Timeline 1980

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1980        Jan 1, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $3.10 an hour.
1980        Jan 1, Near San Francisco the barge Kona smashed ashore between Point Bonita and Bird Rock. The barge Agattu impaled on a rock near Cronkhite Beach. Helicopters were used to remove dangerous cylinders of chlorine gas from the Agattu which was eventually pulled free from the rocks.
    (Gateways, Winter 96/97, p.3)

1980        Jan 2, President Carter asked the Senate to delay the arms treaty ratification in response to Soviet action in Afghanistan.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1980        Jan 3, Conservationist Joy Adamson, author of "Born Free," was killed in northern Kenya by a servant.
    (AP, 1/3/98)

1980        Jan 5, The Harold Pinter play "Betrayal" opened on Broadway. The triptych of relationships hinged together by adultery was first produced in London in 1978.
    (SFC, 11/15/00, p.A24)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betrayal_(play))

1980        Jan 6, Indira Gandhi's Congress Party won elections in India.

1980        Jan 7, Pres. Carter signed the Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act. Financier James Wolfensohn persuaded 400 private lenders to restructure their debt so that a $1 billion loan from the US government could prevent Chrysler from sliding into bankruptcy.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SSFC, 9/26/04, p.M4)
1980        Jan 7, Some 60,000 US oil refinery workers went on nationwide strike for the 1st time in 11 years. No major disruptions were reported in the walkout.
    (SFC, 1/7/05, p.F6)

1980        Jan 9, Saudi Arabia beheaded 63 people in towns across the country for their roles in the November 1979 raid on the Grand Mosque in Mecca.
    (AP, 1/9/00)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.C3)

1980        Jan 10, The last broadcast of "Rockford Files" on NBC. It began on the NBC network on September 13, 1974.
1980        Jan 10, George Meany (b.1894), former plumber and president of the AFL-CIO, died in Washington, D.C. Meany, president of the AFL-CIO from 1955 to 1979, was a NYC plumber before becoming a labor leader. He became an apprentice plumber in 1910 and a journeyman in 1915. In 1922 Meany was elected business agent of Plumbers Union 463. From 1934 to 1939 he served as president of the New York State Federation of Labor and in 1940 became secretary of the American Federation of Labor. He was an architect of the AFL merger with the Congress of Industrial Organizations and in 1955 became the president of the new AFL-CIO. Meany led a campaign against corruption in organized labor, which resulted in the expulsion from the AFL-CIO of the Teamsters and two other major unions in 1957.
    (HNQ, 6/9/98)(AP, 1/10/00)

1980        Jan 11, Honda announced that it would build Japan's first US passenger-car assembly plant in Ohio.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1980        Jan 13, The United States offered Pakistan a two-year aid plan to counter the Soviet threat in Afghanistan.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1980        Jan 14, UN voted 104-18 to deplore the Soviet Afghan acts.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1980        Jan 16, In Colorado Helene Pruszynski (21), a senior at Massachusetts's Wheaton College, was returning to her aunt’s home from an internship at a Denver radio station when she was stabbed to death. In 2019 the Douglas County sheriff announced the arrest of Florida truck driver, James Curtis Clanton, in the abduction, sexual assault and murder of Pruszynski. Analysis of DNA information shared on genealogy websites helped break the cold case.
    (NY Times, 12/17/19)(SFC, 12/17/19, p.A5)
1980        Jan 16, Paul McCartney was arrested in Tokyo for marijuana possession. He was released and deported on Jan 25.

1980        Jan 18, Steve Rubell & Ian Schrager, owners of the Studio 54 disco in NYC, were sentenced to 3 years in prison for tax evasion and fined $20,000.
1980        Jan 18, Cecil Beaton (b.1904)), British fashion photographer, died.

1980        Jan 19, William O. Douglas (b.1898), member US Supreme court (1939-75), died. In 2003 Bruce Allen Murphy authored ""Wild Bill: The legend and Life of William O. Douglas."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_O._Douglas)(SSFC, 3/16/03, p.M6)
1980        Jan 19, Richard Franko Goldman (b.1910), American composer, died. He was the son of band leader Edwin Franko Goldman.

1980        Jan 20, President Jimmy Carter announced the US boycott of Olympics in Moscow.
1980        Jan 20, Grocery clerks in 8 Bay Area counties went on strike at 175 supermarkets. All the Safeway stores were targeted. Supervisory staff kept Safeway stores open.
    (SFC, 1/21/05, p.F2)

1980        Jan 21, In the Iowa Republican caucus George H. W. Bush beat Ronald Reagan 32% to 30%. Reagan went onto win the nomination and the presidency.
1980        Jan 21, Gold peaked in NY at $875 a troy ounce. By mid-March gold prices fell to below $500 per ounce.
    (SFC, 3/18/05, p.F2)(www.321gold.com/editorials/wong/wong010104.html)
1980        Jan 21, Six major food chains announced they will lock out some 5,000 checkers and clerks in retaliation for the union’s selective strike against Safeway.
    (SFC, 1/21/05, p.F2)

1980        Jan 22, Russian dissidents Andrei Sakharov (b.1921) and his wife Jelena Bonner were banished from Moscow to Gorky.

1980        Jan 23, Pres. Jimmy Carter made his State of the Union address. His new American policy came to be known as the “Carter Doctrine." It was a pledge to defend US interests in the Persian Gulf, using military force if necessary.

1980        Jan 24, In an action obviously designed as another in a series of very strong reactions to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, US officials announce that America is ready to sell military equipment (excluding weapons) to communist China. The surprise statement was part of the US effort to build a closer relationship with the People's Republic of China for use as leverage against possible Soviet aggression.

1980        Jan 25, Robert L. Johnson launched Black Entertainment Television (BET). It began as a two-hour-a-week service that aired every Friday evening.
1980        Jan 25, A US-Mexico Extradition Treaty, signed by Pres. Carter in 1978, went into effect. It  allowed Mexico to refuse extradition of suspects facing the death penalty in the US.
1980        Jan 25, Paul McCartney  was released from Tokyo jail & deported.
1980        Jan 25, Abolhassan Bani-Sadr was elected as Iran's first president since the 1979 Islamic revolution. Though he won an overwhelming majority of the popular vote, he did not have the support of the predominantly fundamentalist parliament.

1980        Jan 26, Israel and Egypt established diplomatic relations, in accord with PM Begin’s agreement with Pres. Sadat on Jan 10 at Aswan.

1980        Jan 28, Six US diplomats who had avoided being taken hostage at their embassy in Tehran flew out of Iran with the help of Canadian diplomats.
    (AP, 1/28/98)
1980        Jan 28, San Francisco Mayor Diane Feinstein signed a Friendship City agreement with Zhao Xingzhi, vice mayor of Shanghai. It was the 1st of its kind between an American city and the PRC.
    (SFC, 1/28/05, p.F7)

1980        Jan 29, Jimmy Durante (b.1893), ‘Schnozzel,’ actor and comedian, died in NYC.

1980        Jan 30, The first-ever Chinese Olympic team arrived in New York for the Winter Games.
    (HN, 1/30/99)
1980        Jan 30, Professor Longhair (61), legendary New Orleans Blues musician, died. He was born as Henry Roeland Byrd in 1918.

1980        Jan 31, In Guatemala the Spanish Embassy was attacked and 37 people were killed. The dead included the father of Rigoberta Menchu, who later filed charges in Spain against Rios Montt, 5 Guatemalan generals and 2 civilians for war crimes. Peasant, labor and student activists had taken over the Spanish Embassy in Guatemala City to protest the rule of Pres. Lucas Garcia (1925-2006).
    (AP, 5/29/06)(www.onwar.com/aced/nation/sat/spain/fguatemala1980.htm)

1980        Feb 2, Reports surfaced that the FBI had conducted a sting operation targeting members of Congress using phoney Arab businessmen in what became known as "Abscam," a codename protested by Arab-Americans.
    (AP, 2/2/00)
1980        Feb 2, A 2-day prison riot began at the at the New Mexico State Prison near Santa Fe. The riot left 33 inmates butchered by other prisoners and 200 injured.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Mexico_State_Penitentiary_riot)(AFP, 4/16/18)

1980        Feb 4, Abolhassan Bani-Sadr was installed as president of Iran by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
    (AP, 2/4/00)
1980        Feb 4, Syria withdrew its peacekeeping force in Beirut.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1980        Feb 7, A fire in Brooklyn killed Elizabeth Kinsey (27) and her 5 children. In 1981 three men were later convicted of arson and 6 murders. In 2015 the convictions were overturned. Two of men had been paroled in 2012 and a third died in prison in 1989.
    (http://tinyurl.com/z7ysmxp)(SFC, 12/17/15, p.A12)

1980        Feb 8, President Jimmy Carter unveiled a plan to re-introduce draft registration.
    (AP, 2/8/00)

1980        Feb 13, The opening ceremonies were held in Lake Placid, NY, for the 13th Winter Olympics.
    (AP, 2/13/98)
1980        Feb 13, David Janssen, television and film actor, died in Malibu, California, from a heart attack. He was born as David Harold Meyer on March 27, 1931 in Naponee, Nebraska. He is best known for his starring role as Dr. Richard Kimble in the hit television series “The Fugitive" (1963–1967).

1980        Feb 14, The Solar Max satellite was launched by NASA to monitor the sun and its flares at an orbit of  some 400 miles above Earth.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.126)(SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)
1980        Feb 14, Victor Gruen (b.1903), Austrian-born Jewish architect, died in Vienna. He was later considered the father of the modern shopping mall. In 2003 Jeffrey Hardwick authored "Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream." His 1956 mall in Edina, Minn., the 1st enclosed mall, was designed as a center of community.
    (WSJ, 12/24/03, p.D7)(www.nndb.com/people/878/000118524/)

1980        Feb 15, Eric Heiden (b.1958) skated to an Olympic record of 500m in 38.03 sec.
1980        Feb 15, Zdenka Vavrova, Czech astronomer discovered asteroid #3592.

1980        Feb 16, Eric Heiden skated 5k in 7:02.29, an Olympic Record.

1980        Feb 18, Pierre Elliott Trudeau's Liberal Party won Canada's elections. Trudeau again served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_federal_election,_1980)(CFA, '96, p.81)

1980        Feb 20, Alice Longworth Roosevelt (b.1884), youngest daughter of Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, died.

1980        Feb 22, In a stunning upset, the U.S. Olympic hockey team defeated the Soviets at Lake Placid, N.Y., 4-3. The US team went on to win the gold medal.
    (AP, 2/22/01)
1980        Feb 22, Afghanistan declared martial law following a major uprising in Kabul.

1980        Feb 23, Eric Heiden (21) won his 5th speed skating gold at the Lake Placid Olympics. He went on to become an orthopedic surgeon.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_skating_at_the_1980_Winter_Olympics)(SSFC, 9/22/02, p.E1)
1980        Feb 23, Oil tanker explosion off Pilos, Greece, caused a 37-mil-gallon spill.

1980        Feb 24, The U.S. hockey team defeated Finland, 4-2, to clinch the gold medal at the Winter Olympic Games in Lake Placid, N.Y.
    (AP, 2/24/98)

1980        Feb 25, Roland Barthes (b.1915), French philosopher and writer, died. His books included “Mythologies" (1957), a collection of his essays.
1980        Feb 25, Robert Hayden, American poet and educator, died in Ann Arbor, Mich. Hayden had studied under W.H. Auden at the Univ. of Michigan. In 1976 Pres. Gerald Ford appointed him the 1st African-American consultant in poetry to the Library of Congress, a post that later became known as Poet Laureate.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hayden)(LSA, Fall/02, p.7)
1980        Feb 25, A military coup took place in Suriname. Desi Bouterse seized control of Suriname five years after the country gained independence from the Netherlands. He stepped down in 1987 under international pressure but briefly seized power again in 1990.
    (www.surinam.net/historical.html)(AP, 7/5/08)

1980        Feb 26, Republican Ronald Reagan won the New Hampshire primary over George H.W. Bush and Howard Baker 49.8 to 22.8 to 12.9%. Democrat Jimmie Carter won over Ted Kennedy, Jerry Brown and Birch Bayh 47.2 to 37.4 to 9.6%.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)(www.politicallibrary.org/TallState/1980rep.html)
1980        Feb 26, Al Mills (51), his wife Jeannie (40) and their daughter Daphene (16) were shot to death at 2731 Woolsey St. in Berkeley, Ca. In 2005 police arrested Edward Michael Mills (43), the son and brother of the victims, based on new evidence. Mills was soon released for lack of sufficient evidence to try him.
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.B4)(SFC, 12/9/05, p.B3)
1980        Feb 26, Ricky Keel and Jeffrey Taylor shot and killed Campbell liquor store owner Frank Gummer during a robbery. Connie Keel (21), Ricky’s abused wife, remained in a car during the robbery, but all 3 were convicted of 1st degree murder. In 2009 Connie Keel was allowed parole.
    (SFC, 3/28/09, p.B2)(http://tinyurl.com/cqtzqv)
1980        Feb 26, Egypt and Israel exchanged ambassadors for the 1st time.

1980        Feb 27, Chelsea Clinton, daughter of Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton (1993-2001), was born in Little Rock.
1980        Feb 27, The M-19 revolutionary group took over the embassy of the Dominican Republic in Bogota, Colombia. After 61 days they were given $1 million and asylum to Cuba in a deal negotiation by Pres. Turbay.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 1/8/97, p.A12)(AP, 9/14/05)

1980        Feb 29, Pres. Carter signed a law that renamed the Arctic National Wildlife Range to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and more than doubled its size. The law directed the Interior Dept. to assess oil potential in 1.5 million acres of the coastal plain. A ban was put on drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. In 2002 Pres. Bush pushed to overturn the ban. Estimates on oil there ranged from 3.2 to at least 5.7 billion barrels.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/28/05, p.A13)(http://tinyurl.com/2udcgx)

1980        Feb, The first implantable cardioconverter defibrillator (ICD) was implanted at John Hopkins Hospital by Dr. Levi Watkins.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Implantable_cardioverter-defibrillator)
1980        Feb, Mohammed Ali (b.1942) toured Africa as Pres. Carter's envoy.

1980        Mar 2, Snow fell in Florida.

1980        Mar 3, The submarine Nautilus, the world’s 1st atomic ship, was decommissioned at the Mare Island Shipyard in Vallejo, Ca.
    (SFC, 3/4/05, p.F2)

1980        Mar 4, Robert Mugabe's ZANU-PF won parliamentary election in Zimbabwe. Black nationalist guerrillas led by Robert Mugabe laid down their arms and beat their white-backed opponents at the polls. Rhodesia was renamed Zimbabwe. Martin Meredith later authored "The Past Is Another Country," the story of Rhodesia.
    (WSJ, 9/8/98, p.A1)(SC, 3/4/02)(WSJ, 3/13/02, p.A16)

1980        Mar 5, The California coast Channel Islands National Park was established. It included San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa and Santa Barbara. Complete protection was completed by 1997.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, Z1 p.1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channel_Islands_National_Park)
1980        Mar 5, Jay Silverheels (b.1912), son of a Mohawk Indian chief and actor who portrayed Tonto on "The Lone Ranger", died in Woodland Hills, Ca., from a stroke.
1980        Mar 5, Winifred Wagner (82), English-born head of the German Wagner family, died in Uberlingen. In 2006 Brigitte Hamann authored “Winifred Wagner, A Life at the Heart of Hitler’s Bayreuth."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winifred_Wagner)(SFC, 12/13/06, p.F2)

1980        Mar 6, Islamic militants in Tehran said that they would turn over the American hostages to the Revolutionary Council.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1980        Mar 7, US Congress declared today as National Teacher Day for this year only. The National Education Association (NEA) and its affiliates continued to observe Teacher Day on the first Tuesday in March until 1985, when the National PTA established Teacher Appreciation Week as the first full week of May. The NEA Representative Assembly then voted to make the Tuesday of that week National Teacher Day.

1980        Mar 10, "Scarsdale Diet" author Dr. Herman Tarnower was shot to death in Purchase, N.Y. Jean Harris (56) shot and killed her unfaithful lover, cardiologist Herman Tarnower, co-author of "The Complete Scarsdale Medical Diet" in Purchase N.Y. She was granted clemency by Gov. Mario Cuomo after she served 12 years of a 15 year sentence. Harris was released in January 1993.
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.A3)(AP, 3/10/00)
1980        Mar 10, Iran's leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, lent his support to the militants holding the American hostages in Tehran.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1980        Mar 11, Marilyn McIntyre (18) was beaten, stabbed and strangled to death at her home in Columbus, Wis. In 2009 Curtis Forbes, a friend of her husband, was charged with 1st degree murder based on DNA evidence.
    (SFC, 3/31/09, p.A6)(www.nbc15.com/home/headlines/11251061.html)
1980        Mar 11, In Laos US Air Force Chief Master Sgt. Richard L. "Dick" Etchberger (35) used an M-16 and a radio to call in air strikes and single-handedly held off the attackers until helicopters arrived at Lima site 85. After climbing into the chopper behind the others, Etchberger was fatally wounded when enemy fire struck the aircraft. The others in the helicopter made it to safety. In 2010 President Barack Obama posthumously recognized Etchberger for service "beyond the call of duty" by giving him the nation's highest military award, the Medal of Honor.
    (AP, 9/22/10)
1980        Mar 11, Julius Chan (b.1939) succeeded Michael Somare as PM of Papua New Guinea.

1980        Mar 12, A Chicago jury found John Wayne Gacy Jr. guilty of the murders of 33 men and boys. The next day, Gacy was sentenced to death; he was executed in 1994.
    (AP, 3/12/00)

1980        Mar 13, Ford Motor Chairman Henry Ford II announced he was stepping down.
    (AP, 3/13/00)
1980        Mar 13, A jury in Winamac, Ind., found Ford Motor Company innocent of reckless homicide in the fiery deaths of three young women riding in a Ford Pinto.
    (AP, 3/13/00)

1980        Mar 14, Pres. Carter signed Executive order 12201 imposing credit controls to reduce inflation. Credit usage plunged and GDP fell by an annualized 8%, the steepest quarterly drop in 50 years.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.85)(www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=33144)
1980        Mar 14, a Polish airliner crashed while making an emergency landing near Warsaw, killing all 87 people aboard, including 22 members of a U.S. amateur boxing team.
    (AP, 3/14/97)

1980        Mar 17, The United States Refugee Act (Public Law 96-212) became effective. It was an amendment to the earlier Immigration and Nationality Act and the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, and was created to provide a permanent and systematic procedure for the admission to the United States of refugees of special humanitarian concern to the US, and to provide comprehensive and uniform provisions for the effective resettlement and absorption of those refugees who are admitted.

