Timeline 1986

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1986      Jan 1, Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy threatened to retaliate if attacked as the United States built its strength in the Mediterranean .
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1986        Jan 2, Bill Veeck (71) former baseball owner, died in Chicago. He is remembered for his well-publicized stunts and promotional gimmicks, including an exploding scoreboard and a midget pinch-hitter.
    (AP, 1/2/06)

1986        Jan 3, The British Banker’s Association started publishing the London inter-bank offered rates  (LIBOR), a measure of interest rates banks pay when they borrow from one another. The rate is subjective by design and not a statistical measure.
    (http://mortgage-x.com/general/indexes/wsj_libor_history.asp?y=1986)(Econ, 3/10/12, p.84)

1986        Jan 4, Christopher Isherwood, British born author, died of prostate cancer in Santa Monica, Ca. He was best know for his 1935 semi-autobiographical "The Berlin Stories," which was the basis for the 1966 musical Cabaret and made into a 1972 film. His life-partner was painter Don Bachardy. His "Diaries: Volume II, 1939-1960" were published in 1997. In 2005 Peter Parker authored “Isherwood: A Life Revealed.”
    (www.booksfactory.com/writers/isherwood.htm)(SFC, 1/16/97, p.E3)(SFC, 5/11/99, p.B6)

1986        Jan 6, In Johannesburg, South Africa, Impala Platinum fired 20,000 black mine workers.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lnq3m)

1986        Jan 7, US president Reagan proclaimed economic sanctions against Libya.
    (www.iie.com/research/topics/sanctions/libya.cfm)
1986        Jan 7, San Francisco mayor Diane Feinstein appointed Frank Jordan (50) as the new police chief to succeed Con Murphy.
    (SSFC, 1/2/11, DB p.42)

1986        Jan 12, Space shuttle Columbia blasted off with a crew that included the first Hispanic-American in space, Dr. Franklin R. Chang-Diaz.
    (AP, 1/12/98)

1986        Jan 13, In Guatemala just before turning over power to Pres. Cerezo, Gen. Humberto Mejia Victores issued a blanket self-amnesty for acts committed during the 3-year rule of the military government.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A13)(www.cidh.org/annualrep/85.86eng/chap4.a.htm)

1986        Jan 14, Donna Reed (b.1921), actress (Donna Reed Show, Dallas), died of cancer in Beverly Hills, Ca., at age 64.
    (www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1172)
1986        Jan 14, In Guatemala, Vinicio Cerezo (b.1942) began serving as president.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinicio_Cerezo)

1986        Jan 17, President Reagan approved a finding that authorized the sale of weapons to Iran through third parties.
    (www.thedubyareport.com/family.html)

1986        Jan 20, The United States observed the first federal holiday in honor of slain civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.
    (AP, 1/20/98)
1986        Jan 20, Britain and France announced plans to build the Channel Tunnel.
    (AP, 1/20/98)

1986        Jan 22, The body of Yvonne Coleman (15) was found in a park in Inglewood, California. In 2008 DNA evidence linked Michael Hughes (51), already in jail for 4 other murders (1992-1993), to her murder and 3 others. In 2011 Hughes, a former security guard dubbed the “Southside Slayer,” was found guilty of strangling three more victims in a series of attacks that stretched over a decade.
    (SFC, 7/4/08, p.B6)(SFC, 11/4/11, p.C5)

1986        Jan 23, The US began maneuvers off the Libyan coast.
    (HN, 1/23/99)
1986        Jan 23, Joseph Beuys (b.1921), German artist, died. In 1997 an English edition of "The Essential Joseph Beuys" by Alain Borer was published.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, BR p.8)(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Beuys)

1986        Jan 24, The Voyager 2 space probe swept past Uranus, coming within 50,679 miles of the seventh planet of the solar system. Uranus has puzzled scientists ever since the probe Voyager 2 did the flyby and found that its magnetic field appeared to break the planetary rulebook. In 2004 scientists noted that Neptune and Uranus have an interior structure that is different from those of Jupiter and Saturn.
    (AP, 1/24/98)(AP, 3/12/04)
1986        Jan 24, LaFayette Ronald Hubbard (b.1911), science fiction author and founder of Scientology, died. L. Ron Hubbard’s book “Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health” (1950) laid the foundation for Scientology. By 2007 the Los Angeles based church claimed 10 million members around the world.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L._Ron_Hubbard)(Wired, Dec. '95, p.177)(SFC, 2/12/01, p.A13)

1986        Jan 26, The Super Bowl was won by the Chicago Bears led by Coach Mike Ditka. Lineman William "Refrigerator" Perry scored touchdowns and the team danced to their video "The Super Bowl Shuffle."
    (WSJ, 9/24/97, p.B1)
1986        Jan 26, In India a Sarbat Khalsa (general congregation of the Sikh people) was convened at the Akal Takht, the Sikh seat of temporal authority in Amritsar. The gathering passed a resolution favouring the creation of Khalistan. A militant Sikh separatist movement had emerged in the 1970s with the goal of carving out an independent Sikh state out of the Punjab called Khalistan.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalistan)

1986        Jan 28, Just 73 seconds into its 10th launch, Americans watched in horror as the space shuttle Challenger (STS-51L) exploded in midair, killing its crew of seven: Navy pilot Michael J. Smith, Commander Francis Scobee and mission specialist Ronald McNair, mission specialist Ellison Onizuka, first teacher in space Christa McAuliffe, payload specialist Gregory Jarvis and mission specialist Judith Resnik. President Ronald Reagan spoke to the nation from the Oval Office that afternoon, explaining the tragedy to the nation's schoolchildren: "The future doesn't belong to the fainthearted. It belongs to the brave.... The crew of the space shuttle Challenger honored us by the manner in which they lived their lives. We will never forget them nor the last time we saw them this morning as they prepared for their journey and waved good-bye and 'slipped the surly bonds of earth to touch the face of God.'" Space shuttle flights were suspended until 1988. An independent U.S. commission blamed the disaster on unusually cold temperatures that morning and the failure of the O-rings, a set of gaskets in the rocket boosters. Rocco Petrone (1926-2006), former Apollo program manager and Rockwell chief shuttle engineer, had cautioned against the launch fearing that low temperatures might have damaged the shuttle’s thermal protection tiles.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A3)(AP, 1/28/98)(HNPD, 1/28/00)(SFC, 9/1/06, p.B8)
1986        Jan 28, In northern California the Apex Houston oil spill began. By Feb 4 it killed an estimated 6,500 common murre seabirds.
    (www.dfg.ca.gov/ospr/NRDA/apex-houston.aspx)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A27)

1986        Jan 31, Following weeks of unrest, White House spokesman Larry Speakes announced the collapse of the Duvalier government, a report that was later denied by Haitian and US officials.
    (AP, 1/17/11)

1986        Jan, Lawrence Walsh, independent council, began his probe into whether money from the US sale of weapons to Iraq was illegally diverted to the Nicaraguan Contras. He spent $48.5 million without proving that Reagan knew about the transaction.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.6)
1986        Jan, The first PC virus, called Brain, was discovered in the wild. Though it achieved fame because it was the first of its type, the virus was not widespread as it could only travel by hitching a ride on floppy disks swapped between users. The first virus to hit computers running a Microsoft Corp.'s operating system (DOS) came when two brothers in Pakistan wrote a boot sector program now dubbed "Brain," purportedly to punish people who spread pirated software.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4630910.stm)(AP, 9/1/07)
1986        Jan, Bob Kaufman, Beat poet, died in San Francisco at 60. He was born in New Orleans and had been called the "black American Rimbaud." His work includes "Cranial Guitar." Much of his work was preserved due to the diligence of his wife Eileen. Kaufman took a vow of silence after the assassination of John F. Kennedy and began speaking again after the Vietnam war ended. His last year was spent under the care of his friend Lyn Wildey.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.A15)(SFC, 7/20/96, p.A13)(I-witness)
1986        Jan, In Haiti Duvalier's administration closed schools and universities and forbade radio stations to report on the turmoil engulfing the country. More than 50 people were killed in disturbances, most by Tonton Macoutes. Duvalier declared 30-day state of siege.
    (AP, 1/17/11)
1986        Jan, In Uganda the National Resistance rebel army of Yoweri Museveni swept into power. He defeated Obote and Tito Okello's mainly northern Acholi forces. Many Acholi soldiers fled to the Sudan and some joined the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA).
    (SFC, 3/5/96, p.A9)(SFC, 5/25/98, p.A12)

1986        Feb 1, In Haiti 2 days of anti-government riots in Port-au-Prince resulted in 14 dead.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1986        Feb 3, Dalai Lama met Pope John Paul II in India.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nek6w)

1986        Feb 4, The U.S. Post Office issued a commemorative stamp featuring Sojourner Truth.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1986        Feb 7, US female Figure Skating championship was won by Debi Thomas.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nuoe4)
1986        Feb 7, Haitian President-for-Life Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier was ousted from power and fled his country, ending 28 years of family rule. He fled to France with his wife and mother. Henri Namphy became leader of Haiti. Duvalier and his cronies reportedly embezzled some $500 million during his last decade of rule.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1986)(SFC,12/31/97, p.A17)(AP, 2/7/97)(WSJ, 4/16/03, p.A1)
1986        Feb 7, The Philippines held a presidential election marred by charges of fraud against the incumbent, Ferdinand E. Marcos. Corazon Aquino defeated incumbent dictator Ferdinand Marcos but fraudulent returns gave the election to Marcos.
    (AP, 2/7/06)

1986        Feb 8, Brian Boitano won the US male Figure Skating championship.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nuoe4)

1986        Feb 9, Halley's Comet reached 30th perihelion, its closest approach to Sun. 5 spacecraft from the USSR, Japan, and the European Community visited Comet Halley in early 1986.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nmhkd)(www.seds.org/nineplanets/nineplanets/halley.html)
1986        Feb 9, The tomb of Tutankhamen's treasurer, Maya, was found in Egypt.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mfsn7)

1986         Feb 10, In Darien, Conn., Alex Kelly (18) raped 16-year-old Adrienne Bak Ortolano. Four days later he raped another girl. While preparing for trial after he was arrested and out on bail, Kelly fled the country and eluded charges for 8 years. Kelly stayed in Europe for nearly 10 years, presumably financed by his parents. In 1995, he was captured in Switzerland and extradited back to the United States to face trial. He faced two criminal trials in 1997. The first trial resulted in a mistrial. In the second trial he was convicted of the first rape and sentenced to 18 years in jail. He pleaded no contest to the second rape charge. His next parole hearing is scheduled in 2008, conditional on good behavior.
    (SFC,12/22/97, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Andrew_Kelly)
1986         Feb 10,  The largest Mafia trial in history, with 474 defendants, opened in Palermo, Italy. The trial ended on December 16, 1987, almost two years after it commenced. Of the 474 defendants, both those present and those tried in absentia, 360 were convicted. 2,665 years of prison sentences were shared out between the guilty, not including the life sentences. A total of 114 defendants were acquitted.
    (HN, 2/10/97)(www.answers.com/topic/maxi-trial)
1986        Feb 10, In Haiti a provisional government, headed by Namphy, named a 19-member Cabinet. It dissolved the Assembly and Tonton Macoutes, reopened schools, freed political prisoners, and sought to recover Duvaliers' assets. US aid resumed after being halted because of Duvalier abuses.
    (AP, 1/17/11)

1986        Feb 11, Activist Anatoly Scharansky was released by USSR, and left the country after nine years of captivity as part of an East-West prisoner exchange.
    (AP, 2/11/04)
1986        Feb 11, Frank Patrick Herbert (b.1920), sci-fi author (Dune, 1965), died of cancer in Wisconsin.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Herbert)
1986        Feb 13, Britain's Lady Thatcher and France's Mitterand signed the Chunnel treaty in Canterbury. It was opened in May, 1994.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, Z1 p.4)(http://tinyurl.com/lvmz3)

1986        Feb 15, The Philippines National Assembly proclaimed Ferdinand E. Marcos president for another six years, following an election marked by allegations of fraud. Marcos was later ousted.
    (AP, 2/15/06)

1986        Feb 16, Mario Soares (b.1924), Socialist, was elected Portugal's 1st civilian president in the 2nd round of elections.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_presidential_election%2C_1986)

1986        Feb 17, Johnson and Johnson, maker of Tylenol, announced it would no longer sell over-the-counter medications in capsule form, following the death of a woman who had taken a cyanide-laced capsule.
    (AP, 2/17/06)
1986        Feb 17, The Single European Act modifying the Treaty of Rome was signed a 1st time in Luxembourg. [see Feb 28] The single European Act was passed to end trade restricting regulations and create a true single European market by 1992.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, Survey p.9)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1986/index_en.htm)

1986        Feb 19, The U.S. Senate approved a treaty outlawing genocide, 37 years after the pact had first been submitted for ratification. Wisconsin Sen. William Proxmire made over 3,000 speeches over 19 years to support ratification of the bill.
    (AP, 2/19/98)(SFC, 12/16/05, p.A4)
1986        Feb 19, Barry Seal (b.1939), gunrunner, drug trafficker, and covert CIA operative extraordinaire, was murdered in a hail of bullets by Medellin cartel hit men outside a Salvation Army shelter in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He had testified in federal court in Las Vegas, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami for the US government against leaders of the Medellin drug cartel.
    (www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/crimesOfMena.html)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barry_Seal)
1986        Feb 19, In the SF Bay Area water breached a levee on the 8,800 acre Tyler Island wiping out crops and nearly destroying the Mello family’s farming business.
    (SFC, 1/2/09, p.A1)
1986        Feb 19, The Soviet Union launched the first component of its Mir space station. Mir meant peace.
    (WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/5/98, p.W14)(SFC, 8/26/99, p.A12)
1986        Feb 19, Adolfo Celi (b.1922), Italian film actor and director (Thunderball), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolfo_Celi)

1986        Feb 21, Ryan White (1971-1990), AIDS patient, returned to classes at Western Middle School in Indiana.
    (www.ryanwhite.com/pages/timeline.html)
1986        Feb 21, Larry Wu-tai Chin, the first American found guilty of spying for China, killed himself in his Virginia jail cell.
    (AP, 2/21/01)

1986        Feb 22, Jordan King Hussein delivered a televised address in which he denounced PLO leader Yasser Arafat and accused him of reneging of previous promises made to accept resolutions 242 and 338.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mlurr)
1986        Feb 22, In the Philippines a group of military officers mutinied against Pres. Marcos and holed him up with a small force at a military camp in Manila, leading to three days of protests by hundreds of thousands of citizens that finally toppled him. The Catholic Church’s call for civil disobedience helped to overthrow the dictatorship of Marcos.
    (AP, 8/1/09)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.48)

1986        Feb 24, Sherri Rasmussen (29) was beaten, shot and killed at her condominium in Los Angeles. In 2009 Police detective Stephanie Lazarus (49) was charged with the murder following DNA evidence linking her to the murder of her former boyfriend’s wife. On May 11, 2012, Lazarus (52) was sentenced to 27 years to life in prison.
    (SFC, 6/10/09, p.B5)(http://celebrity.rightpundits.com/?p=6093)(SFC, 5/12/12, p.A5)

1986        Feb 25, President Ferdinand E. Marcos fled the Philippines after 20 years of rule in the wake of a tainted election. Corazon Aquino assumed the presidency. Pres. Ferdinand Marcos was forced from office after 20 years of rule. He was accused of accumulating billions of dollars during his rule. The Marcoses fled to Hawaii and Imelda Marcos left behind her 5,400 shoes.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1986)(SFC, 8/23/96, p.A26)(AP, 2/25/98)

1986        Feb 26, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet and author Robert Penn Warren was named the first poet laureate of the US by Librarian of Congress Daniel J. Boorstin. Warren was awarded the post of US poet laureate consultant to the Library of Congress as the name was changed from consultant in poetry.
    (SSFC, 7/13/03, p.A27)(AP, 2/26/06)

1986        Feb 27, The U.S. Senate approved telecasts of its debates on a trial basis.
    (AP, 2/27/98)
1986        Feb 27 John Demjanjuk (66), a retired auto worker from Ohio, was extradited to Israel on charges of being "Ivan the Terrible," a Nazi death camp guard who had killed tens of thousands of people. He was later convicted, but the Israeli Supreme Court overturned the ruling.
    (AP, 4/25/98)(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Demjanjuk)

1986        Feb 28, In the Philippines Pres. Corazon Aquino signed executive order No. 1 creating the Presidential Commission on Good Governance. It was created to trace and recover assets stolen under the Marcos regime, estimated at up to $10 billion. By 2007 only a quarter of that number was retrieved.
    (www.lawphil.net/executive/execord/eo1986/eo_1_1986.html)(Econ, 8/11/07, p.33)
1986        Feb 28, Olof Palme, Swedish Prime Minister (1969-76, 82-86), was shot to death in central Stockholm. In 1996 South African former police officer Eugene de Kock said that Craig Williamson, a South African spy, was involved in the murder. In 1997 lawyer Pelle Svensson said that his client, Lars Tingstrom, wrote a statement on his deathbed in prison in 1993 that he committed the killing. The family was convinced that Christer Pettersson, a drug addict and alcoholic, was the killer. In 1999 Abdullah Ocalan in Turkey suggested that a rival PKK organization killed Olaf Palme.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.A12)(SFC, 3/26/97, p.A12)(AP, 2/28/98)(SFEC, 8/23/98, p.A26)(SFC, 6/2/99, p.C2)

1986        Feb, A huge storm hit California. A levee break near the Yuba County town of Linda produced $500 million in damage.
    (SFC, 1/10/97, p.A21)(SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.C1)

1986        Mar 1, In Sweden Social Democrat Ingvar Carlsson became prime minister. He served until October 1991. Under his administration Sweden made the decision to apply to join the EU.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Sweden)(Econ, 3/3/07, p.57)

