Timeline 1990 Undated Items

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1990        Magdalena Abakanowicz (b.1930), Polish sculptor, made her work "Bronze Crowd."
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.B1)(www.abakanowicz.art.pl/)

1990        Jasper Johns painter "Green Angel," encaustic and sand on canvas.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.F1)

1990        Roy Lichtenstein created his "Reflections on Senorita."
    (WSJ, 8/27/98, p.A12)

1990        Robert Rauschenberg created his piece "A Doodle."
    (WSJ, 9/25/97, p.A20)

1990        The painting "Au Moulin de la Galette" by Pierre August Renoir sold at auction for $78.1 mil.
    (WSJ, 5/16/95, p. A-16)

1990        John Guare wrote his play "Six Degrees of Separation."
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)

1990        The book "The Plains of Passion" by Jean Auel (b.1936) was the best-selling fiction work of the year.
    (WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R4)(www.geocities.com/auelpage/auel.html)

1990        Buzz Bissinger authored “Friday Night Lights: A Town, a Team, and a Dream," the story of a football team in the Texas oil town of Odessa. A film version was released in 2004.
    (SSFC, 2/3/13, p.F3)

1990        Artyom Borovik authored “The Hidden War," an account of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W8)

1990        Robert Bly published "Iron John," an examination of male cultural passage through myth.
    (USAT, 6/28/96, p.6D)

1990        Bryan Burrough and John Helyar authored “Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of RJR Nabisco," the story of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.’s $25 billion takeover of Nabisco in 1988.
    (WSJ, 1/20/07, p.P10)

1990        Carolyn Cassady (1923-2013), wife of Neal Cassady, authored “Off the Road: My Years with Cassady, Kerouac and Ginsberg."
    (SSFC, 9/22/13, p.A11)

1990        Ron Chernow wrote "The House of Morgan, " a biography of the banker.
    (WSJ, 8/8/97, p.A11)

1990        The 428-page 1st edition of “Valuation: measuring and managing the value of companies" was authored by Tom Copeland, Tim Koller and Jack Murrin. In 2015 a 6th edition counted 825 pages.
    (http://tinyurl.com/zurgcvt)(Econ, 4/2/15, p.64)

1990        Kenneth C. Davis published "Don't Know Much About History."
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, BR p.9)

1990        Wayne Dynes edited "An Encyclopedia of Homosexuality."
    (SFC, 2/27/98, p.A3)

1990        Bret Easton Ellis (26) authored his novel "American Psycho." It was about a wall street trader who moonlights as a serial killer. In 2000 the film version made its premier.
    (SFC, 4/12/00, p.E1)

1990        Sir Vivian Fuchs published his autobiography "A Time to Speak." Fuchs had led an expedition across Antarctica in 1958.
    (SFC, 11/13/99, p.A22)
1990        William Gibson and Bruce Sterling authored a novel called “The Difference Engine." It described an alternative Victorian era of mechanical computers driven by steam.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, TQp.7)
1990        Maurice Graham (1917-2006) authored “Tales of the Iron Road: My Life As King of the Hobos."
    (SFC, 11/22/06, p.B7)
1990        Col. David H. Hackworth (1931-2005), Vietnam war veteran, authored “About Face: The Odyssey of an American Warrior."   
    (SFC, 5/7/05, p.B5)
1990        Dorothy Ray Healey (1915-2006) and historian Maurice Isserman co-wrote “Dorothy Healey Remembers: A Life in the American Communist Party."
    (SFC, 8/14/06, p.B8)
1990        Charles Johnson wrote his novel "Middle Passage," which won a National Book Award.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.1)
1990        Stanley Karnow (1925-2013), American journalist, authored “In Our Image," a companion to a PBS documentary on the Philippines, which won the Pulitzer Prize.
    (SFC, 1/28/13, p.C4)
1990        Adam Kufeld published "El Salvador." He had made 8 trips to the country as a photographer between 1985-1989.
    (SFEM,11/16/97, p.28)
1990        Charles Kuralt (1934-1997) wrote "A Life on the Road" and it became a No.1 nonfiction bestseller.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A5)
1990        Peter Matthiessen published his novel "Killing Mr. Watson." It became the first of a trilogy about a Florida homesteader, who murdered some 5 dozen people over his lifetime.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.B11)
1990        James Michener wrote his novel "Pilgrimage" and "The Eagle and the Raven."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)
1990        Richard Milner, anthropologist, authored "Encyclopedia of Evolution." Milner later developed the one-man musical show: "Darwin: Live & in Concert."
    (WSJ, 5/8/02, p.AD9)
1990        Ray Monk wrote his biography of "Ludwig Wittgenstein."
    (WSJ, 9/27/96, p.A16)
1990        Roger Morris wrote the biography: "Richard Milhaus Nixon."
    (SFEC, 2/23/97, BR p.3)
1990        John O’Brien (d.1994) published his novel "Leaving Las Vegas." It was made into a 1995 film and was the semi-autobiographical account about an alcoholic who goes to Las Vegas to drink himself to death.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.B4)
1990        Eric Orner debuted his comic strip “The Mostly Unfabulous Life of Ethan Green" in a gay community paper in Boston. In 2015 the strip was compiled in “The Completely Unfabulous Social Life of Ethan Green."
    (SFC, 3/28/15, p.E1)
1990        Julia Phillips (d.2001 at 57), movie producer, authored ""You’ll Never Eat Lunch in This Town Again," an insider chronicle of Hollywood’s top echelons.
    (SFC, 1/3/02, p.A16)
1990        Thomas Pynchon (b.1937) wrote his novel "Vineland."
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, BR p.1)(www.pynchon.pomona.edu/bio/facts.html)
1990        Ronald Reagan published his memoir “An American Life."
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A18)
1990        Thomas Sowell (b.1930), African-American economist turned social theorist and political philosopher, authored “Preferential Policies: An International Perspective."
    (SFC, 12/30/16, p.A12)
1990        Hallie Crawford Stillwell (d.1997 at 99), a Big Bend Texas pioneer, wrote her autobiography. A sequel was to be completed by her great niece.
    (SFC, 8/21/97, p.C4)
1990        Astrophysicist Clifford Stoll authored “The Cuckoo's Egg," a true account of the tracking of a hacker who probed the US's most sensitive secrets, using keywords, such as "thermonuclear war." Stoll's pursuit of a hacker trying to access American computer networks led to the discovery of a West German spy ring.
1990        George Will, political columnist, authored "Men at Work: The Craft of Baseball." He told of how the game was played through extended portraits of manager Tony La Russa, pitcher Orel Hershiser, hitter Tony Gwynn and fielder Cal Ripken Jr.
    (WSJ, 5/21/03, p.D10)
1990        Edward O. Wilson (b.1929) published his Pulitzer Prize book: "The Ants," written with Bert Holldobler.
    (WSJ, 3/30/98, p.A16)
1990        James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones wrote "The Machine That Changed the World, a study of Toyota Motor Corp.’s manufacturing methods."
    (WSJ, 11/1/96, p.A11)

