Timeline 1991 July-Dec

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1991        Jul 1, President Bush nominated federal appeals court judge Clarence Thomas to the US Supreme Court, beginning a confirmation process marked by allegations of sexual harassment.
    (AP, 71/6/01)
1991        Jul 1, Actor Michael Landon died in Malibu, California, at age 54.
    (AP, 7/1/01)

1991        Jul 2, Actress Lee Remick (55) died in Los Angeles of cancer.
    (AP, 7/2/01)(SC, 7/2/02)
1991        Jul 2, A European Community-brokered truce between Yugoslavia and the breakaway republic of Slovenia was shattered as the federal army battled Slovene militias.
    (AP, 7/2/01)
1991        Jul 2, The first national conference of the ANC, since the organization was banned in 1960, began in Durban, South Africa. Oliver Tambo, whose health was suffering, handed over the presidency of the ANC to Nelson Mandela and assumed the largely honorary post of national chairperson. Walter Sisulu was elected deputy president.
    (www.moreorless.au.com/heroes/tambo.html)(http://tinyurl.com/z63lx)

1991        Jul 3, Former corporate enemies Apple Computer and IBM publicly joined forces in a broad pact to swap technologies and develop new machines. Plans eventually led to the PowerPC processors.
    (AP, 7/3/01)(SFC, 1/24/04, p.A12)
1991        Jul 3, A Fort Worth, Texas, police officer was videotaped beating a handcuffed prisoner in his patrol car. The officer was suspended, but later reinstated after a grand jury refused to indict him.
    (AP, 7/3/01)

1991        Jul 4, Americans celebrated Independence Day, with the Persian Gulf War adding to emotions. President Bush and his wife, Barbara, attended festivities in Marshfield, Missouri, and Grand Rapids, Michigan, before returning to Washington DC for the annual fireworks display.
    (AP, 7/4/01)
1991        Jul 4, In Memphis, Tenn., the $9.7 million National Civil Rights Museum opened at the former Lorraine Hotel where Dr. Martin Luther King was assassinated in 1968. It was founded by Judge D’Army Bailey (1941-2015).
    (SFC, 7/15/15, p.D3)
1991        Jul 4, In Australia Victor Chang, who had earned an international reputation for his pioneering work on heart transplant methods, was shot dead near his home as he made his way to work. Phillip Choon Tee Lim and co-offender Chew Seng Liew were imprisoned over the killing of Chang in the exclusive Sydney suburb of Mosman, following a failed extortion attempt. In 2010 Lim (50) was extradited to Malaysia after serving 18 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/2/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Chang)
1991        Jul 4, Colombia’s Constitution was revised and included progressive legislation concerning Indian rights. It also provided for 2 additional seats in Congress for Afro-Colombians and a similar quota for Amerindians. The Constitution also gave the country’s inspector-general  a remit to discipline not just civil servants, but also elected officials. Parliamentary immunity was removed.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombian_Constitution_of_1991)(SFC, 3/30/98, p.A8)(Econ, 8/1/09, p.34)(Econ, 3/29/14, p.36)(Econ, 10/31/15, SR p.12)

1991        Jul 5, A worldwide financial scandal erupted as regulators in eight countries shut down the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, charging it with fraud, drug money laundering and illegal infiltration into the U.S. banking system. BCCI, headquartered in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, failed. It was chartered in Luxembourg and the Cayman Islands and had offices in 70 countries. The ruling family of Abu Dhabi was the major investor and faced huge liability claims from depositors around the world. In 1997 a British court convicted Pakistani shipping tycoon, Abbas Gokal -chairman of the defunct Gulf Group, of a 1.2 billion fraud that led to the collapse. Larry Gurwin later co-authored "False Profits: The Inside Story of BCCI, The World’s Most Corrupt empire."
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A9B)(WSJ, 4/4/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/5/97)(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.A2)(WSJ, 5/1/02, p.AD7)

1991        Jul 6, President Bush sent a personal message to Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, urging a stronger effort to conclude arms control talks.
    (AP, 7/6/01)
1991        Jul 6, Steffi Graf won the women’s singles title at Wimbledon, defeating Gabriela Sabatini 6-4, 3-6, 8-6.
    (AP, 7/6/01)

1991        Jul 7, Responding to President Bush’s call for stepped-up efforts on arms control talks, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev told the White House he was sending Foreign Minister Alexander Bessmertnykh and other officials for talks with Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third.
    (AP, 7/6/01)
1991        Jul 7, Michael Stich defeated Boris Becker, 6-4, 7-6, 6-4, to win the men’s singles title at Wimbledon.
    (AP, 7/7/01)
1991        Jul 7, Jordan’s king abolished most provisions of martial law.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

1991        Jul 8, Reversing earlier denials, Iraq disclosed for the first time that it was carrying out a nuclear weapons program, including the production of enriched uranium.
    (AP, 7/8/01)

1991        Jul 9, The American League defeated the National League, 4-to-2, in the All-Star Game in Toronto.
    (AP, 7/8/01)
1991        Jul 9, Former CIA officer Alan D. Fiers pleaded guilty to two misdemeanor charges in the Iran-Contra affair.
    (AP, 7/8/01)
1991        Jul 9, The International Olympic Committee readmitted South Africa.
    (AP, 7/9/97)

1991        Jul 10, President Bush lifted economic sanctions against South Africa, citing its "profound transformation" toward racial equality.
    (AP, 7/10/97)
1991        Jul 10, President Bush announced he was appointing Alan Greenspan to a second term as Federal Reserve chairman.
    (AP, 7/10/01)
1991        Jul 10, Boris N. Yeltsin took the oath of office as the first elected president of the Russian republic.
    (AP, 7/10/97)

1991        Jul 11, A solar eclipse cast a blanket of darkness stretching nine-thousand miles from Hawaii to South America, lasting nearly seven minutes in some places.
    (AP, 7/11/01)
1991        Jul 11, A Nigerian Airlines jet carrying Muslim pilgrims crashed at the Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, int'l airport, killing all 261 people on board. The plane was a Canadian-chartered DC-8.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1991        Jul 12, A Japanese professor who had translated Salman Rushdie’s "The Satanic Verses" was found stabbed to death, nine days after the novel’s Italian translator was attacked in Milan.
    (AP, 7/12/01)

1991        Jul 13, Soviet and American negotiators meeting in Washington wrangled over a treaty to reduce long-range nuclear missiles.
    (AP, 7/13/01)

1991        Jul 14, American and Soviet negotiators in Washington continued work on trying to complete a treaty slashing long-range nuclear arsenals.
    (AP, 7/14/01)
1991        Jul 14, In California a Southern Pacific tanker car derailed near Dunsmuir and spilled 18,000 gallons of pesticides (19k gallons of metam sodium) into the Sacramento River. This killed every living thing in the river for 40 miles downstream including 250,000 trout.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T7)(SFC, 11/13/99, p.A22)
1991        Jul 14, Leaders of the Group of Seven nations began gathering in London for their annual economic summit.
    (AP, 7/14/01)

1991        Jul 15, Group of Seven leaders opened their 17th annual economic summit in London, plunging into debate over aid to the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 7/15/01)
1991        Jul 15, Actor and game-show host Bernard Whalen Convy (57) died in Los Angeles, Ca., of a brain tumor. Early in his career, Convy was a member of a singing trio named the Cheers. Their “Black Denim Trousers" was a top-ten hit (1955). He was born July 23, 1933 in St. Louis, Missouri.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0176622/)

1991        Jul 16, Leaders of the Group of Seven nations holding their economic summit in London issued a communique calling for a "new spirit of cooperation" in the international community.
    (AP, 7/16/01)
1991        Jul 16, Robert Motherwell (b.1915), US painter (Elegies to Spanish Rep), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Motherwell)
1991        Jul 16, Frank Rizzo (70), (Mayor-D-Phila, 1972-80), died of a heart attack.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Rizzo)

1991        Jul 17, The US Senate voted 53-to-45 to give itself a $23,200 pay raise while at the same time banning outside speaking fees.
    (AP, 7/17/01)
1991        Jul 17, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev made a personal appeal for Western aid at the conclusion of the Group of Seven economic summit in London.
    (AP, 7/17/01)

1991        Jul 18, Socialist Party leader Andre Cools was murdered. Cools had worked for more regional autonomy for Wallonia, the French-speaking southern half of Belgium, and the Dutch-speaking Flanders. The murder was believed to be done by hit men after Cools threatened to reveal certain underworld activities. 6 men were convicted for the murder in 2004.
    (SFC, 9/9/96, p.A11)(AP, 1/7/04)
1991        Jul 18, Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon demanded the release of two Lebanese brothers being held in Germany, warning there could be "grave consequences."
    (AP, 7/18/01)

1991        Jul 19, President Bush toured the Souda Bay US naval base during a visit to Greece.
    (AP, 7/19/01)
1991        Jul 19, Boxer Mike Tyson had sex with Desiree Washington, a Miss Black America contestant. On September 9, 1991, an Indiana Grand Jury voted to indict Tyson on three counts, including one for the rape of  Washington. Tyson was convicted on February 10, 1992 and was imprisoned.
    (www.cyberboxingzone.com/boxing/tysonrec.htm)
1991        Jul 19, The South African government acknowledged that it had been giving money to the Inkatha Freedom Party, the main rival of the African National Congress.
    (AP, 7/19/01)

1991        Jul 20,    President Bush, visiting Turkey, was cheered by thousands of people in Ankara.
    (AP, 7/20/01)
1991        Jul 20, Lebanon joined Syria in agreeing to participate in Mideast peace talks with Israel.
    (AP, 7/20/01)
1991        Jul 20, Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin banned political activity in government offices and republic-run businesses, effectively curtailing the influence of the Communist Party.
    (AP, 7/20/01)

1991        Jul 21, US Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third met with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, trying to persuade the Israelis to agree to the talks.
    (AP, 7/21/01)
1991        Jul 21, Jordan became the fourth Arab country to sign on to a US-backed Middle East peace conference.
    (AP, 7/21/01)

1991        Jul 22, President Bush returned from a nine-day trip that included the Group of Seven summit in London.
    (AP, 7/22/01)
1991        Jul 22, Police in Milwaukee arrested serial killer Jeffrey L. Dahmer. He was murdered while in prison in 1994.
    (AP, 7/22/97)(SFC, 5/29/96, A4)
1991        Jul 22, Desiree Washington, a Miss Black America contestant, charged she'd been raped by boxer Mike Tyson in an Indianapolis hotel room 3 days earlier. Tyson was later convicted of rape and served three years in prison.
    (AP, 7/22/97)(http://boxing.about.com/od/records/a/tyson_timeline_2.htm)

1991        Jul 23, The US Senate voted to impose a long list of strict new conditions on renewal of China’s normal trade status in 1992; however, the 55-to-44 vote fell short of the two-thirds majority later needed to override President Bush’s veto.
    (AP, 7/23/01)
1991        Jul 23, The draft of a new platform for Soviet Communist Party was published, calling for private property, economic integration into world market and freedom of religion.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1991        Jul 24, Isaac Bashevis Singer (87), Nobel Prize-winning author (1978), died in Miami. In 2006 Florence Noiville authored “Isaac B. Singer: A Life."
    (AP, 7/24/01)(SSFC, 10/8/06, p.G6)
1991        Jul 24, India’s finance minister Manmohan Singh presented a budget to parliament. Singh said “the room for maneuver, to live on borrowed money or time, does not exist anymore." His speech marked India’s entry into global capitalism. The budget was in response to a balance of payments crisis.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.10, 59)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.11)
1991        Jul 24, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced a final agreement on a treaty designed to preserve the Soviet federation while giving more power to the republics.
    (AP, 7/24/01)

1991        Jul 25, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev urged Communist leaders at a Central Committee meeting to reject "outdated ideological dogmas" and embrace a market economy.
    (AP, 7/25/01)
1991        Jul 25, A deadline for Iraq to provide full details of its weapons of mass destruction passed, with US officials indicating military action was not imminent.
    (AP, 7/25/01)

1991        Jul 26, US Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third addressed Mongolia’s first legislature chosen in multiparty elections, applauding the rise of democracy and promising millions of dollars in aid.
    (AP, 7/26/01)
1991        Jul 26, Paul Reubens (Pee Wee Herman) was arrested in Florida for exposing himself at an adult movie theater.
    (http://crime.about.com/library/blreubenspaul.htm)

1991        Jul 27, Fighting escalated in the breakaway republic of Croatia, as a Yugoslav air force jet fired on Croatian forces and ground fighting erupted into clashes with federal tanks and troops.
    (AP, 7/27/01)

1991        Jul 28, Dennis Martinez pitched the 15th perfect game in major-league baseball history as the Montreal Expos beat the Los Angeles Dodgers 2-to-0.
    (AP, 7/28/01)
1991        Jul 28, Miguel Indurain of Spain won the Tour de France bicycle race.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1991        Jul 28, President Bush warned Iraq it would be making "an enormous mistake" if it failed to disclose its nuclear weapons program to United Nations inspectors.
    (AP, 7/28/01)

1991        Jul 29, President Bush arrived in Moscow for a superpower summit with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev that included the signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.
    (AP, 7/29/01)

1991        Jul 30, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev began their face-to-face meetings in Moscow.
    (AP, 7/30/01)

1991        Jul 31, A volleyball court was installed at People’s Park in Berkeley at a cost of over $1 million due to the ensuing 12 days of rioting and arrests. The city established a five year lease with the Univ. to manage the 2.3 acre park.
    (SFC, 1/4/97, p.A17)(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B3)
1991        Jul 31, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed START I, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Moscow. The agreement included the deactivation and removal by May, 1995, of 150 Minuteman II missiles in Missouri. The treaty was set to expire in Dec, 2009.
    (AP, 7/31/01)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.A8)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.64)
1991        Jul 31, The US Senate voted to allow women to fly combat aircraft.
    (http://library.osu.edu/sites/archives/glenn/collection/senate/speeches3.htm)
1991        Jul 31, Seven people were killed when an Amtrak passenger train derailed near Camden, South Carolina.
    (AP, 7/31/01)
1991        Jul 31, Seven people were killed when a bus carrying Girl Scouts crashed in Palm Springs, California.
    (AP, 7/31/01)
1991        Jul 31, In Lithuania 7 border guards were shot to death and one was wounded as OMON commandos from the Soviet Interior Ministry raided the Medininkai checkpoint on the border of Lithuania and Belarus.
    (AP, 5/11/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medininkai)

1991        Jul, China opened a second stock exchange in Shenzhen.
    (Hem., 1/95, p. 28)

1991        Aug 1, President Bush, visiting the Ukrainian capital of Kiev, urged Soviet republics to show restraint in their demands for more autonomy.
    (AP, 8/1/01)
1991        Aug 1, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir accepted a US formula for Middle East peace talks with the Arabs.
    (AP, 8/1/01)

1991        Aug 2, President Bush told a news conference only poor health would prevent his running for re-election.
    (AP, 8/2/01)
1991        Aug 2, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III met in Jerusalem with a group of Palestinians, but failed to line up their immediate support for a Middle East peace conference.
    (AP, 8/2/01)
1991        Aug 2, Blaine Harden of the Washington Post wrote that the Serbian aim "is obviously ethnic cleansing of the critical areas that are to be annexed to Serbia."
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)

1991        Aug 3, The Pan Am games opened in Havana.
    (SC, 8/3/02)
1991        Aug 3, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III met with King Hassan the Second of Morocco. Baker asked the monarch for his help in gaining Palestinian participation in a Middle East peace conference.
    (AP, 8/3/01)

1991        Aug 4, The Greek luxury liner "Oceanos" sank in heavy seas off South Africa’s southeast coast; all 402 passengers and 179 crew members survived.
    (AP, 8/4/01)
1991        Aug 4, Israeli Cabinet members overwhelmingly backed a Middle East peace conference under conditions set by Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir.
    (AP, 8/4/01)

1991        Aug 5, US Democratic congressional leaders formally launched an investigation into whether the 1980 Reagan-Bush campaign had secretly conspired with Iran to delay release of American hostages until after the presidential election. A task force later concluded there was "no credible evidence" of such a deal.
    (AP, 8/5/01)
1991        Aug 5, The Yugoslav army called off its intervention to Slovenia’s independence.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, T-5)

1991        Aug 6, The US Justice Department joined forces with the anti-abortion group Operation Rescue in fighting a federal judge’s order to keep two abortion clinics in Wichita, Kansas, open.
    (AP, 8/6/01)
1991        Aug 6, Harry Reasoner (68), TV newsman, died in Norwalk, Connecticut.
    (AP, 8/6/01)
1991        Aug 6, Former Iranian PM Shahpour Bakhtiar and his chief of staff were killed in Bakhtiar’s residence outside Paris. Their bodies were found 2 days later. In 1994 Ali Vakili Rad was arrested in Switzerland and sentenced to life in prison for stabbing Shapour Bakhtiar to death. In 2010 France issued a deportation order to send Rad back to Iran shortly after Tehran freed a young French academic accused of spying.
    (AP, 8/8/01)(AP, 5/17/10)

1991        Aug 7, The five permanent members of the UN Security Council agreed to authorize Iraq to sell as much as $1.6 billion in oil over six months to pay for food, humanitarian supplies and war reparations; however, Baghdad rejected the resolution.
    (AP, 8/7/01)

1991        Aug 8, James B. Irwin (b.1930), Col USAF, astronaut (Apollo 15), died. He was the 8th person to walk on the moon.
    (www.astronautix.com/astros/irwin.htm)
1991        Aug 8, Lebanese kidnappers freed British TV producer John McCarthy, held hostage for more than five years; however, a rival group abducted Frenchman Jerome Leyraud, threatening to kill him if any more hostages were released Leyraud was freed three days later.
    (AP, 8/8/01)
1991        Aug 8, The 2,120-foot 8-inch Radio One tower in Poland fell down.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_radio_mast)

1991        Aug 9, In Peru Polish priests Michael Tomaszek and Zbigniew Strazalkowski were shot in the head in the rural district of Pariacoto. A few weeks later Italian priest Alessandro Dordi was also killed. All three were beatified in 2015.
    (SSFC, 12/6/15, p.A6)
1991        Aug 9, In South Africa, hundreds of police battled neo-Nazis as pro-apartheid extremists tried to stop a speech by President F.W. de Klerk.
    (AP, 8/9/01)

1991        Aug 10, The Revolutionary Justice Organization, one of the groups holding hostages in Lebanon, announced it would release an American within 72 hours. The next day, Edward Tracy was freed.
    (AP, 8/10/01)
1991        Aug 10, Nine Buddhists were found slain at their temple outside Phoenix, Arizona. Two teen-agers were later arrested; one pleaded guilty to murder, the other was convicted of murder.
    (AP, 8/10/01)

1991        Aug 11, Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon released two Western captives: Edward Tracy, an American held nearly five years, and Jerome Leyraud, a Frenchman who had been abducted by a rival group three days earlier.
    (AP, 8/11/97)
1991        Aug 11, The space shuttle "Atlantis" returned safely from a nine-day journey.
    (AP, 8/11/01)

1991        Aug 12, The National Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York, began hosting a two-day reunion of former Negro League players.
    (AP, 8/12/01)
1991        Aug 12, A letter from Lebanese kidnappers was made public; it offered to trade the release of Western hostages for the freedom of "all detainees" worldwide.
    (AP, 8/12/01)

1991        Aug 13, VP Dan Quayle made a speech attacking lawyers.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1991-8/1991-08-13-CBS-4.html)
1991        Aug 13, Clark Clifford resigned as chairman of First American Bankshares Incorporated, a bank holding company the government said had been illegally acquired by the Bank of Credit and Commerce International. Clifford and law partner Robert Altman were indicted in 1992 on charges of lying to regulators and receiving bribes from BCCI; Altman was acquitted at trial, and remaining charges against both men were dropped.
    (AP, 8/13/01)
1991        Aug 13, Jack Ryan (b.1926), designer and inventor (Barbie Doll, Hot Wheels), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Ryan_(designer))