1986        Mar 4, Aleta Carol Bunch (16) was kidnapped, raped and murdered in Augusta, Georgia, by Alexander E. Williams IV (17). Williams was convicted and sentenced to death. In 2000 the state Supreme Court stayed the execution to see if electrocution violated the state constitution. Williams, a chronic paranoid schizophrenic, was kept synthetically sane with forced medication. His execution, set for Feb 20, was stayed on Feb 19. Williams was granted clemency Feb 25 and his sentence was commuted to life in prison.
    (SFC, 8/23/00, p.A7)(SFC, 2/19/02, p.A3)(SFC, 2/20/02, p.A7)(SFC, 2/26/02, p.A5)

1986        Mar 5, In Lebanon Islamic Jihad issued a statement saying it had "executed" Michel Seurat, a French history researcher, who had been abducted May 22, 1985. His remains were found in 2006.
    (AP, 3/5/00)(AP, 3/7/06)

1986        Mar 6, Ken Ludwig's "Lend me a Tenor," premiered in London.
    (www.thisistheatre.com/shows/gielgud123.html)
1986        Mar 6, USSR's Vega 1 flew by Halley's Comet at 8,890 km.
    (www.iki.rssi.ru/ssp/vega.html)
1986        Mar 6, Georgia O'Keefe (98), US painter (Flowers), died in Santa Fe, NM.
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.C8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_O'Keeffe)

1986        Mar 7, Jacob K. Javits (b.1904), (Sen-R-NY), died in Palm Beach, Fla.
    (http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=j000064)
1986        Mar 7, In France thieves made off with 1.5 million francs in an armored car robbery. In 2007 Jean Pierre Belkalem, a former Cartier employee, was arrested in San Francisco on charges of aiding and abetting in the robbery.
    (SSFC, 4/1/07, p.D3)

1986        Mar 8, Four French television crew members were abducted in west Beirut; a caller claimed the Islamic Jihad was responsible. All four were eventually released.
    (AP, 3/8/98)
1986        Mar 8, The Japanese probe Suisei passed 151,000 kilometers (95,000 miles) from the nucleus of Haley’s Comet.
    (www.nasm.si.edu/ceps/etp/comets/comet_halley.html)

1986        Mar 9, Navy divers found the crew compartment of the space shuttle Challenger along with the remains of the astronauts.
    (HN, 3/9/98)
1986        Mar 9, Ned Calmer (b.1907), TV host (In the First Person), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ned_Calmer)

1986        Mar 11, The state of Georgia pardoned Leo Frank, a Jewish businessman who had been lynched in 1915 for the murder of 13-year-old Mary Phagan.
    (AP, 3/11/06)

1986        Mar 12, Susan Butcher won the 1,158 mile Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race in Alaska.
    (www.newmorningtv.tv/dailyalmanac_031204.jsp)

1986        Mar 13, The US submarine Nathaniel Green was severely damaged when it ran aground in the Irish Sea. It was deactivated in May, 1986.
    (http://navysite.de/ssbn/ssbn636.htm)
1986        Mar 13, Ed Balatti (62), a San Francisco used car dealer, was arrested and charged with fencing everything from TVs to vintage wines. This climaxed an 11-month undercover investigation. Balatti had played as an end on the original 49-er football team in 1946-48.
    (SSFC, 3/13/11, DB p.42)
1986        Mar 13, Microsoft Corp., an 11-year-old company, went public and rose from $21 to $28 on opening day. Revenues for the year were $197 million and it employed 1,153 people. At its debut Microsoft was worth $519 mil. with just over $85 mil. in revenue for the prior six months.
    (Wired, 12/98, p.196)(WSJ, 8/9/95, p.C-1)

1986        Mar 15, The AMA ruled that euthanasia was ethical on coma patients.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1986        Mar 16, In France the first direct regional elections for representatives took place. The French term "région" was officially created by March 2, 1982, Law of Decentralization.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regions_of_France)

1986        Mar 18, Buckingham Palace announced the engagement of Prince Andrew to Sarah Ferguson.
    (HN, 3/18/98)
1986        Mar 18, Bernard Malamud (b.1914), writer, died. His work included "Talking Horse: Bernard Malamud on Life and Work," edited by Alan Cheuse and Nicholas Delbanco (1997). In 2006 his daughter authored “My Father Is a Book: A Memoir of Bernard Malamud.” In 2007 Philip Davis authored “Bernard Malamud: A Writer’s Life.”
    (www.nagasaki-gaigo.ac.jp/ishikawa/amlit/m/malamud21.htm)(SSFC, 3/19/06, p.M3)(WSJ, 1/15/08, p.D5)

1986        Mar 22, World financier Michele Sindona died two days after ingesting cyanide in his Italian prison cell in what authorities later ruled a suicide.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1986        Mar 23, In the 6th Golden Raspberry Awards the film “Rambo: First Blood Part II” won.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1985_Golden_Raspberry_Awards)

1986        Mar 24, A $15 billion contract between the Indian government and Swedish arms company AB Bofors was signed for supply of over 400 155mm Howitzer field guns.
    (AP, 3/21/11)

1986        Mar 25, President Ronald Reagan ordered emergency aid for the Honduran army. U.S. helicopters took Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border.
    (HN, 3/24/98)
1986        Mar 25, US Supreme Court ruled that the Air Force could ban wearing of yarmulkes.
    (www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/goldman.html)

1986        Mar 28, The U.S. Senate passed a $100 million aid package for the Nicaraguan contras.
    (HN, 3/28/98)
1986        Mar 28, Extremist Sikhs killed 13 Hindus in Ludhiana, India.
    (http://tinyurl.com/h5at2)

1986        Mar 29, A court in Rome acquitted six men in a plot to kill the Pope.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1986        Mar 30, Actor James Cagney (86) died at his farm in Stanfordville, N.Y.
    (AP, 3/30/97)

1986        Mar 31, The state-owned car company BL P.L.C., formerly British Leyland, said that it was pursuing two offers for its Land Rover division after negotiations with the General Motors Corporation collapsed. Range Rover of North America, Inc. soon established its headquarters in Lanham, Maryland with Charles R. Hughes as President and CEO. Just before Christmas 1985 Range Rover of North America (later changed to Land Rover North America), was established to pave the way for a US launch in 1987.
    (http://tinyurl.com/j2do5)(http://tinyurl.com/f8xgo)
1986        Mar 31, English Hampton Court palace was destroyed by fire and 1 person died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/l6fxl)
1986        Mar 31, 167 people died when a Mexicana Airlines Boeing 727 crashed in a remote mountainous region of Mexico.
    (AP, 3/30/97)

1986        Mar, Oracle Corp. sold 1 million shares in its 1st public stock offering. Sales this year reached $55.4 million.
    (SFC, 5/20/02, p.A13)
1986        Mar, Unit two of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant off the coast of San Luis Obispo, California, began operation.
    (www.energy.ca.gov/nuclear/california.html)
1986        Mar, Pakistan acquired weapons-grade uranium.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.A15)

1986        Apr 1, Crude oil prices fell below $11 a barrel.
    (http://tinyurl.com/g94fj)

1986        Apr 2, George Corley Wallace (1919-1998), Governor of Alabama (Dem.), announced his retirement.
    (http://tinyurl.com/fuobf)(http://tinyurl.com/eegg3)
1986        Apr 2, Four American passengers were killed when a bomb exploded aboard a TWA jetliner en route from Rome to Athens, Greece.
    (AP, 4/2/98)

1986        Apr 3, US national debt hit $2,000,000,000,000 (2 trillion).
    (http://tinyurl.com/ftr8g)
1986        Apr 3, Peter Pears (b.1910), English tenor (Death in Venice), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Pears)

1986        Apr 4, In San Francisco an explosion in the Bayview District leveled nearly 3 square block injuring at least 21 people and leaving up to 30 missing.
    (SSFC, 4/3/11, DB p.46)

1986        Apr 5, A Berlin nightclub was bombed. US Sgt. Kenneth Ford (21) and Nermin Hannay (29) died at the scene. Sgt. James Goins (25) died later in hospital. 230 people were injured. Palestinian Yasser Shraydi (Chraidi) was suspected of playing a lead role in the bombing of the La Belle discotheque. In 1996 he was extradited from Lebanon to face charges in Germany. In 1996 Andrea Hasler was arrested in Greece and extradited to Germany. Also a woman named Verena Chanaa, suspected of planting the bomb, and her former husband named Ali Chanaa were arrested in Berlin. In 1997 Musbah Abulghasen Eter was arrested by Italian police in Rome in connection with the bombing. In 2001 V. Chanaa was sentenced to 14 years, A. Chanaa and Eter were sentenced to 12 years, and Chraidi was sentenced to 14 years. Libya was implicated and in 2004 agreed to pay $35 million in compensation.
    (SFC, 5/234/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A1)(SFC, 8/28/97, p.C3)(SFC, 11/14/01, p.A18)(AP, 9/3/04)
1986        Apr 5, Manly Wade Wellman (b.1903), sci-fi author (Devil's Planet), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manly_Wade_Wellman)

1986        Apr 7, Dimitris Angelopoulos (79), a Greek industrialist, was killed by Nov. 17 militants. In 2003 Patroklos Tselentis testified that he drove the getaway motorcycle.
    (AP, 3/26/03)(http://tinyurl.com/yzu4sj)

1986        Apr 8, Clint Eastwood (b.1930), filmstar and director, was elected mayor of Carmel, California.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clint_Eastwood)

1986        Apr 10, Benazir Bhutto (33), daughter of former PM Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, returned to Pakistan.
    (http://tinyurl.com/onqk2)

1986        Apr 11, Dodge Morgan (1932-2010), American businessman, landed at St. George, Bermuda, completing a 27,000 solo nonstop sail around the world in 150 days. This broke a 292-day record set  in 1971 by British sailor Chay Blyth.
    (http://outdoors.mainetoday.com/news/050410dodge.shtml)(SFC, 9/20/10, p.C4)
1986        Apr 11, In San Francisco Jack Spiegelman (47) opened fire on accused killed Daniel David Morgan in a Hall of Justice courtroom. Morgan (39) was on trial for the 1983 murder of Spiegelman’s daughter, Sarah (17), who was shot to death in Golden Gate Park.
    (SSFC, 4/10/11, DB p.46)
1986        Apr 11, Halley's Comet made its closest approach to Earth this trip at 63 M km.
    (www.astrosociety.org/education/publications/tnl/01/01.html)

1986        Apr 13, Pope John Paul II visited a Rome synagogue and met with Chief Rabbi Elio Toaff in the first recorded papal visit of its kind.
    (AP, 4/13/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Paul_II)
1986        Apr 13, Phillip Hallford forced his daughter (15) to lure her boyfriend Eddie Shannon (16) to an isolated area in Daly County, Alabama, where he shot and killed the boy and threw his body off a bridge. Melinda Hallford was pregnant at the time of the killing and had been sexually abused by her father. In 2010 Hallford (63) was executed.
    (http://off2dr.com/modules/extcal/event.php?event=256)(SFC, 11/5/10, p.A9)

1986        Apr 14, Americans got first word of the U.S. air raid on Libya (because of the time difference, it was the early morning of April 15th where the attack occurred). US aircraft attacked five terrorist locations in Libya in response to the Apr 5 terrorist attack in Berlin. In 2003 Joseph T. Stanik authored "El Dorado Canyon," an account of the military strike.
    (AP, 4/14/97)(HN, 4/14/98)(SFC, 12/18/99, p.C4)(WSJ, 2/11/03, p.D8)
1986        Apr 14, Desmond Tutu was elected Anglican archbishop of Capetown.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lqrlx)
1986        Apr 14, Simone de Beauvoir (b.1908), French feminist author, died in Paris. Her books included “The Second Sex” (1949). In 2008 her Wartime Diary was published in English.
    (AP, 4/14/02)(SFC, 12/23/08, p.E3)

1986        Apr 15, The United States launched an air raid with F-111 warplanes against Libya in response to the bombing of a discotheque in Berlin on April 5; Libya said 41 people, mostly civilians, were killed in Tripoli and Benghazi. The step-daughter of Moammar Gadhafi, Hana, was reportedly among those killed near Tripoli by the US bombing. In 2011 evidence emerged that Hana was not killed and completed medical school 2010. 
    (WSJ, 8/30/00, p.A1)(AP, 12/19/08)(AP, 10/31/08)(AP, 8/30/11)
1986        Apr 15, Jean Genet (75), French playwright (Lesson Negres), was found dead in Paris.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Genet)

1986        Apr 17, Pulitzer prize awarded to Larry McMurtry for "Lonesome Dove."
    (http://tinyurl.com/s7rzf)
1986        Apr 17, The bodies of American librarian Peter Kilburn and two Britons were found near Beirut; the three hostages had been slain in apparent retaliation for the U.S. raid on Libya.
    (AP, 4/17/97)
1986        Apr 17, At London's Heathrow Airport, a bomb was discovered in a bag carried by an Irish woman about to board an El Al jetliner; she had been tricked into carrying the bomb by her Jordanian boyfriend.
    (AP, 4/17/06)

1986        Apr 20, The Atlas Star, a double-decker ferry, sank in stormy weather in Bangladesh. 500 passengers were feared drowned.
    (http://tinyurl.com/q28gb)
1986        Apr 20, Following an absence of six decades, Russian-born pianist Vladimir Horowitz performed in the Soviet Union to a packed audience at the Grand Hall of the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in Moscow.
    (AP, 4/20/06)

1986        Apr 21, A vault in Chicago's Lexington Hotel that was linked to Al Capone was opened during a live TV special hosted by Geraldo Rivera; aside from a few bottles and a sign, the vault was empty.
    (AP, 4/21/97)

1986        Apr 23, Harold Arlen (81), [Hyman Arluck], American songwriter, died in NYC. His many song included "Over the Rainbow." Edward Jablonski (d.2004) authored a biography of Arlen in 1961: "Harold Arlen: Happy With the Blues."
    (WSJ, 6/28/96, p.A7)(SFC, 2/14/04, p.A22)
1986        Apr 23, Otto Preminger (80), film director (Advise & Consent, Anatomy of Murder), died. In 2007 Foster Hirsch authored “Otto Preminger.”
    (AP, 4/23/06)(WSJ, 10/20/07, p.W8)

1986        Apr 24, Bessie Wallis Warfield Simpson (b.6/19/1896), the Duchess of Windsor, for whom King Edward VIII gave up the British throne, died in Paris at age 89. Wallis Simpson was King Edward VIII's wife. In the early 1950s Simpson engaged in an affair with playboy Jimmy Donahue. In 2000 Christopher Wilson authored "Dancing with the Devil: The Windsors and Jimmy Donahue."
    (AP, 4/24/97)(SFC, 2/28/98, p.A5)(SFC, 1/4/01, p.D10)

1986        Apr 25, In Swaziland King Mswati III was crowned. He succeeded his father Sobhuza II as ruler of the southern African kingdom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mswati_III_of_Swaziland)

1986        Apr 26, [William] Broderick Crawford (b.1911), actor (Highway Patrol), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broderick_Crawford)
1986        Apr 26, The world's worst nuclear accident occurred in Pripyat, Ukraine, north of Kiev, at 1:23 a.m. as the Chernobyl atomic power plant exploded. A 300-hundred-square-mile area was evacuated and 31 people died as unknown thousands were exposed to radioactive material that spread in the atmosphere throughout the world. An exploded at Chernobyl, Ukraine, and burned for 10 days. About 70% of the fallout fell in Belarus. Damage was estimated to be up to $130 billion. By 1998 10,000 Russian "liquidators" involved in the cleanup had died and thousands more became invalids. It was later estimated that the released radioactivity was 200 times the combined bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It was later found that Soviet scientists were authorized to carry out experiments that required the reactor to be pushed to or beyond its limits, with safety features disabled.
    (WSJ, 11/8/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A14)(SFC, 12/18/99, p.C4)(AP, 4/26/05)(Econ, 10/6/07, p.18)

1986        Apr 27, A video pirate calling himself "Captain Midnight" interrupted a movie on Home Box Office with a printed message protesting de-scrambling fees. Captain Midnight turned out to be John R. MacDougall of Florida, who was fined and placed on probation.
    (AP, 4/27/01)

1986        Apr 28, The Soviet Union informed the world of the Apr 26 nuclear disaster at Chernobyl, saying the accident damaged a reactor and that aid was being rendered to "those affected."
    (AP, 4/28/02)

1986        Apr 29, Some 350,000 books were damaged by fire and water in the LA Central Library.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y3ssgk)
1986        Apr 29, Raul Prebisch (b.1901), Argentine policy maker and economic diplomat, died in Santiago, Chile. In 2009 Edgar J. Dosman authored “The Life and Times of Raul Prebisch.”
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.90)(http://tinyurl.com/cgd359)
1986        Apr 29, Seamus McElwaine (25), Irish IRA-terrorist, was killed by undercover members of the British Army in County Fermanagh.
    (http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/sutton/chron/1986.html)

1986        Apr 30, Ranch foreman James Hazelton (28) and brother-in-law Peter Sparagana (23) were murdered near Huntsville, Texas, after they interrupted a burglary. Gary Johnson (59) was later convicted of the murders and was executed on Jan 12, 2010.
    (SFC, 1/13/10, p.A6)(www.itemonline.com/local/local_story_011092452.html)

1986        May 1, Will Steger (b.1943) and his dog sled expedition reached the North Pole without re-supply.
    (www.qsl.net/kg0yh/other.htm)
1986        May 1, Tass News Agency reported the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.
    (HN, 5/1/98)   

1986        May 3, Ferdinand, ridden by Bill Shoemaker (d.2003), won the 112th running of the Kentucky Derby. In 2002 Ferdinand ended up in a slaughterhouse in Japan.
    (WSJ, 9/21/05, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/ds454)
1986        May 3, In NASA's first post-Challenger launch, an unmanned Delta rocket lost power in its main engine shortly after liftoff, forcing safety officers to destroy it by remote control.
    (AP, 5/3/97)
1986        May 3, In Sri Lanka Tamil Tigers bombed an Airlanka plane at Colombo airport and killed 16 people.
    (SFC, 7/24/96, p.A9)