1990        "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms," a 16th century fictional account of the wars of the three rival kingdoms in China, was published in paperback.
    (NH, 7/96, p.58)

1990        David Hare wrote his play "Racing Demon." It was one of three panels about distressed English institutions, i.e. religion, courts and politics. The other two plays were "Murdering Judges" and "Absence of War."
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.E3)
1990        Seamus Heaney (b.1939), Nobel Prize winning poet (1995), wrote the play "The Cure at Troy" based on Sophocles’ play "Philoctetes."
    (WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)(www.ibiblio.org/ipa/poems/heaney/biography.php)

1990        The magazine "Encounter," edited by Melvin Lasky, closed.
    (WSJ, 4/6/01, p.W19)

1990        The Ritz Theater on Broadway was restored and renamed the Walter Kerr Theater.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.C6)

1990        At the Academy Awards "Driving Miss Daisy" won for best picture and Jessica Tandy won as best actress for her role. Daniel Day-Lewis won for best actor in the film "My Left Foot."
    (SFC, 12/22/99, p.C8)

1990        Gross film revenues for the year were $5,021 million with 1,188 million admissions and average ticket price of $4.23.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)

1990        The Comedy TV Network was formed with the merger of HBO’s Comedy Channel and MTV Network’s Ha! It was soon renamed Comedy Central.
    (SFC, 4/10/01, p.E1)

1990        The TV show Newhart ended its run in May.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, DB p.38)

1990        The Children’s Television Act forced networks to broadcast 3 hours of educational TV per week.
    (NW, 11/11/02, p.57)

1990        The tone poem "The Confession of Isobel Gowdie" was written by Scottish composer James MacMillan. In 1996 his first full length opera, Ines de Castro, premiered at the Edinburgh Int’l. Festival. It was based on a play by dramatist John Clifford, who in turn drew on the baroque play by Portuguese poet Antonio de Ferreira.
    (WSJ, 8/28/96, p.A10)

1990        The English National Opera premiered the 1976 2-act opera "Clarissa" by Robin Holloway. It was based on a 1748 novel by Samuel Richardson.
    (SFEC, 12/6/98, DB p.35)

1980        The grunge rock group Alice in Chains produced their debut album "Facelift." One track was titled "We Die Young." In 2002 Layne Staley (34), lead singer for Alice in Chains, was found dead in Seattle with obvious signs of drug use.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A28)

1990        The rock group Metallica (f.1981) recorded their album "Metallica" and sold more than 16 million copies worldwide.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, DB p.32)(www.metallica.com/timeline.asp)

1990        In Des Moines the 39-floor SunAmerica Center was completed. The architects were Johnson Fein and Pereira Assoc.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.B10)

1990        In Los Angeles the 44-story 801 Grand was completed. The architects were Helmuth, Obata & Kassabaum.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.B10)
1990        In Yorba Linda, Ca., the privately owned Nixon Library and Birthplace Center was opened. All of Nixon’s original documents, however, were held by the National Archives in Bethesda, Md. A 1997 proposal called for a payment of $26 million and transfer of documents from the National Archives to the Yorba Linda site.
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A1,13)

1990        In Las Vegas the Excalibur Casino was completed.
    (WSJ, 1/21/97, p.A18)

1990        Pope John Paul II put forth his encyclical "Redemptoris Missio," on Christian evangelization and world religions.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)

1990        Episcopal Bishop Walter Righter of Iowa ordained Rev. Barry Stopfel, who publicly proclaimed his long-term gay relationship with a lover. The Bishop was later charged with heresy under a 1979 church resolution and then acquitted.
    (SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-11)

1990        The Joshi computer virus began forcing users of infected machines to type "Happy Birthday Joshi" to recapture control of their machines.
    (Sp., 5/96, p.70)

1990        The George Gustav Heye Center was conjoined with the Smithsonian.
    (Wired, Dec., '95, p.117)

1990        Survivors International was founded in Albany, California. It was dedicated to providing medical and psychological treatment to survivors of torture.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Z1 p.5)

1990        Jack E. Counts Jr., an Oklahoma City entrepreneur, founded Glamour Shots Licensing. The business was based on the idea of photographing ordinary women in dazzling garb and makeup.
    (WSJ, 5/13/96, p.B-1)

1990        In Arkansas Heidi and Scott Riddle established the nonprofit Riddle Elephant Breeding Farm and Wild Life Sanctuary on 330 acres near Guy.
    (SFC,11/17/97, p.A3)

1990        The Atlanta-based International Time Capsule Society was established at Oglethorpe Univ. to promote the study of time capsules. It held a time capsule from 1940 called the "Crypt of Civilization" that was scheduled to be opened in 8113. www.oglethorpe.edu/itcs.
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, p.D4)

1990        Bill McCartney, Univ. of Colorado football coach, founded Promise Keepers, an all-male, all-Christian organization to bring men to God, to make them better husbands and fathers, and to further racial reconciliation. The first meeting in Boulder gathered 72 men. Its first rally in 1991 attracted 4,200 participants and by 1996 had a $115 million annual budget. In 1997 the book "Who Are the Promise Keepers" by Ken Abraham was published.
    (SFC, 9/26/96, p.A21)(SFC, 8/11/97, p.D5)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B7)

1990        The new Comiskey Park ballfield opened in Chicago.
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, p.B9)

1990        The Negro Leagues Baseball Museum opened in Kansas City.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T4)

1990        Bob Pereyra founded RAIL, Roadracers Association for International Luge, and gave Street Luge a boost.
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A20)(www.hickoksports.com/history/streetluge.shtml)

1990        The Pritzker Int’l. Prize for Architecture was awarded to Aldo Rossi (d.1997) of Italy. He had designed the World Theater in Venice and the Museum of Maastricht in the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 9/5/97, p.A24)

1990        The World Food Prize was endowed by Iowa businessman John Ruan in honor of Norman Borlaug, father of the "Green Revolution."
    (SFC, 10/15/97, p.A15)

1990        The United Nations Association awarded Sally Lilienthal the Eleanor Roosevelt Humanitarian Award.
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, Z1 p.3)

1990        The Nobel Prize for economics was awarded to Merton M. Miller (d.2000) of the Univ. of Chicago for his work in the theory of financial economics. William F. Sharpe of Stanford Univ. and Harry Markowitz were also winners. Harry Markowitz won the Nobel Prize for his 1952 theory behind portfolio diversification.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(WSJ, 4/25/96, p.A-18)(WSJ, 10/21/96, p.A18)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A17)
1990        Octavio Paz of Mexico won the Nobel Prize in literature.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A17)
1990        Richard Taylor of Stanford won the Nobel Prize in Physics. He shared the prize with Prof. Henry W. Kendall (d.1999 at 72) for experimental work that led to proof of the existence of quarks.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFC, 2/17/99, p.C3)

1990        The European Union created the Aristeion (Greek for "the best") Prizes for literature.
    (SFC, 9/24/96, p.E3)