1980        Mar 18, John Favara struck a killed Frank Gotti (12), the son of mobster John Gotti, as the boy darted in front of his car on a minibike in Brooklyn. Favara disappeared on July 28. In 2009 it was reported that mobster Charles Carneglia (62) had killed Favara and dissolved his body in acid.
    (SFC, 1/9/09, p.A2)

1980        Mar 19, The US appealed to the International Court of Justice on hostages in Iran.

1980        Mar 21, President Carter announced to the U.S. Olympic Team that they would not participate in the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow as a boycott against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.

1980        Mar 22, In Bolivia the bullet-riddled body of Rev. Luis Espinal (48), a Jesuit priest, was found in la Paz. Espinal was the editor of the weekly newspaper Aqui.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pe86cjd)(AP, 7/9/15)

1980        Mar 23, The deposed Shah of Iran arrived in Egypt.

1980        Mar 24, ABC's nightly Iran Hostage crisis program was renamed "Nightline."

1980        Mar 24, Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero, one of El Salvador's most respected Roman Catholic Church leaders, was shot to death by gunmen as he celebrated Mass in San Salvador. In 1993 a UN-sponsored truth commission determined that the assassination was ordered by a former army major and Maj. Roberto D'Abuisson, founder of the Nationalist Republican Alliance party (ARENA). D’Abuisson (d.1992) was also credited with founding the national death squads. In 2004 a California federal judge found Alvaro Rafael Saravia, a retired Salvadoran air force captain living in Modesto, Ca., liable in the slaying of archbishop Romero and ordered him to pay $10 million in damages.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(SFC, 1/18/96, p.C1)(SFEM,11/16/97, p.17)(SFC, 9/4/04, p.B7)

1980        Mar 27, Mount St. Helens, dormant for 123 years, erupted with ash and steam. A crater formed at the summit and the north flank began to bulge.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)(http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2000/fs036-00/)
1980        Mar 27, The Alexander L. Kielland, a North Sea Norwegian floating oil field platform, capsized during a storm killing 123 workers. It was owned by the Stavanger Drilling Company of Norway and was on hire to the US company Phillips Petroleum at the time of the disaster.
    (AP, 3/27/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_L._Kielland_%28platform%29)

1980        Mar 28, Jesse Owens (b.1913), Olympic-gold medal winner (1936), died. In 1986 William J. Baker authored “Jess Owens: An American Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse_Owens)(ON, 8/10, p.12)

1980        Mar 29, Annunzio Mantovani (b.1905), Italian orchestra leader (Mantovani), died at his home in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England.

1980        Mar 30, The Mormon Church celebrated its 150th anniversary in Salt Lake City, Utah.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1980        Mar 31, Pres. Carter signed the Depository Institutions Deregulation And Monetary Control Act, which deregulated interest rates.
    (WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A8)(www.bos.frb.org/about/pubs/deposito.pdf)
1980        Mar 31, In Spain the first session of the Basque parliament was held in Guernica.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.60)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_Parliament)

1980        Mar, In Burma riot police shot to death 200 demonstrators.
    (SFEC, 1/19/97, Par p.5)

1980                 Apr 1,  The pro-Iranian Dawah Party claims responsibility for an attack on Iraq’s Deputy Prime Minister, Tariq Aziz (b.1936), at Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.
1980        Apr 1, The southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was established by 9 countries with the Lusaka declaration (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The main aim was coordinating development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on apartheid South Africa.  On August 17, 1992, it was transformed into the Southern African Development Community (SADC). By 2008 it included 15 members.

1980        Apr 5, Eleven Puerto Rican FALN members were arrested for attempting to rob an armored truck at Northwestern University; three were linked to the raid on the Carter-Mondale campaign headquarters. Several of those arrested were granted clemency in 1999.
    {Puerto Rico, USA}
    (WSJ, 9/14/99, p.A22)
1980        Apr 5, Sister Margaret Ann Pahl (71) was stabbed 31 times and strangled to death. Her body was found in the chapel of Mercy Hospital, Toledo, Ohio. In 2004 Rev. Gerald Robinson (63) was arrested for the murder. In 2006 Robinson was convicted of murder. On July 4, 2014, Robinson, who continued to maintain his innocence, died in a prison hospice unit.
    (SFC, 4/24/04, p.A2)(SFC, 5/12/06, p.A3)(AP, 7/4/14)

1980        Apr 6, 3-M introduced Post-It Notes. In 2010 inventors, 3M scientists Arthur Fry and Spencer Silver, were inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
    (http://bookworm.typepad.com/blog/favorite_things/index.html)(AFP, 4/25/10)

1980        Apr 7,  The US broke relations with Iran during the hostage crises. Pres. Carter ordered all Iranian diplomats expelled from the US and prohibited any further exports to the nation. Pres. Carter signed Executive Order 12205 for economic sanctions against Iran.
    (HN, 4/7/97)(www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=33235)

1980        Apr 11, Mother Jones magazine won the 1980 national Magazine Award for Reporting Excellence for a Nov. 1979 article by Mark Dowie on the export of hazardous products banned from the US.
    (SFC, 4/8/05, p.F2)
1980        Apr 11, The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issued regulations specifically prohibiting sexual harassment of workers by supervisors.
    (AP, 4/11/97)
1980        Apr 11, NASA’s Viking 2 Mars Lander ended communications.

1980        Apr 12, In Texas Richard Whitehead (16) was shot and killed after allegedly drinking into the early hours with co-worker Delma Banks. Banks claimed he was innocent, but was convicted in the murder and sentenced to death. The US Supreme Court stopped the execution in 2004 and allowed Banks to appeal his conviction.
    (SFC, 2/25/04, p.A4)(www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?did=563&scid=)
1980        Apr 12, In Liberia Master Sergeant Samuel K. Doe (1951-1990) of the Krahn tribe staged a coup. Doe, a high school dropout, and a few soldiers killed Pres. William Tolbert and fatally shot a dozen of his ministers. He was backed by the US and became one of Liberia’s most brutal dictators.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, p.A-4)(SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Doe)

1980        Apr 13, "Grease" closed at Broadhurst Theater in NYC after 3,388 performances.
1980        Apr 13, The US Olympic Committee voted to boycott the Summer Olympics in Moscow.

1980        Apr 14, In the 52nd Academy Awards held in Los Angeles "Kramer vs. Kramer" won as the best picture and Dustin Hoffman won the best actor award for his role in the film. Sally Field won as best actress for her role in “Norma Rae."

1980        Apr 15, The Mariel boatlift officially began. When it ended on Oct 31, some 207,000 refugees entered the US of which 125,000 were Cubans.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 594)(www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/mariel-boatlift.htm)
1980        Apr 15, Jean-Paul Sartre (b.1905), Existentialist philosopher, novelist and dramatist, died in Paris. His work included "Being and Time" (1927) and "Nausea" (19238). He won the 1964 Nobel Prize for literature and his work included "Being and Nothingness." Philosophical replies to this work were written by Claude Levi-Strauss: "The Raw and the Cooked," a book that popularized structuralism in France, and by Michael Foucault: "Words and Things," ("The Order of Things" in the American edition). "If you're lonely while you’re alone, you’re in bad company." In 2000 Bernard-Henri Levy authored "Sartre: The Philosopher of the Twentieth Century." In 2015 Thomas R. Flynn authored “Sartre: A Philosophical Biography."
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.8)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 4/15/99)(Econ, 8/30/03, p.60)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.82)

1980        Apr 16, Arthur Ashe (1943-1993) retired from professional tennis following quadruple bypass surgery. He contracted the HIV virus from a blood transfusion after a second bypass operation in 1983.

1980        Apr 18, In Lebanon three UN peacekeepers were kidnapped. Derek Smallhorne and Thomas Barrett of Ireland were subsequently murdered and John O’Mahony seriously wounded. In 2014 a Mahmoud Bazzi (71), a suspect in the killings, agreed to return to Lebanon from Detroit, where he was living without proper documentation.
    (SFC, 8/12/14, p.A4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/At_Tiri_Incident)
1980        Apr 18, Zimbabwe's (Rhodesia) formal independence from Britain was proclaimed. Its chiefs were stripped of power following independence. Canaan Banana, a Methodist theologian, became president until 1987. He was later accused by dozens of men of sexual harassment and rape. Robert Mugabe became prime minister and held the real authority.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.C16)(SFC, 5/9/97, p.E3)(HN, 4/18/98) (SFC, 7/14/98, p.A10)

1980        Apr 20, The first Cubans sailing to the United States as part of the massive Mariel boatlift reached Florida.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A14)(AP, 9/26/97)(AP, 4/20/00)

1980        Apr 21, At the Boston Marathon, Rosie Ruiz was the first woman to cross the finish line; but she was disqualified as a fraud when officials discovered she had jumped into the race about a mile from the finish.
    (AP, 4/21/00)

1980        Apr 22, Jane Froman (72), band singer, died. The 1952 film “With a Song in My Heart" starred Susan Hayward as band singer Jane Froman.
    (SSFC, 5/15/05, Par p.2)

1980        Apr 23, Albert Hakim, a wealthy arms merchant, unexpectedly skipped town the day before a US rescue mission. The Iranian exile and CIA informant worked for the CIA near the Turkish boarder handling the logistics of the rescue mission in Tehran. Hakim had purchased trucks and vans and rented a warehouse on the edge of Tehran to hide them in until they were needed for the operation. In July, 1981, Hakim approached the CIA with a plan to gain favor with the Iranian government by selling it arms.

1980        Apr 24, An American assault team held 44 Iranians hostage for about 3 hours when their bus stumbled upon the remote desert site. The failed operation was commanded by Colonel Charles Beckwith, founder of the US Delta Force. The mission resulted in the deaths of 8 US servicemen. The US hostage rescue failed when a plane collided with a helicopter in Iran. The 1996 Iranian film: "Sandstorm" depicting the event was set for release in Feb, 1997.
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A1)(AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)

1980        Apr 25, President Jimmy Carter announced the hostage rescue disaster in Iran.
    (HN, 4/25/98)

1980        Apr 28, President Carter accepted the resignation of Secretary of State Cyrus Vance (1917-2002), who had opposed the failed rescue mission aimed at freeing American hostages in Iran. The decision to proceed had been spearheaded by Zbigniev Brzeninski.
    (AP, 4/28/97)(SSFC, 1/13/02, p.A27)(SFC, 3/16/03, p.AD3)

1980        Apr 29, Alfred Joseph Hitchcock (b.1899), British director (Psycho, Birds), died in Los Angeles.

1980        Apr 30, In Pinole, Ca., Rena Aguilar was stabbed to death. 4 days later as police closed in James R. Odle shot and killed Officer Floyd Swartz. Odle was convicted and sentenced to death but his competency was later questioned due to a removed temporal lobe following a car accident. Swartz was the father of Amber Swartz, born 4 months after his death. Amber Swartz-Garcia disappeared in 1988.
    (SFC, 2/7/01, p.A19)(SFC, 7/7/09, p.C5)
1980        Apr 30, Terrorists seized the Iranian Embassy in London. Only after the incident was over did it become known that Iraq had trained and armed the gunmen in order to try to embarrass Iran.
1980        Apr 30, Juliana Z(1909-2004), Queen of the Netherlands, abdicated. Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, was crowned queen of Netherlands.

1980        Apr, Commodore president Jack Tramiel ordered the development of a computer that could sell for under $300 US. What had been an oversupply of parts became the VIC-20.
1980        Apr, In El Salvador Army Major Roberto d’Aubuisson (d.1992) founded the rightist Republican Nationalist Alliance (ARENA).

1980        May 1, American Book Award went to William Styron for "Sophie's Choice" and T. Wolfe for "Right Stuff."

1980        May 2, Pope John Paul II arrived Kinshasa for the centennial of Catholicism in Zaire and the beginning of his African tour.
    (SFC, 7/18/97, p.A10)(http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/id99.htm)

1980        May 4,    Marshal Josip Broz Tito (b.1892), Communist dictator of Yugoslavia (1943-1980), died three days before his 88th birthday. He was a Croat and tried to spread the Serbs out over the six Yugoslav republics so that they would not dominate the country. His policy was considered a major cause of the Bosnian war in the '90s. His funeral four days later was attended by presidents, prime ministers and kings from 128 countries, and about 700,000 people.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josip_Broz_Tito)(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A-10)(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)(Reuters, 5/4/20)
1980        May 4, Nine people were killed at Kinshasa, Zaire (later the Democratic Republic of Congo) during a stampede to attend mass given by Pope John Paul II.

1980        May 5, Pres. Carter said that the Mariel Cubans would be welcomed "with open hearts and open arms." In 1999 1750 Mariels were in detention as "excludable aliens," under INS custody for crimes committed after being released at least once.
    (SFEC, 7/11/99, Par p.14)
1980        May 5, A siege at the Iranian embassy in London ended as British commandos and police stormed the building. 19 hostages were rescued; two others had already been killed by their captors; four of the five hostage-takers also were killed. John McAleese (d.2022), special forces soldier, led the dramatic raid. The only gunman to survive served 27 years in jail.
    (AP, 5/5/00)(AP, 8/28/11)

1980        May 6, Stanford Linear Accelerator officials announced a successful collision of matter and antimatter in their new $78 million accelerator.
    (SFC, 5/6/05, p.F2)

1980        May 8, The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that smallpox had been eradicated from the wild.

1980        May 9, In Florida 35 motorists were killed when a Liberian-flagged freighter rammed the Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay. The freighter MV Summit Venture collided with a pier (support column) during a blinding thunderstorm, sending over 1200 feet (366m) of the bridge plummeting into Tampa Bay. The collision caused six cars, a truck, and a Greyhound bus to fall 150 feet (46 m) into the water.
    (AP, 5/9/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunshine_Skyway_Bridge)

1980        May 11, In Ivory Coast the first stone of St. Paul’s Roman Catholic cathedral was consecrated by Pope John Paul II during his first pastoral visit to Côte d'Ivoire. Pres. Felix Houphouet-Boigny built the $150 million St. Paul's Cathedral, designed by architect Aldo Spirito, in Abidjan. It was completed in 1985.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1980        May 12, Maxie Anderson (45) and his son Kris (23) completed the 1st balloon crossing of the American continent as they landed their helium-filled balloon on Canada’s Gaspe Peninsula. Their journey began May 8 in Marin Ct., Ca.
    (SFC, 5/6/05, p.F2)

1980        May 13,  Ray Knight (b.1952) of the Cincinnati Reds, following an 0-for-15 slump, hit 2 home runs in the 5th inning vs. NY Mets.

1980        May 14, President Carter inaugurated the Department of Health and Human Services.
    (AP, 5/14/97)
1980        May 14, Hugh Griffith (b.1912), Welsh actor, died. His films included Passover Plot, Ben Hur, and Tom Jones.

1980        May 17, Rioting that claimed 18 lives erupted in Miami's Liberty City neighborhood after an all-white jury in Tampa acquitted four former Miami police officers of fatally beating black insurance executive Arthur McDuffie.
    (AP, 5/17/97)
1980        May 17, The Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) rebellion began at a university in a provincial capital. Five masked intruders set fire to a ballot box in Chuschi, a village in the Ayacucho region of the Peruvian Andes. Sendero was the creation of Abimael Guzman, a philosophy professor in Huamanga.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chuschi)(Econ., 5/16/20, p.27)

1980        May 18, At 8:32 a.m. Mount Saint Helens, in Washington, erupted. It burst 3 times in 24 hours after rumbling for two months and left 57 people dead or missing. The mountain lost over 1,300 feet of elevation and gained a two-mile-long and one mile-wide crater.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.84)(AP, 5/18/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)(HN, 5/18/02)
1980        May 18, China People's Republic launched its 1st intercontinental rocket.
1980        May 18, In the South Korean city of Kwangju (Gwangju), townspeople and students began a nine-day uprising against Chun Doo-hwan, who had seized power in a coup. The region was the home of opposition leader Kim Dae-jung. 
    (AP, 5/18/00)(SSFC, 11/30/03, p.C10)(Econ 5/6/17, p.35)
1980        May 18, Former president Fernando Belaunde Terry was elected president of Peru. Democracy was restored and the media was free again.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(SFC, 8/23/01, p.A11)(SFC, 6/5/02, p.A23)(SC, 5/18/02)
1980        May 18, Ian Curtis (b.1956), English rock vocalist (Joy Division), committed suicide. His death was later ruled as accidental.
1980        May 18, In the South Korean city of Kwangju (Gwangju), townspeople and students began a nine-day uprising against Chun Doo-hwan, who had seized power in a coup. The region was the home of opposition leader Kim Dae-jung. 
    (AP, 5/18/00)(SSFC, 11/30/03, p.C10)(Econ 5/6/17, p.35)

1980        May 20, In Canada a referendum of 59.5% of Quebec voters rejected separatism.
1980        May 20, A fire in nursing home in Kingston, Jamaica, killed some 153 old women.

1980        May 21, The $22 million Star Wars sequel "Empire Strikes Back" premiered.
    (SFC, 5/20/05, p.F2)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0080684/)
1980        May 21, Ensign Jean Marie Butler became the first woman to graduate from a U.S. service academy as she accepted her degree and commission from the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Conn.
    (AP, 5/21/00)

1980        May 22, Larry Layton, former member of the People’s Temple, was acquitted of 2 charges of attempted murder by a jury in Georgetown, Guyana.
    (SFC, 5/20/05, p.F2)
1980        May 22, In response to a request from the Governor of NY, President Carter declared a second federal emergency at Love Canal, paving the way for federal aid to relocate the more than 700 families who still lived near the former toxic waste dump.
1980        May 22, The computer game Pac-Man was first released in Japan. Pac-Man, with its characters: Blinky, Pinky, Inky and Clyde, epitomized the arcade games of the 1980s.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pac-Man)

1980        May 24, Iran rejected a call by the World Court in The Hague to release the American hostages.
    (AP, 5/24/97)

1980        May 25, "Musical Chairs" closed at Rialto Theater in NYC after 15 performances.

1980        May 27, South Korean police ended a people's uprising in Gwangju in which some 2,000 people were killed. South Koreans simply called it 5.18, by the starting date.