1986        May 8, In Costa Rica Oscar Arias (b.1940) began serving as president and continued to 1990. In 2006 he began serving a 2nd term as president.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%93scar_Arias)
1986        May 8, In Venezuela 9 people were killed by security forces in the western town of Yumare. Interior minister Octavio Lepage described it as a clash with guerrillas — remnants of leftist rebel bands that largely had put down their weapons by the early 1970s.
    (AP, 3/16/08)

1986        May 9, In Norway the Conservative-led coalition resigned and Gro Harlem Brundtland (b.1939) returned to power. She immediately appointed 8 women to her 18-member cabinet.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.C3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gro_Harlem_Brundtland)
1986        May 9, Tenzing Norgay (b.1914), Tibetan climber (Mount Everest 1953), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenzing_Norgay)

1986        May 11, Fred Markham (US), unpaced and unaided by wind, became 1st to pedal 65 mph on a level course, Big Sand Flat, Calif.
    (www.recumbents.com/wisil/records/Fastest_Ever.htm)

1986        May 15, Searchers on Oregon's Mount Hood found two teenage survivors of a hiking expedition that became trapped in a whiteout blizzard. Nine other climbers died.
    (AP, 5/15/06)
1986        May 15, Theodore H. White (b.1915), US journalist, died. His book “Making of the President” (1960) won a 1962 Pulitzer Prize.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_White)
1986        May 15, In Sudan Francis Bok was kidnapped when Arabs from a government-armed militia swept into his village shooting the men and cutting off their heads with swords.
    (WSJ, 5/23/02, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/ybn8g5)

1986        May 16, Argentine ex-president Galtieri (1926-2003) was sentenced to 12 years.
    (www.cnn.com/almanac/9805/16/)

1986        May 18, "Singin' in the Rain" closed at the Gershwin Theater in NYC after 367 performances.
    (www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=4376)
1986        May 18, John Bubbles Sublett (84), tap dancer (Black & Bubbles), died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1986        May 19, South African commandos struck alleged ANC "operational centers" in Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zambia.
    (www.iie.com/research/topics/sanctions/southafrica.cfm)

1986        May 20, The Flintstones 25th Anniversary Celebration aired on CBS-TV.
    (www.topthat.net/webrock/specials/25thAnniversary.htm)
1986        May 20, In China a tornado picked up 12 children and deposited them on a sand dune 12 miles away unharmed.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, Z1 p.6)

1986        May 22, Cher called David Letterman an asshole on Late Night on NBC.
    (www.justplaincher.net/content-23.html)

1986        May 23, Sterling Hayden (b.1916), actor and author, died in Sausalito, Ca. he appeared in 35 films and wrote two books, including his autobiography: “The Wanderer.”
    (http://movies.aol.com/celebrity/sterling-hayden/31197/biography)(SSFC, 5/22/11, DB p.46)

1986        May 24, The Union Jack was flown in Israel for the first time in 38 years as Margaret Thatcher became the first British prime minister to visit the Jewish state.
    (AP, 5/24/06)

1986        May 25, An estimated 7 million Americans participated in "Hands Across America," forming a line across the country to raise money for the nation's hungry and homeless. The campaign was organized by Martin & Glantz, a social issues and media strategies firm. Angenette Martin, a founding partner, died in 1997 at 50.
    (AP, 5/25/97)(SFC, 9/2/97, p.A18)
1986        May 25, Some 600 people died when the ferry Shamia went down in the River Meghna in southern Barisal district, Bangladesh.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yjfo9s)(AP, 2/3/06)
1986        May 25, Virgilio Barco (1921-1997) was elected President of Colombia. He served from 1986 to 1990.
    (http://sshl.ucsd.edu/collections/las/colombia/1985.html)
1986        May 25, Chester Bowles (b.1901), US senator, ambassador, died in Connecticut. Bowles was elected to the governorship of Connecticut in 1948 and served one term, during which time he signed into law an end to segregation in the state national guard.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chester_Bowles)

1986        May 30, A tour bus went out of control on a mountain road and plunged into the Walker River near the California-Nevada border killing 21 elderly passengers.
    (AP, 5/30/06)(www.ntsb.gov/publictn/1987/HAR8704.htm)


1986        May, The SF-based Jack Jr. fishing trawler was rammed and sunk by a large hit-and-run vessel off of Point Reyes, Ca. 3 fishermen were killed.
    (SSFC, 5/29/11, DB p.46)
1986        May, A Vermeer painting, "Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid," was among 18 paintings worth $40 million stolen from Russborough House in Blessington, Ireland. Some of the paintings are later recovered.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

1986        Jun 1, "The Mystery of Edwin Drood" and "I'm Not Rappaport" won the Tony Awards for best musical and best play on Broadway.
    (www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0153482.html)(http://tinyurl.com/ynyxkb)

1986        Jun 2, For the first time, the public could watch the proceedings of the U.S. Senate on television as a six-week experiment of televised sessions began.
    (AP, 6/2/02)
1986        Jun 2, NYC transit system issued a new brass with steel bull's-eye token.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1986        Jun 3, In Beirut, Lebanon, Shiite Moslem militiamen clashed in separate battles with Palestinians and a pro-Palestinian Sunni Moslem faction. 53 people were killed.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ygh5ls)

1986        Jun 4, Jonathan Jay Pollard, a former Navy intelligence analyst, pleaded guilty in Washington to spying for Israel. He was later sentenced a life prison term.
    (AP, 6/4/97)(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A18)
1986        Jun 4, The California Supreme Court approved the "deep pockets law." It limited the liability of manufacturers and other wealthy defendants.
    (SFC, 8/19/97, p.A1)

1986        Jun 5, A federal jury in Baltimore convicted Ronald W. Pelton of selling secrets to the Soviet Union. Pelton was sentenced to three life prison terms plus 10 years.
    (AP, 6/5/97)

1986        Jun 6, Ronn Teitelbaum (d.2000 at 61) opened his Johnny Rockets restaurant on Melrose Ave. in Los Angeles. In 2000 it had grown to 138 outlets in 25 states.
    (SFC, 9/15/00, p.D5)

1986        Jun 7, Madonna's "Live to Tell," single went #1.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1986        Jun 8, Kurt Waldheim, an alleged Nazi, was elected president of Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Waldheim)

1986        Jun 9, The Rogers Commission released its report on the "Challenger" disaster, criticizing NASA and rocket-builder Morton Thiokol for management problems leading to the explosion that claimed the lives of seven astronauts. The Space Shuttle Challenger blew up as a result of a failure in a solid rocket booster joint.
    (AP, 6/9/00)(HN, 6/9/99)

1986        Jun 11, A divided Supreme Court struck down a Pennsylvania abortion law, while reaffirming its 1973 decision establishing a constitutional right to abortion.
    (AP, 6/11/97)

1986        Jun 13, Benny Goodman (77), the clarinet-playing "King of Swing," died in NYC.
    (AP, 6/13/97)

1986        Jun 14, Jorge Luis Borges (b.1899), Argentine author (Book of Sand), died in Geneva. In 1998 a new English translation by Andrew Hurley of his "Collected Fictions" was published. In 1999 Alexander Coleman edited "Selected Poems." Also in 1999 Eliot Weinberger edited "Selected Non-Fictions." In 2004 Edwin Williamson authored “Borges: A Life.”
    (SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.1)(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.3)(WSJ, 8/17/99, p.A18)(WSJ, 8/5/04, p.D8)
1986        Jun 14, Alan Jay Lerner (67), Broadway librettist, died in NY.
    (AP, 6/14/06)
1986        Jun 14, Marlin Perkins (b.1905), zoologist and TV host (Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom), died.
    (AP, 6/14/06)

1986        Jun 15, Pravda announced that the high-level Chernobyl staff in Ukraine was fired.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ydptos)

1986        Jun 17, President Reagan announced the retirement of Chief Justice Warren Earl Burger. President Ronald Reagan named William Rehnquist Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
    (AP 6/17/97)(HNQ, 1/10/99)
1986        Jun 17, Singer Kate Smith died in Raleigh, N.C., at age 79.
    (AP 6/17/97)

1986        Jun 18, 25 people were killed when a twin-engine plane and helicopter carrying sightseers collided over the Grand Canyon.
    (AP, 6/18/07)

1986        Jun 19, Artificial heart recipient Murray P. Haydon (59) died in Louisville, Ky., after 16 months on the man-made pump.
    (AP, 6/19/06)
1986        Jun 19, University of Maryland basketball star Len Bias, the first draft pick of the Boston Celtics, suffered a fatal cocaine-induced seizure.
    (AP, 6/19/06)
1986        Jun 19, Argentina beat West Germany 3-2 in soccer's 13th World Cup in Mexico.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1986_FIFA_World_Cup)

1986        Jun 23, Tip O'Neill refused to let Reagan address the House.
    (http://www-tech.mit.edu/archives/VOL_106/TECH_V106_S0437_P003.txt)

1986        Jun 25, The US Congress approved $100 million in aid to the Contras fighting in Nicaragua.
    (HN, 6/25/98)
1986        Jun 25, San Francisco clothier Wilkes Bashford pleaded no contest to a felony charge and agreed to pay back $750,000 in rent to the city.
    (SSFC, 6/26/11, DB p.42)

1986        Jun 26, The U.S. Supreme Court in Ford v. Wainwright, ruled on the mentally impaired person's competence to be executed. The Supreme Court ruled that the Eighth Amendment prohibits the execution of an insane prisoner and that Ford had the right to a judicial hearing to determine his competence to be executed.
    (www.jaapl.org/cgi/content/full/34/2/253)

1986        Jun 27, US informed New Zealand it will not defend it against attack.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1986        Jun 27, Don Rogers of the Cleveland Browns died of cocaine poisoning.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1986        Jun 27, An Irish referendum upheld a ban on divorce.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1986        Jun 27, World Court ruled that US aid to Nicaraguan contras was illegal.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1986        Jun 30, The Supreme Court, in Bowers v. Hardwick, ruled 5-4 that states could outlaw homosexual acts between consenting adults. This upheld a Georgia law against sodomy. However, the nation's highest court effectively reversed this decision in 2003 in Lawrence v. Texas.
    (Econ, 4/3/04, p.87)(AP, 6/30/07)
1986        Jun 30, In Ohio a fire at the Columbus Grove apartment complex killed 2-year-old Cynthia Collins. Ken Richey (18) acknowledged he was intoxicated that night and did not remember everything that happened. He agreed to plead no contest to charges accusing him of leaving the toddler in harm's way by failing to baby-sit the child after telling her mother that he would. He was sentenced to the 21 years. In 2008 Richey returned to Scotland.
    (AP, 1/9/08)(http://truthinjustice.org/richey-reversed.htm)

1986        Jun, In Mexico Gustavo Petricioli Iturbe was named treasury secretary by Pres. Miguel de la Madrid. The foreign debt was near $100 billion due to the collapse of oil prices earlier in the decade.
    (SFEC, 10/11/98, p.D10)

1986        Jul 2, The US Supreme Court upheld affirmative action in 2 rulings.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1986        Jul 3, President Reagan presided over a gala ceremony in New York Harbor that saw the relighting of the renovated Statue of Liberty.
    (AP 7/3/97)
1986        Jul 3, Rudy Vallee (b.1901), singer (Vagabond Dreams), died.
    (www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=4143)

1986        Jul 4, Liberty Weekend was capped with a spectacular fireworks display that lighted up New York Harbor.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
1986        Jul 4, E F Helin discovered asteroid #3855 Pasasymphonia.
    (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=3855)

1986        Jul 5, Statue of Liberty was reopened after being refurbished.
    (http://www.nps.gov/archive/stli/prod02.htm)

1986        Jul 7, The US Supreme Court struck down Gramm-Rudman deficit-reduction law.
    (www.answers.com/topic/gramm-rudman-act)
1986        Jul 7, Jordan’s government shut down all 25 offices of al-Fatah, the mainstream group in the divided Palestine Liberation Organization.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycprwn)

1986        Jul 8, Kurt Waldheim was inaugurated as president of Austria despite controversy over his alleged ties to Nazi war crimes. He was barred from entering the US in 1987 due to his services as an officer in a German army unit implicated in war crimes in the Balkans.
    (SFC, 2/17/96, p.A14)(AP 7/8/97)
1986        Jul 8, Admiral Hyman G. Rickover (86), widely regarded as "father of the nuclear navy," died in Arlington, Va.
    (AP, 7/8/06)

1986        Jul 9, The US Attorney General's Commission on Pornography released the final draft of its 2,000-page report, which linked hard-core porn to sex crimes.
    (AP 7/9/97)

1986        Jul 11, President Ronald Reagan placed the Contras, who were fighting the government of Nicaragua, under CIA jurisdiction.
    (HN, 7/11/98)
1986        Jul 11, Mary Beth Whitehead christened her surrogate Baby M(b.3/27/86), Sara.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baby_M)

1986        Jul 14, Richard W. Miller became the 1st FBI agent convicted of espionage.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Miller_(FBI_agent))
1986        Jul 14, An expedition from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute filmed the wreck of the Titanic for the first time.
    (SFEC,12/797, DB p.37)
1986        Jul 14, In North Carolina Harold Gentry’s gunshot-ridden body was found sprawled on the floor of the home he shared with his wife, Betty Neumar. She collected at least $20,000 in life insurance, plus other benefits from the military and sold the couple's house and other items. In 2008 Neumar (76) was charged with hiring a hit man to gun him down. After arresting her, authorities realized that five times since the 1950s, she was married, and each union ended with the death of her husband.
    (AP, 6/13/08)
1986        Jul 14, Raymond Loewy (92), US industrial designer, died. His designs included the 1973 Avanti automobile.
    (www.raymondloewy.com/about/bio3.html)
1986        Jul 14, In Spain Jose Ignacio De Juana Chaos (b.1955), a former police officer who joined one of ETA's most active commando units, took part in a Madrid car bombing. The car bomb on República Dominicana Square killed 12 Civil Guard policemen. 45 people were wounded.
    (AP, 8/2/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I%C3%B1aki_de_Juana_Chaos)

1986        Jul 17, White House chief of staff Donald Regan drew criticism for suggesting in an interview that American women would not be prepared to “give up all their jewelry” if the U.S. were to impose economic sanctions against South Africa.
    (AP, 7/17/06)
1986        Jul 17, The world got its first look at the remains of the Titanic as videotapes of the British luxury liner, which sank in 1912, were released by researchers from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    (AP, 7/18/06)

1986        Jul 19, Caroline Kennedy, daughter of President John F. Kennedy, married Edwin A. Schlossberg in Centerville, Massachusetts.
    (AP, 7/19/00)

1986        Jul 21, Gary Lee Davis (1944-1997) and his wife, Rebecca, abducted, raped and killed Virginia May (32) in Byers, Colorado. After exhausting all appeals he was executed by lethal injection on Oct 13, 1997. Rebecca was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.A7)(SFC, 10/14/97, p.A3)

1986        Jul 22, The US House of Representatives impeached Judge Harry E. Claiborne. He was later convicted by the Senate of tax evasion and bringing disrepute on the federal courts. He was only the fifth person in US history to be removed from office through impeachment by the US Congress, and the first since Halsted Ritter in 1936. Claiborne was sentenced to two years in prison in October, 1986, and was in prison from May 1986 to October 1987. Claiborne was allowed to begin practicing law again in Nevada in 1987, and shot himself to death in Las Vegas, Nevada, on January 19, 2004, apparently due to his health battles with cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.
    (AP, 7/22/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_E._Claiborne)

1986        Jul 23, Britain's Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey in London with the appellation Duke and Duchess of York. The couple divorced in 1996.
    (AP, 7/23/98)

1986        Jul 24, Jerry A. Whitworth (47), retired US Navy warrant officer, was convicted in SF for his role in a Soviet spy ring. The government called it the most damaging espionage case since World War II. On August 28 Whitworth was given a 365-year sentence and ordered to pay $410,000.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5r9fq8)(AP, 8/28/06)

1986        Jul 25, Marc Smith, NYC construction worker turned poet, held the first poetry slam at the Green Mill jazz club in Chicago. He pitted writers against one another in a test of writing skills and performance.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.83)(www.slampapi.com/new_site/background.htm)
1986        Jul 25, Vincente Minnelli (76), movie director known for such musicals as "Gigi," "An American in Paris" and "Meet Me in St. Louis," died in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 7/25/06)

1986        Jul 26, Kidnappers in Lebanon released the Reverend Lawrence Martin Jenco, an American hostage held for nearly 19 months.
    (AP, 7/26/00)
1986        Jul 26, Averell Harriman (b.1892), statesman and former New York Governor, died at age 94 in Yorktown Heights, NY. He left his fabulous art collection, fortune, and influence in the Democratic Party to his wife, Pamela Churchill Harriman. She was later appointed by Pres. Clinton as ambassador to France. In 1996 Sally Bedell Smith wrote her biography: "Reflected Glory: The Life of Pamela Churchill Harriman."
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.E6)(AP, 7/26/06)

1986        Jul 28, NASA released the transcript from the doomed Challenger. Pilot Michael Smith could be heard saying, "Uh-oh!" as spacecraft disintegrated.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1986        Jul 29, A federal jury in New York found that the National Football League had committed an antitrust violation against the rival United States Football League. But in a hollow victory for the USFL, the jury ordered the NFL to pay token damages of only $3.
    (AP, 7/29/06)

1986        Aug 2, US attorney Roy M. Cohn died at Bethesda Naval Hospital of cardiac arrest and complications from AIDS.
    (AP, 8/2/06)