1991        Aug 14, President Bush expressed "100 percent" support for United Nations efforts to mediate a settlement to the Middle East hostage crisis.
    (AP, 8/14/01)
1991        Aug 14, Freed American hostage Edward Tracy returned to the United States, arriving in Boston, where he was reunited with his sister, Maria Lambert.
    (AP, 8/14/01)

1991        Aug 15, Some 750,000 attended Paul Simon's free concert in Central Park. The event was recorded and became available on video.
    (http://tinyurl.com/rdhv8)
1991        Aug 15, The UN Security Council, by a vote of 13-to-one, authorized Iraq to export one-point-six billion dollars’ worth of oil in a tightly controlled sale to pay for desperately needed food and medicine.
    (AP, 8/15/01)

1991        Aug 16, Pope John Paul the Second began the first-ever papal visit to Hungary.
    (AP, 8/16/01)
1991        Aug 16, In Moscow, Alexander Yakovlev, a top adviser to Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, resigned from the Communist Party, warning that hard-liners were plotting "a party and state coup."
    (AP, 8/16/01)

1991        Aug 17, Iraq said it would "play host" to all foreign citizens in the country who were from "aggressive nations," and place them in military and civilian targets until the threat of war was over.
    (AP, 8/17/01)

1991        Aug 18, Warren Buffett stepped in as interim chairman of Salomon Brothers in the wake of its Treasury securities violations.
    (http://chinese-school.netfirms.com/Warren-Buffett-Salomon.html)
1991        Aug 18, Soviet hard-liners (State Emergency Committee), led in part by PM Valentin Pavlov, launched a coup aimed at toppling President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who was vacationing in the Crimea. They were unhappy with the drift toward the collapse of the USSR. Gorbachev and members of his family remained effectively imprisoned until the coup collapsed three days later.
    (AP, 8/18/97)(HN, 8/18/98)(AP, 4/1/03)

1991        Aug 19, Yankel Rosenbaum (29), an Australian Hasidic scholar, was killed in rioting that erupted in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn following the traffic death of a black child. Earlier in the day Gavin Cato (7) had been hit and killed by a car in a Rabbi’s motorcade. On Oct 29, 1992, a New York City jury acquitted 17-year-old Lemrick Nelson of Rosenbaum’s murder. In February 1997, a jury convicted Nelson and Charles Price of violating Rosenbaum's civil rights. In 1998 Lemrick Nelson Jr. was sentenced to 19 and 1/2 years in prison. In 1998 the city settled a suit for $1.35 million brought by Jews who accused City Hall of insufficient protection during the riots. In 2002 Lemrick Nelson and Charles Price had their verdicts thrown out and a new trial scheduled. In 2005 NYC agreed to pay $1.25 million to settle a suit brought by the Rosenbaum family.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.A2)(SFC, 4/3/98, p.A2)(SFC, 1/8/02, p.A3)(SSFC, 6/19/05, p.A3)
1991        Aug 19, A putsch began in Moscow. Soviet hard-liners, Gennady Yanayev (1937-2010) and the KGB, removed Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev from power. Yanayev was one of 12 members of the so-called State Emergency Committee that announced Gorbachev was being replaced. In defiance Russian federation Pres. Boris N. Yeltsin called for a general strike. The coup collapsed two days later.
    (DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)(AP, 8/19/04)(AP, 9/24/10)

1991        Aug 20, More than 100,000 people rallied outside the Russian Parliament building as protests against the Soviet coup increased. President Bush said he would never deal with the coup leaders.
    (AP, 8/20/01)

1991        Aug 21, The hard-line coup against Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev collapsed in the face of a popular uprising led by Russian federation President Boris N. Yeltsin. The coup failed in part when General Alexander Lebed refused to move troops to surround Yeltsin’s Moscow stronghold. 3 young men were killed on the night of the failed coup.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, A15)(AP, 8/21/97)(Econ, 12/3/11, p.101)
1991        Aug 21, Boris Yeltsin assured the Foreign Ministers of NATO, who were convened in Brussels, that the coup attempt was failing.
    (DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)

1991        Aug 22, The Supreme Court of Canada struck down the so-called rape shield law, which said the previous sexual conduct of a rape victim could not be used in court.
    (AP, 8/22/01)
1991        Aug 22, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev returned to Moscow following the collapse of the hard-liners' coup. Later that day, he purged his government of the men who'd tried to oust him.
    (AP, 8/22/01)

1991        Aug 23, In the wake of a failed coup by hard-liners in the Soviet Union, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin acted to strip the Communist Party of its power and take control of the army and the KGB.
    (AP, 8/23/01)

1991        Aug 24, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev resigned as head of the Communist Party, culminating a stunning Kremlin shakeup that followed the failed coup by hard-liners. In Moscow, thousands of people held a martyrs' funeral for three men killed fighting the coup.
    (AP, 8/24/01)
1991        Aug 24, Ukraine declared independence from USSR.
    (www.users.bigpond.com/kyroks/ukrhist10.html)
1991        Aug 24, Bernard Castro (b.1904), Sicilian-born inventor of the convertible couch, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Castro)

1991        Aug 25, Thousands of abortion foes rallied at a stadium in Wichita, Kan., where six weeks of anti-abortion protests led by Operation Rescue resulted in more than 2,600 arrests.
    (AP, 8/24/01)
1991        Aug 25, In the 43rd Emmy Awards: LA Law, Cheers, Kirstie Alley and Patricia Wettig won.
    (http://tinyurl.com/euw2z)
1991        Aug 25, White-Russia (Belarus) declared its independence.
    (www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107325.html)

1991        Aug 26, In an address to the Supreme Soviet, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev promised national elections in a last-ditch effort to preserve his government, but leaders of Soviet republics told him the hour of central power had passed.
    (AP, 8/24/01)

1991        Aug 27, The first flight of the YF23 V-22 Osprey tiltrotor took place.
    (NPub, 2002, p.25)
1991        Aug 27, Moldova (Moldavia) declared independence from USSR.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldova)

1991        Aug 28, In NYC 5 subway riders were killed after subway motorman Robert Ray fell asleep drunk while in control of a train. He was convicted of manslaughter in 1992 and sentenced to 15 years. He was set free in 2001 for good behavior.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bk4uq)
1991        Aug 28, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev ordered a shake-up of the KGB and sacked his cabinet in the wake of the failed coup by hard-liners.
    (AP, 8/28/01)

1991        Aug 29, In a stunning blow to the Soviet Communist Party, the Supreme Soviet legislature voted to suspend the activities of the organization and freeze its bank accounts because of the party's role in the failed coup.
    (AP, 8/29/01)
1991        Aug 29,  Libero Grassi, Italian underwear manufacturer, anti mafia, was gunned down in Palermo.
    (www.bestofsicily.com/mag/art105.htm)

1991        Aug 30, At the World Track and Field Championships in Tokyo, Mike Powell jumped 29 feet, 4 and 1/2 inches for a new world record.
    (WSJ, 7/26/96, p.A6)
1991        Aug 30, Azerbaijan declared its independence, joining the stampede of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 8/29/01)

1991         Aug 31, In Washington D.C., hundreds of thousands of union members marched in a "Solidarity Day" protest.
    (AP, 8/31/01)
1991        Aug 31, Uzbekistan and Kirghizia declared their independence, raising to 10 the number of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 8/31/01)

1991        Aug, The IRS issued a set of proposed pension regulations that included sentences to protect companies changing their pension plans to a new cash-balance system.
    (WSJ, 12/28/99, p.A1)
1991        Aug, The US Senate voted to lift a 43-year-old law that banned military women from flying combat missions.
    (SFC, 12/19/98, p.A5)
1991        Aug, James Gossling developed his new computer language called Oak. It was to be the progenitor of the new Java software for the Internet by Sun Microsystems.
    (Wired, Dec. '95, p.238)
1991        Aug, Alex Hardy fell asleep in his Chevy Blazer while driving drunk in Alabama. He later changed his story and claimed that his accident was caused by a fractured axle and faulty door. He sued GM in Lowndes County and was awarded $50 million in actual damages and $100 million in punitive damages.
    (USAT, 6/27/96, p.13A)
1991        Aug, American soldiers detected mustard agent from their Fox mobile chemical-detection laboratory in a large metal tank in Kuwait that was probably left behind by retreating Iraqi forces.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.A1)
1991        Aug, Albania’s People's Assembly passed a law allowing private ownership, foreign investment and private employment of workers. Some 18,000 Albanians crossed the Adriatic to seek asylum in Italy, but most were returned.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1991        Aug, Chile’s Hudson Volcano erupted in Aisen province. It launched a cubic mile of ash and piled ash 18 inches (45 cm) high killing an estimated 1.5 million sheep on the Argentine side of the Andean mountain chain.
    (SFCM, 10/3/04, p.51)(AP, 10/28/11)
1991        Aug, Serbian tanks and aircraft drove refugees from 3 Croatian towns.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)
1991        Aug, The World Wide Web was launched by Tim Berners Lee of CERN.
    (Economist, 9/1/12, TQ p.11)

1991        Sep 1, The Burning Man Festival came to the Black Rock Desert in Nevada from Baker’s Beach in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 8/30/97, p.A15)
1991        Sep 1, Yugoslavia's presidency and the country's feuding republics accepted a European Community plan designed to stop months of fierce fighting among Croats, Serbs and the army.
    (AP, 9/1/01)

1991        Sep 2, President Bush formally recognized the independence of the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
    (AP, 9/2/01)
1991        Sep 2, In Moscow, the Soviet Congress of People's Deputies opened its first session since the failed coup, taking up proposals aimed at drastically restructuring the country.
    (AP, 9/2/01)

1991        Sep 3, Twenty-five people were killed when fire broke out at the Imperial Food Products chicken-processing plant in Hamlet, N.C.
    (AP, 9/3/01)
1991        Sep 3, Frank Capra (94), Academy Award-winning director, died in La Quinta, Calif. His 1971 autobiography was titled “The Name Above the Title."
    (AP, 9/3/01)(WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P8)

1991        Sep 4, South African President F.W. de Klerk proposed a new constitution that would allow blacks to vote and govern; the African National Congress rejected the plan, charging it was designed to maintain white privileges.
    (AP, 9/4/01)

1991        Sep 5, Jury selection began in Miami in the drug and racketeering trial of former Panamanian ruler Manuel Noriega.
    (AP, 9/5/01)
1991        Sep 5, In Moscow, Soviet lawmakers approved the creation of an interim government to usher in a new confederation.
    (AP, 9/5/01)

1991        Sep 6, In the Soviet Union, the State Council, a new executive body composed of President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and republic leaders, recognized the independence of the Baltic states of Estonia Latvia, and Lithuania. All three were admitted into the UN later this month.
    (AP, 9/6/01)(http://countrystudies.us/lithuania/25.htm)
1991        Sep 6, Dzhokhar Dudayev, a retired Soviet air force general, led an ouster of Chechnya’s government. He was then elected president and declared independence.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)

1991        Sep 7, Monica Seles won the U.S. Open in New York, defeating Martina Navratilova 7-6, 6-1.
    (AP, 9/7/01)
1991        Sep 7, The European Community opened a peace conference in the Netherlands aimed at bringing peace to Yugoslavia.
    (AP, 9/7/01)

1991        Sep 8, Stefan Edberg won the U.S. Open in New York, defeating Jim Courier in straight sets, 6-2, 6-4, 6-0.
    (AP, 9/8/01)
1991        Sep 8, A 55 ton concrete beam fell in Montreal's Olympic Stadium.
    (http://experts.about.com/e/s/st/Stade_Olympique.htm)
1991        Sep 8, More than 40 people were reported killed in factional fighting around Johannesburg, South Africa.
    (AP, 9/8/01)

1991        Sep 9, Boxer Mike Tyson was indicted in Indianapolis on a charge of raping Desiree Washington, a beauty pageant contestant. Tyson was later convicted.
    (AP, 9/9/01)

1991        Sep 10, The Senate Judiciary Committee opened hearings on the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court.
    (AP, 9/10/01)

1991        Sep 11, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced the Kremlin would withdraw thousands of troops from Cuba, a move bitterly denounced by the Havana government.
    (AP, 9/11/01)
1991        Sep 11, In the Middle East hopes grew for the release of Western hostages in Lebanon after Israel freed 51 prisoners.
    (AP, 9/11/01)

1991        Sep 12, Saying Middle East peace negotiations might be in jeopardy, President Bush told reporters he would use his veto authority, if necessary, to delay action on Israel's call for $10 billion in housing loan guarantees.
    (AP, 9/12/01)
1991        Sep 12, The space shuttle Discovery blasted off on a mission to deploy an observatory designed to study the Earth's ozone layer.
    (AP, 9/12/01)

1991        Sep 13, President Bush, who had suffered an irregular heartbeat because of a thyroid condition, was pronounced in "incredible physical condition" after a checkup by his doctors.
    (AP, 9/13/01)
1991        Sep 13, Virginia Gov. L. Douglas Wilder declared his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
    (AP, 9/13/01)
1991        Sep 13, A 55 ton concrete beam fell in Montreal's Olympic Stadium.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1991        Sep 14, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III met with leaders of the Baltic nations, which had declared independence from the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 9/14/01)
1991        Sep 14, Carolyn Suzanne Sapp of Hawaii was crowned "Miss America."
    (AP, 9/14/01)
1991        Sep 14, The government of South Africa, the African National Congress and the Inkatha Freedom Party signed a national peace pact.
    (AP, 9/14/01)

1991        Sep 15, Iowa Sen. Tom Harkin entered the Democratic presidential race, promising to "take back government from the privileged few."
    (AP, 9/15/01)
1991        Sep 15, Andre Baruch (b.1908), radio and TV announcer, died at 83.
    (www.findagrave.com/)

1991        Sep 16, A federal judge in Washington dismissed all Iran-Contra charges against Oliver North.
    (AP, 9/16/01)
1991        Sep 16, Confirmation hearings began on the nomination of Robert Gates to head the CIA.
    (AP, 9/16/01)
1991        Sep 16, Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas concluded five days of testimony at his confirmation hearing.
    (AP, 9/16/01)

1991        Sep 17, The first flight of the McDonnell Douglas C-17 military cargo transport took place.
    (NPub, 2002, p.25)
1991        Sep 17, The U.N. General Assembly opened its 46th session, welcoming new members Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, North and South Korea, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia.
    (AP, 9/17/01)

1991        Sep 18, Saying he was "pretty fed up," President Bush said he would send warplanes to escort U.N. helicopters searching for hidden Iraqi weapons if Iraqi President Saddam Hussein continued to impede weapons inspectors.
    (AP, 9/18/01)
1991        Sep 18, The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite was deployed from the space shuttle Discovery. It measured the ozone hole for the next decade. Operations of the satellite ceased in 2001 due to NASA economics. The space shuttle Discovery landed in California, ending a five-day mission.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.A13)(AP, 9/18/01)

1991        Sep 19, German hikers Erica and Helmut Simon found a well-preserved prehistoric corpse (c3300BCE), later named Otzi (Frozen Fritz), in a glacier on the Hauslabjoch Pass, about 100 yards from Austria in northern Italy. It was kept at the Univ. of Innsbruck for study. In 1998 analysis indicated that the Ice Man had internal parasites and carried the woody fruit of a tree fungus as a remedy. Tattoos on the body were also found to be placed over areas of active arthritis. A flint arrow was also found in his back.
    (SFC, 4/27/96, p.A-5)(SFC, 12/25/98, p.A4)(SFEC, 5/7/00, p.T4)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A1)
1991        Sep 19, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir accused the United States of tilting toward the Arabs in its eagerness to organize a Mideast peace conference.
    (AP, 9/19/01)
1991        Sep 19, UN Resolution 712 allowed a partial lifting of the embargo against Iraq for humanitarian purposes.
    (SFC, 9/24/02, p.A12)

1991        Sep 20, On Capitol Hill, the Senate concluded hearings on the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court.
    (AP, 9/20/01)
1991        Sep 20, U.N. weapons inspectors left Bahrain for Iraq to renew their search for Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.
    (AP, 9/20/01)

1991        Sep 21, An 18-hour hostage drama ended in Sandy, Utah, as Richard L. Worthington, who had killed a nurse and seized control of a hospital maternity ward, finally freed his nine captives, including a baby who was born during the siege. Worthington committed suicide in prison in 1994.
    (AP, 9/21/01)
1991        Sep 21, Armenia gained independence and was immediately involved in a territorial dispute with Azerbaijan over the Nagorny Karabakh region.
    (WSJ, 5/2/97, p.A15)(http://aua.am/history-of-the-university/)
1991        Sep 21, The American University of Armenia began instruction with 101 students enrolled.
    (http://aua.am/history-of-the-university/)
1991        Sep 21, Yugoslav army tanks and artillery began an invasion of eastern Croatia. The Croats said that some 600 soldiers and 1200 civilians perished in the 3-month bombardment of Vukovar by rebel Serbs.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)

1991        Sep 22, California’s Huntington Library said it would make microfilm copies of the Dead Sea Scrolls available to the public.
    (www.huntington.org/LibraryDiv/DeadSeaScrolls.html)
1991        Sep 22, The London newspaper The Mail published an interview with former intelligence agent John Cairncross, who admitted being the "fifth man" in the Soviet Union's notorious British spy ring.
    (AP, 9/22/01)

1991        Sep 23, President Bush addressed the United Nations, urging the world body to rescind its resolution equating Zionism with racism.
    (AP, 9/23/01)
1991        Sep 23, UN weapons inspectors in Baghdad discovered documents detailing Iraq's secret nuclear weapons program and said Iraq was close to building a bomb. This triggered a standoff with Iraqi authorities.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)(AP, 9/23/01)

1991        Sep 24, Children's author Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, died in La Jolla, Calif., at age 87. In 2002 Springfield, Mass., his childhood home, opened a $6.2 million sculpture garden in his memory.
    (AP, 9/24/97)(SFC, 5/27/02, p.A2)
1991        Sep 24, Kidnappers in Lebanon freed British hostage Jack Mann after holding him captive for more than two years.
    (AP, 9/24/97)
1991        Sep 24, In Romania some 5,000 coal miners led by Miron Cozma rampaged through Bucharest leaving 3 dead and nearly 300 injured. This prompted the resignation of Prime Minister Petre Roman.
    (SFC, 2/15/99, p.A8)

1991        Sep 25, A national commission faulted the US government for a lack of leadership in the fight against AIDS.
    (AP, 9/20/01)
1991        Sep 25, The UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 713 that imposed a worldwide arms embargo against Yugoslavia and all its warring factions.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)(AP, 9/20/01)
1991        Sep 25, Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie died in Lyon, France, at age 77.
    (AP, 9/20/01)       

1991        Sep 26, AIDS patient Kimberly Bergalis pleaded with Congress to enact mandatory AIDS testing for health care workers.
    (AP, 9/26/01)
1991        Sep 26, In Oracle, Arizona, 4 men and 4 women began a two-year self-sufficiency stay inside a $150 million, sealed-off structure on 3.15 acres known as Biosphere 2.
    (AP, 9/26/97)(Wired, 2/98, p.172)(SSFC, 2/20/05, p.F5)

1991        Sep 27, President Bush announced in a nationally broadcast address that he was eliminating all U.S. battlefield nuclear weapons, and called on the Soviet Union to match the gesture.
    (AP, 9/27/01)
1991        Sep 27, The US Senate Judiciary Committee deadlocked, 7-7, on the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the US Supreme Court.
    (AP, 9/27/01)
1991        Sep 27, Oona Chaplin (b.1926), daughter of Eugene O'Neill and wife of Charlie Chaplin, died in Switzerland at age 66.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0152253/)