1980        May 29, In NYC "Billy Bishop Goes to War" opened at the Morosco Theater for 12 performances.
1980        May 29, J. Turner’s 1836 painting "Juliet & Her Nurse" sold for $6,400,000 in NYC.
1980        May 29, Larry Bird beat out Magic Johnson for NBA rookie of year.
1980        May 29, In Fort Wayne, Indiana, there was an attempted assassination of Vernon Jordan Jr., National Urban League president. in 1996 an acquitted sniper told a newspaper that he did shoot and wound Vernon Jordan, then president of the Urban League, outside an Indiana hotel in 1980.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernon_Jordan,_Jr.)(WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 11/21/01, p.A12)

1980        May 30, In Bangladesh General Ziaur Rahman was assassinated by dissident army officers.
    (SFC, 6/12/96, p.A9)(www.muktadhara.net/page81.html)
1980        May 30, Pope John Paul II arrived in France on the first visit by the head of the Roman Catholic Church since the early 19th century.
    (AP, 5/30/97)

1980        May 31, In China Deng Xiaoping made a speech in which he stated that: "We must eliminate feudalism from the life of the party and from the life of society."
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)

1980        May, China’s Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping formally designated the city of Shenzhen as China’s first special economic zone (SEZ).
1980        May, In Greece Constantine Karamanlis (1907-1998) stepped down as prime minister and moved to the ceremonial position of president.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)(www.btinternet.com/~argyros.argyrou/obit2.htm)

1980        Jun 1, Ted Turner's Cable News Network (CNN), providing round-the-clock TV newscasts, made its debut as television's first all-news service, vowing to stay on the air until the world ends. James Earl Jones, the voice of Darth Vader, identified the station: "This is CNN." In 2001 Reese Schonfeld, the man who cofounded CNN, authored "Me and Ted Against the World." "Moneyline" TV Financial News debut on CNN.
    (AP, 6/1/97)(WSJ, 2/23/00, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNN)
1980        Jun 1, Barbra Streisand appeared at an ACLU Benefit in Calif.

1980        Jun 7, Temperance Hill won the Belmont Stakes (50:1 long shot).
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.E5)(SFC, 6/28/03, p.D1)
1980        Jun 7, Philip Guston (b.1913), painter and printmaker, died. He was born in Montreal as Phillip Goldstein and became recognized as a lesser master of the first generation New York School of abstraction. He quit abstract painting in 1967 and confined himself to drawing. His work included "Back View" (1977).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Guston)(SFC, 1/15/98, p.E5)(SFC, 6/28/03, p.D1)(Econ, 5/10/08, p.96)
1980        Jun 7, Henry Miller (born 1891), writer, died in California at age 88. His books included “Tropic of Cancer."
1980        Jun 7, The MS Zenobia, a Swedish-built ferry, sank on her maiden voyage in about 140 feet of water just over a mile off the Cyprus coastal town of Larnaca. There were no casualties in the disaster.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS_Zenobia)(AP, 7/19/21)

1980        Jun 9, Comedian Richard Pryor suffered almost fatal burns at his San Fernando Valley, Calif., home when a mixture of "free-base" cocaine exploded.
    (AP, 6/9/97)

1980        Jun 10, A package bomb injured United Airlines Pres. Percy Wood at his home in Lake Forest, Ill. It was later attributed to the Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.4)(www.courttv.com/trials/unabomber/bombings.html)

1980        Jun 11, E. Bowell discovered asteroid #2531 Cambridge.

1980        Jun 16, The film "Blues Brothers" premiered in Chicago. National release was June 20.
1980        Jun 16, US Supreme Court ruled that new forms of life created in labs could become patents.
1980        Jun 16, Huey P. Newton (38), co-founder of the Black Panther Party, received his doctoral degree from UC Santa Cruz. His doctoral thesis was titled “War Against the Panthers: A Study of Repression in America."
    (SFC, 6/10/05, p.F2)

1980        Jun 20, Lake Powell, straddling the Arizona-Utah border behind the Glen Canyon Dam, completed its fill, which began in 1963
    (SFEC, 8/24/97, p.A1)(www.lakepowell.com/travel/glen-canyon-dam.cfm)

1980        Jun 22, In Antioch, Ca., Suzanne Bombardier (14) disappeared as she babysat her nieces. Her nude body was found on June 27 floating in the San Joaquin River. She had been sexually assaulted and stabbed in the heart. On Dec. 11, 2017, police arrested Mitchell Lynn Bacom (63) of Antioch after DNA evidence linked him to the murder.
    (SFC, 6/23/15, p.A1)(SFC, 12/12/17, p.A1)
1980        Jun 22, The Soviet Union announced a partial withdrawal of its forces from Afghanistan.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1980        Jun 23, Clifford Still (b.1904), abstract expressionist artist, died. In 2011 a museum dedicated to his work opened in Denver.
    (SFC, 3/30/02, p.D1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clyfford_Still)(SFC, 11/22/11, p.A8)
1980        Jun 23, Sanjay Gandhi (b.1946), Indian politician, died in an airplane crash shortly after his mother's return to power. Captain Subhas Saxena, the only passenger in the plane, was also killed in the crash.

1980        Jun 25, The Associated Press chose 11 major newspapers to launch a cooperative experiment to deliver news electronically to computer-equipped homes.
    (SFC, 6/24/05, p.F2)

1980        Jun 27, President Carter signed legislation reviving draft registration.
    (AP, 6/27/97)
1980        Jun 27, The San Francisco 133rd Police Academy graduating class included 2 gay men.
    (SFC, 6/24/05, p.F7)
1980        Jun 27, Carey McWilliams, writer and editor of The Nation magazine, died of cancer. His books included “Southern California: An Island on the Land" (1946) and “Factories in the Field: The Story of Migratory Farm Labor in California" (1939). In 2005 Peter Richardson authored “American Prophet: The Life and Work of Carey McWilliams."
    (SSFC, 12/18/05, p.M2)(http://tinyurl.com/aeel2)
1980        Jun 27, Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870, an Italian domestic jetliner, exploded in flight and crashed near the island of Ustica. 81 people were killed. In 1999 it was reported that a fight by warplanes led to the crash and coverup charges were filed against Italian military officials. Among theories for the jet's demise was a bomb planted by domestic terrorists, or an errant US or French missile allegedly fired at a Libyan MiG streaking over the Mediterranean. In 2013 Italy's top criminal court ruled that there is "abundantly" clear evidence that a stray missile caused the Italian passenger jet to crash.
    (www.emergency-management.net/avi_acc_1979_1989.htm)(WSJ, 9/2/99, p.A1)(AP, 8/17/10)(AP, 1/28/13)

1980        Jun 29, "Sweeney Todd" closed at Uris Theater NYC after 557 performances.

1980        Jun, In Bolivia Hernan Siles Zuazo (1914-1996) was elected president.
    (SFC, 5/4/18, p.D6)
1980        Jun, In Guyana black activist Walter Rodney was killed in a car bomb explosion in Georgetown. Sixteen years later prosecutors issued an arrest warrant for former army Sgt. Gregory Smith, who fled to nearby French Guiana. Smith was never arrested and later died.
    (AP, 4/19/14)

1980        Jul 1, Pres. Jimmy Carter signed the  Motor Carrier Regulatory Reform and Modernization Act (aka the Motor Carrier Act of 1980). It swept away restrictions on the number of haulage firms, as well as price controls.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_Carrier_Act_of_1980)(Econ., 8/8/20, p.54)
1980        Jul 1, "O Canada" was proclaimed the national anthem of Canada.
    (CFA, '96, p.48)(AP, 7/1/97)
1980        Jul 1, Charles Percy Snow (b.1905), British writer (Friends & Associates), died.

1980        Jul 2, President Jimmy Carter reinstated draft registration for males 18 years of age.
    (HN, 7/2/98)
1980        Jul 2, Grateful Dead's Bob Weir (b.1947) & Mickey Hart (b.1943) were arrested in San Diego for suspicion of inciting a riot following their interference in a drug related arrest.

1980        Jul 3, The 15-year-old Berkeley Barb, founded by Max Scherr, released its final issue in Berkeley, Ca. Scherr ran the left-wing paper from 1965-1973.
    (SFC, 7/1/05, p.F2)

1980        Jul 5, In Mauritania, a west African republic, the regime of colonel Ould Haidalla decreed the abolition of slavery and the imposition of the Islamic Sharia Law. Prior to the 1980 abolition, slavery had been declared illegal in 1960 and 1966, but only on paper.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)(www.cwo.com/~lucumi/mauritania.html)

1980        Jul 9, In Brazil at least 3 and as many as 7 died in a stampede to see the Pope at a stadium in Fortaleza.
1980        Jul 9, Dutch war criminal Pieter Menten, arrested in 1976, was sentenced to 10 years.
    (MC, 7/9/02)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pieter_Menten)

1980        Jul 11, American hostage Richard I. Queen, freed by Iran after eight months of captivity because of poor health, left Tehran for Switzerland.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)(AP, 7/11/01)

1980        Jul 13, Seretse Khama, 1st president of Botswana, died. He made Botswana an increasingly democratic and prosperous country with a significant role in Southern Africa.

1980        Jul 16, Ronald Reagan won the Republican presidential nomination at the party's convention in Detroit.
    (AP, 7/16/97)(SFEM,11/2/97, p.12)
1980        Jul 16, Juan Antonio Samaranch (b.1920) of Spain was elected president of the Int’l. Olympic Committee (IOC). His reign lasted 21 years.

1980        Jul 17, Ronald Reagan formally accepted the Republican nomination for president.
1980        Jul 17, In Bolivia a bloody coup installed a reactionary (and cocaine-tainted) dictatorship led by general Luis Garcia Meza (1929-2018). Former president (1956-1960) Hernan Siles Zuazo (1914-1996), who had won the most votes in elections flew to exile. He returned in 1982, when the military's experiment had ran its course and the Bolivian economy was on the verge of collapse. He served a 2nd term from 1982-1985.
    (SFC, 8/8/96, p.A22)(http://tinyurl.com/3andtr)(SFC, 5/4/18, p.D6)
1980        Jul 17, Zenko Suzuki (1911-2004) was appointed prime minister of Japan. He resigned after 2 years.
    (SFC, 7/21/04, p.B7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zenko_Suzuki)

1980        Jul 18, A US Federal court voided the Selective Service Act as it didn’t include women. The issue was resolved on June 25, 1981, when the Supreme Court ruled in Rostker v. Goldberg that “that Congress acted well within its constitutional authority when it authorized the registration of men, and not women."
1980        Jul 18, India became the eighth country to demonstrate it could send a satellite to orbit above Earth with the launch of the satellite Rohini 1 on a Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) rocket in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
    (www.spacetoday.org/Satellites/Iran/IranianSat.html)(NG, 5/88, p.598)

1980        Jul 19, The Moscow Summer Olympics began, minus dozens of nations that were boycotting the games because of the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 7/19/96, p.R6)(AP, 7/19/00)

1980        Jul 21, Draft registration began in the United States for 19- and 20-year-old men.
    (AP, 7/21/97)

1980        Jul 22, In Maryland David Theodore Belfield, a convert to Islam (Daoud Salahuddin), murdered Ali Akbar Tabatabai, a former Iranian official and critic of the government of Ayatollah Khomeini. Belfield escaped to Canada and then to Iran. In 2001 Belfield appeared in the movie "Kandahar" made in Afghanistan as an actor named Hassan Tantai.
    (SFC, 1/4/02, p.D1)(http://iona.ghandchi.com/Tabatabai.htm)

1980        Jul 23, The US Senate Judiciary Committee was reported to be officially joining those investigating allegations of misconduct in Billy Carter's relationship with Libya.

1980        Jul 24, Peter Sellers (b.1925), British actor, died in London of a heart attack. His films included the Pink Panther series, “The Mouse that Roared" (1959) and “Dr. Strangelove, or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb" (1964).

1980        Jul 25, In San Francisco the Red Vic repertory movie theater opened at Haight and Belvedere. In 1991 it moved to 1727 Haight. In 2011 it was set to close following a final birthday screening.
    (SFC, 7/7/11, p.A1)

1980        Jul 26, Kenneth Tynan (53), dramaturge for Britain’s National Theater, died in California from emphysema. In 2001 John Lahr edited essays from his last 10 years: "The Diaries of Kenneth Tynan."
    (WSJ, 11/23/01, p.W8)(www.imdb.com/name/nm0878985/bio)
1980        Jun 26, In Syria there was an assassination attempt by the Muslim Brotherhood on Pres. Assad. Syrian security forces retaliated by killing hundreds of Islamist inmates at the Tadmur prison. The Syrian public did not find out about this until January 1981.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5u5jw7)(Econ, 5/30/15, p.82)

1980        Jul 27, On day 267 of the Iranian hostage crisis, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the deposed Shah of Iran (1941-1979), died at a military hospital outside Cairo, Egypt, at age 60.
    (AP, 7/27/00)

1980        Jul 28, Fernando Belaunde Terry (1912-2002) became president of Peru for a 2nd term and held office to 1985. His first term ran from 1963-1968.

1980        Jul 29, A state funeral was held in Cairo, Egypt, for the deposed Shah of Iran, who had died two days earlier at age 60.
    (AP, 7/29/00)

1980        Jul 30, The Israeli Knesset passed a law reaffirming all of Jerusalem as the capital of the Jewish state.
    (AP, 7/30/00)
1980        Jul 30, The Pacific island of Vanuatu gained independence from Britain.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(www.worldstatesmen.org/Vanuatu.html)

1980        Jul, Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products completed version 0.10 of QDOS.
1980        Jul, UCLA physician Martin J. Cline inserted recombinant DNA into two patients with the blood disease thalassemia, one in Israel and one in Italy. In doing so, he violated the US recombinant DNA guidelines and human subjects regulations.
1980        Jul, In Bolivia socialist leader Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz vanished during a paramilitary operation against the headquarters of a trade union that rejected the coup led by Colonel Luis Garcia Meza.
    (AFP, 1/31/16)
1980        Jul, In Zimbabwe a statue of Cecil Rhodes was toppled in Salisbury (later Harare), a few months after the country became independent. Demonstrators cheered and pounded it with a hammer.
    (AP, 6/12/20)

1980        Aug 1, In Iceland Vigdis Finnbogadottir (b.1930) began serving as president and the world’s first female head of state. She was re-elected 3 times and retired in 1996.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, B7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vigd%C3%ADs_Finnbogad%C3%B3ttir)

1980        Aug 2, In Bologna, Italy, a Fascist bomb attack killed 85 people at the train station.
    (AP, 8/2/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bologna_massacre)

1980        Aug 3, Closing ceremonies were held in Moscow for the 1980 Summer Olympic Games, which had been boycotted by dozens of countries, including the United States.
    (AP, 8/3/00)

1980        Aug 4, Susan G. Komen (36) died of breast cancer. Her sister Nancy G. Brinker went on to found the Susan B. Komen for the Cure breast cancer charity. In 2010 she authored her memoir “Promise Me."
    (SSFC, 8/8/10, Par p.8)

1980        Aug 5, Hurricane "Allen" battered the southern peninsula of Haiti, leaving more than 200 dead in its wake. Hurricane Allen went on to hit the southeastern US.
    (AP, 8/5/00)(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A17)

1980        Aug 8, In Rantoul, Illinois, Brianna Stickle (3) was found raped and killed. In 2012 Andre Davis (50) was released after spending 32 years in jail. DNA evidence taken at the scene was found to not be his.
    (SSFC, 7/8/12, p.A7)

1980        Aug 12, SF hotel workers voted 1823 to 523 to accept a 3-year contract and end a 26-day strike and lockout at 36 major hotels.
    (SFC, 8/12/05, p.F2)
1980        Aug 12, The Latin American Integration Association (ALADI) was created by the 1980 Montevideo Treaty, replacing the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA / ALALC). Cuba joined the 11 founding members in 1999 and Panama joined in 2011.

1980        Aug 14, President Carter and Vice President Walter Mondale were nominated for a second term at the Democratic national convention in New York.
    (AP, 8/14/00)
1980        Aug 14, It was reported that France’s Moet-Hennessy is buying Schieffelin & Co., its New York based US distributor. The deal also included the Simi Winery in Healdsburg, Ca.
    (SFC, 8/12/05, p.F3)   
1980        Aug 14, Some 17,000 Polish workers, led by Lech Walesa, began a 17-day strike at the Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk. This resulted in the creation of the Solidarity labor movement.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1980)(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(AP, 8/14/00)

1980        Aug 15, George Manuel Bosque (25) reportedly abandoned his armored truck at the SF Airport Hilton Hotel, stole a car at gunpoint, and vanished with over $1.8 million in cash. 2 days later he sent an envelope with $20,000 to SF Police officer Lou Vance to pay off a business deal. Bosque was caught on November 23, 1981 and pleaded not guilty before a Federal Judge on November 24, 1981.
    (SFC, 8/12/05, p.F3)(http://tinyurl.com/ebwtd)

1980        Aug 17, William Keeton (b.1933), professor of biology at Cornell Univ., died. In 1967 he wrote the textbook Biological Science, which introduced thousands to an integrated view of biology that used evolution as a unifying theme. His lifelong enthusiasm for pigeons led to his groundbreaking research on how homing pigeons find their way home. He had attached magnets to homing pigeons to see if they could still home.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tinsley_Keeton)(Econ, 7/13/13, p.69)
1980        Aug 17, In Australia Lindy Chamberlain’s 9-week baby, Azaria, was allegedly dragged away from a family campsite at Uluru, or Ayers Rock, by a dingo. The body was never found and Lindy Chamberlain-Creighton and ex-husband Michael Chamberlain were both convicted for the death but later exonerated in a case which made global headlines. She was released after 4 years and the Meryl Streep film "A Cry in the Dark" was based on her story. In 2012 a 4th coroner inquest ruled that a dingo was responsible for the infant’s death.
    (SFC, 4/10/98, p.A14)(AFP, 10/6/04)(AFP, 10/11/10)(SFC, 6/12/12, p.A2)
1980        Aug 17, The Viking 1 Mars Orbiter was powered down after over 1400 orbits.