1986        Aug 5, US Senate voted for the SDI-project, better known as Star Wars.
    (http://tinyurl.com/wonw9)
1986        Aug 5, It was revealed that Andrew Wyeth secretly created 240 drawings and paintings of his neighbor Helga Testorf, in Chadds Ford, Pa.
    (www.rightreading.com/daybook_pages/august.htm)

1986        Aug 6, William J. Schroeder died after living 620 days with the "Jarvik 7" artificial heart.
    (AP, 8/6/97)

1986        Aug 10, "Me and My Girl" opened at Marquis Theater in NYC for 1420 performances.
    (www.ibdb.com/show.asp?ID=5982)

1986        Aug 13, In Texas Christine Morton was found beaten and killed in her Williamson County home. Her husband Michael Morton was convicted and spent 25 years in prison before being freed in 2011 after DNA evidence showed another man was responsible. On April 19, 2013, a judge ruled that former DA Ken Anderson had acted improperly and issued an arrest warrant on criminal contempt and tampering charges.
    (SFC, 10/5/11, p.A7)(SFC, 4/20/13, p.A4)

1986        Aug 14, Pakistani opposition leader Benazir Bhutto was arrested.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yynudk)

1986        Aug 16, Flozelle Woodmore (18), shot and killed her abusive boyfriend, Clifton Morrow, with a .357 magnum in the presence of their 2-year-old son in Los Angeles. In 2007 Gov. Schwarzenegger, said he no longer oppose her parole.
    (SFC, 8/3/07, p.B12)(http://tinyurl.com/2mvdzg)

1986        Aug 17, A bronze pig statue was unveiled at Seattle's Pike Place Market.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1986        Aug 19, A car bomb killed 20 in Tehran, Iran.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Car_bomb)

1986        Aug 20, Postal employee Patrick Henry Sherrill (44) went on a deadly rampage at a post office in Edmond, Okla., shooting 14 fellow workers to death before killing himself. This incident is credited with inspiring the American phrase "going postal".
    (WSJ, 8/7/97, p.A12)(AP, 8/20/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Sherrill)

1986        Aug 21, In Cameroon 1,746 people died when toxic gas, an invisible bubble of CO2, erupted [seeped out] from a volcano under Lake Nyos. Venting of the lake began in 2001.
    (AP, 8/21/97)(WSJ, 11/17/97, p.B1)(SFC, 8/14/99, p.A6)(SC, 8/21/02)(AP, 2/15/03)

1986        Aug 22, Kerr-McGee Corp. agreed to pay the estate of the late Karen Silkwood (1946-1974) $1.38 million, settling a 10-year-old nuclear contamination lawsuit.
    (AP, 8/22/97)

1986        Aug 23, Gennadiy Zakharov, a Soviet physicist employed at the UN Secretariat, was arrested In NYC as he handed classified documents to a US defense contractor.
    (www.dss.mil/training/espionage/1986-87.htm)

1986        Aug 26, In the so-called "preppie murder" case, 18-year-old Jennifer Levin was found strangled in New York's Central Park; Robert Chambers later pleaded guilty to manslaughter for strangling Jennifer Levin during a tryst in Central Park. Chambers was released from prison in 2003 after serving a 15-year sentence. He owed the Levin family $25 million from a wrongful death suit [see Mar 25, 1988]. In 2007 Chambers was arrested for dealing cocaine. He pleaded guilty and faced another long term in prison.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.A4)(AP, 8/26/04)(SFC, 8/12/08, p.A6)
1986        Aug 26, Ted Knight (b.1923), [Tadeus Konopka], actor (Mary Tyler Moore), died.
    (www.infoplease.com/biography/var/tedknight.html)

1986        Aug 28, Jerry A. Whitworth, retired US Navy warrant officer, convicted for his role in a Soviet spy ring, was sentenced by a federal judge in San Francisco to 365 years in prison.
    (AP, 8/28/06)

1986        Aug 29, The Beatles performed their last public concert. The San Francisco event at Candlestick Park drew some 24,000 people.
    (SSFC, 8/28/11, DB p.42)

1986        Aug 30, Soviet authorities arrested Nicholas Daniloff, the Moscow correspondent for U.S. News and World Report, after he was handed a package by a Russian acquaintance. He was later released.
    (AP, 8/30/97)

1986        Aug 31, Aeromexico flight 498 with 64 passengers collided with a light plane as it approached Los Angeles and crashed to the ground where an additional 15 people were killed. The National Transportation Safety Board blamed flaws in the overloaded traffic control system. 82 people were killed when an Aeromexico jetliner and a small private plane collided over Cerritos, Calif.
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A20)(AP, 8/31/97)
1986        Aug 31, The Soviet passenger ship Admiral Nakhimov collided with a merchant vessel in the Black Sea, causing both vessels to sink; up to 448 people reportedly died.
    (AP, 8/31/97)
1986        Aug 31, Henry Moore (b.1898), English sculptor and cartoonist, died. In 1998 John Hedgecoe published "A Monumental Vision: The Sculpture of Henry Moore."
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, BR p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Moore)

1986        Aug, Dr. Clifford Stoll, the computer systems manager at Lawrence Berkeley, discovered computer break-ins. He monitored them for approximately 12 months and  realized that the had confused Lawrence Berkeley with Lawrence Livermore.'' A West German citizen used global communications networks to secretly gain access to more than 30 computers belonging to the US military and military contractors.
    (http://catless.ncl.ac.uk/Risks/6.68.html)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.64)
1986        Aug, In Uganda the Holy Spirit Mobile Forces (HSMF), a Christian fundamentalist revolt, began under the leadership of Alice Lakwena (1956-2007). The movement was crushed by the army and Lakwena fled to Kenya where she was imprisoned in 1987.
    (SFC, 3/5/96, p.A9)(Econ, 1/27/07, p.87)

1986        Sep 1, Paul McCartney released his "Press to Play" album.
    (SC, 9/1/02)
1986        Sep 1, Murray Hamilton (b.1923), film, theater and TV actor, died in North Carolina.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0358069/)

1986        Sep 2, A judge in Los Angeles sentenced Cathy Evelyn Smith to three years in prison for involuntary manslaughter in connection with the 1982 drug overdose death of comedian John Belushi. She served 18 months.
    (AP, 9/2/06)

1986        Sep 3, In Connecticut Barbara Pelkey (30) of Wallingford, a New Haven suburb, was raped and murdered. Kenneth Ireland (20) was convicted in 1989 and sentenced to 50 years in prison. In 2009 Ireland was released from prison and granted a new trial after DNA testing showed he could not have committed the crime.
    (http://issuu.com/recordjournal/docs/ireland_pelkey)(http://tinyurl.com/ldh9kt)

1986        Sep 5, The Pakistan army stormed a hijacked US B-747 in Karachi and 22 people were killed. In 2001 Zayd Hassan Abd Al-latif Masud Al Safarini, jailed in Pakistan for 15 years, arrived in Alaska and was expected to face a 1991 indictment for the 1986 hijacking of a Pan Am jet. In 2003 Safarini pleaded guilty and agreed to 3 life sentences plus 25 years. On Jan 3, 2008, Pakistani authorities freed and deported four Palestinians convicted in the hijacking.
    (SFC, 10/2/01, p.A3)(SFC, 12/17/03, p.A4)(AP, 9/5/06)(AP, 1/3/08)

1986        Sep 6, Some 300 invitees paid $5,000 to hear Barbra Streisand's benefit concert. Streisand launched her concert One Voice, in part, as a protest against Reagan-era nuclear arms proliferation in the late Cold War.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y6urea)
1986        Sep 6, An attack on the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul killed 22 people. The Palestinian Abu Nidal group was blamed.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1986        Sep 7, In Chile Gen'l. Pinochet narrowly survived an assassination attempt involving 70 terrorists. 5 of his escorts were murdered.
    (WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1986        Sep 7, Desmond Tutu was installed as the Anglican archbishop of Capetown, the first black to lead the Anglican Church in southern Africa.
    (AP, 9/7/97)

1986        Sep 8, Oprah Winfrey began her syndicated TV talk show.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Oprah_Winfrey_Show)(SSFC, 2/11/01, BR p.1)
1986        Sep 8, Westinghouse sold Muzak.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y3thhl)

1986        Sep 9, Frank Reed, director of a private school in Lebanon, was taken hostage; he was released 44 months later.
    (AP, 9/9/97)

1986        Sep 11, The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) suffered its biggest 1-day decline to date, plummeting 86.61 points to 1,792.89. 237.57 million shares were traded [see Oct 19, 1987]. It is believed that the drop was accelerated, though not initiated, by computer-assisted arbitrage. 
    (www.ccsr.cse.dmu.ac.uk/resources/general/ethicol/Ecv6no3.html)
1986        Sep 11, Davey Rosenberg, SF publicist, died. In 1964 he made the SF Condor Club famous after persuading waitress Carol Doda to dance wearing a topless bathing suit.
    (SSFC, 9/11/11, DB p.46)
1986        Sep 11, Egypt's Pres Mubarak received Israeli premier Peres.
    (http://tinyurl.com/spu4y)

1986        Sep 12, The United States released Soviet physicist Gennady Zakharov. On Sep 29 the Soviet Union released journalist Nicholas Daniloff. Both had been accused of espionage.
    (http://www.russianlife.net/article.cfm?Number=407)(AP, 9/29/01)
1986        Sep 12, Joseph Cicippio, the acting comptroller at the American University in Beirut, was kidnapped; he was released in December 1991.
    (AP, 9/12/97)
1986        Sep 12, Frank Nelson (b.1911), actor (Jack Benny Show), died in Hollywood, Ca.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Nelson)

1986        Sep 13, In Texas Jonathan Nobles stabbed to death Mitzi Johnson-Nalley (21) and Kelly Farquhar (24). Nobles was high on drugs at the time and during imprisonment offered to donate his organs, but the Texas system did not allow organs from death row inmates to be harvested. He was executed Oct 7, 1998.
    (SFC, 10/8/98, p.A3)

1986        Sep 14, President Reagan and his wife, Nancy, appeared together on radio and television to appeal for a "national crusade" against drug abuse.
    (AP, 9/14/01)

1986        Sep 15, The 1st pilot of "LA Law" was broadcast NBC-TV.
    (http://epguides.com/LALaw/)
1986        Sep 15-1986 Sep 20, In Punta del Este, Uruguay, the Ministers of ninety-two nations agreed to a new round of multilateral trade negotiations (Uruguay Round).
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1986/index_en.htm)

1986        Sep 17, The Senate confirmed the nomination of William H. Rehnquist to become the 16th chief justice of the United States.
    (AP, 9/17/97)
1986        Sep 17, A bomb attack in Paris killed 5 people. This began a 10 month series of bomb attacks in France attributed to Lebanese and Armenian terrorists.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y4fl69)

1986        Sep 19, Harken Energy agreed to acquire Spectrum 7 Energy Corp., where George W. Bush was chairman. Bush became a Harken board member and a $100,000-a-year consultant.
    (WSJ, 10/9/02, p.A4)

1986        Sep 21, In the 38th Emmy Awards the winners included Golden Girls, Cagney & Lacey and Michael J. Fox.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yxktmg)

1986        Sep 23, The US Congress selected the rose as the US national flower.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1986-9/1986-09-23-ABC-25.html)

1986        Sep 26, William Hubbs Rehnquist was sworn in as the 16th chief justice of the United States, while Antonin Scalia joined the Supreme Court as its 103rd member. Rehnquist would serve as Chief Justice until September 3, 2005 when he died from thyroid cancer.
    (AP, 9/26/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Rehnquist#Declining_health_and_death)

1986        Sep 27, The US Senate joined House of Reps voting for "sweeping tax reforms."
    (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3SUR/is_v67/ai_5012957)

1986        Sep 29, The TV series "Designing Women" began with Dixie Carter (1939-2010) and continued to 1993.
    (AP, 4/11/10)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0090418/)
1986        Sep 29, The Soviet Union released Nicholas Daniloff, an American journalist confined in Moscow on spying charges.
    (AP, 9/29/01)

1986        Sep 30, The US released accused Soviet spy Gennady Zakharov, one day after the Soviets released Nicholas Daniloff.
    (AP, 9/30/97)
1986        Sep 30, Israeli Mossad agents snatched Mordechai Vanunu in Rome. The Israeli nuclear technician had recently divulged Israel's nuclear secrets to the London Sunday Times.
    (SFC, 4/22/04, p.A3)

1986        Sep, A US federal appeals court ruled that Wicca was a religion protected by the Constitution.
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, p.A6)
1986        Sep, In Ohio University of Akron students Dawn McCreery (20) and Wendy Offredo (21) were sexually assaulted and killed. Richard Cooey (19) and a co-defendant (17) were convicted for the sexual assaults and slayings. The co-defendant was sentenced to life in prison because of his age. Cooey was executed in 2008.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
1986        Sep, China's first stock market opened in Shanghai.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1986        Oct 1, Former President Jimmy Carter's presidential library and museum were dedicated in Atlanta with help from President Reagan.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1986        Oct 2, In India Sikhs attempted to assassinate Indian PM Rajiv Gandhi (1944-1991).
    (http://tinyurl.com/yjyxzh)

1986        Oct 3, The Soviet nuclear submarine K-219 suffered an explosion and fire in a missile tube northeast of Bermuda; the vessel sank three days later.
    (AP, 10/4/06)

1986        Oct 4, In the Netherlands Queen Beatrix officially opened the Oosterscheldekering for use by saying the well-known words: De stormvloedkering is gesloten. De Deltawerken zijn voltooid. Zeeland is veilig. (The flood barrier is closed. The Delta Works are completed. Zealand is safe.) It was the world's largest movable flood barrier.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oosterscheldekering)
1986        Oct 4, The Soviet submarine, K-219, began experiencing problems while on routine patrol in the Atlantic. The submarine had collided with an American submarine just days before a US-Soviet summit between Gorbachev and Reagan in Reykjavik, Iceland.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 7/24/97, p.A16)

1986        Oct 5, American Eugene Hasenfus was captured by Sandinista soldiers after the weapons plane he was flying in was shot down over southern Nicaragua. An airplane named Fat Lady was shot down over Nicaragua with a load of arms destined for the Contras. Documents found on board the aircraft and seized by the Sandinistas included logs linking the plane with Area 51, the nation's top-secret nuclear-weapons facility at the Nevada Test Site. The doomed aircraft was co-piloted by Wallace Blaine "Buzz" Sawyer, a native of western Arkansas, who died in the crash. The admissions of the surviving crew member, Eugene Hasenfus, began a public unraveling of the Iran-Contra episode.
    (AP, 10/5/97)(www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/crimesOfMena.html)

1986        Oct 6, The Soviet submarine, K-219, with 16 ballistic missiles each carrying 2 warheads, sank about 600 miles east of Bermuda. One of its nuclear reactors had overheated and seaman Sergey Preminin manually shut it down, but sealed his death in the process. It was later revealed that highly radioactive plutonium 239 was released in the mishap.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A1,5)

1986        Oct 9, The musical "Phantom of the Opera" premiered in London.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Phantom_of_the_Opera_(1986_musical))
1986        Oct 9, The US Senate convicted US District Judge Harry E. Claiborne (1917-2004) making him 5th federal official to be removed from office through impeachment. He had been indicted by a federal grand jury for bribery, fraud, and tax evasion in December of 1983.
    (www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Harry_E._Claiborne)

1986        Oct 11, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev opened two days of talks concerning arms control and human rights in Reykjavik, Iceland.
    (AP, 10/11/97)

1986        Oct 12, The superpower meeting in Reykjavik, Iceland, ended in stalemate, with President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev unable to agree on arms control or a date for a full-fledged summit in the United States. Reagan's plans for Star Wars caused his summit meeting with Gorbachev in Iceland to fail.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1986)(AP, 10/12/97)

1986        Oct 14, Holocaust survivor and human rights advocate Elie Wiesel in the US was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 10/14/97)
1986        Oct 14, California Lottery’s first online computer game, Lotto 6/49, began to run.
    (SSFC, 10/9/11, DB p.42)

1986        Oct 15, Harvard Univ. agreed to buy 1.35 million shares of Harken Energy for $2 million and to invest $20 million in Harken projects. George W. Bush served as a Harken board member and paid consultant.
    (WSJ, 10/9/02, p.A4)

1986        Oct 16, The US government closed down due to budget problems.
    (www.ssa.gov/legislation/history/99.htm)
1986        Oct 16, Arthur Grumiaux (b.1921), Belgian violinist, died at 65.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Grumiaux)
1986        Oct 16, Ron Arad, an Israeli airman, was the navigator in a plane that was shot down while bombing a Palestinian refugee camp in southern Lebanon. He was reportedly handed over to a Lebanese Shiite group led by Mustafa Dirani. In 2004 it was reported that Arad died in 1996 , sometime after he was handed by Lebanese fighters to their Iranian sponsors. In 2008 a Hezbollah report said Arad had escaped from a holding cell in 1988 and probably died while trying to make his way home through difficult terrain.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.A14)(AP, 10/25/04)(http://tinyurl.com/yz3zza)(AP, 10/8/08)

1986        Oct 17, The US Senate approved immigration bill prohibiting hiring of illegal aliens and offered amnesty to illegals who entered prior to 1982.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yet49v)
 
1986        Oct 19, Mozambique Pres. Samora Machel was killed in a plane crash as he returned from a conference in Zambia. He had aided Nelson Mandela’s ANC party in fighting apartheid. 34 others also died in the crash.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A14)(www.cidob.org/bios/castellano/lideres/c-016.htm)(AP, 10/19/06)

