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Timeline 1993 (B): July-End

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1993        Jul 1, The space shuttle Endeavour returned from a 10-day mission.
    (AP, 7/1/98)
1993        Jul 1, In San Francisco Gian Luigi Ferri (55) opened fire with a TEC-DC9 semiautomatic pistol at the 34th floor law offices of Petit & Martin at 101 California St. He killed 8 people, wounded six and then committed suicide.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.A17)(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.A11)(SSFC, 7/1/18, DB p.50)

1993        Jul 2, The White House acknowledged that it had erred in firing seven travel office employees and urging the FBI to investigate them.
1993        Jul 2, Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, some of whose followers were accused in the bombing of the World Trade Center, surrendered to immigration officials in New York City.
    (AP, 7/2/98)
1993        Jul 2, In Turkey writers and artists, along with two hotel staff, were killed when an angry mob set fire to the Madimak hotel in the Anatolian city of Sivas, where they had been holding a conference as part of an Alevi cultural festival. Islamist protesters had been angered by the presence of the writer Aziz Nesin (d.1995) who had questioned the authenticity of the Koran and also sought to translate Salman Rushdie's controversial novel "The Satanic Verses". Two protesters were also killed, bringing the total death toll to 37.
    (AFP, 7/2/18)

1993        Jul 3, Steffi Graf of Germany won her third consecutive Wimbledon title as she defeated Jana Novotna of the Czech Republic.
    (AP, 7/3/98)
1993        Jul 3, Hall of Fame pitcher Don Drysdale died in Montreal, Canada, at age 56.
    (AP, 7/3/98)
1993        Jul 3, Ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and Haiti's military chief, Lt. Gen. Raoul Cedras, separately signed an accord designed to return Aristide to power.
    (AP, 7/3/98)

1993        Jul 4, Pilar Fort was crowned the 25th Miss Black America.
    (Maggio, 98)
1993        Jul 4, Pete Sampras won the men's title at Wimbledon, defeating fellow American Jim Courier.
    (AP, 7/4/03)
1993        Jul 4, South African leaders F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela received the Liberty Medal in a ceremony outside Philadelphia's Independence Hall.
    (AP, 7/4/03)
1993        Jul 4, Pizza Hut blimp deflated & landed safely on W 56th street in NYC.
    (Maggio, 98)

1993        Jul 5, President Clinton left Washington for a Group of Seven summit in Japan.
    (AP, 7/5/98)
1993        Jul 5, Harrison E. Salisbury (b.1908), US journalist (NY Times), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harrison_E._Salisbury)
1993        Jul 5, A United Nations team left Iraq after trying for more than a month to persuade the Baghdad government to allow surveillance cameras at two former missile test sites.
    (AP, 7/5/98)
1993        Jul 5, In eight separate incidents, the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) kidnapped a total of 19 Western tourists traveling in southeastern Turkey. The hostages, including U.S. citizen Colin Patrick Starger, were released unharmed after spending several weeks in captivity.
    (http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2001/issue4/jv5n4a5.htm)

1993        Jul 6, On the eve of the Group of Seven summit in Tokyo, President Clinton and Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa expressed optimism about resolving a contentious trade dispute between their countries.
    (AP, 7/6/98)

1993        Jul 7, The Group of Seven nations, on the first day of their economic summit in Tokyo, unveiled a long-sought agreement on world trade. Prior to the summit opening, President Clinton delivered a speech at Waseda University.
    (AP, 7/7/03)
1993        Jul 7, Mia Zapata (27), a rising punk-rock star, was last seen alive in Seattle. In 2003 Jesus C. Mezquia (b.1965), who lived in Seattle at the time of the rape and murder, was arrested in Florida on DNA evidence. On March 25, 2004, a jury convicted Florida fisherman Jesus Mezquia of her murder and he was sentenced to 36 years in prison.
    (SSFC, 1/12/03, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mia_Zapata#Death)

1993        Jul 8, A jury in Boise, Idaho, acquitted white separatist Randy Weaver and a co-defendant of slaying a federal marshal in a shootout at a remote mountain cabin.
    (AP, 7/8/98)
1993        Jul 8, Leaders of the Group of Seven, in the second day of their Tokyo summit, warned against the dismembering of Bosnia, but backed away from a threat to use force.
    (AP, 7/8/03)
1993        Jul 8, In Latvia Guntis Ulmanis was sworn in as president.
    (BN, 10/97, p.3)

1993        Jul 9, Leaders of Bosnia's Muslim-led government rejected a plan to divide the country into three ethnically separate republics.
    (AP, 7/9/98)
1993        Jul 9, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Group of Seven leaders as they concluded their three-day summit in Tokyo.
    (AP, 7/9/98)

1993        Jul 10, President Clinton ended his visit to Japan, then traveled to South Korea, where in a speech to the National Assembly he denounced communist North Korea for raising the specter of "nuclear annihilation."
    (AP, 7/10/98)
1993        Jul 10, Kenyan runner Yobes Ondieki became the first man to run 10,000 meters in less than 27 minutes.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1993        Jul 11, President Clinton wrapped up his visit to South Korea with a visit to the Demilitarized Zone separating South and North Korea; he then flew to Hawaii, where he placed a wreath at the site of the sunken battleship USS Arizona at Pearl Harbor.
    (AP, 7/11/98)
1993        Jul 11, In Des Moines, Iowa, severe flooding shut down a water system serving 250,000 residents.
    (AP, 7/11/98)

1993        Jul 12, Andrew Lloyd Webber's musical "Sunset Boulevard" opened in London.
    (www.reallyuseful.com/rug/shows/sunset/)
1993        Jul 12, 196 people were killed when an earthquake measuring a magnitude of 7.8 struck northern Japan.
    (AP, 7/12/98)
1993        Jul 12, In Somalia a mob avenging a deadly United Nations attack on the compound of Mohamed Farrah Aidid killed Dan Eldon (22), a US photo-journalist working for Reuters, and three colleagues. They were stoned and beaten to death at the scene of a bombing by UN forces of a house believed to be the headquarters of Gen’l. Aidid.
    (SFEM, 11/16/97, p.30)(AP, 7/12/98)

1993        Jul 13, The American League defeated the National League in the All-Star Game, 9-3, in Baltimore.
    (AP, 7/13/98)
1993        Jul 13, Race car driver Davey Allison died in Birmingham, Ala., of injuries suffered in a helicopter crash.
    (AP, 7/13/98)
1993        Jul 13, A.K. Ramanujan (b.1929), Indian poet and scholar, died in Chicago. In 1999 his collected essays were published.
    (WSJ, 4/4/09, p.W8)(www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Ramanujan.html)

1993        Jul 14, President Clinton visited flood-stricken Iowa for the second time in 10 days, telling flood victims to "hang in there."
    (AP, 7/14/98)

1993        Jul 15, Authorities in Los Angeles announced eight arrests in connection with an alleged plot by white supremacists to ignite a race war by bombing a black church and killing prominent black Americans. Christopher Fisher, leader of the Fourth Reich Skinheads, was later sentenced to more than 8 years in federal prison while defendant Carl Daniel Boese was sentenced to nearly 5 years in prison; both had pleaded guilty to arson and conspiracy charges.
    (AP, 7/15/03)

1993        Jul 16, In Oakland Ca., Sizzler Restaurant manager Anthoney Vaughn was shot and killed during a robbery by 2 men at 2710 Telegraph Ave. In 2012 Charles Luckett (58) was charged with Vaughn’s murder after biological evidence linked him to the scene.
    (SFC, 6/27/12, p.C2)
1993        Jul 16, The surging Mississippi River charged through a levee at West Quincy, Mo., closing the Bayview Bridge, the only bridge across the river to Illinois for more than 200 miles.
    (AP, 7/16/98)

1993        Jul 17, President Clinton, with several Cabinet members in tow, traveled to Arnold, Mo., where he heard the governors of eight flood-stricken states appeal for more financial assistance; however, he held out little hope the government could offer a total bailout.
    (AP, 7/17/98)

1993        Jul 18, FBI Director William Sessions continued to resist White House suggestions he step down, saying he would resign only if President Clinton asked him to. Sessions was fired by Clinton the next day.
    (AP, 7/18/03)

1993        Jul 18, In Pakistan Shariq and Ishaq Khan resigned under army pressure. An interim government, headed by former world bank VP Moeen Qureshi, called for new elections.
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)

1993        Jul 19, President Clinton fired FBI Director William Sessions, citing "serious questions" about Sessions' conduct and leadership.
    (HN, 7/19/98)
1993        Jul 19, President Clinton announced a compromise allowing homosexuals to serve in the military, but only if they refrained from all homosexual activity, under a compromise dubbed "don't ask, don't tell, don't pursue."
    (HN, 7/19/98)(AP, 7/19/08)
1993        Jul 19, Szymon Goldberg (84), Polish-born violinist, conductor, died in Japan. He became a US citizen in 1953 and two years later founded the Netherlands Chamber Orchestra.
    (http://memory.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/loc.natlib.ihas.200152693/default.html)

1993        Jul 20, Vincent Foster Jr., deputy White House council, was found dead in a Virginia Park near Washington. His death was claimed to be a suicide. An eye-witness later claimed to see “suspicious-looking man" and a car with Arkansas license plates not far from the scene. His death was later concluded to be a suicide. Information relating to these events were later leaked by a source identified as "Deep Water."
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A7)(SFC, 7/16/97, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A24)(AP, 7/20/98)
1993        Jul 20, A day after firing William Sessions as FBI director, President Clinton named federal judge Louis Freeh (b.1950) to replace him. Freeh served until June, 2001.
    (AP, 7/20/98)(WSJ, 6/14/02, p.A4)

1993        Jul 21, More rain set back cleanup and recovery efforts in parts of the Midwest; Transportation Secretary Federico Pena examined flood damage along the Mississippi in Keokuk, Iowa.
    (AP, 7/21/98)

1993        Jul 22, Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa agreed to resign, following big election losses by the scandal-plagued Liberal Democrats.
    (AP, 7/22/98)

1993        Jul 23, US Surgeon General-designate Joycelyn Elders stuck by her firm stands on sex education and AIDS prevention in a one-day confirmation hearing on Capitol Hill.
    (AP, 7/23/98)
1993        Jul 23, White House deputy counsel Vincent W. Foster Jr. was buried near Hope, Ark., three days after taking his own life in a Virginia park.
    (AP, 7/23/98)
1993        Jul 23, In South Carolina Larry Demery and Daniel Green came upon James Jordan sleeping in his car and proceeded to rob him. As Jordan awoke Green shot Jordan, the 56-year-old father of basketball star Michael Jordan. Green was found guilty of murder in April 1995, largely based on the testimony of his life-long friend, Larry Demery, and was sentenced to life in prison. Demery pleaded guilty in May 1995 and was sentenced to life in prison. Both killers were sentenced at the Robeson County Courthouse in Lumberton, North Carolina.
    (SFC, 5/21/96, p.A-3)(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_n1_v88/ai_16951730)
1993        Jul 23, British Prime Minister John Major survived a vote of confidence and a reluctant House of Commons approved a treaty of European union on his terms.
    (AP, 7/23/97)
1993        July 23, A handful of men shot and killed 6 children and teenagers at the Candelaria Cathedral and 2 more at the Museum of Modern Art in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In 1996 one of the four men accused, former police officer Nelson dos Santos Cunha, confessed to having taken part. About 2,000 children roam Rio’s streets and in 1994, 936 youths under 18 were murdered. In 1996 a court cleared 2 policemen and another man in killings. Two other policemen were convicted earlier. In 1997 a court reduced the sentence of Cunha from 261 years to 18 years. In 1998 Marcos Aurelio Alcantara (30) was convicted and sentenced to 204 years in jail.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, A-14)(SFC, 11/28/96, p.B6)(WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/20/97, p.A1)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.A14)

1993        Jul 24, US House Ways and Means Chairman Dan Rostenkowski denied allegations he'd received embezzled funds, saying he had engaged in "no illegal or unethical conduct."
    (AP, 7/24/98)
1993        Jul 24, The Russian government announced it would invalidate billions of pre-1993 rubles.
    (AP, 7/24/98)

1993        Jul 25, Israel launched its heaviest artillery and air assault on Lebanon since 1982 in an attempt to eradicate Hezbollah and Palestinian guerrilla threats. Guerrillas fired rockets into Israel. The fighting ended July 31 with a U.S.-brokered cease-fire. Israel and Hezbollah then agreed not to attack civilian targets, but the cease-fire was short lived.
    (AP, 7/25/98)(SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)

1993        Jul 26, President Clinton launched a harder sell for his budget at a conference in Chicago, accusing Republicans of gridlock.
    (AP, 7/26/98)
1993        Jul 26, In the SF Bay Area Pat Hatfield founded the Colma Historical Association.
    (www.colmahistory.org/History.htm)(Ind, 9/8/98, p.1A)
1993        Jul 26, Ret. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway (98), US Army Chief of Staff (1953-55), died in Fox Chapel, Pa.
    (AP, 7/26/98)
1993        Jul 26, A Boeing 737-500 crashed in South Korea and 68 people were killed.
    (http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19930726-1)

1993        Jul 27, IBM reported a record $8.4 billion quarterly loss.
    (AP, 7/27/98)
1993        Jul 27, Boston Celtics star Reggie Lewis died after collapsing on a Brandeis University basketball court during practice; he was 27.
    (AP, 7/27/98)
1993        Jul 27, Israeli guns and aircraft pounded southern Lebanon in reprisal for rocket attacks by Hezbollah guerrillas.
    (HN, 7/27/98)
1993        Jul 27, Bombs exploded in Rome and Milan, killing at least five people.
    (AP, 7/27/98)

1993        Jul 28, President Clinton declared himself ready to provide air power to protect peacekeepers in Bosnia if he received a request from the United Nations.
    (AP, 7/28/98)

1993        Jul 29, The Israeli Supreme Court acquitted retired Ohio autoworker John Demjanjuk of being Nazi death camp guard "Ivan the Terrible," and threw out his death sentence. Demjanjuk was set free. Soviet archives opened after 1991 seemed to prove that he was not Ivan the Terrible.
    (AP, 7/29/98)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.98)

1993        Jul 30, Bosnia's outgunned Muslim-led government abandoned its efforts to hold the region together, agreeing to a preliminary accord to divide the former Yugoslav republic into three ethnic states.
    (AP, 7/30/98)

1993        Jul 31, The Missouri River overflowed. It was just part of the massive flooding throughout the Midwest.
    (WSJ, 9/11/96, p.A20)
1993        Jul 31, A U.S.-brokered truce halted Israel's weeklong military offensive in southern Lebanon, which was launched in retaliation for guerrilla attacks that killed seven Israeli troops.
    (HN, 7/31/98)
1993        Jul 31, Belgium's King Baudouin I died at age 62; he was succeeded by his brother, Prince Albert.
    (AP, 7/31/03)

1993        Jul, William Stafford, former poet laureate of the US from Portland, Or., completed a set of poems for the US Forest Service for the North Cascade Scenic Highway in Washington. He died a month later at 79.
    (WSJ, 10/7/97, p.A20)

1993        Jul, The first American ground troops entered the former Yugoslavia as 300 Americans joined a UN peacekeeping force in Macedonia.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)

1993        Jul, In Italy the modern art museum in central Milan was damaged by bombs. Two churches in Rome were also damaged, including the Basilica of St. John Lateran, between May and July. [see May 20]
    (SFEC, 6/7/98, p.A23)

1993        Jul, In Japan the Aum Shinri Kyo cult again pumped a slurry of liquid anthrax into a sprayer and shot it near the Imperial Palace and around central Tokyo without success.
    (SFC, 5/27/98, p.A12)

1993         Jul, Ricardo Salinas Pliego won a privatization auction of Mexico’s government-run TV Azteca with a bid of $643 million. It later emerged that he had borrowed nearly $30 million from Raul Salinas, the brother of then-Pres. Carlos Salinas (no relation), prompting some to question whether the sale had been rigged.
    (WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/8/05, p.A11)

1993        Jul, In Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, a 6-story hotel collapsed and crushed 102 people.
    (SFC, 11/26/96, p.B1)

1993        Aug 1, The city of St. Louis found itself besieged by the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, which had swelled to record levels after months of flooding in nine Midwestern states.
    (AP, 8/1/98)
1993        Aug 1, Ewing Marion Kauffman (b.1916) founder of Marion Laboratories (1950) and the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation (1966), died.
    (www.kauffman.org/ewingkauffman.cfm)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ewing_Kauffman)

1993        Aug 2, In a dramatic scene shown on national television, Jessica, a 2 1/2-year-old girl at the center of a custody battle, was removed from the Michigan home of Jan and Roberta DeBoer and turned over to her biological parents, Dan and Cara Schmidt of Iowa.
    (AP, 8/2/98)

1993        Aug 3, The US Senate voted 96-3 to confirm Supreme Court nominee Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
    (AP, 8/3/98)
1993        Aug 3, James Jordan (b.1936), the father of basketball star Michael Jordan, was found dead in a South Carolina creek, 11 days after he was slain; his remains were not identified until Aug. 13.
    (AP, 8/3/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_R._Jordan,_Sr.)