1990        Lawrence G. Lawler (d.1997 at 56) was awarded the President’s Award for Outstanding Service to the US. He was an FBI agent and helped create the National Crime Information Center, a computer system that linked law enforcement agencies.
    (SFC, 3/26/97, p.C3)

1990        An int’l. agreement set limits on human harvesting of krill at 9 million tons a year. By 1997, the krill population were markedly depleted and new limits were considered.
    (SFC, 6/26/97, p.A3)

1990        US Pres. Bush signed a law granting Filipino fighters of WW II US citizenship.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, Z1 p.1,4)

1990        The US military budget was about $350 billion a year. That's about $1400 per every man, woman and child, or $5600 per 4 person family.
    (NOHY, 3/1990, p.230)

1990        US CIA and military strategist were sent to Colombia to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the local military intelligence.
    (SFC, 1/5/98, p.A14)

1990        The US House of Representatives voted to cut aid to El Salvador by 50%.
    (WSJ, 1/10/05, p.A10)

1990        The US government returned the island of Kaho’olawe off Maui to the state of Hawaii. It had been used for some 50 years as a bombing range.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.T5)

1990        The Financial Action Task Force, a 26 nation organization to fight money laundering was established.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.F3)

1990        The Goals 2000 educational standards program was set up to ensure the production of US high school graduates capable of competing with the Japanese.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, BR p.8)

1990        Pres. Bush imposed sanctions against Pakistan under the 1986 Pressler Amendment when he was unable to certify that Pakistan did not have a nuclear bomb. This stopped the sale of 28 F-16 airplanes to Pakistan for which $658 million was already paid to General Dynamics. Pakistan had ordered and paid for 71 F-16 fighter bombers. $157 million was returned. In 1998 New Zealand agreed to lease the planes for about $105 million and the money to be paid to Pakistan.
    (SFC, 5/9/97, p.E2)(SFC, 5/29/98, p.A15)(SFC, 12/3/98, p.A18)

1990        A US law was passed that would require sanctions on certain countries engaged in missile trade.
    (WSJ, 6/12/96, p.A4)
1990        The US Congress passed a law that required airlines to reduce the number of noisy airplanes. The noisiest Stage 2 planes were to be eliminated entirely by 2000. Stage 2 planes were replaced by quieter Stage 3 models.
    (SFEC, 12/20/98, p.A36)
1990        The US government enacted the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.
    (SFC, 9/3/98, p.A10)(Arch, 11/04, p.4)
1990        The US passed a luxury tax that hurt many companies and whole industries (e.g. yacht-building).
    (WSJ, 4/8/96, p.A-16)
1990        The US Congress mandated that oil companies put air-cleaning chemicals into gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide and smog in the largest urban centers.
    (SFC, 9/15/97, p.A1)
1990        The US Congress passed the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act of 1990 (CWPPRA).
    (NH, 2/05, p.46)
1990        The US Justice Department sued the Virginia Military Institute to allow young women entry into the 1300-man institute. In 1996 the Supreme court upheld the suit.
    (WSJ, 6/27/96, p.B7)

1990        Smoking was banned on US domestic flights 6 hours or less.
    (WSJ, 1/27/04, p.D12)

1990        In Arizona Debra Jean Milke was found guilty in the 1989 death of her son (4). The case rested on her purported confession, which was not recorded, to hire two men to kill her son. Milke spent 22 years on death row before her case was dismissed in 2014.
    (SFC, 12/12/14, p.D5)

1990        Prof. Theodore Sarbin (1911-2005) of UC Berkeley co-wrote the report “Gays in Uniform: The Pentagon’s Secret Reports." The report prompted Pres. Clinton’s policy of “don’t ask, don’t tell."
    (SFC, 9/3/05, p.B4)
1990        Michael Milken, chief of the Los Angeles brokerage house Drexel Burnham Lambert, Inc., was convicted on six felony counts  connected to stock market fraud. At the time he was making $500 million per year and in the 80's helped finance a $4 billion casino boom in Las Vegas. A chronicle of insider trading on Wall Street is in James B. Steward's "Den of Thieves." Milken served 2 years in prison. He agreed to pay $600 million in fines and restitution.
    (RNR, 7/19/95, p.9-10)(WSJ, 9/5/96, p.C1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1990        Kezar Stadium in San Francisco’s Goldengate Park was reconstructed as a multisport facility.
    (SFC, 7/29/97, p.A8)
1990        Josie’s Cabaret and Juice Joint, a gay comedy club, opened in the Castro district of San Francisco. It was scheduled to close Jan 2, 1999.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, DB p.35)
1990        The 221-room Tuscan Inn at San Francisco’s Fisherman’s Wharf was constructed.
    (SFC, 7/18/98, p.B1)
1990        Susan Claymon (d.2000 at age 61) co-founded Breast Cancer Action in SF and helped organize the first advocacy meetings in 1991.
    (SFC, 1/21/00, p.D7)
1990        Richard and Rhoda Goldman, SF philanthropists, founded the Goldman Prize to provide cash awards for grass-roots environmentalist activity in 7 major geographic regions.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A1)(www.goldmanprize.org/)(SFC, 4/22/02, p.A3)
1990        Doug Tompkins founded the Foundation for Deep Ecology in SF after his wife eased him out of the fashion firm, Esprit Corp.
    (SFC, 7/15/02, p.E1)
1990        The National Lesbian & Gay Journalists Association (NLGJA) was founded by Leroy Aarons (d.2004) and 6 other journalists in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 9/4/10, p.E2)
1990        San Francisco Mayor Art Agnos called for the embarcadero Freeway to be removed.
    (SSFC, 10/17/04, p.A22)
1990        San Francisco’s South of Market was rezoned in the hopes that private development would infill the empty, deserted factories.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.E6)
1990        San Francisco police halted the Burning Man torching ceremony on Baker Beach. Larry Harvey the founder of the event then hooked up with the SF Cacophony Society, a gang of fun-loving provocateurs, and moved the fiery scene to Black Rock Desert, Nv.
    (SFC, 7/19/96, p.D1,12)
1990        The SF medical examiner’s office was investigated by a Grand Jury on reports of illegal gifts.
    (SFC, 8/17/96, p.A24)
1990        In San Francisco the Mount Zion Medical Center merged with UCSF.
    (SFC, 6/17/99, p.A10)
1990        A.W. Clausen, head of the SF-based Bank of America, retired and was succeeded by Richard Rosenberg. He proceeded to acquire banks in Oregon and Arizona.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.B4)
1990        The Ritz-Carlton opened on Stockton St., SF., in the former western headquarters of Metropolitan Life Insurance.
    (SFC, 9/10/98, p.B4)
1990        The Southern Pacific Railroad spun off its oil and gas exploration business to form Santa Fe Energy Resources in Houston. Its 1995 revenues were $442 mil. Land holdings were spun off to form Catellus, the San Francisco real estate development company which owns about 855,000 acres, mostly in Ca., including the 313-acre Mission Bay in SF.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)
1990        Danielle Steele, SF-based fiction writer, paid between $5-6 million for the 15,000-sq.-foot Spreckels estate.
    (SFC, 11/20/98, p.A21)
1990        Danny Phat Vong, a leader of the SF Chinatown youth gang Wah Ching, was slain. A month later a retaliatory attack outside the Purple Onion in North Beach wounded 6 and killed a member of the Wo Hop To triad, a Hong Kong based crime syndicate. The clash occurred as Peter Chong, the Wo Hop To’s leader in California, tried to build a unified syndicate out of disparate Northern California gang organizations.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A20)