1991        Sep 28, The quotable former District of Columbia Mayor Marion Barry was sentenced to six months in prison for possession of crack (a crystalline form of cocaine).
    (http://tinyurl.com/ky3hv)
1991        Sep 28, Jazz great Miles Davis died in Santa Monica, Calif., at age 65.
    (AP, 9/28/01)
1991        Sep 28, Stanislau Shushkevich became the first leader and head of state of independent Belarus after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanislau_Shushkevich)
1991        Sep 28, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev praised President Bush's pledge to drastically reduce the U.S. nuclear arsenal, and promised to "reciprocate."
    (AP, 9/28/01)
1991        Sep 28, U.N. weapons inspectors ended a five-day standoff with Iraq over documents relating to Iraq's nuclear weapons program.
    (AP, 9/28/01)

1991        Sep 29, California Gov. Pete Wilson vetoed a bill outlawing job discrimination against homosexuals, saying it could have led to unjustified lawsuits.
    (AP, 9/29/01)

1991        Sep 30, In Haiti the military under Lt. Gen. Raoul Cedras overthrew Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the country's first freely elected president. He was later returned to power. The Prime Minister, Rene Preval, managed to escape to the French embassy hidden in the trunk of a car.
    (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-10)(AP, 9/30/01)(ST, 3/2/04, p.A1)

1991        Sep, A scandal arose from the US Navy Tailhook convention in Las Vegas. Navy officers were accused of sexually assaulting female officers. The incident was documented by Gregory Vistica in his book "Fall from Glory, the Men Who Sank the US Navy." Paula Coughlin, a Navy lieutenant, pressed the initial charges and more than 80 women made similar claims.
    (WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A19)(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)(SFC, 5/3/97, p.A6)

1991        Sep, The Croat militia unit Autumn Rains arrived in Gospic. When front-line fighting ended early this month, the unit turned its attention to the 9,000 Serbs who lived in the area. Miro Bajramovic in 1997 admitted that the unit tortured prisoners and he killed 72 people. He said that he acted on the orders of interior minister Ivan Vekic.
    (SFC, 9/9/97, p.A10,12)

1991        Sep, A referendum was held in Kosova. Over 90 percent of voters voted for independence.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Sep, A group of young, radical Muslims seizes a government building in the Fergana Valley town of Namangan in eastern Uzbekistan, demanding establishment of an Islamic state. The group's leaders, Juma Namangani and Tahir Yuldash, later set up an Islamic party Adolat, or Justice, and then the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, which grows into a terrorist group with links to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

1991        Oct 1, President Bush strongly condemned the military coup in Haiti, suspending U.S. economic and military aid and demanding the immediate return to power of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
    (AP, 10/1/01)

1991        Oct 2, Ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide asked the Organization of American States in Washington to send a delegation to his homeland to demand that the newly installed military junta surrender power immediately.
    (AP, 10/2/01)

1991        Oct 3, Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton entered the race for the Democratic presidential nomination.
    (AP, 10/3/01)
1991        Oct 3, South African author Nadine Gordimer was named winner of the Nobel Prize in literature.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.3)(AP, 10/3/01)

1991        Oct 4, Pres. Bush signed Executive Order 12775 which prohibited certain transactions with respect to Haiti.
    (www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/1991.html#12775)
1991        Oct 4, Leonard C. Odell died at age 83. He and his older brother Allan (d.1994) wrote some 7,000 Burma Shave poems beginning in 1925 in rural Minnesota. The Burma-Shave phenomenon faded in 1963, when Phillip Morris bought Burma-Vita and the signs began to come down.
    (http://tinyurl.com/f4s8h)(www.two-lane.com/burmashave.html)
1991        Oct 4, In Madrid, Spain, 26 nations, including the United States, signed the Antarctic Treaty, which imposed a 50-year ban on oil exploration and mining in Antarctica. It would be up for review in 2048. China acceded to the treaty in 1983.
    (AP, 10/4/01)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.50)
1991        Oct 4, Carl Bildt (b.1949), leader of the Moderates, began serving PM of Sweden and continued to Oct 7, 1994. His center-right government was blighted by a deep recession followed by a huge row over whether to build the Oresund Bridge to Denmark.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Bildt)(SFC, 9/20/98, p.A12)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.60)

1991        Oct 5, The San Jose Sharks opened local play at the Cow Palace in Daly City while they awaited the building of an arena in San Jose, Ca.
    (SFC, 2/28/08, p.A11)(www.sportsecyclopedia.com/nhl/sanjose/sharks.html)
1991        Oct 5, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced sweeping cuts in nuclear weapons in response to President Bush's arms reduction initiative.
    (AP, 10/5/01)

1991        Oct 6, Reports surfaced that a former personal assistant to Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas, University of Oklahoma law professor Anita Hill, had accused Thomas of sexually harassing her from 1981-1983.
    (AP, 10/6/01)
1991        Oct 6, Cable News Network obtained and aired a videotape made in Beirut, Lebanon, of American hostage Terry Anderson, who quoted his captors as saying they would have "very good news."
    (AP, 10/6/01)

1991        Oct 7, Former assistant secretary of state Elliott Abrams pleaded guilty to withholding information from Congress in the Iran-Contra scandal.
    (www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/summpros.htm)
1991        Oct 7, University of Oklahoma law professor Anita Hill publicly accused Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of making sexually inappropriate comments in her presence when she worked for him, and urged the U.S. Senate to investigate her claims. Thomas denied Hill's allegations.
    (AP, 10/7/01)
1991        Oct 7, Leo Durocher, baseball coach and manager (Dodgers, Giants), died at 86.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9031586/Leo-Durocher)

1991        Oct 8, The U.S. Senate postponed its vote on Clarence Thomas' Supreme Court nomination to investigate allegations that he'd sexually harassed a former aide, Anita Hill.
    (AP, 10/8/01)
1991        Oct 8, A federal judge in Anchorage, Alaska, approved a five-billion-dollar settlement against Exxon for the Valdez oil spill.
    (www.explorenorth.com/library/weekly/aa032499.htm)
1991        Oct 8, Slovenia and Croatia began operating independently from Yugoslavia. Slovenia took over its own borders and began printing its own money.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_modern_Croatia)(http://tinyurl.com/p5rhu)(SFC, 5/26/96, T-5)

1991        Oct 9, President Bush declared "total confidence" in his nominee to the U.S. Supreme Court, Clarence Thomas, who was accused of sexual harassment by former aide Anita Hill.
    (AP, 10/9/01)

1991        Oct 10, The US Senate Judiciary Committee prepared to re-open the confirmation hearing of Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas, accused of sexual harassment by former aide Anita Hill.
    (AP, 10/10/01)

1991        Oct 11, Televangelist Jimmy Swaggart was seen hustling a prostitute.
    (MC, 10/11/01)
1991        Oct 11, Testifying before the Senate Judiciary Committee, law professor Anita Hill accused Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of sexually harassing her; Thomas reappeared before the panel to denounce the proceedings as a "high-tech lynching."
    (HN, 10/11/98)(AP, 10/11/01)
1991        Oct 11, Comedian Redd Foxx died in Los Angeles at age 68.
    (AP, 10/11/01)

1991        Oct 12, Testifying for a second day on sexual harassment charges leveled by law professor Anita Hill, Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas told the Senate Judiciary Committee he'd "rather die than withdraw," and repeated his denial of Hill's allegations.
    (AP, 10/12/01)

1991        Oct 13, The Minnesota Twins won the American League pennant, defeating the Toronto Blue Jays 8-5 at SkyDome.
    (AP, 10/13/01)
1991        Oct 13, The US Senate Judiciary Committee heard conflicting testimony from friends and associates of Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill, the University of Oklahoma law professor who'd accused Thomas of sexually harassing her.
    (AP, 10/13/01)

1991        Oct 14, Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for her non-violent promotion of democracy. Her award was accepted by her husband, Michael Aris (d.1999 at 53) and their sons. A collection of her writings is titled "Freedom From Fear."
    (SFC, 5/22/96, p.C-1)(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.D6)(AP, 10/14/01)

1991        Oct 15, Despite sexual harassment allegations by Anita Hill, the Senate narrowly confirmed the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court, 52 to 48. Jane Mayer and Jill Abramson later published "Strange Justice," which was made into a 1999 Showtime TV movie.
    (AP, 10/15/97)(WSJ, 8/23/99, p.A13)

1991        Oct 16, In Killeen, Texas, George Jo Hennard (35) crashed his pickup truck into a Luby's Cafeteria and opened fire, killing 23 people before taking his own life. Another 20 people were wounded.
    (AP, 10/16/97)(SFC, 4/17/07, p.A8)
1991        Oct 17, The Atlanta Braves won their first National League pennant, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates 4-to-0 in game seven of their playoff series.
    (AP, 10/17/01)
1991        Oct 17, Tennessee Ernie Ford (b.1919), country singer (16 Tons), died in Reston, Va.
    (AP, 10/17/01)(www.ernieford.com/Bio.htm)

1991        Oct 18, Confirmed Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas swore to uphold the Constitution during an oath-taking ceremony at the White House.
    (AP, 10/18/01)
1991        Oct 18, In Croatia 22 civilians died after being forced by Serbian soldiers into a mined clover field in the village of Lovas.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lovas_massacre)

1991        Oct 19, In Louisiana former Gov. Edwin Edwards and former Ku Klux Klansman David Duke won runoff slots in the state's gubernatorial primary.
    (AP, 10/19/01)

1991        Oct 20, A major fire burned over 3,400 homes in the Oakland Hills in Oakland, Ca. and killed 25 people.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, p.C4)(SFC, 12/23/99, p.C9)

1991        Oct 21, American hostage Jesse Turner was freed by his kidnappers in Lebanon after nearly five years in captivity.
    (AP, 10/21/01)
1991        Oct 21, Former California Governor Jerry Brown announced his presidential candidacy.
    (AP, 10/21/01)
1991        Oct 21, Steamboat Geyser erupted in Wyoming’s Yellowstone National Park. The next eruption did not occur until 2000.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.B8)
1991        Oct 21-1991 Oct 22, The European Community and the European Free Trade Association concluded a landmark accord to create a free trade zone of 19 nations by 1993.
    (AP, 10/22/01)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1991/index_en.htm)

1991        Oct 22, General Motors announced a 9 month loss of $2.2 billion.
    (www.scopesys.com/cgi-bin/today2.cgi?askmonth=10&askday=22)

1991        Oct 23, Clarence Thomas was sworn in as US Supreme Court Justice.
    (www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/106/)
1991        Oct 23, Dr. Jack Kevorkian attended the suicide machine assisted deaths of 2 women in Michigan.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/kevorkian/chronology.html)
1991        Oct 23, Cambodia's warring factions and representatives of 18 other nations signed a peace treaty in Paris. All the factions signed The Paris Peace Agreements with the UN to provide peacekeeping and elections. Khmer Rouge Pres. Khieu Samphan and commander Son Sen soon returned to Phnom Penh for the first time since 1979, then fled the same day as mobs tried to lynch Khieu Samphan.
    (SFC, 6/14/97, p.A15)(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T6)(AP, 10/23/01)

1991        Oct 24, President Bush used a speech in Washington to blast Congress as a "privileged class of rulers."
    (AP, 10/24/01)   
1991        Oct 24, Gene Rodenberry (70), the creator of Star Trek, died in Santa Monica, Calif. He stipulated in his will that anybody included who challenged his will would be disinherited. His daughter Dawn challenged and lost the $500,000 left to her.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.F3)(AP, 10/24/01)

1991        Oct 25, Rock-and-roll impresario Bill Graham was killed in a helicopter crash in Sonoma County, Calif. Also killed were his girlfriend, Melissa Gold, and pilot, Steve Kahn. A memorial concert in GG Park drew some 300,000 people with music by the Grateful Dead; Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young; John Fogerty; Bobby McFerrin; and Robin Williams.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A15)(AP, 10/25/01)
1991        Oct 25, Israel named a hard-line delegation to the Middle East peace conference.
    (AP, 10/25/01)

1991        Oct 26, Former Washington, D.C., Mayor Marion Barry arrived at a federal correctional institution in Petersburg, Va., to begin serving a six-month sentence for cocaine possession.
    (AP, 10/26/01)

1991        Oct 27, The Minnesota Twins won the World Series, beating the Atlanta Braves 1-0 in the bottom of the 10th inning in the seventh and deciding game.
    (AP, 10/27/01)

1991        Oct 28, Two days before the start of a Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, President George H.W. Bush sought to lower expectations for a dramatic breakthrough, saying there was a "long, long way to go."
    (AP, 10/28/01)
1991        Oct 28, The Andrea Gail, a 72-foot swordfish boat from Gloucester, Mass., disappeared off the coast of Nova Scotia. Six fishermen were lost. In 1997 Sebastian Junger authored "The Perfect Storm: A True Story of Men Against the Sea." A film version followed in 2000.
    (SFC, 6/21/08, p.A3)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0177971/)

1991        Oct 29, President Bush imposed trade sanctions against Haiti to pressure its new leaders to restore ousted President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. Bush ordered home all nonessential US government employees and their dependents.
    (AP, 10/29/01)(www.hrw.org/reports/1992/WR92/AMW2.htm)
1991        Oct 29, On the eve of a historic Middle East peace conference in Spain, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met at the Soviet Embassy in Madrid and expressed hope for a positive outcome.
    (AP, 10/29/01)

1991        Oct 30, The Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, opened with addresses to the delegates by President George Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev. The Madrid Two conference was organized by the US.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A14)(AP, 10/30/01)
1991        Oct 30, BET Holdings Inc., became the first African-American company listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
    (HN, 10/30/98)

1991        Oct 31, Theatrical producer Joseph Papp died in New York at age 70.
    (AP, 10/31/01)
1991        Oct 31, On the second day of the Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir and Arab delegates clashed bitterly over land issues.
    (AP, 10/31/01)

1991        Oct, In Bulgaria the UDF won a modest majority in parliament in the fall, but its government was ousted in a no-confidence vote after 11 months in power.
    (SFC, 5/2/97, p.A14)(www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/bulgaria.htm)
1991        Oct, Early this month Serbs opened bombardment of the Croatian port of Dubrovnik. At least 43 civilians were killed in the attack.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/22/01, p.B1)
1991        Oct, In Croatia during the siege of Vukovar the Yugoslavian army and Serbian paramilitary troops killed and buried as many as 1000 Croatian soldiers and civilians. The bodies began to be uncovered in Apr 1998. Some 250 men were taken from a hospital in Vukovar and massacred under the direction of Zeljko Raznatovic, aka Arkan.
    (SFC, 4/29/98, p.A12)(SFEC, 1/16/00, p.A16)
1991        Oct, A US inspection team which had returned to the site of Kamisiyah, Iraq, filed a report that quoted Iraqi officials as suggesting that the detonated bunker had contained chemical agents.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A15)

1991        Oct-1993, From Oct. of ‘91-1993 Pfiesteria piscicida dinoflagellates were linked to major fish kills that occurred in the Neuse and Pamlico Rivers (North Carolina), which empty into the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, the second largest estuary on the US mainland. The microbe continued to plague the Chesapeake Bay region into 1997.
    (Nat. Hist. 3/96, p.18)(SFC, 9/20/97, p.A6)

1991        Oct, In Chechnya Communist ruler Doku Zavgayev was overthrown and Gen’l. Dudayev won a disputed local election and declared independence.
    (SFC, 5/13/97, p.A12)

1991        Oct, Vil S. Mirzayanov, a veteran of the Soviet chemical weapons program, went public with disclosures that a binary chemical weapon was under development.
    (SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)

1991        Nov 1, Clarence Thomas took his place as the newest justice on the US Supreme Court.
    (AP, 11/1/97)
1991        Nov 1, Univ. of Iowa graduate student Gang Lu (27) of China killed 4 members of his department, another university employee and himself. He was reportedly angry that his doctoral dissertation was not nominated for an academic award.
    (SFC, 4/3/12, p.A12)
1991        Nov 1, The 3-day session of the Middle East peace conference recessed in Madrid, Spain. The conference led to Israeli deals with Jordan and the Palestinians and established the principle of land for peace.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrid_Conference_of_1991)(AP, 11/1/01)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.68)

1991        Nov 2, Rev. Jesse Jackson, who had run for the presidency in 1984 and 1988, announced he would not be a candidate in 1992.
    (HN, 11/2/01)
1991        Nov 2, Chechnya proclaimed independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
    (SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A11)

1991        Nov 3, Israeli and Palestinian representatives held their first-ever face-to-face talks in Madrid, Spain.
    (AP, 11/3/01)
1991        Nov 3, Hooded men with automatic weapons with silencers burst into the inner patio of a downtown Lima tenement and killed 15 people at a barbecue, including an 8-year-old boy. The Colina death squad run by Vladimiro Montesinos was suspected. In 2001 the attorney general asked Congress to pursue homicide charges against former Pres. Fujimori for the murders. In 2008 two survivors of the attack testified at the murder trial of former President Alberto Fujimori.
    (SFC, 5/25/01, p.A16)(AP, 1/4/08)
1991        Nov 3, Syria opened its first one-on-one meeting with Israel in 43 years.
    (AP, 11/3/01)

1991        Nov 4, Ronald Reagan opened his presidential library in Simi Valley, Calif., with a dedication ceremony attended by President Bush and former presidents Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford and Richard Nixon - the first-ever gathering of five U.S. chief executives.
    (AP, 11/4/01)

1991        Nov 5, The Senate confirmed Robert M. Gates as CIA director.
    (AP, 11/5/01)
1991        Nov 5, Robert Maxwell (68), media tycoon, was found floating dead near his yacht off the Canary Islands. He was born in Czechoslovakia as Jan Hoch (Abraham Leib) and lost his whole family in the Holocaust. He escaped at 16 through the French Underground and got out of a British prison camp by volunteering for the British army, who changed his name to Robert Maxwell. He founded the Pergamon Press and went on to build a media empire. He served in Parliament from 1964-1970. In the 1970s Israel recruited him as a spy. He covertly sold Israeli computer software to the governments of Russia, China, India and Egypt that contained secret trapdoors. After his death he was found to have misappropriated hundreds of millions of dollars from company pensions funds. In 2003 Gordon Thomas and Martin Dillon authored Robert Maxwell, Israel’s Superspy: The Life and Murder of a Media Mogul." In 2006 London police said Maxwell was being investigated at the time of his death for allegedly committing a war crime as a British soldier by killing an unarmed German civilian during World War II.
    (Wired, 2/99, p.86)(AP, 11/5/01)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M4)(AP, 3/10/06)
1991        Nov 5, Fred MacMurray (83), film star and actor father of Mike, Robbie and Chip in the TV series "My Three Sons, died.
    (AP, 11/5/01)(USAT, 9/20/02, p.1D)
1991        Nov 5, Nearly 7,000 people were killed in floods in the Philippines.
    (AP, 11/5/01)

1991        Nov 6, Keck II became the biggest telescope in use at Mauna Kea, Hawaii.
    (MC, 11/6/01)
1991        Nov 6, Actress Gene Tierney died in Houston at age 70.
    (AP, 11/6/01)
1991        Nov 6, Kuwait celebrated the dousing of the last oil fires ignited by Iraq during the Persian Gulf War. Iraqi forces had blown up an estimated 732 Kuwaiti oil wells.
    (AP, 11/6/01)(WSJ, 1/21/02, p.B1)
1991        Nov 6, Russian president Yeltsin outlawed Communist Party.
    (http://s99.middlebury.edu/EC230A/Supplements/Chrons/Blasi.html)
1991        Nov 6, Pres. Yeltsin fired Ivan Silayev as prime minister. Yeltsin served as acting prime minister until Yegor Gaidar (1956-2009) was appointed in Jun 1992.
    (SFC, 5/13/99, p.A19)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.149)

1991        Nov 7, Basketball star Magic Johnson stunned the country as he announced that he had tested positive for the AIDS virus, and was retiring.
    (AP, 11/7/01)
1991        Nov 7, Pro- and anti-Communist rallies took place in Moscow on the 74th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution.
    (AP, 11/7/01)