1993        Aug 4, The US Senate approved a $5.8 billion disaster bill for Midwestern flood victims.
    (AP, 8/4/98)
1993        Aug 4, A federal judge sentenced Los Angeles police officers Stacey Koon and Laurence Powell to 2 1/2 years in prison for violating Rodney King's civil rights.
    (AP, 8/4/98)
1993        Aug 4, Rwandan Hutu's and Tutsi's negotiated power-sharing agreement in Arusha, Tanzania. It was viewed as a sellout by extremist leaders of the Hutu majority.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Rwanda)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)

1993        Aug 5, The U.S. House of Representatives passed President Clinton's budget plan by a close vote of 218-216.
    (AP, 8/5/98)
1993        Aug 5, Japan's Cabinet resigned, paving the way for the end of 38 years of rule by the Liberal Democratic Party.
    (AP, 8/5/03)

1993        Aug 6, The U.S. Senate joined the House in passing President Clinton's budget plan, 51-50, with a tie-breaking vote cast by Vice President Al Gore.
    (AP, 8/6/98)
1993        Aug 6, Louis Freeh won US Senate confirmation to be director of the FBI.
    (AP, 8/6/98)
1993        Aug 6, Ben Klassen (b.1918), founder of the racist Creativity Movement (1973), committed suicide. He had made a packet of money by inventing an electric-can opener and spent it on printing copies of his books, which included “Nature’s Eternal Religion" and “The White Man’s Bible." Creativity almost died out as a religion until the New Church of the Creator was established three years later by Matthew F. Hale as its Pontifex Maximus (high priest). In January, 2003, Hale was incarcerated for plotting with the movement's head of security, Anthony Evola (an FBI informant), to murder a federal judge.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Church_of_the_Creator)
1993        Aug 6, Morihiro Hosokawa was elected the new prime minister of Japan by the country's lower house of Parliament. The Liberal Democratic Party was ousted after ruling since 1955. Hosokawa had formed the Japan New Party in May 1992. It ruled for only 8 months.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 217)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.B-13)(AP, 8/6/98)(Econ, 11/10/07, p.52)

1993        Aug 7, The public got its first glimpse inside Buckingham Palace as people were given the opportunity to tour the London home of Queen Elizabeth II. Proceeds from ticket sales were earmarked to help repair fire damage at Windsor Castle.
    (AP, 8/7/98)

1993        Aug 8, Six people were killed when their balloon hit a power line near Aspen, Colorado, tearing off the basket and sending it plunging 30 meters to the ground.
    (AP, 2/26/13)
1993        Aug 8, Freddie Woodruff (b.1947), CIA agent chief in Tbilisi, Georgia, was shot and killed during an outing with friends. Georgian authorities charged Anzor Sharmaidze (20), a volunteer soldier, with the murder. Sharmaidze confessed under torture and later said he was framed for the murder. In 2008 Sharmaidze was granted parole from prison.
    (WSJ, 10/18/08, p.A1)(http://public.cq.com/docs/hs/hsnews110-000002604568.html)(WSJ, 10/27/08, p.a12)
1993        Aug 8, In Somalia, four U.S. soldiers were killed when a land mine was detonated underneath their vehicle. This prompted President Clinton to order Army Rangers to try to capture Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
    (AP, 8/8/98)

1993        Aug 9, Reputed "Hollywood Madam" Heidi Fleiss pleaded innocent in Los Angeles to five counts of pandering and one count of selling cocaine. Fleiss was convicted in 1994 of three counts of pandering and acquitted of the drug charge, but the verdicts were later thrown out due to jury misconduct. She eventually pleaded guilty to attempted pandering.
    (AP, 8/9/98)
1993        Aug 9, Mohamed M. Tabet (54), commissar of Casablanca, was executed by firing squad. He had committed violent acts against some 16000 women.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7lwt4)

1993        Aug 10, President Clinton signed a massive deficit-reduction bill into law.
    (AP, 8/10/98)
1993        Aug 10, Ruth Bader Ginsburg was sworn in as the second female justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
    (AP, 8/10/98)

1993        Aug 11, President Clinton named Army Gen. John Shalikashvili to be the new chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, succeeding the retiring Gen. Colin Powell.
    (AP, 8/11/98)
1993        Aug 11, Pope John Paul II visited Mexico.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ckmy6)

1993        Aug 12, Pope John Paul II began his third U.S. visit in Denver.
    (AP, 8/12/98)
1993        Aug 12, President Clinton signed a relief package for the flooded Midwest. Clinton also lifted a ban on rehiring air traffic controllers fired for going on strike in 1981.
    (AP, 8/12/98)
1993        Aug 12, The launch of space shuttle Discovery was scrubbed at the last second.
    (AP, 8/12/98)

1993        Aug 13, Negotiators for the US, Canada and Mexico announced they had resolved side issues concerning the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
    (AP, 8/12/98)
1993        Aug 13, US Court of Appeals ruled that congress must save all e-mails.
    (www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3691/is_199401/ai_n8732518)

1993        Aug 14, A jury in New York acquitted Washington lawyer Robert Altman of fraud charges for dealings linked to the Bank of Credit and Commerce International.
    (AP, 8/14/98)
1993        Aug 14, Pope John Paul II denounced abortion and euthanasia as well as sexual abuse by American priests in a speech at McNichols Sports Arena in Denver.
    (AP, 8/14/98)

1993        Aug 15, Pope John Paul II ended his four-day U.S. visit with a farewell address at Denver's Stapleton International Airport in which he denounced the "culture of death" of abortion and euthanasia.
    (AP, 8/15/98)
1993        Aug 15, An Egyptian surrendered peacefully after hijacking a Dutch jet to Germany to demand the U.S. release Muslim cleric Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman.
    (AP, 8/15/98)
1993        Aug 15, Robert W. Kempner (93), German officer of justice in Prussia and special US prosecutor of Nazis, died.
    (http://library.law.columbia.edu/ttp/TTP_LOC.htm)

1993        Aug 16, President Clinton opened his campaign for health care reform with a speech to the nation's governors in Tulsa, Okla.
    (AP, 8/16/98)
1993        Aug 16, New York police rescued business executive Harvey Weinstein from a covered 14-foot-deep pit, where he'd been held for ransom for nearly two weeks.
    (AP, 8/16/98)
1993        Aug 16, Actor Stewart Granger (80) died in Santa Monica, Calif.
    (AP, 8/16/98)

1993        Aug 17, A prosecutor in Wayne County, Mich., charged Dr. Jack Kevorkian under Michigan's ban on assisted suicide for aiding in the death of Thomas Hyde, who suffered from Lou Gehrig's disease. A jury later acquitted Kevorkian. Kevorkian provided patients means and assistance in dying and Michigan’s legislature moved to outlaw his work.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1993)(AP, 8/17/98)

1993        Aug 18, A judge in Sarasota, Fla., ruled that Kimberly Mays, the 14-year-old girl switched at birth with another baby, need never see her biological parents again, in accordance with her stated wishes. However, she later moved in with Ernest and Regina Twigg.
    (AP, 8/18/98)
1993        Aug 18, Tseng "Jim" Peng, electronics tycoon, returned to California from a trip to Taiwan and found his mistress, Ranbing "Jennifer" Ji, stabbed to death and his 5-month-old son suffocated. His wife Lisa Peng was found guilty in 1996 after an initial trial ended in deadlock. Lisa Peng's conviction was reversed in 1999 due to questionable police tactics.
    (SFEC, 10/10/99, p.C5)

1993        Aug 19, Mattel and Fisher Price toys announced a merger.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bxdjz)
1993        Aug 19, Dr. George Tiller was shot and wounded outside an abortion clinic in Wichita, Kan., by Rachelle Shannon. Shannon was later sentenced to eleven years in prison and also ordered to serve 20 additional years for arson and acid attacks at abortion clinics in Oregon, California and Nevada.
    (AP, 8/19/93)

1993        Aug 20, Conjoined twins Angela and Amy Lakeberg were separated at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in an operation that sacrificed Amy, since the sisters shared a common heart and liver tissue. Angela died in June 1994.
    (AP, 8/20/98)

1993        Aug 21, In a serious setback for NASA, engineers lost contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft on a $980 million mission. Its fate remains unknown.
    (AP, 8/21/98)
1993        Aug 21, The US Justice Dept. took over the FTC investigation into the business practices of Microsoft Corp.
    (WSJ, 11/8/99, p.A30)

1993        Aug 22, NASA engineers continued trying, without success, to re-establish contact with the Mars Observer, a day after losing contact.
    (AP, 8/22/98)

1993        Aug 23, Former Detroit police officers Larry Nevers and Walter Budzyn were convicted of second-degree murder in the fatal beating of black motorist Malice Green. Both convictions were later overturned. On retrial, Budzyn was convicted of involuntary manslaughter and sentenced to time served; Nevers was convicted of involuntary manslaughter in April 2000, but had that conviction reversed by an appeals court in March 2003.
    (AP, 8/23/03)
1993        Aug 23, Los Angeles police confirmed that pop star Michael Jackson was the subject of a criminal investigation. Prosecutors began investigating Michael Jackson after a 13-year-old boy said Jackson had sex with him. An out of court settlement was reached for $15-20 mil. The boy’s father later filed suit against Jackson for violating a promise not to discuss the settlement.
    (AP, 8/23/98)(SFC, 6/12/96, p.E3)

1993        Aug 24, The Clinton administration unveiled its proposed revisions to wetlands policy, which would expand protection but also give landowners some flexibility.
    (AP, 8/24/98)
1993        Aug 24, NASA’s Mars Observer, which was supposed to map the surface of Mars, is declared lost.
    (HN, 8/24/99)

1993        Aug 25, The United States applied limited sanctions against China and Pakistan after concluding the Chinese had sold M-11 missile technology to the Pakistanis.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A4)(AP, 8/25/98)

1993        Aug 25, Amy Biehl, Stanford graduate and Fulbright scholar from Newport Beach, Calif., was slain while attempting to drive black friends home to Guguletu outside Cape Town. Four members of the Congress’ youth wing were arrested, convicted and sentenced to 18-year jail terms. They later requested amnesty from the Truth & Reconciliation Commission. In 1998 the 4 men convicted of Biehl’s murder were given amnesty. In 2016 Justine van der Leun authored “We Are Not Such Things," an account of those involved in the Biehl murder.
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.A8)(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/25/98)(Econ, 7/23/16, p.68)

1993        Aug 26, Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman and 14 co-defendants entered innocent pleas in federal court in New York, a day after their indictment on charges of conspiring to wage terrorism against the United States.
    (AP, 8/26/98)
1993        Aug 26, Landlady Dorothea Puente was convicted in Monterey, Calif., of murdering three of her boardinghouse tenants; she was later sentenced to life without parole.
    (AP, 8/26/98)

1993        Aug 27, The U.N. Security Council suspended 2 1/2-month-old economic sanctions against Haiti to spur the country's return to democracy. They were reimposed the following October.
    (AP, 8/27/98)
1993        Aug 27, Gen’l. Ibrahim Babangida ended his rule over Nigeria.
    (www.nigeriabusinessinfo.com/nigeria-elections2003/babangida-regime.htm)

1993        Aug 28, In Australia Jeffrey Gilham (23) allegedly stabbed his father, mother and brother to death in their Sydney home, but told police he killed his sibling in a fit of rage after discovering he had murdered their parents. He pleaded guilty in 1995 to the manslaughter of his brother (25), escaping with a five-year good behavior bond. Gilham was eventually charged with the killings of his parent in February 2006 after 13 years of campaigning by his paternal uncles. In 2009 Jeffrey Gilham was sentenced to life in prison. In 2012 a court found Jeffrey should be acquitted and not retried over the killing of his parents.
    (AFP, 3/11/09)(AFP, 6/25/12)(http://tinyurl.com/6mx57rr)
1993        Aug 28, The Bosnian Parliament ordered President Alija Izetbegovic back to talks on ending 17 months of war with demands to squeeze more territory for the Muslim-led government.
    (AP, 8/28/98)

1993        Aug 29, Negotiations continued between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, with Israel reported on the verge of recognizing the PLO.
    (AP, 8/29/98)
1993        Aug 29, In Rio’s Vigario Geral favela 21 residents were massacred by police to avenge the killing of 4 colleagues. 52 policemen were accused in the massacre and in 1997 Paulo Roberto Alvarenga was the first to be tried. He was sentenced to 450 years in prison but the law limited him to serve no more than 30 years.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vig%C3%A1rio_Geral_massacre)(SFC, 4/28/97, p.A12)(Econ, 4/9/05, p.31)

1993        Aug 30, "The Late Show with David Letterman" premiered on CBS-TV.
    (AP, 8/30/98)
1993        Aug 30, Richard Jordan, US actor (Hunt for Red October, Posse), died at 55, shortly after finishing movie, Gettysburg (Gen Armistead).
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0430151/)
1993        Aug 30, Robert Malval was installed as prime minister of Haiti during a ceremony at the Haitian Embassy in Washington.
    (AP, 8/30/98)
1993        Aug 30, The 150 millionth person visited the Eiffel Tower.
    (www.vor.ru/century/1993.html)
1993        Aug 30, Israel's Cabinet approved a framework for Palestinian autonomy in the occupied territories.
    (AP, 8/30/98)

1993        Aug 31, Mideast peace talks resumed in Washington amid hopes that a historic agreement to establish Palestinian autonomous areas would be concluded within days.
    (AP, 8/31/98)
1993        Aug 31, Hurricane Emily hit North Carolina's Outer Banks, killing three people.
    (AP, 8/31/98)
1993        Aug 31, Russia withdrew its last soldier from Lithuania, the first Baltic nation to eject all former Soviet troops.
    (AP, 8/31/98)
1993        Aug 31, Venezuela’s Congress officially removed President Andres Perez (b.1922) from office. Perez had served 2 terms as presidents (1974-1979, 1989-1993). He was impeached following a scandal on the alleged mishandling of US$17 million from the presidents' special secret fund, used to help Violeta Chamorro's government in Nicaragua.
    (www.expat-today.com/venezuela/expat1.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/orkso)

1993        Aug, In San Francisco the Holy City Zoo comedy club, in operation since 1974, closed its doors at 400 Clement St.
    (SSFC, 7/29/18, DB p.50)
1993        Aug, A 370-pound heroin shipment was seized in New Orleans. In 1997 Thai police seized a Burmese man, Liu Wen Ming, for organizing the shipment. Ming was suspected of being an associate of drug kingpin Khun Sa.
    (SFC, 4/1/97, p.A12)
1993        Aug, Norwegian academic Terje Roed-Larsen and other Norwegian mediators helped broker a secret peace accord in which the Palestinians formally recognized Israel's right to exist and Israel agreed to establish self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza. The accord allowed thousands of PLO guerrillas to return to Palestine without Israeli interference.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, p.A8)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.C3)(AP, 11/12/04)

1993        Sep 1, The Pentagon unveiled a five-year defense plan to further shrink the U.S. military in favor of a lean, high-tech force.
    (AP, 9/1/03)
1993        Sep 1, Louis Freeh was sworn in as director of the FBI.
    (AP, 9/1/99)(WSJ, 9/3/99, p.A12)

1993        Sep 2, The United States and Russia formally ended decades of competition in space by agreeing to a joint venture to build a space station.
    (AP, 9/2/98)

1993        Sep 3, The US Labor Department reported the nation's unemployment rate edged down to a two-year low of 6.7 percent the previous month.
    (AP, 9/3/98)

1993        Sep 4, The Fatah faction of the PLO endorsed a peace accord with Israel.
    (AP, 9/4/98)
1993        Sep 4, Pope John Paul II launched the first papal visit to the former Soviet Union as he began a tour of the Baltic republics.
    (AP, 9/4/98)
1993        Sep 4, Herve Hillechaize (50) died in Los Angeles. The Fantasy Island actor shot himself to death.
    (AP, 9/4/98)

1993        Sep 5, "Jelly's Last Jam" closed at Virginia Theater NYC after 569 performances.
    (http://www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=4684)
1993        Sep 5, "Will Rogers Follies" closed at Palace Theater NYC after 983 performances.
    (http://www.ibdb.com/show.asp?ID=9383)
1993        Sep 5, Claude Renoir, French cinematographer (Spy Who Loved Me), died at 78.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0005841/)
1993        Sep 5, Seven Nigerian soldiers were killed in a militia ambush in Somalia as they went to the aid of other UN peacekeepers surrounded by a stone-throwing mob.
    (AP, 9/5/98)

1993        Sep 6, President Clinton visited South Florida, where he met with residents recovering from Hurricane Andrew.
    (AP, 9/6/98)
1993        Sep 6, Jacquelyn McNealy (24) was wounded and partially paralyzed at a Pine Bluff, Ark., concert that featured Tupac Shakur. In 1996 she won a $16.6 million settlement.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.A3)
1993        Sep 6, Automakers Renault of France and Volvo of Sweden announced they would merge; however, Volvo canceled the deal the following December.
    (AP, 9/6/98)

1993        Sep 7, President Clinton put forth an ambitious plan to "reinvent government" by reducing the federal bureaucracy.
    (AP, 9/7/98)
1993        Sep 7, Dr. Joycelyn Elders was confirmed by the Senate to be surgeon general.
    (AP, 9/7/98)
1993        Sep 7, Two white laborers were convicted in West Palm Beach, Fla., of burning a black tourist from New York; both were later sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 9/7/98)
1993        Sep 7, Hall Bartlett (b.1922), US director, writer and producer, died. His film productions included “Jonathan Livingston Seagull" (1973).
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0058826/)

