Timeline 1985

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1985        Jan 1, The 1st US mandatory seat belt law went into effect in NY.
    (www.nysgtsc.state.ny.us/seat-ndx.htm)
1985        Jan 1, Mustafa Maarouf Saad (d.2002), Lebanese militia leader, lost his sight in a car explosion in front of his house in Sidon. His daughter (13) was killed and his wife lost one eye.
    (SFC, 8/3/02, p.A18)

1985        Jan 3,  Soprano Leontyne Price, part of the Met since 1961, bid adieu to the Metropolitan Opera in New York. She sang the title role of Aida.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)
1985         Jan 3, President Reagan condemned a rash of arsons on abortion clinics.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1985        Jan 5, Boris Weisfeiler (43), a Russian émigré and naturalized US citizen, disappeared while hiking in Chile. US declassified documents in 2000 indicated that Boris, a mathematics professor, was detained by the Chilean military and handed over to Colonia Dignidad.
    (SFC, 6/19/00, p.A8)(SFC, 6/12/08, p.A10)
1985        Jan 5, Israel’s 6-week Operation Moses for the resettlement of 8,000 Ethiopian Jews ended. It began Nov 18, 1984, but new was blacked out for security reasons.
    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/ejhist.html)

1985        Jan 6, Dan White (1946-1985), former SF supervisor and the killer in 1978 of SF Mayor Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk, was released from prison in Los Angeles.
    (SSFC, 1/3/10, DB p.46)
1985        Jan 6, Robert Welch, co-founder of the anti-Communist John Birch Society (1958), died. Welch was the editor and publisher of the monthly magazine American Opinion and the weekly "The Review of the News."
    (SFC, 8/5/96, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_W._Welch_Jr.)

1985        Jan 7, Vietnam seized the Khmer National Liberation Front headquarters near the Thai border.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1985        Jan 8, The Rev. Lawrence Martin Jenco was kidnapped in Lebanon. He was released 19 months later.
    (AP, 1/8/05)

1985        Jan 13, A train plunged into a ravine in eastern Ethiopia and killed at least 392 people.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yznz8w)

1985        Jan 15, Tancredo Neves (1910-1985) became the 1st elected president of Brazil in 21 years. Just one day before he was scheduled to take the oath of office (March 15, 1985), Neves became severely ill. He suffered from abdominal complications and developed generalized infections. After seven operations, Tancredo Neves died on April 21, 1985. He was succeeded by José Sarney, who served to 1990.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tancredo_Neves)

1985        Jan 17, A jury in New Jersey ruled that terminally ill patients have the right to starve themselves.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1985        Jan 18, President Reagan declared that the U.S. would not take part in the World Court ruling on Nicaraguan charges.
    (HN, 1/18/99)
1985        Jan 18, In Sudan Mahmud Mohammed Taha (b.1909) was hanged for refusing to recant his unorthodox views on Islam. Sudanese president Jaafar Nimeiri, on the advice of Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi, ordered the execution.
    (AFP, 4/23/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmoud_Mohamed_Taha)

1985        Jan 20, The SF 49ers defeated the Miami Dolphins 38-16 in the Super Bowl played at Stanford Stadium. This capped the winningest season in national Football League history, with 18 wins and only one loss.
    (www.superbowl.com/history/recaps/game/sbxix)(SSFC, 1/17/10, DB p.42)
1985        Jan 20, President Reagan and VP Bush were sworn in for 2nd terms of office in a brief White House ceremony. It being a Sunday, the public swearing-in was held the following day.
    (AP, 1/20/05)

1985        Jan 21, 19F (-28C) was recorded at Caesar's Head, South Carolina, a state record. 34F (-37C) was recorded at Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina, a state record.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yaleou)
1985        Jan 21, James Beard (b.1903), US culinary expert, author (Delights & Prejudices), died.
    (http://members.localnet.com/~jgeorge/jbeard.htm)(SFC, 5/4/05, p.E1)

1985        Jan 22, A cold wave damaged 90% of Florida's citrus crop.
    (http://prop1.org/inaugur/85reagan/850122in.htm)

1985        Jan 23, A debate in Britain's House of Lords was carried live on TV for the first time.
    (AP, 1/23/00)

1985        Jan 24, The space shuttle Discovery was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on the first secret, all-military shuttle mission.
    (AP, 1/24/05)

1985        Jan 27, Pope John Paul said mass to one million in Venezuela.
    (HN, 1/27/99)

1985        Jan 28, The song "We are the World" was recorded in Hollywood, Ca.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/We_Are_the_World)

1985        Jan 29, In SF the US Army trucked the historic Goldie Shack from 485 34th Ave. to the Presidio, where it will be stored and eventually reopened to the public. It was one of 5,610 shacks built in 1906-1907 to house earthquake refugees. The 34th Ave site will be used for a shopping mall.
    (SSFC, 1/24/10, DB p.42)

1985        Jan, National Geographic published pictures and the story of Koko the gorilla and her kitten.
    (NG, May 1985, members forum)
1985        Jan, Rev. Lawrence Martin Jenco (1935-1996), the director of Catholic Relief Services, was kidnapped by the Islamic Jihad in Beirut. He was freed in July 1986 after negotiations involving the Reagan administration, Shiite radicals and Anglican envoy Terry White. In 1995 he wrote “Bound To Forgive- the Pilgrimage to Reconciliation of a Beirut Hostage." He shared captivity with Terry Anderson, AP correspondent, David Jacobsen, administrator of Beirut’s American Univ., and Thomas Sutherland, the Univ.'s acting dean of agriculture.
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.A19)(SFC, 8/4/01, p.A3)
1985        Jan, Israel pulled back to a security zone in southern Lebanon to protect its border.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)

1985        Feb 1, Greenland left the European Community but remains associated with it as an overseas territory.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1985/index_en.htm)

1985        Feb 2, David Raley, a caretaker at the Carolands Chateau in Hillsborough, Ca., lured 2 teenage girls inside, where he assaulted and stabbed them, killing one. The 2nd girl survived and identified her assailant. In 2006 an appeals court upheld his death sentence.
    (SFC, 8/19/97, p.A17)(Ind, 2/26/00, p.5A)(SFC, 4/15/06, p.B3)

1985        Feb 3, Frank Friedman Oppenheimer (b.1912), American physicist, died. He had worked on the Manhattan Project, was a target of McCarthyism, and was later the founder of the Exploratorium in San Francisco (1969). He was the younger brother of Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, the first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Oppenheimer)

1985        Feb 5, The US halted a loan to Chile in protest over human rights abuses.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1985        Feb 7, "New York, New York" became the official anthem of NYC.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1985)
1985        Feb 7, US drug agent Enrique “Kiki" Camarena Salazar was tortured and killed at a house in Guadalajara in the presence of a half-dozen top Mexican officials. Mexican authorities found his body on March 6 at a ranch east of Guadalajara. In 1992 Ruben Zuno Arce, the brother-in-law of former president Luis Echeverria, was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. In 1989 Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo was arrested for complicity in the murder along with drug charges and sentenced to 40 years in prison. In 2000 Gallardo received a 2nd 40-year sentence for smuggling and bribery.
    (WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A1)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A10)(SFC, 8/12/00, p.A11)

1985        Feb 9, Madonna's album "Like a Virgin," released in 1984, reached #1.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2vfje9)
1985        Feb 9, Seoul admitted using force against opposition leader Kim Dae Jung.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1985        Feb 11, Jordan’s King Hussein and PLO leader Arafat signed an accord.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yy39mx)

1985        Feb 13, Polish police arrested 7 Solidarity leaders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Solidarity)

1985        Feb 14, Hanoi troops surrounded the main Khmer Rouge base at Phnom Malai, Cambodia.
    (HN, 2/14/98)
1985        Feb 14, Cable News Network reporter Jeremy Levin, who was being held hostage by extremists in Lebanon, was freed.
    (AP, 2/14/98)

1985        Feb 15, The STS 51-E vehicle was moved to the launch pad. Deployment of the vehicle aboard the Challenger was cancelled in March.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(www.astronautix.com/flights/sts51e.htm)
1985        Feb 15, The World Chess Championship match in Moscow between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov was abandoned due to psychological strain. The match was resumed in September.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9d9nd)

1985        Feb 17, In Tennessee Sidney Porterfield beat Ron Owens to death at his Shelby County home. On January 14, 1986, Gaile Owens (33), the wife of Ron Owens, was sentenced to death for hiring a stranger to kill her abusive husband. In 2010 her sentenced was commuted to life. In 2011 she won parole.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3dpr6cy)(SFC, 10/8/11, p.A5)
1985        Feb 17, Murray Haydon became the third person to receive an artificial heart.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1985        Feb 19, William Schroeder (d.1986) was the 1st artificial heart patient to leave hospital. He spent 15 minutes outside Humana Hospital in Louisville, Ky.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_J._Schroeder)(http://tinyurl.com/yj2fc3)
1985        Feb 19, Mickey Mouse was welcomed in China.
    (www.440.com/twtd/archives/feb19.html)
1985        Feb 19, 150 were killed when a Spanish jetliner crashed approaching Bilbao, Spain.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ylaall)

1985        Feb 20, Clarence Nash (80), voice of Donald Duck, died of leukemia, in Calif.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clarence_Nash)

1985        Feb 23, Indiana basketball coach Bobby Knight threw a chair during a game.
    (http://www2.indystar.com/library/factfiles/people/k/knight_bob/knight.html)
1985        Feb 23, US Senate confirmed Edwin Meese III as attorney general.
    (www.ashbrook.org/events/memdin/meese/home.html)

1985        Feb 25, Edwin Meese III was sworn in as US Attorney General.
    (www.reaganfoundation.org/reagan/biography/reagan_revoultion.asp)

1985        Feb 26, In the 27th Grammy Awards Tina Turner’s "What's Love Got to Do With It" won as record and song of the year. Cyndi Lauper won as best new artist.
    (www.rockonthenet.com/archive/1985/grammys.htm)

1985        Feb 27, In San Francisco the Irwin Memorial Blood Bank said that 80 Bay Area residents have received blood since 1979 from donors who are know to have contracted AIDS.
    (SSFC, 2/21/10, DB p.42)
1985        Feb 27, Henry Cabot Lodge (82), former ambassador, died in Beverly, Mass. He had served 3 terms as a U.S. senator and ran as the 1960 Republican vice-presidential nominee.
    (AP, 2/27/05)

1985        Feb, The song “We Are the World" was recorded during the Grammy Awards to raise money for African famine relief.
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.E4)(SSFC, 7/3/05, p.A17)
1985        Feb, Steve Wozniak left Apple Corp. to start his own company making home video products.
    (SFC, 1/24/04, p.A12)
1985        Feb, In SF Armen Baliantz (1921-2007) closed her Bali’s restaurant at Pacific and Battery. The original had opened in the early 1950s on Sansome St.
    (SFC, 8/4/07, p.A1)
1985        Feb, New Zealand under PM David Lange (1942-2005) turned away nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered warships from its ports. This led the US to abrogate its ANZUS alliance responsibilities to new Zealand in 1986.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98,  p.A23)(www.bartleby.com/65/an/AnzusTre.html)
1985        Feb, In Pakistan Mohammed Khan was elected prime minister in the first elections since imposition of martial law in 1977. Benazir Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party boycotted the elections.
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)

1985         Mar 1, The Pentagon accepted the theory that an atomic war would block the sun, causing a "nuclear winter."
    (HN, 3/1/98)
1985        Mar 1, Herb Kohl (b.1935), Milwaukee businessman and later US Senator (1988), purchased the Milwaukee Bucks basketball team.
    (www.nba.com/bucks/history/history.html)

1985        Mar 2, Country singer, Gary Morris hit #1 on the country charts for the first time with "Baby Bye Bye" from his album, "Faded Blue". Other chart toppers included: Careless Whisper, Wham! featuring George Michael; California Girls, David Lee Roth; Can't Fight this Feeling, REO Speedwagon.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1985_in_country_music)(http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/id201.htm)
1985        Mar 2, The US government approved a screening test for AIDS that detected antibodies to the virus, allowing possibly contaminated blood to be excluded from the blood supply.
    (AP, 3/2/98)
1985        Mar 2, The Gordo cartoon strip, one of the first in the US to celebrate Mexican culture, ended. Gus Arriola (1917-2008) had begun the strip in 1941.
    (SSFC, 2/3/08, p.B1)
1985        March 2, The tug Willamette Pilot III sank in heavy seas off the coast of Mendocino, Ca. 6 crew members died.
    (SSFC, 3/7/10, DB p.46)
1985        Mar 2, Three Assyrians were executed by the Baath regime of Iraq for distributing literature against the Arabization policies of the government.
    (www.unpo.org/article.php?id=741)

1985        Mar 3, The TV series "Moonlighting" with Cybill Shepard and Bruce Willis, premiered.
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0088571/episodes#season-1)
1985        Mar 3, "My One and Only" closed at St. James Theater in NYC after 767 performances.
    (www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=4221)
1985        Mar 3, Kevin McHale of Memphis State University set a Boston Celtics scoring record this night as he poured in 56 points in a 138-129 win over the Detroit Pistons.
    (http://celticsbandwagon.blogspot.com/2006_12_01_archive.html)
1985        Mar 3, The group, Women Against Pornography awarded one of its dubious "Pig Awards" to Huggies Diapers! The activists said that the diaper TV ads have "crossed the line between eye-catching and porn."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_3)
1985        Mar 3, Britain’s National Union of Mine Workers (NUM), led by Arthur Scargill, voted to end a 51 week strike that proved to be the longest and most violent walkout in British history.
    (SC, 3/3/02)(AP, 3/3/05)(Econ, 4/13/13, p.27)

1985        Mar 4, The EPA ordered a virtual ban on leaded gas.
    (http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/lead/01.htm)
1985        Mar 4, New Zealand floated its currency.
    (http://tvnz.co.nz/view/news_business_story_skin/477448?format=html)

1985        Mar 6, Yul Brynner appeared in his 4,500th performance of "King & I."
    (www.weekender.co.jp/new/040305/this-month-history.html)
1985        Mar 6, In Mexico authorities found the body of kidnapped US drug agent Enrique Camarena Salazar and a Mexican pilot at a ranch east of Guadalajara.
    (AP, 3/6/05)

1985        Mar 7, Victor W. Farris (75), inventor of paper clip and paper milk carton (1932), died in Palm Beach, Fla. [see 1824 and Oct 19, 1915]
    (www.msu.edu/~daggy/cop/bkofdead/obits-fa.htm)
1985        Mar 7, George Schick (76), Czech conductor (Chicago Symphony), died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycj6qk)
1985        Mar 7, Robert W. Woodruff (b.1889), CEO (Coca-Cola), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_W._Woodruff)

1985        Mar 8, Thomas Creighton (33) died at the Univ. of Arizona after having three heart transplants in a 46-hour period.
    (HN, 3/8/98)(http://tinyurl.com/tbw75)
1985        Mar 8, In Lebanon a massive car bomb killed 80 people. It targeted Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah, but he escaped injury. Reporter Bob Woodward later wrote that CIA director William Casey, while lying on his deathbed, admitted personal culpability in the attack, which he suggests was carried out with funding from Saudi Arabia.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1985_Beirut_car_bombing)

1985        Mar 10, Konstantin U. Chernenko (b.1911), Soviet leader for just 13 months (1984-1985), died.
    (AP, 3/10/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konstantin_Chernenko)

1985        Mar 11, The Soviet Union announced the death the day before of its leader, Konstantin U. Chernenko. Politburo member Mikhail S. Gorbachev was chosen to succeed him and became general-secretary of the Communist party and the Premier of the Soviet Union. He liberated the Soviet Union from old Communist structures and opened the door for Russian democracy.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1985)(SFEC, 12/22/96, BR p.7)(AP, 3/11/98)(HN, 3/11/98)(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A6)
1985          Mar 11, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visited Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/11/03)

1985        Mar 12, The US and the USSR began arms control talks in Geneva.
    (HN, 3/12/98)
1985        Mar 12, Conductor Eugene Ormandy (85), director of the Philadelphia Philharmonic for more than four decades, died.
    (AP, 3/12/05)

1985        Mar 13, Konstantin Chernenko was buried near the Kremlin Wall in Moscow. Mikhail Gorbachev became the new leader of the Soviet Union. He oversaw the dismantling of the Soviet nuclear arms stockpile and the end of the Soviet Union itself.
    (HN, 3/13/99)

1985        Mar 16, Terry Anderson, chief Middle East correspondent for The Associated Press, was abducted in Beirut; he was released in December 1991.
    (AP, 3/16/97)(HN, 3/16/98)

1985        Mar 17, President Reagan agreed to a joint study with Canada on acid rain.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1985        Mar 18, Baseball commissioner Peter Ueberroth reinstated Willie Mays and Mickey Mantle.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y34t69)
1985        Mar 18, The 1st remote location for ABC’s "Nightline" news was in South Africa.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1985-3/1985-03-18-ABC-19.html)

1985        Mar 19, In a legislative victory for President Reagan, the Senate voted, 55-45, to authorize production of the MX missile.
    (AP, 3/19/97)
1985        Mar 19, In California Cinnamon Brown (15), aided by her sister-in-law, Patti Bailey, fatally shoot her stepmother Linda Brown in Orange County. David Brown (d.2014), a computer businessman, had persuaded the girls to kill his wife and went on to collect $835,000 in insurance before he was convicted in the murder. The story inspired two book and the TV miniseries “Love, Lies and Murder."
    (SSFC, 3/23/14, p.C3)(http://tinyurl.com/qhxqfua)