1980        Aug 19, Willy Russell's "Educating Rita," premiered in London.
1980        Aug 19, San Francisco voters approved Proposition A, a measure to drop district elections for city supervisors. 69,632 voted for and 68, 036 voted against in the low turnout special election.
    (SFC, 8/19/05, p.F2)
1980        Aug 19, In Poland 65 people were killed when a freight train collided with a passenger train near Otloczyn. An additional two died later.
1980        Aug 19, 301 people aboard a Saudi Arabian L-1011 died as the jetliner made a fiery emergency landing at the Riyadh airport.
    (AP, 8/19/99)
1980        Aug 19, Otto Frank (b.1889), the father of Anne Frank, died in Switzerland.

1980        Aug 20, Reinhold Messner of Italy became the 1st to solo ascent Mt. Everest.
1980        Aug 20, The UN Security Council condemned (14-0, US abstains) Israel’s declaration that all of Jerusalem is its capital.

1980        Aug 22, A great white shark captured Aug 19 was hauled back to the ocean after spending 2 ½ days at San Francisco’s Steinhart Aquarium. The 4-month-old female had not eaten since her arrival. Over 20,000 people paid to see the shark.
    (SFC, 8/19/05, p.F5)

1980        Aug 23, Charles O. Finley sold the Oakland A’s baseball team to Walter A. Haas, president of Levi Strauss, Walter J. Haas and Roy Eisenhardt for $12.7 million.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/19/05, p.F5)

1980        Aug 25, The Broadway musical "42nd Street" opened in NYC for 3486 performances. Producer David Merrick stunned both cast and audience during the curtain call by announcing that the show’s director, Gower Champion, had died earlier that day.
    (AP, 8/25/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/42nd_Street_(musical))
1980        Aug 25, Gower Champion (b.1919), director, dancer (Marge & Gower Champion Show), died.

1980        Aug 26, California state officials place all of Santa Clara Valley under quarantine due to the Mediterranean fruit fly invasion.
    (SFC, 8/26/05, p.F2)

1980        Aug 27, Homestake Mining of San Francisco announced the discovery of a gold deposit, valued at $630 million, in Napa County, north of Lake Berryessa.
    (SFC, 8/26/05, p.F2)
1980        Aug 27, In South Korea Chun Doo-hwan (b.1931) had the military junta name him president, replacing Choi.
    (AP, 10/24/07)(www.dpg.devry.edu/~akim/sck/kp2.html)

1980        Aug 29, Louis Darquier de Pellepoix (real name Louis Darquier), born in Cahors, France, on December 19, 1897, died near Malaga (Spain). He was commissioner to Jewish questions under the Vichy Régime from 1942-1944. In 2006 Carmen Callil authored “A Forgotten History of Family, Fatherland and Vichy, France."
    (SSFC, 9/24/06, p.M1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Darquier_de_Pellepoix)

1980        Aug 31, Poland's Solidarity labor movement was born with an agreement signed in Gdansk that ended a 17-day strike. The Communist government signed an agreement with the Strike Coordination Committee in Gdansk, Poland, to allow legal organization, but not actual free trade unions.   
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inter-Enterprise_Strike_Committee)(AP, 8/31/97)

1980        Aug 31-1980 Sep 8, Bill Evans made live recordings at the Village Vanguard in NYC just weeks before his death. They were scheduled to be released by Warner Bros. in 11/96.
    (WSJ, 9/11/96, p.A20)(SFC, 10/16/00, p.B1)

1980        Aug, The Republican National Convention, held in Detroit, nominated Ronald Reagan and George Bush to lead the [party.
    (WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A9)
1980        Aug, Iraq and Syria broke diplomatic ties after Damascus sided with Iran just before the Iran-Iraq war.
    (SFC, 2/28/00, p.C2)

1980        Sep 2, In the SF Bay Area US District Judge William Ingram found Mafia boss Joseph Bonanno guilty of conspiracy to influence witnesses before a federal grand jury investigating the Santa Clara Valley business affairs of his 2 sons.
    (SFC, 9/2/05, p.F2)

1980        Sep 2-1980 Sep 24, In Buffalo, NY, 4 African American men were shot in the head.   

1980        Sep 3, Prof. W. Jackson Davis of UC Santa Cruz uncovered a report that indicated government officials had been aware for almost 20 years that nuclear waste containers, dumped off the California coast, were damaged and leaking.
    (SFC, 9/2/05, p.F2)

1980        Sep 5, In Fresno, Ca., Billy Ray Hamilton and his girlfriend Connie Barbo killed Bryon Schletewitz (27), Josephine Rocha (17) and Douglas White (18), employees at Fran’s Market, on directions from Clarence Ray Allen. Allen, incarcerated at Folsom Prison for murder, had ordered the murder of Schletewitz for testifying against him during his 1997 trial for the murder of Mary Sue Kitts (17). Clarence Ray Allen (76) was executed by lethal injection on January 17, 2006 at San Quentin State Prison in California.
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.B3)(SFC, 1/13/06, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clarence_Ray_Allen)
1980        Sep 5, The opera “Satyagraha" by Philip Glass, commissioned by the city of Rotterdam, was first performed by the Netherlands Opera.
    (WSJ, 4/19/08, p.W14)(www.philipglass.com/html/recordings/satyagraha.html)
1980        Sep 5, The St. Gotthard tunnel in the Swiss Alps, the world's longest auto tunnel, opened.
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gotthard_Road_Tunnel)

1980        Sep 7, The 32nd Emmy Awards were held. Winners included Taxi, Lou Grant, Ed Asner and Barbara Bel Geddes.

1980        Sep 11, In Santa Rosita, El Salvador, soldiers in search of leftist rebels killed Dolores Soriano (19) and 16 of her neighbors. Soriano was 6-months pregnant.
    (SFC, 2/17/00, p.A12)
1980        Sep 11, Chicago mobsters Arthur "The Brain" Rachel and Joseph "The Monk" Scalise staged a daring daytime theft of the Marlborough Diamond. Both men were convicted in Britain of threatening to use a hand grenade while robbing London's posh Graff Jewelers of $3.6 million worth of goods, including the diamond. They began serving 15-year prison terms in 1984 and were released in 1993.
    (AP, 6/7/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Scalise)

1980        Sep 12, Authorities in SF seized 20 tons of Colombian marijuana at Pier 26 along with 2 vessels, that included the Potomac, Franklin D. Roosevelt’s historic yacht. Gunnysacks of the marijuana were labeled “Crippled Children’s Society of America." 15 men and a woman were arrested.
    (SFC, 9/9/05, p.F2)
1980        Sep 12, Yao Ming was born in Shanghai, China. He grew to 7’6’’ and in 2002 was drafted to play for the Houston Rockets basketball team.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.24)
1980        Sep 12, Turkish military took over in coup after factional fighting. All political parties were abolished. Gen. Kenan Evren led a bloodless coup in response to years of street battles between left and right-wing radical groups that left some 5,000 dead. Bulent Ecevit (1925-2006), PM of Turkey, was sent to prison following the coup and banned from active politics for a decade.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980_Turkish_coup_d'%C3%A9tat)(Econ, 11/11/06, p.97)
1980        Sep 15, The TV miniseries "Shogun" premiered with Richard Chamberlain and Yoko Shimada.
    (SFC, 5/28/01, p.C1)(SFC, 9/16/05, p.F2)
1980        Sep 15, The new $28 million Davies Symphony Hall opened in SF. The performance was taped for nationwide broadcast on PBS.
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.AB9)(SFC, 9/16/05, p.F2)
1980        Sep 15, Bill Evans (b.1929), jazz pianist, died. In 1998 Peter Pettinger published "Bill Evans: How My Heart Sings."
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, DB p.35)(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W7)(SFC, 10/16/00, p.B1)

1980        Sep 16, Jean Piaget, Swiss psychologist, theorist and educator, died at 84.

1980        Sep 17, Former Nicaraguan president Anastasio Somoza was assassinated in Paraguay. Enrique Gorriaran Merlo, Argentine super-guerrilla, claimed responsibility. Merlo was captured in Mexico in 10/95 and extradited to Argentina where he had multiple charges against him.
    (AP, 9/17/97)(WSJ, 4/25/96, p.A-1)
1980        Sep 17, South Korea opposition leader Kim Dae-jung was sentenced to death. In 1981 the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in Seoul.

1980        Sep 18, Cosmonaut Arnoldo Tamayo, a Cuban, became the first black to be sent on a mission in space.
    (HN, 9/18/98)
1980        Sep 18, In Damascus, Arkansas, a nuclear-armed Titan II missile exploded in its silo killing one serviceman and spreading toxic fumes in the area. In 2013 Eric Schlosser authored “Command and Control: Nuclear Weapons, the Damascus Accident, and the Illusion of Safety."
    (SSFC, 9/22/13, p.F1)
1980        Sep 18, Katherine A. Porter (b.1890), US author (Ship of Fools) and Pulitzer Prize winner (1966), died.

1980        Sep 20, "Spectacular Bid," ridden by Bill Shoemaker, ran as the only entry in the Woodward Stakes at Belmont Park in New York after three potential challengers dropped out in horse racing's first walkover since 1949.
    (AP, 9/20/05)

1980        Sep 22, John Lennon signed with Geffen Records. The Lennon LP, "Double Fantasy", was released on Geffen. Lennon was  assassinated on December 8, 1980.
1980        Sep 22, In Idaho Dan Woolley (52) was shot in the parking lot of a small-town bar. Walter Mason, the shooter, crossed the street to Clayton's other tavern, ordered a drink and declared, “I just killed a man." He disappeared, leaving no trace. Mason, living under the name Walter Allison, was arrested on Oct. 10, 2019, at his home in East County, Texas.
    (AP, 12/5/20)
1980        Sep 22-1980 Sep 24, In Buffalo, NY, 4 African American men were shot in the head.   
1980         Sep 22, Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded Iran following border skirmishes and a dispute over the Shatt al-Arab waterway. This marked the beginning of a war that would last eight years. Iraq invaded Iran striking refineries and an oil-loading terminal on Kharg Island. The Iraqis used the political instability in Iran to try to capture long-disputed territory. They attacked across the Shatt al Arab River, a trunk of the great Tigris-Euphrates river system.
    {Iraq, Iran, Oil}
    (http://tinyurl.com/2n5z2f)(AP, 9/22/97)(NG, 5/88, p.653,663)
1980        Sep 22, Solidarity formally was founded, when delegates of 36 regional trade unions met in Gdansk, Poland, and united under the name Solidarnosc.

1980        Sep 23, In California Carol A. Thompson and Barbara Lee filed a class-action suit for all women injured using Rely tampons. The recalled Procter & Gambol product was linked to toxic shock syndrome.
    (SFC, 9/23/05, p.F2)

1980        Sep 24, California Rep. John Burton of Marin said Air Force Reserve units may have made weekly air drops of nuclear waste around the Farallon Islands from 1952-1967.
    (SFC, 9/23/05, p.F2)

1980        Sep 26, "Divine Madness" starring Bette Midler, was released in the US.
1980        Sep 26, The California state Water Resources Control Board released a plan for safeguarding Lake Tahoe by barring development on 7,100 lots.
    (SFC, 9/23/05, p.F3)
1980        Sep 26, The Cuban government abruptly closed Mariel Harbor, ending the freedom flotilla of Cuban refugees that began the previous April. By this time the danzon, "Cuba’s national dance," had all but disappeared.
    (AP, 9/26/97)(SFC,12/13/97, p.A14)
1980        Sep 26, A bomb attack at the Oktoberfest in Munich killed 13 people. The attacker was student Gundolf Koehler, a supporter of a banned far-right group.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oktoberfest)(AP, 9/26/20)

1980        Sep 28, Carl Sagan's 13 part "Cosmos" premiered on PBS.
1980        Sep 28, Lanford Wilson's "Balm in Gilead," premiered in Chicago on the Steppenwolf stage. In 1984 it moved to NYC.
1980        Sep 28, Tammy Terrell (17) was last seen Sept. 28, 1980, with two unidentified people at a Roswell, New Mexico, restaurant. Her body was found on Oct. 5 outside Las Vegas and remained unidentified until 2021. Investigative genetic genealogy led to her identity.
    (NBC News, 12/4/21)

1980        Sep 30, The California Dept. of Health Services disclosed that the state’s largest known PCB waste contamination problem had been uncovered at General Electric’s East Oakland repair yard on East 14th St. between 54th and Seminary.
    (SFC, 9/30/05, p.F2)
1980        Sep 30, In California Berkeley police incinerated 1,000 pounds of marijuana following a raid on the backyard of the Earth People’s Park Commune at 933 Addison and 2018 Ninth St.
    (SFC, 9/30/05, p.F2)

1980        Sep, Dr. Ruth Westheimer (b.1928) began taping a radio talk show in NYC. A year later the "Dr. Ruth" show began taking call-in questions from listeners.
1980        Sep, Chile’s Gen'l. Pinochet called for a referendum to approve a constitution extending his rule for the next 8 years.
    (SFC, 12/11/06, p.A4)

1980        Oct 2, US Rep. Michael "Ozzie" Myers, D-Pa., convicted of accepting a bribe in the FBI's ABSCAM sting operation, was expelled from the House, becoming the first congressman ousted by his colleagues since the outbreak of the Civil War.
    (AP, 10/2/05)

1980        Oct 3, In France a Paris synagogue bombing killed 3 French men and one Israeli woman. In 2008 Canadian police arrested Hassan Diab in response to a request from France, where he was wanted on charges of murder and attempted murder in the bombing. Diab denied guilt and stamps in his 1980 passport indicated he was not in France at the time of the bombing. In April 2012 Canada’s then-justice minister Rob Nicholson signed an extradition order surrendering Diab to France. On Nov 15, 2014, Diab was charged in Paris. He has claimed that he was studying in Beirut at the time of the bombing and has said that he had been confused with someone with the same name.
    (AP, 11/13/14)(AFP, 11/15/14)

1980        Oct 4, Some 520 people were forced to abandon the cruise ship “Prisendam" in the Gulf of Alaska after the Dutch luxury liner caught fire—no deaths or serious injury resulted. The ship capsized and sank a week later.
    (AP, 10/4/08)

1980        Oct 6, In San Francisco four teenagers abducted a student (24) at Second St. near Minna following her evening classes at Golden Gate Univ. Michael Brown, Clyde Jackson Larry Shepard (all 17) and Damont Miller (16) raped her over a four-hour period, dumped her on a desolate street, shot her twice and ran her down with their car. She survived and testified at their 1981 trial. All were sentenced to life in prison with the possibility of parole. In 2017 Michael Brown was released on parole.
    (SSFC, 12/17/17, p.A1)
1980        Oct 6, Linden Forbes Burnham (19231985) began serving as president of Guyana.

1980        Oct 8, British Leyland started selling the Mini Metro.
1980        Oct 8-1980 Oct 9, In Buffalo, NY, 2 African American taxi drivers were murdered and found with their hearts cut out.   
    {New York, USA, Murder}

1980        Oct 10, The Martin Luther King, Jr. Historic Site, a 23 acre area in Atlanta, Ga., listed as a National Historic Landmark on May 5, 1977, was made a National Historic Site by the US Department of the Interior. The area where Dr. King was entombed is located on Freedom Plaza and surrounded by the Freedom Hall Complex of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc.
1980        Oct 10, Some 4,500 died when a pair of earthquakes struck NW Algeria. In 1983 the “El-Asnam Algeria Earthquake of October 10, 1980 a Reconnaissance and Engineering Report" was published.
1980        Oct 10, In North Korea Kim Jong Il's status as the country's future leader was made public at the Workers' Party congress, where he takes up other top positions.
    (AP, 12/28/11)
1980        Oct 10, The UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) was concluded in Geneva and entered into force in December 1983. It seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or that have indiscriminate effects. It was updated to cover land mines in May, 1996. The process continued into 2007 to include cluster bombs.
    (www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/500?OpenDocument)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.67)(SFC, 5/4/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 5/31/96, p.A13)

1980        Oct 11, In northern California Cynthia Moreland (18) and fiance Richard Stowers (19) were shot to death on Mount Wittenburg in the Point Reyes National Seashore. David Joseph Carpenter was arrested in May 1981. In 1984 he was convicted of 2 murders in Santa Cruz and sentenced to death. In 1988 he was convicted of 4 killings in Marin County and again sentenced to death.
    (SFC, 2/24/10, p.A7)

1980        Oct 13, In northern California Anne Evelyn Alderson (26) of San Rafael was raped and shot to death on Mount Tamalpais. David Joseph Carpenter was arrested in May 1981. In 1984 he was convicted of 2 murders in Santa Cruz and sentenced to death. In 1988 he was convicted of 4 killings in Marin County and again sentenced to death.
    (SFC, 2/24/10, p.A7)
1980        Oct 13, The unprovoked slayings of 6 blacks took place in Buffalo, NY.
    (MC, 10/13/01)
1980        Oct 13, In Houston, Texas, a delicatessen clerk was shot and killed by one bullet during a robbery. Willie Williams, who admitted to firing the fatal shot, was executed in 1995. His accomplice, Joseph Nichols, was convicted in 1982 at age 20 and in 2007 was also executed for the murder.