1991        Nov 8, The European Community and Canada imposed economic sanctions on Yugoslavia in an attempt to stop the Balkan civil war.
    (AP, 11/8/01)

1991        Nov 9, President Bush returned from a four-day European trip that included a NATO summit.
    (AP, 11/9/01)
1991        Nov 9, Police in Hong Kong forcibly repatriated 59 Vietnamese boat people, carrying them onto a transport plane.
    (AP, 11/9/01)
1991        Nov 9, Singer-actor Yves Montand died near Paris at age 70. His body was exhumed in 1998 for DNA tests in a paternity suit filed by Aurore Drossard (22).
    (SFC, 3/13/98, p.A17)(AP, 11/9/01)

1991        Nov 10, Publishing magnate Robert Maxwell was buried in Israel, five days after his body was recovered off the Canary Islands.
    (AP, 11/10/01)

1991        Nov 11, The United States stationed its first diplomat in Cambodia in 16 years to help the war-shocked nation arrange democratic elections.
    (AP, 11/11/01)

1991        Nov 12, Robert Gates was sworn in as CIA director.
    (AP, 11/12/01)
1991        Nov 12, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev told a news conference he'd been warned by President George H.W. Bush and other U.S. officials that a revolt was brewing before hard-liners staged their coup, but that he had discounted their information.
    (AP, 11/12/01)
1991        Nov 12, Indonesian troops under Lt. Gen’l. Sintong Panjaitan killed numerous people in the Santa Cruz Cemetery of Dili, East Timor. The massacre of over 270 civilians, gathered at the funeral of a young man killed 2 weeks earlier, by Indonesian troops was witnessed by reporter Allan Nairn. Nairn was arrested, beaten and banned from the country.
    (SFC,11/26/97, p.C2)(SFC, 3/17/98, p.B10)(SFC, 6/19/98, p.B7)

1991        Nov 13, The US House of Representatives approved a Senate-passed bill guaranteeing many workers up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for family emergencies.
    (AP, 11/13/01)

1991        Nov 14, U.S. and British authorities announced indictments against two Libyan intelligence officials in connection with the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.
    (AP, 11/14/01)
1991        Nov 14, Tony Richardson (63), British director (Tom Jones), died of AIDS.
    (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0724798/)
1991        Nov 14, Cambodian Prince Norodom Sihanouk returned to his homeland after 13 years of exile.
    (AP, 11/14/01)

1991        Nov 15, The 28-foot-tall "Free Stamp" by Claes Oldenburg was inaugurated in a small park in the heart of Cleveland.
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.80)
1991        Nov 15, A federal appeals panel threw out former National Security Adviser John M. Poindexter's felony convictions in the Iran-Contra affair, saying his immunized testimony to Congress was improperly used against him.
    (AP, 11/15/01)

1991        Nov 16, Former Louisiana Gov. Edwin Edwards won a landslide victory in his bid to return to office, defeating state representative David Duke, a former Ku Klux Klan leader.
    (AP, 11/16/01)

1991        Nov 17, Secretary of State James A. Baker III concluded a three-day visit to China, touting an arms control agreement and progress on human rights and trade as "clear gains," but acknowledging that the gains fell short of U.S. goals.
    (AP, 11/17/01)

1991        Nov 18, Vukovar, capital of eastern Slavonia, fell to the Serbs. They removed some 260 wounded Croat patients, hospital staff and political activists sheltered in the Vukovar hospital and took them to the village of Ovcara where most were shot and buried. On Mar 26, 1996 Slavko Dokmanovic, the Serb mayor of Vukovar, was indicted for his role in the incident. Investigators began uncovering bodies from the mass grave in Sep, 1996. In Oct, 1996, a mass grave of about 100 bodies was uncovered. When Serbs captured eastern Slavonia most of its 68,000 Croat residents were displaced to other parts of Croatia. In 1998 Dokmanovic hanged himself in jail at the Hague. In 1998 the book "The Graves: Srebrenica and Vukovar" was published with photographs by Gilles Peress and text by Eric Stover. In 1999 Vukovar returned to Croatian control.
    (SFC, 9/12/96, p.A13)(SFC, 10/3/96, p.A14)(SFC, 4/11/97, p.A12)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)(SFC, 6/30/98, p.A8)(SFEC, 12/20/98, BR p.6)(Econ, 11/29/03, p.47)
1991        Nov 18, France deported Marlon Brando's daughter Cheyenne (21) to Tahiti to face charges of acting as an accomplice in the killing of her lover last year.
    (http://tinyurl.com/p9yhg)
1991        Nov 18, Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon freed Anglican Church envoy Terry Waite and Thomas Sutherland, the American dean of agriculture at the American University of Beirut.
    (AP, 11/18/01)

1991        Nov 19, The U.S. House of Representatives sustained President Bush's veto of a bill that would have lifted his ban on federally financed abortion counseling.
    (AP, 11/19/01)

1991        Nov 20, California Democrat Alan Cranston accepted a Senate reprimand for his dealings with former savings-and-loan chief Charles H. Keating Jr., but then denied he was guilty of many of the allegations, prompting an angry rebuttal by New Hampshire Republican Warren B. Rudman.
    (AP, 11/20/01)
1991        Nov 20, Mile Mrksic, Miroslav Radic, and Veselin Sljivan-Canin, officers in the Yugoslav National Army, ordered the Serb army and military police to withdraw from the hospital at Vukovar. The paramilitary forces then took 194 Croat men in small groups to an area nearby and shot them. Radic surrendered to Serbian authorities in 2003. Mrksic and Sljivancanin were convicted by a UN tribunal in 2007. Radic was acquitted.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A15)(SFC, 4/22/03, A7)(AP, 9/27/07)(WSJ, 9/28/07, p.A1)

1991        Nov 21, President Bush signed a civil rights bill, then sought to calm a storm of controversy by withdrawing a tentative order to end government hiring preferences for blacks and women.
    (AP, 11/21/01)
1991        Nov 21, The UN Security Council chose Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt to succeed Javier Perez de Cuellar of Peru as the new Secretary-General.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A13)(AP, 11/21/97)

1991        Nov 22, In an attempt to break a deadlock, the Bush administration proposed that Middle East peace talks resume in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 11/22/01)

1991        Nov 23, The bodies of 35 drowned Haitian refugees were recovered off the coast of eastern Cuba.
    (AP, 11/23/02)
1991        Nov 23, Yugoslavia's rival leaders agreed to a new cease-fire, the 14th of the Balkan civil war.
    (AP, 11/23/01)
1991        Nov 23, Klaus Kinski (65), German actor (Android, Nosferatu, Little Drummer Girl), died in California.
    (http://www.filmbug.com/db/1457)

1991        Nov 24, The space shuttle Atlantis blasted off from Cape Canaveral with six astronauts and a military satellite.
    (AP, 11/24/01)
1991        Nov 24, Freddie Mercury (45), Zanzibar-born rock singer, died in London of pneumonia brought on by AIDS. Mercury and the rock group Queen made the 1975 hit "Bohemian Rhapsody."
    (AP, 11/24/01)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A2)

1991        Nov 25, President George H.W. Bush threatened to veto anti-crime legislation heading for a final vote in Congress, accusing Democrats of producing a bill that would actually weaken law enforcement.
    (AP, 11/25/01)
1991        Nov 25, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev suffered a setback in his bid to hold the Soviet Union together when leaders of seven republics refused to endorse a treaty creating a new political union.
    (AP, 11/25/01)

1991        Nov 26, The Stars and Stripes were lowered for the last time at Clark Air Base in the Philippines as the United States abandoned one of its oldest and largest overseas installations, which was damaged by a volcano.
    (AP, 11/26/01)
1991        Nov 26, Condoms were handed out to thousands of NYC High School students.
    (www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3573/is_199611/ai_n8414037)
1991        Nov 26, UNICEF said fighting and crop failures in southern Sudan had forced an unprecedented exodus of 200,000 people.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1991        Nov 27, Israel signaled its anger with what it regarded as the high-handedness of the United States by rejecting an invitation to attend Mideast peace talks in Washington on Dec. 4.
    (AP, 11/27/01)
1991        Nov 27, The UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution paving the way for the establishment of a UN peacekeeping operation in war-ravaged Yugoslavia.
    (AP, 11/27/01)

1991        Nov 28, Ryan Thomas (10), hero, AIDS victim who won a federal court battle to stay in kindergarten class, died.
    (www.msu.edu/~daggy/cop/bkofdead/obits-te.htm)
1991        Nov 28, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev expressed unhappiness over reports that the United States might move toward diplomatic recognition of Ukraine after the republic's upcoming independence referendum.
    (AP, 11/28/01)

1991        Nov 29, Seventeen people were killed in a 164-vehicle pileup during a dust storm on Interstate 5 near Coalinga, Calif. Over 250 vehicles were involved and over 100 were injured.
    (SFC,11/17/97, p.A23)(AP, 11/29/01)(MC, 11/29/01)
1991        Nov 29, Actor Ralph Bellamy died in Santa Monica, Calif., at age 87.
    (AP, 11/29/01)

1991        Nov 30, Boris Yeltsin's Russian Federation agreed to bail out Mikhail S. Gorbachev's central Soviet government from a budget crisis that threatened to cut off the salaries of millions of workers and paralyze the country.
    (AP, 11/30/01)

1991        Nov, Michigan suspended the medical license of Dr. Kevorkian.
    (SFC, 4/14/99, p.A3)
1991        Nov, In Orange County, California, Omaima Nelson (23), an Egyptian-born former model and nanny, killed her newlywed husband, William Nelson (56), and chopped and cooked his body parts over Thanksgiving weekend. She churned his parts through a garbage disposal that neighbors said ran nonstop in the hours after the murder. She was convicted and sentenced to 25 years to life in prison.
    (AP, 10/4/11)
1991        Nov, In Nicaragua Norwin Meneses was arrested in Managua with 1,500 pounds of cocaine, some of it packed in cars headed for the US.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A1,10)

1991        Dec 1, Kidnappers in Lebanon pledged to release American hostage Joseph Cicippio within 48 hours.
    (AP, 12/1/01)
1991        Dec 1, The space shuttle Atlantis safely returned from a shortened military mission.
    (AP, 12/1/01)
1991        Dec 1, Nursultan Nazarbayev was elected president of Kazakhstan.
    (AP, 12/1/12)
1991        Dec 1, In Paraguay the Colorado party won parliamentary elections.
    (www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/paraguay.htm)
1991        Dec 1, Ukrainians voted overwhelmingly for independence from the Soviet Union.
    (WP 6/29/96, p.A20)(AP, 12/1/97)

1991        Dec 2, American hostage Joseph Cicippio, held captive in Lebanon for more than five years, was released.
    (AP, 12/2/97)
1991        Dec 2, Testimony began in West Palm Beach, Fla., in the trial of William Kennedy Smith, accused of raping Patricia Bowman at his family's estate.
    (AP, 12/2/01)

1991        Dec 3, Embattled US White House chief of staff John H. Sununu resigned; he was succeeded by Samuel K. Skinner.
    (AP, 12/3/01)
1991        Dec 3, Radicals in Lebanon released American hostage Alann Steen, who had been held captive nearly five years.
    (AP, 12/3/97)

1991        Dec 4, The Judds’ final concert took place in Nashville.
    (www.wynonna.com/?em653=22855_0__0_~0_-1_3_2006_0_0&content=judds)
1991        Dec 4, Charles Keating, Arizona land developer and chairman of Lincoln Savings and Loan Association, was convicted on 17 counts of securities fraud in state court. Keating was one of the most controversial figures in the savings and loan scandals of the late 1980s. Keating's sales personnel persuaded depositors to put their money into high-risk junk bonds.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)(MC, 12/4/01)
1991        Dec 4, Patricia Bowman testified at William Kennedy Smith's trial in West Palm Beach, Fla., that Smith had raped her the previous Easter weekend.
    (AP, 12/4/01)
1991        Dec 4, Pan American World Airways ceased operations. Pan Am’s records went to the Univ. of Florida and artifacts went to the Historical Museum of South Florida. However, a new, smaller version of Pan Am was later formed.
    (AP, 12/4/01)(SSFC, 11/4/07, p.A9)
1991        Dec 4, Associated Press correspondent Terry Anderson, the longest held of Western hostages in Lebanon, was released after nearly seven years in captivity. The last American hostages in Lebanon were released.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1991)(SFC, 9/26/96, p.A3)(AP, 12/4/97)(HN, 12/4/01)

1991        Dec 5, Samuel K. Skinner was named White House chief of staff by President Bush, succeeding John H. Sununu.
    (AP, 12/5/01)
1991        Dec 5, Richard Speck, who murdered eight student nurses in Chicago in 1966 died of a heart attack in prison a day short of his 50th birthday.
    (USA Today, 5/14/96, p.3A)(AP, 7/14/97)(AP, 12/5/97)

1991        Dec 6, Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., testifying at the trial of his nephew, William Kennedy Smith, denied hearing screams the night Patricia Bowman said she was raped by Smith at the Kennedy estate in West Palm Beach, Fla.
    (AP, 12/6/01)
1991        Dec 6, Gen. Pavle Strugar led the Yugoslav attack on Dubrovnik. At least 43 civilians were killed in the attack. Serbs had opened bombardment of the Croatian port of Dubrovnik in early October. In 2001 Strugar (68) turned himself into the war crimes tribunal at the Hague. In 2005 Strugar was convicted of two counts of willful destruction of Dubrovnik and attacking civilians. In 2008 appeals judges added two more convictions for unjustified devastation of the town and attacking civilian sites. They also cut his original sentence from eight years to seven and a half years because of his deteriorating health.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/22/01, p.B1)(AP, 7/17/08)

1991        Dec 7, Fifty years after Japan's sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, a visibly moved President Bush led the nation in services commemorating the anniversary.
    (AP, 12/7/01)

1991        Dec 8, AIDS patient Kimberly Bergalis, who had contracted the disease from her dentist, died in Fort Pierce, Fla., at age 23.
    (AP, 12/8/97)
1991        Dec 8, Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine declared the Soviet national government dead, forging a new alliance to be known as the Commonwealth of Independent States. Boris Yeltsin, Ukrainian Pres. Leonid Kravchuk, and Belarus Pres. Stanislav Shuskevich met in a hunting lodge to proclaim the Soviet Union null and void and to form a loose Commonwealth of Independent States. The declaration later became known as the "Belavezha Accords."
    (SFC, 9/9/98, p.A10)(AP, 12/8/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanislau_Shushkevich)

1991        Dec 9, European Community leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht tentatively agreed to begin using a single currency by 1999.
    (AP, 12/9/01)
1991        Dec 9, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev challenged Boris Yeltsin's declaration that the Soviet Union was dead, branding a new Slavic commonwealth "illegal and dangerous."
    (AP, 12/9/01)

1991        Dec 10, William Kennedy Smith, accused of raping Patricia Bowman, proclaimed his innocence during his trial in West Palm Beach, Fla.
    (AP, 12/10/01)

1991        Dec 11, A jury in West Palm Beach, Fla., acquitted William Kennedy Smith of sexual assault and battery, rejecting the allegations of Patricia Bowman.
    (AP, 12/11/97)
1991        Dec 11, European Community leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht hammered out a compromise for a loose federation of their countries. The Maastricht treaty was signed on February 7, 1992, and entered into force on November 1, 1993. It set entry terms for joining a European monetary union.
    (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/01)

1991        Dec 12, Russian President Boris Yeltsin won landslide approval in the Russian legislature for his new commonwealth, while Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev edged closer to resigning, saying, "The main work of my life is done."
    (AP, 12/12/01)

1991        Dec 13, Five Central Asian republics of the Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) agreed to join the new Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) being organized by Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
    (AP, 12/13/01)(www.therussiasite.org/legal/laws/CISagreement.html)
1991        Dec 13, Iran’s Pres. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani visited Sudan with some 157 officials. He signed agreements to train Sudan’s Popular Defense Forces, a version of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, and agreed to pay China $300 million for weapons ordered for Sudan.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.50)(http://tinyurl.com/d6ruxp)
1991        Dec 13, North Korea and South Korea signed a non-aggression agreement aimed at eventual reconciliation.
    (AP, 12/13/01)

1991        Dec 14, President Bush and Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, meeting at Camp David, Md., renewed their commitment to conclude quickly the North American Free Trade Agreement.
    (AP, 12/14/01)
1991        Dec 14-1991 Dec 15, At least 464 people were left dead or missing when an Egyptian-registered ferry sank in the Red Sea near the port of Safaga after coral reef tore a hole in a ferry's side.
    (SFC, 5/22/96, p.A8)(AP, 2/3/06)
1991        Dec 14, Former East German leader Erich Honecker, facing extradition to Germany and trial on manslaughter charges, was offered asylum in North Korea.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1991        Dec 15, Six Democratic presidential hopefuls criticized President Bush's handling of the economy during a debate on NBC TV.
    (AP, 12/15/01)
1991        Dec 15, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev asked U.S. Secretary of State James Baker for formal U.S. recognition of the various Soviet republics that had declared independence.
    (AP, 12/15/01)

1991        Dec 16, The U.N. General Assembly rescinded its 1975 resolution equating Zionism with racism by a vote of 111-25.
    (AP, 12/16/97)

1991        Dec 17, In an about-face the US White House used the word "recession" to characterize the state of the economy, although spokesman Marlin Fitzwater said the administration did not believe there was a recession in a technical sense.
    (AP, 12/17/01)
1991        Dec 17, Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev agreed to dissolve the Soviet Union by the new year.
    (AP, 12/17/01)

1991        Dec 18, General Motors announced it would close 21 North American plants over the next four years and slash tens of thousands of jobs in a sweeping restructuring of the world's largest company.
    (AP, 12/18/01)

1991        Dec 19, The failed Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) agreed to settle federal racketeering charges by forfeiting all its U.S. assets.
    (AP, 12/19/01)
1991        Dec 19, Patricia Bowman, who had accused William Kennedy Smith of raping her, told ABC's "Prime Time Live" she was shocked by his acquittal.
    (AP, 12/19/01)
1991        Dec 19, Donna Ann Morrow (37) was murdered in Menlo Park, Ca., following an argument with her husband, Joseph Morrow, who fled the country. Her body was found in 2003 in the Santa Cruz Mountains on property that had been owned by Joseph Morrow. Police tracked Morrow to Manila, where he was arrested in Jan, 2003. Morrow’s trial began in 2006. In 2007 Morrow (59) agreed to be sentenced to 25 years to life in prison.
    (SFC, 12/24/03, p.A14)(SFC, 1/6/06, p.B5)(SFC, 3/7/06, p.B1)(SFC, 9/12/07, p.B4)
1991        Dec 19, Rebel Serbs declared independence in the Krajina region, which was almost a third of Croatia. The Republic of Serbian Krajina lasted 4 years with the hilltop fortress of Knin as the capital.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A15)(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A12)

1991        Dec 20, New York Gov. Mario Cuomo announced he would not be a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination, saying his first responsibility was to deal with his state's budget problems.
    (AP, 12/20/01)
1991        Dec 20, Robert Bardo, the obsessed fan who had stalked actress Rebecca Schaeffer before killing her, was sentenced in Los Angeles to life in prison without parole.
    (AP, 12/20/01)
1991        Dec 20, In Australia Paul Keating took over as the country’s 24th prime minister. He continued to 1996.
    (Econ, 5/28/11, SR p.3)(http://primeministers.naa.gov.au/primeministers/keating/)