1993        Sep 8, Joycelyn Elders, M.D., appointed by Pres. Clinton, became the US Surgeon General. She was released Dec 31, 1994, after espousing studies on masturbation and drug legalization. In 1996 she published her autobiography.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.C13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joycelyn_Elders)
1993        Sep 8, German tourist Uwe-Wilhelm Rakebrand was killed by a woman firing from a van as he and his wife drove away from the Miami airport. The gunwoman and an accomplice received life prison sentences; the van's driver received 87 years.
    (AP, 9/8/98)
1993        Sep 8, Christopher Simmons (17), a Missouri high school student, kidnapped, bound and killed Mrs. Shirley Crooks by throwing her into a river from a railroad trestle. He was arrested the next day, confessed and 9 months later was sentenced to death. In 2003 the Missouri supreme Court changed the sentence to life in prison due to Simmons’ age. In 2005 the Supreme Court ruled against the execution of minors.
    (SFC, 11/4/04, p.B3)(Econ, 3/5/05, p.31)
1993        Sep 8, Black gunmen in South Africa launched a series of attacks on black commuters, claiming two dozen lives.
    (AP, 9/8/98)

1993        Sep 9-1993 Sep 14, Hurricane Gert caused 76 deaths. It affected Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua.
    (AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)
1993        Sep 9, PLO leaders and Israel agreed to recognize each other, clearing the way for a peace accord.
    (AP, 9/9/98)
1993        Sep 9, Former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos was buried in his homeland, four years after his death in exile.
    (AP, 9/9/98)
1993        Sep 9, About a hundred Somali gunmen and civilians were killed when U.S. and Pakistani peacekeepers fired on Somalis attacking other peacekeepers.
    (AP, 9/9/98)

1993        Sep 10, The cult series "The X-Files" premiered on Fox Television.
    (AP, 9/10/98)
1993        Sep 10, First lady Hillary Rodham Clinton lashed out at what she called "standpat, negative, nay-saying" opponents of health reform in an address to state legislators at George Washington University.
    (AP, 9/10/98)

1993        Sep 11, Antoine Izmery, a prominent supporter of exiled Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, was shot and killed outside a church in Port-au-Prince; the UN mission accused Haitian armed forces of involvement. Louis-Jodel Chamblain was later convicted in absentia for his role in the murder.
    (AP, 9/11/98)(SFC, 3/24/04, p.A9)
1993        Sep 11, In India car bomb exploded outside the offices of the Indian Youth Congress on Raisina Road in New Delhi, killing nine people. In 2001 Sikh separatist Devinderpal Singh Bhullar (b.1965) was convicted of triggering the bomb and sentenced to death. In 2014 his sentence was commuted to life in prison.
    (AP, 3/31/14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devinder_Pal_Singh_Bhullar)
1993        Sep 11, Austrian born US conductor and author Erich Leinsdorf died in Zurich, Switzerland, at age 81. His work included "Cadenza."
    (AP, 9/11/98)

1993        Sep 12, The space shuttle Discovery blasted off from Cape Canaveral on a 10-day mission.
    (AP, 9/12/98)
1993        Sep 12, Actor Raymond Burr (76) died of liver cancer at his Northern California ranch.
    (AP, 9/12/98)
1993        Sep 12, In San Antonio, Texas, Rodolfo Rodriguez (72), his wife Virginia (62) and Paula Moran (90), a former nanny, were fatally stabbed in a robbery that netted about $300. A grand-nephew of the couple later implicated himself, his brother and Arnold Prieto. In Jan 21, 2015, Prieto (41) was executed for his role in the killings.
    (SFC, 1/22/15, p.A7)(http://tinyurl.com/mv4k33j)

1993        Sep 13, In a historic scene at the White House, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat shook hands after signing an accord granting limited Palestinian autonomy. It gave Arafat control of most of the Gaza Strip and 27% of the West Bank. In 2002 Neal Kozodoy edited ""The Mideast Peace Process: An Autopsy."
    (AP, 9/13/97)(WSJ, 2/11/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)

1993        Sep 14, British tourist Gary Colley was shot and killed, his female companion Margaret Jagger wounded, at a highway rest stop in Florida. Three young men, Aundra Aikins, John Crumitie, and Deron Spear, were arrested charged and convicted. Two suspects later received life sentences; two others received lesser sentences.
    (AP, 9/14/03)(SFC, 8/29/97, p.A8)
1993        Sep 14, Israel and Jordan signed a framework for negotiations, a day after the signing of a PLO-Israeli peace accord.
    (AP, 9/14/03)

1993         Sep 15, Katherine Ann Power, former 60s radical who spent 23 years in hiding, surrendered to authorities at Boston College law school in Newton. She faced charges stemming from a 1970 bank robbery in which Boston police officer Walter Schroeder Sr. (42) was killed. Power pleaded guilty to charges of armed robbery and the reduced charge of manslaughter. On October 6, 1993, she received a five-year federal term, to run concurrently with an 8-12 year state sentence. She was released in 1999.
    (AP, 9/15/98)(www.holysmoke.org/sdhok/dep11.htm)
1993        Sep 15, In Sicily Rev. Giuseppe Puglisi (56), a spokesman against organized crime, was shot in the back of the neck while on the doorstep of his home. Courts later ruled the gunman was carrying out orders by Mafia bosses irritated by the priest's efforts to encourage young people to turn their backs on the mob. In 1999 Giuseppe Graviano, a Mafia boss, was convicted and sentenced to life in prison for ordering the murder. Puglisi was declared a martyr by the Vatican and beatified in 2013, the last formal step before possible sainthood.
    (SFC, 10/6/99, p.C16)(AFP, 9/15/18)

1993        Sep 16, The American TV sitcom Frasier, a spinoff from “Cheers," premiered with John Mahoney (1940-2018) as the cranky dad of pompous sons Frasier and Niles. The show continued to 2004.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frasier)(SFC, 2/7/18, p.A7)
1993        Sep 16, A judge in Berlin convicted three elderly former Communist leaders in the shooting deaths of East Germans who had tried to scale the Berlin Wall.
    (AP, 9/16/98)

1993        Sep 17, President Clinton urged China to cancel an underground nuclear test, assuring the Beijing government it had nothing to fear from the world's other atomic powers.
    (AP, 9/17/98)

1993        Sep 18, Kimberly Clarice Aiken of South Carolina was crowned Miss America at the pageant in Atlantic City, N.J.
    (AP, 9/18/98)

1993        Sep 19, The NBC sitcom "Seinfeld" and the offbeat CBS drama "Picket Fences" each won three trophies at the 45th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards.
    (AP, 9/19/98)
1993        Sep 19, Polish voters turned left in parliamentary elections, giving the most number of seats to the Democratic Left Alliance.
    (AP, 9/19/98)

1993        Sep 20, QVC Network Inc. proposed a $9.5 billion stock and cash merger with Paramount Communications Inc.; however, Viacom eventually won the battle to acquire Paramount.
    (AP, 9/20/98)

1993        Sep 21, The US National and Community Service Trust Act became law under the Clinton administration. It included AmeriCorps, a volunteer national service program for young adults to teach children to read and to build homes for those in need. A modest living allowance was provided along with up to $4,725 in education vouchers for completing one year of service. By 2002 there were some 50,000 participants earning $9,300 per year with education benefits to $9,500.
    (www.nationalservice.gov/pdf/cncs_statute_1993.pdf)(SFEC, 11/30/97, p.A3)(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A3)
1993        Sep 21, The police drama "NYPD Blue" premiered on ABC.
    (AP, 9/21/98)
1993        Sep 21, Russian President Boris Yeltsin announced he was ousting the hard-line, Communist-dominated Congress that had long opposed his reforms.
    (AP, 9/21/98)

1993        Sep 22, President Clinton previewed his health care reform package in an address to a nationally broadcast session of Congress.
    (AP, 9/22/98)
1993        Sep 22, Forty-seven people were killed when an Amtrak passenger train derailed and crashed into Bayou Canot near Mobile, Ala.
    (AP, 9/22/98)
1993        Sep 22, The space shuttle "Discovery" and its five astronauts landed at Kennedy Space Center, ending a 10-day mission.
    (AP, 9/22/98)
1993        Sep 22, Russia’s President Boris Yeltsin disbanded the Supreme Soviet. Yeltsin issued Decree No. 1400 that dissolved the Congress on the ground that the president as a guarantor of the spirit of the constitution could not let a legal deadlock last. Hard-line supporters of the legislature soon rebelled and over 100 people died in Moscow.
    (www.cs.indiana.edu/~dmiguse/Russian/bybio.html)(SFC, 9/9/98, p.A10)

1993        Sep 23, Seattle’s City Council passed a sit/lie ban affecting the downtown area between 7 am and 9 pm. The law was upheld by the US Court of Appeals in 1996.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ybahqyp)(SSFC, 3/28/10, p.A16)(www.sfbos.org/index.aspx?page=1277)
1993        Sep 23, Sydney, Australia, was selected to host the 2000 Summer Olympics, beating Beijing by 2 votes. It was later revealed that 2 African members of the IOC had been bribed the night before the vote.
    (AP, 9/23/98)(SFC, 1/23/99, p.A1)
1993        Sep 23, The Israeli parliament ratified the Israel-PLO accord.
    (AP, 9/23/98)
1993        Sep 23, The South African parliament voted to allow blacks a role in governing.
    (AP, 9/23/98)

1993        Sep 24, Addressing the United Nations, Nelson Mandela asked the world community to lift economic sanctions against South Africa, saying huge foreign investments would help prevent unrest and build a multiracial democracy.
    (AP, 9/24/98)
1993        Sep 24, Norodom Sihanouk was reinstalled as king of Cambodia.
    (HN, 9/24/98)(MC, 9/24/01)
1993        Sep 24, The 1st Israeli was killed by Islamics after PLO signed the peace accord.
    (http://tinyurl.com/dcf7e)
1993        Sep 24, Imelda Marcos, wife of the late Ferdinand Marcos, former dictator of the Philippines, was sentenced to 18 years imprisonment after being found guilty on charges of widespread corruption. Imelda was also noted for her vast shoe collection.
    (www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/philipp.htm)

1993        Sep 25, Three U.S. soldiers in Somalia were killed when their helicopter was downed by a rocket-propelled grenade.
    (AP, 9/25/98)

1993        Sep 26, Eight people emerged from the glass dome of Biosphere Two in the Arizona desert after being sealed inside for two years in an experiment dogged by setbacks and controversy.
    (SFC, 11/25/96, p.A3)(AP, 9/26/98)

1993        Sep 27, Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison, R-Texas, was indicted on charges that, as Texas state treasurer, she'd misused state facilities and employees. The indictment was dismissed for technical reasons; Hutchison was reindicted and later acquitted.
    (AP, 9/27/98)
1993        Sep 27, Retired Gen. James H. Doolittle died in Pebble Beach, Calif., at age 96.
    (AP, 9/27/98)

1993        Sep 28, First lady Hillary Rodham Clinton went to Capitol Hill to begin selling the administration's health care plan to Congress.
    (AP, 9/28/98)
1993        Sep 28, Peter De Vries (b.1910), novelist, essayist (New Yorker), died at 83.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_De_Vries)

1993        Sep 29, Bosnia's parliament spurned an international peace plan, voting overwhelmingly to reject it unless Bosnian Serbs returned land taken by force.
    (AP, 9/29/98)

1993        Sep 30, US Treasury Department issued a report sharply criticizing top officials at the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms for their handling of the February raid on the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas.
    (www.carolmoore.net/waco/waco-treasury-report1.html)
1993        Sep 30, Gen Colin Powell (56) stepped down as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in a retirement ceremony at Fort Myer, Va.
    (AP, 9/30/98)(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A14)
1993        Sep 30, MS Dos 6.2 was released.
    (www.computerhope.com/history/dos.htm)
1993        Sep 30, An estimated 10,000 (28,000) people were killed when an earthquake measuring a magnitude of 6.0-6.4 struck Latur in southern India. Its epicenter was about 350 miles southwest of Jabalpur.
    (SFC, 5/22/97, p.C4)(AP, 9/30/98)(SFC, 3/30/99, p.F2)(AP, 6/22/02)

1993        Sep, American audiences were able to see "The Borrowers" by Mary Norton, an adaptation produced for the BBC by Working Title Television.
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)
1993        Sep, AT&T announced the WorldPartners Association and WorldSource Services geared to multinational customers. Less than a year later MCI announced a joint venture with British Telecom called Concert and Sprint announced plans to join with Deutsche Telecom and France Telecom.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.36)
1993        Sep, Azerbaijan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States.
    (CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)
1993        Sep, In Mexico Raul Salinas lent $29.8 mil for 6 years at 12% to Ricardo Salinas Pliego to buy TV Azteca, Mexico’s 2nd largest network, from the government for $669 mil.
    (SFC, 7/9/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)

1993        Oct 1, The US federal tax on gasoline was raised to 18.3 cents per gallon.
    (www.ncseonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/Transportation/trans-24.cfm)
1993        Oct 1, In Petaluma, Ca. 12-year-old Polly Klaas was kidnapped from her bedroom while playing with two girl friends by a knife-wielding intruder; her body was found more than two months later. 60 days later Richard Allen Davis was arrested for the kidnap and murder of Polly. He was later convicted and sentenced to death.
    (SFC, 4/24/96, p.A-1)(AP, 10/1/98)
1993        Oct 1, The Church of Scientology secured tax-exempt status for its main branch in a settlement with the IRS in which it paid $12.5 million. The church agreed to drop thousands of suits against the IRS. The details were only made public in 1997.
    (WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A1)

1993        Oct 2, Henry Ringling North (83), circus owner (Ringling Bros Circus), died at a Swiss hospital.
    (http://tinyurl.com/cgbza)
1993        Oct 2, Hundreds of opponents of Russian President Boris Yeltsin battled police in Moscow and set up burning barricades in the biggest clash of Russia's 12-day-old political crisis.
    (HN, 10/2/98)
1993        Oct 2, In Son La, Vietnam, 53 members of the Thai minority died in a mass suicide organized by Ca Van Lieng, leader of a doomsday cult.
    (SFC, 3/27/97, p.A19)

1993        Oct. 3, Eighteen US Rangers and Delta Force specialists died in a botched raid in Somalia and over 70 were wounded. In 1999 Mark Bowden published "Black Hawk Dawn," an account of the failed attempt to capture Mohammed Farrah Aidid. At least 500 Somalis were killed and 1,000 injured.
    (WSJ, 10/23/95, p.A-18)(WSJ, 3/11/99, p.A20)(SFEC, 3/28/99, BR p.3)(SSFC, 12/16/01, p.A1)
1993        Oct 3, President Clinton expressed sorrow at the deaths of American soldiers in Somalia, but reaffirmed that U.S. forces would stay in the African nation.
    (AP, 10/3/98)
1993        Oct 3, Boris Yeltsin declared a state of emergency in Moscow, as fighting erupted in the streets between pro- and anti-Yeltsin forces. 62 people died in the violence, that ended two days later when the rebel vice president and speaker of parliament surrendered. A battle at the TV station Ostankino, Moscow, killed as many as 100 people. Cameraman Rory Peck (b.1956) was shot dead by members of the "Vitez" special forces unit of the Russian Interior Ministry while filming the storming by opposition supporters of the Ostankino TV Center.
    (AP, 10/3/98)(http://tinyurl.com/8cg4r)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rory_Peck)

1993        Oct 4, In Somalia US troops blasted their way out of Bakara Market in Mogadishu and left an estimated 500 Somalis dead. Dozens of cheering, dancing Somalis dragged the body of an American soldier through the streets of Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 5/6/99, p.E4)(AP, 10/4/98)
1993        Oct 4, The Russian White House was shelled. In Moscow, the occupation of the Russian parliament building ended as tanks and paratroopers flushed out hard-line opponents of Boris Yeltsin. Rebel parliamentarians led by Vice President Alexander Rutskoi and Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov surrendered after a total of 10 hours. As many as 150 people were killed.
    (HFA, '96, p.40)(AP, 10/4/98)(http://tinyurl.com/8cg4r)

1993        Oct 5, US Army Gen. John Shalikashvili was confirmed by the Senate to head the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
    (AP, 10/5/98)
1993        Oct 5, China set off an underground nuclear blast, ignoring a plea from President Clinton not to do so.
    (AP, 10/5/98)

1993        Oct 6, Basketball superstar Michael Jordan announced his retirement. Jordan attempted a minor-league baseball career, but returned to the Chicago Bulls in March 1995.
    (AP, 10/6/98)
1993        Oct 6, Agnes de Mille (b.1905), US dancer and choreographer (Oklahoma!), died at 88. "Living is a form of not being sure, not knowing what next or how. The moment you know how, you begin to die a little. The artist never entirely knows. We guess. We may be wrong, but we take leap after leap in the dark."
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0210350/)(AP, 1/9/02)
1993        Oct 6, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chief Yasser Arafat held their first official meeting in Cairo, Egypt, to begin work on realizing terms of the Israeli-PLO accord.
    (AP, 10/6/98)

1993        Oct 7, President Clinton ordered more troops, heavy armor and naval firepower to Somalia, but also announced he would pull out all Americans by the end of March 1994.
    (AP, 10/7/98)   
1993        Oct 7, Death claimed actor Cyril Cusack at age 82.
    (AP, 10/7/98)
1993        Oct 7, In Pakistan Benazir Bhutto returned to power after general elections. Nov, Benazir Bhutto was re-elected to office. Murtazza Bhutto, brother of Benazir Bhutto, returned after 16 years in Syria to challenge his sister for the leadership of the ruling party.
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)(WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A18)

1993        Oct 8, The US government issued a report absolving the FBI of wrongdoing in its 51-day siege and final assault in Texas on the Branch Davidian compound, which went up in flames, killing as many as 85 people. It concluded the department and Attorney General Reno made no mistakes and that the cult bore the blame for the fire that destroyed the compound, killing at least 80 people.
    (AP, 10/8/98)
1993        Oct 8, The UN lifted remaining economic sanctions against South Africa.
    (www.anc.org.za/un/gm-93-94b.html)