1985        Mar 20, Libby Riddles of Teller, Alaska, became the first woman to win the Iditarod Trail Dog Sled Race.
    (AP, 3/20/05)

1985        Mar 21, Michael Redgrave (b.1908), English actor, died. His films included Alfred Hitchcock's “The Lady Vanishes" (1938), “The Stars Look Down" (1939) and the film of Robert Ardrey's play “Thunder Rock" (1943).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Redgrave)
1985        Mar 21, Police in Langa (Uitenhage), South Africa, opened fire on blacks marching to mark the 25th anniversary of the Sharpeville shootings; the reported death toll varied between 29 and 43.
    (AP, 3/21/08)(www.un.org/av/photo/subjects/apartheid.htm)

1985        Mar 23, Joshua Silver, Oxford physicist, began contemplating the development of  self adjusting eyeglasses. By 2009 some 30,000 of Silver's specs had been distributed to the poor in 15 countries; his eventual target is 100 million pairs.
    (SSFC, 1/11/09, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/96buv9)

1985        Mar 24, Thousands demonstrated in Madrid against the NATO presence in Spain.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1985        Mar 25, 57th Academy Awards "Amadeus," F. Murray Abraham and Sally Field won.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/57th_Academy_Awards)
1985        Mar 25, British journalist Alec Collett (64) was abducted in Beirut as he covered Lebanon’s civil war. His remains were found in 2009 in the eastern Bekaa Valley. The following year a group belonging to Palestinian guerrilla leader Abu Nidal said it killed him in retaliation for US air raids on Libya.
    (www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-3752719.html)(Reuters, 11/23/09)

1985        Mar 28, Neil Simon's "Biloxi Blues," premiered in NYC.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ygdptw)
1985        Mar 28, Marc Chagall (b.1887), Belarus-born French painter, died. In 2008 Jackie Wullschlager authored “Chagall: A Biography."
    (www.artelino.com/articles/marc_chagall.asp)(Econ, 9/20/08, p.101)

1985        Mar 29, In Santiago, Chile, police killed Rafael and Eduardo Vergara. The 2 young brothers, active members of the often violent “Movement of the Revolutionary Left" (MIR), were peppered with bullets by military police during an anti-Pinochet protest in the low-income Villa Francia district. The event became known as the “Day of the Young Combatants."
    (SFC, 3/31/08, p.A3)(http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90852/6384027.html)

1985        Mar 30, Workers at cemeteries in Colma, Ca., joined striking East Bay graveyard employees.
    (SSFC, 3/28/10, DB p.42)
1985        Mar 30, In Virginia Jens Soering (b.1966), the son of a Germany diplomat, stabbed to death the parents of his girlfriend, Derek (72) and Nancy Haysom (53). In court, Jens Soering claimed that Elizabeth Haysom (b.1964) was the murderer and he wanted to spare her the death penalty by confessing.
    (SFC, 7/7/10, p.A4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jens_Soering)

1985        Mar 31, In San Diego 2 white police officers stopped a pickup truck driven by Sagon Penn (d.2002). A scuffle ensued and Penn killed officer Thomas Riggs with the officer’s gun. Penn was acquitted under allegations of police brutality and racism.
    (SFC, 7/5/02, p.A24)

1985        Mar, Ann Getty and Lord Weidenfeld (b.1919) bought Grove Press for $2 million.
    (SFC, 1/8/95, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grove_Press)
1985        Mar, The Well Online conferencing service went live from Sausalito, Ca., with a VAX computer, 6 modems and 6 phone lines.
    (Wired, 5/97, p.106)
1985        Mar, In Greece a socialist government forced Constantine Karamanlis (1907-1998) from the presidency. He was succeeded by Christos Antoniou Sartzetakis (b.1929).
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christos_Sartzetakis)
1985        Mar, Nick Blake, a free lance US journalist, and photographer Griff Davis were shot and killed by Guatemalan civil militia. Their remains were found in 1992.
    (WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A23)
1985        Mar, Devan Nair resigned as president of Singapore in the wake of a sex scandal.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.122)(Econ, 1/21/06, p.14)

1985        Apr 2, Ronnie Gardner shot and killed Utah attorney Michael Burdell during an escape attempt at the Metropolitan Hall of Justice in Salt Lake City. Gardner was convicted of murder and sentenced to death. In 2010 Gardner (49) chose to die by firing squad, an option which was removed by state lawmakers in 2004, but still available to him.
    (SFC, 4/24/10, p.A5)

1985        Apr 3, The landmark Brown Derby restaurant in Hollywood closed after 56 years in business.
    (AP, 4/3/97)

1985        Apr 4, Gary Dotson, who served six years of a prison sentence for rape, was freed on bail from the Joliet Correctional Center in Illinois after his accuser, Cathleen Crowell Webb, testified that the attack had never occurred.
    (AP, 4/4/05)
1985        Apr 4, A coup in Sudan ousted President Nimeiry and replaced him with Gen. Dahab.
    (HN, 4/4/99)

1985        Apr 6, William J. Schroeder became the first artificial heart recipient to be discharged from the hospital as he moved into an apartment in Louisville, Ky.
    (AP, 4/6/97)

1985        Apr 8, India filed suit against Union Carbide over Bhopal disaster.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_8)

1985        Apr 11, Enver Hoxha (b.1908), Albania’s Stalinist dictator, died. He was succeeded by Ramiz Alia (b.1925).
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.A1)(SFC,10/21/97, p.A13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enver_Hoxha)

1985        Apr 12, Sen. Jake Garn of Utah became the first senator to fly in space as the shuttle Discovery lifted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla.
    (AP, 4/12/97)
1985        Apr 12, In Australia the charred remains of Sandra White (34) were found in rural Victoria. In 2009 Steven Hutton (54) was later accused of strangling her and setting her on fire. He is alleged to have confessed to the killing after being detained in a London psychiatric hospital following a road accident in 1990. In 2009 he was set to be extradited from Britain.
    (AFP, 3/20/09)
1985        Apr 12, A bombing in Madrid, Spain, killed 18 and injured 82. Shia Muslim extremists claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 3/12/04, p.A11)

1985        Apr 15, Jenia Hamley, a medical assistant, was stuck in the left index finger while recapping a Becton Dickinson needle. Hamley was pregnant and 5 months later she tested positive for hepatitis B. She sued BD and claimed that the infection caused brain damage to her newborn son. BD settled the case confidentially and denied liability.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A8)

1985        Apr 21, The Public Theater staged Larry Kramer’s play about AIDS: “The Normal Heart." In 2011 the show made its debut on Broadway.
    (Econ, 5/7/11, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Normal_Heart)
1985        Apr 21, Rudi Gernreich (b.1922), US fashion designer, died. His creations included the “monokini" topless swimsuit, the transparent “no-bra bra," and the introduction of the thong.
    (WSJ, 9/18/01, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudi_Gernreich)
1985        Apr 21, Tancredo Neves, elected president of Brazil on Jan 15, died. José Sarney became president.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Brazil_%281985-present%29)

1985        Apr 23, The Coca-Cola Co. announced it was changing the secret formula for Coke. Negative public reaction soon forced the company to resume selling the original version.
    (AP, 4/23/97)
1985        Apr 23, Sam J Ervin Jr (b.1896), Democratic Senator from North Carolina, died. He was the leader of the Watergate Hearings that led to Pres. Nixon's resignation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Ervin)
1985        Apr 23, Russia’s Communist Party Sec. Gen. Mikhail Gorbachev (b.1931) announced economic reforms known as perestroika (reconstruction and opening). This Gorbachev era in the Soviet Union (1985-1992) is covered in the 2007 book “Seven Years That Changed the World: Perestroika in Perspective" by Archie Brown.
    (Econ, 5/12/07, p.88)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_Gorbachev)

1985        Apr 25, Richard Haydn (b.1905), British actor, died of a heart attack in Los Angeles.
    (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0370821/)
1985        Apr 25, Murray Matheson (b.1912), film and TV actor, died, in Woodland Hills, Ca.
    (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0558569/)

1985        Apr, Students in Gonaives, Haiti, began a popular uprising that led to the fall of the Duvalier family dictatorship. After protests by religious groups against Duvalier's leadership, bloody confrontations are sparked between anti-government demonstrators and Duvalier's private militia, called Tonton Macoutes.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, p.33)(AP, 1/17/11)

1985        May 1, US president Reagan ordered an embargo against Nicaragua.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2qxpo3)

1985        May 2, US financial firm E.F. Hutton pleaded guilty to charges that that it carried out a large check-kiting scam.
    (WSJ, 10/15/05, p.B3)(http://my.econedlink.org/calendar.php?month=05)

1985        May 5, President Reagan kept a promise to West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl by leading a wreath-laying ceremony at the military cemetery in Bitburg.
    (AP, 5/5/05)

1985        May 7, In California Unit 1 of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant came online. Unit 2 became operational on March 13, 1986.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diablo_Canyon_Power_Plant)

1985        May 8, Theodore Sturgeon (b.1918), sci-fi author (Hugo, It, Caviar), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Sturgeon)

1985        May 9, Laurent Fabius, head of the French Socialist government, blocked the sale of an AIDS virus detection test made by Abbott Laboratories. Fabius and others were later charged with criminal negligence and manslaughter in the deaths of hundreds who died from transfusions of tainted blood. In 1999 Fabius and Georgina Dufoix were cleared of the charges. Edmond Herve, the health minister under Dufoix, was convicted of negligence in 2 cases.
    (SFEC, 2/7/99, p.A2)(SFC, 3/10/99, p.A1)

1985        May 11, 56 people died when a flash fire swept a jam-packed soccer stadium in Bradford, England.
    (AP, 5/11/07)

1985        May 12, Illinois Gov. James Thompson commuted the sentence of Gary Dotson, who'd served six years in prison for a rape that the alleged victim later said never happened.
    (AP, 5/12/05)
1985        May 12, Amy Eilberg was ordained in New York as the first female rabbi in the Conservative Jewish movement.
    (AP, 5/12/05)

1985        May 13, Police in Philadelphia dropped a bomb on the headquarters of the radical group MOVE. A fire resulted that killed 11 people, 5 of them children. Ramona Africa and her 13 year old son were the only two people to escape the inferno at 6221 Osage St. Africa was charged with rioting and conspiracy, was convicted and served 7 years in state prison. No charges have ever been filed against any city officials or employee. The lawsuit was re-opened in 1996. On Jun 24, 1996, a jury in Philadelphia awarded $1.5 mil to the survivors of the MOVE cult. In 2013 the documentary “Let the Fire Burn," directed by Jason Osder, covered the MOVE story with archival footage.
    (SFC, 4/3/96, p.A-4)(USAT, 6/25/96, p.3A)(AP, 5/13/97)(SFC, 11/1/13, p.E7)

1985        May 14, In Indiana Paula Cooper (b.1969) took part in the stabbing  death of Ruth Pelke (78), a Bible studies teacher during a robbery with three other teens. Cooper was sentenced to death in 1986, but in 1988 the state’s high court set her death sentence aside and ordered her to serve 60 years in prison. Cooper was released from prison on June 17, 2013.
    (SFC, 6/18/13, p.A5)(http://tinyurl.com/mklp5el)

1985        May 15, A booby-trapped book detonated in the hands of graduate student John Hauser at UC Berkeley. He was severely injured, lost partial vision in his left eye and four fingers of his left hand. It was later attributed to the Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.4)
1985        May 15, Edmond O'Brien (b.1915), film actor, died. His films included "Hunchback of Notre Dame" (1939) and "The Wild Bunch" (1969).
    (www.hollywood.com)

1985        May 16, Michael Jordan of the Chicago Bulls was named NBA Rookie of Year.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2tostx)
1985        May 16, Margaret Hamilton (b.1902), American film actress, died. She was best known for her role as the Wicked Witch in the Wizard of Oz.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Hamilton)

1985        May 18, In the 111th Preakness: Pat Day aboard Tank's Prospect won in 1:53.4.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1985-5/1985-05-18-NBC-21.html)
1985        May 18, Tex Terry (b.1902), American film actor, died. His films included “Apache Rose" (1947) and “Timberjack" (1955).
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0856084/)

1985        May 20, US began broadcasts to Cuba on Radio Marti.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Mart%C3%AD)
1985        May 20, FBI arrested John A. Walker. US Navy Chief Petty Officer Walker began spying for the Soviet Union in 1968 for $1,000 per week. Walker’s ex-wife turned him into the FBI.
    (www.dss.mil/training/espionage/1985.htm)
1985        May 20, Israel exchanged 1,150 Palestinian prisoners for 3 Israeli soldiers. The exchange was later referred to as the Jibril deal after the leader of the PFLP-GC, Ahmad Jibril.
    (www.passia.org/palestine_facts/chronology/19631988.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/6qrln3)

1985        May 21, Patti Frustaci of Riverside, Calif., who was expecting septuplets, gave birth to six live babies, three of whom died in the following weeks.
    (AP, 5/21/05)(http://tinyurl.com/ypm8k4)

1985        May 22, Baseball player Pete Rose passed Hank Aaron as the National League run scoring leader with 2,108.
    (HN, 5/22/98)
1985        May 22, SF Mayor Diane Feinstein declared this day to be “James Bond Day" to honor the premier of “A View To Kill," a third of which was filmed in the city. Stars Roger Moore and Grace Jones were present along with the rock group Duran Duran, which sang the title song.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, DB p.50)
1985        May 22, In Lebanon Michel Seurat, a French history researcher, was abducted. In 1986 the Islamic Jihad said he had been executed.
    (AP, 3/5/00)(AP, 3/7/06)

1985        May 23, Thomas Patrick Cavanagh, an aerospace engineer who admitted trying to sell "stealth" bomber secrets to the Soviet Union, was sentenced in Los Angeles to life in prison.
    (AP, 5/23/05)

1985        May 25, A cyclone ravaged the Meghna River delta of Bangladesh. Some 10,000 people and 500,000 head of cattle died; hundreds of thousands were left homeless.
    (www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)
1985        May 25, Robert Nathan (b.1894), US writer, poet (Portrait of Jennie), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Nathan)

1985        May 26, Harold Hecht (b.1907), choreographer, died of cancer.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Hecht)

1985        May 27, In a brief ceremony in Beijing, representatives of Britain and China exchanged instruments of ratification on the pact returning Hong Kong to the Chinese in 1997.
    (AP, 5/27/97)

1985        May 28, David Jacobsen, director of the American University Hospital in Beirut, Lebanon, was abducted by pro-Iranian kidnappers. He was freed 17 months later.
    (AP, 5/28/97)

1985        May 29, At Heysel Stadium rioting erupted between British and Italian spectators at the European Cup soccer final in Brussels, Belgium. 39 people were killed when rioting broke out and a wall separating British and Italian soccer fans collapsed. This led to a 5-year ban on English clubs playing on the Continent.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A28)(AP, 5/29/08)
1985        May 29, Madge West (b.1892) American TV actress (Grandma-McLean Stevenson Show), died.
    (http://us.imdb.com/name/nm0922212/)

1985        May 30, The play "Woman in Mind" by Alan Ayckbourn (b.1936) was first staged in Scarborough at the Stephen Joseph Theatre in the Round.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woman_In_Mind)

1985        May 31, At least 41 tornadoes hit Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, and southeastern Ontario, Canada, during an eight-hour period killing 88 people with over 1,000 injured.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_US-Canadian_Outbreak)(AP, 5/31/05)

1985        May, "One Night In Bangkok" by Murray Head (b.1946) hit #3.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2pysj5)
1985        May, In Colombia FARC communist guerrillas sponsored the formation of a legal political party, the Patriotic Union (Union Patriotica). Death squads and the army carried out a campaign against the UP and in the ensuing decade 3,000 party activists and 2 presidential candidates were assassinated by right-wing death squads.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patriotic_Union_(Colombia))(SFC, 1/8/99, p.A13)(SFC, 12/18/00, p.A11)(Econ, 4/10/04, p.71)

1985        Jun 1, The song "Axel F" by Harold Faltermeyer peaked at #3 on the pop singles chart.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axel_F)
1985         Jun 1, In his Saturday radio address, President Reagan, saying special interests in Washington were trying to "pick apart" his tax overhaul plan, asked for Americans' support.
    (http://tinyurl.com/38akmh)
1985        Jun 1, The first phone call was made on Vodafone United Kingdom's analogue network. This event was staged, due to a network failure; the first calls were actually being made the next day. Sir Christopher Gent founded Vodaphone, a British mobile phone operator. The company name was coined from a combination of voice and data.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodaphone#History)

1985        Jun 3, Jerry A. Whitworth was arrested by the FBI, accused of being part of a spy ring headed by John A. Walker Jr. Whitworth was later sentenced to 365 years in prison.
    (AP, 6/3/05)

1985        Jun 4, The Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling striking down an Alabama law providing for a daily "moment of silence" in public schools.
    (AP, 6/4/97)(http://tinyurl.com/2lqt4u)

1985        Jun 6, Authorities in Brazil exhumed a body later identified as the remains of Dr. Josef Mengele, the notorious "Angel of Death" of the Nazi Holocaust near Sao Paolo, Brazil.
    (AP, 6//97)(HN, 6/6/98)

1985        Jun 9, American educator Thomas Sutherland was kidnapped in Lebanon. He was released in November 1991 along with fellow hostage Terry Waite.
    (AP, 6/9/97)

1985        Jun 10, Socialite Claus von Bulow was acquitted by a jury in Providence, Rhode Island, at his retrial on charges he’d tried to murder his heiress wife, Martha “Sunny" von Bulow.
    (AP, 6/10/00)
1985        Jun 10, The Israeli army pulled out of Lebanon after 1,099 days of occupation
    (HN, 6/10/98)

