)
1961        Leonardo Del Vecchio founded Luxottica, a maker of eye shades and prescription glasses, in Belluno, Italy. In 1990 the company was listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
    (Econ, 10/8/05, p.73)

1961        Japan established a universal health care system called kaihoken.
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.47)

1961        In Laos the US CIA began enlisting mountain tribes as guerrillas during the Vietnam War.
    (SFC,12/27/97, p.A15)

1961        Tomas Borge Martinez (1930-2012) helped found Nicaragua’s Sandinista front with the ambition of overthrowing the American-backed dictatorship of the Somoza family. Students chose the name in tribute to Augusto Cesar Sandino, the nationalist guerrilla leader who fought American Marines in the 1920s and 1930s.
    (www.nytimes.com/2012/05/02/world/americas/tomas-borge-martinez-dies-at-81.html)

1961        In San Francisco Alex Esclamado (1929-2012) founded the Philippine News out of his Sunset District family home. In 1972 it became a megaphone for the those opposing the rule of Pres. Marcos. In 1989 Esclamado received the Philippine Legion of Honor crediting his defense of democracy.
    (SFC, 11/16/12, p.C6)

1961        In Russia Svyatoslav Richter, concert pianist, was named a People’s Artist of the USSR, the highest Soviet honor for a performing artist.
    (SFC, 8/2/97, p.A21)

1961        The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was founded in Belgrade by Third World leaders such as India's Jawaharlal Nehru, Egypt's Gamal Abdul Nasser and Indonesia's Achmad Sukarno, under the aegis of Yugoslavia's Josip Broz Tito, to try to avoid alignment with either the United States or the Soviet Union.
    (Reuters, 9/10/06)

1961        Somalia adopted its first constitution. A new one was adopted in 1979.
    (www.pogar.org/countries/country.asp?cid=17)

1961        In South Korea Pres. Park Chung Hee (1917-1979) led a military coup that overthrew Premier John M. Chang. The military seized power and investigations into wartime summary executions ceased. This began a 26-year dictatorship. The junta marched many racketeers through Seoul wearing dunce caps with slogans such as “I am a corrupt swine."
    (SFC,12/15/97, p.B2)(SFC, 4/21/00, p.A19)(www.encarta.msn.com)(Econ, 9/27/08, SR p.13)
1961        In South Korea Prof. Koh Young Bok was recruited as a spy for North Korea. He was arrested in 1997.
    (SFC,11/21/97, p.D2)
1961        The per capita GDP of South Korea was $91.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.44)

1961        Westerlund 1, one of the biggest cluster of superstars in the Milky Way, was discovered by a Swedish astronomer and became a favored observation site in stellar physics. It is located 16,000 light years away in the constellation of Ara, the Altar. It contained a neutron star with a mighty magnetic field. The stars were all born from a single event just three and a half to five million years ago.
    (AFP, 8/18/10)

1961        Syria withdrew from the UAR (Egypt) following a coup.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1555)(HNQ, 6/5/98)
1961        Syria revoked the citizenship of its native Kurds.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.46)(http://tinyurl.com/7zamn)

1961        The British Trust Territory of Tanganyika became independent. It became the mainland part of Tanzania. The first president was socialist Julius Nyerere (d.1999). He resigned in 1985.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1452)(SFC, 8/8/98, p.A12)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.D7)

1961        In Vietnam government decree 216 formulated a family planning program that got sidetracked due to the war.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.A19)

1961        Zimbabwe enacted a Minerals Act. In 2005 it planned to re-write mine ownership laws to “promote" indigenous ownership.
    (WSJ, 2/10/05, p.A10)

1961-1962    Wagon Train was the top ranking network show on television with a ranking of 32.1%.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)