1980        Oct 14, Pres. Carter signed the Staggers Act, which deregulated the railroads and allowed them to set their own prices.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staggers_Rail_Act)(WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A17)(Econ, 10/30/04, p.69)
1980        Oct 14, Republican presidential nominee Ronald Reagan promised that, if elected, he would name a woman to the US Supreme Court. He later nominated Judge Sandra Day O’Connor of Arizona.
    (AP, 10/14/00)
1980        Oct 14, Paul Berg of Stanford Univ. won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Walter Gilbert of Harvard and Frederick Sanger of Cambridge for their roles in genetics research.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)(SFC, 10/14/05, p.F2)
1980        Oct 14, Hambrecht & Quist took Genentech Corp. public at $35 per share which soared to close at $89 per share. 
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.D1)(http://tinyurl.com/3y3m9r)

1980        Oct 15, An FTC judge upheld Heublein’s acquisition of SF-based United Vintners, the 2nd largest wine company in the US.
    (SFC, 10/14/05, p.F2)

1980        Oct 17, Mt. St. Helens erupted 3 times in 24 hours, in Washington. The eruptions had begun May 18.
    (HN, 10/17/98)

1980        Oct 21, Hans Asperger (b.1906), Austrian pediatrician, died in Vienna. He pioneered research into autism and Asperger's syndrome, a mild form of autism where those affected are relatively high-functioning, was later named after him. In 2018 an article by medical historian Herwig Czech published in the journal Molecular Autism said that Asperger referred severely disabled children to Vienna's notorious Am Spiegelgrund clinic where almost 800 children died under the Nazi program -- many of them by lethal injection or being gassed.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Asperger)(Reuters, 4/19/18)
1980        Oct 21, Chile’s Gen'l. Pinochet issued a new constitution that allowed him to stay in power for another 8 years. It was approved by plebiscite.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)(Econ, 10/23/04, p.36)

1980        Oct 23, The California Supreme Court upheld the state’s death penalty.
    (SFC, 10/21/05, p.F6)
1980        Oct 23, The resignation of Soviet Premier Alexei N. Kosygin was announced.
    (AP, 10/23/97)

1980        Oct 24, David H. Barnett, former CIA agent, was indicted. He pleaded guilty to spying for the Soviet Union from 1976-1979 while based in Indonesia. He admitted to exposing the identities of 30 US agents.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.A17)(www.agentsnotes.com/spycases.html)
1980        Oct 24, The US Court of Appeals in SF ruled that the US Navy has the right to discharge personnel for homosexual conduct.
    (SFC, 10/21/05, p.F6)
1980        Oct 24, The merchant freighter SS Poet departed Philadelphia bound for Port Said, Egypt, with a crew of 34 and a cargo of grain; it was never heard from again.
    (AP, 10/24/97)

1980        Oct 25, In Lebanon Shafik Wazzan (d.1999 at 74) became a compromise prime minister after the country had gone 137 days without a government.
    (SFC, 7/9/99, p.D6)
1980        Oct 25, The Hague Convention was concluded. It is a multilateral treaty developed by the Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCCH) that provides an expeditious method to return a child internationally abducted by a parent from one member country to another. It entered into force between the signatories on 1 December 1983. As of May 2017, 97 states are party to the convention.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ydd2k726)(Econ, 2/7/09, p.22)

1980        Oct 27, Brendan "The Dark" Hughes (1948-2008), a senior IRA commander, led a hunger strike at Northern Ireland’s Maze Prison that lasted 53 days.
1980        Oct 27, Steve Peregrin Took (b.1949), English musician (T-Rex) born as Stephen Ross Porter, died when he choked on a cocktail cherry.

1980        Oct 28, President Carter and Republican presidential nominee Ronald Reagan faced off in a nationally broadcast, 90-minute debate in Cleveland.
    (AP, 10/28/98)
1980        Oct 28, Susan Jordan (15) of Riverside, Ca., was raped and murdered by Albert Greenwood Brown. In 2010 Brown (56) was scheduled to be executed.
1980        Oct 28, Canada’s federal government under Pierre Trudeau introduced a national energy program, which forced Alberta to sell its oil to Canadians at below market prices. The policy was dismantled in 1984.
    (Econ, 12/3/05, Survey p.6)(http://tinyurl.com/32q2bt)

1980        Oct 29, It was reported that some 70 California hospitals had received marijuana cigarettes from the federal government to launch a 4-year test on the drug’s anti-nausea effects in cancer patients.
    (SFC, 10/28/05, p.F2)

1980        Oct 30, New Jersey Dem. Sen. Harrison Williams (d.2001 at 81) was indicted in the Abscam sting operation and later convicted.
    (WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A1)

1980        Oct 31, Benjamin H. Swig (86), SF financier, philanthropist and real estate investor, died in his penthouse atop the Fairmont Hotel.
    (SFC, 10/28/05, p.F2)
1980        Oct 31, Iran's Reza Pahlavi, eldest son of the late shah, proclaimed himself the rightful successor to the Peacock Throne.
    (AP, 10/31/99)

1980        Oct, In part of the "October Surprise" it was later learned that the chief of French intelligence, Court Alexandre de Marenches, set up meetings between Republican campaign chief William Casey and Iranian officials in Paris.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A11)
1980        Oct, In Turkey Necmettin Erbakan and 21 National Salvation officials were imprisoned on charges of acting against secularism. They were released one year later and acquitted by court.
    (AP, 11/4/02)
1980        Oct, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe signed an agreement with the North Korean President, Kim Il Sung that they would train a brigade for the Zimbabwe National Army.

1980        Nov 1, Conservative Edward Seaga (b.1930) began serving as PM of Jamaica. He defeated Michael Manley as Jamaica was nearly bankrupt, and became a close ally of US Pres. Reagan. Seaga served as PM for the Labor Party until 1989.
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Seaga)

1980        Nov 4, Ronald Reagan (69) was elected the 40th president of the United States. He beat President Carter (56) by a wide margin. George H.W. Bush was elected vice-president. Inflation and the crises in Iran caused Jimmy Carter to lose to Ronald Reagan, America’s oldest Pres.-elect.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1980)(HN, 11/4/98)(AP, 11/4/97)
1980        Nov 4, Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton lost his re-election bid for the governor’s office to Frank White (1933-2003).
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.A3)(SFC, 5/23/03, p.A26)
1980        Nov 4, SF voters re-elected 8 of 11 Board of Supervisors. Women held a majority of seats for the 1st time in city history.
    (SFC, 11/4/05, p.F2,6)

1980        Nov 5, Lanford Wilson's "5th of July," first produced in 1978, moved to the New Apollo in NYC.
1980        Nov 5, Carl Hill, a British journalist, declared to SF immigration officers that he is homosexual in a challenge to federal regulations that banned gays from entering the US. 2 days later federal immigration judge ruled that admitted homosexuality is not by itself sufficient grounds for denying a visitor’s permit to a foreigner.
    (SFC, 11/4/05, p.F6)

1980        Nov 7, Steve McQueen, film actor, died in Juarez, Mexico, at age 50.
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)(AP, 11/7/00)

1980        Nov 8, In West Virginia Bridge Day began when parachutists began jumping from the 876-foot New River Gorge Bridge over the New River. It became annual and was scheduled on the 3rd Saturday of October. The New River is second oldest river in the world. Only the Nile is older. It is also one of only two rivers in the world which flows south to north.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, p.A3)(www.officialbridgeday.com/facts.html)

1980        Nov 10, News anchor Dan Rather refused to pay his Chicago cabbie and CBS paid the $12.55 fare.

1980        Nov 11, Crab season opened in SF. Some 9 million pounds were caught in the 1956-1957 season. Recent annual catches averaged 300,000 pounds.
    (SFC, 11/11/05, p.F2)

1980        Nov 12, The US space probe Voyager 1 came within 77,000 miles of Saturn.
    (AP, 11/12/97)(http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/science/saturn.html)

1980        Nov 13, Lee Taylor (46) of Bellflower, Ca., was killed when his rocket-powered boat broke up during a test run on Lake Tahoe.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.B7)(www.lesliefield.com/personalities/lee_taylor_tributes.htm)
1980        Nov 13, A military coup led by Joao Bernardo Viera deposed President Luis Cabral of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau.
1980        Nov 13, Britain's Sexual Offenses Act, which partially decriminalized sexual behavior between consenting males over 21, was extended to Scotland in the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 1980. It took effect on 1 February 1981.

1980        Nov 16, In California a rock slide near Yosemite Falls killed at least 3 people and injured 6 others.
    (SFC, 11/18/05, p.F2)
1980        Nov 16, Joe Edley (32), a SF night watchman, won the North American Scrabble championship at a tournament in Santa Monica, Ca.
    (SFC, 11/11/05, p.F2)

1980        Nov 17, WHHM Television in Washington, D.C. became the first African American public-broadcasting television station.
    (HN, 11/17/98)
1980        Nov 17, Gerald Gallego and Charlene Williams were arrested in Omaha, Nebraska on murder charges for crimes in Nevada and California.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A17)
1980        Nov 17, In California Contra Costa County opened a new $24.5 million jail in Martinez with single rooms for 382 inmates.
    (SFC, 11/11/05, p.F7)
1980        Nov 17, Clifford Olson (1940-2011) began a murder spree killing 3 girls and 8 boys, ages 9 to 18, in British Columbia over an eight month period. The victims were tortured and sexually assaulted. Olson, who had an extensive criminal history, was arrested on August 12, 1981. He later confessed to the murders and, in a controversial deal, gave police information on the location of the victims' bodies in return for a C$100,000 ($95,000) payment to his family.
    (Reuters, 10/1/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_Olson)

1980        Nov 19, The film "Heaven's Gate," directed by Michael Cimino, was released.
1980        Nov 19, The musical “Dunbar" won the Best Musical of the Year at the Audelco Awards ceremony in NYC. It was based on poet Paul Laurence Dunbar.
    (SFC, 11/18/05, p.F2)
1980        Nov 19, CBS TV banned Calvin Klein's jean ad featuring Brooke Shields (b.1965).
1980        Nov 19, T.J. Palmer and her husband Bill opened the first Applebee’s restaurant in Atlanta, Georgia. T.J. Applebee’s Rx for Edibles & Elixirs became popular and they soon opened a second one. In 1983 they sold them to W.R. Grace which passed the brand in 1988 to franchisees in Kansas City, who took the chain public.
    (WSJ, 6/28/07, p.A13)(http://applebees-founder.com/history2.htm)

1980        Nov 20, Faced with disastrous reviews from New York critics, United Artists announced it was withdrawing its $36 million movie "Heaven's Gate" for re-editing.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
1980        Nov 20, The SF Redevelopment Agency chose the Canadian firm Olympia & York to develop the $300 million Yerba Buena Gardens center on 21 acres prime South of Market land.
    (SFC, 11/18/05, p.F2)
1980        Nov 20, In China the Gang of Four, scapegoats for the 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution, were put on trial. They were tried and sentenced in nationally televised court proceedings. Jiang Hua led the special tribunal that was set up to try Jiang Qing and her 3 Politburo allies known as the Gang of Four. Qing was sentenced to death but her sentence was later commuted to life in prison.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/2tfc9u)

1980        Nov 21, An estimated 83 million TV viewers tuned in to the CBS prime-time soap opera "Dallas" to find out "who shot J.R." It turned out to be Kristin Shephard, played by Mary Crosby.
    (SFC, 9/9/96, p.A26)(SFEC, 12/12/99, p.B10)(AP, 11/21/00)
1980        Nov 21, In California Michael Morganti (20) of Clovis, a partially disabled man, was buried alive to cover up a $500 burglary committed by David Weidert (17). In 1984 a life sentence for Weidert was reduced to 25 years to life. In 2015 Gov. Jerry Brown blocked parole for Weidert.
    (http://law.justia.com/cases/california/supreme-court/3d/39/836.html)(SSFC, 6/28/15, p.A10)
1980        Nov 21, In Nevada 85 people died in a fire at the MGM Grand Hotel-Casino in Las Vegas. Most died in the smoke-field stairwell.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MGM_Grand_fire)(Econ 6/24/17, p.54)

1980        Nov 22, UC Berkeley defeated Stanford 28-23 in the Big Game.
    (SFC, 11/18/05, p.F2)
1980        Nov 22, Death claimed former House Speaker John W. McCormack in Dedham, Massachusetts, at age 88.
    (AP, 11/22/00)
1980        Nov 22, Actress Mae West died in Hollywood at age 87. In 2006 Simon Louvish authored “Mae West: It Ain’t No Sin."
    (AP, 11/22/97)(WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P10)
1980        Nov 22, Eighteen Communist Party secretaries in 49 provinces were ousted in Poland. Edward Gierek (d.2001 at 88), Communist boss, was among the ousted.
    (HN, 11/22/98)(WSJ, 7/30/01, p.A1)

1980        Nov 23, Some 2,600 people were killed by a series of earthquakes that devastated southern Italy.
    (WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A12)(AP, 11/23/07)

1980        Nov 24, George Raft (85), actor, died in Los Angeles. His films included  “Scarface" (1932) and “Some Like It Hot (1959).

1980        Nov 25, Sugar Ray Leonard regained the World Boxing Council welterweight championship when Roberto Duran abruptly quit in the eighth round at the Louisiana Superdome.
    (AP, 11/25/00)

1980        Nov 28, In northern California Diane Marie O’Connell (22) of San Jose and Shauna May (23) of San Francisco, were shot to death on Mount Wittenburg at Point Reyes. David Joseph Carpenter was arrested in May 1981. In 1984 he was convicted of 2 murders in Santa Cruz and sentenced to death. In 1988 he was convicted of 4 killings in Marin County and again sentenced to death.
    (SFC, 2/24/10, p.A7)

1980        Nov 29, Dorothy Day (b.1897), journalist, anarchist, human rights advocate, and co-founder of the Catholic Worker Newspaper and movement. "Entertaining Angels: The Dorothy Day Story" was a film based on her life made by Paulist Productions. Day converted to Catholicism in 1927 after the birth of her daughter and from then on rejected the idea of class struggle.
    (WSJ, 9/26/96, p.B1)(SFC, 10/11/96, p.C14)(SFC, 3/17/00, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/3xsoyh)

1980        Dec 1, The US Justice Dept sued Yonkers, NY, citing racial discrimination.
1980        Dec 1, IBM delivered its 1st prototype PC to Microsoft. The company developed the personal computer using a “skunkworks," a groups outside the normal company environment. IBM selected Microsoft to create MS-DOS, the operating system for its first PC. Steve Ballmer arrived from Proctor & Gamble as an assistant to Gates. Paul Allen bought the QDOS operating system (Quick and Dirty Operating System) from a rival company for $50,000. It was renamed MS-DOS and licensed to IBM. The IBM 5150 PC standardized the marketplace.
    (WSJ, 4/4/00, p.A16)(SFEC, 4/16/00, p.B1)(Econ, 1/21/06, Survey p.16)
1980        Dec 1, SF Assemblyman Willie Brown was elected speaker of the California Assembly.
    (SFC, 11/25/05, p.F2)

1980        Dec 2, Pres. Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act and protected 104 million acres of wilderness. The size of Denali National Park was tripled to 6.2 million acres. Motorized access to the land was given for traditional activities such as hunting, fishing and camping. Peggy Wayburn’s book: "Alaska the Great Land" was credited with helping persuade Congress. William Whalen (1940-2006), director of the US National Park Service (1977-1980), implemented the Alaska Native Lands Claims Settlement Act, which created 10 national parks in Alaska including Wrangell-St. Elias National Park.
    (http://alaska.fws.gov/asm/anilca/intro.html)(WSJ, 5/13/99, p.B1)(SFC, 3/28/02, p.A24)(SFC, 9/30/06, p.B6)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.38)
1980        Dec 2, Three American nuns and a lay worker were abducted, raped and shot in San Salvador. Peasants discovered their bodies the next day and buried them. Nuns Dorothy Kazel, Ita Ford, Maura Clark, and lay worker Jean Donovan were raped and shot by guardsmen. The murders occurred as the US began a 10-year $7 billion aid effort to prevent left-wing guerrillas from coming to power. Five national guardsmen were later convicted in the killings, and sentenced to 30 years in prison.
    (SFC, 4/3/98, p.B2)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)(AP, 12/2/00)
1980        Dec 2, Romain Gary, born as Roman Kacew, (aka Romain Gary, Émile Ajar, Fosco Sinibaldi, Shatan Boga) died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound in Paris. He was born in Vilnius, Lithuania, to Jewish parents. He was one of France's most popular and prolific writers, authoring more than 30 novels, essays and memoirs, some of which he wrote under a pseudonym. He also wrote the screenplay for the motion picture "The Longest Day" and co-wrote and directed the film "Kill!" (1971), which starred his wife at the time, Jean Seberg.