1991        Dec 21, Cable TV and sports magnate Ted Turner married actress Jane Fonda near Capps, Fla. They divorced in May 2001.
    (AP, 12/21/01)
1991        Dec 21, El Sayyid Nosair was acquitted in New York of killing Jewish extremist Rabbi Meir Kahane. Nosair was later convicted in a federal trial.
    (AP, 12/21/01)
1991        Dec 21, In Bosnia-Herzegovina a Serb minority held an unofficial referendum opposing separation from Yugoslavia. Local Serb leaders proclaimed a new republic separate from Bosnia.
    (SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)
1991        Dec 21, Eleven of the 12 former Soviet republics proclaimed the birth of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the death of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
    (AP, 12/21/01)

1991        Dec 22, The body of Lt. Col. William R. Higgins, an American hostage murdered by his captors, was found dumped along a highway in Lebanon.
    (AP, 12/22/97)

1991        Dec 23, President George H.W. Bush spoke by telephone with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, after which a senior Bush administration official said the United States would extend diplomatic recognition to the Russian republic.
    (AP, 12/23/01)
1991        Dec 23, In Texas the house of Cameron Todd Willingham caught fire in Corsicana and his 3 young daughters were killed in the blaze. Investigators said the burn pattern in the house indicated arson. Willingham maintained his innocence but was convicted, sentenced to death and executed in 2004. Shortly before his execution an arson expert said the initial investigation was based on bad science and that there was no proof of arson.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.36)

1991        Dec 24, Walter Hudson (46), a 1,025 lb. man, died.
    (www.inthe90s.com/generated/obit1991.shtml)(http://tinyurl.com/e1fj)
1991        Dec 24, In North Korea Kim Jong Il (b.1942) became head of the armed forces under his ruling father, Kim Il Sung.
    (Econ, 9/13/08, p.49)(AP, 12/28/11)
1991        Dec 24, A day before resigning, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev briefed Russian President Boris Yeltsin on nuclear weapons-firing procedures. Gorbachev also held a farewell meeting with staff members.
    (AP, 12/24/01)

1991        Dec 25, William High Nelson Jr., the son of singer Willie Nelson, committed suicide.
    (SSFC, 1/15/06, Par p.2)
1991        Dec 25, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev went on television to announce his resignation as the eighth and final leader of a Communist superpower that had already gone out of existence. He was ousted as Soviet leader Boris Yeltsin established his position. This effectively ended the cold war. In 2002 Derek Leebaert authored "A Fifty-Year Wound," a history of the cold war.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1991)(SFC, 12/3/97, p.C6)(AP, 12/25/97)(WSJ, 4/16/02, p.D7)

1991        Dec 26, President Bush nominated businesswoman Barbara Franklin to be commerce secretary.
    (AP, 12/26/01)
1991        Dec 26, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones industrial average rose to a then-record high of 3082.96.
    (AP, 12/26/01)
1991        Dec 26, Jack Ruby's gun sold for $220,000 in auction.
    (http://tinyurl.com/s3gun)
1991        Dec 26, Chris Cohan (b.1950) purchased a 25% stake in the San Francisco Warriors basketball team for almost $21 million. In 1994 he paid $119 million for full ownership.
    (SFC, 7/16/10, p.A12)
1991        Dec 26, Sikh separatists killed about 50 train passengers in Punab, most of them Hindus.
    (AP, 12/26/01)
1991        Dec 26, The Republic of Tatarstan declared entry into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
    (www.kcn.ru/tat_en/politics/dfa/sover/sover.htm)

1991        Dec 27, The United States and the Philippines announced that the United States would abandon the Subic Bay naval base by the end of 1992.
    (AP, 12/27/01)
1991        Dec 27, Muslim fundamentalists in Algeria won a major victory in free legislative elections; however, the military ended up canceling the election results.
    (AP, 12/27/01)

1991        Dec 28, Nine people died in a crush to get into a basketball game at City College in New York. The game was promoted by rapper Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs. Combs later testified that security at the Nat Holman facility was supposed to be provided by NYCC.
    (AP, 12/28/97)(SFC, 3/24/98, p.A3)
1991        Dec 28, A 6x8 inch wooden picture of Irene, the Icon of the Greek Orthodox church, was returned, stripped of its jewels, to NYC after being stolen on Dec 23.
    (www.skepticfiles.org/skep2/iconstol.htm)
1991        Dec 28, In Colombia Henry Rojas (36), a correspondent for the Bogota newspaper El Tiempo, was killed in the northeastern city of Arauca after reporting on alleged corruption in the mayor's office and military. Wilson Daza, the soldier who fatally shot Rojas, later pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 20 years in prison in 1995. In 2009 Colombia’s high court ruled that the government is to blame for Rojas’ shooting and ordered it to pay damages to his family.
    (AP, 3/26/09)(www.cidh.oas.org/countryrep/Colombia93eng/chap.9.htm)
1991        Dec 28, Russian President Boris Yeltsin ordered state land privatized as he pushed ahead with his reforms.
    (AP, 12/28/01)

1991        Dec 29, A Boeing 747-200F of China Airlines crashed into a mountain at Taipei and 5 people were killed.
    (www.airdisaster.com/cgi-bin/aircraft_detail.cgi?aircraft=Boeing+747)
1991        Dec 29, Russian President Boris Yeltsin announced that Russia would create its own army; in a separate year-end address, he also congratulated his countrymen for avoiding the kind of violence seen in Yugoslavia.
    (AP, 12/29/01)

1991        Dec 30, The remains of two American hostages slain in Lebanon, William Buckley and Marine Col. William R. Higgins, arrived in the United States for burial.
    (AP, 12/30/01)
1991        Dec 30, Leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Russia et al) agreed to establish unified command over nuclear weapons, while allowing member states to form their own armies.
    (AP, 12/30/01)

1991        Dec 31, President Bush arrived in Australia as part of a 12-day Pacific trip.
    (AP, 12/31/01)
1991        Dec 31, Representatives of the government of El Salvador and rebels reached agreement at the United Nations on a peace accord aimed at ending 12 years of civil war.
    (AP, 12/31/01)
1991        Dec 31, This was the last day of existence for the USSR.
    (www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec01/russia_coup.html)

1991        Dec, An Islamic extremist conference was held in Oklahoma City. Terrorism expert Steve Emerson filmed the conference for his documentary, “Jihad in America." The documentary (which has been shown to Congress several times) revealed that during the 1991 OKC conference, WTC attacks were openly discussed and planned by OKC Hamas terrorists being closely monitored by OKC FBI agents including FBI agent Floyd Zimms.
    (http://miami.indymedia.org/news/2006/06/4765_comment.php)
1991        Dec, Shalanda Burt (19) shot her boyfriend James Fairley in Bradenton, Florida. She was three months pregnant at the time. A week after she delivered their first baby, James raped her and ripped her stitches. Facing 25 years, she was told by a female public defender to take a plea bargain and 17 years in prison.
    (www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977464-5,00.html)
1991        Dec, In Albania the Democratic Party withdrew ministers after accusing communists of blocking reform. Alia set up a new government headed by Vilson Ahmeti and set March 1992 for new elections.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1991        Dec, in Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutallibov was elected Communist Party boss and led the Caspian Sea nation as it gained independence in the Soviet collapse. He was ousted from office a few months later and fled to Russia.
    (AP, 8/9/11)
1991        Dec, Germany gave diplomatic recognition to Slovenia and Croatia. The EU said it would recognize Croatia and Slovenia as independent states.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/6/00, p.A19)
1991        Dec, Hungarian officials discovered 11 tons of rocket launchers and automatic weapons being loaded on trucks headed for Croatia in violation of a UN arms embargo. They had been labeled as Chilean humanitarian aid for Sri Lanka. In Chile Col. Gerardo Huber, who directed purchases at the army's weapons manufacturer, turned up dead shortly after testifying in a military investigation. His head had been blown apart by a blast from a machine gun. In 2009 former Chilean Army Gen. Guillermo Letelier and Air Force Gen. Vicente Rodriguez were sentenced to prison for shipping arms to Croatia at the time of its battle for independence from Yugoslavia. 11 people were sentenced by a military court in June, 2009, for their roles in the deal. In October, 2009, retired Gen. Victor Lizarraga and retired Col. Manuel Provis got 10 and eight years, respectively, for conspiracy and homicide. Gen. Carlos Krum and Col. Julio Munoz, also both retired, got nearly 2 years for conspiracy and murder, respectively. The identity of the gunman in Huber's murder remained unknown.
    (AP, 6/10/09)(AP, 10/5/09)
1991        Dec, Some remains of Russia’s Czar Nicholas II, his wife Empress Alexandra, and their five children, executed in 1918, were exhumed from a mine shaft in Yekaterinburg. The remains were identified using DNA analysis in 1992, but the skeletons of 2 children remained unaccounted for.
    (http://radio.cbc.ca/news/czar/)
1991        Dec, Islam Karimov, a former Uzbekistan Communist Party boss, was elected president.
    (SFC, 11/3/00, p.D2)(AP, 3/30/04)

1991        Walter Annenberg, media baron, donated art valued at $1 billion to the NYC Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    (WSJ, 1/20/04, p.A1)

1991        Magdalena Abakanowicz made her sculpture: "Bronze Crowd," 36 headless, hollow, life-size men in a double file.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)(www.abakanowicz.art.pl/bibliog.html)

1991        Christo created his "Umbrellas" sculpture that lasted 3 weeks. 1,760 yellow umbrellas were unfurled north of Los Angeles and another 1,340 blue ones in Ibaraki, Japan.
    (SFC, 3/2/97, p.E4)(SSFC, 2/13/05, p.A10)

1991        Pham Dai, a Vietnamese artist from Hue, produced an ink painting: "Flocks of Wicked Birds." He adopts the pictorial language of surrealism in depicting crazed raptors as figures for human evil.
    (SFC, 6/8/96, p.E3)

1991        Jean Howard, Hollywood photographer and former Ziegfeld girl, published her photography book "Travels with Cole Porter."
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.D6)

1991        Dorothy Bryant wrote her play "Dear Master." It was done as an "epistolary dialogue between novelists George Sand and Gustave Flaubert.
    (SFEM, 1/12/97, DB  p.13)

1991        Arthur Miller wrote his play "The Last Yankee" and "The Ride Down Mt. Morgan."
    (WSJ, 1/14/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 11/18/98, p.A20)

1991        Neil Simon won a Pulitzer for his play "Lost in Yonkers."
    (SFC, 10/11/96, p.C5)

1991        M.A. Cluver wrote his book on the "Fossils of the Karoo," publ. by the South African Museum.
    (Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.60)

1991        Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel wrote "The Ends of Human Life," a work on euthanasia.
    (WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A18)

1991        John Arthur Maynard authored "Venice West, The Beat Generation in Southern California."
    (SFC, 4/13/02, p.A21)

1991        Rev. Pat Robertson wrote his best-seller "The New World Order."
    (SFC, 1/6/97, p.A4)

1991        "See How They Run" by Gil Troy was published. It was a study of political campaigns for the White House.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.86)

1991        Diane Ackerman published her personal experiences with bats, alligator, whales and penguins, while accompanied by a world expert on each animal: "The Moon by Whale Light."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.78)

1991        Gordon Bell, architect of DEC’s VAX minicomputer, authored "High Tech Ventures: The Guide to Entrepreneurial Success."
    (SFC, 9/10/98, p.B3)

1991        Burnett Bolloten wrote "The Spanish Civil War."
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A22)

1991        Clark Clifford, presidential counselor, published his memoir: "Counsel to the President."
    (SFEC, 10/11/98, p.A2)

1991        Graef Crystal authored “In Search of Excess: The Overcompensation of American Executives."
    (Econ, 1/20/07, SR p.14)

1991        Carol Field wrote her cookbook "Celebrating Italy" and was awarded the Barbi Colombini Prize by the Italian government.
    (SFC, 7/2/97, Z1 p.1)

1991        William Jordon published his collection of 14 essays: "Divorce Among the Gulls."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.77)

1991        "Dead Certainties" by Simon Schama was published. "It was an exercise in the new historicism."
    (WSJ, 7/31/96, p.A13)

1991        Julia Alvarez, native of the Dominican Republic, wrote her novel "How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents."
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.E1)

1991        Jung Chang (b.1952) authored her family portrait “Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China," which soon became an international best seller.
    (Econ, 2/21/09, p.85)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_Swans)

1991        Catherine Cookson, English writer, published her novel "The Wingless Bird." It was the intersecting stories of 3 families on 3 levels of English society beginning in 1913. It was adopted for TV in 1998.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)

1991        Douglas Coupland authored his novel "Generation X," a portrayal of people born to the baby boomer generation.
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.4)

1991        Paul Fussell (1924-2012), WWII veteran, authored “BAD Or, The Dumbing of America."
    (Econ, 6/9/12, p.98)

1991        David Gelernter (b.1955), professor of computer science at Yale, authored “Mirror Worlds," in which he accurately described websites, blogging, virtual reality, streaming video, tablet computers, e-books, search engines and internet telephony.
    (Econ, 12/3/11, TQ p.27)

1991        Leonard H. Goldenson (d.1999 at 94), chief executive of ABC from 1953-1986, authored his autobiography: "Beating the Odds."
    (SFC, 12/28/99, p.B3)

1991        The Katherine Hepburn book: "Me: Stories of My Life" was the top selling non-fiction, hard-cover book of the year (800k copies).
    (WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R6)

1991        Sheila Isenberg authored “Women Who Love Men Who Kill."
    (SFC, 9/28/09, p.C4)

1991        Daniel T. Jones, Daniel Roos and James P. Womack of MIT authored “The Machine That Change the World: The Story of Lean Production," an account of the Toyota Production System (TPS).
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.65)

1991        Seth Klarman authored “Margin of Safety: Risk Averse Value Investing Strategies for the Thoughtful Investor." He founded (1982) and led the Baupost Group, a Boston-based private investment partnership.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.68)

1991        Jonathan Kozol authored “The Shame of the Nation," in which he criticizes public education in the US.
    (WSJ, 9/29/05, p.D10)

1991        Christopher Lasch (1932-1994) authored “The True and Only Heaven," in which he pushed the conventional concepts of left and right.
    (WSJ, 4/28/09, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Lasch)

1991        Richard Layard, Stephen Nickell and Richard Jackman co-authored “Unemployment."
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.34)

1991        Nicholas Lemann authored “The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America," and account of the 20th century move north by African Americans. The book established Lemann as a sought-after commentator on race relations and other fundamental aspects of American society.
    (www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/about/people/nlbio.htm)(Econ, 8/28/10, p.73)

1991        Patrick McGrew (d.2013 at age 71), architectural preservationist, authored “Landmarks of San Francisco." At this time the city had 198 landmark buildings. By 2013 there were 264.
    (SFC, 2/15/13, p.D7)

1991        James Michener wrote "The Novel" and "The World Is My Home."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)

1991        Peter Matthiessen’s novel "At Play in the Fields of the Lord" was made into a film. His work includes the celebrated novel "Far Tortuga."
    (SFEC,12/797, p.B11)

1991        Terence McKenna (d.2000 at 53) authored "Food of the Gods," in which he proclaimed that prehistoric humans developed language, religion and advanced civilization only after finding and ingesting psychedelic drugs.
    (SFC, 4/6/00, p.C2)

1991        Daniel Quinn wrote "Ishmael," the story of a telepathic conversation between a wise gorilla and an idealistic writer. He won the $500,000 Turner Tomorrow Fellowship prize for fiction that produces creative and possible solutions to global problems.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, BR p.5)

1991        The novel "Scarlet" by Alexander Ripley (d.2004) was the best-selling hardcover book of the year (2.1 mil copies). It was an official sequel to "Gone With the Wind."
    (WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R6)(SFC, 1/26/04, p.B4)

1991        Wes Roberts wrote his bestseller "Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1991        Rebecca Rothenberg (d.1998 at 50, researcher and musician, published her mystery novel "The Bulrush Murders."
    (SFC, 4/18/98, p.A20)

1991        Witold Rybcynski authored “Waiting for the Weekend," a book on leisure.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.80)

1991        Nawal El Saadawi (b.1931), Egyptian feminist writer, authored "Daughter of Isis," a detailed account of her childhood. She left Egypt in 1993 and returned in 1996. In 2002 she authored "Walking Through Fire," a continuation of her memoir.
    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.M2)

1991        Dr. Junichi Saga authored "Confessions of a Yakuza." It was based on the testimony of Eiji Ijichi, a retired Japanese gangster. In 2003 it was noted that Bob Dylan used lines from the book in his 2001 album "Love and Theft."
    (WSJ, 7/8/03, p.A1)

1991        Jose Saramago (75) authored "The Gospel According to Jesus Christ."
    (SFC, 10/9/98, p.A2)

1991        Jon Savage (b.1953) authored “England’s Dreaming," a history of the Sex Pistols.
    (SFC, 4/9/10, p.C7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jon_Savage)

1991        Lynn Schurnberger authored "Let There Be Clothes," a historical look at clothing.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

1991        Charles Scribner published "In the Company of Writers."
    (WSJ, 6/18/99, p.W13)

1991        Richard Tarnas authored “The Passion of the Western Mind," a survey of the Western world view.
    (WSJ, 1/21/06, p.P11)

1991        Henny Youngman (d.1998 at 92), comedian, wrote his autobiography "Take My Life, Please!"
    (SFC, 2/25/98, p.C2)

1991        Robert S. Wistrich (1945-2015) authored “Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred."
    (SFC, 5/29/15, p.D4)

1991        "The Hard Nut" ballet was created for the Theatre Royal de la Monnaie in Brussels on a subplot of the E.T.A. Hoffman tale of the "Nutcracker." The score is completely faithful to Tchaikovsky.
    (SFC, 12/16/96, p.D1)

1991        The opera "The Ghosts of Versailles" by John Corigliano premiered at the Metropolitan Opera in NYC.
    (SFC, 12/31/99, p.C7)

1991        The opera "Atlas" by Meredith Monk premiered at the Houston Grand Opera.
    (SFC, 12/31/99, p.C7)

1991        Paul McCartney composed his classical work "Liverpool Oratorio." McCartney did not read or write music.
    (SFC,10/29/97, p.E5)

1991        Luke Cresswell and Steve McNicholas introduced their dance and rhythm ensemble show at the Scotland Edinburgh Festival.
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.27)

1991        The Broadway musical "Black and Blue featured rhythm and blues singer LaVern Baker (d.1997).
    (SFC, 3/12/97, p.A19)

1991        PBS broadcast the film "Absolutely Positive," the story of Doris Butler (1953-1996) and her son Jared (1988-1992) who were both infected with AIDS.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E5)

1991        The song "Come to My Garden" from the musical "The Secret Garden" was composed by Norman & Simon.

1991        "El Dorado" by John Adams had its world premier by the San Francisco Symphony conducted by the composer.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, DB p.54)

1991        Composer John Corigliano composed his "Symphony No. 1," a memorial to the victims of AIDS.
    (WSJ, 9/24/97, p.A20)

1991        Perry Farrell, lead singer of Jane's Addiction, started the alternative-rock extravaganza called Lollapalooza.
    (SFC, 8/21/03, p.E1)(SFC,11/20/97, p.D1)

1991        The song "Unforgettable" by Irving Gordon was the song of the year. The album of the year was "Unforgettable" by Natalie Cole.
    (WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R6)

1991        The "Hyperstring Trilogy" by Tod Machover was premiered by cellist Yo-Yo Ma.
    (WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A9)

1991        The rock group Talking Heads disbanded. The group had formed in 1974 in NYC. The band comprised David Byrne (b.1952), Chris Frantz, Tina Weymouth and Jerry Harrison, but auxiliary musicians frequently made appearances in concert and on the group's albums.
    (WSJ, 1/30/08, p.D9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talking_Heads)

1991        The Tommy Castro Band was formed led by blues singer-guitarist Tommy Castro.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, DB p.13)