1985        Jun 11, Karen Ann Quinlan, the comatose patient whose case prompted a historic right-to-die court decision, died in Morris Plains, N.J., at age 31.
    (AP, 6/11/97)

1985        Jun 12, The US House of Representatives approved $27 million in aid to the Nicaraguan contras.
    (HN, 6/12/98)
1985        Jun 12, The town of Xintan on the Yangtze was obliterated by a landslide that sent a 128-foot surge wave down the river. It had been evacuated a few days earlier.
    (NH, 7/96, p.32)
1985        Jun 12, Spain and Portugal signed Accession Treaties to the European Community.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1985/index_en.htm)

1985        Jun 13, Aldrich Ames handed over the names of 20 Soviets working for the CIA, to a Soviet agent, several of whom were later executed.
    (SFC, 9/17/97, p.A3)
1985        Jun 13, A parcel mailed from Oakland, Ca., to Boeing Co. in Washington state was found to be a bomb and defused. It was later attributed to the Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.4)

1985        Jun 14, European states signed the Schengen Agreement, which allowed for the abolition of systematic border controls between the participating countries. The agreement was incorporated into EU law in 1997.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schengen_treaty)(Econ, 10/13/07, p.53)
1985        Jun 14, The 17-day hijack ordeal of TWA Flight 847 began as a pair of Lebanese Shiite Muslim extremists seized the plane with 104 Americans shortly after takeoff from Athens, Greece. The hijackers killed Petty Officer Robert Dean Stethem and dumped his body on the tarmac in Beirut. In 2002 Stethem’s family was awarded $21.4 million in compensatory damages from the US Treasury. In 1987 Mohammed Ali Hamadi was arrested at the Frankfurt airport, when customs officials discovered liquid explosives in his luggage. The Lebanese man was convicted and served a life sentence in Germany for the 1985 hijacking of a TWA jetliner and killing of a US Navy diver. In 2005 he returned to Lebanon after being paroled in Germany.
    (AP, 6/14/97)(HN, 6/14/98)(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A9)(AP, 12/20/05)

1985        Jun 15, In St. Petersburg, Russia, a middle-aged Lithuanian man pulled out a knife and slashed the stomach and thigh of the nude woman, Danaë, depicted in the Rembrandt masterpiece. He then hurled a jar of acid at the picture and splashed a militiaman in the face. He was overpowered by guards who found explosives strapped to his legs and trousers. The painting was restored and put back on exhibit in 1997.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B5)
    (AP, 1/26/07)

1985        Jun 16, The Grateful Dead performed in a 20th anniversary concert in Berkeley, Ca.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.E4)

1985        Jun 19, In El Salvador 4 off-duty US Marines and 9 others were killed at sidewalk restaurants in the Zona Rosa section of San Salvador. Pedro Antonio Andrade Martinez (aka Mario Gonzalez), a Marxist guerrilla, was one of the reputed masterminds of the massacre. Andrade later became an informant for the CIA and sought US asylum. Andrade was deported from the US in 1997.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A21)(SFC,11/6/97, p.C3)

1985        Jun 21, American, Brazilian and West German scientists announced that skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil were those of Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele.
    (AP, 6/21/97)(www.paperlessarchives.com/mengele.html)

1985        Jun 23, All 329 people aboard an Air India Boeing 747 were killed when Flight 182 from Montreal to London crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near Ireland, apparently because of a bomb. An hour earlier, a bomb in baggage intended for another Air India flight exploded in a Tokyo airport, killing two baggage handlers. In 2000 Canadian police arrested 2 men of Sikh origin for the bombing. In 2001 Canadian prosecutors filed murder charges against Inderjit Singh Reyat. In 2003 Reyat was sentenced to 5 years for his role in making the bomb. Reyat spent 10 years in prison for building the bomb that exploded at the Narita airport, and another five years for helping make the Flight 182 bomb. In 2005 a Canadian judge acquitted 2 men who had been accused of conspiring in the case. Talwinder Parmar (1944-1992) was later assumed to have been the mastermind behind the attacks. In 2010 Reyat was found guilty of perjury. In 2011 he was sentenced to an additional 9 years in prison.
    (AP, 6/23/97)(SFC, 10/28/00, p.A13)(SFC, 6/6/01, p.C3)(AP, 2/11/03)(AP, 3/17/05)(Econ, 6/16/07, p.47)(Reuters, 9/18/10)(Reuters, 1/7/11)

1985        Jun 24, A federal judge in New York found former Wall Street Journal reporter R. Foster Winans guilty of illegally using his position at the paper in a get-rich-quick insider-trading scheme. Winans served eight years in federal prison.
    (AP, 6/24/05)

1985        Jun 27, The legendary Route 66, which originally (see 1926) stretched from Chicago to Santa Monica, Calif., passed into history as officials decertified the road.
    (AP 6/27/97)
1985        Jun 27, The U.S. House of Representatives voted to limit the use of combat troops in Nicaragua.
    (HN, 6/27/98)
1985        Jun 27, A hotel strike in NYC took place. It ended June 27.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yr7tgw)

1985        Jun 30, 39 American hostages from a hijacked TWA jetliner were freed in Beirut after being held for 17 days.
    (AP 6/30/97)
1985        Jun 30, James A. Dewar, creator of the Twinkie (1930), died.
    (www.foodreference.com/html/wjamesadewar.html)
1985        Jun, Israel pulled back to a security zone in southern Lebanon to protect its border.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)

1985        Jul 2, The European Space Agency launched the Giotto space probe for a close-up of Halley’s Comet. It made its closest approach to the comet on March 13, 1986.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)(http://tinyurl.com/2hnfnw)

1985        Jul 10, Bowing to pressure from irate customers, the Coca-Cola Company said it would resume selling old-formula Coke, while continuing to sell New Coke.
    (AP, 7/10/00)
1985        Jul 10, French security forces sank the Rainbow Warrior, a ship operated by Greenpeace near NZ. Fernando Pereira, a Dutch photographer, was killed in the sinking.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_Warrior)
1985        Jun 10, The Israeli army pulled out of Lebanon after 1,099 days of occupation.
    (HN, 6/10/98)
1985        Jul 10, A Soviet Tu-154 crashed in Uzbekistan and all 200 people aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 7/4/01, p.A10)(http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19850710-0)

1985        Jul 11, Houston Astro's Nolan Ryan became the first pitcher to strike out 4000 batters as he fanned Danny Heep of the New York Mets.
    (www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/hallfame/ryan.htm)

1985        Jul 12, Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.
    (AP, 7/12/00)
1985        Jul 12, Lance Cpl. Suzanne Marie Collins (b.1966) was raped, murdered and mutilated near the Naval Air Station base at Millington, Tenn. Sedley Alley was convicted for the murder in 1987 and sentenced to death. In 2006 Alley (50) was executed by lethal injected for the murder.
    (SFC, 6/29/06, p.A3)(www.answers.com/topic/suzanne-marie-collins)

1985        Jul 13, Live Aid, an international rock concert in London, Philadelphia, Moscow and Sydney, took place to raise money for Ethiopia and Africa's starving people. It was organized by Bob Geldof of Ireland.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1985)(AP 7/13/97)(Econ, 6/4/05, p.56)
1985        Jul 13, Lt. Cmdr. Michael Gershon, a Navy Blue Angel pilot, was killed when 2 planes collided during an air show at Niagara Falls, NY.
    (SFC, 10/29/99, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donnie_Cochran)

1985        Jul 14, Carolyn Muncey’s badly beaten body was found near her home in eastern Tennessee. Paul House was convicted in 1986 and sentenced to die for the murder. In 2008 DNA evidence indicated he was not responsible for her sexual assault and a federal judge ordered that he be quickly retried or released.
    (SFC, 5/29/08, p.A2)(www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/12/10/60minutes/main660438.shtml)

1985        Jul 15, A gaunt-looking Rock Hudson appeared at a news conference with actress Doris Day to promote her cable television program. It was later revealed Hudson was suffering from AIDS.
    (AP, 7/15/99)

1985        Jul 19, Christa McAuliffe of New Hampshire was chosen to be the first schoolteacher to ride aboard the space shuttle. McAuliffe and six other crew members died (1/28/96) when the Challenger exploded shortly after liftoff. Black astronaut Robert McNair was one of the dead.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A3)(TMC, 1994, p.1986)(AP 7/19/97)(SFC,11/12/97, p.A3)
1985        Jul 19, British agents helped Oleg Gordievsky (b.1938) escape from Moscow to Finland. He was the highest ranking KGB defector in its history.
    (AP, 11/25/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oleg_Gordievsky)

1985        Jul 20, US divers found the wreck of Spanish galleon Atocha.
    (www.atochastory.com/)

1985        Jul 23, Bandleader Kay Kyser, known for his “Kollege of Musical Knowledge," died in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, at age 79.
    (AP, 7/23/00)

1985        Jul 25, A spokeswoman for Rock Hudson confirmed that the actor, hospitalized in Paris, was suffering from “AIDS." Hudson died the following October.
    (AP, 7/25/00)

1985        Jul 28, Grant Williams (b.1930), film and TV actor, died of toxic poisoning.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0930695/)
1985        Jul 28, In Peru Alan Garcia, leader of the American People’s Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), assumed the presidency and led until 1990. Under his rule much of the nation's external debt was not serviced and the period was marked by 4-digit inflation, food shortages, int’l. isolation and terrorist attacks.
    (WSJ, 10/31/95, p.C-17)(WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A7)(SFC, 1/18/01, p.A14)

1985        Jul 29, The space shuttle Challenger began an eight-day mission that got off to a shaky start. The spacecraft achieved a safe orbit even though one of its main engines shut down prematurely after lift-off.
    (AP, 7/29/05)

1985        Jul 30, Germaine Krull (b.1897), Polish born German photographer, died.
    (SFEM, 4/9/00, p.4)(www.kingkong.demon.co.uk/ngcoba/kr.htm)

1985        Aug 1, It was reported that SF Mayor Diane Feinstein, currently on a visit to Ireland, has received a $10,000 gift from the SF 49ers, the largest gift to date to any city official. The gift came as the Feinstein administration was in touchy negotiations over renovations to Candlestick Park.
    (SSFC, 8/1/10, DB p.42)
1985        Aug 1, The French government began to require the testing of all donated blood for AIDS following the launch of a test by Diagnostic Pasteur. By this time some 1,300 hemophiliacs were contaminated with AIDS-tainted blood. By 1997 over 500 had died, most of them children. Four health officials were charged and convicted in the case.
    (SFEC, 2/7/99, p.A2)

1985        Aug 2, In Texas 137 people were killed when a Delta Air Lines jumbo jet crashed while attempting to land at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport.
    (AP, 8/2/97)

1985        Aug 4, A pair of milestones were achieved in major league baseball as Tom Seaver of the Chicago White Sox gained his 300th victory and Rod Carew of the California Angels got his 3,000th hit.
    (AP, 8/4/05)

1985        Aug 6, Linden Forbes Burnham (b.1923), president of Guyana, died.
    (SFC, 9/10/08, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forbes_Burnham)

1985        Aug 7, Spc. Edward Pimental (20), a US Army soldier, left a discotheque in the western German city of Wiesbaden with a woman and was soon killed. Terrorists used Pimental's ID card to enter the US Rhein-Main air base in Frankfurt. The following day, explosives packed in a Volkswagen rocked the parking lot behind the base headquarters. Two Americans were killed and 23 people were injured. In 1994 a Frankfurt court found Eva Haule guilty of killing Pimental. In 1996 a judge said Birgit Hogefeld, who was also convicted in the Pimental killing and the Rhein-Main bombing, had lured Pimental out of the disco. In 2007 Haule (53) was released from jail after serving 21 years of a life sentence.
    (AP, 8/17/07)

1985        Aug 9, A federal judge in Norfolk, Va., found retired Navy officer Arthur J. Walker guilty of seven counts of spying for the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 8/9/97)
1985        Aug 8, Mary Louise Brooks (b.1906), American silent film star, died. In 1982 she authored her memoir “Lulu in Hollywood."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Brooks)

1985        Aug 11, "Dreamgirls" closed at the Imperial Theater in NYC after 1521 performances.
    (www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=4152)

1985        Aug 12, The world's worst single-aircraft disaster occurred as a crippled Japan Air Lines Boeing 747 on a domestic flight crashed into Mount Otsuka, 70 miles northwest of Tokyo, killing 520 of 524 people onboard. A flawed splice made by Boeing 7 years earlier was the probable cause. In 2006 Japan opened a museum to remember the crash. Boeing and JAL paid undisclosed settlements to each victim’s family. Singer Kyu Sakamoto, whose song "Sukiyaki" topped US hit charts in 1963, was among the dead.
    (AP, 8/12/97)(WSJ, 7/27/06, p.A1)(AFP, 8/12/10)

1985        Aug 15, The Assam Accord was signed between Rajiv Gandhi and Assamese nationalists. A Congress government led by Hiteshwar Saikia, widely viewed in Assam as illegitimate, was dissolved as part of the terms of the Assam Accord. Under the accord the government promised to identify and deport people who had crossed the border since the creation of Bangladesh in 1971, but the promise went unfulfilled.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ypjjgw)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.60)
1985        Aug 15, Iraq launched its first air raid on Iran’s Kharg oil-island.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/iraqchron.html)

1985        Aug 16, Mary Gioia (22) of New York and Gregory Kniffin (18) of Connecticut were shot and killed in Berkeley, Ca. Their bodies were soon found in the SF Bay with gunshot wounds to the head. They had been staying at a homeless encampment in the Berkeley Marina while waiting for the next Grateful Dead concert. Ralph International Thomas was convicted of the murders. In 2009 the 2 convictions against Thomas (55) were overturned. In 2012 the US Ninth Circuit court of Appeals said Thomas (57) was entitled to a new trial due to missing witnesses in his first trial.
    (SFC, 9/16/09, p.D3)(SFC, 5/11/12, p.C3)

1985        Aug 17, More than 1,400 meatpackers walked off the job at the Geo. A. Hormel and Co.'s main plant in Austin, Minn., in a bitter strike that lasted just over a year.
    (AP, 8/17/05)
1985        Aug 17, Rajiv Gandhi announced Punjab state elections in India.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yru62e)

1985        Aug 18, In San Francisco George Bender (32) and brother Columbus Bender (33) stole over $65,000 in quarters from a Brink’s offices at 970 Illinois Street. They were caught after carrying $3,400 in quarters from a Reno casino, saying they had made a killing at the MGM Grand Hotel. A year later they were sentenced to 4 years in jail.
    (SSFC, 10/16/11, DB p.42)
1985        Aug 18, Peter and Barbara Pan were found in their blood-soaked bed in Lake Merced, a housing development in San Francisco. Both had been shot in the head. Peter Pan (66), an accountant, was pronounced dead at the scene. Mrs. Pan (64) survived but would be an invalid for the rest of her life. Scrawled on the wall in lipstick were an inverted pentagram and the words "Jack the Knife." The murder was later attributed to Richard Ramirez, the “night stalker."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Ramirez#Peter_and_Barbara_Pan)(SSFC, 8/22/10, DB p.42)

1985        Aug 21, Tunisia expelled 253 Libyans in apparent retaliation for Libya’s expulsion of over 20,000 Tunisian workers in recent weeks.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yq3x4e)

1985        Aug 22, A fire broke out aboard a British Airtours charter jet on a runway at Manchester Airport in England and 55 people died.
    (AP, 8/22/05)

1985        Aug 25, Samantha Smith, the schoolgirl whose letter to Yuri V. Andropov resulted in her famous peace tour of the Soviet Union, was killed with her father in an airplane crash in Maine.
    (AP, 8/25/97)

1985        Aug 26, Thirteen-year-old AIDS patient Ryan White began "attending" classes at Western Middle School in Kokomo, Indiana, via a telephone hook-up at his home. School officials had barred Ryan from attending classes in person.
    (AP, 8/26/00)
1985        Aug 26, French government claimed no knowledge of assault on Rainbow Warrior.
    (www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-1689202,00.html)

1985        Aug 27, Dr. Fisher was a mission specialist on STS 51-I which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida.
    (www.astronautix.com/astros/fislliam.htm)
1985        Aug 27, In Nigeria Gen’l. Ibrahim Babangida began his rule. He gave up power in 1993.
    (www.nigeriabusinessinfo.com/nigeria-elections2003/babangida-regime.htm)

1985        Aug 28, Ruth Gordon (88), American actress (Big Bus), died of a stroke in her sleep.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0002106/)

\1985        Aug 29, Joann Hobson (16) of Stockton, Ca., went missing. Her remains were found in 2012 in a compacted well in Linden, Ca., and attributed to Speed Freak Killers Wesley Shermantine and Loren Herzog.
    (SFC, 3/31/12, p.C1)
1985        Aug 29, In Missouri the St. Louis Union Station, purchased by a New York financier, reopened as a Grand Hyatt hotel. The massive, Romanesque-style building, designed by architect Theodore Link in 1894, was once the largest and busiest railroad terminal in the world. In 1976, the Saint Louis Union Station was designated a National Historic Landmark.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, p.T5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis_Union_Station)

1985        Aug 31, Richard Ramirez, later convicted of California's "Night Stalker" killings, was captured by residents of an East Los Angeles neighborhood.
    (AP, 8/31/97)

1985        Aug, Syrian Sedki al-Maket was arrested for resisting the Israeli occupation of the Golan Heights. He served a 27 year prison sentence and in 2012 returned to his home town.
    (AFP, 8/22/12)