1980        Dec 3, Bernadine Dohrn, a former leader of the radical Weather Underground, surrendered to authorities in Chicago after more than a decade as a fugitive.
    (AP, 12/3/00)
1980        Dec 3, In El Salvador peasants discovered the bodies of nuns Dorothy Kazel, Ita Ford, Maura Clark, and lay worker Jean Donovan and buried them.
    (AP, 12/2/00)

1980        Dec 4, In El Salvador the bodies of four American nuns slain two days earlier were unearthed. Colonel Edgardo Casanova was the military commander of the area at the time. Five national guardsmen were later convicted of murder and sentenced in May 1984 to 30 years in prison. In 1998 the guardsmen admitted that they were acting on orders from above. In 1993 a UN Truth Commission report concluded that Colonel Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, director of the National Guard and brother of Edgardo, and Gen’l. Jose Guillermo Garcia, the minister of defense, had organized an official cover-up. Both men were granted residence in the US. 3 of the 5 convicted guardsmen were released in 1998 due to prison overcrowding. In 1999 families of the victims filed suit against Casanova and Garcia who were living in Florida. In 2000 a federal jury cleared the 2 retired generals. In 2002 a Florida jury found Casanova and Garcia responsible for torture and ordered payment of $54.6 million to 3 victims living in Florida.
    (AP, 12/4/97)(SFC, 4/3/98, p.B2)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)(SFC, 6/25/98, p.A10) (SFC, 7/23/98, p.C2)(SFC, 5/13/99, p.C3)(SFC, 11/3/00, p.A3)(SFC, 7/24/02, p.A12)

1980        Dec 8, John Lennon, musician and one of the Beatles, was shot and killed by Mark David Chapman outside his New York City apartment building. Chapman was a schizophrenic with the delusion that he himself was John. In 1984 Prof. Jonathan M. Wiener wrote a book on Lennon and later got the FBI to surrender its secret files on Lennon.
    (SFC, 9/25/97, p.A2)(AP, 12/8/97)

1980        Dec 10, US Representative John W. Jenrette (Democrat, South Carolina) resigned to avoid being expelled from the House following his conviction on charges relating to the FBI’s ABSCAM investigation.
    (AP, 12/10/00)
1980        Dec 10, Czeslaw Milosz of UC Berkeley, a Polish-born American, received the Nobel Prize in literature from King Carl Gustaf in Sweden.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F2)(AP, 10/8/09)

1980        Dec 11, "Magnum P.I.," starring Tom Selleck, premiered on CBS television.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
1980        Dec 11, President Carter signed into a law legislation creating a $1.6 billion environmental "superfund" to pay for cleaning up chemical spills and toxic waste dumps. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) was established by the US Congress to clean up America's worst hazardous waste sites. Fifteen years later more than $20 billion had been spent with 1300 waste sites identified but only a small fraction cleaned. The fund was established in response to toxic chemicals seeping into a housing development at Love Canal in New York. The aim was to require private parties to clean up past pollution when they could be found. The Fed would pay where the responsible parties could not be determined. It took 21 years and the removal of 1,200 cubic meters of soil to clean up Love Canal.
    (www.epa.gov/superfund/20years/ch2pg3.htm)(WSJ, 10/25/95, p.A-18)(SFC, 6/8/96, p.A13)(Econ 6/10/17, p.24)
1980        Dec 11, Pres.-elect Ronald Reagan nominated Caspar Weinberger as Sec. of Defense.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F2)
1980        Dec 11, Massachusetts Sec. of State Michael Connolly banned the sale of Apple Computer stock arguing that the $22 price per share was too high.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F6)

1980        Dec 12, The US enacted the Bayh-Dole Act. It allowed recipients of government grants to retain title to their inventions. The act made it easier for universities to commercialize their research and helped create the biotechnology industry. It also amended US copyright law to include computer programs.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayh-Dole_Act)(Econ, 12/11/04, p.59)(SFC, 6/21/05, p.D1)
1980        Dec 12, Hambrecht & Quist took Apple Corp. public with 4.6 million shares at $22 per share, which closed at $29 per share.
    (www.macworld.com/2006/03/features/30timeline/index.php)(SFC, 1/24/04, p.A12)

1980        Dec 13, Christian Democrat Jose Napoleon Duarte was named the president of El Salvador’s new government.
    (AP, 12/13/00)

1980        Dec 14, After four days of meetings, members of NATO warned the Soviets to stay out of the internal affairs of Poland, saying that intervention would effectively destroy the détente between East and West.
    (HN, 12/14/98)
1980        Dec 14, Fans around the world paid tribute to John Lennon, six days after he was shot to death in New York City.
    (AP, 12/14/98)

1980        Dec 15, The US Supreme Court refused to allow SF school officials to establish a plan to reserve 25% of all new contracts for minority-owned businesses.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F6)
1980        Dec 15, Charles Burton (d.2002) and his party arrived at the South Pole on their 3-year journey to follow the meridian line connecting Greenwich to the North and South Poles.
    (SFC, 7/18/02, p.A26)

1980        Dec 16, Harland Sanders, founder of the Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant chain, died in Shelbyville, Kentucky, at age 90.
    (AP, 12/16/00)

1980        Dec 17, Milton Obote (1924-2005) began serving a 2nd term as president of Uganda.
    (SFC, 8/16/03, p.A21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Obote)

1980        Dec 18, IRA's Sean McKenna became critically ill and ended his hunger strike.
1980        Dec 18, Former Soviet Premier Alexei N. Kosygin (1964-80) died at age 76 of a heart attack.
    (AP, 12/18/97)(MC, 12/18/01)

1980        Dec 19, Pres. Jimmy Carter signed legislation to protect Lake Tahoe.
    (SFC, 12/16/05, p.F2)

1980        Dec 20, John Riggins (18), a freshman at UC Davis and Sabrina Gonsalves (18) went missing. Their bodies were found 2 days later with their throats slit. The case went cold but was picked up by reporter Joel Davis in 2000. His efforts led to a cold DNA hit in 2002 that implicated Richard Hirschfield, a suspected child molester. In 2005 Joel Davis authored “Justice Waits."
    (www.justicewaits.com)(SFCM, 3/26/06, p.7)
1980        Dec 20, The government of the Soviet Union confirmed that former Premier Alexei N. Kosygin had died two days earlier at the age of 76.
    (AP, 12/20/97)

1980        Dec 21, The California Supreme Court ruled that a father has no automatic right to give his child his last name.
    (SFC, 12/16/05, p.F2)
1980        Dec 21, It was reported that the deadly red tide had given Northern California one of its worst seasons of paralytic shellfish poisoning in years.
    (SFC, 12/16/05, p.F2)
1980        Dec 21, Iran requested $24 billion in US guarantees to free hostages.

1980        Dec 22, US Congress passed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act to ease the burden being placed on these states. The Act gave each US state the responsibility of developing a method of disposing of their own waste by 1986.
    (WSJ, 2/27/97, p.A1)(www.ieer.org/pubs/highlvlr.html)
1980        Dec 22, Ben Weingart (b.1887), a multimillionaire philanthropist, died. He and 2 partners had developed the city of Lakewood, north of Long Beach, Ca. On June 6, 1951, Ben Weingart and his wife Stella established The B.W. Foundation as a non-profit California corporation. The name was changed to the Weingart Foundation in April, 1978.
    (SFC, 2/24/10, p.C5)(www.weingartfnd.org/default.asp?PID=6)

1980        Dec 23, California Attorney Gen. George Deukmajian filed a petition to change the terms of the Buck Charitable Trust that gives $20 million a year to Marin organizations. The petition argued that other counties were more in need of the money.
    (SFC, 12/23/05, p.F2)   
1980        Dec 23, A state funeral was held in Moscow for former Premier Alexei N. Kosygin, who had died Dec. 18 at age 76.
    (AP, 12/23/97)

1980        Dec 24, Americans remembered the U.S. hostages in Iran by burning candles or shining lights for 417 seconds -- one second for each day of captivity.
    (AP, 12/24/97)
1980        Dec 24, California Gov. Jerry Brown declared a state of emergency in Alameda and Santa Clara counties because of the Mediterranean fruit fly infestation.
    (SFC, 12/23/05, p.F2)

1980        Dec 25, The paintings "La route" (Bend of the road) by Paul Cezanne, "La tete de jeune fille au Ruban bleu" (Portrait of a Lady) by Auguste Renoir, and "Le cri" (The cry) by Paul Gauguin were among nearly 2 dozen stolen from the Argentine National Fine Arts Museum in Buenos Aires. The art works were located at a Paris gallery in 2002, where they had been brought by a Taiwanese man claiming to represent a Chinese investor. The investor said he bought them from a Brazilian senator who said he inherited them from his family.
    (AP, 11/25/05)(http://cpprot.te.verweg.com/2003-July/000215.html)
1980        Dec 26, Iranian television footage was broadcast in the United States, showing a dozen of the American hostages sending messages to their families.
    (AP, 12/26/05)
1980        Dec 26, Tony Smith (b.1912), sculptor, died. His work, "Ten Elements," is in the courtyard of the San Francisco Legion Of Honor Museum. He began his career as an architect and ended up as a founding figure of minimalism. His 3 daughters included artist Kiki Smith.
    (SFC, 1/8/97, p.B1)(SFC, 11/19/05, p.E10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_26)

1980        Dec 28, Mexico ended a bilateral fishing agreement with US in a dispute over tuna.

1980        Dec 31, A bomb blast wrecked the Jewish-owned Norfolk Hotel in Nairobi, Kenya, killing 16 people and wounding more than 80.
1980        Dec 31, Marshall McLuhan (b.1911), Canadian professor, cultural philosopher and writer, died at age 69. He was the author "Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man." In 1996 a CD-ROM titled "Understanding McLuhan" was released.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, BR p.8)(V.D.-H.K.p.357)(AP, 12/31/05)

1980        Dec, Microsoft bought a QDOS license. The "Microsoft Disk Operating System" or MS-DOS was based on QDOS, the "Quick and Dirty Operating System" written by Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products, for their prototype Intel 8086 based computer. QDOS was based on Gary Kildall's CP/M. Paterson had bought a CP/M manual and used it as the basis to write his operating system in six weeks. QDOS was different enough from CP/M to be considered legal. Microsoft bought the rights to QDOS for $50,000, keeping the IBM deal a secret from Seattle Computer Products.
    (WSJ, 4/4/00, p.A16)(WSJ, 1/22/04, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QDOS)
1980        Dec, In Baiji, Iraq, Sadam Hussein began construction of an oil refinery under the Jabal Makhul mountains.
    (SFC, 5/5/03, p.A12)

1980        Reuben Kramer (d.1999 at 89), sculptor, unveiled his bronze statue of Justice Thurgood Marshall outside the Edward A. Garmatz Federal Courthouse in Baltimore, Md.
    (SFC, 9/28/99, p.A26)

1980        Armand Hammer, oil magnate, acquired the Codex Leicester and renamed it the Codex Hammer. It was an original manuscript by Leonardo da Vinci that was later sold to Bill Gates of Microsoft Corp.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.F3)

1980        Arthur Miller wrote his play "The American Clock." It was a collage of Depression-era America based on "Hard Times" by Studs Terkel.
    (WSJ, 10/22/97, p.A20)

1980        JoAnn Akalitis, playwright and member of The Mabou Mines, wrote "Dead End Kids."
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0090913/)

1980        Spiro Agnew, former US vice-president, authored "Go Quietly… Or Else." Jules Witcover had already written two biographies of Agnew: “White Knight: The Rise of Spiro Agnew" (1972) and “A Heartbeat Away" (1974). In 2007 Witcover authored a 3rd titled “Very Strange Bedfellows: The Short and Unhappy Marriage of Richard Nixon & Spiro Agnew."
    (WSJ, 6/14/07, p.D6)

1980        Molefi K. Asante wrote his work: "Afrocentricity: The Theory of Social Change."
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 34)

1980        William Emery Bridges (1933-2013) authored Transitions: Making Sense of Life’s Changes."
    (SSFC, 3/3/13, p.C9)

1980        David Broder, Washington Post columnist, authored "Changing of the Guard: Power and Leadership in America."
    (SSFC, 5/27/18, p.C10)

1980        Dr. Mary S. Calderone published "The Family Book about Sexuality."
    (SFC, 10/25/98, p.A15)

1980        Clancy Carlile (1930-1998) published his novel "Honkeytonk Man." It was about the life and death of a country singer and was made into a film by Clint Eastwood.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A20)

1980        Rod Dreher authored “The Meaning of Conservatism."
    (Econ, 3/25/17, p.73)

1980        Italian philosopher Umberto Eco authored "The Name of the Rose," and established a new genre of learned who-dunit novels.
    (WSJ, 6/1/01, p.W12)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.M1)

1980        Marilyn Ferguson (1938-2008) authored her best selling “The Aquarian Conspiracy," the first comprehensive analysis of people breaking from traditional Western beliefs.

1980        Milton Friedman (1912-2006) and his wife authored “Free to Choose" based on a television series of the same name.
    (WSJ, 5/27/98, p.A20)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.80)

1980        Barbara Grizzuti (d.2002 at 67) authored "Visions of Glory: A History and a Memory of Jehovah’s Witnesses."
    (SFC, 4/27/02, p.A21)

1980        Russel Hoban authored his novel "Riddley Walker," a post-apocalyptic story about survivors of the ultimate world war.
    (WSJ, 1/1/00, p.R8)

1980        Robert Lewis (1909-1997) wrote "Advice to the Players," a book on his theories of acting.
    (SFC,11/25/97, p.A22)

1980        Ronald Steel wrote: "Walter Lippmann and the American Century."
    (WSJ, 2/15/96, p.A-12)

1980        Elizabeth Andoh wrote "At Home with Japanese Cooking."
    (WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A21)

1980        Pat Conroy authored "The Lords of Discipline," based on the Citadel academy in Charleston, South Carolina.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.63)

1980        Barry Hannah wrote his novel "Ray."
    (WSJ, 10/25/96, p.A15)

1980        Prof. John Kassay (1919-2005) authored “The Book of Shaker Furniture."
    (SFC, 2/24/05, p.B7)

1980        Suzanne Massie authored “Land of the Firebird: The Beauty of Old Russia," a history of Russia from 987-1917. Massie later served as an unofficial advisor to Pres. Reagan and carried back channel messages between Reagan and the Kremlin.
    (Econ, 2/28/09, p.88)

1980        James Michener wrote his novel "The Covenant."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)

1980        Sam Moskowitz published "Fiction in Old San Francisco," that covered an early strain of science fiction.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.A22)

1980        Stephen Oeterrmann, a German scholar, published "The Panorama: History of a Mass Medium."
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)

1980        Judith Rossner wrote her novel "Emmeline." It was turned into an opera with music by Tobias Picker and libretto by J.D. McClatchy. It is the story of a woman who learns that her young husband is the infant son she put up for adoption 2 decades before.
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A14)

1980        Ann Rule (1931-2015), a former police officer, authored “The Stranger Beside Me." The book was about serial killer Ted Bundy (1946-1989), one of her close friends.
    (SFC, 7/30/15, p.D5)

1980        Frederick Turner published "Beyond Geography," a look at US cultural restlessness underlying Manifest Destiny.
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.12)

1980        Howard Zinn (b.1922) published "A People's History of the United States."
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, BR p.3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Zinn)

1980        "Ovation," a classical music magazine, was founded by Sam Chase (d.1997 at 80). The magazine was sold in 1986 and later folded.
    (SFC, 9/2/97, p.A18)

1980        Stanley Foster Reed (1917-2007), self-taught inventor, accordionist and publisher, began publishing the magazine “Campaigns & Elections." He sold it in the mid 1980s. This followed an earlier magazine called “Mergers & Acquisitions." During WW II Mr. Reed founded the Reed Research Co. in Washington, DC, whose engineers took on a variety of problems.
    (WSJ, 11/3/07, p.A6)

1980         Gross film revenues for the year were $2,748 million with1,021 million admissions and average ticket price of  $2.69.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)(SFEC, 1/26/97 DB, p.28)

1980        PBS aired the documentary “The Battle of Westlands" co-produced by by Carol MonPere (1934-2006). It highlighted the struggle of family farms in the Central Valley of California as large agricultural corporations moved in.
    (SFC, 4/4/06, p.B5)

1980        The TV show "Bosom Buddies" with Peter Scolari and Tom Hanks began and lasted to 1982.
    (SFC, 12/3/98, p.E5)

1980        Frank Pacelli (d.1997 at 72) spent 16 years (1980-1996) directing the TV show "The Young and the Restless."
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)

1980        The NBC TV show "United States" was a comedy on modern marriage that lasted about 6 weeks.
    (SFC, 12/3/98, p.E1)

1980        Carl Sagan (1934-1996) dramatized the mysteries of the universe in his 13-part TV series "Cosmos." He made famous the phrase "billions and billions of stars and galaxies."
    (SFC, 12/21/96, p.A1)

1980        Cable TV began to impact television in the US with a 20% penetration. By 1995 cable TV was in 62% of American homes.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)

1980        Fred Silverman appointed Brandon Tartikoff (d.1997 at 48), age 31, as president of NBC Entertainment.
    (SFC, 8/28/97, p.A1)

1980        The grunge rock group Alice in Chains produced their debut album "Facelift." One track was titled "We Die Young." In 2002 Layne Staley (34), lead singer for Alice in Chains, was found dead in Seattle with obvious signs of drug use.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A28)

1980        Jim Carrol (1949-2009) released his first album “Catholic Boy." The single “People who Died" became a punk classic.
    (SFC, 9/16/09, p.D5)

1980        Bill Evans made live jazz recordings at the Village Vanguard just weeks before his death. They were scheduled to be released by Warner Bros. in 11/96.
    (WSJ, 9/11/96, p.A20)

1980        The Microscopic Septet formed out of a downtown Manhattan music scene. The jazz ensemble broke up in 1992, but reunited in 2006 for a brief tour to celebrate the 2-volume CD “History of the Micros."
    (WSJ, 12/26/06, p.D8)

1980        In Rhode Island the Newport Jazz Festival featured a "Swinging Taps" evening with tap dancer Chuck Green (d.1997 at 78).
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)

1980        Emylou Harris and Ricky Skaggs made their album "Rose in the Snow." The album was important in breaking down the country-bluegrass barrier. It included the song "The Darkest Hour Is Just Before Dawn" written by Ralph Stanley.
    (WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)(WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A16)

1980        Eddie Rabbit (d.1998 at 53) recorded his hit: "I Love a Rainy Night."
    (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A21)

1980        The album "Dance Craze: The Best of British Ska... Live!" was released on the Chrysalis label. The bands included The Specials, the Selecter, and Madness.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, DB p.39)

1980        U2 released their first album, "Boy."
    (WSJ, 10/30/01, p.A21)

1980        Kateri Tekakwitha (d.1680), a Mohawk Indian, became the first Native American to be beatified by the Catholic Church.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)

1980        The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) began efforts to fight for LGBT rights.
    (SFC, 7/12/17, p.A5)

1980        Bill Drayton, an administrator in the EPA, founded "Ashoka," an organization of social entrepreneurs. "A social entrepreneur is someone who sees an area where society is stuck, conceives of how society can get unstuck, who can’t conceive of stopping until he or she has changed the whole society so it is unstuck."
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, WB p.1)(Econ, 2/25/06, Survey p.12)

1980        The National Japanese American Historical Society was founded in SF.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)

1980        Mothers Against Drunk Driving was founded in Irving, Texas.
    (WSJ, 3/10/97, p.A1)

1980        Helen Caldicott helped to organize European Physicians into International Physicians for the prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW).
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, Z1 p.3)

1980        The Planetary Society was founded by Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray, and Louis Friedman, as a space advocacy group. The Society is dedicated to the exploration of Mars and the rest of the Solar System, the search for Near Earth Objects, and the search for extraterrestrial life.