1990        Idaho Gov. Cecil Andrus was elected to a 4th term with 68% of the vote.
    (SSFC, 3/27/17, p.C3)

1990        Joseph Nye of Harvard Univ. coined the term “soft power" to define the ability of a country to hold international sway by getting others to want what it wants without the use of military power.
    (Econ, 9/5/15, p.59)

1990        The Mississippi Legislature passed the Mississippi Gaming Control Act allowing casinos in counties along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast.
    (SFC, 9/6/05, p.A8)

1990        New Jersey enacted a gun control law that listed 37 models by name and covered others that were substantially identical. The US Supreme Court in 2001 refused to hear a challenge.
    (SFC, 11/27/01, p.A3)

1990        In Washington DC the Rev. George A. Stallings Jr. and his breakaway African-American Catholic Congregation, which encouraged the ordination of women and the use of birth control and abortion, were excommunicated for breaking ties with the Vatican.
    (AP, 5/5/06)

1990        Milwaukee, Wisconsin, pioneered a school voucher program.
    (Econ, 2/14/15, p.23)

1990        In the US the ratio of executive pay to that of the average worker rose to 107 to 1.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.75)

1990        Some 610 hedge funds in the US controlled about $39 billion in assets. By 2000 the number of hedge funds increased to 3,873 with $490 billion in assets. Estimates in 2006 counted over 9,000 funds with $1.3 trillion in assets.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.75)

1990        Leon Black founded Apollo Management LP, a private equity firm. In 2007 it was valued at around $15 billion.
    (WSJ, 4/7/07, p.B1)

1990        Harold "RED" Poling became Ford’s chairman and CEO.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1990        Ford launched the Explorer, which soon became the best-selling SUV in America. Sales peaked in 2000 at 445,000 units.
    (WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)

1990        Joan Kroc (d.2003 at 75), widow of Ray Kroc (founder of McDonald's Corp.), sold the San Diego Padres to a group led by LA TV producer Tom Werner.
    (SFC, 10/13/03, p.A19)

1990        McDonald’s switched to vegetable oil and added beef flavoring to improve the cholesterol-producing profile of its french fries.
    (SFC, 9/4/02, p.A14)

1990        McDonnell Douglas Corp. introduced the MD-11 jumbo jet.
    (WSJ, 9/19/00, p.A1)

1990        The Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Co. was acquired by Groupe Michelin of France.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1990        MGM Studios was sold to Giancarlo Parretti, Italian financier, for $1.3 billion with financing by the French Credit Lyonnais bank. In 1996 he lost control on claims of mismanagement and loan default and was convicted on charges of  perjury and evidence tampering.
    (SFC, 1/4/97, p.A3)

1990        Proctor & Gamble bought the Hawaiian Punch beverage business from Del Monte for $150 million.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.B1)

1990        Time Warner bought Sunset Magazine from Lane Publishing, co-owned by publisher and conservationist Melvin B. Lane (1922-2007). His father had bought Sunset, a tourist-oriented travel magazine, in 1928.
    (SFC, 8/2/07, p.B5)

1990        Fore Systems Inc. of Warrendale, Pa. introduced the first ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) hardware for computer networks. It allowed data to be transferred at 2.5 billion bits per second. It was already being adopted by the phone companies and cable-TV operators. It was founded by 4 teachers and researchers and went public in 1994.
    (WSJ,11/14/94, p.R27)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A1)

1990        The World Wide Web server prototype was built. The Archie file transfer protocol was developed. A semi-crawler search engine was built.
    (SFC, 2/2/08, p.C1)

1990        Col Needham of Bristol, England, founded IMDb, an Internet Movie Database, and sold it to Amazon.com in 1998.
    (SFC, 2/8/02, p.D18)

1990        Joseph Volpe took over as head of the NYC Metropolitan Opera. He had come to the Met in 1963 as a carpenter and high school graduate. In 2006 he authored “The Toughest Show On Earth: My Rise and Reign At the Metropolitan Opera."
    (WSJ, 5/5/06, p.W8)

1990        Wells Fargo completed 4 acquisitions: Valley National Bank of Glendale, Central Pacific Corp. of Bakersfield, Torrey Pines Group of Solana Beach, and Citizens Holding in Orange County. An agreement was also reached to purchase 130 branches of Great American Bank.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)

1990        Toy company FAO Schwartz sold out to Dutch Company Koninklijke Bijenkorf Beheer.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1990        The NTT (New Technology Telescope) in Chile, the pride of the European astronomical community was inaugurated. Its mirrors span 3.5 meters and is the first telescope built with active or computer assisted optics.
    (NG, p.25-26,an, 94)

1990        Thomas Campana Jr., Chicago-area engineer, created a system to send e-mails between computers and wireless devices. He founded a company called NTP that filed suit in 2001 against Research In Motion (RIM), maker of the BlackBerry wireless device.
    (SFC, 12/1/05, p.C8)

1990        Prof. David Patterson began writing about IRAM, intelligent random access memory, the possibility of including memory into the design of microprocessors. He originated the concept of RISC, reduced instruction set computing.
    (WSJ, 8/28/98, p.B1)

1990        MIT robotics researchers founded iRobot. In 2002 the company came up with Packbot, a robot to help soldiers deal with IEDs, and Roomba, a consumer robot for cleaning floors. iRobot went public in 2005.
    (Econ, 3/29/14, SR p.10)

1990        A digital method for transmitting TV pictures was invented.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.B2)

1990        At the Mayo Clinic a lung transplant program was begun.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)

1990        The KE family were brought to the attention of the scientific community about this time. Over three generations of this family, about half the family members suffer from a number of problems, the most obvious of which is severe difficulty in speaking. A mutation of the FOXP2 brain gene was later related to language loss.  
    (http://www.evolutionpages.com/FOXP2_language.htm)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.67)

1990        GHB, gamma hydroxy butyrate, began to be reported as a cause of illnesses. The paint thinner gamma butyl lactone was being mixed with water and alcohol that when ingested metabolized to GHB, later called "liquid ecstasy" or "blue nitro."
    (SFC, 1/14/99, p.A16)

1990        The Human Genome Project began and planned to sequence all human DNA by 2005. The database did not just store sequences, but linked them with citations to enable new discoveries. James Watson served as its 1st head. His opposition to gene patents helped force him from the position in 1992.
    (Wired, 8/96, p.198)(SFEM, 7/30/00, p.10)