1986        Oct 21, The US, Micronesia and the Marshall Islands formed a Compact of Free Association (CFA). Tens of millions in economic benefits along with security and defense of the islands was exchanged for the right to deny access to third countries. The US paid $270 million in compensation to nuclear victims under the 1st phase of the CFA (1986-2001), insisting that was a full and final arrangement.
    (SFC, 3/8/99, p.A16)(SFC, 1/4/00, p.A12)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.38)
1986        Oct 21, The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) was enacted by the United States Congress to extend government restrictions on wire taps from telephone calls to include transmissions of electronic data by computer.
    (Econ, 7/21/12, p.23)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_Communications_Privacy_Act)
1986        Oct 21, Pro-Iranian kidnappers in Lebanon claimed to have abducted American Edward Tracy. He was released in August 1991.
    (AP, 10/21/97)

1986        Oct 22, President Reagan signed into law sweeping tax-overhaul legislation.
    (AP, 10/22/06)
1986        Oct 22, In NYC Jane Dornacker (40), comedian, musician and traffic reporter, died after her helicopter crashed into the Hudson River. She had moved to NYC in 1985 after established a reputation in the SF Bay Area where her activities included performing with her band “Leila and the Snakes.”
    (SSFC, 10/23/11, DB p.42)
1986        Oct 22, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi (b.1893), Hungarian-born bio-chemist, died. He received the Nobel Prize in 1937 for discovering vitamin-C and the biochemical steps of catalysis of the fumaric acid in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9070804/Albert-Szent-Gyorgyi)

1986        Oct 25, Michael Sergio parachuted into Shea Stadium during game 6 of the World Series. In December he was fined $500 and sentenced to 100 hours of community service. In game 6 a slowly hit ball trickled through the legs of Bill Buckner and cost the Red Sox the game. They lost game 7 and the NY Mets won the series.
    (WSJ, 7/23/98, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/yea27m)

1986        Oct 27, The US Congress gave new life to the 1863 False Claims Act when it promised big payouts for citizens who blew the whistle on firms that defrauded the government.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_Claims_Act)
1986        Oct 27, The New York Mets won the World Series, coming from behind to defeat the Boston Red Sox, 8-5, in Game 7 played at Shea Stadium.
    (AP, 10/27/05)
1986        Oct 27, Reforms transformed the closed shop London stock exchange. New ways of trading shares came into effect and the day became remembered as the “Big Bang.”
    (Econ, 10/21/06, p.83)

1986        Oct 28, The Statue of Liberty turned 100 years old. The true centennial of the Statue of Liberty was celebrated in New York with ceremonies that were modest compared with the hoopla of "Liberty Weekend" the previous July.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1986)(AP, 10/28/06)

1986        Oct 30, US Treasury Sec. James Baker struck the first American Eagle silver coin at the US Mint’s San Francisco Assay office. The coins went on sale on Nov 24. Silver at this time was selling for $5.58 an ounce.
    (SSFC, 10/30/11, DB p.42)

1986        Oct, A drug raid was made in Los Angeles, Ca. The LA County Sheriff's Dept. had documented that Nicaraguan drug trafficker Daniel Blandon was shipping hundreds of kilos of cocaine in the Southern California area. In 1998 Gary Webb published "Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion."
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.3)

1986        Nov 1, In Japan seven charred bodies of women of the cult Friends of Truth were found on a beach. Their leader had recently died in a hospital.
    (SFC, 3/27/97, p.A19)
1986        Nov 1, A fire in a Sandoz factory in Basel left 30 tons of chemicals in the Rhine.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yhsjad)

1986        Nov 2, Mike Tyson (20) knocked out Trevor Berbick and won the WBC title to become the youngest heavyweight champion in history.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.A13)
1986        Nov 2, Kidnappers in Lebanon released American hospital administrator David Jacobsen after holding him for 17 months.
    (AP, 11/2/06)

1986        Nov 3, "Ash-Shiraa," a pro-Syrian Lebanese magazine, broke the story of U.S. arms sales to Iran, a revelation that escalated into the Iran-Contra affair.
    (AP, 11/3/97)

1986        Nov 6, Pres. Reagan signed a landmark immigration reform bill. The Simpson-Rodino Immigration Reform and Control Act led to legal residency for 2.7 million illegal immigrants. Harold Ezell served as the western chief of the immigration service under Ronald Reagan and implemented the act.
    (www.cis.org/articles/1987/paper4.html)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.C4)(WSJ, 9/18/06, p.A1)
1986        Nov 6, The Iran arms-for-hostages deal was revealed and damaged the Reagan administration.
    (HN, 11/6/99)
1986        Nov 6, Former Navy radioman John A. Walker Jr., the admitted head of a family spy ring, was sentenced in Baltimore to life imprisonment.
    (AP, 11/6/06)
1986        Nov 6, FRELIMO designated Joaquim Chissano as president of Mozambique.
    (www.cidob.org/bios/castellano/lideres/c-016.htm)

1986        Nov 8, Former Soviet official Vyacheslav M. Molotov (96), whose name became attached to the incendiary bottle bomb known as a "Molotov Cocktail," died.
    (AP, 11/8/06)

1986        Nov 9, Israel said it was holding Mordechai Vanunu, a former nuclear technician who had vanished after providing information to a British newspaper about Israel's nuclear weapons program. Vanunu was convicted of treason and sentenced to 18 years in prison. Mordechai Vanunu was later convicted of giving data on Israel's nuclear program to a newspaper and put into solitary confinement until Mar 12, 1988.
    (WSJ, 3/13/98, p.A1)(AP, 11/9/99)

1986        Nov 10, President Ronald Reagan refused to reveal details of the Iran arms sale.
    (HN, 11/10/98)
1986        Nov 10, Camille Sontag and Marcel Coudari, two Frenchmen who had been held hostage in Lebanon, were released.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

1986        Nov 13, President Reagan publicly acknowledged that the US had sent "defensive weapons and spare parts" to Iran in an attempt to improve relations, but denied the shipments were part of a deal aimed at freeing hostages in Lebanon.
    (AP, 11/13/06)
1986        Nov 13, Rudolf Schock (b.1915), German opera and operetta singer, died.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0774301/)
1986        Nov 13, In the Philippines the body of opposition trade leader union Rolando Olalia was found in a Manila suburb.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, Z1 p.5)(www.mahk.com/sc1613.htm)

1986        Nov 14, The Securities and Exchange Commission imposed a record $100 million penalty against inside-trader Ivan F. Boesky and barred him from working again in the securities industry.
    (AP, 11/14/06)

1986        Nov 15, A government tribunal in Nicaragua convicted American Eugene Hasenfus of charges related to his role in delivering arms to Contra rebels, and sentenced him to 30 years in prison. He was pardoned a month later.
    (AP, 11/15/97)
1986        Nov 15, In the Philippines Japanese executive Noboyuki Wakaoji was kidnapped. He was released after over four months in captivity allegedly after the payment of a huge ransom. Two gang members wee later convicted sentenced to life terms. In 2010 Rolando Fajardo, leader of the kidnapping gang, was arrested.
    (www.pctc.gov.ph/papers/InternationalTerrorism.htm)(AFP, 11/1/10)

1986        Nov 17, Pres. Reagan signed the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act. It designated over 292,000 acres in Oregon and Washington states as federally regulated land. Much of the work in getting the act passed was done by Nancy Russell (d.2008).
    (www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1986/111786a.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/nphxt8)
1986        Nov 17, Renault President Georges Besse was shot to death by leftists of the Direct Action Group in Paris.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1986        Nov 20, The US Federal Reserve Board approved a $500 million equity investment by Japan’s Sumitomo Bank in Goldman Sachs.
    (Econ, 5/19/07, SR p.20)(http://tinyurl.com/3xdm2q)
1986        Nov 20, UN's WHO announced 1st global effort to combat AIDS.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycyxmk)

1986        Nov 21, The US Justice Department began the inquiry into the National Security Council in what became known as the Iran-Contra scandal; Lt. Col. Oliver North shredded important documents. Albert Hakim (d.2003) was the financial person behind the arms-for-hostages deal.
    (HN, 11/21/01)(SFC, 4/29/03, A21)

1986        Nov 22, Justice Department found a memo in Lt. Col. Oliver North's office on the transfer of $12 million to contras from Iran arms sale.
    (HN, 11/22/98)
1986        Nov 22, Scatman Crothers (b.1910), singer and actor (Shining, Chico & The Man), died.
    {USA, Pop&Rock, TV}
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scatman_Crothers)
1986        Nov 22, Elzire Dionne, who gave birth to quintuplets in 1934, died at a hospital in North Bay, Ontario, Canada, at age 77.
    (AP, 11/22/06)

1986        Nov 23, Philippine President Corazon Aquino dismissed defense chief Juan Ponce Enrile after reported coup attempt.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1986        Nov 25, Secret arms sales to Iran were uncovered with Lt. Col. Oliver North directing the proceeds to the contras in Nicaragua. The Iran-Contra affair erupted as President Reagan and Attorney General Edwin Meese revealed that profits from secret arms sales to Iran had been diverted to Nicaraguan rebels. Fawn Hall smuggled important documents out of Lt. Col. Oliver North's office.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1986)(AP, 11/25/97)(HN, 11/25/98)

1986        Nov 26, President Reagan appointed a commission headed by former Sen. John Tower to investigate his National Security Council staff in the wake of the Iran-Contra affair. The 3-person Tower Commission exposed an elaborate network of official deception, private profiteering and White House cover-up in Reagan’s administration. The Tower Commission investigated the Iran-Contra scandal in which weapons were secretly sold to Iran for the release of American hostages with the proceeds then illegally funneled to the Nicaraguan contras. It was sharply critical of the president for failing to control the activities of the National Security Council staff. Fawn Hall was the dedicated secretary of Oliver North, who shredded incriminating documents.
    (AP, 11/26/97)(HNQ, 12/30/98)(SFC, 2/1/99, p.A3)
1986        Nov 26, An Iranian missile slammed into crowded residential district of Baghdad, Iraq, killing 48 civilians and wounding 52.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1986        Nov 28, The United States under the Reagan administration violated ceilings in the unratified SALT II nuclear arms treaty for the first time as another Air Force B-52 bomber capable of carrying atomic-tipped cruise missiles became operational.
    (www.csd.uwo.ca/~pettypi/elevon/baugher_us/b052-22.html)

1986        Nov 29, Actor Cary Grant died in Davenport, Iowa, at age 82.
    (AP, 11/29/97)
1986        Nov 29, In Suriname 39 people were massacred in the village of Moiwana by the military dictatorship. Desi Bouterse was fighting an armed opposition force called the Jungle Commandos. Many of the rebels were Maroons, as was the group's leader, Ronnie Brunswijk. In 2006 the government officially apologized and compensated relatives and victims of the massacre.
    (AP, 7/16/06)

1986        Nov, The European Commission decided on GSM as the first digital standard. Vodophone soon looked outside Britain for partners.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.8)

1986        Dec 1, Lt. Col. Oliver North pleaded the fifth amendment before a Senate panel investigating the Iran Contra arms sale.
    (HN, 12/1/98)
1986        Dec 1, Musee d'Orsay opened in Paris.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mus%C3%A9e_d'Orsay)
1986        Dec 1, In South Africa National Congress supporter Dr. Fabian Ribeiro (b.1933) and his wife, Florence, were assassinated.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A19)(http://sahistory.org.za/pages/people/ribiero-f.htm)

1986        Dec 2, Desi Arnaz (b.1917), Cuban-born musician and actor (played Ricky Ricardo in “I Love Lucy”), died from lung cancer in Del Mar, California. In 1949, Arnaz turned his efforts to developing the hit television series "I Love Lucy," which ran for six years on CBS and became the most successful television program in history.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0000789/)

1986        Dec 4, Neil Simon's "Broadway Bound" premiered in NYC.
    (www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=4434)
1986        Dec 4, Both houses of US Congress moved to establish special committees to conduct their own investigations of the Iran-Contra affair.
    (AP, 12/4/06)

1986        Dec 8, House Democrats selected majority leader Jim Wright to be the chamber's 48th speaker, succeeding Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill.
    (AP 12/8/97)
1986        Dec 8, Sydney J. Harris (b.1917), London-born American journalist and author, died. “Most people are mirrors, reflecting the moods and emotions of the times; few are windows, bringing light to bear on the dark corners where troubles fester. The whole purpose of education is to turn mirrors into windows.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney_J._Harris)(http://burbankmartialarts.net/?p=706)

1986        Dec 10, Human rights advocate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel accepted the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 12/10/06)

1986        Dec 10-1986 Dec 30, In China thousands of students began protesting for democracy in Shanghai and the demonstrations spread to Beijing.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1986        Dec 12, Russian Tupolev-134 crashed in East Berlin and 70 of 82 people were killed.
    (www.emergency-management.net/avi_acc_1979_1989.htm)

1986        Dec 14, The experimental aircraft Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, took off from Edwards Air Force Base in California on the first non-stop, non-refueled flight around the world. The trip took nine days.
    (AP 12/14/97)

1986        Dec 15, Army cook Ronald A. Gray raped and killed Army Pvt. Laura Lee Vickery-Clay of Fayetteville. She was shot four times with a .22-caliber pistol that Gray confessed to stealing. She suffered blunt force trauma over much of her body. Gray (42) was convicted in connection with a spree of four murders and eight rapes in the Fayetteville, NC, area between April 1986 and January 1987 while he was stationed at Fort Bragg. He was convicted at Fort Bragg in April 1988 and unanimously sentenced to death.
    (AP, 7/29/08)

1986        Dec 16, Ronald W. Pelton, former National Security Agency employee convicted of selling defense secrets to the Soviet Union, was sentenced by a judge in Baltimore to life in prison.
    (AP, 12/16/04)

1986        Dec 17, A federal jury in Detroit cleared automaker John DeLorean of all 15 charges in his fraud and racketeering trial.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1986-12/1986-12-17-ABC-11.html)
1986        Dec 17, Eugene Hasenfus, the American convicted by Nicaragua for his part in running guns to the Contras, was pardoned, then released.
    (AP, 12/17/97)
1986        Dec 17, Richard Kuklinsky, a Mafia hitman known as the Iceman, was arrested in New Jersey. He was found guilty of all charges May 25, 1988. Anthony Bruno later authored "The Iceman."
    (www.crimelibrary.com)
1986        Dec 17, In Colombia Guillermo Cano (b.1925), publisher of the Bogota newspaper El Espectador, was assassinated by drug cartel hitmen hired by Pablo Escobar.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guillermo_Cano_Isaza)

1986        Dec 19, Lawrence E. Walsh was appointed independent counsel to investigate the Iran-Contra affair.
    (AP, 12/19/07)
1986        Dec 19, The Soviet Union announced it had freed dissident Andrei Sakharov from internal exile, and pardoned his wife, Yelena Bonner.
    (AP, 12/19/97)

1986        Dec 20, White teenagers beat blacks in Howard Beach, NYC. One of the victims, Michael Griffith, was killed when a passing motorist's car ran over him on the Belt Parkway as he was attempting to flee from the pursuers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Beach)

1986        Dec 21, 500,000 Chinese students gathered in Shanghai's People's Square calling for democratic reforms, including freedom of the press.
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1986        Dec 23, The experimental airplane Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, completed the first non-stop, round-the-world flight without refueling as it landed safely at Edwards Air Force Base in California.
    (AP, 12/23/97)

1986        Dec 27, In San Diego Cara Evelynn Knott was strangled to death by an on-duty highway patrol officer. Officer Craig Alan Peyer was convicted of the murder, the first ever homicide conviction of an on duty CHP.
    (WSJ, 12/15/97, p.A20)

1986        Dec 29, Former PM Harold Macmillan of Britain (1957-1963), died at his home in Sussex, England, at age 92.
    (AP, 12/29/97)
1986        Dec 29, Andrei Tarkovsky (b.1932), Russian film maker, died and was buried in Paris.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1986        Dec 31, A fire at the Dupont Plaza Hotel in San Juan, Puerto Rico, killed 97 and injured 140 people. Three hotel workers later pleaded guilty to charges in connection with the blaze.
    (AP, 12/31/97)

1986        Dec, Sergeant Clayton Lonetree informed his CIA station chief in Austria that he had been spying for the Soviets. he was later sentenced to 30 years, but the sentence was reduced and he was released in 2/96. "Dancing With The Devil, Sex, Espionage and the US Marines: The Clayton Lonetree Story" (1996) by Rodney Barker tells the tale.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.B4)

1986        Francis Bacon (1909-1992), Anglo-Irish painter, made his painting "Portrait of George Dyer Talking."
    (SFC, 6/11/99, p.C3)

1986        A monument to boxer Joe Lewis, "The Fist," was installed in downtown Detroit. It consisted of an 8,000-pound, 24-foot-long disembodied black forearm and clenched hand.
    (WSJ, 3/4/04, p.A1)

1986        Sculptor Fred Fierstein dumped a statue called "The Guardian" at the Berkeley Marina. In a city vote fans supported the statue and the term "plop art" was coined.
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A24)

1986        In Detroit, Mich., Tyree Guyton (30) began an art project covering a 2-block area on Heidelberg Street. His own house was decorated and became known as the Dotty Wotty House. In 1991 the city ordered the demolition of 4 houses that he had decorated. In 1997 45% of his work fell to a city demolition effort. His work continued and attracted visitors from around the world.
    (SFC, 9/1/06, p.E8)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.56)

1986        Artist Norm Hines of Texas made his cluster of granite megaliths for Caelum Moor in Arlington, Texas. The planned office complex surrounding the site failed and in 1997 it was decided to put the megaliths into storage to allow the development of a shopping center on the land.
    (SFC, 2/8/97, p.A9)

1986        Jasper Johns, painter, completed his work "Winter," one of four of The Seasons series begun in 1985 that fetched $3 mil in a Sotheby's auction in 1995.
    (WSJ, 11/16/95, p.Aa-5)(WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)

1986        Sol LeWitt  made his color woodcut "Arcs From Four Corners" at Crown Point Press.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, DB p.37)

1986        Andy Warhol created his work "The Last Supper." In 1999 it sold for $772,500.
    (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W16)

1986        August Wilson, playwright, wrote "Joe Turner's Come and Gone."
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)