1993        Oct 9, Special U.S. envoy Robert Oakley traveled to Somalia in an attempt to revive a tentative peace agreement reached by Somali clan leaders.
    (AP, 10/9/98)

1993        Oct 10, In Greece, the Panhellenic Socialist Movement, led by Andreas Papandreou, won a solid majority of seats in parliamentary elections. A handful of dissidents brought down a modernizing ND government in a row over privatization.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, p.B6)(AP, 10/10/98)(Econ, 9/22/07, p.64)       
1993        Oct 10, Thousands of Somalis demonstrated in the capital of Mogadishu to support warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid, an event that coincided with the arrival of special U.S. envoy Robert Oakley.
    (AP, 10/10/98)
1993        Oct 10, In South Korea the Seohae ferry sank killing 292 people.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinking_of_the_MV_Seohae)

1993        Oct 11, In Haiti, army-backed toughs prevented American troops from landing as part of a U.N. peace mission and drove away U.S. diplomats waiting to greet the soldiers.
    (AP, 10/11/98)
1993        Oct 11, In Norway William Nygaard was seriously wounded when he was shot three times in the back near his home in Oslo. Police believed this was linked to the 1989 publication of the Norwegian version of Salman Rushdie's "The Satanic Verses" by a publishing house that Nygaard ran. In 2018 police formally accused several foreign nationals over the attack, thus preventing the statute of limitations from closing the case.
    (AFP, 10/9/18)
1993        Oct 11, Yasser Arafat won endorsement for his peace accord with Israel from the Palestine Central Council.
    (AP, 10/11/98)

1993        Oct 12, The Toronto Blue Jays won their second straight American League pennant, defeating the Chicago White Sox in six games.
    (HN, 10/12/98)
1993        Oct 12, Hundreds of militant right-wingers in Haiti cheered as an American warship retreated in a major setback for a U.N. mission to restore democracy.
    (HN, 10/12/98)

1993        Oct 13, The Philadelphia Phillies won the National League pennant, defeating the Atlanta Braves in game six.
    (AP, 10/13/98)
1993        Oct 13, The U.N. Security Council voted to reimpose sanctions on Haiti unless military leaders there stopped violating a U.N.-brokered accord.
    (AP, 10/13/98)

1993        Oct 14, U.S. helicopter pilot Michael Durant and a Nigerian peacekeeper were freed by Somali fighters loyal to Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
    (AP, 10/14/98)
1993        Oct 14, In Haiti, gunmen assassinated Justice Minister Guy Malary, a supporter of ousted President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A15)(AP, 10/14/98)

1993        Oct 15, President Clinton sent six warships to the waters off Haiti to enforce trade sanctions in the face of defiant Haitian military rulers.
    (AP, 10/15/98)
1993        Oct 15, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to end apartheid.
    (AP, 10/15/98)

1993        Oct 16, The Toronto Blue Jays defeated the Philadelphia Phillies, 8-5, in game one of the World Series.
    (AP, 10/16/98)
1993        Oct 16, The U.N. Security Council endorsed the deployment of U.S. warships to block arms and oil shipments to Haiti in an attempt to increase pressure on Haiti's military leaders.
    (AP, 10/16/98)

1993        Oct 17, The Philadelphia Phillies defeated the Toronto Blue Jays, 6-4, evening the World Series at one game each.
    (AP, 10/17/98)
1993        Oct 17, Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole, in a CBS interview, said he would offer legislation restricting President Clinton's authority to send troops to Haiti.
    (AP, 10/17/98)

1993        Oct 18, In California 2 defendants were acquitted of most of the felony charges in the beating of trucker Reginald Denny and other motorists at the start of the 1992 Los Angeles riots; the jury did convict Damian Williams of simple mayhem, Henry Watson of simple assault.
    (AP, 10/18/98)

1993        Oct 19, The Toronto Blue Jays took a 2-1 lead in the World Series by defeating the Philadelphia Phillies 10-3.
    (AP, 10/19/98)
1993        Oct 19, The United States intercepted its first ship bound for Haiti since an oil and weapons embargo was reimposed by United Nations.
    (AP, 10/19/98)
1993        Oct 19, Benazir Bhutto was returned to the premiership of Pakistan.
    (AP, 10/19/98)

1993        Oct 20, Toronto took a 3-1 lead in the World Series as the Blue Jays defeated the Philadelphia Phillies, 15-14.
    (AP, 10/20/98)
1993        Oct 20, The Senate adopted a non-binding resolution saying Congress should give its approval before any U.S. troops were sent to enforce a Bosnian peace accord.
    (AP, 10/20/98)
1993        Oct 20, US Attorney General Janet Reno warned the TV industry to limit violence in programs.
    (AP, 10/20/98)
1993        Oct 20, James Leo Herlihy (b.1927), gay author (Midnight Cowboy), committed suicide in Los Angeles.
    (www.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/findaids/herlihy.htm)

1993        Oct 21, Gary Kasparov defeated Nigel Short for chess championship.
    (http://quizbowl.stanford.edu/archive/carleton/minn93_carl_maize.txt)
1993        Oct 21, The Philadelphia Phillies beat the Toronto Blue Jays 2-0 in game five of the World Series; Toronto still led the Series 3-2.
    (AP, 10/21/98)
1993        Oct 21, The Senate rejected curbs on President Clinton's right as commander in chief to send troops to Haiti.
    (AP, 10/21/98)
1993        Oct 21, NATO ministers endorsed a U.S. plan to form limited partnerships with Russia and other former East bloc foes, but stopped short of offering full membership.
    (AP, 10/21/98)
1993        Oct 21, Burundi’s first Hutu president, Melchior Ndadaye, was assassinated by Tutsi soldiers. 5 soldiers were sentenced to death for the murder in 1999. The military coup caused 525,000 Hutu's to flee. Civil war followed and over the next dozen years some 300,000 people, mostly civilians, were killed.
     (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E5)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.A12)(SFC, 5/15/99, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burundi_presidential_election,_1993)(Econ, 4/16/11, p.65)

1993        Oct 22, It was announced President Clinton would fly to Moscow the following January for a summit with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
    (AP, 10/22/98)
1993        Oct 22, A judge in West Palm Beach, Fla., sentenced two white men to life in prison for setting a black tourist on fire.
    (AP, 10/22/98)

1993        Oct 23, The Toronto Blue Jays repeated as baseball champions as they defeated the Philadelphia Phillies, 8-6, in game six of the World Series.
    (AP, 10/23/03)
1993        Oct 23, An IRA bomb exploded in Belfast, Northern Ireland, killing 10 people, including an IRA operative at a fish & chips shop on Shankill Road.
    (AP, 10/23/03)(http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/othelem/chron/ch93.htm)

1993        Oct 24, Two George Washington University researchers who had cloned non-viable human embryos told a news conference that science was still far from duplicating human beings. But they urged ethicists to prepare for the future.
    (AP, 10/24/98)

1993        Oct 25, Actor Vincent Price died in Los Angeles at age 82.
    (AP, 10/25/98)
1993        Oct 25, Canada's Liberal Party ended nine years of rule by the Progressive Conservatives in national elections; Liberal leader Jean Chretien became the 20th Prime Minister, succeeding Kim Campbell.
    (CFA, '96, p.81)(AP, 10/25/98)
1993        Oct 25, Francisco Velis, El Salvador guerilla leader (FMLN), was murdered.
    (www.hrw.org/reports/1994/WR94/Americas-04.htm)

1993        Oct 26, National Football League owners selected Carolina as the 29th NFL franchise.
     (www.panthers.com/team/history.jsp)
1993        Oct 26, Deborah Gore Dean, a central figure in the Reagan-era HUD scandal, was convicted of 12 felony counts of defrauding the government, taking a payoff and lying to Congress. Dean was later sentenced to three concurrent 21-month prison sentences; however, five of her convictions were later overturned, and Dean has requested a new trial.
    (AP, 10/26/98)   
1993        Oct 26, Harold Rome (b.1908), Broadway composer, lyricist, died. His musicals included Fanny (1954), Destry Rides Again (1959), and I Can Get It For You Wholesale (1962).
    (www.songwritershalloffame.org/exhibit_home_page.asp?exhibitId=238)
1993        Oct 26, In Egypt gunfire at a hotel killed 2 Americans, 1 Frenchman and injured 3 others in Cairo.
    (SFC, 11/19/97, p.C2)

1993        Oct 27, President Clinton presented a revised version of his health care reform plan to Congress, urging its passage within a year.
    (AP, 10/27/98)
1993        Oct 27, Brush fires raged across Southern California, destroying several hundred homes.
    (AP, 10/27/98)

1993        Oct 28, Doris Duke (b.1912), the only child of American Tobacco founder James Buchanon, died. She left a fortune to her butler, Bernard Lafferty (d.1996). She left $1.2 billion to her Doris Duke Charitable Foundation which took over management of her Shangri La home in Hawaii. In 2002 it opened as a museum to promote Middle Eastern art and culture. The foundation also bestowed her trove of Southeast Asian artifacts to the Asian Art museum in San Francisco. 
    (SFC, 11/5/96, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doris_Duke)(SSFC, 2/25/07, p.G5)(SFC, 10/24/09, p.E1)
1993        Oct 28, A US CIA report mentioned FRAPH and Emmanuel Constant in connection with the killing of Justice Minister Guy Mallory. The report says the Haitian junta’s chief of staff, Gen. Philippe Biamby and his associates coordinated the murder.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A15)
1993        Oct 28, Ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, speaking at the United Nations, called for a trade blockade to Haiti to force out its military leaders.
    (AP, 10/28/98)

1993        Oct 29, President Clinton, speaking at the Kennedy presidential library in Boston, promoted the North American Free Trade Agreement, saying President Kennedy would have supported it.
    (AP, 10/29/98)
1993        Oct 29, A group of U.S. luge athletes was attacked by right-wing skinheads in Oberhof, Germany.
    (AP, 10/29/98)

1993        Oct 30, Martin Fettman, America's first veterinarian in space, chopped the heads off six rats and performed the world's first animal dissections in space, aboard the shuttle Columbia.
    (AP, 10/30/98)
1993        Oct 30, Hernan Heleno Castro, El Salvadorian guerilla leader, was murdered.
    (http://tinyurl.com/br5h7)

1993        Oct 31, In Oregon 7 men robbed the Oki Semiconductor facility in Portland of microchips valued at several million dollars. There were convicted in 2001 and 4 of the men were sentenced to prison terms in 2002.
    (SFC, 6/29/02, p.A16)
1993        Oct 31, Federico Fellini, Italian film director, died in Rome at age 73. He made some 24 films including "La Strada," "La Dolce Vita," "8 1/2," and "Amarcord" through the 50’s and 60’s.
    (WSJ, 4/19/95, p.A-14) (AP, 10/31/98)
1993        Oct 31, Actor River Phoenix died in Los Angeles at age 23.
    (AP, 10/31/98)

1993        Oct, ValuJet Airlines, an aggressive low-fare airline, began operations in a handful of US cities.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)
1993        Oct, John Sculley left Apple Corp. A.C. Markkula became chairman.
    (SFC, 1/24/04, p.A12)
1993        Oct, Heather Catherine Tallchief (21) drove away from the Circus Circus hotel casino in Las Vegas in an armored car with $2.5 million. In 2005 she surrendered and said she had been influenced by her boyfriend Roberto Solis, who remained a fugitive. The 2 had fled to Amsterdam after the heist.
    (SFC, 9/16/05, p.A3)
1993        Oct, Geidar Aliyev was elected president of Azerbaijan with 98.9% of the official vote. The main opposition Popular Front party boycotted the vote.
    (SFC, 12/13/03, p.A20)   
1993        Oct, In Canada Robert Latimer (44), a farmer, killed his disabled 12-year-old daughter, who suffered from cerebral palsy, using exhaust fumes from his pickup truck. He was convicted in 1997 but sentenced to one year in jail and one year probation. In 2001 the Supreme Court upheld his murder conviction.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A12)(SFC, 1/19/01, p.A17)
1993        Oct, In the Central African Republic the first democratic elections (organized with French help) voted Andre Kolingba out of office and elected Ange-Felix Patasse for the presidency. Patasse was a member of the northern Bayas.
    (SFC, 5/22/96, p.A9)(SFC, 12/9/96, p.A22)(WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A10)
1993        Oct, In Greece Andreas Papandreou again led his party to victory and headed the government.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, p.B6)
1993        Oct, Coca-Cola returned to India after a 16-year absence by acquiring soft-drink brands from India’s Parle Group that included Thums Up.
    (WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 4/29/98, p.B1)
1993        Oct, In South Africa Pres. De Klerk authorized an attack in the Transkei Homeland on a house where arms were allegedly stored. Five youths were killed while asleep by a death squad. He claimed the attack was a military operation but in 1996 Eugene de Kock testified that de Klerk knew that a covert operation would carry out the attack.
    (SFC, 9/19/96, p.A8)

1993        Nov 1, In an address to pediatricians, first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton accused insurance companies of waging a deceitful campaign against the administration's health plan.
    (AP, 11/1/98)
1993        Nov 1, The space shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California, ending a two-week mission.
    (AP, 11/1/98)

1993        Nov 2, The US Senate called for full disclosure of Sen. Bob Packwood's diaries as part of a probe into allegations of sexual harassment and possible criminal wrongdoing by the Oregon Republican.
    (AP, 11/2/98)
1993        Nov 2, Rudolph Giuliani (R) was elected the 107th mayor of NYC. Giuliani defeated New York’s first black mayor, David Dinkins. He became the first Republican mayor in 2 decades and the city’s 107th.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A3)(SFC, 1/2/98, p.A3)(MC, 11/2/01)
1993        Nov 2, Christie Todd Whitman (R) was elected 1st woman governor of NJ.
    (www.gale.com/free_resources/whm/bio/whitman_c.htm)
1993        Nov 2, Fires in Southern California pushed through areas of Los Angeles, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, burning 35,000 acres and 200 homes.
    (AP, 11/2/98)
1993        Nov 2, Leon Theremin (97), Russian physicist and inventor of the eerie-sounding theremin instrument, died.
    (ON, 11/01, p.8)

1993        Nov 3, President Clinton joined his wife, Hillary, in attacking the health insurance industry. The lobby, accused by the first lady of lying, unveiled a new TV ad repeating there must be a "better way" than the Clinton health care reform plan.
    (AP, 11/3/98)

1993        Nov 4, The White House challenged Ross Perot to a debate on the North American Free Trade Agreement with Vice President Al Gore; Perot, calling it "a desperate move," quickly accepted.
    (AP, 11/4/98)

1993        Nov 5, Talks on restoring ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power collapsed when military representatives failed to attend.
    (AP, 11/5/98)

1993        Nov 6, Heavyweight boxer Evander Holyfield defeated Riddick Bowe in a 12-round fight in Las Vegas; the match was interrupted in the seventh round when an intruder, using a paraglider, tried to fly into the ring.
    (AP, 11/6/98)

1993        Nov 7, President Clinton, appearing on NBC's "Meet the Press," assailed labor leaders who opposed the North American Free Trade Agreement, accusing them of using "naked pressure" to try to kill the pact.
    (AP, 11/7/98)

1993        Nov 8, Russian President Boris Yeltsin approved a draft constitution that would strengthen executive power; it was ratified in a referendum the following month.
    (AP, 11/8/98)

1993        Nov 9, Vice President Al Gore and Ross Perot debated the North American Free Trade Agreement on CNN's Larry King Live.
    (AP, 11/9/98)
1993        Nov 9, Edward J. Rollins, who had managed New Jersey Governor-elect Christine Todd Whitman's campaign, set off a furor by asserting New Jersey Republicans had paid money to curb black voter turnout, a claim denied by Whitman and later retracted by Rollins.
    (AP, 11/9/98)
1993        Nov 9, In Bosnia after two days of concentrated cannon fire at point-blank range, the bridge at Mostar finally collapsed into the river. Bosnian Serb armed militia (BSA) fired on a school in Sarajevo and 9 children died.
    (www.haverford.edu/relg/sells/killing.html)(www.hri.org/docs/USSD-Rights/93/Bosnia93.html)

1993        Nov 10, "Joseph & the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat" opened at Minskoff Theater NYC for 223 performances.
    (www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=4581)
1993        Nov 10, The U.S. House of Representatives passed the so-called "Brady Bill," which called for a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases.
    (AP, 11/10/98)
1993        Nov 10, A jury in Manassas, Va., acquitted John Wayne Bobbitt of marital sexual assault against his wife, Lorena, who'd sexually mutilated him. Mrs. Bobbitt was later acquitted of malicious wounding.
    (AP, 11/10/98)

1993        Nov 11, A bronze statue honoring the more than 11,000 American women who had served in the Vietnam War was dedicated in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 11/11/98)
1993        Nov 11, Harry R. "Bob" Haldeman (67), White House chief of staff (Nixon), died. [see Nov 12]
    (MC, 11/11/01)
1993        Nov 11, In Sri Lanka Tamil Tiger forces overran Pooneryn army camp. Some 600 servicemen were killed or captured. The army put the rebel death toll at 500.
    (SFC, 7/24/96, p.A9)