1990        The amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris was first discovered in a mandrill baboon. In 2001 it was reported to have destroyed the brain of a 3-year-old girl in the SF Bay area.
    (SFC, 4/20/01, p.A1)(SFC, 4/21/01, p.A1)
1990        The SARII group of bacteria was first identified. This group constituted about a third of the single-celled organisms in the ocean.
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.79)

1990        The Cosmic Background Explorer satellite (COBE) proved that cosmic radiation formed a perfect "blackbody" spectrum, which was expected if the universe was once jammed into a very dense state.
    (WSJ, 6/28/01, p.A1)
1990        A school voucher program was begun in Milwaukee. Low income families of several thousand students used state-funded vouchers to send their children to private schools. Results were being disputed in 1996.
    (WSJ, 8/16/96, p.A6)(WSJ, 10/11/96, p.A1)
1990        Wendy Kopp founded Teach for America, a non-profit organization that invited graduates from top universities to spend the 1st 2 years of their careers teaching children from low-income families.
    (www.fastcompany.com/social/2007/profiles/profile38.html)(Econ, 8/1/09, p.49)

1990        The US population was about 250 million people.
    (NOHY, 3/1990, p.222)

1990        A study by the US National Academy of Sciences indicated that shrimp fishing was responsible for the death of some 50,000 sea turtles in US waters each year.
    (SFC, 7/10/96, p.A2)

1990        The US Oil Pollution Act (OPA) was passed. It required new tankers sailing through US waters to have double hulls and that old tankers be fitted with double hulls by 2015. It capped liability for economic damages at $75 million.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A11,15)(Econ, 5/22/10, p.68)

1990        A study by the US EPA found that leaf-blowers were responsible for about 5% of the nation’s harmful airborne pollutants.
    (SFC, 8/5/05, p.B1)

1990        A US law allowed a dolphin-safe label for cans of tuna not netted with dolphins. A 1997 amendment allowed the label for tuna harvested with encircling nets if observers witnessed no dolphins harmed.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.C14)

1990        About 50 million tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizers were being used on a global scale.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.51)

1990        The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued its 1st report on global warming. Its 3rd report in 2001 noted that global temperatures could rise 2.5 to 10.4 degrees during the 21st century.
    (NH, 4/1/04, p.61)

1990        John C. Sawhill (d.2000 at 63) took over as head of the Nature Conservancy. By 200 he raised the membership from 519,000 to 1.1 million.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.A28)

1990        Specific details on the stockpile at the Oregon Umatilla Munitions depot was classified until the early 1990s.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.A18)

1990        A World Bank estimate reckoned that 46% of the developing world’s population fell below the accepted poverty line of $1.25 a day at purchasing-power parity. By 2005 the rate had fallen to 27%.
    (Econ, 9/25/10, p.34)

1990        The shrinking Aral Sea between Kazakstan and Uzbekistan split in two with a patch of desert in between.
    (SFC, 11/30/98, p.A11)

1990        A 50-foot female T. rex, 65 million years old, was discovered on a Cheyenne River Reservation in South Dakota by Sue Hendrickson. The government seized the skeleton in 1992 and in 1997 it was put up for auction by Sotheby’s on behalf of Maurice Williams, a Sioux Indian and owner of the ranch where it was found. The proceeds will be held in trust by the government. Backers of the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History paid $8.36 million.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A13)(SFC,12/897, p.A3)

1990        The Pistol Star, located between the Earth and center of the Milky Way, was first seen with infrared equipment in 1990. It was measured to be 25,000 light-years away with a radius of 93-140 million miles. It was estimated to have formed 1-3 million years ago and shed much of its mass in violent eruptions estimated to have occurred about 6,000 years ago.
    (USAT, 10/8/97, p.3A)

1990        The Zodiac serial killer began to strike in New York City.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.C12)

1990        In Virginia Thomas H. Beavers raped and suffocated a 61-year-old widow. He was executed in Greensville in 1997 by lethal injection.
    (SFC,12/15/97, p.B1)

1990        American innkeeper Michael Devine was murdered in Guatemala. Allegations have been made that Guatemalan colonel, Julio Roberto Alpirez on CIA payroll, was involved. A review in 1996 showed that Alpirez was on the CIA payroll from 1988-1992 and that he was involved in the cover-up of the murder of Devine and had participated in the interrogation and likely torture of Efraim Bamaca, a captured Guatemalan guerrilla married to an American lawyer.
    (SFC, 5/4/96, p.A-6)(SFC, 5/7/96, p.A-10)

1990        In Gainesville, Fla., Danny Rolling murdered 5 college students. He became known as the Gainesville slasher and later collaborated with Sondra London, who wrote his confessions, and sold his art and autographs. The money earned was seized in 1997 when a Florida judge issued a ruling based on a state law that barred convicted felons from profiting from their stories, artwork and autographs.
    (SFC, 1/2/98, p.A11)

1990        Joan Brown, painter, died. She taught at UC Berkeley from 1974-1990.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.31)

1990        Former showgirl Paulette Goddard, born Marion Levy in 1911, died. She left $20 million to NYU, a fortune from 4 previous marriages to Edgar James, lumber company owner, Charlie Chaplin, author, Burgess Meredith, actor, and Erich Marie Remarque, author.
    (SFEM, 12/15/96, Par p.4)

1990        Armand Hammer (b.1898), American businessman, died. The 1996 book: "Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer" by Edward Jay Epstein revealed that Armand was a Soviet agent for much of his life.
    (WSJ, 10/3/96, p.A12)

1990        Keith Haring (b.1958), artist, died. He began as a graffiti scrawler.
    (WSJ, 5/26/00, p.W14)

1990        Jay Lovestone, former US Communist who turned anti-Communist, died at age 90. In 1999 Ted Morgan published the Lovestone biography: "A Covert Life."
    (WSJ, 5/19/99, p.A20)

1990        Lewis Mumford (1895-1990), writer, died. He wrote over 30 books and a column for the New Yorker that ran 63 years. He wrote in an angry allusive style and played the role of prophet. His work included "The Culture of Cities."
    (Wired, 8/96, p.168)(WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A20)

1990        Michael Oakeshott (b.1901), London School of Economics prof. of political science, died. In 2004 Paul Franco authored “Michael Oakeshott: An Introduction." Oakeshott’s books included “On Human Conduct" (1975).
    (Econ, 12/4/04, p.84)

1990        In Algeria General Mohamed “Toufik" Mediene began heading the DRS, the country’s intelligence directorate.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.51)

1990        The Europe and North Africa group formed. It gathered leaders from North Africa — Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania and Libya — with leaders from France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Malta.
    (AP, 12/6/03)

1990        Bangladesh Chief Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed took over a caretaker government for three months to oversee elections after the ouster of military ruler Hossain Mohammad Ershad.
    (AP, 3/6/13)
1990        Bangladesh authorities were warned that arsenic was seeping from the subsoil into the water supply through the cheap surface wells. The adjoining Indian Province of West Bengal first noticed the problem. The wells were dug by UNICEF in an effort to provide clean water.   
    (SFC, 7/30/97, p.A8)(WSJ, 6/24/05, p.W9)