1980        Richard X Zawitz created his handheld Tangle in San Francisco out of plastic and a larger chrome Tangle sold at museum shops. The twistable playthings had started out as a 3-foot-long walnut wood sculpture made of several 90-degree joints. The toy pieces were manufactured in China.
    (SFC, 12/24/21, p.A9)
1980        The Crystal Cathedral, designed by Philip Johnson, was completed in Garden Grove, Orange County, Ca., at a final cost of $17 million. The church originally began in 1955 as the Garden Grove Community Church under the Reverend Robert H. Schuller and his wife, Arvella. In 2009 the church under financial turmoil planned to sell $65 million of its Orange county property to pay off debt.
    (SSFC, 2/1/09, p.B4)
1980        Eli Broad co-founded MOCA, the Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art (1980).
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.78)
1980        In San Francisco Sidney Goldstein founded the City Arts & Lectures series. In 2017 Goldstein (72) turned the event production company over to a new generation.
    (SFC, 7/5/17, p.E1)
1980        A California state law, section 987(a) of the Civil Code, was passed that made it a crime to alter, deface or destroy a work of fine art in that it was detrimental to the artist’s reputation.
    (SFC, 8/2/00, p.A18)
1980        California lawmakers approved the construction of a Peripheral Canal to siphon water from the Sacramento River to the California Aqueduct. Voters rejected the idea in 1982.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1980        California voters approved a constitutional amendment (Shield Law) to protect journalists from being held in contempt for refusing to disclose unpublished information or a confidential news source.
    (SFC, 11/2/99, p.A1)
1980        A California 1918 state law, that granted women and children time-and-a-half for working over 8 hours and double time for work over 12 hours, was extended to include men.
    (SFC, 1/7/98, p.A19)
1980        Robert Graham, a California millionaire, opened a sperm bank, The Repository for Germinal Choice, to make sperm available from Nobel laureate types. It closed in 1999 after yielding 215 children. In 2005 David Plotz authored “The Genius Factory: The Curious History of the Nobel Prize Sperm Bank."
    (SSFC, 6/12/05, p.B6)(WSJ, 7/5/05, p.D7)
1980        In Daly City PG&E workers first complained to the US EPA about chemicals uncovered during construction at the Martin Service Center.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.A14)
1980        In San Francisco Con Murphy took over the position of police chief following Charles Gains. The police force numbered about 1500 with 82% being white males. By the end of 1985 the force included 1,988 officers with almost a third composed of women and minorities.
    (SSFC, 12/26/10, DB p.46)
1980        Alfred J. Nelder (d.2002 at 87), former police chief and Supervisor, was named to the SF Police Commission. He served for 9 years.
    (SFC, 1/4/02, p.A26)
1980        The SF Recreation and Park Commission voted to charge a 50 cent fee for the Japanese Tea Garden in Goldengate Park to make up for losses in property tax support from Prop 13.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A24)
1980        Former SF Mayor Joseph Alioto lost a $3.2 million legal malpractice case filed against him by a Wyoming rancher.
    (SFC, 1/30/98, p.A10)
1980        The SF Chronicle purchased the Bloomington Pantagraph in Illinois.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8)
1980        A reforestation program was begun in San Francisco’s Goldengate Park.
    (SFC, 7/29/97, p.A7)
1980        Gorilla World opened at the SF Zoo.
    (SFC, 7/30/04, p.E15)
1980        Greg Steltenpohl started his Odwalla juice company selling drinks out of his jazz band’s Volkswagen van around San Francisco. In 1996 a child died and dozens were sickened because of contaminated apple juice produced by Odwalla. He and his partners were forced to sell a controlling interest to private-equity firms and not long after the company was sold to Coca-Cola.
    (SFC, 12/27/16, p.D1)
1980        The five 60-foot radio astronomy dishes at Stanford Univ., Ca., went idle.
    (SSFC, 8/14/05, p.A19)
1980         In California Ellen Strauss (d.2001 at 75) and Phyllis Faber founded the Marin Agricultural Land Trust to prevent urban sprawl. It was the 1st private, non-profit organization of its kind in the US. It bought development rights from farmers but allowed the farmers to continue working their farms and passing them on to heirs as long as the land remained agricultural.
    (SFC, 12/3/02, p.A21)
1980        Donald Kennedy (b.1931) was appointed president of Stanford Univ. after serving for a time as head of the FDA (1977-1979). He resigned in 1992 in the wake of accusations that the Univ. had padded its accounts and received extra government money. In 1997 he published "Academic Duty," in which he proposed a number of hypothetical situations to explore conflicts.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, BR p.6)(www.stanford.edu/home/stanford/history/leader.html#Kennedy)
1980        A 53-acre facility for recycling was opened in San Leandro, Ca. In 1996 it brought in $ 3 mil. of new sorting equipment and was the state’s largest recycling facility.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, A22)
1980        The Channel Islands National Park, off the California coast at Ventura, was established. It included San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa and Santa Barbara and totaled 250,000 acres. Complete protection was completed by 1997.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, Z1 p.1)(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T11)
1980        Blufford Hayes Jr. killed Vinod Patel, a motel manager in Stockton, Ca., during a robbery that netted $23 and some cigarettes. Hayes was convicted and sentenced to death. The sentence was upheld by a federal appeals court in 2002.
    (SFC, 8/27/02, p.A4)

1980        Shipwreck salvor Mel Fisher found the 1622 wreck of the Spanish galleon Santa Margarita off the Florida Keys. A 75-ounce gold bar recovered from the wreck was stolen in 2010. In 2018 Richard Steven Johnson of California pleaded guilty to the theft.
    (AP, 6/18/07)(SSFC, 4/29/18, p.A12)

1980        The American Medical Association’s (AMA) code of ethics, written Dr. James S. Todd (d.1997 at 65), was adopted.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A24)

1980        Dave Foreman, a former lobbyist with the Wilderness society, formed the Earth First group, an environmentalist group that was willing to resort to potentially violent tactics.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, p.A-11)

1980        Robert Redford established the Sundance Resort and Institute in Provo Canyon, Utah, to support independent filmmaking and playwriting.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, Par p.2)

1980        The US Archeological Conservancy was founded by a group of private citizens and archeologists.
    (AM, Vol. 48, N0. 3)

1980        The Kalaupapa National Historic Park on Molokai Island in Hawaii was established.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, p.T3)

1980        Peter Matthiessen won the National Book Award for nonfiction for his 1978 "The Snow Leopard."
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.D1)(SFEC,12/797, p.B11)

1980        Earl Randall Parker (d.1998 at 85), a professor of materials science and mineral engineering, won the Nat’l. Medal of Science, the nation’s highest honor for a scientist.
    (SFC, 5/19/98, p.A21)

1980        Lawrence R. Klein of the United States won the Nobel Prize in Economics for the creation of certain econometric models.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

1980        The US Army established its National Training Center at Fort Irwin, Ca., to test and review new technology and tactics.
    (WSJ, 5/23/97, p.A1,10)

1980        The US Supreme Court ruled that "live human-made microorganism is patentable matter." This led to a rush by Genentech, Biogen and others to commercialize biotechnology.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1980        US Sec. of State Alexander Haig reported in a 1981 memo uncovered by the October Surprise Task Force that leaders of several friendly countries in the Middle East told him on a trip in 1981 that Jimmy Carter had given Iraq’s Saddam Hussein the green light to invade Iran in 1980.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A11)(www.consortiumnews.com/archive/xfile5.html)

1980        Pres. candidate Ronald Reagan named the Jelly Belly jelly bean as his favorite confection.
    (SFC, 8/11/99, Z1 p.3)

1980        Harry V. Mohoney, adult entertainment distributor, was one of 55 people indicted in a federal sting of the US pornography business. The indictment was dismissed due to misconduct by federal agents.
    (SFC, 8/13/97, p.A10)

1980        A group of banks led by J.P. Morgan made massive bailout loans of $1 billion to the Hunt brothers who had allegedly tried to corner the silver market.
    (WSJ, 9/24/98, p.A16)

1980        Biologist Paul Ehrlich bet economist Julian Simon that the prices of 5 metals would rise in real terms over the next 10 years. Simon bet that their prices would fall and easily won. Had the term of the bet lasted to 2011, Ehrlich would have won.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.18)

1980        Dr. Edgar S. Cahn (46), author of "Our Brother’s Keeper: The Indian in White America" (1969), and co-founder of the Antioch School of Law (1972), suffered a massive heart attack. While recovering he dreamed up the idea of Time Dollars as a new currency to provide a solution to massive cuts in government spending on social welfare. His idea was that one hour of work equals one service credit. In 1987, while at the London School of Economics, Edgar developed his theoretical explanation for why such a currency should work. He came back to the US and started putting service credits (not yet called Time Dollars) into operation. In 1997 a Time Dollar convention helped new and surviving groups identify “what works." Time Dollars became the backbone of a successful cross-age peer tutoring program in Chicago, a Maine Time Banks Network, and a Time Dollar Youth Court in Washington, DC.

1980        Iowa became the first state to make redistricting largely apolitical.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.33)

1980        Stephen Bernard (d.2009 at 61) and his wife Lynn founded his kettle-cooked Cape Cod Potato Chips brand. The company was sold to Anheuser-Busch in 1985, but they reacquired it when the brewer sold its Eagle Snacks division to Lance Inc. in 1999.
    (SFC, 3/13/09, p.B7)

1980        Ron Perelman acquired MacAndrews & Forbes, a Philadelphia candymaker, for $45 million. Howard Gittis (1934-2007) advised Perelman on the acquisition and in 1985 joined Perelman and his MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings.
    (WSJ, 9/22/07, p.A8)(www.forbes.com/free_forbes/2005/1010/050.html)

1980        CNN, the 24-hour Cable News Network, made its debut.
    (Wired, 2/98, p.64)

1980        The Hearst Corp. acquired United Technical Publications, Eastern News Distributors and First Databank, a provider of medical knowledge databases.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1980        Robert Leonard (d.2003) helped found Ticketmaster to sell advanced box office seats.
    (SFC, 1/21/02, p.A20)

1980        Peoples Gas was renamed Peoples Energy Corp. and operated as the holding company for two local utilities. It had started as Chicago Gas in 1855.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)(www.utfleets.com/issues/article/?articleid=00000050)

1980        IBM introduced a PC speaker that could beep at various frequencies.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.B1)
1980        IBM went to Digital Research to license the ubiquitous CP/M for the new IBM-PC, but failed to reach an agreement with Gary Kildall. IBM soon struck a deal with Microsoft.
1980        Tim Paterson wrote QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System), a 16-bit operating system for an Intel 8086-based computer kit sold by Seattle Computer Products.

1980        Hewlett-Packard introduced its first personal computer, the HP-85. Company sales topped $3 billion and employees numbered 57,000.
    (SFC, 3/3/99, p.A11)

1980        Iomega, was founded. It designed and manufactured computer memory storage devices. The company became public in 1983.
    (WSJ, 6/17/96, p.B6)

1980        United Telecommunications under Paul Henson (d. 1997 at 71) began laying the 23,000 mile, first optical fiber communications network.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A21)

1980        Ted Stepien (1925-2007), a classified ad whiz, paid $2 million for a controlling 37% share of the Cleveland Cavaliers basketball team and eventually acquired 80% of the shares. In 1983 he sold the team to George and Gordon Gund, owners of Cleveland’s Coliseum, in a deal that included his advertising business. In the 1981-1982 season the Cavaliers won 15 games and lost 67, one of the worst records in NBA history.
    (WSJ, 9/15/07, p.A6)

1980        Audi introduced its all-wheel-drive Quattro Coupe.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1980        American Motors introduced its four-wheel-drive Eagle.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1980        The 2,032 passenger SS France became the SS Norway, flagship of the Norwegian Cruise Lines.

1980        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the US bourbon Wild Turkey.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)

1980        Raymond Damadian and his company, FONAR, produced the first commercial Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner. The Nobel Prize in Physics in 1952, which went to Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell, was for the development of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the scientific principle behind MRI. In 2003 Paul Christian Lauterbur was credited for the 1970s idea of introducing gradients in the magnetic field which allows for determining the origin of the radio waves emitted from the nuclei of the object of study.

1980        Klaus von Klitzing used the large magnet at Grenoble, France and discovered the quantum Hall effect. At low temperatures, electrons flowing through thin layers of semiconducting crystals in the presence of strong magnetic fields exhibit unexpected jumps in their current-carrying behavior.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.205)

1980        J.R. Simplot, Idaho potato tycoon, began serving on the board of startup Micron Technology. He invested several million dollars into the company, which made memory chips.
    (WSJ, 10/7/04, p.A12)(www.micron.com)

1980        Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Mont., was established.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, Par. p.6)

1980        Sue Savage-Rumbaugh began research work with bonobo apes at the Georgia State Univ. Language Research Center. In 1998 she authored "Apes, Language, and the Human Mind," based on her work with Kanzi, a bonobo ape.
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, BR p.8)

1980        Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, was first defined and became a formal psychiatric diagnosis.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posttraumatic_stress_disorder)(Economist, 4/4/20, p.49)

1980        Dr. Robert Gallo and colleagues discovered the retrovirus HTLV-1. In 1982 they discovered the retrovirus HTLV-2 and suggested that AIDS was caused by a new human retrovirus.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.18)

1980        Dr. George B. Rathmann (1927-2012) became the first chief executive officer and co-founder of a startup in Thousand Oaks, Ca., called Applied Molecular Genetics. The company, which later changed its name to Amgen, developed Epogen and Neupogen under his watch.
    (SFC, 4/26/12, p.C3)

1980        A global campaign was begun to eradicate guinea worm, aka dracunculiasis, a disabling parasitic disease existing in only 4 African countries.
    (SFC, 10/5/11, p.A2)

1980        Paul Benioff of Argonne National Laboratory published the first of three papers showing that quantum computing is possible.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_quantum_computing)(Econ 5/13/17, p.16)
1980        Dr. Clyde Wiegand (1915-1996), a nuclear physicist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, retired. In the 1970s he opened a field called keonic physics, wherein subatomic called k-mesons take the place of electrons in atoms.
    (SFC, 7/9/96, p.20)

1980        Louis Alvarez proposed that the extinction of dinosaurs 65 million years ago at the Tertiary - Cretaceous boundary was due to a large meteor impact based on a thin line of sediment of dark clay containing unusually high levels of iridium at the boundary.
    (TMP, KCTS-Video, 1987)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_Walter_Alvarez)

1980        Hispanics in Phoenix Arizona, numbered about 15% of the population. By 2005 the number reached 42%.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.32)

1980        The average CEO of a company on the FTSE All Share index earned 25 times more than the average employee. In 2016 this rose to 130 times more than the average employee.
    (Econ 6/3/17, p.22)

1980        Lyman Byxbe (b.1886), print maker, died. He established a reputation in Old Estes, Colorado, with his copperplate etchings of western scenes.
    (SSFC, 4/23/05, p.E7)(http://tinyurl.com/bwvvn)

1980        In Afghanistan Dr. Najibullah (1947-1996) was brought back from USSR to run the secret police. He later served as president (1986-1992).
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammad_Najibullah)

1980        In Algeria Berber anti-government sentiment was mobilized in the "Tamazight Spring" uprising.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A18)

1980        The population of Angola was about 7 million.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.55)

1980        Arab nations in the Persian Gulf set a minimum age of 15 for camel jockeys.
    (WSJ, 10/3/05, p.A1)

1980        In Bangladesh the installation of cheap surface wells was begun to keep people from drinking infected pond and river water [see 1990].
    (SFC, 7/30/97, p.A8)

1980        In Brazil the Workers’ Party (PT) was founded by a group of people including Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and Marina Silva. It later became recognized as one of the largest and most important left-wing leadership movements of Latin America.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workers%27_Party_%28Brazil%29)(Econ, 8/29/09, p.32) (Econ, 4/24/10, p.35)
1980        Inflation in Brazil reached 110%. The rising cost of imported oil, dating back to 1973, increased short term foreign debt and heralded a decade and a half of instability.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.5)
1980        In Brazil the TAMAR project to protect sea turtles was begun by Maria and Guy Marcovaldi.
    (SFC, 11/2/98, p.A12)(www.beach-pousada-brazil.com/tamar.htm)

1980        “Yes, Minister," a satirical British sitcom written by Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn, was first transmitted by BBC television and radio. The sequel, “Yes, Prime Minister," ran from 1986 to 1988.
1980        Tower 42, the tallest building in London, England, was first occupied.
    (WSJ, 2/27/08, p.B1)
1980        The British government sent out a pamphlet to the public titled “Protect and Survive." It contained advice in the event of nuclear war.
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.48)
1980        The Bank of England licensed the Bank of Credit and Commerce International. BCCI imploded in 1991 under the weight of fraud.
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.64)
1980        The huge British Steel plant at Corby, central England, closed and the site was redeveloped. In 2009 a British court ruled in favor of a group of young people who said pollution from the former steelworks contributed to their birth defects, which included missing fingers and deformed hands and feet.
    (AP, 7/29/09)
1980        Asil Nadir, a Turkish Cypriot businessman, took control of the ailing British textile company Polly Peck and used the firm as his stock market vehicle for expansion. The company's stock price multiplied as Nadir went on an acquisitions binge, snapping up Del Monte's fresh fruit operations and Japan's Sansui Electric Co. His company filed for bankruptcy protection in late 1990, hundreds of millions of pounds (dollars) in debt.
    (AP, 8/26/10)
1980        Britain’s Stagecoach Group began operations with two buses and grew to become the country’s largest bus operator. It was started by Ann Gloag and her brother Sir Brian Souter.
    (Econ, 9/7/13, p.59)

1980        In 1980, Konstantin Pavlov (1933-2008), Bulgarian poet and screenwriter, was granted the Grand Prix at the Karlovy Vary film festival for his screenplay of the film "Illusion."
    (AP, 9/30/08)

1980        In Canada the first Montreal International Jazz Festival was launched by L’Equipe Spectra.
    (Econ, 6/21/14, p.82)
1980        Peter Munk, Hungary-born entrepreneur, along with David Gilmour and several Arab investors founded Barrick Petroleum Corp., a Canada-based mining operation. In 1983 the company went public as Barrick Resources Corp., which grew to become Barrick Gold. By 2008 the company was worth $38 billion with mines on 5 continents.
    (www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/71/Barrick-Gold-Corporation.html)(Econ, 4/19/08, p.80)
1980        Canola Oil was registered as the name for a vegetable oil of low saturated fat. It was originally called low erucic acid rapeseed oil and was developed by the Univ. of Manitoba plant breeder Baldur Stefansson after WW II. Oleic acid later replaced erucic acid which was found to cause cancer in lab studies.
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.6F)