1993        Nov 12, Singer Michael Jackson canceled a world tour, citing a dependence on painkillers.
    (AP, 11/12/98)
1993        Nov 12, Cardinal Joseph Bernardin of Chicago was accused by a former pre-seminary student of sexual abuse supposedly committed more than a decade earlier. (The accuser, Steven J. Cook, later withdrew his charge).
    (AP, 11/12/98)
1993        Nov 12, Former Nixon White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman died in Santa Barbara, Calif., at age 67. [see Nov 11]
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A4) (AP, 11/12/98)

1993        Nov 13, President Clinton used his weekly radio address to make yet another pitch for the North American Free Trade Agreement, then flew to Memphis, Tenn., where he delivered an anti-crime speech to black ministers at the Temple Church of God in Christ.
    (AP, 11/13/98)
1993        Nov 13, In Peru military officers attempted another coup against Pres. Fujimori.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Fujimori)

1993        Nov 14, Don Shula became the winningest coach in NFL history.
    (http://www.donshula.com/careerhighlights.htm)
1993        Nov 14, Residents of Puerto Rico voted in a plebiscite to maintain the island's existing U.S. commonwealth status, derailing the efforts of those favoring statehood.
    (AP, 11/14/98)

1993        Nov 15, The US State Department announced that Secretary Warren M. Christopher would travel to the Mideast to try to mediate differences between Israel and the PLO.
    (AP, 11/15/98)
1993        Nov 15, Dr. Tom Amberry (71), a retired podiatrist, completed 2,750 consecutive free throws inside the Rosmoor Athletic Club in Seal Beach, Ca., setting a new world record. Amberry (d.2017) stopped after twelve hours because the janitors wanted to close the gym.
    (SSFC, 3/26/17, p.C11)
1993        Nov 15, A judge in Mineola, N.Y., sentenced Joey Buttafuoco to six months in jail for the statutory rape of Amy Fisher, who is serving a prison sentence for shooting and wounding Buttafuoco's wife, Mary Jo.
    (AP, 11/15/98)

1993        Nov 16, The US Senate voted, 69-30, to approve a measure designed to protect people who provide or seek abortions from physical attacks or intimidation by abortion opponents.
    (AP, 11/15/98)
1993        Nov 16, The US Congress enacted the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA). It instructed government officials to bend the rules for persons whose actions are based on their religion. In 1997 the Supreme Court said the federal one applied only to the federal government.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_Freedom_Restoration_Act)(Econ., 4/4/15, p.30)
1993        Nov 16, Russian President Yeltsin shut the Lenin museum.
    (www.centraleurope.org.uk/chron/fsu/1993nov.htm)
1993        Nov 16, Lucia Popp (54), Slovakia-born soprano (Vienna Opera), died in Munich.
    (www.bach-cantatas.com/Bio/Popp-Lucia.htm)

1993        Nov 17, By a surprisingly wide margin, 234-200, the House of Representatives voted to approve legislation implementing the North American Free Trade Agreement in what was seen as a major political victory for President Clinton.
    (AP, 11/17/98)

1993        Nov 18, The U.S. House of Representatives joined the Senate in approving legislation aimed at protecting abortion facilities, staff and patients.
    (AP, 11/18/98)
1993        Nov 18, NAFTA passed in the US House of Rep.
    (MC, 11/18/01)
1993        Nov 18, American Airlines flight attendants went on strike. They ended their job action four days later.
    (AP, 11/18/98)
1993        Nov 18, Representatives of 21 South African political parties approved a new constitution.
    (AP, 11/18/98)

1993        Nov 19, President Clinton met in Seattle with Chinese President Jiang Zemin.
    (AP, 11/19/98)
1993        Nov 19, The U.S. Senate approved a sweeping $22.3 billion anti-crime measure.
    (AP, 11/19/98)
1993        Nov 19, Kenneth Burke (b.1897), American writer and critic, died. In 2005 David R. Godine/Black Sparrow published “Here & Elsewhere: The Collected Fiction of Kenneth Burke."
    (WSJ, 11/26/05, p.P10)(www.home.duq.edu/~thames/kennethburke/chrono2.htm)

1993        Nov 20, The U.S. Senate ended a filibuster against the Brady Bill, which imposed a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases, and passed it by a 63-36 vote; the Senate also approved legislation implementing the North American Free Trade Agreement, 61-38.
    (AP, 11/20/98)

1993        Nov 21, The U.S. House of Representatives voted against making the District of Columbia the 51st state, 277-153.
    (AP, 11/21/98)
1993        Nov 21, Actor Bill Bixby died in Century City, Calif., at age 59.
    (AP, 11/21/98)
1993        Nov 21, The Neo-fascist MSI won 36% of municipal elections in Rome.
    (www.nationarchive.com/Summaries/v257i0020_07.htm)
1993        Nov 21, Three former Panamanian soldiers were found guilty of involvement in the previously unsolved 1971 murder of Hector Gallego, a Colombian Roman Catholic priest.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

1993        Nov 22, Striking flight attendants at American Airlines called off their four-day job action after President Clinton helped broker an agreement to submit the dispute to binding arbitration.
    (AP, 11/22/98)
1993        Nov 22, Mexico's Senate overwhelmingly approved the North American Free Trade Agreement.
    (AP, 11/22/98)

1993        Nov 23, President Clinton signed legislation lifting remaining US sanctions against South Africa, and announced an initiative to spur investment in South Africa's black private sector.
    (AP, 11/23/98)
1993        Nov 23, Pres. Clinton signed the “Apology Resolution" to acknowledge the 100th anniversary of the January 17, 1893, overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, and to offer an apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the US for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
    (www.hawaii-nation.org/publawsum.html)
1993        Nov 23, Record cold was blamed for at least 34 deaths in parts of Europe and prompted the French army to send out troops to feed the homeless in Paris.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1993        Nov 24, President Clinton met at the White House with Salman Rushdie, the British author condemned to death by Iran for writing "The Satanic Verses."
    (AP, 11/24/98)
1993        Nov 24, The US Congress gave its final approval to the Brady handgun control bill. It established a 5-day waiting period for handgun sales.
    (AP, 11/24/98)
1993         Nov 24 Two 11-year-old boys, Robert Thompson and Jon Venables, were convicted of the February murder of 2-year-old James Bulger of Liverpool, England. Shortly after the trial, Lord Taylor of Gosforth, the Lord Chief Justice, ordered that the two boys should serve a minimum of ten years behind bars. Thompson and Venables were released on a “life license" in June 2001, after serving eight years of their life sentence. An injunction remained in force following their release, so that details of their new identities and locations could not be published.
    (AP, 11/24/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_James_Bulger)

1993        Nov 25, Violence broke out in the Gaza Strip, a day after Israeli undercover soldiers killed Imad Akel, the head of the military wing of Hamas.
    (HN, 11/25/98)
1993        Nov 25, Egyptian Prime Minister Atef Sedki escaped an attempt on his life when Islamic militants detonated a car bomb near his motorcade. The attack killed a 5-year-old girl. Yasser al-Siri, a member of the "media committee" of the Islamic Jihad, was tried and convicted in absentia for the assassination attempt. Siri fled to the UK and obtained political asylum.
    (HN, 11/25/98)(WSJ, 10/26/01, p.A19)
1993        Nov 25, Anthony Burgess (b.1917) died in London at age 76. He was a British author of 34 books of fiction and 15 of non-fiction as well as plays, librettos and a considerable body of serious. His last book, a novel called "A Dead Man in Deptford," is actually an idiosyncratic biography of Christopher Marlowe. Burgess is best known today for his novel "Clockwork Orange." His final book, "Byrne," was a novel in verse of 8-line stanzas (ottova rima) published in 1997. In 2002 Roger Lewis authored the biography "Anthony Burgess."
    (WSJ, 4/28/95, p.A-8)(SFEC, 9/14/97, BR p.3)(HN, 11/25/98)(FT, 12/14/02, p.IV)

1993        Nov 26, The first session of the US 103rd Congress concluded as lawmakers adjourned for the year.
    (AP, 11/26/98)
1993        Nov 26, A U.S. diplomat was kidnapped by Yemeni tribesmen. Government officials negotiate for his release in the first known kidnapping of a diplomat in faction-ridden Yemen.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1993        Nov 27, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton said enacting comprehensive anti-crime legislation was the first priority for 1994, saying, "We have to be concerned that in both our cities and our rural areas, the value of life has been cheapened."
    (AP, 11/27/98)

1993        Nov 28, Garry Moore (b.Jan 31, 1915) game show and variety show host, died at 78 on South Carolina's Hilton Head island. He was born in Baltimore as Thomas Garrison Morfit. His TV shows included the Garry Moore Show, I've Got a Secret, To Tell the Truth.
    (AP, 11/28/98)(www.answers.com/topic/garry-moore)
1993        Nov 28, The British government confirmed reports of contacts with the Irish Republican Army that were aimed at ending the violence in British-ruled Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 11/28/98)
1993        Nov 28, Carlos Roberto Reina (1926-2003) was elected president of Honduras with promises to crack down on corruption and reduce the role of the military.
    (AP, 8/20/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Roberto_Reina)

1993        Nov 29, Kathleen Willey sought assistance from Pres. Clinton, who allegedly made a sexual advance upon her. She was requesting a job due to her husband’s financial difficulties. It was later learned that her husband committed suicide that same day. Willey later testified that she went to the home of Julie Hiatt Steele after and described to her the experience.
    (SFC, 3/16/98, p.A1)(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A4)
1993        Nov 29, The British government won praise and encouragement in the House of Commons as it defended its secret contacts with the Irish Republican Army.
    (AP, 11/29/98)

1993        Nov 30, President Clinton signed into law the Brady bill, which required a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases and background checks of prospective buyers.
    (AP, 11/30/98)
1993         Nov 30, Authorities in California arrested Richard Allen Davis (b.1954), who confessed to abducting and slaying Polly Klaas (12) of Petaluma. Polly had been abducted from her home on October 1, 1993. On August 5, 1996, Davis was sentenced to death and sent to Death Row in San Quentin State Prison.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Allen_Davis)(AP, 11/30/98)

1993        Nov, The FBI conducted a background check on Anthony Marceca in Texas for his White House job. Marceca was described as "nothing but a blowhard" and "an extremely negative person... very disrespectful and negative about everyone and everything."
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A14)
1993        Nov, In Algeria an ultimatum issued by the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) urged foreigners to leave or be killed. GIA terrorists assassinated Sheikh Mohamed Bouslimani, who was closely associated with Hamas, a more moderate Islamist group, when he agreed to participate in a dialogue with the regime.
    (http://www.emergency.com/algrwarn.htm)
1993        Nov, Wang Zhihua boarded a scheduled flight from Hangzhou to Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian province opposite Taiwan. He showed fake explosives to the crew, saying he had a bomb, and forced the plane to fly to Taiwan. In 2008 Wang was returned to China and sentenced to 12 years in prison.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
1993        Nov, In Germany unemployment hit a country record of 3.5 million.
    (http://www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/germany.htm)
1993        Nov, In India Kiran Bedi, an inspector general of prisons, introduced the Vipassana meditation technique at Tihar Prison. A film was later made called "Doing Time, Doing Vipassana" that demonstrated the technique
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.E12)
1993        Nov, Jordan held new elections in which each voter has one vote. King Hussein let Islamic parties run for Parliament but rewrote voting rules to limit the number of seats that they could win. This angered the Muslim Brothers who said that the system favors local politicians with tribal ties rather than ideologically based lists. They win only a handful of seats and boycott the next elections.
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A1)(AP, 1/23/13)
1993        Nov, In Russia a replica of the Cathedral of the Ikon of Our lady of Kazan on Red Square was dedicated by Pres. Yeltsin and Orthodox Patriarch Alexei II.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.27)

1993        Dec 1, US Navy Ensign George Smith shot and killed his ex-fiancée and a friend and then himself. In Oct. he had passed a Navy screening test to gauge his psychological fitness for nuclear submarine duty.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A2)
1993        Dec 1, Eighteen people were killed when a Northwest Airlink commuter plane crashed in Minnesota.
    (AP, 12/1/98)

1993        Dec 2, Alan Winterbournem, an unemployed computer engineer, opened fire at a California unemployment agency in Oxnard, killing three workers; he killed a police officer during a chase that ended in Ventura, where he himself was gunned down.
    (AP, 12/2/03)
1993        Dec 2, The space shuttle Endeavour blasted off on a mission to fix the Hubble Space Telescope.
    (AP, 12/2/98)
1993        Dec 2, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar (b.1949), number 1 man in drug trafficking, was shot to death by police Col. Hugo Aguilar in Medellin. Escobar's wife and children vanished from Colombia in 1995 and were arrested in Argentina in 1999 for money laundering. In 2001 Mark Bowden authored “Killing Pablo" a chronicle of the hunt for Escobar. In 2003 Aguilar ran for governor of Santander province.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.A10)(AP, 12/2/98)(SFC, 11/17/99, p.A18)(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.M3)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C1)

1993        Dec 3, Viktor Gunnarsson, a suspect in the 1986 assassination of Swedish PM Olof Palme, disappeared in North Carolina. His body was found five weeks later. In 1997 Salisbury police officer Lamont Claxton "L.C." Underwood (d.2018) was convicted for the murder. Gunnarsson had started a relationship with Underwood's ex-girlfriend Kay Weden after moving to the US. Weden's mother, Catherine Miller (77), was found shot to death on Dec. 9.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yakmejpj)(AP, 12/29/18)
1993        Dec 3, Britain's Princess Diana, saying she was fed up with media's intrusions, announced she would be limiting her public appearances.
    (AP, 12/3/98)
1993        Dec 3, Georgia became a member of Russia's Commonwealth of Independent States; Russia, in return, backed Shevardnadze against Abkhaz rebels.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Independent_States)

1993        Dec 4, Astronauts aboard space shuttle Endeavour captured the near-sighted Hubble Space Telescope for repairs.
    (AP, 12/4/98)
1993        Dec 4, Authorities found the body of 12-year-old kidnap victim Polly Klaas in a wooded area of Cloverdale, Calif.
    (AP, 12/4/04)
1993        Dec 4, Frank Zappa (52), rock musician and composer, died in Los Angeles. In 2004 Barry Miles authored “Frank Zappa: A Biography."
    (AP, 12/4/98)(SFC, 12/25/04, p.E2)

1993        Dec 5, Astronauts began the repair of Hubble telescope in space.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-61)
1993        Dec 5, A Palestinian boarded a bus and opened fire with an assault rifle in the first major attack in Israel since the signing of a peace pact with the PLO; the gunman killed a reservist before being gunned down.
    (AP, 12/5/98)

1993        Dec 6, A judge in New Bedford, Mass., sentenced former priest James R. Porter, who'd admitted molesting 28 children in the 1960s, to 18 to 20 years in prison for sexual assault.
    (AP, 12/6/98)
1993        Dec 6, Don Ameche (85), actor (Cocoon), died in Scottsdale, Ariz., of prostate cancer.
    (AP, 12/6/98)
1993        Dec 6, In South Africa crimes committed up to this date became eligible for amnesty as set up by special constitutional legislation that set up the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. A 1996 extension was requested to move the deadline to May 10, 1994.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, A10)

1993        Dec 7, US Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary revealed that the government had conducted more than 200 nuclear weapons tests in secret.
    (AP, 12/7/98)
1993        Dec 7, Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders suggested that the government study the impact of drug legalization.
    (AP, 12/7/98)
1993        Dec 7, A gunman opened fire on a Long Island Rail Road commuter train, killing six people and wounding 17.
    (AP, 12/7/98)
1993        Dec 7, In the Ivory Coast Felix Houphouet-Boigny (b.1905), Ivory Coast founder and ruler since 1960, died. Pres. Henri Konan Bedie took power.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A9lix_Houphou%C3%ABt-Boigny)

1993        Dec 8, President Clinton signed into U.S. law the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which went into effect at the start of 1994.
    (AP, 12/8/98)
1993        Dec 8, A French-flag container ship, the Sherbro, bound for Nigeria from Rotterdam, lost containers of the chemical Apron-Plus (by Ciba-Geigy). This chemical was packed in sachets and purchased by the Nigerian state of Osun with funds from the World Bank development fund. The chemical was intended to be used to fight the ‘downy-mildew’ fungus that was seriously afflicting the maize crop. Four days later the packets began to wash up on the beaches of France in Normandy.
    (WSJ 6/21/95, p.A-22)
1993        Dec 8, Carlotta Monti (86), lover of WC Fields, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlotta_Monti)

1993        Dec 9, The US Air Force destroyed the first of 500 Minuteman II missile silos marked for elimination under an arms control treaty.
    (AP, 12/9/98)
1993        Dec 9, Astronauts aboard the space shuttle Endeavour completed repairs to the Hubble Space Telescope.
    (AP, 12/9/98)

1993        Dec 10, The crew of the space shuttle Endeavour deployed the repaired Hubble Space Telescope into Earth orbit.
    (AP, 12/10/98)
1993        Dec 10, Mansour Rashid El-Kikhia, former Libyan ambassador to the UN, was kidnapped in Cairo. The US CIA later reported that he was taken to Libya and executed in early 1994.
    (SSFC, 5/21/06, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/lnqr5)
1993        Dec 10, South African President F.W. de Klerk and African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela accepted their Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway.
    (AP, 12/10/98)

1993        Dec 11, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, said the nation must fight "violence with values" and praised radio stations that refused to play songs advocating violent crime or showing contempt for women.
    (AP, 12/11/98)
1993        Dec 11, Eduardo Frei (b.1942) was elected president of Chile.
    (www.hrw.org/reports/1995/WR95/AMERICAS-02.htm)

1993        Dec 12, Russia adopted a new democratic constitution and began the war with Chechnya.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.B2)