1990        In Belize legislation was drafted to privatize the ship-registry industry and the registration of off-shore companies. The draft was made by lawyers of Mr. Ashcroft’s BHI Corp., the largest company in Belize.
    (WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A14)

1990        In Bosnia the Serb Democratic Party was founded by Radovan Karadzic.
    (SFC, 12/25/98, p.B8)

1990        In Brazil US pop star Michael Jackson landed by helicopter at the top of one of Rio de Janeiro’s most notorious favelas and sang “They Don’t Care About Us."
    (Economist, 10/13/12, SR p.18)
1990        In Brazil Maria das Gracas Marcal, a 2nd generation scavenger, helped found the Street Scavengers Association. It grew to become a model organization of uniformed scavengers that collected 15% of the total waste of downtown Belo Horizonte.
    (SFC,11/17/97, p.A14)
1990        In Brazil Wagner Conhedo, a trucking operator, obtained a $7 mil loan from Paulo Cesar Farias, campaign finance chief of then Pres. Collor, to purchase the Vasp SA airline. Orestes Quercia, governor of the state that privatized Vasp, made agreements with Conhedo to ease a towering debt burden that later cost the state millions of dollars when Conhedo fell behind in payments.
    (WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A6)
1990        In Brazil Chico Mendes, environmental activist and a leader of Amazon rubber tappers in the state of Acre, was murdered. Darli Alves da Silva and his son, Darci, were convicted in the murder case.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A12)

1990        Hugh Loebner agreed with The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies to underwrite a contest designed to implement the Turing Test. Dr. Loebner pledged a Grand Prize of $100,000 and a Gold Medal for the first computer whose responses were indistinguishable from a human's. Robert Epstein co-founded the prize with Hugh Loebner. The first competition was held in November, 1991.
    (http://www.loebner.net/Prizef/loebner-prize.html)(Econ, 5/7/11, p.92)
1990        ARM Holdings PLC, a multinational semiconductor and software company, was founded. It is headquartered in Cambridge, United Kingdom. The acronym ARM, first used in 1983, originally stood for "Acorn RISC Machine." However, when the company was incorporated in 1990, the acronym was changed to stand for "Advanced RISC Machines" in the company name "Advanced RISC Machines Holdings." Then, at the time of the IPO in 1998, the company name was changed to "ARM Holdings"
1990        A British prisoner riot in Strangeways in Manchester lasted 25 days and left one prisoner dead. In the wake of the riot a British Conservative white paper concluded: “We know that prison ‘is an expensive way of making bad people worse’." That report also argued that there should be a range of community-based sentences, which would be cheaper and more effective alternatives to prison.
    (AP, 12/17/16)(http://tinyurl.com/ybgteel6)

1990        Bulgaria’s Parliament chose philosopher Zhelyu Zhelev as president. He won the first democratic election in 1992 remaining in office until 1997.
    (AFP, 2/1/15)

1990        In Cameroon multi-party politics was allowed for the first time.
    (Econ, 3/1/08, p.50)

1990        The Canadian Parliament began tracking attendance.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, p.C14)
1990        The first exchange traded fund (ETF), an open ended mutual fund, was created by the Toronto Stock Exchange.
    (Econ, 4/21/07, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/38dajn)
1990        Canada-based Bombardier took over American-based Learjet.
    (Econ, 1/4/14, p.23)

1990        In China Zhao Weishan (b.1951) founded the Eastern Lightning religious cult in Henan. He later fled to the United States from where he continued to lead the church.
1990        China promulgated the Basic Law, a mini-constitution for post-1997 Hong Kong.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)
1990        Shanghai, China, became an autonomous municipality. Shanghai Center, a joint venture city within a city, opened.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.72)(SFCM, 3/20/05, p.28)
1990        In China the local bingtuan militia put down an uprising by Uighurs near Kashgar, Xinjiang province, leaving 50 Uighurs dead.
    (Econ, 5/25/13, p.45)
1990        China launched stock markets.
    (Econ, 1/9/16, p.36)
1990        The Chinese census counted 1,133,680,000 people.
    (SFC, 10/14/00, p.A12)
1990        China consumed 2.4 million barrels of oil per day leaving 400,000 barrels per day of domestic production for export. By 2008 consumption rose to over 7 million barrels per day with about half of that coming from imports.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.8)

1990        The super bull Rombi was lent by a German cattle institute to Bosnia and got stuck there throughout the war, but survived.
    (WSJ, 3/20/96, p.A-1)

1990        In Chile Gen’l. Pinochet sent troops into the streets of Santiago as a warning to drop an official investigation into his son’s business dealings.
    (SFC, 12/9/96, p.A18)

1990        Colombia’s Presidential Program for Reinsertion was founded by the government to help an estimated 7,500 former rebels integrate into society with a variety of assistance programs.
    (SFC, 11/18/99, p.A17)
1990        In Colombia an army offensive routed the FARC from its rear-guard retreat in Uribe, but the rebels regrouped and grew to 15,000 fighters.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A13)
1990        In Colombia Jacobo Arenas, FARC political idealogue, died of a heart attack. He was replaced by Alfonso Cano.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.37)

1990        In Czechoslovakia Radomil Hill, distiller, began brewing absinthe and selling it to bars in Prague and elsewhere.
    (WSJ, 12/24/96, p.A1)

1990        In Eritrea Massawa was liberated from Ethiopian forces.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C2)

1990        The Venice Commission was created by 18 member states to advise the Council of Europe on constitutional matters after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Its official name is the European Commission for Democracy through Law. By 2012 it included 47 members.

1990        The files  of Stasi, the East German state security police, were opened to the public. The East German state security police had attempted to destroy all records but shredding machines overheated and much evidence was torn up by hand. A publicly funded project was begun to reconstruct the shredded evidence.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A6)(WSJ, 2/4/97, p.A14)

1990        In Greece conservatives returned to power and elected Constantine Karamanlis to the 5-year post of president.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)

1990        In Haiti the first democratic elections were held and won by Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a left-leaning former Catholic priest.
    (SFC, 3/9/99, p.A12)

1990        In Honduras some 2,000 members of 7 leftist clandestine organizations accepted and amnesty.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.A22)

1990        In India Prime Minister V.P. Singh announced that the government would set aside 27% of public sector jobs for the backward castes. This caused riots by the upper castes and the toppling of his government.
    (WSJ, 5/10/96, p.A-4)
1990        India enacted its Armed Forces Special Powers Act which made civilian courts powerless to initiate criminal prosecutions against security forces in disturbed areas without federal permission.
    (SSFC, 12/2/07, p.A24)
1990        The Bargi Dam along India’s Narmada River was completed. Many uprooted families moved to the slums of Jabalpur.
    (SFC, 1/17/02, p.A9)

1990        In Iran the Fertility Regulation Council was established.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D2)

1990        In Iraq Gen’l. Omar al-Hazza was executed after becoming increasingly critical of Saddam Hussein.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A13)