1991        The Eroica Trio won the Walter F. Naumburg Chamber Music competition.
    (WSJ, 8/18/98, p.A20)

1991        The American punk group Nirvana released its “Nevermind" album.
    (WSJ, 12/21/04, p.D8)

1991        Joni Mitchell released her CD "Night Ride Home."
    (SFEM, 11/1/98, p.6)

1991        Pearl Jam released the multi-platinum "Ten" on Epic Records.
    (SFC, 7/30/97, p.E6)

1991        Ivo Papasov, Balkan accordionist, recorded "Balkanology," a collection of Balkan folk music.
    (BAAC, 1/97, p.7)

1991        Mel Powell received a Pulitzer Prize for composition. He had become a leading figure in electronic and serial music following his WW II days with the Glenn Miller Army Band.
    (WSJ, 10/24/96, p.A16)

1991        The Righteous Brothers earned a Grammy nomination for "Unchained Melody."
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, DB p.74)

1991        George Tsontakis composed his "Ghost Variations."
    (WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A20)

1991        A new downtown building for the Seattle Art Museum, designed by Robert Venturi, was completed for $62 million. In 2004 it began an addition in partnership with Washington Mutual.
    (WSJ, 4/20/04, p.D8)(WSJ, 1/18/07, p.D10)

1991        The American Institute of Architects selected Chicago as number one in architectural quality and innovation.
    (Hem. 7/96, p.13)

1991        Bartholomew I was enthroned as the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, the ancient of Orthodox Christianity. He presided as the "first among equals" over the 15 patriarchs of the 300 million Christian Orthodox Church.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)(SFC, 8/13/97, p.A3)

1991        John Detwiler, brokerage executive, founded Computers for Schools in San Diego.
    (SFC, 11/14/96, p.B1)

1991        Edward Leonard and the Trappist monks at Holy Cross Abbey in the Blue Ridge Mountains founded The Electronic Scriptorium, a business to convert library catalogs to a digital format.
    (Wired, 8/96, p.96)

1991        The Nobel Prize in economics was awarded to Ronald H. Coase of Britain for "the discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy." Coase noted that the cost of gathering information determines the size of organizations.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.D1)
1991        The Int’l. Campaign to Ban Land Mines (ICBL) was formed by Jody Williams and fellow activists during a Thanksgiving dinner in Washington. The organization won  the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.A9)
1991        The satirical Ig Nobel prize was established by the American magazine Annals of Improbable Research.
    (Econ, 3/23/13, p.85)
1991        The US scattered some 118,000 land mines in Iraq and Kuwait during the Gulf War.
    (WSJ, 1/19/02, p.A1)

1991        Cash Money Records was founded by Ronald "Slim" and Bryan "Baby" Williams. The rap label signed a $30 million deal with Universal in 1998.
    (SFC, 12/10/99, p.AA2)

1991        Jim Boggio (d.1996) and Clifton Buck-Kaufman co-founded the Cotati Accordion Festival in northern California.
    (www.accordions.com/index/squ/squ_96_11_15.shtml#jim)

1991        John and Brenda Stephenson founded Santa Cruz Biotechnology. The operation engaged in raising goats antibody production.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A15)

1991        Jimmy Carter founded the Atlanta project to attack social problems associated with poverty.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97,  zone 3 p.3)

1991        The organization Brothers to the Rescue was founded in Florida to conduct search and rescue missions for Cubans fleeing Cuba in the Florida Straits.
    (WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-18)

1991        The US RVing Women organization, based in Apache Junction, Az., was founded as a support group for women travelers touring the country on their own.
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, p.B6)

1991        Visionaire, a fashion and art magazine, was founded.
    (WSJ, 6/26/98, p.W12)

1991        Wisconsin introduced wild turkeys in Marathon County and sold licenses to hunt them. The birds took a taste to the local ginseng crops and wrought havoc. In the early 1900s 4 Fromm brothers had begun cultivating Ginseng in Wisconsin and it became much appreciated by Chinese users. In the 1990s Canada, having acquired Wisconsin ginseng seeds, began competing and sold seeds to China causing ginseng prices to plummet to about $15 per pound.
    (WSJ, 3/8/06, p.A1)

1991        Memorabilia dealer Bruce McNall and hockey star Wayne Gretzky spent $451,000 on a circa 1910 baseball card of the Pittsburgh Pirates shortstop Honus Wagner.
    (WSJ, 12/9/94, p.R-8)

1991        Basketball star Magic Johnson announced that he was HIV-positive. He left the Lakers Basketball team and his $3.5 mil salary and founded the Magic Johnson Foundation to help fight AIDS.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, PM, p.2)

1991        The Kentucky Derby was won by Strike the Gold.
    (WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A16)

1991        Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann of Germany won the Nobel Prize in medicine for their discoveries concerning single ion channels that shed light on mechanisms underlying several diseases, including diabetes and cystic fibrosis.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)

1991        The JCET program (Joint Combined Exchange and Training) was established under a law that bypassed State Department policy in which military aid is restricted to foreign units charged with human rights abuses. This resulted in US Special Forces assignments for training exercises in Indonesia and Colombia.
    (SFC, 3/17/98, p.B2,10)

1991        Al Gore as US Senator held hearings that led to the passage of the National High-Performance Computer Technology Act. It boosted federal support of the Internet by about $1 billion a year.
    (Wired, Dec. '95, p.154)

1991        A US requirement for firms to disclose grants of stock options gave them until early 1992 to do so, and left open the opportunity to backdate.
    (WSJ, 12/27/06, p.A6)

1991        The US Supreme Court ruled that the New York "Son of Sam" law was unconstitutional. The "Son of Sam" law referred to the New York serial killer David Berkowitz, who claimed that he received telepathic messages to kill from a dog named Sam. The law made it illegal for convicted criminals to profit from their crimes.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.A6)

1991        Elliott Abrams pleaded guilty to 2 misdemeanor charges for keeping information from the US Congress in the Iran-Contra affair (arms to Nicaragua).
    (WSJ, 6/29/01, p. A1)

1991        Thomas Kanza, head of a coffee trading operation in Zaire [later Congo], was convicted in Tennessee of fraud. The operation had $57,000 of investor’s money missing. In 1997 he was selected by Laurent Kabila as first minister of int’l. cooperation.
    (WSJ, 2/9/98, p.A1)

1991        Thomas F. Quinn, a US convicted stock swindler, was sentenced by a French court to 4 years in prison for an int'l. stock scam that defrauded thousands of investors of over $500 million in the 1980s.
    (WSJ, 7/13/99, p.C1,22)

1991        Lamar Alexander was appointed by Pres. Bush as the Sec. of Education.
    (WSJ, 2/15/96, p.A-16)

1991        The US Congress passed the Nunn-Luger Act to help eliminate chemical weapons world-wide.
    (WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-14)

1991        The US government closed Norton Air Force base in California’s San Bernadino Ct., costing the region some 10,000 jobs.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.B8)

1991        US Customs intercepted a large cocaine shipment and began investigations. It was found to be part of a CIA operation out of Venezuela.
    (WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A12)

1991        A US intelligence report said Alvaro Uribe was a Colombian drug cartel ally. Uribe was elected president in 2002 and in 2004 the US state report disavowed the report.
    (WSJ, 8/3/04, p.A1)

1991        Melvyn R. Paisley (d.2001 at 77), a former assistant Navy Secretary, pleaded guilty to conspiracy and bribery as part of "Operation Ill Wind," a 7 ½ year operation which investigated corporate executives, defense consultants and government officials.
    (SFC, 12/27/01, p.A19)

1991        Paul Biddle, a Navy contract auditor assigned to the Stanford campus, provoked a debate in Congress over what universities could properly bill the government for research costs. The controversy led to the resignation of Stanford Pres. Donald Kennedy.
    (SFC, 4/22/99, p.A11)

1991        Harry V. Mohney, adult entertainment distributor, was convicted on tax evasion and profit skimming along with 3 business associates. He served 3 years in federal prison at Boron in the Mojave Desert. After release he continued to expand his business.
    (SFC, 8/13/97, p.A10)

1991        The US introduced the leverage ratio in the wake of a housing-loans crises. It ensured that a bank’s core capital is at least 3% of its balance sheet.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.87)
1991        In the US 124 FDIC-insured banks failed this year. By the end of the year the FDIC insurance fund was insolvent.
    (WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A10)
1991        The US government passed legislation that prevented the American government from spending public funds on Expo pavilions.
    (Econ, 12/5/09, p.54)
1991        The Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program began. It was sponsored by US Senators Sam Nunn and Richard Lugar. CTR assisted the states of the former Soviet Union in controlling and protecting their nuclear weapons, weapons-usable materials, and delivery systems.
    (www.nti.org/db/nisprofs/russia/forasst/nunn_lug/overview.htm)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.61)

1991    Charles Keating, Arizona land developer, was found guilty of fraud in state court.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)
1991        Three men challenged the Virgil Earp law in Tombstone, Arizona, that forbade carrying guns in the city limits.
    (SFC, 8/19/96, p.A3)

1991        William L. Dwyer, Wash. state federal district judge, ordered the government to stop permitting logging on up to 60,000 acres of ancient forests a year on public land because it endangered the habitat of the Northern spotted owl.
    (SFC, 2/18/02, p.B6)

1991        In Hawaii Japanese developers spent $104 million to develop the Koolau Golf Course on Oahu. The investors later defaulted on their loans and the course was sold at auction in Sep 1997 for 12 million.
    (SFC, 2/17/98, p.A1)

1991        The Louisiana legislature approved most of the state’s gambling on the basis of added jobs and tax money.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.A14)

1991        In Michigan John Engler came into office as governor facing a $1.5 billion deficit. He enacted tax cuts, cut 6,000 workers from public payrolls and took 75,000 employable adults off the welfare rolls.
    (WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A18)

1991        Minnesota became the first state to pass a law allowing charter schools.
    (WSJ, 12/24/96, p.A1)
1991        Paul Wellstone (d.2002), Minnesota college professor, was elected as a US Senator over Rep. Sen. Rudy Boschwitz. In 2001 He authored "The Conscience of a Liberal."
    (WSJ, 5/15/01, p.A24)(SFC, 10/26/02, p.A8)

1991        Ithaca, N.Y. established a local currency called Ithaca Hours to promote local spending.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, Par p.17)

1991        Marlington, West Virginia, held its first roadkill festival as a joke. The festival received a boost in 1998 when the state passed a law making the gathering of roadkill legal.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.34)

1991        Stephen Blumberg was convicted of stealing more than $10 million worth of rare books and manuscripts from 268 libraries in the US and Canada.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.C5)

1991        Pee-wee Herman, aka Paul Reubens, was arrested for exposing himself in an adult theater.
    (SFC, 12/4/96, p.E5)

1991        Michael N. Bates (1952-1996), Wichita correspondent for the Associated press, covered the six-week Wichita abortion protests and the tornado devastation of Andover. While in Oklahoma City, Bates covered the Karen Silkwood trial and the Locust Grove Boy Scout murders.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.B2)

1991        In Montana the name of Custer Battlefield National Monument was changed to Little Bighorn Battlefield Monument. A $2 million memorial was dedicated Jun 25,2003.
    (WSJ, 6/25/03, p.A1)

1991        Joe Massino took over as head of the Bonanno family in NYC. In 2004 he faced trial on racketeering charges and 7 murders.
    (SFC, 5/10/04, p.A4)

1991        William H. Donaldson became chairman of the NYSE. He ran the exchange to 1995.
    (WSJ, 4/14/07, p.A6)

1991        Exxon Corp. entered into a secret deal with seven Seattle fish processors whereby it agreed to pay $70 mil to settle oil-spill claims from the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, in return quick settlement. However the processors had to agree to return to Exxon most of any punitive damages that might be awarded. The secret deal did not become public until 1996.
    (WSJ, 6/12/96, p.A3)

1991        Pres. Roh Tae Woo of S. Korea cancelled an order for F-18 jets from McDonnell Douglass in favor of 120 F-16s produced by General Dynamics. The project had been valued at $5.2 bil.
    (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-10)

1991        ATT bought NCR in a hostile deal for $7.48 bil.
    (WSJ, 9/21/95, p.B-2)   

1991        Coca-Cola established a corporate museum in Atlanta.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A1)

1991        In San Francisco the 3-story, block-long building at 185 Berry St. was designed by architect Jorge de Quesada. In 2008 a stories were added on top.
    (SSFC, 10/11/09, p.C2)
1991        In San Francisco Mimi Silbert opened the Delancey Street Restaurant as the centerpiece of her live-in drug rehabilitation center.
    (SSFC, 2/2/14, p.G3)
1991        Executive Life, a large California insurer, collapsed under the stewardship of Frederick Carr. He had invested premiums of policy holders in junk bonds, whose value plunged as the US economy tanked. Credit Lyonnais, a French bank, made an illegal arrangement to purchase the depressed bonds and together with French billionaire Francois Pinault reaped a $2.54 billion profit. In 2004 the French government pleaded guilty to fraud for its role.
    (WSJ, 4/16/04, p.A1)
1991        Peter Camejo (1939-2008) helped found the California Green Party. He later became a perennial candidate for state and national office.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.B1)
1991        The first annual California Mille, a 4-day, 1,300 mile tour of northern California was organized by Martin Swig (1934-2012), a SF Bay Area car dealer. It was opened to drivers of cars built between 1927-1957, the years that the Mille Miglia race was run in Italy.
    (SFC, 7/7/12, p.A7)(SFC, 4/28/98, p.A13)

1991        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1991 Chevrolet Caprice and Caprice Classic as the number 2 worst American-made car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1991        Mark E. Whitacre, an executive with Archer-Daniels-Midland, began diverting millions of dollars in company funds to personal accounts overseas. He continued until he was fired in 1995 after helping the FBI monitor meetings that proved industry price fixing.
    (WSJ, 11/25/96, p.B7)

1991        Medarex, an American biotech company, went public.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.84)

1991        The Hearst Corp. opened the Hearst Service Center in Charlotte, N.C. to support all Hearst units with data processing. Hearst also acquired a 20% interest in ESPN.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1991        Lockheed won a $9.55 billion initial contract for a new fighter jet, the F/A-22, to replace the F-15.
    (WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A1)

1991        Motorola established a corporate museum in Schaumberg, Ill.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A1)

1991        The Southern Pacific Railroad sold the Peninsula line to the Joint Powers Authority of the counties of San Francisco, Santa Clara and San Mateo, for $230 million.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)

1991        Sony introduced the first commercial lithium-ion batteries. They had a capacity to overheat. In 2004 the US banned them as cargo on passenger planes. In 2006 Dell and Apple initiated recalls for laptop computers with recently manufactured, problematic lithium-ion batteries.
    (Econ, 8/19/06, p.52)(Econ, 3/8/08, TQ p.23)

1991        NASA launched the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory to detect gamma-ray bursts.
    (NH, 6/97, p.78)

1991        The Galileo spacecraft’s high-power antennae failed. A low-gain antennae was redefined to maximize information from the craft.
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.B8)

1991        Miami urologist, Harold Reed brought to the US a procedure to lengthen the penis invented by a Chinese surgeon named Long Daochao.
    (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A1)

1991        A method to fertilize a human egg by a single sperm was developed. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was used to help couples in where the man has a low sperm count.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, DB p.32)

1991        The president of Rochester Inst. of Technology (RIT) resigned following a scandal over CIA influence on research and curriculum, and his own work for the agency.
    (WSJ, 10/4/02, p.A1)

1991        Yale Univ. received a $20 million Bass grant in order to set up a program for Western Civilization studies to be directed by historian and classicist Donald Kagan. In 1994 alumnus Less Bass took the grant back when the Univ. derailed the program. An investigation, the Cabranes-Schacht study, was launched to discover what happened to the Bass Grant and why. Yale refused to disclose the contents of the report.
    (WSJ, 6/21/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/10/97, p.A22)

1991        The Univ. of N. Carolina erected the Kenan-Flagler Business School after having received a 10 mil donation from Frank H. Kenan (1913-1996), founder of several oil and transportation concerns.
    (NYT, 6/7/96, p.B14)

1991        Pres. James J. Duderstadt of the Univ. of Michigan established the University's History and Traditions Committee.
    (MT, 3/96, p.14)

1991        Children born addicted to Crack made headlines.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1991)

1991        The computer game character Sonic, the hedgehog, was introduced by Sega.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)
1991        The war strategy game Civilization, created by Sid Meier (b.1954), was published and became a sensation among PC gamers.
    (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.W9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sid_Meier)

1991        Kodak accepted a bill of $925 million for compensation to Polaroid after it was found guilty of violating most of the patents cited by Polaroid. This was the largest fine ever paid in a patent lawsuit.
    (Econ., 3/28/15, p.87)

1991        Microsoft introduced its Windows 3.1 operating system.
    (WSJ, 11/16/98, p.R10)

1991        John Malone’s Telecommunications Inc. helped rescue Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp. by investing $75 million as part of a financial restructuring.
    (WSJ, 3/3/05, p.A10)

1991        Engineer Henry Nicholas founded Broadcom in his Redondo Beach, Ca., apartment. In 1998 the maker of chips for TV cable boxes went public. Nicholas quit the company in Jan 2003. In 2006 he had a falling out with a former aide, Kenji Kato, who alleged drug use and other outrageous by Mr. Nicholas.
    (WSJ, 1/14/07, p.A1)

1991        Alex Wolszczan and Dale Frail at Pennsylvania State Univ. reported evidence of 3 extra-solar planets (exoplanets) orbiting around the spinning remains of Pulsar B1257+12. They found the pulsar in 1990 using the Arecibo radio telescope.
    (SSFC, 9/30/01, Par p.5)(www.economicexpert.com/a/PSR:1257:plus:12.htm)

1991        Genzyme Corp. introduced a targeted enzyme replacement therapy for Gaucher disease, a disorder that swells internal organs and weakens bones due to lack of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme.
    (WSJ, 11/16/05, p.A1)(www.cerezyme.com/patient/about/cz_pt_about-gaucher.asp)

1991        Princeton astrophysicist J. Richard Gott proposed theorized that cosmic strings could warp space time enough to create paths to the past, called closed timelike curves.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1991        Carbon nanotubules, formed from hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms, were first discovered by Sumio Iijima of NEC Fundamental Research Labs in Tsukuba, Japan. In 2001 IBM scientists assembled transistors using carbon nanotubules.
    (SFC, 4/27/01, p.B1,4)

1991        The underwater tunicate, Diazona chinensis, was discovered near the Philippine island of Siquijor. It proved to have great potential value in killing colon cancer cells but could not be found again after the initial sample was used.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A4)

1991        A man from the United Arab Emirates found a large black rock that in 1996 was found to contain the world’s largest emerald cluster. Bangkok geologists spent a week removing a thick layer of black mica before finding a group of 127 medium green emeralds weighing 167 pounds.
    (SFC, 10/5/96, p.C1)

1991        The int’l. system of units adopted “yocto" as the smallest prefix. It stands for a multiplying factor of one part in a million billion billion (one septillion) parts, often written as 10-24. As of 2010 the largest prefix in the system was “yotta," signifying one thousand raised to the 8th power.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.78)

1991        Paleontologist Paul Sereno led a team in the Andes that discovered a small dinosaur species called Euraptor that turned out to be 228 million years old.
    (SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-3)

1991        The US exported at least 4.1 million pounds of pesticides that have been banned, restricted, or voluntarily withdrawn from use domestically.
    (Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.47)

1991        An estimated one billion Atlantic menhaden fish died in the Neuse River of North Carolina and had to be bulldozed off the beach. The culprit was later identified as the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida.
    (Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.187)

1991        A ferocious tornado swept across Kansas.
    (WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)

1991        Three vast weather systems came together off the US northeast coast in what meteorologists came to call "the perfect storm." It later provided the backdrop for the book "The Perfect Storm: A True Story of men Against the Sea" by Sebastian Junger.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.5)

1991        Volcanic eruptions occurred in the Galapagos Islands.
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p. T-5)

1991        A multiple car crash caused by a blinding dust storm killed 17 people and injured scores of others in Fresno Ct., Ca.
    (SFC,11/17/97, p.A23)