1993        Dec 13, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled, 5-4, that people were entitled to a hearing before real property linked to illegal drug sales could be seized.
    (AP, 12/13/03)
1993        Dec 13, The space shuttle Endeavour returned from its mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.
    (AP, 12/13/98)
1993        Dec 13, Myrna Loy (88), actress (Thin Man, Vanity Fair), died. [see Dec 14]
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1993        Dec 14, A Colorado judge struck down the state's voter-approved Amendment Two prohibiting gay rights laws, calling it unconstitutional.
    (AP, 12/14/98)
1993        Dec 14, The United Mine Workers approved a five-year contract, ending a strike that had reached seven US states and involved some of the nation's biggest coal operators.
    (AP, 12/14/98)
1993        Dec 14, The United States and European Community set aside a bitter fight over films, unlocking the door to the world's biggest-ever trade reform package.
    (AP, 12/14/02)
1993        Dec 14, Actress Myrna Loy (88) died in NYC.
    (AP, 12/14/98)
1993        Dec 14, In Algeria a large group of armed terrorists attacked a work camp of a hydro-electric project in Tamezguida. Fourteen Croatian citizens were taken out of the camp. Twelve were murdered by having their throats slit, but two others escaped with injuries.
    (www.milnet.com/state/chrono93.htm)

1993        Dec 15, US Defense Secretary Les Aspin announced his resignation, citing "personal reasons."
    (AP, 12/15/98)
1993        Dec 15, Britain and Ireland issued a "framework for peace."
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.A8)
1993        Dec 15, In Geneva, 117 countries completed the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, agreeing on a reform package intended to jump-start the global economy.
    (AP, 12/15/98)

1993        Dec 16, President Clinton announced the nomination of Bobby Ray Inman to succeed Les Aspin as defense secretary. Inman, however, later withdrew.
    (AP, 12/16/98)
1993        Dec 16, Sen. Bob Packwood (R-Ore.), accused by more than two dozen women of sexual harassment, turned over his tape-recorded personal diaries to a federal judge.
    (AP, 12/16/03)

1993        Dec 17, Fox Television outbid CBS for the National Football Conference TV package.
    (AP, 12/17/98)
1993        Dec 17, So-called "suicide doctor" Jack Kevorkian was released from jail in Oakland County, Mich., after promising not to help anyone end their lives for the time being.
    (AP, 12/17/98)

1993        Dec 18, The United States and Germany pledged close cooperation to help Boris Yeltsin through Russia's political and economic crises in a meeting in Oggersheim between Vice President Al Gore and Chancellor Helmut Kohl.
    (AP, 12/18/98)

1993        Dec 19, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and senior PLO officials ended two days of closed-door talks in Oslo, Norway, in which they sought to break a deadlock over Palestinian self-rule in the occupied territories.
    (AP, 12/19/98)

1993        Dec 20, Real estate developer Donald Trump married Marla Maples in a brief ceremony in the grand ballroom of Trump's Plaza Hotel in New York. The couple separated in 1997.
    (AP, 12/20/98)
1993        Dec 20, Alina Fernandez Revuelta, a daughter of Cuban President Fidel Castro, flew to Spain, where she was granted political asylum by the U.S. Embassy.
    (AP, 12/20/98)

1993        Dec 21, First lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, in an interview with The Associated Press, said her husband, President Clinton, had solicited her advice on major issues; but, she added, her powers were limited.
    (AP, 12/21/98)

1993        Dec 22, Singer Michael Jackson, fighting back against child molestation allegations, issued a video statement in which he said he was "totally innocent of any wrongdoing."
    (AP, 12/22/98)

1993        Dec 23, President Clinton, under intense political pressure, instructed his attorney to give the Justice Department all records of his investment in an Arkansas real estate partnership linked to a failed savings and loan company.
    (AP, 12/23/98)

1993        Dec 24, In Nebraska Brandon Teena (21), a female (born as Teena Brandon) passing as a male, was raped and beaten by John Lotter and Tom Nissen. A week later they shot and killed Teena for pressing charges. In 1996 the book "All She Wanted" was based on Brandon. The 1997 novel ""The Illusionist" was also based on Brandon. A 1999 documentary film, "The Brandon Teena Story," was made by Susan Muska and Greta Olafsdottir. Kimberly Pierce made her 1999 film "Boys Don't Cry" based on Brandon Teena. In 2001 the state supreme Court ruled that the sheriff was negligent in protecting Brandon and awarded her family $80,000 plus damages for emotional suffering.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.D3)(SFC, 10/20/99, p.D1)(SFC, 4/21/01, p.A3)
1993        Dec 24, The Rev. Norman Vincent Peale, who had blended Christian and psychiatric principles into a message of "positive thinking," died in Pawling, N.Y., at age 95.
    (AP, 12/24/98)

1993        Dec 25, The Cirque du Soleil production opened its doors at Steve Wynn’s Treasure Island Casino/Hotel in Las Vegas.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.96)
1993        Dec 25, Fernando Mateo’s son suggested over dinner that people ought to trade their guns for toys. This led him to start the Goods for Guns program in New York that soon spread internationally.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, A9)
1993        Dec 25, Full-fledged Christmas celebrations returned to Bethlehem for the first time since the Palestinian uprising began six years earlier.
    (AP, 12/25/98)
1993        Dec 25, In London, an unidentified 59-year-old woman who'd been implanted with donated eggs gave birth to twins in a case that sparked controversy.
    (AP, 12/25/98)

1993        Dec 26, In Russia a 4-day drama ended as four masked kidnappers, who had abducted 11 teen-agers, landed their explosives-packed helicopter, freed their last hostages and fled with $10 million in ransom. The four men were captured the next morning.
    (AP, 12/26/98)

1993        Dec 27, U.S. officials said that Strobe Talbott, who had served as the Clinton administration's chief Russia policy architect, would take over the number-two spot at the State Department.
    (AP, 12/27/98)
1993        Dec 27, In Egypt, a gun and bomb attack on a tourist bus in old Cairo wounded 8 Austrians and 8 Egyptians. The militant group Gama’a al-Islamiya claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 10/11/04, p.A17)

1993        Dec 28, US Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary told CNN that people wrongfully exposed to radiation through federally funded experiments more than 40 years ago deserved to be compensated.
    (HN, 12/28/98)
1993        Dec 28, Journalist William Shirer, author of "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich," died in Boston at age 89.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1993        Dec 30, Hollywood agent Irving "Swifty" Lazar died in Beverly Hills, Calif., at age 86.
    (AP, 12/30/98)
1993        Dec 30, Israel and the Vatican agreed to recognize one another. Pope John Paul II normalized relations between the Vatican and Israel.
    (SFC, 12/25/97, p.A14)(AP, 12/30/97)

1993        Dec 31, Entertainer Barbra Streisand performed her first paid concert in 22 years, singing to a sellout crowd at the MGM Grand Garden in Las Vegas.
    (AP, 12/31/98)
1993        Dec 31, Scott Douglas (38) beat his wife, Anne Scripps Douglas (b.1946), with a claw hammer in their Bronxville home. She went into a coma and died Jan 6, 1994. Anne Scripps Douglas was the great-great-granddaughter of Detroit News founder James Scripps. Douglas disappeared, though his car was found on the off the Tappan Zee Bridge. His body was found washed up in the Bronx on March 30, 1994. In 2009 Anne Morell Petrillo (38), the daughter of Anne Scripps Douglas from a previous marriage, committed suicide off the Tappan Zee Bridge. 
    (SFC, 9/29/09, p.A9)(http://acollectionofarticlesannscripps.blogspot.com/)
1993        Dec 31, Former IBM chairman Thomas J. Watson died in Greenwich, Conn., at age 79.
    (AP, 12/31/98)
1993        Dec 31, Samuel Morris Steward (b.1909), also known by the pen name Phil Andros, died. He was a novelist and tattoo artist later based in Oakland, California. His “Stud File" ran to more than 4,600 encounters with over 800 men. In 2010 Justin Spring authored “Secret Historian: The Life and Times of Samuel Steward, Professor, Tattoo Artist, and Sexual Renegade."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phil_Andros)(SSFC, 8/22/10, p.F1)(Econ, 8/14/10, p.70)
1993        Dec 31, Former Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia (b.1939) died on New Year’s Eve. He had returned to lead an uprising in western Georgia, but the fighting was quickly put down and Gamsakhurdia was surrounded. His body was then taken to Chechnya. In 2007 His body was returned for burial in Georgia.
    (AP, 3/28/07)

1993        Dec, Engineers and scientists worked frantically to complete the first phase of the DUMAND project. The Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector was being set up 22 miles off the coast of Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. It was built as a kind of telescope that would provide information on the Earth's interior, on life in the deep sea, on black holes in space, as well as info on subatomic particles. It resembles a massive inverted jellyfish pinned to the seafloor. It is hoped that some high energy neutrinos will interact with matter and be transformed into a muon that will produce a blue-green light known as a Cherenkov Radiation that can be detected.
    (PacDis, Spring/'94, p.40)
1993        Dec, The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Princeton Univ. produced 6 million watts for about one second during a fusion experiment.
    (http://sci-phys-plasma.caeds.eng.uml.edu/1994/08-94-06.htm)

1993        Dec, A U-2 pilot was killed on takeoff from Beale Air Force Base southeast of Oroville, Calif., on a routine training mission.
    (SFC, 8/8/96, p.A11)
1993        Dec, Vienna Mayor Helmut Zilk (1927-2008), lost part of his hand to a letter bomb. Authorities later tried and convicted right-wing extremist Franz Fuchs of sending pipe and letter bombs targeting refugees and minorities, and officials like Zilk who supported them. Fuchs, dubbed "the Austrian Unabomber," after the American mail-bomber Theodore Kaczynksi, hanged himself in his prison cell in 2000 while serving a life sentence for the string of attacks.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
1993        Dec, Wars were in Serbia, Algeria, S. Africa, Morocco, Haiti, Israel, and elsewhere.
    (CNN)
1993        Dec, In Hungary Ameritech Corp. and Deutsche Telekom AG teamed up to by a 30% stake in Matav Rt., the state telephone system. By 1995 their stake was 67%. The government permitted Matav to maintain a monopoly status for 8 years.
    (WSJ, 6/25/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/27/97, p.A8)
1993        Dec, From Mexico Mario Ruiz Massieu, deputy attorney general from 1993-1994, opened an account at the Texas Commerce Bank and began to deposit cash that eventually totaled some $9 million.
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, p.A14)

1993        Masami Teraoka (b.1936), Japanese-American artist, made his etching "Longing Samurai."
    (SFEM, 10/19/97, DB p.58)(www.artelino.com/articles/masami_teraoka.asp)

1993        Canadian artist-photographer Jeff Wall made his large (8x12) photo: "A Sudden Gust of Wind (After Hokusai)."
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)

1993        Charles Adams authored "For Good and Evil: The Impact of Taxes on the Course of Civilization."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R47)

1993        A.R. Ammons (d.2001 at 75), poet and Cornell professor, authored his National Book Award winning work: "Garbage."
    (SFC, 2/27/01, p.D2)

1993        The book "Never Again for Bolivia" by Jesuit author Federico Aguilo documented the human rights violations of the military regimes from 1965-1981.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A11)

1993        Karen Armstrong authored "A History of God," which described the "vicissitudes of God's career of the last 4,000 years." In 2000 she authored the follow up work "The Battle for God," which focused on the last 500 years. In 1981 Armstrong authored volume 1 of her autobiography “Through the Narrow Gate." Vol 2: The Spiral Staircase: My Climb Out of Darkness," came out in 2004.
    (WSJ, 3/8/00, p.A20)(Econ, 3/20/04, p.92)

1993        Karen Axelrod co-authored "Watch It Made in the USA," a guidebook to corporate museums.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A1)

1993        Herbert L. Block (d.2001 at 91), cartoonist, authored "Herblock: A Cartoonist’s Life."
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A20)

1993        Jose Antonio Burciaga (1940-1996), poet and artist, wrote "Drink Cultura," described as an engaging look at Chicanismo. His mural The "Last Supper," installed in Stanford’s Stern Hall, depicts Che Guevara as a Christ figure. He was involved in the comedy group Culture Clash and also wrote "Weedee Peepo," a collection of journalistic pieces about El Paso.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A21)

1993        Ron Chernow wrote "The Warburgs," a biography of the bankers.
    (WSJ, 8/8/97, p.A11)

1993        Adel Darwish (b.1945), Egypt-born British writer, authored “Water Wars: Coming conflicts in the Middle East."
    (SFC, 9/19/02, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adel_Darwish)

1993        Gregory Elliott authored “Labourism and the English Genius: The Strange Death of Labour England."
    (http://tinyurl.com/m7xn5f7)

1993        William Gibson authored his essay “Disneyland with the Death Penalty" in which he depicted the Lion City as a soulless, consumerist and authoritarian wasteland.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.77)

1993        Michael Hammer wrote "Reengineering the Corporation: A manifesto for Business Revolution." He later admitted that his work did not fully consider the human dimension in the reorganization process.
    (WSJ, 11/26/96, p.A1,16)

1993        James Hanken and Brian K. Hall wrote "The Skull," a 3-volume scientific reference work.
    (NH, 10/96, p.6)

1993        Paul Hawken wrote "The Ecology of Commerce." He emphasized controlling the creation of harmful wastes instead of their disposal.
    (WSJ, 7/11/97, p.B1)

1993        John Heidenry wrote "Theirs Was the Kingdom," a history of Reader’s Digest Magazine.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A22)

1993        Elmer W. Johnson (1932-2008), former GM executive, authored “Avoiding the Collision of Cities and Cars."
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.A6)

1993        Stuart A. Kauffman published "The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution."
    (http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/~susan/bib/nf/k/kauffman.htm#ooo)

1993        John Keegan published "A History of Warfare."
    (WSJ, 6/17/99, p.A24)

1993        Steven Landsburg authored “Armchair Economist: Economics and Everyday Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Armchair_Economist)

1993        Benjamin Libet (1916-2007), UCSF neurophysiologist and pioneer in studies of free will, edited “Neurophysiology of Consciousness."
    (SFC, 8/18/07, p.B5)

1993        Leslie Lipson (d.2000 at 88), UC Berkeley prof. of political science, authored "The Ethical Crises of Civilization: Moral Meltdown or Advance?" He examined the humanist values of Islamic, Chinese, Indian and Western cultures.
    (SFC, 8/15/00, p.A23)

1993        Alan Lomax, folklorist, published his memoir "The Land Where the Blues Began."
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.7E)

1993        Kanan Makiya, an Iraqi-American academic, authored “Cruelty and Silence: War, Tyranny, Uprising and the Arab World." It was awarded The Lionel Gelber Prize for the best book on international relations published in English in 1993.
    (Econ, 6/30/07, p.56)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanan_Makiya)

1993        David Meltzer (1937-2016), poet and musician, authored “Reading Jazz".
    (SFC, 1/3/17, p.A4)

1993        James Michener wrote "Creatures of the Kingdom."
    (SFC, 10/17/97, p.A17)

1993        Jill Nelson wrote "Volunteer Slavery," an account of her tenure as the first black female staff writer at the Washington Post Sunday Magazine.
    (SFEC, 8/24/97, BR p.4)

1993        Dr. Sherwin Nuland authored “How We Die."
    (Econ, 9/5/09, p.41)

1993        Beijing Publishing House published "The Abandoned Capital" by Jia Pingwa. It was advertised as the raciest novel since the Ming Dynasty. The author self-edited the most salacious parts leaving blank spaces. The novel was banned after several months. The novel continued selling over the black market.
    (SFC, 4/17/98, p.A12)

1993        Thomas Powers authored "Heisenberg’s War," which argued that Heisenberg destroyed the German atomic project from within. Niels Bohr later countered the argument with personal documentation.
    (SFC, 2/7/02, p.A2)

1993        Sister Helen Prejean wrote "Dead Man Walking." It described her pen pal relationship with a man on death row. In 1995 it was made into a movie. In 2000 it premiered in SF as an opera.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, zone 1 p.3)(WSJ, 10/12/00, p.A24)

1993        Feminist poet Adrienne Rich published "What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics."
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A10)

1993        David Rusk wrote "Cities Without Suburbs," in which he promoted the idea of regional governments.
    (WSJ, 4/7/99, p.A20)

1993        Prof. Peter Dale Scott wrote "Deep Politics and the Death of JFK."
    (SFC, 11/18/96, p.B7)

1993        Sarah Delany (d.1999 at 109) and her sister wrote "Having Our Say: The Delany Sisters' First 100 Years" with journalist Amy Hill Hearth. The book was turned into a Broadway play in 1995.
    (SFC, 1/27/99, p.A15)

1993        Barry Hannah wrote his novel "Out of Hell."
    (WSJ, 10/25/96, p.A15)

1993        T.D. Jakes, a West Virginia preacher who ran a Pentecostal church in Dallas, published "The Lady, Her Lover and Her Lord." It was a self-help guide peppered with scripture. In 1998 the title was followed up with a gospel-pop album of the same name as "sacred music for married couple."
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A1)

1993        Robert Kaplan published "Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History."
    (WSJ, 8/3/99, p.A20)

1993        The best-selling nonfiction hardback book was "See, I Told You So," by Rush Limbaugh.
    (WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R10)

1993        Mario Vargas Llosa published his book "Death in the Andes in Peru." The English version was published in 1996. It is a fictionalized account of some of the worst atrocities committed by and in reaction to Peru’s Sendero Luminoso (Shining path) guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 2/16/96, p.A-8)