1985        Sep 1, A US-French expedition located the wreckage of Titanic, sunk in 1915, about 560 miles off Newfoundland, Canada.
    (www.titanic-titanic.com/discovery_of_titanic.shtml)

1985        Sep 6, Tscherim Soobzokov (b.1924), a former Waffen SS soldier, was killed by a bomb at his home in Patterson, NJ. In 2006, declassified documents of the Central Intelligence Agency confirmed that Soobzokov had been a CIA agent in Jordan and that the agency had misled the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service on Soobzokov's Nazi past.
    (SSFC, 11/14/10, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tscherim_Soobzokov)
1985        Sep 6, All 31 people aboard a Midwest Express Airlines DC-9 were killed when the Atlanta-bound jetliner crashed just after takeoff from Milwaukee's Mitchell Field.
    (WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A15)(AP, 9/6/05)

1985        Sep 8, Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds tied Ty Cobb's career record for hits with a single for No. 4,191 during a game against the Cubs in Chicago.
    (AP, 9/8/99)

1985        Sep 9, President Ronald W. Reagan issued Executive Order No. 12532 establishing sanctions against South Africa. Reagan banned the sale of computers to South African security agencies, barred most loans to the Pretoria government, halted the importation of the Krugerrand, South Africa's gold coin (effective Oct 11), and stopped exports of nuclear technology until South Africa signs an accord to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
    (www-tech.mit.edu/V105/N38/apart.38n.html)(http://tinyurl.com/2ruefg)
1985        Sep 9, In Birmingham, England, race riots took place and continued thru Sep 11.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Handsworth_riots)
1985        Sep 9, In Thailand there was a failed coup attempt. Former PM Kriangsak was caught with other retired military officers at the headquarters of the plotters.
    (AP, 12/23/03)

1985        Sep 11, VP George Bush visited San Francisco and gave the most extensive administration comments on the AIDS epidemic to date. He sympathized with parents afraid to send their children to school with victims of the disease.
    (SSFC, 9/12/10, DB p.50)
1985        Sep 11, Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds made his career hit 4,192 off Eric Show of San Diego Padres, eclipsing Ty Cobb's record.
    (AP, 9/11/05)
1985        Sep 11, A U.S. satellite glided through the tail of the Giacobini-Zinner comet in the first-ever on-the-spot sampling of a comet.
    (AP, 9/11/05)

1985        Sep 12, In Nebraska Michael Ryan (1948-2015), a cult leader, was convicted and sentenced to death in the 1984 torture and killing of James Thimm (26) and in the 1982 beating death of Luke Stice, the 5-year-old son of a cult member. Ryan's son, Dennis Ryan, and cult member Timothy Haverkamp were sentenced to life in prison for second-degree murder in Thimm's death.
    (http://murderpedia.org/male.R/r/ryan-michael-wayne.htm)(AP, 5/25/15)

1985        Sep 14, The situation comedy "The Golden Girls" premiered on NBC and continued to 1992. The show included Beatrice Arthur, Betty White, Rue McClanahan (d.1010 at 76) and Estelle Getty as 4 older women living together in Florida.
    (AP, 9/14/05)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0088526/)(LSA, Spring, 2009, p.44)(SFC, 6/4/10, p.C8)
1985        Sep 14, Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon released the Rev. Benjamin Weir after holding him captive for 16 months.
    (AP, 9/14/05)

1985        Sep 15, In Sweden Olof Palme (1927-1986) formed a minority government.
    (www.brandt21forum.info/Bio-Palme.htm)

1985        Sep 19, The Mexico City area was struck by the first of two devastating quakes (8.1) that officially claimed 9,500 lives. Some 40,000 people were injured.
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(SFC, 12/31/96, p.C9)(AP, 9/19/97)(SSFC, 4/16/06, p.F4)
1985        Sep 19, Italo Calvino (b.1923), Italian writer, died. A collection of his essays was soon published titled "The Literature Machine."  In 1999 the original 11 essays and 25 others were published under the title: "Why Read the Classics," translated by Martin McLaughlin. In 2003 McLaughlin published “Hermit in Paris: Autobiographical Writings By Italo Calvino."
    (SFEC, 10/24/99, BR p.5)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M4)

1985        Sep 22, Rock and country music artists participated in FarmAid, a concert staged in Champaign, Ill., to help the nation's farmers. The first Farm Aid concert was held to support problems facing US farmers and their families.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A9)(AP, 9/22/05)
1985        Sep 22, In the 37th Emmy Awards the winners included Cagney & Lacey, Cosby Show and Tyne Daly.
    (www.imdb.com/Sections/Awards/Emmy_Awards/1985)
1985        Sep 22, In NYC ministers of America, Japan, West Germany, France and Britain (the Group of Five, G-5) unified and adopted the Plaza Accord for currency intervention and struggled to control capital exchange-rate movements. Led by the US Treasury's Sec. James Baker, it was the first effort to restore some semblance of order to the monetary system since the collapse of the postwar Breton Woods gold-anchored finance systems in the early 1970s. In the wake of the accord the dollar lost almost 30% of its value.
    (www.g7.utoronto.ca/finance/fm850922.htm)(WSJ, 3/8/04, p.A2)(Econ, 10/9/04, p.72)
1985        Sep 22, The body of Betty Stuart (22) was found at Aquatic Park in Berkeley, Ca. In 2008 prosecutors using DNA evidence said Anthony McKnight (54), already in prison for rape and attempted murder, was responsible for her murder. He had been arrested in 1986 and was already serving a 63 year sentence for the rape and murder of 3 other women. In 2008 McKnight, a former sailor, was convicted on an additional 5 counts of first-degree murder.
    (SFC, 7/17/08, p.B2)(SFC, 9/18/08, p.B2)
1985        Sep 22, In France the premier confessed to the June 10 attack of Green Peace's Rainbow Warrior.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenpeace)
1985        Sep 22, Axel Springer (b.1912), German newspaper magnate (Bild Zeitung), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axel_Springer)

1985        Sep 23, Italian journalist Giancarlo Siani (b.1959) was killed after he ran investigative reports on the Mafia in the Naples daily Il Mattino. In 1997 6 Naples gangsters were sentenced to life terms for the murder.
    (SFC, 4/15/97, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giancarlo_Siani)

1985        Sep 25, The Tyrell Museum of Paleontology was opened to the public. It is located 140 km. northeast of Calgary at Drumheller, Alberta, Canada.
    (CFA, '96, p.63)

1985        Sep 26, Shamu, the killer whale, was born in Orlando, Florida. She was the first killer whale born in captivity to survive.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamu)

1985        Sep 27, Hurricane Gloria, having come ashore at North Carolina with winds of 130 mph, proceeded to head up the Atlantic coast toward New England. The NYSE closed for one day due to the storm.
    (AP, 9/27/97)(SFC, 10/30/12, p.D2)

1985        Sep 28, There was a race riot in the London area of Brixton.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brixton_riot_(1985))

1985        Sep 29, Andre Kertesz (b.1894), Hungarian-born photographer, died in NYC.
    (Econ, 8/27/05, p.69)(http://galeria.origo.hu/kertesz/akeng.html)

1985        Sep 30, Maxxam Corp. made a tender offer for Pacific Lumber at $36 a share. The same day it demanded and received a 50% cut in fees due to Drexel Burnham Lambert. During the summer the Wall Street firm Drexel Burnham Lambert and Maxxam Corp. had hired a timber consultant to fly over the holdings of Pacific Lumber and estimate their worth. Charles Hurwitz announced his intention to acquire Pacific Lumber and had Michael Milken of Drexel arrange junk bond financing. Control of Pacific Lumber passed to Hurwitz of Texas-based Maxxam by the end of the year. The bonds were sold to United Savings Association, a Texas S&L whose parent corporation was owned by Charles Hurwitz. The thrift failed in 1988 and taxpayers were stuck with a $1.6 billion bailout.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A4-5)(www.mcn.org/e/iii/politics/hurwitzm.htm)
1985        Sep 30, Charles Richter (b.1900), American seismologist, died. He developed the Richter Scale for measuring the amplitude of earthquakes. In 2007 Susan Elizabeth Hough authored “Richter’s Scale: Measure of an Earthquake, Measure of a Man."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Francis_Richter)(SSFC, 1/21/07, p.M3)
1985        Sep 30, Simone Signoret, German-French actress (Room at Top, Gina), died at 64.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0797531/)

1985        Sep, Steven Jobs left Apple Computer Corp. after losing control over the Macintosh division to Jean-Louis Gasee, appointed by John Sculley. Jobs went on to start NeXt.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.185)(SFC, 1/24/04, p.A12)
1985        Sep, Edward Lee Howard (1951-2002), CIA officer, vanished from Santa Fe, NM. He fled the US to Russia while under FBI investigation for spying for the Soviet Union. He was accused of disclosing CIA agents in Moscow. Howard died in 2002 of a broken neck from an accident at his residence outside Moscow. In 1995 Howard’s memoir “Safe House" was ghost written by Richard Cote.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.A17)(SFC, 7/22/02, p.A6)
1985        Sep, In Texas Patrick Rogers shot a killed police officer David Roberts (23) after a robbery. Rogers, a black man, was convicted and sentenced to death. His story was made into a 1997 Dateline NBC documentary.
    (WSJ, 1/5/98, p.20)
1985        Sep, Saudi Arabia announced a quadrupling of oil production. This led to a collapse in oil prices and helped contribute to the collapse of the Soviet Union five years later.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.24)

1985        Oct 1, Israeli forces staged an air raid on PLO-headquarter at Tunis and 68 people were killed. Yasser Arafat narrowly escaped death.
    (WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)
1985        Oct 1, E. B. White (Elwyn Brooks White, b.1899), writer, author of “Charlotte's Web" and “The Elements of Style," died in Maine.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ebwhite.htm)

1985        Oct 2, Rock Hudson (b.1925), film star, died at his home in Beverly Hills, Calif. after a battle with AIDS. Upon his death it was publicly made known that he had been a closet homosexual. Marc Christian McGinnis (1953-2009), Hudson’s lover, soon sued Hudson’s estate alleging emotional distress. In 1989 a jury awarded him $21.75 million in damages, but this was later reduced to $5.5 million and settled in 1991. McGinnis never contracted AIDS, but died of pulmonary problems. 
    (SFC, 11/28/96, p.C14)(AP, 10/2/97)(SSFC, 12/6/09, p.C8)

1985        Oct 3, Charles Collingwood (b.1917), CBS newscaster, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Collingwood_(journalist))

1985        Oct 4, Islamic Jihad issued a statement saying it had killed American hostage William Buckley. Fellow hostage David Jacobsen, however, later said he believed Buckley had died (in Lebanon) of torture injuries four months earlier.
    (AP, 10/4/97)

1985        Oct 6, Nelson Riddle, American bandleader, died. In 2001 Peter J. Levinson (1934-2008) authored “September in the Rain: The Life of Nelson Riddle."
    (SFC, 11/18/08, p.B4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Riddle)
1985        Oct 6, British Police Constable Keith Blakelock (b.1945) was hacked to death at Broadwater Farm a 1960s public housing estate in Tottenham in some of the worst urban rioting in Britain in the past 30 years.
    (AP, 8/7/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Keith_Blakelock)

1985        Oct 7, The United States announced it would no longer automatically comply with World Court decisions. This was in response to a June 25, 1985, World Court ruling that U.S. involvement in Nicaragua violated international law. The ruling stemmed from a suit brought in April 1984 after revelations that the CIA had directed the mining of Nicaraguan ports. The U.S. later vetoed two U.N. resolutions calling for compliance to the World Court ruling.
    (HNQ, 6/9/99)
1985        Oct 7, Four Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) gunmen hijacked the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro in the Mediterranean and demanded the release of 50 Palestinians held by Israel. 413 people were held hostage for 2 days in the seizure that was masterminded by Mohammed Abul Abbas. American Leon Klinghoffer was shot while sitting in his wheelchair and thrown overboard. A case was filed against the PLO and settled in 1997. The hijackers surrendered to Egyptian authorities and were turned over to Italy which let Abbas slip out of the country. Abbas was captured in Baghdad in 2003.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A4)(AP, 10/7/97)(HN, 10/7/98)(SFC, 4/16/03, p.A16)
1985        Oct 7, In Ponce, Puerto Rico, a mudslide followed Tropical Storm Isabel and killed at least 129 people in the island's worst disaster this century.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_Storm_Isabel_(1985))

1985        Oct 8, The hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro killed American passenger Leon Klinghoffer, dumping his body and wheelchair overboard. A case was filed against the PLO and settled in 1997. The hijackers surrendered to Egyptian authorities and were turned over to Italy which let Abbas slip out of the country.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A4)(AP, 10/8/97)

1985        Oct 9, Major Koch of New York City designated 11 acres of Central Park as Strawberry Fields in honor of John Lennon.
    (www.centralparknyc.org/virtualpark/southend/strawberryfields)
1985        Oct 9, The hijackers of the Achille Lauro cruise liner surrendered after the ship arrived in Port Said, Egypt.
    (AP, 10/9/97)

1985        Oct 10, U.S. fighter jets forced an Egyptian plane carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro to land in Italy, where the gunmen were taken into custody.
    (AP, 10/10/98)
1985        Oct 10, Actor Yul Brynner died of lung cancer in NYC at age 65.
    (AP, 10/10/97)
1985        Oct 10, Orson Welles (70), actor-director, died of a heart attack in Los Angeles. In 1972 Joseph McBride authored “Orson Welles," in 1989 Frank Brady authored “Citizen Welles: A Biography of Orson Welles." In 2006 Simon Callow authored “Orson Welles: Hello American," the 2nd volume of a 3-part biography.
    (AP, 10/10/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orson_Welles)(WSJ, 8/19/06, p.P8)

1985        Oct 11, President Reagan’s ban on the importation of South African Krugerrands went into effect.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2ruefg)
1985        Oct 11, Alex Odeh, regional director of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), was killed by a bomb blast in Santa Ana, Calif.
    (AP, 10/11/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Odeh)

1985        Oct 15, Shelley Taylor of Australia made the fastest swim ever around Manhattan Island, doing it in 6 hours 12 minutes 29 seconds.
    (www.scopesys.com/cgi-bin/today2.cgi?askmonth=10&askday=15)
1985        Oct 15, Humphrey, a 45-ton humpback whale, continued swimming inland to within 27 miles of Sacramento, despite efforts to turn him around.
    (SSFC, 10/10/10, DB p.50)

1985        Oct 16, Intel introduced its 32-bit 80386 microcomputer chip.
    (www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/micropro/proc1980.htm)

1985        Oct 18, Benjamin Moloisi (30), South African poet, was hanged for his role in the 1982 murder of a security policeman.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2mubof)

1985        Oct 21, Former San Francisco Supervisor Dan White committed suicide by carbon monoxide in his wife’s car in the Excelsior. He killed Mayor Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk in 1978, for which he served barely 5 years after a diminished capacity defense called the "Twinkie defense."
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W23)(SFC, 11/26/98, p.A19)

1985        Oct 25, Morton Downey (b.1901), popular singer and TV host for “Star of the Family" (1950s) died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morton_Downey)

1985        Oct 27, Billy Martin was fired by Yankees for the 4th time.
    (www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/M/Martin_Billy.stm)
1985        Oct 27, Hurricane Juan ravaged US Gulf states and east coast and 49 died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Juan_(1985))

1985        Oct 28, Singer Whitney Houston (1963-2012) performed before a sellout crowd at Carnegie Hall.
    (www.nytimes.com/1985/10/29/arts/pop-whitney-houston-in-carnegie-hall-debut.html)
1985        Oct 28, John Walker, the leader of the so-called "Walker family spy ring," pleaded guilty to giving U-S Navy secrets to the Soviet Union.
    (www.dss.mil/training/espionage/1985.htm)
1985        Oct 28, In Sierra Leone Pres. Siaka Stevens retired from office at the end of his term. After pressuring all other potential successors to step aside, Major-General Joseph Saidu Momoh was sworn in as the new President of the Republic.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siaka_Stevens)

1985        Oct 29, Bear Stearns Companies, Inc., the holding company that owns Bear, Stearns & Company, Inc., was created as the successor to Bear Stearns & Company and Subsidiaries, a partnership organized in 1957. The partnership, in turn, was the successor to a company founded in 1923 by Joseph Bear, Robert Stearns, and Harold Mayer as an equity-trading house.
    (www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/90/Bear-Stearns-Companies-Inc.html)

1985        Oct 30, The launch of the space shuttle “Challenger" was witnessed by schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe, who was fated to die when the spacecraft exploded after liftoff the following January.
    (AP, 10/30/00)
1985        Oct 30, American Brands was removed as a component of the Dow Jones. It had begun as American Tobacco in 1890.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1985        Nov 1, Phil Silvers (b.1911), American comedic actor (Sgt. Bilko), died in his sleep.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phil_Silvers)

1985        Nov 5, Spencer W. Kimball, president of the Mormon Church, died at age 90; he was succeeded by Ezra Taft Benson.
    (AP, 11/5/05)