1991        Elmer Bischoff (b.1916), California artist, died. He helped found the Bay Area Figurative School with David Park and Richard Diebenkorn.
    (WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)

1991        Colleen Dewhurst (b.1924), Canadian-born actress, died. Her unfinished autobiography was completed by Tom Viola: "Colleen Dewhurst: Her Autobiography."
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, BR p.1)

1991        Eva Le Gallienne (b.1899), actress, died. She wrote the biography of actress Eleonora Duse and her own autobiography. In 1996 Helen Sheehy wrote a new biography: Eva Le Gallienne.
    (SFC, 10/16/96, E5)

1991        Graham Greene, author, died. His biography was later written by Norman Sherry. In 2000 Shirley Hazzard authored "Greene On Capri: A Memoir," about Greene's life on the Isle of Capri. In 2001 William Cash authored "The Third Woman: The Secret Passion That Inspired the End of the Affair," an account of Greene’s affair with Catherine Walston.
    (SFEC, 3/5/00, BR p.5)(SSFC, 2/11/01, BR p.9)

1991        Latasha Harlins (15) was shot and killed by a Korean store owner in LA over a bottle of orange juice.
    (SFC, 1/1/97, p.A16)

1991        Arturo Islas, Mexican-American writer, died. His work included the novels: "The Rain God" and "Migrant Souls." The unfinished "La Mollie and the King of Tears" was published in 1996.
    (SFEC, 9/22/96, BR p.3)

1991        Klaus Kinski (1926-1996), actor, died. He starred in "Aguirre: The Wrath of God," "Nosferatu" and "Woyzeck." He wrote his memoirs in 1971 and the English translation became available in 1996 titled "Kinski Uncut" by Klaus Kinski.
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.E2)

1991        David Lean, film director, died. His work included: Great Expectations, The Bridge on the River Kwai, Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago, Ryan’s Daughter, and A Passage to India.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.E3)

1991        Robert Motherwell (b.1915), artist, died.
    (SFC, 3/30/02, p.AD1)

1991        Arthur Murray, popular ballroom dance teacher, died at age 95.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.D8)

1991        Akram Ojjeh, Syrian-born financier and art collector, died at age 68. He made his fortune as an arms dealer and investments in oil, hotels, and real estate.
    (WSJ, 9/3/99, p.W10)

1991        Isaac Bashevis Singer, Jewish novelist and storyteller, died. Dvorah Telushkin later wrote: "Master of Dreams: A Memoir of Isaac Bashevis Singer." Janet Hadda wrote "Isaac Bashevis Singer: A Life."
    (WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)

1991        Harry Smith, underground film maker and record collector, died. His 1952 collection of hillbilly, blues, gospel and Cajun music was re-issued in 1997 as a 6 CD set by Smithsonian/Folkways.
    (WSJ, 10/4/00, p.A24)

1991        Danny Thomas (79), Lebanese-American sitcom actor, died. He starred in "Make Room for Daddy" and produced the "Andy Griffith Show" and the "Dick Van Dyke Show." He was the father of actress Marlo Thomas.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A14)(SFC, 7/13/00, p.C7)

1991        Gene Roddenberry, creator of the Star Trek TV program, died. His ashes were put into space in 1997.
    (SFC, 4/22/97, p.A3)

1991        As Communism fell apart thousands of Albanians fled their country. They crossed the Adriatic in boats to seek asylum in Italy. Lawlessness and unrest gripped the country. Half the population was unemployed.
    (CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)

1991        Archbishop Anastasios (61) was sent to Albania by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople to report on the country's religious situation.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, Par p.4)

1991        The Organization of American States (OAS) passed Resolution 1080 which called for a convocation of OAS members within 10 days of a coup or "self-coup."
    (SFC, 6/18/99, p.A14)

1991        In Algeria the military forced Prime Minister Mouloud Hamrouche to resign.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, p.C2)
1991        In Algeria leaders of the outlawed Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) were arrested and sentenced to 12 years in prison. Abassi Madani and Ali Belhadj were released Jul 2, 2003.
    (Econ, 7/12/03, p.40)
1991        US intelligence discovered that Algeria possessed a nuclear research reactor at Ain Oussera, which was surrounded by air defenses.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/2j86s7)

1991        In Angola the Bicesse Accord failed to resolve squabbles and ended with a resumption of war.
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)
1991        Fighting between US supported UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola), and the Marxist MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola), ended.
    (SFC, 4/12/97, p.A12)
1991        In Angola Elisol was established as a refuse collection company. In the 1990s it took on the maintenance of sanitation networks.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, Angola p.4)

1991        Argentina’s Pres. Carlos Menem signed bilateral investment deals with the US and France. They required Argentina to protect foreign firms’ property rights, and to air grievances at the Int’l. Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.38)
1991        In Argentina Pres. Carlos Menem signed an accord to open secret government files to researchers of the Delegation of Jewish Argentine Associations (DAIA).
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A12,15)
1991        In Argentina Carlos Bastos took over as energy secretary. The first thing he did was to divide the utilities into 3 discreet lines of business: generation, transmission and distribution.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, p.A1)
1991        In Argentina Domingo Cavallo, economic minister, instituted a convertibility program that required each Argentine peso in circulation be backed by a dollar in reserves.
    (WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A8)
1991        Argentina passed legislation that required 30% of candidates on party lists for Congress to be women.
    (Econ, 12/15/07, p.44)
1991        In Argentina Mauricio Macri, elected president in 2015, was kidnapped and held for two weeks until his father paid a $6 million ransom.
    (Econ, 10/31/15, p.34)
1991        In Argentina a group of struggling Bolivian clothing producers in Buenos Aires bought the site of abandoned thermal baths and established the La Salada market. Their Punta Mogote warehouse opened in 1999.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.30)
1991        Argentina’s overall government spending was $47.3 billion.
    (WSJ, 8/2/96, p.A13)

1991        Sex selective abortions began increasing in the Caucasus region as ultrasound equipment became available from the West. By 2013 over 115 boys were born in Armenia and Azerbaijan for every 100 girls. In Georgia the ration was 120 to 100.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.54)

1991        In Australia a simple formula of catchy children's tunes with sing-along lyrics and entertaining dances was born when Anthony Field, Murray Cook and Greg Page were studying to become pre-school teachers. They formed a children's band called The Wiggles went on to become a global cultural force. They planned to be the subject of an exhibition at Sydney's Powerhouse Museum to celebrate their 20th year in 2011.
    (AFP, 9/19/10)
1991        Dame Roma Mitchell, founder of the Australian Human Rights Commission, became governor of South Australia state.
    (SFC, 3/6/00, p.A23)
1991        In Australia a stable of horses was infected by an RNA virus. Most of the horses died as did 2 handlers. The virus was from the class morbillivirus that causes canine distemper and is able to hop from one species to another.
    (NH, 6/96, p.16)
1991        A toxic algae bloom choked a 1,000km stretch of Australia’s Darling River.
    (Econ, 4/28/07, p.82)

1991        In Austria Joerg Haider resigned as governor of Carinthia after praising Nazi Germany for having a "proper employment policy." By 1996 he led the Freedom Party, Europe’s strongest nationalist party.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A16)
1991        Chancellor Franz Vranitzky admitted Austrian complicity in the Holocaust.
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A13)(SFC, 4/24/00, p.A12)

1991        On the dissolution of the USSR, Azerbaijan gained its independence.
    (CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)

1991        Belarus gained independence.
    (G&M, 1/31/96, p.A-8)

1991        In Belgium the far-right Vlaams Blok party broke into the mainstream. In 2004 it was renamed Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest).
    (Econ, 10/14/06, p.59)

1991        Radio La Colifata (Loony Radio) began broadcasting in Buenos Aires. The weekly radio show was broadcast from inside a psychiatric hospital.
    (SFC, 3/1/01, p.A8)
1991        In Brazil Karen Worcman (29) helped found the Museum of the Person. By 2009 it was Latin America’s largest oral history center.
    (www.archimuse.com/mw99/bios/au_3204.html)(www.museudapessoa.net)(WSJ, 3/16/09, p.A1)(www.museudapessoa.net)
1991        Arminio Fraga joined Brazil’s central bank as head of int’l. affairs.
    (WSJ, 6/2/00, p.A1)
1991        The Amazon forest lost was 3 million acres this year.
    (NH, 7/98, p.35)

1991        Britain established a War Crimes Act which permitted prosecution for crimes committed outside the country.
    (SFC, 2/11/00, p.D2)
1991        Britain banned the ownership of pit bull terriers following a spate of attacks by the dangerous dogs.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)
1991        The British Communist Party folded.
    (SSFC, 8/10/03, p.M4)
1991        Britain’s Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA), a statutory body, was created under the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act (1990). This was the world’s first regulator in the new field of assisted reproduction.
    (http://212.49.193.187/cps/rde/xchg/hfea/hs.xsl/272.html)
1991        Britain’s newspapers set up the Press Complaints Commission (PCC), a self-regulating body to enforce a code of conduct of its own devising.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.12)
1991        Robert Runcie (d.2000), Archbishop of Canterbury, retired as spiritual leader of the Anglicans. He then became Lord Runcie as PM John  Majors elevated him to life peer.
    (SFC, 7/13/00, p.C7)
1991        Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) of Britain split into two parts, ICI, a chemicals company, and Zeneca, a bioscience and drug company.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.27)
1991        Britain's Helen Sharman flew to Russia's Mir Space Station as a tourist as part of a lottery system called Project Juno.
    (AP, 9/18/06)

1991        In Canada the province of Ontario passed the Arbitration Act, which allowed family law disputes to be settled by arbitration. The Act permitted religiously based as well as secular arbitration tribunals in the province.
    (Econ, 2/16/08, p.66)(www.religioustolerance.org/shariaon.htm)
1991        A 7-member Royal commission on Aboriginal Peoples was created after a lengthy armed standoff between Mohawk Indians and security forces in Quebec.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)
1991        In Alberta a gas leak forced Wiebo Ludwig to evacuate his 320-acre Trickle Creek "community." Ludwig blamed the Alberta oil and gas industry for the death of 60 of his livestock and a succession of human health problems. The gas wells produced sour gas, a gas laced with the neurotoxin hydrogen sulfide.
    (SFC, 2/16/99, p.C2)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.C3)
1991        Stewart Blusson, Canadian geologist, discovered a trove of diamonds south of the Arctic Circle in the Northwest Territories.
    (WSJ, 7/5/01, p.B1)(WSJ, 10/4/06, p.B2)

1991        The Canary Islands banned bullfighting.
    (SFC, 3/6/10, p.A2)

1991        In Chile capital controls were adjusted to a minimum permanence period of 3 years for foreign money.
    (WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A17)
1991        In Chile the National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation probed the abuses of the military regime and reported that some people arrested by the DINA were taken to the Dignity Colony, held there and tortured by agents of the DINA and by people of the colony. The Rettig Commission was named by the first post-military government to investigate human rights abuses. It was headed by a former Allende minister and counted a total of 2,279 dead and missing on both sides of the civil war.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1991        Chile’s Escondida mine, the world’s biggest, began producing copper.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.64)

1991        The Chinese film Raise the Red Lantern was directed by Zhang Yimou. The film won an academy award and was made into a ballet in 2001.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, DB p.58)
1991        China introduced the B-share security market to trade stocks reserved for foreigners. In 2001 the B-share market was legally opened to Chinese nationals.
    (WSJ, 3/7/00, p.A18)
1991        Ye Xuanping, a popular leader of China’s Guangdong Province, was moved to a sinecure in Beijing to prevent him from expanding on a personal power base.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.37)
1991        Tsien Hsue-sen, American-trained rocketry expert, retired in China.
    (AP, 10/15/03)
1991        China and Vietnam normalized relations.
    (Econ, 8/16/14, p.33)

1991        In Colombia economic reforms were enacted and tariffs were lowered.
    (WSJ, 12/17/96, p.A18)
1991        Colombia’s office of the vice-president was created, but it had no assigned duties.
    (SFC, 8/30/96, p.A14)
1991        Colombia’s former Pres. Turbay saw his journalist daughter, Diana, abducted by gunmen working for drug kingpin Pablo Escobar. She was later killed during a botched rescue attempt.
    (AP, 9/14/05)
1991        In Colombia 17 peasants were dragged off a bus and killed in Valle del Cauca province. In 1998 3 men were sentenced to 30 years in prison for the killing. the massacre was allegedly ordered by 2 military majors and their case was turned over to a military court.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A11)
1991        Colombia’s “green war," a struggle that began in the 1980s for control of the country’s emerald mines, ended with some 6,000 dead. Victor Manuel Carranza brokered the peace between the army, drug men and paramilitaries.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.98)
1991        In Colombia the homicide rate in Medellin peaked at 381 per 100,000 people. By 2014 it had dropped to fewer than 50 per 100,000.
    (Econ, 5/31/14, p.41)

1991        In Croatia the Eastern Slavonia region was in part occupied by Serbs who had fled or were driven from other parts of Croatia.
    (SFC, 1/22/96, p.C1)

1991        Cuba’s Fidel Castro declared a national emergency, dubbed “The Special Period in Peacetime." This represented an extended period of economic crisis following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and, by extension, the Comecon.
    (Econ, 3/24/12, SR p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_Period)

1991        Former Dominican Rep. Pres. Jorge Blanco (1982-1986) was sentenced along with three other men to 20 years in prison for misspending government funds meant for military purchases. The conviction was overturned in 2001 by an appeals court that ruled Blanco and the three other men were never provided the right to defend themselves.
    (AP, 12/26/10)

1991        The IMF began extensive loans to Egypt along with pressure to sell-off state owned enterprises.
    (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A12)

1991        In El Salvador a government commission decided to return a swath of the Finca El Espina land to the Duenas family and that 865 acres be turned into a reserve. The 550 families of the cooperative that acquired the land in 1980 were to be left with 700 acres of the poorest, driest land.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.C18)

1991        Pres. Isaias Afeworki took over the leadership of Eritrea and the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ).
    (SFC, 5/13/98, p.A10)

1991        The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) was founded to help free markets take root in the ex-communist countries of central and eastern Europe.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.78)
1991        The French satirical magazine La Grosse Berthe was launched.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.76)
1991        French frigates were sold to Taiwan. In 2004 a fake list of French public figures (including later president Nicolas Sarkozy), who allegedly held accounts at a Luxembourg-based clearing house (Clearstream Banking S.A.), was leaked to a French judge. This came to be known as the 2nd Clearstream affair.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clearstream)(Econ, 12/6/08, p.70)

1991        Edith Cresson became the first female prime minister in France.
    (SFC, 3/2/00, p.A11)

1991        Germany passed an ordnance shifting responsibility for the entire life cycle of packaging to producers.
    (Econ, 6/9/07, TQ p.24)
1991        Germany adopted a renewable energy law, which became known as EEG.
    (Econ, 4/5/08, p.67)
1991        In Germany the Inter-City Express (ICE) high-speed trains began running.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)
1991        In Germany Hasso Plattner, a former IBM consultant, unveiled the SAP (Systems, Analysis and Program Development) R/3 enterprise management software. The company grew 12-fold from 1990 to 15,000 employees in 1998. Plattner founded the company with Dietmar Hopp.
    (WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A1,14)
1991        The last Trabant automobile was manufactured in East Germany.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.A10)

1991        In Guatemala rebel guerrillas sacked and burned most of the productive wells of Basic Petroleum in the northwest corner of the Peten.
    (WSJ, 12/26/96, p.A1)

1991        Haitian refugees fled to the US base at Guantanamo, Cuba. Hundreds were refused further passage to the US, many because of HIV infection.
    (SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A7)

1991        David Oddsson became prime minister of Iceland.
    (AP, 6/5/06)

1991        The film "City of Joy" was based on a novel by Dominique Lapierre. It was about the street children of Calcutta and Mother Teresa.
    (SFC, 8/19/97, p.E4)
1991        India launched economic reforms under finance minister Manmohan Singh. Previous to this the government controlled the market-place dictating everything from industrial output to import levels. PM P.V. Narasimha Rao launched free market policies. Its previous socialist-inspired "License Raj" system dated back to British rule and required government permits for almost every aspect of business. A flood of imported products followed.
    (WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/9/04, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/27/04, p.A1)(Econ, 8/27/05, p.35)(Econ, 3/18/06, p.64)
1991        The IMF foisted tariff cuts on India as one of the conditions attached to a $2.5 billion bailout package. Tariffs were cut from an average of 90% this year to 30% in 1997.
    (Econ, 5/9/09, p.82)
1991        India’s federal government dismissed the state government of Tamil Nadu, controlled by the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party, for aiding the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka.
    (SFC, 9/22/97, p.A10)
1991        Ratan Tata succeeded his uncle, J.R.D. Tata, as chairman of the Tata Group’s holding company, just as India began liberalizing its economy. Uncle Tata had started Tata Airlines which later became India Air.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.53)(Econ, 1/13/07, p.62)

1991        Mount Lokon, one of about 129 active volcanoes in Indonesia, erupted. It killed a Swiss hiker and forced thousands of people to flee their homes.
    (AP, 10/26/11)

1991        In Iran Majid Majidi directed his film “Baduk." It was about children kidnapped by a slave trader.
    (SFC, 7/9/02, p.D2)
1991        The Iranian film "The Legend of Sigh" was directed by Tamineh Milani.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, DB p.57)
1991        Iran’s government began fighting elements of the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK).
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)
1991        Iran’s first nuclear reactor was supplied by China.
    (SFC, 9/18/06, p.A1)

1991        Oriana Fallaci recorded the poignant soliloquy of Dakel Abbas (21), a drafted Iraqi soldier recovering from wounds in Kuwait. In 2002 Fallaci authored "The Rage and the Pride."
    (WSJ, 4/3/03, p.A14)
1991        Government forces of Iraq began battling the Supreme Assembly for the Islamic Revolution.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)
1991        142 aircraft were flown to Iran from Iraq to escape destruction at the outset of the Gulf War. Tehran repainted the planes and used them for its own forces. In 1997 Iraq appealed to the UN for help in getting the planes back.
    (WSJ, 9/23/97, p.A1)
1991        In Iraq in the first 8 months following the war some 47,000 children under the age of 5 died from war-related causes.
    (SFEM, 2/20/99, p.7)
1991        In Mahaweel, Iraq, every day for three weeks, Iraqi soldiers brought truckloads of rebellious Shiite Muslims to a lonely cornfield near the ruins of Babylon. The victims were shoved into shallow pits and shot. Bulldozers pushed the earth over them, burying some alive.  In 2003 a mass grave yielded more than 3,100 bodies. Local Iraqis said as many as 12,000 other bodies from the same massacre might be buried in the area.
    (AP, 9/15/03)
1991        General Abdul-Qader Mohammed Jassim al-Mifarji left Saddam Hussein’s army. In 2006 he was appointed as Iraq’s defense minister.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.52)
1991         The International Atomic Energy Agency placed a seal over storage bunkers holding conventional explosives known as HMX and RDX and PETN at the Al-Qaqaa facility south of Baghdad as part of U.N. sanctions that ordered the dismantlement of Iraq's nuclear program.
    (AP, 10/27/04)

1991        Israel ratified the 102-nation Convention Against Torture.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.C14)