1990        It was reported in 1998 that evidence was found that Iraq put VX nerve gas into missile warheads prior to the Gulf War.
    (SFC, 6/23/98, p.A10)
1990        Iraq produced large amounts of biological agents for weapons. In late 1990 Iraqi scientists tested ricin as a biological weapon in an artillery shell.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/18/03, p.A1)

1990        In Israel Victor Ostrovsky, a former agent of Mossad, published a book about the security agency.
    (SFC, 2/25/98, p.A8)
1990        Israelis began investing in Romania and by 2006 had put in as much as $2 billion, much of it routed through 3rd countries in order to take advantage of tax deals.
    (WSJ, 10/4/06, p.A1)

1990        In Italy the Leaning Tower of Pisa was closed off to tourists for fear of its falling over. The tilt was reduced by 16 inches over the next 11 years and re-opening was scheduled in 2001.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A1)(SFC, 4/7/01, p.A11)

1990        Ivory Coast held its first multi-party poll.
    (Econ, 8/20/16, p.38)

1990         A 173-page memoir by Japanese Emperor Hirohito (1901-1989), created at the request of Gen. Douglas MacArthur and dictated to the emperor’s aides soon after the end of the war, was published in Japan. It covers events from the Japanese assassination of Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin in 1928 to the emperor's surrender broadcast recorded on Aug. 14, 1945. On Dec. 6, 2017, the transcript of the memoir was sold at auction in NYC for $275,000.
    (AP, 12/5/17)(SFC, 12/8/17, p.A2)
1990        Shintaro Ishihara (b.1932), a member of Japan’s House of Representatives, authored “The Japan That Can Say No," in which he outlines what Japan must do in order to be the mainspring of the new world order.
1990        The film "Dreams" was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1990        Japan raised its interest rates and ordered banks to curtail property lending. This resulted in a major crash in land values. Speculation in domestic real estate, stocks, overpriced overseas investments, and foreign pressure to force the value of the yen upward causes a collapse of the "bubble economy."
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-1)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 217)
1990        Chiyo Uno (1897-1996) was awarded a title by the emperor and named a "person of cultural merit." Her best known book was "Ohan" (1957).
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A21)(http://asian-literature.suite101.com/article.cfm/uno_chiyo)
1990        The Sakura Bank was created from the merger of Mitsui Bank and Taiyo Kobe Bank.
    (WSJ, 10/15/99, p.A10)
1990        Fusako Sano (9) disappeared while walking home in Sanjo in Niigita Prefecture. In 2000 she was found held hostage at the home of Nobuyuki Sato (37), 35 miles away from where she was kidnapped.
    (SFC, 4/11/00, p.A12)

1990        In Lebanon Al-Manar was founded to give voice to Hezbollah the Shiites. In 1997 Al-Manar Television received a broadcasting license from the Lebanese government. In 2004 the US designated it as a terrorist entity.
    (WSJ, 7/28/06, p.A1)

1990        In Lesotho King Moshoeshoe II was forced into exile after a series of 3 military coups ousted him from the throne. His son Letsie assumed the throne.
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.14A)

1990        In Madagascar the Malagasy government agreed to an environmental action plan that called for the creation of national parks and protected areas.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, Z1 p.5)

1990        Melchizedek was founded as a Pacific island nation by Tzemech Ben David Netzer Koren of Belmont, Ca.
    (SFC, 12/18/98, p.D2)

1990        Mexico created a National Human Rights Commission.
    (Econ, 2/16/08, p.44)
1990        Mexican physician Humberto Alvarez Machain was abducted by operatives of the US government. He had been indicted in LA for involvement in the 1985 kidnapping and murder of US drug agent Enrique Camarena. Machain was later acquitted. In 2001 a US federal appeals court ruled that the abduction violated an int’l. human rights law.
    (SFC, 9/13/01, p.C2)
1990        In Mexico Telefonos de Mexico (Telmex) was privatized.
    (WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)
1990        Compartamos was established in Mexico as a non-profit group to make small, uncollateralized business loans to the poor (microcredit).
    (Econ, 3/17/07, p.84)
1990        Manuel Moreno Rivas (b.1909), founder of Sinaloa’s El Debate newspaper, sold it.
1990        Mexican businessman Carlos Hank Rhon won a concession for an independent cellular license in western Mexico. He paid $10 million for the right with BellSouth of Atlanta as a partner.
    (WSJ, 11/1/96, p.A6)
1990        In Mexico the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant near Xalapa in Veracruz state opened under popular protests. By 1997-1998 issues of corruption, mismanagement and disregard for safety regulations plagued the plant.
    (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A10)

1990        In Mongolia demonstrations against Russian rule began. The Mongolian Communist soon voted to dissolve itself.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.29)
1990        Elbegdorj Tsahkiagiin, leader of a democratic revolution, became the first democratic PM of Mongolia.
    (www.intellectualconservative.com/article3341.html)(Econ, 10/11/14, p.46)

1990        Sam Nujoma became president of Namibia.   
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.50)

1990        In Nepal a parliamentary democracy with 205 seats was adopted to replace the absolute monarchy. A popular revolt led to the institution of a constitutional monarchy.
    (WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/13/99, p.C2)(WSJ, 6/5/01, p.A26)

1990        Nicaragua switched diplomatic recognition from Beijing to Taipei.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.43)
1990        In Nicaragua Arnoldo Aleman became mayor of Managua.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A1,12)

1990        Foreign development aid in Niger was $270 million for the year.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.A5)

1990        Nigeria founded a drug agency and was soon in scandal as the top people were found to be involved in trafficking.
    (Econ, 12/8/07, p.56)
1990        In Nigeria 109 children died after taking paracetamol laced with a compound similar to diethylene glycol and also used in engine coolants.
    (AFP, 3/31/09)

1990        Norway established a sovereign wealth fund, the Government Pension Fund Global, to prepare the country for a post-oil future and to prevent deindustrialization.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.14)
1990        Norwegian church groups brought the government of Guatemala and rebels together for peace talks in Oslo.
    (SFC, 12/5/96, p.C1)

1990        In Pakistan some 70 tons of hashish was transported across the country by camel and loaded onto 2 freighters. 28 tons were loaded onto the freighter Saratoga Success, which collided with another ship and after 2 typhoons ended up beached in the Philippines. The freighter Lucky Star left Pakistan in 1991 with the other 48 tons and stopped to pick up the 28 tons on the Saratoga. The final destination was Vancouver, BC, but US federal agents intercepted the $250 million shipment.
    (SFC, 4/19/97, p.C1)

1990        In Papua New Guinea businessmen and politicians journeyed into the Hunstein Forest to collect the "x’s" of clansmen on a deal to sell their forest for royalty payments. The government in Port Moresby, the capital, has since suspended the deal.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A8)