1986        Kingsley Amis won the Booker Prize with his novel "The Old Devils."
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, BR p.7)

1986        The biography "Picasso: Creator and Destroyer" by Arianna Stassinopoulos Huffington was published.
    (SFC, 10/5/96, p.E1)

1986        Lucien Le Cam (d.2000 at 75), one of the founding fathers of modern statistics, authored "Asymptotic Methods in statistical Decision Theory."
    (SFC, 5/23/00, p.A21)

1986        Stephen Coonts authored “Flight of the Intruder,” the story of a Navy pilot in Vietnam.  The military thriller became a classic in its genre.
    (WSJ, 10/24/06, p.D6)

1986        Bram Dijkstra, Prof. of comparative literature, published "Idols of Perversity." The book described the archetypal good girl. In 1996 he published "Evil Sisters: The Threat of Female Sexuality and the Cult of Manhood." It was an exploration of the archetypal bad girl.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, BR, p.10)

1986        Eric Drexler published "Engine of Creation" in which he championed the future of nanotechnology.
    (SFC, 7/19/99, p.A8)(Econ, 3/13/04, p.41)

1986        Jane Goodall published "The Chimpanzees of Gombe."
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, Z1 p.3)

1986        Winston Groom published his novel "Forrest Gump."
    (WSJ, 4/24/98, p.W14)

1986        "Grizzly" by wildlife biologist Michio Hoshino was published.
    (NH, 7/96, p.4)

1986        Edith Thatcher Hurd (d.1997 at 86) and Clement Hurd (d. 1988) wrote and illustrated a children's companion volume to a book by Gertrude Stein. The Hurds had collaborated on 55 children's books.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A14)

1986        William Loren Katz authored "Black Indians," an account of the relations between Black and Native Americans.
    (WSJ, 12/20/99, p.A1)

1986        J.N.D. Kelly authored “The Oxford Dictionary of Popes.”
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W8)

1986        Alexander Keyssar authored "Out of Work," an overview of unemployment.
    (WSJ, 12/3/03, p.B1)

1986        Karleen Koen authored her best-selling historical romance “Through a Glass Darkly.” It was set in England during the time of King Charles II. In 2006 she published a prequel titled “Dark Angels.”
    (WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)

1986        "Lenape: Archeology, History, Ethnography" by Herbert C. Kraft was published.
    (NH, 10/96, p.6)

1986        Daniel B. Luten (d.2003) published "Progress Against Growth: Essays on the American Landscape."
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 1/24/03, p.A25)

1986        Peter Mass authored “Manhunt,” the story of Edwin Wilson (1928-2012). Wilson had worked for the CIA but was arrested in 1982 for selling 20 tons of explosives to Libya. He was sentenced to 52 years in prison for smuggling arms and plotting to murder his wife.
    (SSFC, 9/23/12, p.C10)

1986        Mark Mathabane authored "Kaffir Boy," an account of the poverty, violence and racism under apartheid. In 2000 his sister, Miriam Mathabane authored "Miriam’s Song: A Memoir." The award-winning book was later frequently banned in US schools due to two paragraphs describing child prostitution.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, BR p.7)(SFC, 4/12/07, p.A1)

1986        James Michener wrote his novel "Legacy."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)

1986        Susan Minot published her first novel "Monkeys," a compilation of stories of family life.
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)

1986        Ralph Nader co-authored "The Big Boys: Styles of Corporate Power."
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, zone 1 p.3)

1986        Prof. Abraham Pais (d.2000 at 81) authored "Inward Bound: Of Matter and Forces in the Physical World."
    (SFC, 8/1/00, p.B2)

1986        Douglas Eugene Pike (d.2002 at 77), former US State Dept. officer, authored "PAVN: People's Army of Vietnam" a study of the North Vietnamese Army. In 1966 he authored "Viet Cong."
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A22)

1986        Richard Plant (d.1998) wrote "The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals."
    (www.holocaust-trc.org/homosx.htm)

1986        Reynolds Price published his novel "Kate Vaiden," that told the story of a woman blessed and cursed with willful determination.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, BR p.5)

1986        Philip Pugh authored “The Cost of Sea Power,” a study of shipbuilding costs since the end of the Napoleonic wars.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.21)

1986        Marc Resiner (d.2000 at 51) authored "Cadillac Desert," an angry indictment of water depletion in the American West.
    (SFC, 7/24/00, p.A21)

1986        Naomi Sims (1948-2009) authored “All About Health and Beauty for the Black Woman.” Her 1968 cover shot on the Ladies’ Home Journal was a breakthrough for black fashion models.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naomi_Sims)(SFC, 8/7/09, p.D5)

1986        Art Spiegelman published the 1st volume of “Maus,” a collection of black and white drawings with text that told the story of his father’s survival in the holocaust. Vol 2 came out in 1991.
    (Econ, 10/30/04, p.86)

1986        Frank Stella wrote "Working Space," a book on Italian Renaissance artists. In the book he speculated about what it would take to guarantee abstract painting a viable future.
    (MT, Win. '96, p.12)(SFC, 3/5/97, p.E5)

1986        Tad Szulc (d.2001) authored "Fidel: A Critical Portrait."
    (SFC, 1/18/00, p.A9)(SFC, 5/24/01, p.C4)

1986        Paul Theroux authored science fiction his novel "O-Zone," about wealthy people who live in tall buildings as opposed to lowly workers of the streets and countryside following a nuclear war.
    (WSJ, 1/1/00, p.R8)

1986        Tang Tsou, Univ. of Chicago Prof., authored "The Cultural Revolution and Post-Mao Reforms: A Historical Perspective."
    (SFC, 8/17/99, p.C2)

1986        John Waters, film director, authored "Crackpot." He published an update in 2003.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.M2)

1986        Carolyn Webber and Aaron Wildavsky authored "History of Taxation and Expenditure in the Western World.”
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R47)

1986        Sherley Anne Williams (d.1999 at 54) published her historical novel "Dessa Rose."
    (SFC, 7/15/99, p.A25)

1986        Walter Wriston, former CEO of Citibank, wrote "Risk & Other Four-Letter Words."
    (Wired, 10/96, p.142)

1986        DC Comics published its 4-issue Dark Knight miniseries. The cover was drawn by writer-artist Frank Miller. In 2013 the original cover art  went up for auction with bids expected over $500,000.
    (SFC, 7/6/13, p.A10)

1986        The musical play "Berlin to Broadway With Kurt Weill premiered at the Coconut Grove in Miami under the direction of Jack Allison.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)

1986        Twyla Tharp created her dance piece In the "Upper Room."
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)

1986        The 10-hour TV miniseries "Shaka Zulu" ran for the first time with Henry Cele as Shaka.
    (SFC, 3/20/97, p.E1,3)

1986        The TV Detective show "Hunter" began and lasted to 1991. It starred Charles Hallahan (d.1997 at 54).
    (SFC,12/5/97, p.A22)

1986        Artist Lowell Darling ("If you don't like the news, make the news." 1968) made his video "Hollywood Architecture." It was later dubbed "Hollywood Blank Verse" by Larry Hagman who did part of the narration.
    (SFEM, 1/19/97, p.11)

1986        David Barrett, East Lansing musician, wrote the words and music to the song "One Shining Moment." It premiered in the 1987 NCAA basketball finals.
    (WSJ, 4/4/03, p.B1)

1986        The Beastie Boys, a punk/funk band, burst on the scene with their song: "Fight for Your Right to Party."
    (WSJ, 12/18/98, p.A1)

1986        The Argentine band Los Fabulosos Cadillacs began with bassist Flavio Oscar Cianciarulo and keyboardist Gabriel Fernandez Capello (Vincentico). They did their first gig of Latino Rock as Los Cadillacs at a pub called the Blues in Buenos Aires.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, DB p.52)

1986        The Paul Simon "Graceland" album popularized South African music in the West.
    (SFC, 7/31/99, p.A17)

1986        Frankie Yankovic won the first Grammy ever awarded for polka.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.C6)

1986        Astor Piazzolla (d.1992), bandoneon player, recorded his album "Tango Zero Hour."
    (BAAC, 1/96, p.4,5)(Esq., 5/91, p.60,61)

1986        Wang Xilin, Chinese composer, composed "Calling the Spirit," a musical reflection on the poems of Qu Yuan, a 3rd century BC poet and official.
    (WSJ, 9/24/97, p.A20)

1986        The ballet "Ma Pavlova" was created by Roland Petit.
    (SFC, 12/31/99, p.C6)

1986        Udo Zimmermann, German composer, created his opera “Die Weise Rose” (The White Rose). The named was taken from a 1940s anti-Nazi movement.
    (SFC, 1/12/05, p.E1)

1986        Muzak expanded to five channels with the advent of direct broadcast satellite technology. By the end of 1996 they expanded to 60 channels.
    (WSJ, 6/5/96, p.B1)

1986        Room one of the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico, was completed. It is located 2,150 feet below the desert surface in an ancient salt bed deposited several hundred million years ago.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.45)

1986        Rev. Sri Swami Satchidananda (1914-2002) founded the Yogaville ashram in Virginia.
    (SFC, 8/20/02, p.A22)

1986        Stephen Spurrier, English owner of a wine shop and wine school in Paris, held another competition tasting of French and American wines following his 1976 event in New York City. This time only red wines were tasted and the same reds were used except for the Freemark Abbey wine. The American wines placed first and second: Clos du Val (1972) came in first and Ridge Vineyards (1971) came in second.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, ZZ1 p.4)

1986        Beny Alagem, a former Israeli tank driver, founded Packard Bell Electronics, a small computer manufacturer. He bought the old Packard Bell name and marketed his computers under the old name.
    (WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-1)

1986        Ron Teitelbaum started the Johnny Rockets restaurant on Melrose Ave. in Beverly Hills. It soon grew to a franchise of 82 units.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.E1)

1986        Stephen Worfram, physics and math whiz, founded Wolfram Research Inc., and developed the Mathematica software for solving complex problems.
    (WSJ, 9/25/96, p.B1)

1986        Dollywood, a theme park owned by country singer Dolly Parton, opened in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A3)

1986        Wichita Falls, Texas completed a 540-foot waterfall to replace the original which washed away over a century ago.
    (WSJ, 4/3/96, p.B-1)

1986        The US Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was created by the USGS and the USAID Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance after a mudflow killed more than 23,000 people in Armero, Colombia in 1985.
    (PacDisc. Spring/'96, p.27)

1986        Graydon Carter co-founded Spy, an irreverent monthly magazine. He left spy in 1991 and in 1995 began working with Vanity Fair where he became editor-in-chief.
    (WSJ, 5/18/04, p.D10)

1986        Jane Goodall founded the Committee for the Conservation and Care of Chimpanzees.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, zone 1 p.3)

1986        The SF Chronicle started the Season of Sharing Fund, an extension of the Emergency Family Needs/Housing Assistance Fund administered by Northern California Grantmakers in 1983 and 1984. Walter A. Haas, a descendant of Levi Strauss, conceived of the SF Season of Sharing Fund in 1985. He presented the idea to Dick Thierot, publisher of the SF Chronicle and the fund began.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, Z1 p.7)(SFC,12/11/97, p.A23)

1986        Rambling Rudy Phillips (1911-2004) was crowned King of the Hobos at the National Hobo Convention in Britt, Iowa.
    (SFC, 1/26/04, p.B4)

1986        The Hot August Nights festival was begun in Reno, Nev., to earn money for the Easter Seal Society. It became an annual festival touted as the world's largest nostalgia fest.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T10)

1986        The frog, Rosie the Ribeter, set a new leaping record at Angels Camp in California with a jump of 21 ft 5.75 inches.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-3)

1986        In St. Helena, Calif., the Meadowood Croquet Classic began.
    (SFEM, 7/21/96, p.4)

1986        Jose Luis de Jesus Miranda, a Puerto Rican-born former evangelical priest, founded the Growing in Grace church in Florida. By 2007 he called himself the Antichrist and was preaching to followers in some 35 nations, mostly in Latin America.
    (AP, 4/21/07)

1986        In Morton, Ill., the first pumpkin-tossing contest was held. The winning throw was 50 feet. By 1996 a compressed air cannon projected a pumpkin a record 2,710 feet at a velocity of more than 600 mph.
    (WSJ, 10/23/97, p.A1)

1986        The fledgling US Football League won an antitrust settlement against the NFL and was awarded $1 in damages.
    (SFC, 4/28/00, p.D7)

1986        Willie McCovey (b.1938) of the San Francisco giants was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. His 521 home runs put him in a tie with Ted Williams.
    (SSFC, 1/9/11, DB p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willie_McCovey)
1986        Yuan T. Lee of UC Berkeley won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
1986        Swiss physicists Gerd Binning and Heinrich Rohrer (1933-2013) at IBM's Almaden Research Center won the Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the scanning-tunneling microscope used to see and manipulate atoms. They shared the prize with Ernst Ruska.
    (SJBJ, Jan., '96, p.40)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Rohrer)
1986        James M. Buchanan Jr. (1919-2013) of the United States won the Nobel Prize in Economics for research in the theory of economic and political decision-making.
    (WSJ, 4/25/96, p.A-18)(AP, 10/11/09)(Econ, 1/19/12, p.76)
1986        The Nobel Prize in literature was awarded to Wole Soyinka of Nigeria.
    (WSJ, 10/15/96, p.A16)
1986        Rita Levi Montalcini (1909-2012), Italian scientist, shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine with American Stanley Cohen for discovering mechanisms that regulate the growth of cells and organs.
    (AP, 4/19/09)(Econ, 1/5/12, p.74)

1986        Reagan's plans for Star Wars caused his summit meeting with Gorbachev in Iceland to fail.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1986)

1986        Pres. Reagan signed a law creating a medical malpractice data base. It began operations in 1990.
    (WSJ, 8/27/04, p.A6)

1986        Frank Carlucci and Colin Powell introduced changes to reduce bureaucratic rivalries in the National Security Council (NSC). In 2005 David J. Rothkopf authored “Running the World: The Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power.”
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.80)

1986        US Congress passed a law that required the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to balance power generation and environmental protection issues when it licenses hydroelectric dams.
    (SFC,11/26/97, p.A7)
1986        The US passed a law that said the president must prepare a list of major drug producing or drug-transit countries and withhold half of most government aid to them until he certifies that they have fully cooperated with US efforts to stem narcotics trafficking.
    (WSJ, 2/16/96, p.A-6)
1986        US Congress set up a triumvirate in Washington to approve new memorial projects: the Commission on Fine Arts, the national Capital Planning Commission, and the Secretary of the Interior.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, p.A-12)
1986        The US Congress passed the Pressler Amendment. It was used to impose sanctions against Pakistan in 1990 when Pres. Bush was unable to certify that Pakistan did not have a nuclear bomb. This stopped the sale of 28 F-16 airplanes to Pakistan for which $650 million was already paid to General Dynamics.
    (SFC, 5/9/97, p.E2)
1986        The US Congress enacted the alternative minimum tax (AMT), to ensure that all companies pay taxes, regardless of their net income. It set a portion of the value of new equipment to be added to a company's taxable income base.
    (WSJ, 7/18/97, p.A14)
1986        Mandatory retirement was abolished in the US. Stepwise amendments of the federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act had begun in 1978. The 1978 amendments, which with a few exceptions became effective in January 1979, broadened coverage considerably. They eliminated the upper age limit for coverage of federal employees and raised it from 65 to 70 for all other employees.
    (www.lib.niu.edu/1979/ii790907.html)

1986        The US Computer Fraud and Abuse Act was created. Under the act the release of a computer virus was illegal, but the construction of such viruses was not.
    (WSJ, 3/31/05, p.B1)

1986        The Chamorros and Carolinians of the Northern Marianas were given US citizenship.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1986        Larry Wu-Tai Chin, a retired CIA translator was convicted of spying for China since 1952. Within days of the conviction he killed himself.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.A17)

1986        The US Postal Service issued a stamp that recognized Robert Peary and Matthew Henson as co-discoverers of the North Pole.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.B8)

1986        The US government raised the capital gains tax to 28%..
    (WSJ, 9/29/95, p.A-14)

1986        The US Tax Reform Act flattened rates, simplified rules and removed countless loopholes. It closed a loophole which had helped wealthy families shield assets by designating inheritance past a generation. The top marginal rate was cut from 50% to 28%. The tax law made it possible to slice up mortgage-backed securities. In the five years following the Tax Reform Act of 1986, 5,400 changes were made in the tax law.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.15)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.61)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.84)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.84)
1986        In the US the top 1% of taxpayers were responsible for 25.4% of all income taxes paid this year. In 2005 their share rose to 38.4%.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, SR p.14)

1986        The US federal Asset Forfeiture Fund, in its first year of operations, amassed $93.7 million. By 2012 it and the related Seized Asset Deposit Fund held nearly $6 billion.
    (Econ, 3/22/14, p.28)

1986        Terry Sanford (d.1998 at 80) of North Carolina was elected to the US Senate.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, p.C6)

1986        Mike Bowers, Attorney-General of Georgia, successfully defended the state's anti-sodomy law before the US Supreme Court.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A14)

1986        Ivan Boesky was arrested on Wall Street for insider trading.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1986)

1986        The birthday of Martin Luther King (Jan 19) was made a national holiday.
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.A26)

1986        A US federal law began allowing the limited collaboration of federal with private companies.
    (WSJ, 6/12/96, p.A10)

1986        US gun-rights groups successfully lobbied for law allowing firearms to be transported across state lines.
    (WSJ, 12/16/03, p.A4)

1986        The US Supreme Court in the Bethel School District vs. Fraser case ruled in favor of a principal who suspended a student for making an obscene speech.
    (WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A22)
1986        The US Supreme Court ruled that sexual harassment constituted a violation of women's civil rights.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.M6)

1986        Harry Denton, banker from Arkansas, warned Mrs. Clinton in a telephone conversation that there could be a problem with a $370,000 loan from the Madison S&L destined for the Castle Grande real estate deal.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.A23)