1993        Abdel Wahab al Miseri, author of an encyclopedia on Zionism, authored "Secret Societies of the World: the Protocols, Masonism, and Bahaism," in which he debunked "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion."
    (SFC, 10/31/02, p.A10)

1993        Rory Nugent wrote "Drums Along the Congo: On the Trail of Mokele-Mbembe, the Last Living Dinosaur." It was an account of his trip to the Republic of Congo.
    (WSJ, 6/23/97, p.A12)

1993        In Peru Magno Sosa wrote "The Sin of Being a Journalist" after spending 6 months wrongly imprisoned on terrorism charges after reporting on human rights violations.
    (SFEC, 3/3/97, p.A14)

1993        Vikram Seth authored "A Suitable Boy."
    (WSJ, 10/28/98, p.A20)

1993        Robert James Waller published "The Bridges of Madison County," the best-selling hardcover fiction work of the year.
    (WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R10)

1993        Edmund White published "Jean Genet: A Life."
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.3)

1993        The Int’l. Parliament of Writers was formed following Iranian death threats to Salmon Rushdie.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A10)

1993        The musical "Kiss of the Spider Woman" was written by Terrence McNally with songs by Kander and Ebb. It won 7 Toni awards. It was based on a book by Manuel Puig.
    (SFEC, 10/26/97, DB p.11)(SFC, 11/3/97, p.E1)

1993        Ushio Amagatsu choreographed the dance work "Yuragi," commissioned by the Theatre de la Ville de Paris, and premiered the work in Paris.
    (SFC, 10/14/96, p.B2)

1993        Bibi Besch (1940-1996) was nominated for an Emmy for her work in the TV series "Northern Exposure."
    (SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)

1993        The kids show Mighty Morphin Power Rangers premiered with a girl superhero, the Pink Ranger.
    (NW, 11/11/02, p.57)

1993        Captain Kangaroo (b.1955) ended with almost 40 years on TV. The show featured Bob Keeshan as the Captain.
    (WSJ, 3/6/97, p.B1)

1993        The X-Files began on TV. The lead FBI characters, Mulder and Scully (David Duchovny and Gillian Anderson), smacked their first kiss in late 1999.
    (SFC, 11/27/99, p.D10)

1993        Antonio de Almeida (1928-1997) became the conductor and musical director of the Moscow Symphony.
    (SFC, 2/22/96, p.A21)

1993        Ron Carter, jazz bass player, recorded his album "Friends" that included works by Rachmaninoff and Chopin.
    (WSJ, 2/26/97, p.A16)

1993        Bob Dylan released his "World Gone Wrong" album.
    (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

1993        Francisco Ulloa, Dominican merengue accordionist, recorded his album “UltraMerengue."
    (BAAC, 1/97, p.7)

1993        The Spanish flamenco duo Los del Rio, Antonio Romero and Rafael Ruiz, wrote the song "Macarena" that became a world-wide dance hit. The English version by the Bayside Boys was #1 in the US in 1996. the lyrics tell of a fickle girl whose boyfriend goes into the army. While he’s gone she plays around with his friends.
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.B1)(SFC, 8/30/96, p.A10)

1993        Dolly Parton, Loretta Lynn and Tammy Wynette produced their album "Honky Tonk Angels."
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, DB p.69)

1993        Don Henley used funds from the album: "Common Thread: The Songs of the Eagles" for the Walden Woods Project, which bought up acreage around Walden Pond for protection from development.
    SFC, 12/26/96, p.C6)

1993        Lou Harrison composed "Grand Duo." Mark Morris adopted the music to a dance performance.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A16)

1993        The ska music style was featured in the 4-disk set "Tougher Than Tough: The Story of Jamaican Music" on the Mango label.
    (SFC, 11/11/97, p.A17)

1993        Composer John Williams retired from the Boston Pops. He composed the music for the Star Wars films.
    (WSJ, 5/13/99, p.A28)

1993        In Las Vegas the Luxor, Treasure Island, and MGM Grand casino-hotels were completed.
    (WSJ, 1/21/97, p.A18)

1993        Pope John Paul II put forth his encyclical "Veritatis Splendor," on the nature of moral truth in a relativistic world.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)

1993        The Evangelical Lutheran Church drafted a statement on sexuality that condoned masturbation.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A7)

1993        The Rev. Mac Charles Jones (d.1997 at 47), pastor of St. Stephens Baptist Church in Kansas City, organized a summit on urban violence known as "The Gang Summit."
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)

1993        The Progress and Freedom Foundation was founded. It was a think tank with close ties to Newt Gingrich. It produced a white paper titled the Telecom Revolution that outlined the state-of-the-art conservative thinking on communications policy.
    (Wired, Dec. '95, p.228)

1993        Chefs Collaborative 2000 was founded at a meeting of the Oldways Preservation & Exchange Society.
    (WSJ, 12/2/99, p.A20)

1993        In Oakland, Ca., Black Panther member David Hilliard founded the Newton Foundation to carry on the social programs of the Black Panthers.
    (SFC, 10/24/97, p.A21)
1993        Ted Hayes founded Dome Village in Los Angeles as a cooperative for 30 homeless people. In 2006 the project was dismantled and the domes were auctioned off online.
    (SFC, 9/1/06, p.B12)

1993        The American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M) was founded in Chicago.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Par p.20)

1993        In Clermont, Georgia, Mat Garretson sponsored an int’l. Viognier wine tasting through his marketing group, the Viognier Guild, a first for the variety. He is persuaded to move to California and sponsor the next event there.
    (SSFC, 7/22/12, p.G7)

1993        The US National Postal Museum opened as part of the Smithsonian Institute near Union Station in Washington DC.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)

1993        The first Bicycle Messenger Championship was held in Berlin, Germany.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.D1)

1993        The Baltimore Orioles were sold for $173 million.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.E1)

1993        Garry Kasparov, considered the world’s best chess player, founded the breakaway Professional Chess Assoc.
    (SFC, 1/10/98, p.A4)

1993        Professional football in the US first allowed unrestricted free-agency.
    (WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A1)

1993        The Kentucky Derby was won by Sea Hero.
    (WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A16)

1993        The American Akebono was promoted to yokozuna, the 1st rank of sumo wrestling.
    (SFEC, 11/23/97, p.A25)

1993        The Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) came to the US. It was called the "bloodiest, most barbaric show in history."
    (SSFC, 3/18/01, p.A12)

1993        Novelist E. Annie Proulx won the National Book Award for "The Shipping News."
    (USAT, 11/19/97, p.22A)

1993        Dutch novelist Cees Nooteboom won the European Literary Prize for best novel for his work: "The Following Story."
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A3)

1993        The Booker Prize for Fiction was won by Roddy Doyle for: "Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha."
    (WSJ, 10/15/97, p.A21)

1993        The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Kary B. Mullis for developing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identifying fragments of DNA.
    (SFC, 7/18/00, p.A8)
1993        The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to Robert W. Fogel for "having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change." Douglas C. North (1920-2015) of Stanford’s Hoover Inst. also shared in the prize.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)(SFC, 11/26/15, p.D6)
1993        The Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded to Richard J. Roberts of Britain and Philip A. Sharp of the US for discovery of split genes that changed how scientists look at evolution and advanced research on hereditary diseases, including some cancers.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)
1993        Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the first binary pulsar and for subsequent studies leading to a verification of the theory of general relativity for a system outside our solar system. In 1974 they recorded an indirect sighting of gravitational waves when they showed a pair of stars spiraling towards each other was radiating energy in the form of gravitational waves at exactly the same rate predicted by Einstein.
    (Econ, 6/24/06, p.94)(www.aip.org/pnu/1993/split/pnu147-1.htm)
1993        Toni Morrison (b.1931, American novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Her novels are known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue, and richly detailed black characters. Among her best known novels are “The Bluest Eye," “Song of Solomon," and “Beloved," which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1988.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toni_Morrison)

1993        The US imposed limited sanctions on China following the sale of some M-11 missile components to Pakistan.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A4)

1993          Pres. Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act. It granted workers 24 hours a year of unpaid leave to handle family matters. In 2003 the US Supreme Court allowed state employees to sue for denial of unpaid family leave.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A1)(SFC, 5/28/03, p.B1)

1993        Linda Tripp, a Pentagon aide, later reported to Newsweek Magazine that Kathleen Willey told her of a sexual encounter she had in the Oval Office with Pres. Clinton.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.A3)

1993        John B. Taylor (b.1946) authored a paper in the Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy. Here he proposed that a simple and effective central bank policy would manipulate short-term interest rates, raising rates to cool the economy whenever inflation or output growth becomes excessive, and lowering rates when either one falls too low. Taylor's interest rate equation has come to be known as the Taylor rule, and it is now widely accepted as an effective formula for monetary decision making.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_B._Taylor)

1993        James Riady, Indonesian billionaire, began to be a guest at the Clinton White House. His family ran the Lippo Group, a financial conglomerate out of Jakarta. By 1996 he had made 15-20 visits.
    (SFC, 11/5/96, p.A1)

1993        Agricultural Secretary Mike Espy accepted gratuities from Richard Douglas, a VP of Sun-Diamond Growers in California. Espy was indicted in 1997 for soliciting gifts from companies he was supposed to be regulating. Douglas was convicted in 1997 for offering gratuities.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p. A8)(SFC, 6/16/96, p.B2)(SFC, 11/26/97, p.A7)

1993        The Naval Base at Alameda, Ca., was ordered shut down as part of the federal government base closure program.
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, p.D4)

1993        The US Congress abolished mandatory retirement in academia.
    (WSJ, 11/24/97, p.A1)

1993        A US law capped deductions for executive pay and firms reacted by giving out more stock options.
    (WSJ, 12/27/06, p.A6)

1993        The Solomon amendment empowered the US government to cut off federal money to any school that blocks military recruiters from having the same kind of access to campuses and to students that is provided to any other employer.
    (SFC, 12/7/05, p.A3)

1993        The National Ignition Facility (NIF) was begun in Livermore, Ca. It was designed to be the 40 times as powerful as any laser ever built.
    (WSJ, 12/20/99, p.A1)

1993        The US FDA approved Risperdal, made by Johnson & Johnson, to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in adults. In 2006 approval was expanded to help treat autism in children.
    (WSJ, 10/7/06, p.A14)

1993        The khat plant was made illegal as a Schedule I narcotic in the US.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.35)

1993        Alabama Governor Guy Hunt, halfway through his 2nd term, was convicted and forced to resign. He was sentenced to 5 years probation, 1,000 hours of community service, and a $212,000 fine. In 1997 a parole board, partly appointed by Hunt, voted to pardon him.
    (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A2)
1993        Alabama Governor James E. Folsom Jr. (b.1948) led an offer to Mercedes-Benz of $253 million in incentives to build its 1st auto plant in Vance.
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)(http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/folsom.html)

1993        Charles Keating, Arizona land developer, was found guilty by a federal jury on 73 counts of racketeering, fraud, and conspiracy and sentenced to 12 years. His son was also convicted on 64 counts that alleged many of the same crimes. Federal charges were overturned in 1996.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)
1993        An international competition rated Phoenix, Az., and Christchurch, New Zealand, as the world’s best governed cities.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.32)

1993        Rev. Eugene Lumpkin, a member of the SF Human Rights Commission, spoke against the homosexual lifestyle and quoted scripture that it was abomination against God. He later stated in a TV interview he agreed with a biblical statement that "a man who sleeps with a man should be put to death." Mayor Jordan quickly fire Rev. Lumpkin from the HRC. Lumpkin filed suit on the basis of freedom of speech and religion but his case was lost.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A16)
1993        In San Francisco the remains of almost 500 people were found during excavation for seismic renovations of the Palace of the Legion of Honor at Lincoln Park. The area was the site of a public cemetery for indigents that closed at the turn of the century. The cemetery land eventually became a golf course.
    (SSFC, 2/3/19, DB p.42)
1993        In SF a free medical clinic for teenagers was established at Mission High School. In 1998 Superintendent Bill Rojas blocked approval of a $50,000 grant for the clinic to continue.
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.A19)
1993        In SF the Ferry Plaza Farmers Market opened.
    (SSFC, 5/5/13, p.G1)
1993        In SF The Yerba Buena Gardens opened across from the Moscone Center.
    (SFC, 11/9/99, p.D1)
1993        The St. Francis of Assisi church in North Beach, built in 1860, was one of 9 churches closed by the Archdiocese of San Francisco. In 1997 it was reborn as a national shrine to St. Francis, the only sanctioned shrine outside his Italian hometown.
    (SSFC, 11/20/05, p.B3)
1993        Channel 54 began operating as the independent nonprofit SF Community Television Corp.
    (SFC, 9/28/99, p.A17)
1993        In SF Rev. Max Christensen (d.1998), rector of St. James Episcopal Church, published his book "Turning Points." In 1997 he published "Heroes and Saints."
    (SFC, 7/15/98, p.A20)
1993        In SF Ken Romines was assigned to Edison Elementary School in Noe Valley, described as the worst in the city. He spent 2 years trying to turn it around, after which it was "reconstituted." He wrote the 1997 "A Principal’s Story" to describe the events.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, BR p.8)
1993        SF voters approved Prop. AA, a policy declaration saying that all city employees should ride MUNI to work at least twice a week.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.A22)
1993        SF raised cable car prices to $2.00 each way.
    (SFC, 3/2/05, p.B7)
1993        SF police officer Joanne Welsh filed a suit against police-chief Anthony Ribera for sexual harassment. In 12/95 Ribera was acquitted by a federal jury but the jury found the city guilty for not returning her to her job. She was awarded $288,606 in damages, attorneys fees and back pay.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A15)
1993        Police officer Bob Geary successfully defended his right to use his dummy puppet "O’Smarty" while on patrol. The defense cost him $11,465 and was denied as a tax deduction.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, p.D1)
1993        SF Gate of Chronicle Publ. opened for business on the Internet.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8)
1993        Management of the SF Zoo shifted from the city to the Zoological Society.
    (SFC, 7/30/04, p.E15)
1993        The Dolores St. Baptist Church experienced a devastating fire.
    (SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)
1993        John B. Fortunio (45) was robbed and stabbed to death by Juan Arballu (28). Fortunio left his estate by will to the city of SF and in 1998 it was valued at about $782,193.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.A23)
1993        Angel Lopez, prostitute, was slain in SF.
    (SFC, 3/13/04, p.B6)
1993        There were 117 deaths and 436 injuries due to handguns this year in SF. 132 killings were reported for the year.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A19)(SFC,12/9/97, p.A18)

1993        The last section of I-105 was completed in Los Angeles. This completed the US highway system begun in 1956.
    (Econ, 2/16/08, p.32)
1993        Tom Bradley, mayor of Los Angeles, retired. He was succeeded by Richard Riordan.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, p.A13)
1993        In California Arturo Rodriguez succeeded Cesar Chavez as president of the United Farm Workers.
    (WSJ, 8/5/98, p.CA4)

1993        The federal government and South Carolina state paid the Catawba Indians $50 million for lands taken in 1840.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.A10)

1993        Dennis Archer succeeded Coleman Young as mayor of Detroit.
    (WSJ, 5/28/98, p.A20)

1993        Rudolph Giuliani defeated New York’s first black mayor, David Dinkins. He became the first Republican mayor in 2 decades and the city’s 107th.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A3)(SFC, 1/2/98, p.A3)

1993        Carlos Enrique Cervantes de Gortari was convicted with 4 others in federal court in Newark for selling 90 kg of cocaine to an undercover agent. He is a cousin of Mexico’s former president Carlos Salinas.
    (WSJ, 4/15/97, p.A15)

1993        Nevada rancher Cliven Bundy quit paying grazing fees on government land after the government designated the Gold Butte area as protected habitat for the endangered desert tortoise and cut his allotment of cows. The BLM cancelled his grazing permit and ordered him to remove his cows. Federal judges later upheld the action.
    (SSFC, 4/20/14, p.A11)

1993        Rhode Island repealed its nautical taxes and became something of a nautical tax haven.
    (SFC, 7/24/10, p.A6)

1993        The American Stock Exchange introduced the Standard & Poor’s Depository Receipts, known as SPDRs and pronounced "spiders." They traded at one-tenth the value of the S&P.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.B1)
1993        The first exchange-traded funds (ETFS) were introduced. They consisted of a basket of shares designed to track a benchmark.
    (Econ, 3/1/08, SR p.8)

1993        The Boston Globe was purchased by the New York Times for $1.07 billion.
    (WSJ, 8/9/99, p.B9)

1993        Mercedes-Benz announced plans to build cars in the US.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1993        Alex Trotman became the chairman and CEO for Ford.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1993        Ferdinand Piech took over Volkswagen. He was the grandson of founder Ferdinand Porsche and the son of the company’s wartime chief, Anton Piech.
    (WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A17)

1993        Dr. Stephen Fodor founded Affymetrix, a spin-off from Affymax Research Institute in Palo Alto, Ca. the company specialized in developing commercial DNA arrays.
    (Econ, 12/2/06, TQ p.25)

1993        ATT bought McCaw Cellular Communications for $11.5 bil. The transaction was completed in 1994. McCaw then founded Nextlink, a provider of phone services to businesses. McCaw’s story was told in 2000 by O. Casey Cor in "Money From Thin Air."
    (WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A24)(www.forbes.com/1998/06/22/feat.html)

1993        Privately held Amstar Corp., a holding company for Milwaukee Electric Tool, merged with Essex Industries, a lock and door company, to form Esstar Corp.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1993        Apple Chairman John Sculley introduced the Newton MessagePad, the first personal digital assistant. The device was terminated in 1998.
    (SFC, 2/28/98, p.D1)