1985        Nov 6, An exploratory oil well at Ranger, Tx., exploded and spilled 150,000 barrels of oil.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980-1989_world_oil_market_chronology)
1985        Nov 6, In Colombia some 35 leftist M-19 rebels took over the Palace of Justice. A military raid to liberate hostages held by M-19 guerrillas at the Supreme Court followed and cost more than 100 lives, including 11 Supreme Court justices and all 30 guerrillas. Intelligence unit soldiers under the command of Ivan Ramirez escorted 11 people out of the building as the military stormed the palace. Witnesses, including soldiers from Ramirez's unit, later said the captives were tortured and killed. In 2008 Ramirez was arrested and faced "forced disappearance" charges. In Oct prosecutors ordered the arrest of Gen. Jesus Armando Arias, who led Bogota's army brigade during the assault. In 2010 a Colombian judge sentenced retired army Col. Luis Alfonso Plazas to 30 years in prison for the disappearance of the 11 people who went missing after soldiers stormed the palace to retake it from leftist guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A6)(WSJ, 1/8/97, p.A12)(SFC, 4/20/98, p.A8)(AP, 5/28/08)(AP, 10/11/08)(AP, 6/10/10)

1985        Nov 9, Gary Kasparov became the world chess champion. He was born in 1963 in Azerbaijan to an Armenian mother and a Jewish father. Anatoly Karpov had held the world chess title for 10 years until he was defeated this year by Kasparov.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garry_Kasparov#Early_career)(SFC, 10/3/96, p.A8)

1985        Nov 10, In Argentina water burst through a retaining wall and spilled into the lakeside streets of Epecuen. A particularly heavy had rainstorm followed a series of wet winters and the lake overflowed its banks. People fled with what they could, and within days their homes were submerged under nearly 10 meters (33 feet) of corrosive saltwater.
    (AP, 5/10/13)

1985        Nov 12, Xavier Suarez was elected Miami's first Cuban-American mayor (1985-1993).
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A9)(AP, 11/12/03)
1985        Nov 12, The Unabomber mailed a pipe bomb to Prof. James V. McConnell of Ann Arbor, Mich. 3 days later research assistant Nick Suing opened the package and was injured by the exploding bomb.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A3)(SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.4)

1985        Nov 13, Some 23,000 residents of Armero, Colombia, died when a mudslide, triggered by the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, buried the city under 30 feet of mud.
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.27)(AP, 11/13/97)(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A22)

1985        Nov 15, British PM Margaret Thatcher and the Irish Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald signed the Anglo-Irish Agreement giving Dublin an official consultative role in governing Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 11/15/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Irish_Agreement)

1985        Nov 17, Olof Palme stopped an illegal shipment of 80 HAWK missiles through Sweden from Israel to Teheran, as he mediated an end of the Iran-Iraq war for the UN.
    (http://www.skog.de/writers/e040831.htm)
1985        Nov 17, Gheorghe Emil Ursu (b.1926), Romanian construction engineer, poet, diarist and dissident, died after being beaten for weeks by police. Security police had raided his home and discovered his diary, in which he had joted down scathing secret poems by Nina Cassian about Nicolae Ceausescu self-importance and stupidity.
    (Econ, 5/17/14, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gheorghe_Ursu)

1985        Nov 18, Bill Watterson’s comic strip Calvin and Hobbes began a 10-year run that ended Dec 31, 1995. In 2005 Watterson published his 3-volume set: The complete Calvin and Hobbes."
    (SSFC, 10/16/05, p.M1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_and_Hobbes)
1985        Nov 18, Hai Vo of San Francisco won $2 million in the California state lottery. He had purchased his winning ticket with state welfare benefits.
    (SSFC, 11/14/10, DB p.50)

1985        Nov 19, Herb Gardner's "I'm Not Rappaport," premiered in NYC.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I'm_Not_Rappaport)
1985        Nov 19, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev met for the first time as they began their summit in Geneva.
    (AP, 11/19/97)
1985        Nov 19, Stepin Fetchit (83), born as Lincoln Perry, 1st black film star, died of pneumonia. His films included “Miracle in Harlem" (1948). In 2005 Mel Watkins authored “Stepin Fetchit: The Life and Times of Lincoln Perry."
    (www.nndb.com/people/913/000091640/)

1985        Nov 21, Former U.S. Navy intelligence analyst Jonathan Jay Pollard was arrested, and accused of spying for Israel. Pollard was sentenced to life in prison in 1987.
    (AP, 11/21/97)(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A18)(SFC, 3/1/00, p.A23)
1985        Nov 21, Yonkers was found guilty of intentional discrimination in its housing and schools.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2oegnj)

1985        Nov 22, The largest US swearing-in ceremony took place as 38,648 immigrants become US citizens.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2dxw3m)

1985        Nov 23, Retired CIA analyst Larry Wu-tai Chin was arrested and accused of spying for China. He committed suicide a year after his conviction.
    (AP, 11/23/97)
1985        Nov 23, Egypt Air flight 648 was hijacked to Malta by Palestinian militant Omar Mohammed Ali Rezaq, a member of the Abu Nidal terrorist group.  
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.A6)(SFEC, 10/8/96, D1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EgyptAir_Flight_648)

1985        Nov 24, The hijacking of an Egyptair jetliner parked on the ground in Malta ended violently as Egyptian commandos stormed the plane. Fifty-eight people died in the raid, in addition to two others killed by the hijackers. Ali Rezaq of the Abu Nidal terrorist group was imprisoned in Malta for 7 years and then released. The US FBI apprehended him in Nigeria in 1993 and he was convicted by a US federal jury in 1996 and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.A6)(SFEC, 10/8/96, D1)(AP, 11/24/97)

1985        Nov 25, Ronald W. Pelton, a former employee of the National Security Agency, was arrested on espionage charges. Pelton was later convicted of selling secrets to Soviet agents.
    (AP, 11/25/05)
1985        Nov 25, Elsa Morante (b.1912), Italian writer, died. Her books included “House of Liars" (1948). In 2008 Lily Tuck authored the biography “Woman of Rome: A Life of Elsa Morante."
    (WSJ, 9/27/08, p.W11)

1985        Nov 26, The space shuttle Atlantis roared into the nighttime sky over Cape Canaveral, Fla., carrying seven astronauts on a seven-day mission.
    (AP, 11/26/05)

1985        Nov 27, The British House of Commons approved the Anglo-Irish accord giving Dublin a consultative role in the governing of British-ruled Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 11/27/97)
1985        Nov 27, Fernand Braudel (b.1902), French historian, died. Braudel has been considered one of the greatest of the modern historians who have emphasized the role of large-scale socioeconomic factors in the making and writing of history.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernand_Braudel)
1985        Nov 27, In Haiti 3 students were slain by security forces in Gonaives in the first of several bloody confrontations with anti-government demonstrators.
    (AP, 1/17/11)

1985        Nov 28, NBC's Ahmad Rashad heard the acceptance of his marriage proposal from Phylicia Ayers-Allen during halftime of the Detroit Lions-New York Jets football game.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmad_Rashad)
1985        Nov 28, In Lake Worth, Texas, two men and a teenager (15) died as a result of a briefcase bomb on Thanksgiving Day. Another man and woman were injured by the explosion. In 2009 Michael Roy Toney (43) was released from prison after his 1999 conviction in the bombing was overturned.
    (www.justicedenied.org/michaeltoney.htm)(SFC, 9/4/09, p.A7)
1985        Nov 28, The Irish Senate approved the Anglo-Irish accord concerning Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 11/28/00)

1985        Nov, The US FDA approved imipenem, a penicillin-like drug.
    (SSFC, 1/20/08, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/2px4jy)
1985        Nov, In Peru rebels took over a Lima newspaper. Nestor Cerpa revealed himself as the leader. As Comrade Evaristo he had begun a series of attacks, takeovers and kidnappings.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A12)(www.emergency.com/peruhos3.htm)

1985        Dec 2, Philip Larkin (b.1922), English poet, died of esophageal cancer. He had received the Queen’s Gold Medal for Poetry in 1965. His books included “High Windows" (1974). In 2012 “The Complete Poems of Philip Larkin," edited by Archie Burnett, was published.
    (WSJ, 12/8/07, p.W18)(Econ, 1/21/12, p.94)(Econ, 1/21/12, p.94)
1985        Dec 2, The 2nd round of free elections in Guatemala gave a decisive majority of almost 70% to the centrist Christian Democratic Party candidate, Vinicio Cerezo (b.1942). The army still held much behind-the-scenes power.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.779)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Vinicio_Cerezo_Ar%C3%A9valo)

1985        Dec 4, Robert McFarland resigned as US National Security Advisor. Admiral John Poindexter was named to succeed.
    (HN, 12/4/98)
1985        Dec 4, In SF, Ca., Barbara Martz (28) was raped and stabbed to death when she walked in on a robbery at her Potrero Hill home. In 2007 DNA evidence linked John Davis, already in prison at Pelican Bay, to her murder. On Aug 27 Davis was convicted of murder. On Dec 17 he sentenced to life in prison without parole.
    (SFC, 8/16/07, p.B3)(SFC, 8/28/07, p.B1)(SFC, 12/18/07, p.B3)

1985        Dec 5, Christie’s auctioned a bottle of 1787 Chateau Lafite Bordeaux, thought to have once been part of Thomas Jefferson’s cellar, and part of a cache said to have been recently unearthed from a Paris house by German pop band manager Hardy Rodenstock. Lot 337 sold for $156,000 on a bid by Kip Murdoch, bidding for his father Malcolm Forbes. In 2006 Bill Koch of Florida, who purchased 4 bottles of alleged Jefferson wine in 1987, sued Rodenstock for fraud. In 2008 Benjamin Wallace authored “The Billionaire’s Vinegar: The Mystery of the World’s Most Expensive Bottle of Wine.
    (Econ, 5/10/08, p.95)

1985        Dec 6, The San Francisco Chronicle described a “super cocaine," known on the streets as crack, rock or base. It was being smoked in a pipe to produce an intense euphoria. Crack cocaine was first discovered in use in New York City.
    (SSFC, 12/5/10, DB p.50)(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A5)

1985        Dec 7, Retired Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart died in Hanover, N.H., at age 70.
    (AP 12/7/97)
1985        Dec 7, Robert Graves, British author, died. He was the author of historical novels that included "I, Claudius" and "Collected Poems" (1966). His book "The White Goddess" (1948) purported to prove that the affairs of men have been controlled since the dawn of civilization by an all-destroying, all-creating goddess who manifests herself in living women for the purpose of inspiring poets. A new biography on Graves was written by Miranda Seymour and titled "Robert Graves: Life on the Edge."
    {Britain, Writer, Poet, Biography}
    (WSJ, 10/24/95, p.A-20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Graves)

1985        Dec 11, A mail bomb killed Sacramento computer store owner Hugh Scrutton. The murder was attributed to the Unabomber. He had picked up a piece of nail-riddled wood that was impact a bomb.
    (SFC, 4/4/96, p.A-16)(SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.4)

1985        Dec 12, The Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act, officially the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, provided for automatic spending cuts to take effect if the president and Congress failed to reach established targets.
    (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/bowsher.html)
1985        Dec 12, 248 American soldiers and eight crew members were killed when an Arrow Air charter crashed after takeoff from Gander, Newfoundland.
    (AP 12/12/97)

1985        Dec 13, France sued the U.S. over the discovery of an AIDS serum.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1985        Dec 14, Roger Maris (51), HR hitter (61 in 61, NY Yankees), died of cancer.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Maris)
1985        Dec 14, Wilma Mankiller became the first woman to lead a major American Indian tribe as she took office as principal chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.
    (AP 12/14/97)

1985        Dec 16, Reputed organized-crime chief Paul Castellano was shot to death outside a New York City restaurant on orders from John Gotti (d.2002). Gotti seized power in the Mafia after he had Paul Castellano killed.
    (AP 12/16/97)(SFC, 6/11/02, p.A2)(SSFC, 8/11/02, Par p.5)

1985        Dec 18, The UN Security Council unanimously condemned "acts of hostage-taking."
    (www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-4118333.html)

1985        Dec 19, In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mary Lund became the first woman to receive a Jarvik VII artificial heart. Lund received a human heart transplant 45 days later; she died October 14, 1986.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

1985        Dec 20, The passage of US Public Law 99-194 established the position of American Poet Laureate. In 1986 Robert Penn Warren became designated as the 1st Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry.
    (www.barclayagency.com/lc_press.html)

1985        Dec 23, James Vance (20) & Raymond Belknap (18), committed suicide, sparking their families to sue rock group Judas Priest for subliminal messages. Mr. Belknap died instantly. Mr. Vance was seriously injured and lived in pain until his death three years later.
    (http://tinyurl.com/29rwhh)
1985        Dec 23, A small plane (Buchanon Field Airport) crashed into Sunvalley Shopping Mall in Concord, Ca., and 6 people were killed.
    (SFC, 4/15/04, p.B10)

1985        Dec 26, Dian Fossey (53), American zoologist who had studied gorillas in the wild (Gorillas in the Mist), was murdered in Rwanda. Her body was found the next day. Wayne Richard McGuire, a doctoral candidate working with Fossey, was later found guilty in absentia in Rwanda. A native tracker was also charged and died in jail. McGuire claimed total innocence.
    (AP, 12/27/01)(SFC, 3/15/05, p.A7)

1985        Dec 27, Palestinian guerrillas opened fire inside the Rome and Vienna airports; a total of twenty people were killed, including five of the attackers, who were slain by police and security personnel. Abu Nidal was considered responsible. President Reagan blamed Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi.
    (AP, 12/27/97)(SFC, 8/25/98, p.A6)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)
1985        Dec 27, American naturalist Dian Fossey, who had studied gorillas in the wild, was found hacked to death at a research station in Rwanda.
    (AP, 12/27/05)

1985        Dec 28, A Syrian sponsored peace agreement was signed in Damascus between warring Lebanese Moslem and Christian leaders.
    (www.lebanese-forces.org/lebanon/agreements/damascus85.htm)

1985        Dec 31, Singer Rick Nelson (45) and six other people were killed when fire broke out aboard a DC-3 that was taking the group to a New Year's Eve performance in Dallas.
    (AP, 12/31/97)

1985        Dec, IBM-PC DOS Version 3.2 was released.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC-DOS)
1985        Dec, Protests broadened across Haiti. Duvalier ordered a significant reshuffle of his Cabinet.
    (AP, 1/17/11)

1985        Rodrigo Betancur of SF made his clay and copper sculpture “Movement," a part of his Movimento series.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.18)

1985        Christo wrapped the 12 arches of Pont-Neuf in Paris with some 450,000 square-feet of fabric. The project cost some $3.5 million.
    (SFC, 3/2/97, p.E4)(SSFC, 2/13/05, p.A10)

1985        British Petroleum of America, headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio, commissioned Claes Oldenburg to do one of his famous oversized sculptures. They were not happy with the result, a 70,000 lb. rubber stamp with the word FREE, and donated it to the city. It was parked near City Hall on Nov 15, 1991.
    (SFC, 6/2/96, T10)(Smith., Aug. 1995, p.80)

1985        The 90-foot Lady of the Rockies statue, located on the Continental Divide east of Butte, Mont., was erected.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, p.A4)

1985        The 1st Cowboy Poetry Gathering was held in Elko, Nevada. Baxter Black and Waddie Mitchell were among the performing poets.
    (WSJ, 3/5/00, p.A1)

1985        Herb Gardner wrote his play “I’m Not Rappaport." In 1997 it was released as a film with Walter Matthau and Ossie Davis.
    (SFEC, 8/18/96, DB p.34)

1985        Wallace Shawn, playwright, wrote “Aunt Dan and Lemon."
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)

1985        Sam Shepard wrote his play “Lie of the Mind."
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.E3)

1985        Leatrice Gilbert Fountain wrote an autobiography of her father and silent film star John Gilbert: “Dark Star."
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.B3)

1985        David Brin published his novel “The Postman." It was made into a Kevin Costner post-apocalyptic film in 1997.
    (SFEC, 8/24/97, DB p.65)

1985        Seymour Chatman wrote "Antonioni, or, the Surface of the World" about the Italian film director.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, DB p.42)

1985        Deepak Chopra self-published his first book: “Creating Health."
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, BR p.4)

1985        Dominick Dunne (1925-2009) authored “The Two Mrs. Grenvilles," based on the sensational Woodward murder case of 1955. It was made into a television movie in 1987, directed by John Erman, and starring Genevieve Allenbury, Ann-Margaret, Elizabeth Ashley, Claudette Colbert and Stephen Collins. It proved to be Claudette Colbert's last film.
    (SFC, 8/27/09, p.A9)

1985        Richard Feynman, physicist, published: “Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman."
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, BR p.3)

1985        William Gaddis (d.1998 at 75) published his novel “Carpenter’s Gothic."
    (SFC, 12/18/98, p.A38)

1985        Mark Gruenwald (d.1996), the editor of Marvel Comics issued a 12-comic series, “Squadron Supreme," as an homage parody to DC Books Justice League of America featuring Superman and Wonder Woman. The squadron included the superheroes Zarda and Nuke.
    (SFC, 8/29/97, p.A15)

1985        Kathy Keeton Guccione (d.1997 at 58), associate founder of Penthouse Magazine, wrote “Women of Tomorrow."
    (SFC, 9/25/97, p.B2)

1985        J. Anthony Lukas (d.1997) published “Common Ground," an exploration of school desegregation through the experiences of three Boston families.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, BR p.1)

1985        Marc Orkrand, linguist, convinced Pocket Books to publish “The Klingon Dictionary."
    (Wired, 8/96, p.90)

1985        R.J. Schoenberg published “Geneen," a book on Harold Geneen, who probably did more than any other business leader to establish the modern system of corporate financial accountability.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.80)

1985        “Look at My Ugly Face: Myths & Musings on Beauty & Other Perilous Obsessions with Women’s Appearance" by Sara Halprin was published.
    (SFEM, 7/14/96, p.31)