1986        A consent decree in Philadelphia limited the number of prisoners who could be held in city jails. Over the next 18 months police rearrested 9,732 defendants. In 2002 Ross Sandler and David Schoenbrod authored "Democracy by Decree," a critique of "institutional reform litigation."
    (WSJ, 12/30/02, p.A1)

1986        Gov. Clinton lobbied Little Rock judge and small-business financier David Hale to make a $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal. The Clinton-McDougal relationship was later described by Jim McDougal in the 1998 book "Arkansas Mischief" written with the assistance of Curtis Wilkie, published after McDougal's death in federal prison.
    (WSJ, 6/4/98, p.A16)

1986        Don Lasater, a Little Rock, Arkansas, bond dealer and supporter of then Gov. Clinton, was arrested for cocaine distribution after a probe that also netted Roger Clinton, the brother of Bill Clinton.
    (WSJ, 4/18/96, p.A-18)

1986        Marine World moved to Vallejo, Ca.
    (SFEC, 4/21/97, p.A1)
1986        Pat Paulsen built the Pat Paulen Winery in Asti, Ca., and proclaimed himself mayor. The comedian died Apr 24, 1997 at 69. In 1968 on the Smothers Brothers TV show he announced that he was running for president and actually got his name on the ballot in 1972.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.A22)
1986        Isleton in the Sacramento delta began hosting a Crawdad Festival as part of a small Father's Day celebration with several hundred people. In 1999 a crowd of over 150,000 was expected.
    (SFC, 6/17/99, p.A19)
1986        California politicians Willie Brown and Bill Lockyer negotiated a bill that exempted tobacco and alcohol from product liability lawsuits in the “napkin deal” at Frank Fat’s restaurant.
    (SFC, 4/7/97, p.A20)
1986        California passed the Ellis Act which allowed landlords to evict all their tenants at one time and withdraw from the rental business.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A13)
1986        California mandated seat belts for all drivers and passengers.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1986        California’s Legislature approved AB2020 effectively requiring a 5-cent deposit on beverage containers of less than 24 oz. and 10 cents on larger containers. Milk containers were exempt.
    (SSFC, 10/27/13, p.E2)
1986        Henrietta Briones (26) of Compton, Ca., shot and killed Larry Daniels, her former live-in boyfriend, following abuse and threats to her life. She was convicted of 2nd degree murder and sentenced 17 years to life in prison. Domestic violence became admissible evidence in 1992.
    (SFC, 2/16/02, p.A1)
1986        Larry Layton was convicted of conspiring to murder San Mateo, Ca., Representative Leo Ryan in Jonestown, Guyana. He was sentenced to a life in prison.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.D6)
1986        California voters unseated liberal Supreme Court Justices Cruz Reynoso, Rose Bird and Joseph Grodin. In 1983 Betty Medsger authored "Framed: The New Right Attack on Chief Justice Rose Bird and the Courts."
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.B4)
1986        California sold $11 billion in investments in companies that did business with South Africa to protest apartheid.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1986        The UC Board of Regents agreed to drop all stocks in companies doing business with South Africa.
    (SFC, 12/4/97, p.C8)
1986        California’s Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program mandated education or job training for AFDC recipients.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, Z1 p.5)
1986        The Milk Farm restaurant on I-80 in Dixon, Ca., closed down after a storm blew a hole in the roof. Its famous neon cow continued to jump over the moon as motorist drove by. The restaurant had opened in 1928 on what was then called Lincoln Highway. In 2000 Paul Moller, a Davis inventor, planned to use the site for a factory to develop his flying commuter Sky Car.
    (SFC, 1/27/00, p.A17)
1986        California-based Wells Fargo merged with Crocker National Corp. and Crocker National Bank.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)
1986        PG&E notified California that it was examining some 32 sites where gas was once manufactured from oil. The EPA estimated that there were up to 3,000 sites left over from the gaslight era contained harmful chemicals.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.A14)
1986        The pine pitch canker was first noticed in California. Wilted needles and browned branch tips preceded the formation of resin-oozing cankers which then attract beetles. It was believed that beetles carried the disease.
    (SFC, 11/30/98, p.A17)
1986        In California a female adult condor (AC-8) was captured for breeding. She provided 9 offspring in captivity and was released in 2000.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.B10)
1986        In California 5 women were murdered in the Central Valley along I-5. In 2008 Roger Reese Kibbe (68) was charged with the 5 murders along with a 1977 murder of a woman from Walnut Creek. He was already serving a life sentence for the murder of a West Sacramento prostitute, whose body was found in 1987.
    (SSFC, 3/9/08, p.B3)
1986        Christopher Isherwood, British born author, died of prostate cancer in Santa Monica, Ca. He was best know for his 1935 semi-autobiographical “The Berlin Stories,” which was the basis for the 1966 musical Cabaret and made into a 1972 film. His life-partner was painter Don Bachardy. His “Diaries: Volume II, 1939-1960” were published in 1997.
    (SFC, 8/30/96, p.D1)(SFC, 1/16/97, p.E3)(SFC, 5/11/99, p.B6)

1986        In Connecticut the John Day Jackson Trust sold the New Haven Register and Journal-Courier newspapers to Ingersoll Publications for an estimated $185 million. The Journal Register Co. later bought the papers.
    (SFC, 9/4/99, p.A25)
1986        Paul Newman’s 1st Hole in the Wall camp for critically ill children opened in Connecticut. In 1993 the Double H Camp (health and happiness) opened in the woods of the southern Adirondacks for campers whose diagnoses ranged from cancer to muscular dystrophy. Double H opened after the late amusement park developer Charles Wood proposed to Paul Newman that they convert an old dude ranch into a second Hole in the Wall camp. New camps followed and a 9th was set to open in Israel in 2007.
    (http://msnbc.msn.com/id/14189319/)

1986        In Florida Robert Rozier, a former NFL football player, changed his name to Neariah Israel and murdered 8 people to prove himself to a sect of Yahweh Ben Yahweh. He testified against the sect, which blamed for at least 23 killings and a series of firebombings, and was freed after 10 years in prison. In 1999 he was arrested for bounding check in California and subject to the "three strikes" sentencing law.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.D4)
1986        Bob Cox, mayor of Fort Lauderdale, began a campaign to end the city's reign as the spring break capital of America. Students moved on to Daytona Beach and later Florida's Panama City.
    (WSJ, 3/19/98, p.A16)
1986        In Florida Manuel Pardo, a former policeman, murdered 9 people, most of whom were involved with drugs, during a crime spree. Pardo was executed on Dec 11, 2012.
    (SFC, 12/12/12, p.A5)

1986        Lawrence Wollersheim was awarded $5 million in damages for mental abuse plus $25 million in punitive damages from the Church of Scientology. The total was later reduced to $2.5 million. In 2002 he received a check for over $8.6 million, which included interest.
    (SFC, 5/10/02, p.A24)

1986        KKR (Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.), an investment (leveraged buyout) firm, was founded.
    (WSJ, 12/31/96, p.1)

1986        Uniroyal Inc. chose to liquidate and sold more than $1 billion of subsidiaries. The tire division merged with B.F. Goodrich Co.'s tire division and became Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Co. The chemical division became Uniroyal Chemical Inc. purchased by Avery Inc.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1986        The US auto industry made record sales with 16.3 million cars and trucks sold.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1986        GM paid Ross Perot $700 million to surrender his stock and leave GM's board.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1986        The Hearst Corp. acquired Esquire Magazine and WCVB-TV in Boston.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1986        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1986 Ford Taurus as the number 2 favorite car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1986        Voyager II flew by Uranus.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.388)

1986        Railway miles in the US totaled 140,000, about half that of 1916.
    (NG, 5/1988, pres. intro)

1986        The A&P company acquired the 140-Waldbaum grocery store chain in New York, Conn. and Mass.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)

1986        Craig McCaw sold his cable business to Jack Kent Cooke, owner of the Washington Redskins for $755 million, in order to concentrate on his cellular telephone business. McCaw's story was told in 2000 by O. Casey Cor in "Money From Thin Air."
    (WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A24)

1986        Kenneth Lay, founder of Enron Corp. (1985), served as chairman and CEO until he stepped down in 2001.
    (Econ, 1/28/06, p.61)

1986        General Electric Corp. acquired RCA Corp. The consumer electronics business was sold to Thomson and the Sarnoff research labs was donated to SRI of Menlo Park.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)(SFC, 8/2/99, p.B3)

1986        Kmart passed Sears as the nations largest retailer.
    (WSJ, 11/18/04, p.B1)

1986        Levi Strauss & Co. introduced Dockers, a line of roomy khakis aimed at baby boomers.
    (WSJ, 5/28/02, p.B1)(SFEC, 5/31/98, DB p.48)

1986        Macy’s chairman Edward Finkelstein took the publicly traded institution private. In 1992 the Manhattan based retail chain filed for bankruptcy.
    (Econ, 4/22/06, p.72)(http://tinyurl.com/k6664)

1986        Motorola opened shop in Singapore.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A1)

1986        Microsoft, and Novell Corporations went public. At its debut Microsoft was worth $519 mil. with just over $85 mil. in revenue for the prior six months.
    (WSJ, 8/9/95, p.C-1)

1986        Maxxam Corp. took over Pacific Lumber Co. for $900 million. The purchase included the acquisition of 3,800 acres of the Headwaters, a stand of old-growth redwood in northern California.
    (WSJ, 5/13/96, p.A-9A)

1986        Thrifty Drugs under Leonard H. Straus (d.1998) merged with Pacific Lighting. The Thrifty Corp. had 555 drugstores and the Big Five sports equipment chain.
    (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A21)

1986        Wells Fargo merged with Crocker National Corp. and Crocker National Bank.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)

1986        Dr. Federico Faggin, co-inventor of the microprocessor, founded Synaptics Inc., which specialized in building neural-net devices.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)

1986        Steve Jobs founded NeXT Inc. and purchased the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm for $10 million and started his own company called Pixar.
    (SFC, 1/25/06, p.C1)(SFC, 8/25/11, p.A10)

1986        Dr. Nathan Myhrvold, founder and president of Dynamical Systems, sold his software firm to Microsoft and joined Microsoft, where he spent the next 14 years.
    (Econ, 10/22/05, Survey p.9)

1986        Motorola developed Six Sigma, a process management technique, which it licensed off to US manufacturing companies facing challenges from higher quality Japanese products.
    (WSJ, 1/4/07, p.C3)

1986        Dick Kress (1928-2006), 18-year president of Norelco, retired. During his tenure Norelco sold over 55 million electric razors.
    (WSJ, 11/25/06, p.A6)

1986        The Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center opened.
    (SFC, 3/9/98, p.A7)

1986        South Carolina-based 3D Systems introduced the first commercially available 3-D printer, pioneering the development of stereolithography.
    (Econ, 9/5/09, TQ p.28)

1986        Abhay Ashtekar, a physicist at Pennsylvania State Univ., proposed an explanation called “loop quantum gravity” to relate quantum mechanics with general relativity. This rivaled a popular alternative model called string theory.
    (Econ, 9/30/06, p.89)

1986        PepsiCo acquired the Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) fast food chain.
    (WSJ, 1/24/97, p.B1)

1986        US Steel acquired Texas Oil & Gas and changed its name to USX Corp.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R46)

1986        Honda began a robot program at a fundamental research center outside Tokyo.
    (WSJ, 9/4/01, p.A1)

1986        Danny Hillis (b.1956), an American inventor, entrepreneur and author, began thinking and working on a 10,000 Year Clock. After some years Jeff Bezos, founder of Amazon.com provided assistance and the clock began taking shape inside a mountain in West Texas. The first prototype of the clock began working on December 31, 1999.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clock_of_the_Long_Now)

1986        Asteroid 3753 was discovered. It was later learned that the 6-mile diameter rock maintains an annual orbit around the sun of one year, like Earth and with some assistance from Earth's gravity.
    (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A6)

1986        K. Alex Muller and J. George Bednorz working at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory discovered that some new ceramics when cooled in liquid nitrogen become superconductors.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.203)

1986        Dr. David Baltimore, a Nobel-winning biologist, published a paper with Thereza Imanishi-Kari in the journal Cell. A lab partner accused Ms. Imanishi-Kari of falsifying data and took her complaints to Congress where Congressman John Dingell made a big case. Internal review cleared the scientists. In 1998 Daniel J. Kevles published an account of the story: "The Baltimore Case."
    (WSJ, 9/9/98, p.A20)

1986        Chuck Hull coined the term “stereolithography” to describe a system he patented for making three-dimensional objects. Hull founded 3D Systems to commercialize the procedure.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereolithography)(Econ, 4/21/12, SR p.14)

1986        Dr. Mark Bogart at UC San Diego discovered that a fetus with Down's syndrome would exhibit extremely high levels of the hormone HCG, human chorionic gonadotropin. He later tried to obtain royalties from all tests in prenatal screening that used his discovery.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.A8)

1986        Scientists isolated the protease enzyme and realized that it could be used to combat HIV due to its crucial role in virus reproduction. Its 3-d structure was announced by Merck in 1989.
    (WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A4)

1986        Dr. Jay Levy at UCSF discovered that the CD-8 lymphocytes secrete an antiviral factor that prevents HIV from replicating.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W27)

1986        Researchers for muscular dystrophy identified the gene that caused Duchene muscular dystrophy, the most common and fatal childhood form of the disease.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, Par p.5)

1986        Davina Thompson (d.1998) became the world's first known triple transplant patient when she received a new heart, lungs and liver.
    (SFC, 8/18/98, p.A19)

1986        Mad Cow Disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), was first confirmed in Britain.
    (WSJ, 11/25/98, p.A1)

1986        The term “non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease” was coined to described the buildup of fat and scarring in the liver. Some estimates in 2012 said the condition affected up to one-third of America’s population.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, SR p.7)

1986        Robert Slavin of John Hopkins Univ. began his nonprofit Success For All Foundation. It advocated a fixed methodology, invented by Slavin, for teaching reading in troubled schools.
    (WSJ, 7/19/99, p.A1)

1986        Fred Bookstein of the Univ. of Michigan established the use of shape variables in the new field of morphometrics, a technique of measuring biological shape and change.
    (MT, 10/94, p.9)

1986        Over 60,000 US farms were sold or foreclosed in the rural West and Midwest.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)

1986        Great pieces of ice broke from the coast of Antarctica in a process known as calving. The Larsen Ice shelf calved an 8,000 km iceberg, icebergs from the Filchner Ice Shelf combined to 11,500 km.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.77)

1986        Richard Vollenweider (1922-2007), Swiss scientist, was awarded the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement for helping save Lake Erie. Procter & Gamble, the USA’s biggest detergent manufacturer, had nominated him for the prize. Vollenweider had developed methods for quantifying the eutrophication of freshwater. His methods also helped form the basis of the 1972 Great Lakes Water Quality Act.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ygrc3p)(WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)

1986        In Arcata, Ca., the first constructed sewage treatment marshes went into operation.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.130)

1986        The Potamocorbula clam, or Asian clam, was introduced to the SF Bay. It was highly prolific and proceeded to devour all the plankton in the northern part of the Bay, causing the shrimp population to drop and the striped bass to decline. The clams accumulate selenium more than other shellfish causing increases in selenium levels in sturgeon, striped bass and ducks.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.A24)

1986        E.O. Wilson held a national forum on biodiversity and produced the subsequent volume "Biodiversity."
    (PacDis, Winter '97, p.52)

1986        An oil spill from the Apex Houston barge killed 9,000 sea birds from San Francisco to Big Sur including 6,000 murres.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.B3)

1986        The US EPA reported that 35% of all underground gas tanks were leaking an average of 2,800 gallons of gasoline annually.
    (SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A13)

1986        Lechugilla Cave, a few miles from Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico, was discovered. It was the 5th largest cave in the world and the deepest in the continental US.
    (CW, Fall, 02, p.23)

1986        The European Ruffe fish was first noticed in the Duluth harbor on Lake Michigan.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A3)

1986        Nevada’s 77,000-acre Great Basin National Park was dedicated.
    (SSFC, 7/18/04, p.D7)

1986        In California 5 women were murdered in the Central Valley along I-5. In 2008 Roger Reese Kibbe (68) was charged with the 5 murders along with a 1977 murder of a woman from Walnut Creek. He was already serving a life sentence for the murder of a West Sacramento prostitute, whose body was found in 1987.
    (SSFC, 3/9/08, p.B3)

1986        Michele Lee Dorr (6) vanished. Her body was found in a park outside of Washington DC in 2000. Hadden Clark (47) was convicted for her murder in Oct 1999 and sentenced to 30 years in prison.
    (SFC, 1/8/00, p.A5)

1986        The bodies of Tony (48) and Michael (41) Spilotro were found buried in an Indiana cornfield. Tony “The Ant” Spilotro was a top mob figure in Las Vegas. In 2005 prosecutors indicted 11 Chicago mob figures for at least 18 murders, including the Spilotros.
    (SFC, 4/26/05, p.A5)

1986        In this year 600 people died in 30 crashes involving all sizes off commercial passenger and cargo planes. By 1995 the figures doubled.
    (WSJ, 5/13/96, p.A-1)

1986        Herbert W. Armstrong (93), doomsday evangelist, died. In 1933 he began his radio broadcasts in Salem, Ore., and published his 1st Plain Truth magazine in 1934. In 1947 he moved to Pasadena where his "Worldwide Church of God," a radio and TV ministry featured "The World Tomorrow" programs. He excommunicated his son Garner Armstrong (d.2003 at 73) in 1978 for doctrinal disagreements and sexual misconduct. Armstrong rejected the Trinity, regarded Christmas and Easter as pagan holidays and held that Anglo-Saxons are lineal descendants of the lost tribes of Israel.
    (SFC, 9/18/03, p.A21)