1990        Vladimiro Montesinos became the head of Peru’s intelligence services.
    (SFE, 9/17/96, p.A11)
1990        In Peru 49 members of the MRTA, including their leader Victor Polay, escaped from the Canto Grande prison near Lima.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)
1990        In Peru the MRTA assassinated a former defense minister.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)
1990        Peru created the Kugapakori-Nahua-Nanti reserve to protect native Amerindians who shunned contact with the outside world.
    (Econ, 4/26/14, p.35)
1990        The killing and selling of dolphins became illegal in Peru, and the market went underground.
    (PacDis, Winter/’96, p.36)
1990        In Peru the inflation rate hit 7,500%.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.66)

1990        By this year the Republic of Congo was totally bankrupt. The French oil company Elf Aquitaine dominated oil production. The country was Africa’s 4th largest producer of crude oil.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.D8)

1990        Pakistan jailed Sarabjit Singh was jailed. A court sentenced him to death for his role in bomb attacks and espionage. In 2012 President Asif Ali Zardari commuted the death sentence of the Indian prisoner to life in prison, the equivalent of time served in this case.
    (AP, 6/26/12)

1990        Francis Ona declared independence and himself president of what he called Meekamuii. Papua New Guinea tightened its blockade.
    (SFC, 12/29/01, p.A9)
1990        In Papua New Guinea soldiers withdrew from Bougainville following a ceasefire with the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA).
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.48)

1990        The killing and selling of dolphins became illegal in Peru, and the market went underground.
    (PacDis, Winter/’96, p.36)
1990        A Miami-bound Boeing 727 owned by the Peruvian Faucett Airlines  crashed into the North Atlantic after running out of fuel. There were 18 airline employees and relatives on board. The wreckage was never recovered.
    (AP, 3/14/14)

1990        In Romania former prime minister Ilie Verdet formed the Socialist Party.
    (SFC, 3/22/01, p.A20)

1990        Pinto da Costa lost the presidency  of Sao Tome and Principe after introducing reforms, including multi-party democracy that saw the election as president of Miguel Trovoada.
    (AFP, 9/3/11)

1990        Gorbachev struggled to hold the USSR together.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1990)
1990        The Soviets pulled out of the Hradcany air force base north of Prague, Czechoslovakia, and left behind some 6,500 tons of jet fuel soaked into nearly 15 acres of foul-smelling land.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-3A)(Econ, 5/31/08, SR p.11)
1990        In Russia the Moscow Union of Lesbians and Gays was founded.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, BR, p.6)
1990         The Russian city of Dubna began a sister-city relationship with La Crosse, Wisconsin.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mrtq7n9)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B5)

1990        Mahele Lieko Bokoungo led Zairian soldiers to back up the Hutu regime of Pres. Juvenal Habyarimana of Rwanda.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1990        The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam evicted some 75,000 Muslims from northern Sri Lanka and most fled to Puttalam. Muslims comprised some 8% of Sri Lanka’s 20 million people. In the east the rebels slaughtered up to 1,000 Muslims.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, p.45)

1990        Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi invited Osma bin Laden to Sudan and provided him with a safe haven from 1991 to 1996, when the Al-Qaeda chief was eventually expelled under mounting international pressure on Khartoum.
    (AFP, 4/23/06)

1990        In Suriname Desi Bouterse launched a second coup.
    (AP, 3/20/12)

1990        Sweden adopted legislation that lowered the blood alcohol limit for all drivers to .02%. The US standard was .08%.
    (AP, 12/22/09)

1990        In Switzerland legislation was passed to punish bankers who knowingly accepted money that came from a crime.
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)

1990        In Uganda Joseph Kony, a faith healer, revived the Holy Spirit Movement and led his LRA rebels in northern Uganda from training camps in southern Sudan.
    (SFC, 3/5/96, p.A9)

1990        The Vatican issued a new church law that required Catholic dioceses around the world to support the Holy See.
    (SFEM, 1/19/96, p.10)

1990-1991    Cheers was the top ranking network show on television with a ranking of 21.6%.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)

1990-1991    The was an economic recession in the US that was precipitated by tax hikes.
    (WSJ, 7/31/96, p.A15)(WSJ, 5/11/99, p.A22)

1990-1991    Cuba was producing 90 million cigars annually.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.A9)

1990-1991    The Nung from Vietnam made their way to Hong Kong as boat people.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A10)

1990-1992    In the US 834 banks failed during this period.
    (WSJ, 7/14/08, p.A1)
1990-1992    A study by the Univ. of Michigan showed 96% of fifth graders in Japan had higher test scores in math than their American counterparts. Students of Taiwan in the 11th grade outscored American students by 86% and Japanese students scored 92% higher than the American average.
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.27)
1990-1992    In Israel Ariel Sharon served as the housing minister and presided over the settlement drive in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)

1990-1993    In Kenya’s "Goldenberg affair" millions of dollars were paid for non-existent exports of gold and diamonds. Some $600 million was secreted abroad and into the bank accounts of numerous ministers and their friends. A firm called Goldenberg International manipulated export compensation.  A commission of inquiry from 2003-2005 presented its report to Pres. Kibaki in 2006.
    (www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=32215)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.50)
1990-2009    In Kenya the forests shrank during this period by a at least 60%.
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.22)

1990-1993    Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, an ethnic Hutu, requested French troops to help block an ethnic Tutsi exile force that was penetrating the country from Uganda. French troops were present over the next 3 1/2 years.
    (WSJ, 1/24/97, p.A14)

1990-1994    In Honduras Rafael Callejas served as president.
    (SFC,11/26/97, p.C5)

1990-1996    In Nicaragua Sergio Palacios Cruz, aka Charro, took up arms again citing threats from the Sandinistas as well as unfilled government promises. He led a group of about 300 men in the area around Wanawas and is viewed by some as a protector and by others as a bandit and robber.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A6,7)

1990-1998    In Honduras death squads had killed 701 people over this period.
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A12)

1990-1998    In South Africa in the Northern Province some 577 killings were committed related to witchcraft.
    (SFC, 10/23/98, p.D3)

1990-1999    In 2003 Joseph E. Stiglitz authored "The Roaring Nineties: A New History of the World's Most Prosperous Decade."
    (SSFC, 12/21/03, p.M5)
1990-1999    Pres. George Bush declared the 90s as "The Decade of the Brain."
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, Par p.20)

1990-2000    This was a period of economic stagnation in Japan and later called "the lost decade." It resulted in the opening of the Japanese economy to foreigners. In 2006 a trio of economists authored a paper “Zombie lending and depressed re-structuring in Japan," which examined how subsidies to weak firms prolonged Japan’s period of deflation.
    (WSJ, 12/28/00, p.A1)(Econ, 4/8/06, p.62)

1990-2004    A 14-year civil war began in Liberia. 1.2 million people were forced flee their homes. 700,000 sought shelter in Guinea, the Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone and other West African countries. 14 years of fighting left some 250,000 people dead.
    (SFC, 10/4/99, p.A12)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.48)

1990-2005    Global Witness estimated that Myanmar lost 18% of its forests during this period. The country once had four-fifths of the world’s teak.
    (Econ, 4/21/12, p.58)

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