1985        “Making It in America" was published by Barry Minkow. It was the ghost written story of an entrepreneur whiz kid who started a carpet cleaning business called ZZZZ Best at age 14 and became a millionaire while still a teenager. In 1987 he was convicted of fraud and served 7 years in Lompoc, Ca. He then published Clean Sweep, his confessions from prison. His latest gig was as a radio talk show host and star of a self-help video series “Fraud-Dynamics." He was working to repay $26 million lost by stockholders when ZZZZ Best collapsed. In 2005 Minkow authored “Cleaning Up."
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 2/15/05, p.D10)

1985        Stanley J. Olsen, anthropologist, wrote the “Origins of the Domestic Dog."
    (Nat. Hist. 3/96, p.36)

1985        Neil Postman authored “Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business."
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amusing_Ourselves_to_Death)

1985        Rosemarie Rogers (d.1996 at 61) wrote “Guests Come to Stay: The Effects of European Labor Migration on Sending and Receiving Countries."
    (SFC,12/15/97, p.A20)

1985        Don DeLillo won the National Book Award for his novel “White Noise."
    (SFC,10/16/97, p.E3)

1985        Ned Gilette (d.1998 at 53) and Jan Reynolds published “Everest Grand Circle: A Climbing and Skiing Adventure Through Nepal and Tibet."
    (SFC, 8/15/98, p.A24)

1985        John Irving wrote his novel “The Cider House Rules." It was dramatized in 2 parts in 1996 and 1997 at the Seattle Repertory Co.
    (WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A16)

1985        Suzanne Lipsett (1944-1996) published “Coming Back Up." Her 2nd novel was “Out of Danger" (1987). Her final work included “Remember Me" (1991) and “Surviving a Writer’s Life" (1993).
    (SFC, 9/11/96, p.C2)

1985        Larry McMurtry published his novel “Lonesome Dove."
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, zone 1 p.2)

1985        James Michener wrote his novel “Texas."
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.A7)

1985        Anne Rice published her gothic tale: “The Vampire Lestat."
    (WSJ, 4/24/98, p.W1)

1985        Kim Stanely published her novel “A Green Mars." It described the “terraforming" of Mars into an Earthlike environment.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A17)

1985        Donald Stookey (1915-2014), glass chemist, authored “Center of the Crystal Ball."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S._Donald_Stookey)(Econ, 11/22/14, p.86)

1985        Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007), former sec-gen. of the UN, authored his autobiography: “In the Eye of the Storm," as he prepared to run for the presidency of Austria.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.97)

1985        Mary Anne Warren authored “Gendercide," a look at the moral issues raised by new and emerging technologies of sex selection.
    (Econ, 3/6/10, p.77)

1985        Bernard Williams (1930-2003), English moral philosopher, authored "Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy" (1985).
    (SSFC, 6/15/03, p.A27)

1985        Michael S. Malone authored “The Big Score: The Billion-Dollar Story of Silicon Valley." The PBS documentary “Silicon Valley Boomtown" was based his book.
    (http://malone-grove.com/html/malone.htm)

1985        The Broadway show Tango Argentino introduced the music of Astor Piazzolla to North American audiences.
    (WSJ, 2/18/97, p.A18)

1985        The Broadway show "Big River: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" was adopted by William Hauptman from the Mark Twain novel.
    (SFC, 3/17/99, p.E4)

1985        Mark Morris choreographed the dance piece “One Charming Night," based on music by Purcell.
    (SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.11)

1985        Edison Denisov (1929-1996), Russian composer, had the premiere of his opera “L’Ecume des Jours" in Paris.
    (SFC, 11/27/96, p.B2)

1985        The Isley Brothers had a No. 1 R&B hit with the gospel-inspired “Caravan of Love."
    (SFC, 6/9/10, p.C10)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=foFK6q7kF9Y)

1985        Flip Wilson (d.1998) and Gladys Knight co-starred in the TV sitcom “Charlie & Company.
    (SFC, 11/26/98, p.B9)

1985        Leon Kirchner composed his “Music for Twelve" with 12-tone leaps and oddball chords.
    (WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)

1985        Ann Phillips wrote: “Bending Towards the Light: A Jazz Nativity."
    (WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A20)

1985        The group “X," an advocate of the rockabilly hybrid sometimes called “cowpunk," forged on following the departure of guitarist Billy Zoom. The band reunited in 1998. The group included D.J. Bonebrake, Exene Cervenka and John Doe.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, p.E1)

1985        “Rockin" Sidney Simien (d.1998 at 59) had a Zydeco hit with his song “My Toot Toot."
    (SFC, 2/27/98, p.D8)

1985        David Lee Roth left the Van Halen rock-n-roll band. In 1997 he published: “Crazy From the Heat," a history of the band.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, DB p.50)

1985        Cleveland’s 45-story BP Building was completed. In 1996 it sold for $145 million, 45% below what it cost to build.
    (WSJ, 10/11/96, p.B1)

1985        In Dallas the three 18-story building complex named the Crescent was completed. The architects were Philip Johnson and John Burgee.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.B10)

1985        In Dallas developer Trammel Crow built the massive Infomart, modeled after the London’s famous Crystal Palace that burned down in 1936.
    (WSJ, 12/2/97, p.B12)

1985        In Colorado Monte Kim Miller (b.1954) founded his Concerned Christians sect. He preached against the evils of cults and New Age movements. The sect disappeared from their homes and jobs in October 1998 and had been the subject of a search. On January 3rd, 1999 they gained notoriety for being arrested and deported from Israel. The deportation was part of an Israeli effort to protect the Al-Aqsa mosque from extremist Christian groups.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3aola5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concerned_Christians)(SFC, 10/16/98, p.A9)

1985        Frances Lear (1923-1996) divorced Norman Lear and received a $25 million settlement. She used the money to start Lear’s Magazine aimed at “the woman who wasn’t born yesterday."
    (SFC, 10/1/96, p.A24)

1985        Anthony Corallo (d.2000 at 87), aka Tony Ducks, Luchese family member of the Mafia politburo, was arrested and later convicted for racketeering.
    (SFC, 9/2/00, p.A23)

1985        In the SF Bay Area KRON TV introduced “Bay Area Backroads," a travel show for natives. Jerry Graham (1934-2013) hosted the show until 1993.
    (SFC, 5/2/13, p.D5)
1985        Howard Stern started his radio show on WXRK in NYC. His later became known as a shock jock for his "street-talk" style. Stearn was fired from Clear Channel in 2004.
    (WSJ, 3/8/04, p.B1)(SFC, 4/9/04, p.A3)

1985        The 26-foot high "Skygate" by Roger Barr (d.2000 at 79) was the San Francisco’s first piece of public art financed by a corporation. The arch-shaped structure was erected near Pier 35 and was dedicated to longshoreman-philosopher Eric Hoffer.
    (SFC, 1/14/00, p.D4)
1985        Rodrigo Betancur of SF made his clay and copper sculpture "Movement," a part of his Movimento series.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.18)
1985        Frances Jaffer (d.1999 at 78), SF poet, published her book of poems "Alternate Feelings."
    (SFC, 1/30/99, p.A19)
1985        The Magic Theater in SF produced "Scar" by Murray Mednick.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, DB p.43)
1985        Harre Demoro, a SF Chronicle transportation reporter, wrote a 2-volume history of the Key Route train system.
    (SFC, 9/4/98, p.A25)
1985        Mary Mahoney (d.1997 at 82), SF nurse, wrote "Reflections on Mary’s Help Hospital and Seton Medical Center." Mary’s Help Hospital on Guerrero St. moved to what is now Seton Medical Center in Daly City in the 1960s.
    (SFC, 6/14/97, p.C2)
1985        Robert J. Senkewicz published "Vigilantes in Gold Rush San Francisco."
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W19)
1985        Helgi Tomasson succeeded Lew Christensen as artistic director of the SF Ballet. The season opened with a full-length "Nutcracker."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.B9)(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.47)
1985        Bill Griffith began a daily strip of "Zippy the Pinhead" for the SF Chronicle. He created the cartoon character "Zippy" in 1970 as an underground cartoon.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, p.B7)
1985        Randy Hayes founded the Rainforest Action Network, a non-profit group in SF.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B1)
1985        Ruth Brinker (1922-2011) founded Project Open Hand, a SF program to provide meals for people with AIDS. By 1988 the project was serving 500 meals a day. In 2005 she was honored with a Jefferson Award for community service.
    (SFC, 7/23/05, p.B6)(SSFC, 8/14/11, p.C9)
1985        In SF Cleve Jones and Mike Smith formed the Names Project to remember those who died of AIDS. The project went on to develop the AIDS Memorial Quilt.
    (SFC, 9/15/96, C8)
1985        Willie Walker (1949-2004) helped found the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 10/22/04, p.B7)
1985        In SF Larry Harvey and friends began the Burning Man festival with a torching of an 8-foot wooden figure on Baker Beach. It was to celebrate the summer solstice and exorcize the sadness of a lost love affair.
    (SFC, 7/19/96, p.D1,12)
1985        In SF the California College of Arts and Crafts opened a small campus on 17th St. It closed in May 1996 prior to the opening of a new site at 8th and Irwin.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.C3)
1985        In SF the Renaissance Entrepreneurship Center, an incubator for startup businesses, was conceived. It opened in 1990 on Bryant St. with backing by PG&E. A new location was acquired in 1998 at 275 Fifth St.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.D1,2)
1985        In SF the first annual A La Carte A La Park festival in Golden Gate Park was held over Labor Day weekend.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.D1)
1985        In SF Howard Junker founded ZYZZYVA, a journal of West Coast Writers and artists.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A21)
1985        The SF Board of Supervisors declared SF a "city of refuge" for immigrants seeking asylum from El Salvador and Guatemala, whose right-wing governments were backed by the Reagan administration. It prohibited police from helping federal authorities deport undocumented workers. Mayor Diane Feinstein signed the legislation. In 1989 the (1984) resolution was made into an ordnance. In 1992 and 1993 the legislation was altered to allow law enforcement to report felony arrests of suspected undocumented immigrants to federal authorities.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, p.A18)(SFC, 3/23/02, p.A27)(SSFC, 8/31/08, p.A14)
1985        In SF Proposition M limited downtown growth.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A27)
1985        In SF the Planning Commission and Board of Supervisors approved the nomination of the Beach Chalet as an official city landmark.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C4)
1985        The US Army transferred much of San Francisco’s Fort Baker’s open space to the National Park Service. The base would be formally decommissioned in 1998-99 and become part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.
    (SFC, 6/24/97, p.A15)
1985        The SF Chronicle created an electronic news archive.
    (SFC, 10/19/05, p.B7)
1985        The square-rigged Balclutha, located at the SF Maritime National Historic Park, was declared a National Historic Landmark. The 3-masted ship was built in Glasgow, Scotland, in the 1880s and appeared in the 1935 film classic “Mutiny on the Bounty."
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.D3)
1985        The SF Zoo opened a $7 million Primate Discovery Center. The atrium half was demolished in 1999 and a new structure was planned.
    (SFC, 11/8/99, p.A19)
1985        Elsie St. in Bernal Heights was widened after property owners petitioned SF Mayor Diane Feinstein.
    (SFEM, 7/21/96, p.9)
1985        In SF the South Park Cafe, a French bistro, opened under Bob Voorhees.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.WBb3)
1985        SF General opened the nation’s first full AIDS ward.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A8)
1985        In SF the BofA building at Kearny and California was sold to Walter Shorenstein for $660 million.
    (SFC, 10/3/00, p.A11)
1985        In SF the former site of St. Ignatius College Prep. on Stanyon St. was torn down. The gym was left and incorporated into the USF Koret Center.
    (SFCM, 1/18/04, p.12)
1985        In SF Bill Graham’s offices were fire bombed after he took out adds protesting Pres. Reagan’s visit to Bitburg cemetery, where Nazis were buried.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A15)
1985        The Levi Strauss Co. was taken private in a $1.7 billion leveraged buyout. Pres. Thomas Tusher was granted options in 1987 to buy 404,750 shares of stock at $3.50 per share. He sold them back to the company in 1996 at $265 per share.
    (SFC,11/12/97, p.A10)
1985        The Swiss Nestle S.A. corporation bought the SF based Hills Bros. Coffee and MJB. The Bransten family of SF sold MJB coffee to Nestle.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.D2)(SFC, 1/20/01, p.A23)
1985        Antonio Sotomayor, SF muralist, died.
    (SFC, 11/8/01, p.A25)

1985        Phil Sokolof founded the National Heart Savers Association. He went on to spend some $15 million to change American eating habits, encourage cholesterol testing and getting nutritional labels placed on everything edible.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.C6)

1985        The Barbara and Robert K. Strauss (1906-1997) Thinking and Learning Center was founded at the Manhattan campus of Pace Univ. His father was Isador Straus, founder of R.H. Macy & Co., who died on the Titanic in 1912.
    (SFC, 2/28/97, p.A24)

1985        Howard Junker founded ZYZZYVA, a journal of West Coast Writers and artists.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A21)

1985        Ronald Hoeflin founded the Mega Society, an organization whose members purport to have an IQ of at least 176. The organization was in violation of a California code, section 2903 of the state Business and Professions Code, that requires a psychology license to construct, administer and interpret tests of mental abilities.
    (WSJ, 5/14/97, p.B1)

1985        Actor Paul Newman founded the Hole in the Wall Gang Camp in Connecticut for children afflicted with cancer and other serious diseases.
    (Hem., 10/97, p.24)

1985        Dr. William F. Gibson (d.2002) was elected head of the NAACP. He had led the South Carolina chapter for 18 years. His tenure ended in 1995 under accusations of abusing his expense account.
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A21)

1985        The Mrs. Giles Whiting Foundation created the Whiting Writers’ Award. Annual awards of $40,000 were made to emerging writers of exceptional talent and promise.
    (SFC, 10/28/05, p.E4)

1985        The US Council on Foundations established its Robert W. Scrivner Award for Creative Grantmaking. The award was created as a memorial to the late Robert Winston Scrivner, former staff associate of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and first executive director of the Rockefeller Family Fund, by a number of his friends and colleagues.
    (http://classic.cof.org/council/content.cfm?ItemNumber=791&navItemNumber=2189)

1985        National Geographic Research, a scientific Journal, began publication.
    (NG, May 1985, Pres. Letter)

1985        Betsey Cushing Roosevelt Whitney (d.1998 at 89) donated $8 million to Yale Medical School for the Harvey Cushing-John Hay Whitney Medical Library.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.B4)

1985        In Pensacola, Florida, Jimmy Louis Howard began the Mullet Toss competition. The winning throw in 1996 was 177 ft. and the event drew 50,000 people.
    (WSJ, 8/21/96, p.A12)

1985        Robert Erickson (d.1997 at 80), composer, won the Friedham award for chamber music for his string quartet “Solstice." He wrote “The Structure of Music: A Listener’s Guide" in 1957 and “Sound Pictures in Music" in 1975. In 1996 there were 2 biographies published by John McKay and Charles Shere.
    (SFC, 4/29/97, p.A20)

1985        J. Anthony Lukas (d.1997 at 64) won a 2nd Pulitzer Prize for his book “Common Ground." It was an examination of the furor over court-ordered school bussing in Boston during the 1970s. He also won an American Book Award, a National Book Critics Circle Award and the Robert F. Kennedy Book Award for the work.
    (SFC, 6/7/97, p.A19)

1985        The EU instituted the Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought as a tribute to the Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A17)

1985        Dorothy Chandler (1901-1997), wife of Norman Chandler (the 3rd publisher of the Los Angeles Times), was one of 11 of the first recipients of the new National Medal of Arts called for by Pres. Reagan for her work in establishing the Los Angeles County Music Center in 1964.
    (SFC, 7/7/97, p.A16)

1985        Franco Modigliani (d.2003 at 85), Italian economist at MIT, won the Nobel Prize in economics for his research on savings habits of people and the market value of businesses.
    (WSJ, 9/26/03, p.A1)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.88)
1985        The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the International Physicians for the prevention of Nuclear War. Dr. Bernard Lown, a Harvard cardiologist, accepted the prize on behalf of the physicians.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(SFEC, 12/8/96, zone 1 p.3)(SFC, 12/3/97, p.D3)
1985        Claude Simon (1913-2005, French novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Simon)

1985        Pres. Reagan signed into law the Gold Bullion Coin Act that authorized the government to mint gold coins.
    (SFC, 7/14/04, p.C1)

1985        A US-China Agreement on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation was reached.
    (WSJ, 10/29/97, p.A22)

1985        US ambassador Winston Lord and his wife Bette Bao were posted to Beijing. They served there through mid-April 1989.
    (CJ, Legacies, 1991)

1985        Sen. John Kerry of Mass. went to Nicaragua to meet with the Sandinista leadership. Kerry worked hard against Pres. Reagan’s efforts to fund CIA aid for the contras.
    (WSJ, 7/30/04, p.A11)

1985        The US Postal Service announced a 22 cent rate for first-class postage.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, zone 1 p.2)

1985        The US Navy and John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory launched Geosat, a satellite carrying a radar altimeter designed to make precise measurements of sea surface “topography," which roughly reflects major features on the ocean bottom.
    (Nat. Hist. 3/96, p.28)

1985        Treasury Sec. James Baker encouraged a steep decline in the value of the US dollar and US manufacturers cheered.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)

1985        The US FCC decided to open several bands of wireless spectrum for communications use without a government license. Bands at 900MHz, 2.4GHz and 5.8GHz were made available.
    (Econ, 6/12/04, Tech p.26)