1961-1963    John F. Kennedy served as the 35th President of the US. He was assassinated in 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald and succeeded by Vice-President Lyndon Johnson. Jackie Onassis as first lady was involved with Roswell Gilpatric, No. 2 man at the Defense Department. So it says in the 1996 book "Jack and Jackie" by Christopher Anderson. Also discussed was the Kennedy’s New York physician, Max Jacobson, aka Dr. Feelgood, who shot the president full of amphetamines to increase his stamina and elevate his moods. Jackie also received shots from Dr. Max. A 1997 ABC News Special with Peter Jennings showed former Secret Service agents telling the truth about John Kennedy’s sexual exploits.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(USAT, 6/19/96, p.2D)(SFC, 7/5/96, p.B2)(WSJ, 12/22/97, p.A16)
1961-1963    During the Kennedy administration economist Arthur Okun (1928-1980), an economic adviser to both the Kennedy and  Johnson administrations, concocted the discomfort index, later referred to as the "misery index." It was simply the jobless rate added to the inflation rate. Okun's Law describes a linear relation between percentage changes in unemployment and percent changes in gross national product: for every 1% increase in unemployment, the country suffers a 3% loss of yearly GNP.
    (http://cowles.econ.yale.edu/books/tobin/jt_events.htm)

1961-1965    The TV courtroom drama show "The Defenders" starred E.G. Marshall.
    (SFC, 8/26/98, p.A17)

1961-1965    The TV show "Mr. Ed," featured a talking horse. Alan Young played Wilbur Post and Bamboo Harvester (1946-1979) played Mr. Ed.
    (SFC, 1/24/97, p.D8)

1961-1965    C. Douglas Dillon (d.2003 at 93) served as Treasury Secretary. He advocated the tax cut program passed by Congress under Pres. Johnson in 1964.
    (SFC, 1/13/03, p.B5)
1961-1965    John McCone succeeded Allen Dulles as head of the US CIA.
    (SFC, 5/29/97, p.A4)

1961-1965    Terry Sanford (d.1998 at 80) served as the governor of North Carolina.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, p.C6)

1961-1966    McGeorge Bundy (1919-1996) was the security advisor to John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1988 he wrote "Danger and Survival: Choices About the Bomb in the First 50 Years."
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A22)   

1961-1966    On TV "The Dick Van Dyke Show" was directed by Sheldon Leonard (1907-1997).
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.B2)(SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.C10)

1961-1966    Durward Kirby (d.2000 at 88) worked as the co-host of Candid Camera during these years. Kirby started in radio and worked on "The Gary Moore Show." He later authored 3 books that included: "My Life, Those wonderful Years."
    (SFC, 3/17/00, p.)

1961-1967    Frank Morrison (d.2004) served as the Democratic governor of Nebraska. He opposed the war in Vietnam and capital punishment.
    (SFC, 4/20/04, p.B7)

1961-1968    Octavio Paz, poet and Nobel laureate, served as the Mexican ambassador to India. In 1997 he published "In Light of India."
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, BR p.9)

1961-1969    Every American agent sent into North Vietnam was captured and most became double agents serving Ho Chi Minh. In 2000 Kenneth Conboy and Dale Andrade authored "Spies and Commandos," Richard H. Shultz Jr. authored "The Secret War Against Hanoi."
    (WSJ, 7/17/00, p.A32)

1962-1971    US military tanker planes and helicopters sprayed 20 million gallons of Agent Orange and other defoliants in Operation Ranch Hand to deny cover to communist forces in Vietnam. The defoliants were contaminated with TCDD, the most dangerous form of dioxin. In 2004 Philip Jones Griffith, photojournalist, authored "Agent Orange: Collateral Damage in Vietnam."
    (SFC, 5/17/01, p.A12)(Econ, 1/31/04, p.82)
1961-1971    U Thant of Burma served as the Secretary-General of the UN.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.A1)
1961-1971    UAR was the official name of Egypt over this period.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1555)
1961-1971    Scotsman John Cowperthwaite, who arrived in Hong Kong in 1945, served as Financial Secretary of the British colony. Cowperthwaite died in 2006 at age 90.
    (http://garysweeten.blogspot.com/2006_01_01_archive.html)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.80)

1961-1973    Samuel W. Yorty (1909-1998) served three terms as mayor of Los Angeles.
    (SFC, 6/6/98, p.A5)

1961-1973    The CIA backed a secret army in Laos to help fight the communist Pathet Lao and North Vietnamese. An estimated 50,000 Hmong civilians died over this period. CIA director William Colby acknowledged the US and Hmong alliance in 1994.
    (SFC, 6/14/04, p.A1)

1961-1985    Pres. Julius Nyerere bankrupted Tanzania by forcing peasants into collectives. During his rule he declared water to be free, which led to it being squandered.
    (Econ, 4/16/05, p.40)(Econ, 11/11/06, p.67)

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