1980        Jose Pinera revolutionized Chile's pension system while he was secretary of labor and social security. Pinochet wrote a new constitution that included statutes that forced politicians, journalists and musicians to practice self-censorship or face prosecution.
    (WSJ, 6/28/96, p.A9)(SFC, 12/9/96, p.A18)(AP, 12/12/04)
1980        Chile’s National Geology and Mining Service was founded to regulate the country’s mining industry.
    (Econ, 10/16/10, p.43)

1980        In China Hua Guofeng (1921-2008) was replaced as premier by Zhao Ziyang, and by Hu Yaobang as party chairman in 1981, two of Deng's proteges who were dedicated to economic reform.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
1980        China recognized its first private business when street hawker Zhang Huamei (19) registered her stall selling buttons and toys in the port city of Wenzhou.
    (Econ., 5/2/20, p.51)
1980        A US-funded program, staffed by professors from business schools across the US, brought Western business ideas to Chinese managers.
    (SFC, 11/3/05, p.B6)
1980        A mummy titled the "Beauty of Kiruran," was found in the Taklimakan Desert in China. The Uighurs have been the majority population of this area for centuries and speak a Turkic language.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.C-1)

1980        Fidel Castano, a wealthy landowner in Colombia’s Cordoba province, founded the paramilitaries after leftist guerrillas kidnapped his father and returned him dead following a ransom payment.
    (SFC, 12/18/00, p.A11)

1980        In Czechoslovakia a monument was unveiled in the Prague 6 district for Marshall Konev, who led the Red Army forces that liberated large parts of the country from the Nazi occupation in 1945. Konev remained a controversial figure for his role in crushing the 1956 anti-Soviet uprising in Hungary and preparing the 1968 Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 1/4/18)

1980        In El Salvador an agricultural reform was instituted and the Finca El Espina coffee plantation was confiscated from the Duenas family and given to their workers, who formed a cooperative. The Duenas received $4 million in compensation.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.C18)
1980        The Salvadoran Communist Party, led by Shafik Handal (1930-2006), merged with four other leftist groups into the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front, or FMLN.
    (AP, 1/24/06)

1980        Egypt’s Pres. Sadat allowed Sharia to become the principal source of Egyptian law.
    (SFC, 7/15/06, p.E2)

1980        Parts of Ethiopia were stricken by drought and famine, which the government did not want to become public knowledge. Abebech Gobema (1935-2021) began caring for cxhildren left to die. In 1986 she managed to register her Abebech Gobema Children's Care And Development Association as a nonprofit.
    (SSFC, 8/8/21, p.F10)

1980        Gisele Freund (d.2000 at 91) won France’s national Grand Prize for Photography.
    (SFC, 4/1/00, p.A26)
1980        Jean Dausset (1916-2009), French immunologist, shared the Nobel Prize for medicine with Americans George D. Snell and Baruj Benacerraf for their work on genetically determined structures on cell surfaces that regulate immunological reactions. Dausset's discovery in 1958 of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue system allowed doctors to verify compatibility between donor and receiver for an organ transplant.
    (AP, 6/24/09)
1980        French oil giant Total SA leased an oil patch in southern Sudan the size of Pennsylvania. In 2005 the lease came under dispute as southern Sudan gained limited autonomy and signed an oil deal with London-based White Nile Ltd.
    (WSJ, 6/19/06, p.A1)(www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article20234)
1980        Marius Giuge (b.1909), French potter, died. He had begun working in the Vallouris around 1950.
    (SFC, 12/10/08, p.G4)

1980        Guatemala’s army formed one of the first model villages in Santa Avelina for people relocated due to fighting in the western mountains. More than 45 such villages were formed and many died from malnutrition and treatable diseases.
    (SFC, 12/30/17, p.A4)

1980        In Haiti journalist Richard Brisson (d.1982) was sent into exile under the rule of dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier.
    (SFC, 10/20/98, p.C12)

1980        In India the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) coalesced from the Hindu revival group National Volunteer Corps, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), founded in 1925.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.A1)

1980        Indonesia established Komodo National Park to help protect the predatory Komodo dragons, a type of lizard that can grow to 10 feet. The park was named a World Heritage Site in 1991.
    (SFC, 12/23/21, p.A4)
1980        In Indonesia a 7 ½ mile wall was built in West Java province to keep out jungle animals.
    (SFC, 9/14/02, p.A20)
1980        Mobs in Indonesia killed and raped ethnic Chinese residents and looted and destroyed their businesses.
    (SFC, 6/13/00, p.A12)

1980        Israel’s government allowed settlers to expand their presence in the Arab area of Hebron after a Palestinian attack killed 6 Jews returning from prayer at Abraham’s tomb.
    (SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)
1980        Luz International was founded in Israel. It became the first company to implement solar thermal technology on a commercial scale. Luz began building solar-thermal power stations in California’s Mojave desert in the mid 1980s.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.23)

1980        The "Index Thomisticus" was printed in 56 volumes. It covered the context of all 10 million words written by Thomas Aquinas. Italian Jesuit Roberto Busa (1913-2011) had begun the project using index cards in 1941 and later switched to IBM's punch card machines. Busa was a  pioneer in the usage of computers for linguistic and literary analysis.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roberto_Busa)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.39)
1980        The Italian film “City of Women" was written and directed by Federico Fellini.
1980        In Italy Paolo Fazioli, a Roman engineer and pianist, moved to Sacile and opened a piano factory with plans to produce the world’s best pianos. By 2016 his factory was turning out 140 grand pianos a year.
    (Econ, 5/7/15, p.80)

1980        Dr. Fujio Masuoka, a researcher at Toshiba, filed a patent for a variation on floating-gate memory. His invention was dubbed flash memory because it allowed entire sections of memory to be erased quickly.
    (Econ, 3/11/06, Survey p.28)

1980        Government forces of Iraq began battling the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)

1980        Colonel Muammar Khaddafi of Libya recruited the nationless, disenfranchised nomads by implying that he would train the Kel Tamashek and provide weapons to fight for their independence from the Malian government. The rebels slowly realized that Khadaffi's only intention was to use them in his own wars. Some of these dejected fighters formed the band Tinariwen in Khadaffi's rebel camp.

1980        In Namibia the Harnas Wild Animal Foundation was begun by Nick and Mariet van der Merwes.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.T5)

1980        In Nepal the Chaudry Group financed the royalists’ campaign in a pro-democracy referendum and was rewarded lucrative licenses to import booze and sell paper.
    (Econ, 5/14/16, p.54)

1980        In New Zealand Matiu Rata (d.1997 at 63) resigned from the Labor Party and formed the Mana Motuhake Party to represent Maori tribes. He went on to negotiate for the Maori Fisheries Commission for fishing rights and was a pastor in the Maori-based Ratana Church.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A24)

1980        The Nazoo Anna School was founded in Peshawar, Pakistan, for girls from Afghan refugee camps by Nazaneen Jabarkhel Majeed. It was named after a female Afghan freedom fighter.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.A10)
1980        Pakistan made the payment of zakat, 2.5 percent religious tax, to the government mandatory for Sunni Muslims under the military dictator Gen. Zia-ul-Haq, one of a variety of actions he took in an attempt to make the state more religious.
    (AFP, 8/17/12)
1980        Pakistan was established a national sharia court during the rule of military dictator Ziaul Haq as part of a sweeping Islamization of Pakistan's institutions.
    (AFP, 12/30/13)
1980        The Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) and the Criminal Procedure Code were amended, through ordinances in 1980, 1982 and 1986 to declare anything implying disrespect to Muhammad, Ahle Bait (family of the prophet), Sahaba (companions of the prophet) and Sha'ar-i-Islam (Islamic symbols), a cognizable offence.

1980        Saudi Arabia completed the buy-out of the American-owned Aramco coil company.
    (Econ., 2/21/15, p.63)

1980        Construction began on Scotland’s Torness nuclear power plant. It was commissioned in 1988.

1980        South Korea outlawed private, out-of-school tutoring driving the industry underground. In 2000 the ban was declared unbconstitutional.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, SR p.12)

1980        In Spain ETA had its bloodiest year with 91 victims, nearly half of them civilians.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1980        The giant Kenana sugar processing plant opened in Sudan. In 2002 El Nazir, Osman & Desai, and Govind D. authored “Kenana: Green Gold of Sudan."

1980        Sweden passed a referendum to wean itself off nuclear power. In 2010 a center-right government overturned the 1980 decision. As of 2012 Sweden had 10 nuclear reactors at the country's three power plants: Ringhals, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, providing about half of the country's electricity.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.44)(AP, 6/21/12)
1980        Swedish-German philanthropist Jakob von Uexkull founded the annual Right to Livelihood Awards  to recognize work he felt was being ignored by the Nobel Prizes.
    (AP, 10/13/09)(AP, 11/24/17)

1980        In Syria membership in the Muslim Brotherhood became punishable by death.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.50)
1980        In Syria a rebellion against President Hafez al-Assad in Jisr al-Shughour, a town of 50,000, was crushed with scores of deaths.
    (Reuters, 4/25/15)

1980         Thailand’s PM Kriangsak resigned after losing the support of an influential faction of independent-minded middle-ranking army officers known as the Young Turks.
    (AP, 12/23/03)
1980        In Thailand Prem Tinsulanonda (d.2019) became prime minister and continued to 1988. In 1998 the former army commander became adviser to the royal palace.
    (AP, 5/26/19)

1980        In Turkey some 50 people were executed following a military coup. 500,000 people were arrested and many hundreds died in jail.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.41)
1980        In Turkey military leaders established the Higher Education Board.
    (Econ, 5/22/04, p.48)
1980        In Turkey the wearing of headscarves was first banned in universities shortly after a military coup carried out by officers who viewed Islamists as a serious threat. But the implementation of the rule varied during the law's early years.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
1980        Abdullah Ocalan (b.1948), leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) crossed the border to Syria just before the September 12 Turkish military coup.
    (WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A10)(SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)

1980        In Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, some 1,400 elephants were left from an estimated count of 14,300 in 1973. No rhinos were known to remain in the park.
    (NG, May 1985, p.627)

1980        Ukrainian dissident poet Vasyl Stus was arrested for “anti-Soviet activity." Viktor Medvedchuk was appointed his lawyer. During his closing speech at the trial, Medvedchuk denounced his client and said that all of Stus’s “crimes" deserved punishment. Stus was sentenced to 10 years of forced labor in the notorious Perm-36 Gulag camp where he died, while on hunger strike, in 1985.
    (The Daily Beast, 7/14/19)
1980        In Ukraine an explosion at the Gorskaya mine (aka Hirske Coal Mine) killed 66 miners.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y5qn6wef)(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.A17)

1980        Pope John Paul II allowed married Episcopal clergy to join the Catholic Church and serve as priests.
    (AP, 8/22/05)

1980        Nguyen Co Thach (d.1998 at 75) began serving as the foreign minister of Vietnam and continued to 1991.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.C3)

1980        In Wales the Big Pit coal works at Blaenafon was shut down. In 1983 it reopened as a colliery museum.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T5)(http://tinyurl.com/3csn6y)

1980        Robert Mugabe appointed Joshua Nkomo as home affairs minister in charge of police and internal security in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.D6)
1980        Zimbabwe’s white population was around 200,000 at this time. By 2008 it had fallen to less than 50,000. Total population was about 7 million.
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.53)(Econ, 12/5/15, p.50)

1980-1981    There was a world-wide recession.
    (Econ, 2/18/06, p.82)

1980-1982    Dallas was the top ranking network show on television for two seasons with rankings of 31.2 and 28.4%
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)
1980-1982    Alexander Lebed commanded a Russian battalion fighting in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, A18)
1980-1982    In Chad Goukouni Weddeye served as president until he was overthrown by Hissene Habre. He went to Algeria where he has lived, some of the time helping to plan rebellions against Habre, who was later overthrown by Idriss Deby Itno. In 2009 Weddeye planned to return to Chad.
    (AFP, 8/21/09)

1980-1984    The Dumbarton vehicle bridge was built across the southern San Francisco Bay to replace a 1927 drawbridge.
    (Ind, 5/23/00,14A)(SMBP, 2004)

1980-1995    Eugenia Charles (1919-2005) served as PM of Dominica. She was the 1st female prime minister in the Caribbean region.
    (SFC, 9/8/05, p.B7)

1980-1986    The 6th Betty Crocker [General Mills advertising icon] made her appearance.
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A6)

1980-1987    Zhao Ziyang (1920-2005) served as premier of China after which he took over as secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
    (SFC, 1/17/05, p.B4)
1980-1987    Chun Doo Hwan, military strongman, ruled over South Korea.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A1)

1980-1987    In Zimbabwe Canaan Banana, a Methodist minister and theology professor, served as ceremonial president following independence.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.A20)

1980-1988    Iran and Iraq engaged in war. [see Sep 22, 1980] The number of casualties was estimated at well over a million. The US provided covert battle planning assistance to Iraq.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.312)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/18/02, p.A1)

1980-1989    US bottlers of Coca-Cola switched from cane sugar to high-fructose corn syrup in the 1980s to cut costs. Mexican bottlers continued to use cane sugar.
    (WSJ, 1/11/06, p.A1)
1980-1989    During the 1980s American zoo elephants began to be trained to paint using acrylics on canvas. In 1998 Ruby in Phoenix generated over $100,000 for the zoo.
    (WSJ, 7/15/98, p.A12)
1980-1989    During the 1980s the US purchased millions of Type 56 rifles from China to arm the Afghan Mujahedeen in their war against the Soviet army. The rifles were copycats of the AK-47s used by Russian soldiers. The US gave an average of $500 million in military aid annually to the Mujahedeen. The US also purchased Chinese and Polish AK-47s to supply the Contra guerillas in Nicaragua.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A9)(SFC, 9/23/96, A9)
1980-1989    The number of new cases of malignant melanoma, a form of skin cancer, roughly doubled in this period.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.138)
1980-1989    Conrad Black and David Radler launched a small newspaper acquisition spree generated by their 1st small paper, the Sherbrooke Record in Quebec. In 2003 Black and Radler became embroiled in suits stemming from their operations in Hollinger Int'l.
    (WSJ, 1/30/04, p.A1)
1980-1989    During the 1980s Congo’s Mobutu Sese Seko imported 5,000 sheep from Venezuela for one his ranches by using a government owned DC-8 to make 32 round trips between Caracas and Zaire.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/2kg3bl)
1980-1989    During the 1980s Ayman Al-Zawahri fled from Egypt after he was sentenced to 3 years in prison for belonging to an outlawed group. He later met Osama bin Laden and became the "emir" of the Islamic Jihad.
    (SFC, 2/22/00, p.A8)
1980-1989    In Honduras death squads reportedly killed 184 people over the decade. During the 1980s the US provided training and support for Battalion 316, a Honduran military unit, which had a history of kidnapping, murder and torture of suspected leftists subversives. Washington gave Honduras $1.4 billion in aid. By 2000 charges were put forth against 29 soldiers and officers, 8 of whom fled justice.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A3)(SFC,11/26/97, p.C5)(SFC, 1/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 2/23/00, p.A14)
1980-1989    In Romania a huge building spree, inspired by Nicolae Ceausescu’s visit to North Korea, leveled entire neighborhoods in Bucharest and left a large number of stray dogs roaming the streets. Their number reached 100-200,000 in 1997. Ceausescu ripped out 80% of the historical center to create the Civic Center district.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.A20)(SSFC, 6/18/17, p.F6)
1980-1989    Bauxite prices dropped in the 1980s. For Suriname it had provided nearly 60% of export earnings.
    (WSJ, 4/15/97, p.A9)

1980-1990    The US Dept. of Defense allowed the open pit burning of highly toxic classified materials at a top secret Air Force base called Area 51, 125 northwest of Las Vegas. Workers later complained of strange skin diseases and other health problems and file suit against the DoD. Government lawyers use the "mosaic theory" argument in defense and claim that they can't acknowledge seemingly innocuous facts without creating a mosaic that an enemy could use to figure out military secrets.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-1)
1980-1990    Herbert Baumeister (1947-1996), an Indianapolis businessman, killed 16 men, most of them gay, and dumped them in the woods behind his home and along rural roads in Indiana and Ohio. Baumeister committed suicide in Canada at age 49.

1980-1991    Publications in Kurdish were banned in Turkey.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A12)

1980-1992    In El Salvador a civil war raged during which security forces have been blamed for killing 40,000 civilians with torture commonplace. It was later reported that the US had pumped $1.5 million a day into the fight "to make El Salvador safe for democracy."
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-19)(SFEM,11/16/97, p.28)

1980-1992    The Renamo guerrilla movement, led by Afonso Dhlakama, waged rebellion against the Freelimo government. It was a peasant terrorist army created in the late 70s by Rhodesia’s  (later Zimbabwe) white minority regime and later financed by South Africa’s white apartheid government.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A10,12)

1980-1993    Donald M. Fraser served as mayor of Minneapolis, Minn. He had served in the US House of Representatives from 1963-1979. His wife Arvonne was active in women's issues.
    (SSFC, 8/12/18, p.C10)

1980-1994    Tanzania averaged an inflation rate of almost 30% during this period.
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.82)

1980-1994    Life expectancy in Uganda dropped from 52 to 40 due to AIDS.
    (SFC, 4/3/96, p.A-5)
1980-1994 Uganda averaged an inflation rate of 92%.
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.82)

1980-1995    The US prison population tripled from 500,000 to 1.5 million inmates.
    (WSJ, 9/29/95, p.A-1)

1980-1996    Scientist over this period established that 12 meteorites in a worldwide collection had come from the moon. They are called SNCs ("snicks"), an abbreviation for the locations where they were discovered: Shergotty, India; Nakhla, Egypt; and Chassigny, France.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.A22)(PacDis, Winter ’97, p.30)

1980-2004    Aggregate income going to the highest-earning 1% of Americans doubled during this period from 8% to 16%.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.30)

1980-2006    Rising temperatures in Greenland allowed for an increase in farmland from 620 acres to 2,500 acres over this period.
    (WSJ, 7/18/06, p.A12)

1980-2008    In North Carolina the population of Mecklenburg County, which includes Charlotte and its main suburbs, grew from 400,000 people to 900,000.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.35)

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