1985        The US B-1 bomber made by Rockwell entered military service. It did not get used in combat until 1998 in a mission over Iraq.
    (SFC, 12/19/98, p.A4)

1985        The US defense budget was $343 billion.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, zone 1 p.6)

1985        Peter H. Lee (45), a scientist at Los Alamos, visited China and turned over information about US national security laser programs. He confessed in Dec 1997 and was sentenced in Mar 1998 to one year in a halfway house, $20,000 in fines, and 3,000 hours of community work.
    (SFC, 3/9/99, p.A13)(SFC, 5/10/99, p.A3)

1985        In Colorado the US Army opened its 235,896 acre Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS), 150 miles southeast of fort Carson. The land purchase was completed on September 17, 1983, at a cost of approximately $26 million. An additional $2 million was used for relocation of 11 landowners and for school bond relief. Approximately one half of the PCMS was acquired through the legal process of condemnation.
    (www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/pinon-canyon.htm)

1985        American CIA clerk in Ghana Sharon Scranage pleaded guilty to disclosing the names of US agents to her Ghanaian boyfriend. She was prosecuted under a 1982 federal law called the Intelligence Identities Protection Act.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.A17)(LAT, 7/15/05)

1985        The United States leased buildings in Moscow for a US embassy under a twenty-year contract valued at 72,500 rubles a year, about $60,000 at the time. In 1999 the United States proposed writing off the WW II “lend-lease debt" in exchange for buildings used by the U.S. embassy, including an elegant residence for the ambassador. An unnamed official said the United States should pay $870,000 a year for the buildings.
    (www.russiajournal.com/start/news/article.cgi?ind=1637)
1985        The US Navy requisitioned two oil-hauling ships, the Benjamin Isherwood and the Henry Eckford. They never went on a mission, were never even completed, yet cost taxpayers at least $300 million. In 2011 they headed from their dock on the James River in Virginia to a Texas scrap yard to be dismantled. The US awarded a $10 million contract to dismantle four ships, including the Eckford and the Isherwood, to a UK firm, so no money from the reclamation will return home.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3uycpe4)

1985        The American CIA rewrote its 1983 training manual for security forces after public uproar over another manual that taught Nicaraguan contra rebels about neutralizing enemies and holding demonstrations that could provoke violence.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A3)

1985        The Kemp-Kasten amendment authorized the US Sec. of State to determine whether certain int’l. programs receiving US funds are involved in programs that entail coercive abortions or involuntary sterilizations.
    (SFC, 7/23/02, p.A3)

1985        US national guidelines for prenuptial agreements were set. Each spouse was instructed to have separate legal council.
    (SFC, 4/13/99, p.A13)

1985        David Murdock, American businessman, bought Castle & Cooke, whose holdings included most of Lanai, Ha. In 1990 he opened the lodge at Koele and in 1991 the Manele Bay Resort.
    (SFC, 6/27/12, p.D6)

1985        The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) shut down its entire nuclear program over safety concerns.
    (SFC, 5/5/07, p.A6)

1985        In Louisiana John Thompson was convicted of murder  after prosecutors hid a blood test that would have cleared him of a prior conviction for armed robbery. A deathbed confession later cleared Thompson, who ending up spending nearly 14 years on death row.
    (Econ, 4/9/11, p.35)

1985        Abraham Mondrowitz (38) fled to Israel as NYC police investigated charges against him. In December 1984, New York police had charged that on two occasions in June of that year, Mondrowitz abused a 10-year-old boy at his home. The US requested Mondrowitz's extradition and Israel ordered his expulsion in 1987, but it was unable to carry out the order as its extradition treaty with the US did not cover sodomy.
    (AP, 11/19/07)

1985        The California legislature amended the Public Utilities Commission secrecy law to say that former commission employees can be charged with misdemeanor for releasing records.
    (SSFC, 11/27/11, p.A21)
1985        In SF Bill Graham’s offices were fire bombed after he took out adds protesting Pres. Reagan’s visit to Bitburg cemetery, where Nazis were buried.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A15)
1985        An arson fire at Westmoor High School in Daly City, Ca., caused $1 million in damage.
    (SSFC, 2/10/08, p.B3)

1985        Jerry Abramson became mayor of Louisville, Ky.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.38)

1985        In Seattle 10 members of a white supremacist group called the Order were convicted of racketeering and other charges. They were linked to the ideas of William Pierce in West Virginia and his book “The Turner Diaries."
    (SFC, 7/26/02, p.A26)

1985        In Ohio Dr. Michael Swango was convicted of the non-lethal poisoning by arsenic of co-workers. He was later accused of murdering as many as 35 patients. In 2000 James B. Stewart authored “Blind Eye: The Terrifying Story of a Doctor Who got Away With Murder." In 2000 Swango was sentenced to life in prison.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.A22)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.A5)

1985        Norman Harry Hollow (1920-1996), Sioux tribal chairman from 1973-1985, helped negotiate a water rights agreement between the tribes of the Fort Peck reservation and the state of Montana.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, p.A17)

1985        A Dallas-area woman was raped and her apartment was burglarized. Thomas Clifford McGowan (26) was convicted of both crimes in separate trials in 1985 and 1986 and sentenced to life each time. In 2008 McGowan won his freedom after a DNA testing proved him innocent.
    (AP, 4/16/08)

1985        Absolut Vodka commissioned Andy Warhol to create a painting of its bottle.
    (SFC, 12/10/04, p.D2)

1985        Bernard Arnault bought Dior and took the company out of bankruptcy court.
    (WSJ, 1/20/03, p.B1)

1985        Ford Motor Co. premiered the Taurus. Production of the car was terminated in 2006.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 10/20/06, p.D3)

1985        GM started its Saturn Division. GM also bought Hughes Aircraft Co. from Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 6/4/01, p.A22)

1985        Honda passed AMC as the 4th largest US auto manufacturer.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1985        Montgomery Ward catalog operations shut down along with 300 stores.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.A12)

1985        Uniroyal Inc. spent $950 million to fight a takeover bid.   
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1985        Dick Rutan and Jenna Yeager made a nonstop circumnavigation of the globe in their specially designed, twin-engined Voyager. Since they took off and landed at the same airfield it was technically a local flight.
    (Hem. 7/96, p.13)

1985        Texas-based Enron Corp. was formed when Houston Natural Gas combined with InterNorth Inc., a gas-pipeline company. Kenneth Lay (1942-2006) was named chairman and CEO in 1986. Enron filed for bankruptcy in 2001.
    (NW, 12/10/01, p.50)(SFC, 1/24/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 2/3/02, p.A19)

1985        Intel Corp. introduced the 386 microprocessor. It had a 32-bit design platform that allowed a graphical operating environment. It increased memory access to 4 million bytes.
    (TAR, 1996, p.26)(WSJ, 11/16/98, p.R10)

1985        Ted Waitt co-founded Gateway Computer in an Iowa farmhouse.
    (WSJ, 3/1/00, p.A1)

1985        Microsoft released its first version on the Windows computer operating system.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)

1985        Navigation Technologies (NavTech) was started by Russell Shields. It grew to become one of the premier suppliers of digital-map databases in the world. By 2007 Chicago-based Navtech had around 3,000 employees in 168 offices in 30 countries. Finland’s Nokia Corp. purchased Navteq in 2007.
    (Wired, Dec., '95, p.96)(AP, 10/1/07)

1985        The New Yorker Magazine, edited since 1952 by Ben Shawn (b.1927) was sold to the Newhouse publishing empire. The magazine was founded by Harold Ross and edited by Mr. Ross until Shawn assumed his duties.
    (SFEM, 4/12/98, p.10)

1985        Nintendo Co. of Japan launched its first home video game console: the Nintendo Entertainment System.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.29)

1985        Parametric Technology, an industrial design software firm, was founded by Samuel Geisberg, a former mathematics professor at Leningrad State Univ.
    (WSJ, 5/27/97, pB6)

1985        Steve Case founded Quantum Computer Services, the predecessor to America ON Line (AOL).
    (WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)

1985        Berry Prevor and Steven Shore of Long Island, NY, opened their first Steve and Barry’s store Philadelphia, selling discount Univ. of Pennsylvania apparel. In 2008 the 276-store chain faced Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
    (WSJ, 7/9/08, p.B1)(WSJ, 7/14/08, p.A1)

1985        Pleasant Rowland, a textbook publishing executive, founded The American Girl company in Madison, Wis. The company started with 3 dolls, each one set in a specific moment in American history. Mattel bought the company for $700 million in 1998.
    (WSJ, 12/30/06, p.A1)

1985        Tom Zimmerman, Chuck Blanchard, Young Harvill and Steve Bryson joined Jaron Lanier at his recently formed company VPL Research, and pioneered virtual reality. The firm filed for bankruptcy in 1990 and all its patents were sold to Sun Microsystems.
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.26)

1985        Chuck Watson, former Conoco executive, led Natural Gas Clearinghouse in a joint venture that grew to become Dynegy Corp. In 1995 the company began trading electricity and acquired a listing on the NY stock exchange. Watson stepped down in 2002 in the wake of the Enron scandal.
    (WSJ, 5/29/02, p.A1)

1985        Victor Posner (d.2002 at 83) was named the top-paid chief executive by Business Week. Posner pleaded no contest to tax evasion charges in 1987 and was found guilty with his son in 1994 of violating federal securities law by failing to disclose a scheme with Michael Milken and Ivan Boesky.
    (SFC, 2/12/02, p.A24)

1985        Spin Magazine was founded by publisher Bob Guccione, Jr. It began publishing news on popular music and became the main competitor to industry stalwart Rolling Stone.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yzs8bz)

1985        In Alabama two fast food restaurant managers were murdered in two separate restaurant hold-ups. Anthony Ray Hinton (29) was arrested and charged with the murders despite being at work in a locked warehouse 15 minutes away during a 3rd shooting in which a survivor identified him as the gun man. Hinton was freed from prison in 2015.  
    (AFP, 4/2/15)

1985        SF General opened the nation’s first full AIDS ward.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A8)
1985        Genentech received FDA approval for its growth hormone Protropin, the first recombinant drug marketed by a biotechnology company.
    (SFC, 3/13/09, p.A10)
1985        AIDS made the cover of Time Mag.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1985)
1985        A drug to treat leprosy was invented.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.A18)
1985        At the Mayo Clinic a liver transplant program was begun.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)
1985        Gary Litman’s team at All Children’s Hosp. in St. Petersburg, Fla., reported that they had cloned an antibody gene from a horned shark.
    (NH, 9/96, p.42)
1985        The Nurses Health Study showed that hormone use lowers heart-attack risk by 50%. In 1991 Women’s Health Initiative was launched to see if hormones protected women’s hearts. In 1998 a trial of women with heart disease showed a 50% higher heart risk among hormone users. In 2007 a WHI study showed that hormones do not raise heart risk for recently menopausal women.
    (WSJ, 4/4/07, p.A12)
1985        Carol Greider and Elizabeth Blackburn, researchers at UC Berkeley, discovered telomerase, a protein that repaired telomeres.
    (WSJ, 2/16/00, p.B1)
1985        In California an outbreak of listeria was linked to soft cheese made from raw milk produced in Los Angeles. Of the 142 cases reported, 93 were in pregnant women or their children. There were 48 deaths, including 20 fetuses.
    (www.notmilk.com/forum/463.html)
1985        Dr. Richard F. Marsh (d.1997 at 58) observed that the disease mink spongiform encephalopathy was very similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease), and that food supplement made from cattle and fed to the minks was probably the route of disease transmission.
    (SFC, 3/28/97, p.D2)
1985        Dr. Alec Jeffries, geneticist at Leicester Univ., used DNA fingerprinting for the 1st time to prove a maternity and paternity case.
    (Econ, 3/13/04, TQ p.33)
1985        Fred Mattson, a chemist with Proctor & Gamble, produced data that showed that substituting monounsaturated fats like olive oil for saturated fats in the diet will reduced the concentration of bad cholesterol in the blood without reducing the amount of good cholesterol, which protects the blood vessels.
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, p.D1)
1985        Douglas Prasher and colleagues at Woods Hole in Massachusetts used cloning technology to replicate the photoprotein found inside Aequorea victoria, a glowing species of jellyfish. The cloning of luciferase from fireflies also took place this year.
    (Econ, 3/12/11, TQ p.17)

1985        Hollow molecules of carbon called “buckyballs" after Buckminster Fuller were first proposed by Richard Smalley. It took 5 years to confirm their existence. He shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the discovery.
    (SFC, 4/12/96, p.A-12)(SFC, 10/10/96, p.A15)(WSJ, 12/6/96, p.B18)

1985        Corn-burning stoves came onto the US market. Mike Haefner designed a hopper that slowly fed kernels of dry corn into a combustion chamber. About this same time Dane Harmon adopted a wood pellet stove to handle corn. In 2005 operating costs for a corn-burning furnace were significantly lower than for heating oil or propane.
    (WSJ, 12/12/05, p.B4)

1985        Rotary Int’l., a businessman’s club and global charity, following a successful pilot study in the Philippines announced a plan to eradicate polio by vaccinating every child under five at risk of catching it.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, p.90)

1985        The thinning of the ozone layer over Antarctica was first reported.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.5)

1985        Louis A. Frank, Univ. of Iowa physicist, proposed that small, comet-like objects rain steadily on Earth at a rate of up to 20 per minute and that altogether each might weigh as much as 20 to 40 tons. His statement was based on data from the Dynamic Explorer satellite. In 1997 more data from the 1996 NASA Polar satellite agreed with Frank’s proposal.
    (SFC, 5/29/97, p.A15)

1985        CFC-11 was measured 220 ppt. and CFC-12 was measured 380 ppt. in the atmosphere. These molecules trap 17,500 and 20,000 times more heat than does a molecule of carbon dioxide.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.47)

1985        The Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai) first reached central Florida. In 2 years they extended their range 500 miles north.
    (PacDis, Spring/'94, p. 46)

1985        California’s oil production peaked at 423.9 million barrels.
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, p.C5)

1985        Brenda O’Connor (20), her husband Lonnie Bond and their baby son disappeared. A video made by Leonard Lake and Charles Ng later showed her bound to a chair at his hideaway near Wilseyville in Calaveras Ct., Ca. Charles Ng was arrested in Canada for killing a dozen people in a hideaway in the Sierra Nevada foothills in 1984-1985. He fought extradition for 6 years but was finally returned to California by a Canadian Supreme Court order.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/31/96, p.A23)

1985        Coleman Dowell (b.1925), fiction writer, died. His work included “Island People" and “Jabez."
    (WSJ, 2/11/03, p.D8)

1985        Wayne Dumond, while waiting trial for rape, was castrated with fishing line by 2 men in stocking masks. He had been sentenced to a prison term for the rape and kidnap of a 17-year old girl. While in prison St. Francis County Sheriff, Coolidge Conlee, removed Dumond's testicles from his home and preserved them in formaldehyde and displayed them on his desk. Later DNA evidence showed that Dumond’s semen did not match that found on the victim’s pants and Governor Huckabee of Arkansas said he should be freed.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A4)

1985        In Baltimore Flint Gregory Hunt murdered policeman Vincent Adolfo after he was stopped in a stolen car. He first chose the gas chamber for his execution, but as it approached in 1997 he changed his mind to lethal injection.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A2)

1985        In Florida Daniel Remeta killed an Ocala convenience store clerk and went on a four state crime and murder spree in which 5 people were killed. He was electrocuted in 1998. Remeta had the mental age of a child and ordered snow cones for his final meal.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.A3)

1985        Boston, Mass., began a $3.5 billion harbor clean-up program.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.28)

1985        In Texas John Kilheffer was killed by two hitchhikers. In 1997 Irineo Tristan Montoya was executed for holding Kilheffer down while Juan Villavicencio stabbed him 22 times. Villavicencio testified against Montoya and avoided the death sentence.
    (SFC, 6/19/97, p.A3)

1985        In Virginia Helen Schartner was murdered. Joseph O'Dell III was tried and convicted for the murder and was executed in 1997. He pleaded innocence right to the moment of death and married Lori Urs just before his execution.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.A3)

1985        A photo by Steve McCurry titled “Afghan Girl" appeared on the cover of National Geographic. In 2012 it sold at auction for $147,000.
    (SSFC, 12/9/12, p.A1)

1985      Argentine army commander Jorge Rafael Videla (b.1925), former president (1976-1981) was sentenced to life imprisonment for his role in the death squads during a 7-year dictatorship. He was pardoned by Pres. Menem in 1990. He was arrested and indicted again in 1998 for covering up the identities of abducted children. In 2006 a federal court judge ruled that the presidential pardon was unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 6/10/98, p.A10)(SFC, 7/15/98, p.C12)(AP, 9/6/06)

1985        In Bolivia hyperinflation and a hostile Congress cut short the term of Pres. Hernan Siles Zuazo and early elections were called. The price of tin crashed and 23,000 miners lost their jobs.
    (SFC, 8/8/96, p.A22)(NH, 11/96, p.38)
1985        In Bolivia Roberto Suarez, drug dealer, was sentenced to a 15-year prison term.
    (WSJ, 12/6/96, p.A12)
1985        In Bolivia drug traffickers gunned down naturalist Noel Kempf Mercado and a colleague while the pair visited a remote area to record bird calls.
    (WSJ, 12/6/96, p.A12)