1986        Edwin Binney III (b.1925), scholar of French literature and heir to the Crayola fortune, died. Binney had collected over 1,450 Indian paintings from the Mughal era, which he donated to the San Diego Museum of Art.
    (WSJ, 11/21/06, p.D8)(www.sdmart.org/pr_domains_wonder.html)

1986        Cheikh Anta Diop, Senegalese humanist and scientist, died. [see 1946]
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 34)

1986        Frank Herbert, sci-fi author of "Dune," died. In 1999 Brian Herbert, his son, and Kevin J. Anderson authored "Dune: House Atreides," a prequel to the original.
    (WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W10)

1986        Lazar Khidekel (b.1904), Russian artist and architect, died. He sustained a radical utopian vision and avant-garde aesthetic during decades of Soviet control of cultural production.
    (SFC, 2/22/05, p.E1)

1986        Jacques Henri Lartigue (b.1894), French photographer, died. In 2004 Kevin Moore authored “Jacques Henri Lartigue: The Invention of an Artist.”
    (Econ, 7/24/04, p.77)

1986        Georgia O'Keefe, artist (b 11/15/1887), died. She is one of 3 artists covered by Anne Middleton Wagner in "Three Artists (Three Women): Modernism in the Art of Hesse, Krasner and O'Keefe." On 1999 Bram Dijkstra published ""Georgia O'Keefe and the Eros of Place."
    (HFA, '96, p.42)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-7)(SFEC, 2/21/99, BR p.12)

1986        Afghanistan’s 3rd president Babrak  Karmal (1929-1996) was replaced by Dr. Najibullah.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)
1986        Osama bin Laden began building a tunnel complex under mountains in Afghanistan near Pakistan as part of a CIA-funded project.
    (SSFC, 5/9/04, p.M6)

1986        In Australia the left-of-center Labor government began to implement an innovative retirement system. It was based primarily on mandatory private savings in plans called "superannuation funds."
    (WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A10)(www.heritage.org/Research/SocialSecurity/BG1149.cfm)

1986        The Bahamas banned fishing on its coral reefs.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, p.72)

1986        Bhutan's first newspaper, the government weekly Kuensel, began publishing. It recorded its first crime in 1989, the same year that the first satellite dish arrived.
    (WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A8)

1986        The film "The Mission" was directed by Roland Joffe. It was about Indian and Jesuit relations in colonial Brazil.
    (SFEM, 10/8/00, p.17)
1986        In Brazil Marcelo Carvalho de Andrade formed Pro-Natura, non-governmental organization dedicated to saving the rain forests through sustainable development. The first program was set up in Desengano State Park to prevent clandestine logging.
    (SFC, 7/7/99, p.A8)
1986        Hernandes Filho, a former Xerox marketing executive, and his wife, Sonia Haddad Moraes Hernandes, founded the Reborn in Christ Church and rode the wave of popularity of evangelical churches in Brazil, the world's largest Roman Catholic country. The couple were arrested in 2007 for taking a large amount of undeclared cash into the US. Both pleaded guilty to evading US currency requirements and conspiracy.
    (AP, 1/23/07)(SFC, 6/9/07, p.A5)
1986        Brazil chopped 3 zeroes off its currency in the Cruzado Plan as part of an attempt to reduce inflation. The official name was the Economic Stabilization Plan but it was popularly known as the Cruzado Plan because it involved a change in the name of the currency from Cruciero to the Cruzado, with 1000 crucieros being equal to one cruzado.  Its main measures were a general price freeze, a wage readjustment and freeze, readjustment and freeze on rents and mortgage payments, a ban on indexation, and a freeze on the exchange rate.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.5)(www.applet-magic.com/cruzado.htm)
1986        In Brazil a financial scandal led the Bolsa de Valores do Rio de Janeiro (BVRJ) to bankruptcy.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.Spe.Adv.)
1986        The Commodities & Futures Exchange (BM&F) of Brazil began trading.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.Spe.Adv.)
1986        Brazil began construction of a rocket base at Alcantara, forcing some 300 local families to resettle elsewhere.
    (WSJ, 10/9/08, p.A13)

1986        In Britain the DV8 Physical Theater, a dance-theater ensemble led by Lloyd Newson of Australia, was founded.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, DB p.38)
1986        In Britain the Conservative government enacted a personal pension program that was put into effect in 1988. Higher income workers were allowed to opt out of a government pension plan and manage their own contributions.
    (WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A1)
1986        In Britain Parliament outlawed corporal punishment in public schools. The practice was banned in private schools in 1998.
    (SFC, 1/19/00, p.A12)
1986        The economics editor of Britain’s Economist Magazine invented the Big Mac index as a light-hearted introduction to exchange-rate theory.
    (Econ, 5/27/06, p.74)

1986        In Canada there was a World Exposition in Vancouver.
    (SFC, 8/26/97, p.A1)
1986        The Quebec Iron and Titanium (QIT) subsidiary of Rio Tinto, an int’l. mining concern, began pursuing rights in Madagascar to extract high-grade ilmenite, a form of titanium dioxide used to whiten toothpaste, paint and cleansing powders. A 15,000 acre site at Fort Dauphin was expected to yield 750,000 tons a year over 60 years for an investment of $400 million. The Malagasy government would receive about $40 million per year plus $10 million in taxes and fees. A decision was expected in 2005.
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 11/17/04, p.A1)

1986        In the Central African Republic women gained the right to vote.
    (Reuters, 12/03/05)
1986        Jean-Bedel Bokassa returned to the Central African Republic from exile. In 1988 he was jailed for embezzlement and murder after a trial in which he was accused of cannibalism and infanticide.
    (SFC, 5/22/96, p.A9)(SFC, 10/11/03, p.A2)(AFP, 12/1/10)

1986        In Chile the military discovered a clandestine arms shipment that was traced to Cuba. There were enough arms to support 5,000 men.
    (WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)

1986        In China Hua Wenyi, opera soprano, received the Plum Blossom Award, the nation's highest artistic honor. In 1989 she traveled to the US and did not return.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A17)
1986        China applied to join the GATT world trade association.
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1986        China introduced a compulsory education law that required local governments to ensure that all children receive 9 years of free education.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.33)
1986        China passed a law for state-owned companies allowing only their government supervisor to put them into bankruptcy. First claim to any assets belonged to the workers.
    (Econ, 6/2/07, p.82)
1986        Wong Kwong Yu (16) and his older brother, natives of Shantou in southern China, opened up Gome, a clothing store in Beijing. A year later they switched to home appliances and consumer electronics. In 1992 Wong split the business with his brother, keeping the stores while his brother kept the real estate. By 2006 Mr. Wong was one of China’s richest men.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.60)
1986        In China an earthquake destroyed the old Jihong Bridge over the Lancang River.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T5)

1986        Colombian cartels shipped 75 metric tons of cocaine into the US.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)

1986        Cuba defaulted on a $12 billion debt owed mainly to European and Latin American governments.
    (Econ, 4/16/05, p.34)

1986        In the Dominican Republic former Pres. Joaquin Balaguer won elections and served for 10 years.
    (SFC, 7/15/02, p.B6)

1986        In the Dominican Republic the site of the 1493 town of La Isabela was named a national park, Solar de las Americas.
    (AM, 7/97, p.54)

1986        A large earthquake hit El Salvador. The US provided $60 million in emergency aid and $98 million in reconstruction funds.
    (SFC, 3/2/01, p.D4)

1986        The single European Act was passed to end trade restricting regulations and create a true single European market by 1992.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, Survey p.9)

1986        In France Michel Lescanne, in response to the crises in Ethiopia, founded Nutriset to develop a product for feeding malnourished children. An initial product met WHO standards F-75 and F-100 for therapeutic milk products that needed to be mixed with water. In 1997 he hit upon a peanut-based spread and called the new product Plumpy’nut.
    (WSJ, 4/12/05, p.A14)

1986        German hackers in Hanover, working for the KGB, sneaked into American military networks. The “Cuckoo’s Nest” cyber attack was caught when an official noted a 75-cent billing error revealing unauthorized use of a computer network.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.75)

1986        The Georgian film “Repentance” was directed by Tengiz Abuladze. It was an allegory about a small town mayor who gradually becomes a despot. The film was about the crimes of Stalinism and was banned by censors.
    (SFC, 9/23/98, p.A10)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.82)

1986        In Jakarta, Indonesia, there were bomb attacks on the US, Japanese and Canadian embassies in Jakarta. Tsutomo Shirosaki, a Japanese Red Army terrorist, was arrested 10 years later.
    (WSJ, 7/2/03, p.A1)

1986        Billy McComiskey of Baltimore, Maryland, won the all-Ireland, senior category, championship of the button accordion. He soon teamed with Liz Carroll, the 1991 All-Ireland senior fiddle champion and singer-guitarist Daithi Sproule to produce the self-titled album “Trian” in 1992 and “Trian II” in 1995. In 1985 McComiskey and his Baltimore band, Irish Tradition, recorded the album “The Times We’ve Had.”
    (WSJ, 3/13/07, p.D5)

1986        Iraq’s Saddam Hussein allowed the People's Mujahedeen, known as the Mujahedeen-e-Khalq, to establish a base, Camp Ashraf , to launch raids into Iran. The US military protected the group followed its invasion in 2003. In 2009 the US began handing control of the group to Iraqi security forces, which planned to separate members and leaders and eventually repatriate the members.
    (AP, 1/23/09)(SFC, 3/28/09, p.A3)

1986        In Italy 62 founding members met to inaugurate Arcigola, the forerunner of Slow Food.
    (www.slowfood.com/about_us/eng/history.lasso)
1986        In Italy the first McDonald's Hamburger restaurant opened in Rome.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)
1986        Italian media mogul Silvio Berlusconi bought the AC Milan soccer team. He had to quit the club’s presidency for two years in 2004 when a law preventing conflicts of interest for politicians was passed.
    (Econ, 6/27/09, p.70)(http://tinyurl.com/klwzhl)

1986        Japan passed equal-employment-opportunity legislation removing most legal barriers to women in the workplace. Discrimination remained rampant.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, SR p.8)
1986        Takako Doi was elected the head of the Socialist Party in Japan and became the first woman to lead a political party there.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)
1986        Japan began its H-2 rocket program. The H-2 was terminated in 1999.
    (SFC, 12/10/99, p.D8)

1986        On the Channel Island of Jersey the Haut de la Garenne children's home closed down.
    (Econ, 3/1/08, p.58)

1986        In Latvia a citizen's forum was organized by Mikhail Gorbachev in Jurmala. 2,000 handpicked Communists faced 220 Americans on televised debates shown to the Soviet public.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, Par p.22)

1986        Algirdas Kauspedas and his Lithuanian band Antis, meaning duck or false political sensation, burst onto the scene. He later created a respected architecture company and had a brief stint in politics after the band broke up for the first time in 1990. In 2008 they got back together and had another tour.
    (www.baltictimes.com/news/articles/20605/)

1986        Ghadames, Libya, was designated a World Heritage site.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

1986        In Malaysia a law was enacted that prohibited publications of "malicious allegations"  against the government.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A15)

1986        A US military base on the Mauritius island of Diego Garcia became fully operational and was intensely involved in 1990 when Iraq invaded Kuwait. In the 1960s and 1970s Britain destroyed houses, slaughtered animals, and turfed out some 2,000 inhabitants from the Chagos islands to Mauritius and the Seychelles.
    (Reuters, 4/16/07)

1986        In Nigeria a new government came to power and singer Fela Anikulapo-Kuti was released from prison.
    (WSJ, 2/24/99, p.A10)
1986        Nigeria’s State Security Service was created by military ruler Gen. Ibrahim Babangida to monitor domestic dissent.
    (AP, 8/30/12)

1986        North Korea started a 5-megawatt nuclear reactor at Yongbyon after seven years of construction with Soviet help.
    (SFC, 6/28/08, p.A3)

1986        Oman’s first university, the Sultan Qaboos University, opened.
    (SFC, 5/9/96, p.A-14)(SSFC, 3/30/08, p.E4)

1986        Pakistan introduced its anti-blasphemy law. It made defaming Islam punishable by death. The law was adopted by Pakistani-administered Kashmir in 1993.
    (AP, 3/15/12)

1986        Hernando de Soto, Peruvian economist, authored “The Other Path,” in which he called the rise of a popular capitalism as opposed to the corporate state.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.11)
1986        In Lima, Peru, 150 imprisoned Shining Path rebels were killed following riots in 3 jails.
    (SFC, 8/23/01, p.A8)

1986        In the Philippines the Communist New People's Army staged Operation Zombie, a bloody purge of suspected informers. In 2001 some 75 bodies were discovered in 8 mass graves at Cagayan de Oro.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.D4)
1986        In the Philippines the People Power Uprising took place on Manila’s main thoroughfare, later renamed EDSA, Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, after one of the revolution’s heroes.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, Z1 p.4)

1986        The Reunion island volcano Piton de la Fournaise erupted. The lava cooled into bizarre formations that became a tourist attraction.
    (SFC, 3/14/98, p.C1)

1986        Vladimir Voynovich (b.1932), Russian dissident writer, wrote his satirical dystopian novel "Moscow 2042."
    (WSJ, 7/15/97, p.A18)(http://wapedia.mobi/en/Moscow_2042)
1986        Soviet dissident Anatoly B. Sharansky was released from a Soviet prison as part of a prisoner exchange between the East and West and soon moved to Israel. He changed his name to Natan Sharansky and became head of the new-immigrants party, Yisrael Ba-Aliya. He later became a deputy PM. 
    (AP, 7/14/98)(SFC, 5/4/02, p.A21)

1986        In South Africa 10 youths were drugged and then blown to pieces with explosives. In 1999 Abraham Joubert, former special forces commander, testified that he authorized a plan for the slayings submitted by provincial special forces commander Charl Naude.
    (SFC, 4/7/99, p.C12)
1986        Adriaan Vlok was appointed as South Africa’s minister of law and order and still headed the ministry when allegations surfaced in 1989 that police hit squads may have been involved in the murder of more than 100 political activists.
    (AP, 8/28/06)
1986        The Belhar Confession, a Christian statement of belief originally, was written in Afrikaans and adopted by the synod of the Dutch Reformed Mission Church in South Africa. It stressed racial and social inclusiveness.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.70)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belhar_Confession)

1986        Hyundai, a South Korean auto maker, entered the US market with low cost cars.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.72)

1986        Portugal and Spain entered the European Union expanding the membership to 12.
    (WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 7/18/03, p.D5)(Econ, 6/13/09, SR p.3)
1986        Spain’s Socialist government paid $30 million and returned 100 properties to the Socialist-leaning General Workers Union. In 1997 the union sought an additional $155 million for hundreds of other properties.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A18)

1986        Ahmed Al-Mirghani (d.2008 at 67) headed the last democratically elected government of Sudan until 1989 before a military coup led by current President Omar al-Bashir unseated him.
    (AP, 11/3/08)
1986        In Sudan Sadiq al-Mahdi became the country’s last democratically elected prime minister.
    (Econ, 12/13/08, p.68)
1986        Sudan became subject to American sanctions. The IMF ended financial assistance to Sudan.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.42)

1986        Taiwan’s Pres. Chiang Ching-kuo, the son of Chiang Kai-shek, decided to open up the political life with Democratic reforms.
    (SFEC, 3/19/00, p.A22)(Econ, 12/9/06, p.47)
1986        In Taiwan the Democratic Progressive Party was established in opposition to the Nationalist Party and advocated formal independence from China.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A12)

1986        The constitution of the Turks and Caicos Islands was suspended following an inquiry into arson and alleged corruption.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.34)

1986        In Uganda Yoweri Museveni was shown in photographs as a victorious guerrilla leader. Over the next ten years he brought peace and fast economic growth to most of Uganda. He ruled by cooperating on regional issues, pursuing economic reforms, and stifling the opposition with restrictions on political parties.
    (SFC, 5/4/96, p.A-8)
1986        Vietnam introduced doi moi (renovation), a policy of economic renovation, that sparked massive economic change. It gradually shifted the centrally planned economy to a market economy.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.9)(NG, May, 04, p.96)(SFC, 5/30/06, p.C1)

1986        Yemen discovered oil.
    (AP, 6/24/06)

1986-1988    Jacques Chirac served his 2nd term as prime minister of France.
    (Econ, 3/17/07, p.28)
1986-1988    In Japan Kiichi Miyazawa served as finance minister. He presided over a "bubble economy" period of inflated land and stock prices.
    (SFC, 7/31/98, p.A16)

1986-1989    Arms were channeled into Darfur by Sudan’s central government under Sadiq al-Mahdi, which armed the southern Baggara Arabs as a militia to fight against the SPLA (at that time threatening insurgency in the region), and also armed the northern Arab tribes, who were loyal to the Ansar of the Prime Minister's Umma Party.
    (www.sudanupdate.org/REPORTS/PEOPLES/Darf.htm)

1986-1991    Michael Bruno (1932-1996) was governor of the Bank of Israel.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.A24)

1986-1991    In Vietnam Nguyen Van Linh (d.1998) served as the Communist party general-secretary. He urged free-market policies and wrote a newspaper column titled "Things That Must Be Done Immediately." He ended collective farming and loosened government controls over state factories. He ended the decade long occupation of Cambodia and normalized relations with China.
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1986-1995    About half of the US 3,234 savings and loans closed up shop, following a failed expansion into consumer real-estate lending. Congress responded by creating the Resolution Trust Corp. (1989) to make depositors whole and clean up the industry at a cost of at least $124 billion.
    (WSJ, 9/20/08, p.A3)

1986-1996    The 7th Betty Crocker [General Mills advertising icon] made her appearance with a floppy bow tie.
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A6)

1986-1996    The US provided $1.2 billion in aid to Bolivia.
    (WSJ, 12/6/96, p.A12)

1986-2006    In Chile the poverty rate during this period fell from 45% to just 13.7% of the population.
    (Econ, 9/19/09, p.47)

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