1991        Tano Grasso was placed under police protection after he founded Italy’s first anti-racket association. In 2011 Grasso and Lirio Abate held the Trame literary festival in Lamezia Terme focusing on books about the Mafia.
    (Econ, 7/9/11, p.84)
1991        The Italian Communist Party (PCI) disbanded to form the Partito Democratico della Sinistra (PDS), with membership in the Socialist International. It later came to be known as the Left Democrats (DS).
    (Econ, 4/28/07, p.62)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Communist_Party)
1991        In Italy Umberto Bossi founded the Northern League, a regionalist-cum-separatist movement.
    (AP, 4/5/12)
1991        In Italy Giulio Andreotti was made a senator for life.
    (SFEC, 10/27/99, p.A17)
1991        In Italy an anti-laundering act put a limit of 20 million lire on all cash transactions, but no penalties for passbooks containing sums above that amount.
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.71)
1991        In Italy Silvio Berlusconi’s Fininvest group bribed a judge to win control of Mondadori, the country’s largest publishing house. In 2007 Cesare Previti was convicted of buying this judgment. In 2009 a Milan judge ruled that Fininvest should pay damages of $1.1 billion.
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.53)
1991        Italian authorities allowed several ships with about 25,000 Albanians into the port of Bari. When another wave of immigrants showed up a few months later the policy was reversed and they were sent back home.
    (NG, 5/93, p.104)
1991        Ermenegildo Zegna became the first Italian luxury company to enter the Chinese market. By 2007 it had some 52 shops there.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.82)

1991        In Japan Toshikazu Sugaya, a kindergarten bus driver, was arrested in the murder of a 4-year-old girl in Tochigi, north of Tokyo, a year earlier. A local court sentenced him to life imprisonment in 1993, and Japan's top court rejected his appeal in 2000. In 2010 a court officially declared him innocent in the murder and offered a rare apology for a forced confession and wrongful conviction that kept him behind bars for more than 17 years. Sugaya (63), was serving a life sentence when new DNA tests last year showed his innocence.
    (AP, 3/26/10)
1991        Ryoei Saito of Japan purchased 2 paintings by Van Gogh and Renoir for $185 million.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1991        Kazakstan established independence.
    (SFC,11/20/97, p.B2)

1991        Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan were left with numerous tailings dumps of radioactive waste following the collapse of the soviet Union. By 2015 cancer rates were rising as radioactive waste leached into the water supply.
    (Econ, 7/11/15, p.40)

1991        Independent Latvia recognized only the citizens of the pre-1940 Latvian state and their descendants. Some 740,000 Russian-speaking residents were made aliens and barred from voting and government sector employment.
    (WSJ, 3/11/05, p.A9)

1991        In Lebanon Pres. Hrawi signed the “Treaty of Brotherhood, Cooperation and Coordination" with Syrian Pres. Hafez Assad. It formalized the intervention of Syria.
    (SFC, 6/2/00, p.A16)(SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)
1991        The civil war in Lebanon ended.
    (SFC, 9/28/98, p.A8)

1991        RUF guerrillas including Sam Bockerie invaded Sierra Leone from Liberia. Charles Taylor formed the guerrillas in 1989.
    (SFC, 5/7/03, p.A11)

1991        Macedonia gained independence from the former Yugoslavia. Its president was Kiro Glogorov. A quarter to a third of the population is Albanian. Its population is about 2 mil. Its capital is Skopje.
    (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mk.html)

1991        In Malaysia authorities banned Mak Yong, a traditional form of dance theater.
    (WSJ, 4/19/06, p.A1)

1991        The Mexican banks were reprivatized.
    (WSJ, 4/1/96, p.A-10)
1991        Mexico shut down an oil refinery in Mexico City. It was said to have belched out 7$ of the city’s air pollution.
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.27)
1991        In Mexico Miguel Aleman Velasco, billionaire from Veracruz State, sold his stake in the media giant Televisa before entering the Senate. His eldest son Miguel Aleman Magnani quickly purchased a new stake.
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A18)
1991        In Mexico Telmex was privatized and sold to Carlos Slim Helu, a stockbroker and the richest man in Latin America. Telmex was sheltered from competition for 6 years and in 2002 controlled 96% of local phone service.
    (WSJ, 10/23/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/16/02, p.A1)

1991        The population of Moldova was about 4.3 million. By 2015 it was believed to be under 3 million.
    (Econ, 11/21/15, p.51)

1991        In Mongolia the government began to eliminate price controls and the cost of living zoomed.
    (NG, 5/93, p.138)
1991        In Mongolia a group of young foreign exchange traders gambled away half the national treasury, $82 mil.
    (SFC, 6/28/96, p.A12)

1991        Khun Sa (1934-2007), Myanmar drug warlord and head of the Shan United Army, became head of the Shan State Restoration Council.
    (Econ, 11/10/07, p.106)

1991        Klaas Bruinsma, gangster and drug baron, was gunned down near an Amsterdam hotel.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.A2)

1991        In Nicaragua the US based Pennwalt Corp. shut down its chlorine plant near Lake Managua and left 60 tons of mercury in the lake.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.A6)

1991        The city of Abuja, Nigeria, officially replaced Lagos as the new capital.
    (SFC, 11/23/06, p.A28)
1991        Ken Saro-Wiwa organized the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People. It demanded $10 billion for environmental damage and royalties from the federal government and Royal Dutch/Shell Corp., and it threatened to secede from Nigeria.
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)

1991        North Korea declared the 4-country armistice referee group a "non-existent organization."
    (WSJ, 3/17/00, p.A1)

1991        Norway became one of the first countries to adopt a carbon tax in an attempt to slow global warming.
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.28)

1991        Pakistan’s government sent  troops to Karachi to quell rising violence. Since then the MQM abandoned democracy and took to the streets in an insurrection.
    (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-6)

1991        Palestinian terrorist Abu Nidal recruited orchestrated the murder of Fatah leader Abu-Iyad, a leader of the Sep 5, 1972, Munich terrorists. Nidal was outraged by Iyad’s softening on the status of Israel.
    (WSJ, 12/21/05, p.D10)

1991        Peruvians desperate for work rushed into the taxi and bus businesses with little training after Peru lowered used-vehicle import tariffs to ease a transport shortage.
    (AP, 7/16/06)
1991        In Peru there was a cholera epidemic.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A4)

1991        Tough environmental laws were laid down in Poland and set to take effect in 1997.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-3A)

1991        Puerto Rico Gov. Rafael Hernandez Colon declared Spanish the island's sole official language. The law was repealed a couple of years later by Gov. Pedro Rosello, whose first official act was to make both English and Spanish the official languages.
    (AP, 5/9/12)

1991        In the Republic of Congo a national conference was convened by reform minded citizens and Denis Sassou Nguesso was stripped of most of his power and national elections were organized.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.D8)

1991        Agnieszka Kotlarska became Miss Poland. She was murdered in 1996.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.A14)

1991        Russian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli built a colossal statue of Christopher Columbus, titled "Birth of a New World," to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Columbus' 1492 arrival in the Western Hemisphere. Several US cities including New York, Miami and Baltimore refused to accept it for reasons ranging from cost to appearance. Puerto Rico accepted the statue as a gift in 1998, using $2.4 million in public funds to bring it to the island after a former mayor envisioned it as the main attraction for Catano, a seaside suburb of San Juan. But officials said it would block airplane flight paths while residents protested plans to demolish homes to make room for it. In 2008 it was placed in storage in Mayaguez. In 2011 San Juan Mayor Jorge Santini said he would consider setting up the statue somewhere in the island's capital.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
1991        In Russia the St. Petersburg Organization of Soldier’s Mothers was founded.
    (SFC, 11/6/98, p.A14)
1991        The Afghan War Invalids Fund was founded in Russia to serve 14,000 amputees and other seriously injured veteran of the 10-year war.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.A13)
1991        The Soviet Union splintered into sovereign nations.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1991)
1991        Yuri Luzhkov, vice-mayor of Moscow, issued Decision No. 285 transferring ownership of prime city real estate to a private company called AO Orgkomitet, of which he was president.
    (WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A14)
1991        Anatoly Sobchak, a law professor, was elected mayor of St. Petersburg. Vladimir Putin, an agent in the KGB, was soon named as his deputy mayor.
    (SFC, 1/1/00, p.D2)
1991        Vadim Bakatin (b.1937), head of the Soviet KGB, presented US Ambassador Robert Strauss with blueprints for the bugs in the US Embassy. Bakatin served as the interior minister of the Soviet Union from 1988 to 1990. He was the last chairman of KGB in 1991 before it ceased to exist with the collapse of the Soviet Union. He later served as the first chairman of Interrepublican Security Service between 1991 and 1992. In 1993 he noted that although the myth about the KGB’s invincibility had collapsed, the agency itself was very much alive.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vadim_Bakatin)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.26)
1991        The Russian government, following Soviet collapse, scrapped the national anthem, and replaced it with an instrumental piece by 19th-century Russian composer Mikhail Glinka.
    (AP, 8/27/09)
1991        The Moscow Radisson-Slavyanskaya hotel and the adjoining Americom Business Center was founded by US businessman, Paul Tatum (1955-1996).
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.A1)(SFC, 11/5/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A19)

1991        In Saudi Arabia Khalid bin Sultan was the commander of the Saudi military forces during the Gulf war. He later became the principal owner of Al-Hayat, an Arabic language daily published in London.
    (SFC, 1/4/97, p.A3)

1991        In Margate, Scotland, Vicky Hamilton (15) was last seen. In 2007 her skeleton was discovered at a house where handyman Peter Tobin used to live. Her remains were found during a search for another missing teenager, Dinah McNicol (18) from the county of Essex, eastern England, who was last seen returning from a 1991 music festival. The remains of McNicol were found a few days after the Hamilton find. Tobin (61) was charged with the murders.
    (AP, 11/16/07)(AFP, 11/17/07)

1991        In Somalia dictator Barre fell from power and the northeast corner of the country declared itself the independent Republic of Somaliland.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5)(SFEC,11/23/97, p.A25)

1991        Thousands of Bantus fled Somalia for Kenya. In 1999 the US designated this group of people as persecuted and eligible for resettlement in the US.
    (NW, 9/2/02, p.35)

1991        South Africa signed on to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. South Africa had secretly built several bombs but dismantled them before signing on to the NPT. 
    (Econ, 6/10/06, p.23)
1991        Afrikaner nationalists led by Prof. Carel Boshoff, son-in-law of the late PM Hendrik Verwoerd, founded the Orania enclave in the desert of South Africa with a ban on using black laborers for menial tasks.
    (SFC, 11/25/02, p.A8)
1991        In South Africa Eugene TerreBlanche provoked a street battle that left 3 people dead.
    (SFC, 6/16/99, p.B2)
1991        Charles D. Moody, Univ. of Michigan vice-president for minority affairs, led a delegation to bestow an honorary doctorate to Nelson Mandela. It had been awarded in absentia in 1990.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.16)

1991        Sudan adopted a federal system with nine states, matching the nine provinces that had existed from 1948 to 1973. The states were subdivided into 66 provinces, and then into 281 local government areas.
    (www.statoids.com/usd.html)
1991        Sudan issued a new penal code imposing death for a sweeping range of beliefs that can be categorized as apostasy.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.53)
1991        The Sudan People’s Liberation Army, the main rebel group, began to divide along tribal lines and now four factions control the south.
    (SFC, 4/15/96,A-8)
1991        In Sudan the National Democratic Alliance began as an opposition grouping.
    (WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A19)
1991        In Sudan an Arab tribe sought to resolve ancient disputes over land and water rights by attacking the Zaghawa, Fur, and Massalit peoples in Darfur. Arab groups launched a campaign in southwestern Darfur State that resulted in the destruction of some 600 non-Arab villages and the deaths of about 3,000 people. In southern Sudan the Nuer tribe massacred Dinka civilians in Bor. Some Dinka later said tens of thousands of women and children were killed, a number the Nuer called an exaggeration.
    (www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/36028.htm)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.50)
1991        Sudanese intelligence approached Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan and invited him to move to Khartoum, which he did.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A20)

1991        Sweden’s right-wing government passed a law allowing charities, religious organizations, groups of parents and businesses to open schools and get as much state money per student as state-run schools.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.24)
1991        Sweden cancelled its financial transactions tax (FTT).
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.20)

1991        Swiss-based Roche Corp. paid Cetus Corp. of Emeryville, Ca., $300 million for its PCR gene amplification business, a DNA copying method that became the foundation for genetic diagnostics.
    (SFC, 3/13/09, p.A10)
1991        A dye-sensitized solar cell, also known as Gratzel cells, was invented by Michael Gratzel and Brian O'Regan at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. He pioneered research on energy and electron transfer reactions in mesoscopic-materials and their optoelectronic applications.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dye-sensitized_solar_cell)

1991        Tajikistan gained independence from the Soviet Union.
    (SFC, 4/30/97, p.A6)

1991        In Tunisia military officers allegedly held secret meetings with a view to toppling Ben Ali. The case became known as the "Bakaret Essahel affair", named after a village 45 km (28 miles) south of Tunis. The officers involved were tortured.
    (AFP, 4/7/12)

1991        Turkmenistan gained independence.
    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.A14)

1991        Turkey abolished the price controls that propped up its state-owned tobacco company.
    (WSJ, 9/11/98, p.A1)

1991        Ukraine deregulated prices.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.86)

1991        The United Nations Compensation Commission was established after the allies’ victory in the Gulf War to settle claims filed by individuals, corporations and governments who suffered due to the war.
    (WSJ, 8/18/97, p.A1)
1991        The UN’s health agency destroyed nearly 200 million doses of smallpox vaccine because it lacked the $25,000 a year for storage.
    (WSJ, 11/30/01, p.A1)
1991        The UN began its Change for Good operation to help support the Children's Fund. The program recruited flight attendants to collect left over change in foreign currencies from passengers returning to the US. By 2002 the program raised some $31 million.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.C3)
1991        The UN banned fishing drift nets longer than 2.5 km. Some had been as long as 50k.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.52)

1991        Vozrozhdeniye Island (Renaissance Island) in the Aral Sea became the property of Kazakstan and Uzbekistan.
    (SFC, 3/24/03, p.A5)
1991        In Uzbekistan Birlik (Unity) political party was set up. It was outlawed several years later along with other opposition groups, which forced its leaders into exile. The party's several attempts to reregister in later years have failed.
    (AP, 3/15/07)
1991        In Uzbekistan Mansur Maqsudi married Gulnora Karimova, the daughter of the president.
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A1)
1991        Mansur Maqsudi and his brother Fareed approached Coca Cola with an offer to bottle Coca Cola products in Uzbekistan.
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A6)

1991        Pope John Paul II put forth his encyclical "Centesimus Annus," on the dignity of the human person and the free economy in the free society.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)

1991        Venezuela’s Senate voted to hold Jaime Lusinchi (b.1924), a former President (1984-1989), "politically responsible" for multibillion-dollar fraud, though he has never been tried on corruption charges.
    (AP, 3/16/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaime_Lusinchi)
1991        In Venezuela the Compania Anonima Nacional Telefonos de Venezuela (CANTV) was privatized. In 2007 Pres. Chavez planned to transfer the company into state hands.
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.33)

1991        In Western Sahara a cease-fire was declared between the Polisario Front and Morocco. The 2 parties agreed on an all-or-nothing referendum to be held in 1998.
    (SFC, 5/15/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A12)

1991        Yugoslavia exported 149 M-84 tanks to Kuwait. They were assembled in Croatia from components made throughout Yugoslavia.
    (Econ, 1/8/11, p.52)

1991        In Zaire Etienne Tshisekedi was installed as prime minister after Mobutu was forced by foreign and domestic pressure to allow multiparty politics and accept a government formed by the opposition.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A16)
1991        In Zaire riots by unpaid soldiers killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
    (SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A4)

1991        In Zambia Pres. Kaunda was voted out of office. Pres. Frederick Chiluba and his Movement for Multi-Party Democracy won.
    (SFC, 5/22/96, p.A9)(SFC, 6/5/96, p.C16)
1991        Xu Jianxue arrived in Zambia and began a civil-engineering and construction firm with his 4 brothers. Some 300 Chinese lived in Zambia at this time. By 2006 the number was estimated at 3,000.
    (Econ, 10/28/06, p.53)

1991-1992    Some 350,000 Somalis died from disease, starvation and civil war.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.A25)

1991-1993    60 Minutes was again the top ranking network show on television for two seasons with rankings of 21.7 and 21.6%.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)
1991-1993    Ecuador’s government overestimated domestic crude oil demand and to boost its share of production from Texaco operated wells. It then sold the oil on int’l. markets depriving Texaco of profits. In 2011 Chevron, which acquired Texaco in 2001, won a $96 million judgement against Ecuador.
    (SFC, 9/1/11, p.D3)
1991-1993    In Togo a democracy movement was suppressed, strikes ruined the economy and the infrastructure deteriorated.
    (SFC, 6/25/97, p.A8)

1991-1994    Bank of America extended full-service branches into supermarkets throughout California.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.B4)
1991-1994    In Russia the life expectancy for males fell by five years during this period. The drop was later attributed to mass privatization.
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.15)

1991-1994    Emmanuel "Toto" Constant headed the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti. He was also a paid US CIA agent and members of FRAPH were believed responsible for many of the 3,000 political killings over this period. Louis-Jodel Chamblain co-founded FRAPH.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A14)(ST, 3/2/04, p.A3)
1991-1995    Argentina shipped weapons to Ecuador and Croatia. The guns were initially shipped to Panama and Bolivia and the Argentine government later blamed arms dealers for their diversion. In 1996 Oscar Camilion stepped down as defense minister for his roll in the arms shipments. In 1998 Horacio Estrada, a retired navy captain, was found shot to death. Four days earlier prosecutors had begun questioning him about the 1991-1995 arms shipments.
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, p.A24)
1991-1995    Meles Zenawi (b.1956) served as Chairman of the EPRDF and President of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia.
    (www.brandt21forum.info/BioAfricaCom-Zenawi.htm)
1991-1995    In Kenya an estimated 1500 were killed and 300,000 forced from their homes in clashes between Pres. Daniel arap Moi’s Kalenjin ethnic group and the Kikuyu, Luo and Luhya tribes over this time.
    (SFC, 6/19/97, p.A12)
1991-1995    In Mexico in 1998 the Publico newspaper reported that Jalisco state officials had shifted almost $20 million out of accounts meant for charity and that at least $7 million went into PRI coffers during this period.
    (SFC, 6/6/98, p.A11)
1991-1995    Yugoslavia was put under a UN arms embargo.
    (SFC, 7/2/02, p.A6)

1991-1996    Doug Tompkins, founder of Esprit Corp., has spent over $14 million to purchase the sprawling wild lands of Pumalin, Chile, as a nature sanctuary. His townhouse and office building are located in the coastal city of Puerto Montt. The deal for some 700,000 acres was concluded in 2001.
    (SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.5)(SFC, 7/4/01, p.A10)

1991-1996    In India Jayalalitha Jayaram, a former movie star, served as the chief minister of Tamil Nadu. She was voted out of office in disgrace.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.D2)

1991-1997    Russia went into an economic downfall called the Great Contraction. The decline wiped out the US equivalent of $3 trillion.
    (WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A1)

1991-1998    James Johnson served as CEO of Fannie Mae. During this period he lobbied Congress, eviscerated regulators and courted mortgage lenders to increase home ownership feathering his and fellow executive nests along the way.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_A._Johnson_%28businessman%29)(Econ, 10/15/11, p.99)
1991-1998    Sadako Ogata was elected as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. In 1996 that called for providing food and shelter for some 23 million refugees.
    (Hem. 7/96, p.19)

1991-1999    UNITA rebels in Angola raised an estimated $3-4 billion through diamond sales.
    (SFC, 7/30/99, p.A13)

1991-2001    Chile’s capital controls during this period made foreigners leave part of their investment on deposit with the central bank where it earned no interset. Research later showed that this made it harder for small companies to raise fund and had serious negative microeconomic effects.
    (Econ, 10/12/13, SR p.12)

1991-2005    The US spent some $7 billion on Russian nuclear security.
    (WSJ, 9/26/05, p.A1)

1991-2002    In Sierra Leone an 11-year civil war began and by 1996 10,000 had been killed. Foday Sankoh’s Revolutionary United Front began fighting the bush war. In 1998 Sankoh was charged with treason. By 2002 some 50-200 thousand people were killed and a third of the country’s 6 million people were forced to flee.
    (WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 6/6/97, p.E2)(SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)(Econ, 6/2/07, p.48)

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