1985        In Brazil those who could not read and write were not allowed to vote until this year.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, SR p.14)
1985        In Brazil the 535 mile Carajas train was inaugurated as part of a massive federal development program.
    (WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A1)
1985        Marcelo Carvalho de Andrade (26) of Brazil, mountain climber, former model and surgeon, came up with a plan to help protect the rain forest while waiting out a storm on the north face of Argentina’s Aconcagua mountain, the highest peak in South America.
    (SFC, 7/7/99, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/22ekjj)
1985        In Brazil Joao Canuto de Oliveira, trade union leader, was shot to death. In 2003 Brazil convicted ranchers Adilson Laranjeiras and Vantuir Goncalves de Paula in the shooting.
    (AP, 5/24/03)

1985        George Barnard and Robert Plackett authored “Statistics in the United Kingdom, 1939-45." The authors were both alumni of SR 17, a group set up to train industry and munitions factories in quality control techniques.
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.99)
1985        John Drewe, a British con man, persuaded painter John Myatt, to copy modern paintings, which were then marketed with forged provenance papers  to respected museums. In 2009 Laney Salisbury  and Aly Sujo authored “Provenance: How a Con Man and a Forger Rewrote the History of Modern Art."
    (SSFC, 7/26/09, Books p.F4)
1985        The TV series "Inspector Morse" began and ran for 33 two-hr. episodes with John Thaw (d.2002 at 60).
    (SFC, 2/26/02, p.A18)
1985        The 2nd annual Turner Prize in art was awarded to Howard Hodgkin.
    (WSJ, 12/1/99, p.A24)
1985        Britain under PM Thatcher signed an $80 billion contract with Saudi Arabia to provide 120 fighter jets and other military equipment over a period of 20 years. Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Saudi Arabia’s ambassador to the US, helped negotiate the deal.
    (SFC, 6/8/07, p.A16)
1985        Female genital mutilation, intentionally altering or injuring female genital organs for non-medical reasons, was made a crime in England and Wales. The law was extended in 2003 to make it an offence for British nationals or permanent residents to carry out FGM abroad or seek FGM abroad, even where it is legal.
    (AFP, 3/21/14)
1985        In the Battle of the Beanfield Wilshire police clashed with rioting pagans at Stonehenge.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.T5)
1985        AstraZeneca introduced the fake meat Quorn, a processed mycoprotein, into a variety of food products. It was made from a fungus discovered in the 1960s. it reached US markets in 2002.
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.A2)
1985        BAE Systems, Britain’s largest defense contractor, went private.
    (Econ, 10/28/06, p.66)
1985        London’s Dorchester Hotel was purchased by the Sultan of Brunei.
    (http://tinyurl.com/zf7fo)

1985        Canada: UNESCO declared Old Quebec a World Heritage Site. It was the first city in North America to attain the status.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T4)
1985        Canadian Auto Workers broke away from the US-based United Auto Workers to form their own union.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)

1985        China gave in to free market prices.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1985)
1985        China began to enact laws to protect patents, but did not enforce them much until 2001.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.74)
1985        China adopted an inheritance law. At this time divorce and remarriage numbers were low. Modest changes were approved in 2003.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.40)
1985        In China a group of foreign and national economists gathered on the Bashan steamship for a weeklong voyage down the Yangzi river swapping ideas on how to steer China’s economy. This “steamship conference" was organized by the World Bank at the request of a Chinese government commission.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, p.57)
1985        Ma Jian, Chinese Buddhist poet and dissident, fled Tibet. In 1987 he published “Stick Out Your Tongue," an account of his travels in Tibet. The book was denounced and banned n China. In 2006 it was translated to English.
    (SSFC, 6/4/06, p.M3)
1985        China began a commercial satellite program marketing its rockets as vehicles to send Western satellites into orbit.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A5)(WSJ, 10/23/07, p.B4)
1985        The Huadong Winery opened northeast of Qingdao on Mount Leoshan under British interests.
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, p.T13)
1985        ZTE, a Chinese networking gear maker, was founded. By 2008 it was among the top ten world wide makers of mobile phones.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.74)
1985        In China Zhang Ruimin, appointed a year earlier to rescue Haier, a state-owned refrigerator company, tackled quality control programs joined workers taking sledgehammers to 76 defective refrigerators. By 2011 Haier had some 70,000 employees.
    (Econ, 10/1/11, p.45)

1985        In Cuba Castro gave a series of interviews to Frei Betto, a Brazilian friar, that were later published as “Fidel and Religion."
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.B3)

1985        In Egypt Boutros Boutros-Ghali was the minister of state for foreign affairs and warned that the next war in the Middle East would be fought over water.
    (NG, 5/93, p.53)

1985        Ethiopia’s Marxist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam gave some 570,000 people the choice of moving or being shot. It was part of a program to counter the Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF).
    (Econ, 7/17/04, p.50)(www.uscis.gov)

1985        The EU began its "Culture Capital" program to promote European integration.
    (SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)

1985        Georges Vigarello (b.1941), French historian and sociologist, authored “Le Propre et le Sale" (The Clean and the Dirty).
    (www.iiac.cnrs.fr/cetsah/spip.php?article35)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.139)
1985        The 9-hour film “Shoah," a French documentary on the Holocaust, was directed by Claude Lanzmann.
    (SFC,11/28/97, p.C6)(SFEC, 10/31/99, DB p.44)(Econ, 3/20/10, p.60)
1985        A French law prohibited the demolition of the classy Parisian facades along the boulevard  Champs-Elysees.
    (SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G3)
1985        In France Magdalena Kopp, the wife of Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, was freed after a series of bloody attacks against France.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)
1985        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Italian bitters group Ramazzotti.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)

1985        A US airbase in Frankfurt, Germany, was bombed and Airman 1st Class Frank Scarton and Becky Jo Bristol were killed. Edward Pimentel was killed before the bombing in order to get his ID card. In 1996 Birgit Hogefeld, a member of the far-left RAF, was convicted of involvement and jailed for life.
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A25)
1985        Hans-Joachim Tiedge (d.2011), a top West German counterintelligence officer, defected to East Germany. Tiedge left East Germany for the Soviet Union in 1990.
    (AP, 4/13/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Tiedge)

1985        In Greece the Anti-State Struggle, a left wing terrorist group, killed a public prosecutor. In another attack 3 police officers and 2 security guards were killed. Avraam Lesperoglou, a suspected member of the group, was arrested in 1999.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A14)

1985        India published its 7th economic plan. It included a goal to end poverty by 2000.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.41)
1985        India built up its nuclear capabilities and refused Pakistan’s offers of mutual inspections and nonproliferation pledges.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.A15)

1985        Pres. Suharto of Indonesia vowed to crackdown on political extremists following an outbreak of bombings and arson in Jakarta.
    (WSJ, 3/11/04, p.D7)
1985        In Indonesia bombs exploded at Borobudur, a Buddhist temple complex on Java. Pres. Suharto had promised 3 weeks earlier to crackdown on political extremists.
    (WSJ, 3/11/04, p.A1)

1985        Iran began research in a secret uranium enrichment program. From 1985 to 1997 China was Iran’s most important nuclear partner.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.A3)(SFC, 9/18/06, p.A1)

1985        Iraq placed its biological weapons program under the president's authority and based it primarily at Salman Pak, a research facility south of Baghdad.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.A18)

1985        Mary Robinson resigned from the Labor Party of Ireland after her party supported the Anglo-Irish Agreement of this year. She opposed it on the grounds that it was unfair to Ulster Unionists.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-12)
1985        Ryanair was founded by Cathal and Declan Ryan (after whom the company is named), Liam Lonergan (owner of an Irish tour operator named Club Travel), and noted Irish businessman Tony Ryan (1936-2007), founder of Guinness Peat Aviation and father of Cathal and Declan. The small airline, flying a short hop from Waterford to London, grew to become one of Europe's largest carriers.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryanair)

1985        Christopher Hibbert authored “Rome: The Biography of a City."
    (Econ, 7/2/11, p.70)
1985        Francesco Cossiga (b.1928) was elected president of Italy. He resigned in 1992.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Cossiga)

1985        Israel established a 440 sq. mile security zone in southern Lebanon. The 9-mile wide zone was abandoned by some 400,000 inhabitants and by 2000 only 100,000 remained.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, p.a-14)(SFC, 3/10/00, p.A12)

1985        Charles Taylor escaped from a Plymouth County jail in Massachusetts while awaiting extradition to Liberia, where he was accused of embezzling money as an official in the dictatorship of Samuel Doe. He went to Libya received military training as a guest of Col. Moammar Khadafy. Taylor met Foday Sankoh, a corporal from Sierra Leone while training in Libya.
    (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A10)(SFC, 12/13/00, p.B5)(AP, 12/16/02)

1985        In Liberia national elections were held and Samuel Doe was elected president.
    (SFC, 7/19/97, p.A9)(AP, 7/1/03)

1985        Malaysia’s PM Mahathir Mohamed and government colleagues conceived the idea of a national highway about this time.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.97)

1985        The Mali town of Sanankoroba established a sister-town relationship with Sainte-Elizabeth, Quebec.
    (SFC, 2/27/98, p.D2)

1985        Mexico’s military opened its Museum of Drugs.
    (SFC, 1/15/10, p.A5)
1985        In Mexico Samuel Joaquin Flores succeeded in getting his Light of the World evangelical church affiliated with the National Confederation of Popular Organizations, an umbrella body for PRI-linked political groups.
    (SFC, 2/19/98, p.A10)
1985        The Mexican environmental organization Group of 100 was founded.
    (SFC, 3/13/99, p.A14)
1985        In Mexico Albert Radelat (32) and John Walker (36), US tourists, were tortured and killed by drug traffickers in Guadalajara. In 2001 Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo was sentenced to 30 years in prison for the torture slayings.
    (SFC, 5/5/01, p.D2)

1985        Pope John Paul II visited Morocco and issued his first major plea for Christian-Islamic solidarity against secular materialism.
    (SFC, 4/15/96,A-8)

1985        Cloudy Bay, a New Zealand wine maker, began exporting Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc to the US.
    (SFC, 4/11/08, p.F1)
1985        Some 450 pilot whales beached on New Zealand’s Great Barrier Island. Rescuers successfully refloated 324 of the mammals.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

1985        In Nicaragua the Contras fought for power against the established Sandinistas.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1985)
1985        In Nicaragua a photographer captured the execution of a peasant ordered by Contra Commandante Mack, who in 1996 accompanied Daniel Ortega on a campaign for the presidency.
    (WSJ, 10/9/96, p.A15)
1985        In Nicaragua the 3,000 acre cotton ranch of Enrique Bolanos was expropriated by the Sandinistas.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A12)

1985        In Pakistan Nawaz Sharif (31) became chief minister of Punjab state during a period of martial law.
    (WSJ, 9/5/07, p.A4)

1985        In Panama Manuel Antonio Noriega overthrew Pres. Barletta.
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.3)
1985        In Panama Hugo Spadafora, a dissident leader, was decapitated. Manuel Noriega was later sentenced to 20 years for the murder.
    (SFC, 1/25/07, p.A14)

1985        Paias Wingti (b.1951) succeeded Michael Somare as prime minister of Papua New Guinea and served to 1988.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paias_Wingti)

1985        Auguste Ricord, French heroin kingpin, died in Paraguay.
    (SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10)

1985        In Peru the military was involved in the massacre of 72 peasants in Accomarca, a village in the Ayacucho region, where the Shining Path was founded. In 2005 a judge issued arrest warrants for 29 current and former military officials for the massacre. In 2008 a US federal judge in Miami ordered former Peruvian Major Telmo Hurtado to pay $37 million for his role in the massacre in which 69 civilians were slain.
    (AP, 7/6/05)(SFC, 3/6/08, p.A2)
1985        The Ministry of Fisheries estimated that 9,700 dolphins were killed and sold as “chancho marino" i.e. sea pig.
    (PacDis, Winter/’96, p.36)

1985        Russia’s Communist Party Sec. Gen. Mikhail Gorbachev told Communist leaders in Eastern Europe that Moscow would not interfere in their domestic affairs.
    (Econ, 11/7/09, p.25)
1985        Vladimir Putin, Soviet KGB officer, was assigned to recruit spies in Dresden, East Germany.
    (WSJ, 2/23/05, p.A14)
1985        In Russia in the military town of Bolshoy Kamen near Vladivostok a nuclear explosion at the Zvesda nuclear submarine factory occurred and was hushed up. Waste from the area has tainted an old landfill and the Primorye state government forced the military to close the area in 1988.
    (SFC, 4/28/97, p.A12)

1985        In South Africa 2 ANC activists and 8 others were killed in a raid into Lesotho. A government assassin told a court in 1996 that plans for the raid were approved by the highest levels of Pres. Botha’s apartheid regime.
    (WSJ, 9/17/96, p.A1)

1985        In South Africa three Port Elizabeth activists, the Pepco 3, were beaten and strangled at an unused police station.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A19)
1985        In South Africa Eugene de Kock took over the Vlaakplaas counter-insurgency unit and ran it until 1993. The existence of the unit was only made public in 1989 and the full extent of its activities were not revealed until the Truth Commission in 1994.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A18)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.A19)
1985        South Africa repealed laws that prohibited interracial sex and marriage.
    (http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/southafrica.html)

1985        The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was founded in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of promoting economic cooperation and alleviating poverty in South Asia. Members included Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
    (AP, 11/13/05)

1985        In Spain the Socialist government approved pensions for 60,000 soldiers or their dependents who supported the losing Republican side in the Civil War.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A18)

1985        In the Sudan Christian Col. John Garang and Muslim leader Sadiq el-Mahdi helped to restore democracy, but soon grew at odds.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)

1985        Syria began manufacturing chemical warheads for missiles.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)

1985        In Tanzania Mr. Nyerere retired and left his chosen successor, Hassan Mwinyi, winner of a one party election, to open the economy. Mwinyi ruled to 1995.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A6)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.44)

1985        Gulf Air, a joint venture between Abu Dhabi, Bahrain, Oman and Qatar, decided to cut back its services to Dubai. This prompted Dubai to launch its own airline. The Emirates Airline began in the UAR with 2 rented planes and a $10 million investment from Dubai’s ruling family under the direction of Maurice Flanagan. In 2005 the state-owned operation planned to double its 73-plane fleet.
    (WSJ, 1/11/05, p.A1)(Econ, 6/5/10, p.75)

1985        The Vatican suspended Rev. Miguel D’Escoto Brockmann and three other dissident priests in Nicaragua for defying a church ban on clergy holding government jobs. Brockmann served as the Sandinista government’s foreign minister from 1979-1990. In 2014 he was reinstated by Pope Francis.
    (SFC, 8/5/14, p.A2)

1985        Vietnam installed Hun Sen as prime minister of Cambodia.
    (Econ, 11/15/14, p.86)

1985        In Zaire Mahele Lieko Bokoungo fought back Laurent Kabila, who had set up a rebel republic on the shores of Lake Tanganyika near Moba. The rebels under Kabila were mainly Tutsis and used militaristic and autocratic methods.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)(SFC, 5/2/97, p.A14)

1985        In Zimbabwe the Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources was begun. It was a community based conservation program to give villagers a stake in wildlife conservation and its costs.
    (WSJ, 6/5/97, p.A22)

1985-1986    The Christian Broadcasting Network gave the Freedom Council, a group orchestrating the presidential campaign of Pat Robertson, $250,000 a month. In 1998 the IRS imposed a tax penalty on the CBN and retroactive loss of tax-exempt status for 1986-1987.
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A3)
1985-1986      In Afghanistan Soviet soldiers failed to subdue the rebels. An alliance of 7 factions received US arms. Moscow installed a new leader, Dr. Najibullah.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)
1985-1986    Celerino Castillo III, a US agent for the DEA, reported Contra drug flights from Nicaragua to the US to US Embassy officials. His testimony in 1996 followed reports that the CIA was involved in smuggling drugs to southern California with the proceeds going to support Contra forces at war with the Sandinista government.   
    (SFC, 9/24/96, p.A7)
1985-1986    Jeffrey Sachs, UN special advisor, helped stop the hyperinflation in Bolivia.
    (Econ, 7/7/07, p.27)

1985-1987    A bug in the software of Therac-25 radiotherapy machines, produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, caused massive overdoses of radiation to several patients killing at least 5.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, TQ p.20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Therac-25)

1985-1988    The Bill Cosby Show is the top ranking network show on television for three seasons with rankings of 33.8, 34.9, and 27.8%.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)

1985-1989    Jack Scanlon served as the US ambassador in Belgrade, Serbia.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.A14)

1985-1991    In Italy a mafia war during this period claimed the lives of almost 600 people. Giovanni Tegano, a senior gangster in Reggio Calabria, was a key participant.
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.54)

1985-1992    In Sierra Leone Pres. Joseph Saidu Momoh presided over a one-party state. In 1998 he was convicted of a 1997 conspiracy to commit treason.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A14)

1985-1994    Aldrich H. Ames, a CIA counterintelligence official, passed information over this time to the Soviet Union that included the names of US agents. The deaths of at least 9 agents were blamed on his disclosures. In 1994 Ames and his wife, Rosario, pleaded guilty to spying for the Soviet Union.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.A17)

1985-1994    Premier Robert Bourassa led the province of Quebec for his 2nd term.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)

1985-1995    Frenchman Jacques Delors served as president of the European Commission.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, p.50)

1985-1997    In Niger some 60 million trees were planted over this period to stave off the encroaching Sahara Desert that expands by 500,000 acres each year. About half the trees have survived.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.A12)

1985-1999    Swiss glaciers lost at least 18% of their surface area during this period.
    (NH, 2/05, p.17)

1985-2000    The number of Swiss working in agriculture declined by 32% to 200,000. The number of farms dropped by 29% to 70,000.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.11)

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