1993        Applied Biosystems was acquired by Perkin-Elmer, which held the rights to polymerase chain reaction technology (PCR).
    (SFEC, 7/23/00, p.C7)

1993        Barnes & Noble, the bookstore people, went public with an IPO.
    (WSJ, 9/3/96, p.A6)

1993        Jim Koch, founder of Boston Beer co., the maker of Samuel Adams beer, set a new bar by creating Triple Bock, a beverage with 17.5% alcohol by volume. In the early 2000s, Dogfish Head responded with beverages of their own that went to 22%. In 2009 Boston Beer released an updated version of its biennial beer Utopias, to date the highest alcohol content beer on the market. It was 27% alcohol by volume and $150 a bottle.
    (AP, 11/30/09)

1993        Coca-Cola established a memorandum of understanding with Beijing for expansion in China and obligations to the domestic soft-drink industry. 10 new joint-venture bottling plants were allowed.
    (WSJ, 5/31/96, p.B3B)

1993        The Dart Corp. brothers Kenneth and Robert renounced their US citizenship to avoid US income taxes and set up shop in the Cayman Islands.
    (WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A1)

1993        Enron Corp. started building electric power plants on barges with a project in Guatemala.
    (WSJ, 5/22/96, p.B-1)

1993        Ford’s European division launched the Mondeo, a car that reflected Ford’s new approach to improved dynamics.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.73)

1993        Goldman Sachs & Co. invented a new security called Monthly Income Preferred Shares (MIPS) that resembled both a loan and an equity. It allowed companies to mask the size of their debt while cutting their federal tax bill.
    (WSJ, 2/1/02, p.A1)

1993        Hearst New Media and Technology was created to guide interests in new media. Hearst also started Country Living Gardener magazine and acquired the San Antonio Express-News.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1993        Guillermo Gaede, an Intel engineer, used his computer to tap into plans for the Pentium & 486 chip manufacturing process and video taped the information. He sent the info his former employer Advanced Micro Devices who notified federal authorities. He claimed to have been double-crossed by the FBI and also to have passed info from AMD to Cuba, China, North Korea and Iran. He was arrested in Phoenix on Sep 23, 1995.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A23)

1993        The Mondavi Wine Co. went public.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.D4)

1993        Omega 7 Inc. was founded by Alonzo Washington. It was focused on establishing Omega Man as a black comic book superhero. It later branched in to the toy market.
    (SFC, 2/2/98, p.B2)

1993        Quantum Chemical Corp. was acquired by Britain’s Hanson PLC. It had begun in 1890 as the Distilling & Cattle Feeding Co.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1993        Steven Burd, a member of the KKR team that took Safeway private in a large leveraged buyout, became the CEO of Safeway.
    (WSJ, 3/25/04, p.A3)

1993        Rayovac introduced a rechargeable alkaline battery system that extended the charge on reusable alkaline manganese batteries. The charge held 3x longer the NiCad batteries.
    (SFEC, 2/21/99, p.B5)

1993        Sears Corp. stopped publishing the Sears catalog.
    (WSJ, 7/28/97, p.A18)

1993        Triarc Corp. (Arby’s, RC Cola and propane interests) was acquired by Nelson Pelz from Victor Posner. Pelz received shareholder approval in 1994 to work for a $1 salary for 6 years plus enormous stock options. In 1996 he collected 2 million in bonus money, not directly approved by stockholders.
    (WSJ, 6/12/97, p.C1)

1993        Doctors at Duke, Mass. Gen’l. Hosp. and Northwestern Univ. announced that they had isolated the gene that causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Par, p.15)

1993        Depo-Provera, an injectable drug for birth control, was released in the US.
    (SFC, 7/21/99, p.A9)

1993        Sanofi-Aventis of France introduced its Ambien sleeping pill to the US.
    (SFC, 3/3/06, p.D1)

1993        The information highway joined the lexicon.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1993)

1993        Ward Cunningham (b.1949) founded the 1st Wiki site, The Portland Repository." The site was developed so that multiple users could revise and update information. He joined Microsoft in 2003.
    (WSJ, 7/29/04, p.B1)(www.en.wikipedia.org)

1993        Id Software’s "Doom" featured a 3-D shooter and was launched on the Internet.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E3)

1993        The computer game "Mortal Combat" sparked a controversy in Congress over video game violence.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)

1993        The computer game "Myst" swept the US with its eerie puzzle plot.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)

1993        The fantasy card game “Magic: The Gathering" was created.
    (SFC, 9/1/04, p.B1)

1993        Mattel introduced its “Earing Magic Ken" doll, which gave him a pierced left ear.
    (ST, 7/29/04, p.C8)

1993        The graphics chip company nVidea (Nvidia) was founded in Santa Clara, Ca.
    (WSJ, 3/17/03, p.B1)(SFC, 12/2/06, p.C2)
1993        In California Richard M. Diamond (1924-2007), nuclear chemist, and lab partner Frank Stephens developed and built the original Gammasphere at Berkeley’s 88-inch cyclotron. It analyzed gamma rays emitted from atoms bombarded in high-energy nuclear accelerators.
    (SFC, 10/20/07, p.B5)

1993        A US project to build a 23-km particle accelerator near Waxahachie, Texas, was cancelled after nearly $2 billion had been spent.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.84)

1993        The NASA $1 billion Mars Observer probe failed just before entry into orbit around Mars.
    (SFC, 11/7/96, p.B1)
1993        A NASA study said: “While no single food can supply all the essential life-sustaining nutrients, quinoa comes as close as any other in the plant or animal kingdom."
    (Econ, 5/21/16, p.65)

1993        The Pew Foundation established the Pew Center for Civic Journalism with a 3-year grant that was renewed.
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A6)

1993        Father Timothy Scully founded the Alliance for Catholic Education at Notre Dame in an effort to help staff the inner-city parochial schools.
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W15)

1993        The Holocene calendar was first proposed by Italian-American scientist Cesare Emiliani (1922-1995). It is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000 years to the currently dominant AD (or CE) numbering scheme, placing its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch and the Neolithic Revolution.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocene_calendar)

1993        Lobbyists in Washington were paid an average of $47,679 each, while the average American worker earned $19,429.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, p.A18)

1993        Southeast Asia accounted for 1.4% of the world’s agricultural land and 3.6% of global pesticide imports by value. The highest use was in Thailand.
    (WSJ, 10/3/96, p.B11B)

1993        The ozone hole over the Antarctic was measured to be three times the size of the United States. "If the release of CFC’S (chlorofluorocarbons) is ceased instantly, it would take nearly 100 years for the ozone to recover. (Prof. James Terri)"
    (LSA., D. Gilbert, p. 29.)

1993        An E. coli outbreak made hundreds ill and several children died. It was traced to hamburgers at Jack in the Box restaurants. The bacteria was identified as E. coli 0157:H7, a renegade strain of the normally harmless group.
    (WSJ, 7/15/96, p.B1)(SFC, 11/1/96, p.A4)

1993        The hantavirus was discovered in the American Southwest and killed at least 26 people.
    (SFC, 2/3/00, p.A6)

1993        Paintings that dated back 2000 years, made on rock surfaces in the central mountain ranges of the Baha Peninsula by unknown native Indians, were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. In 1997 Harry W. Crosby published "Cave Paintings of Baha California."
    (WSJ, 3/5/98, p.A20)

1993        The Univ. of Michigan began publishing its American Consumer Satisfaction Index. George Katona began the consumer surveys began in 1946.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.79)(http://tinyurl.com/33oozk)

1993        The national marine Fisheries Services announced that of 157 commercially valuable fish species in the US, 36% were over fished and 44% were fished at the maximum level.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, A12)

1993        The Fortean Times, a British journal of strange and uncanny phenomena, began compiling its weirdness index based on the number of stories printed in various categories over the previous year.
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, p.A23)

1993        Little Rock, Ark., hit a record 76 murders for the year.
    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.F6)

1993        Texas executed 17 inmates.
    (SFC, 12/26/97, p.A17)

1993        The Forest Service cut logging by two-thirds to protect the spotted owl in northern California.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)

1993        Timothy Synnott helped create the Forest Stewardship Council, which aimed at cutting logging abuse around the world.
    (WSJ, 9/26/00, p.A1)

1993        Shark finning was banned in the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico by the US Sec. of Commerce due to serious overfishing.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A10)

1993        Princess Cruises began its Planet Princess environmental conservation and training program.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T9)

1993        The US nuclear-powered submarine Grayling collided in the Barents Sea with a Russian Delta-3 class, nuclear-powered submarine. Both vessels were able to return to base.
    (SFC, 8/15/00, p.A15)

1993        In San Diego a gang shootout over the distribution of methamphetamines left 26 people dead.
    (SFC, 2/10/97, p.A9)

1993        In the US Deputy White House Counsel Vincent Foster committed suicide.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)

1993        In Maryland Mildred Horn and nurse Janice Saunders were shot and killed in Silver Spring. Trevor (8), Horn's quadriplegic son, died after his breathing tube was disconnected. Lawrence T. Horn, Trevor's father and Mildred's ex-husband, was sentenced to life in prison for hiring James Edward Perry of Detroit to commit the slayings. At Perry's trial prosecutors argued that he followed tips outlined in the book "Hit Man: A Technical Manual for the Independent Contractor." In 1999 Paladin Press agreed to settle a multimillion federal civil suit, to make contributions to 2 charities chosen by the plaintiffs and to turn over 700 remaining copies of the book.
    (SFC, 5/22/99, p.A3)

1993        Kobo Abe, Japanese writer, died. He wrote "Woman in the Dunes." In 1996 his last novel "Kangaroo Notebook" was published.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, BR, p.4)

1993        Maeve Brennan (b.1916), Irish-born short story writer, died. She was a longtime contributor to the New Yorker. In 2000 the posthumous collection "The Rose Garden" was published.
    (WSJ, 2/3/00, p.A24)

1993        James H. Doolittle, head of the 1942 US air raid on Tokyo, died.
    (SSFC, 3/30/03, p.A3)

1993        Daniel Fuchs (84), writer, died. His books included a series of novels about Jewish life in Brooklyn: "Summer in Williamsburg," "Homage to Blenholt," and "Low Company."
    (www.nysun.com/article/13669)

1993        Joseph Paul Jernigan, a convicted murderer, was executed in Huntsville, Texas. He donated his body to medical research and it was quick frozen, sliced, photographed and computer enhanced and used to make the 1997 CD Body Voyage.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, BR. p.9)

1993        Dizzy Gillespie, jazz trumpet player, died at age 75.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, DB p.34)

1993        Lillian Gish, Hollywood actress, died. The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize was created from interest on a trust fund following her death.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.E3)

1993        Actor Brandon Lee was accidentally killed during the filming of "The Crow."
    (SFEM, 1/12/97, Par p.18)

1993        Reginald F. Lewis, businessman, CEO of TLC Beatrice Holdings Inc., died of brain cancer. His biography was co-written with Blair S. Walker.
    (WSJ, 1/12/95, A-14)

1993        Alexander Mackendrick (81), film director, died. His work included "The Ladykillers" (1955) and "Sweet Smell of Success."
    (WSJ, 3/25/02, p.A16)

1993        John H. Martin, oceanographer at California’s Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, died. He proposed that enriching the ocean with iron particles would spur plankton production and cause absorption of atmospheric CO2. A 1996 experiment proved him right.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A2)

1993        Richard Salant, lawyer, died. He ran CBS news for 16 years after being put in charge by CBS Pres. Frank Stanton. His memoirs were compiled, edited and published in 1998 by Susan and Bill Buzenburg: "Salant, CBS, and the Battle for the Soul of Broadcast Journalism."
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, BR p.8)

1993        The G-7 Summit was held in Tokyo.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)

1993        Algeria stopped applying death sentences.
    (AP, 1/29/11)
1993        The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) first emerged and became most active around Algiers.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.A10)
1993        In Algeria Karima Belhadj was the first woman killed in a rebel attack.
    (SFC, 3/9/99, p.B10)

1993        Andorra ended as a co-principality and became legally independent. The parliament chamber had 28 seats, 4 representatives for each of its 7 parishes.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.74)(SSFC, 6/24/07, p.G3)

1993        In Angola arms and an oil embargo was imposed on the UNITA rebels by the UN but it had little effect.
    (SFC, 10/30/97, p.A13)

1993        Argentina’s Pres. Menem made a deal with congress known as the Olivos Pact. The congressional opposition allowed him to run for re-election and changed the constitution to make lawful decrees that he had issued in exchange for a term reduction from 6 years to 4 along with a reduction in influence over other branches of government.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.29)
1993        In Argentina Gen’l. Lanusse was place under house arrest for after he accused Pres. Carlos Menem of being "frivolous" and a "womanizer."
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)   
1993        In Argentina Father Julio Grassi became widely known after starting the "Happy the Children" Foundation, opening several homes for poor children and doing other charitable work.
    (AP, 6/11/09)
1993        In Argentina Santa Cruz province, under Gov. Nestor Kirchner, acquired shares in YPF, a privatized oil company, in lieu of unpaid royalties. The shares were sold for a big profit in 1999 and the proceeds were held abroad. Some of the money returned to the province but Mr. Kirchner has not revealed what happened to the rest.
    (Econ, 2/27/10, p.28)

1993        In Australia the Daintree Eco Lodge and Spa opened in the rain forest of North Queensland.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C7)
1993        In Australia, a developer bought a 260-acre site in Cardwell, Queensland, across from Hichinbrook Island, the world’s largest island national park. His $100 million plans to develop the site faced major opposition in 1998 even after 12 million was invested.
    (SFC, 1/16/98, p.B4)

1993        The war in the Balkans continued with the new term Ethnic Cleansing.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1993)

1993        Islamic fundamentalists imposed a sentence of death on Bangladesh writer Taslima Nasreen for her 1992 novel "Shame." [see Nasrin 1998]
    (WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A20)

1993        Belgium adopted a law that empowered judges to hear war crimes and genocide cases regardless of where the alleged crimes occurred or who committed them. In 2002 the Int’l. Court of Justice cited diplomatic immunity and ruled that Belgium cannot try former and current world leaders. In 2003 an amendment to invalidate high profile cases was passed.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.A8)(AP, 4/5/03)

1993        A Bolivian court convicted Arce Gomez in absentia of a series of crimes including armed insurrection and genocide. He was sentenced to 30 years without parole. Gomez was in the US serving time following a conviction for drug trafficking.
    (AP, 7/10/09)
1993        A Bolivian court convicted former dictator Garcia Meza in absentia of genocide, sedition, corruption and other crimes.
    (SFC, 5/4/18, p.D6)

1993        A Bosnian Croat, Zlatko Aleksovski, was one of six men charged in 1996 with killing Muslims in the central Lasva Valley in this year.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, C16)

1993        Fikret Abdic declared Bihac an autonomous province. He and his followers fled to Croatia in 1995. He was indicted in 1999 for inhumane treatment of civilians and prisoners of war.
    (SFC, 1/11/99, p.A10)

1993        A Bosnian Croat state, Herzeg-Bosnia, was declared by Croat nationalists during fighting between Muslims and Croats. In Croat controlled parts of Bosnia it collects taxes, runs schools and allows use of Croatia’s currency.
    (SFC, 6/15/96, p.A10)

1993        In Brazil Pres. Itamar Franco named Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Finance Minister, the 4th in 18 months. Cardoso enacted the Plano Real economic program and slashed inflation from 2,700% to 2% in 1998. This success enabled Cardoso to win elections for president in 1994.
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-13)(SFC, 2/26/99, p.E2)
1993        In Brazil Castor de Andrade (d.1997 at 71), a Rio "godfather," was arrested with 13 other suspected gaming bosses and convicted of criminal association and forming armed gangs. Police evidence revealed multi-million payoffs to congressmen, police chiefs, judges, businessmen, police officers and the former President Fernando Collor de Mello.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)
1993        At Brazil’s Carandiru Prison riot troopers killed 111 inmates in their efforts to quell a rebellion. The Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC) was founded at Taubate jail in Sao Paulo state to fight for prisoner’s rights and avenge the massacre by police of more than 100 prisoners at Carandiru. The PCC grew to become the country’s most powerful gang.
    (SFC, 1/1/98, p.A14)(Economist, 9/22/12, p.45)
1993        In Brazil Congressman Jair Bolsonaro strode to a podium in the lower house and delivered a speech that shook its young democracy: He declared his love for the country's not-so-distant military regime and demanded the legislature be disbanded.
    (Reuters, 10/5/18)

1993        The Church of England decided to permit female priests.
    (SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-16)
1993        The British Council Tax, a levy based loosely on house prices, was instituted.
    (Econ, 1/24/04, p.51)
1993        Britain set up the Child Support Agency (CSA) to calculate and collect maintenance payments from one parent to another when families split up and support payments are due. In late 2006 plans were made public for a new body, the Child Maintenance and Enforcement Commission, to replace the CSA.
    (Econ, 12/3/05, p.53)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.58)
1993        James Dyson, British former art student turned inventor, set up a plant in Wiltshire to produce his vacuum cleaners. Production was later transferred to Malaysia.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.8)
1993        The British brothers David and Frederick Barclay paid $3.5 million for the Brecqhou, and Channel Island considered as part of the fiefdom of Sark.
    (WSJ, 10/11/05, p.A1)
1993        Asil Nadir (52), a Turkish Cypriot, went to northern Cyprus after being charged with 66 counts of theft involving 34 million pounds. He ran Polly Peck, one of Britain's biggest companies with interests in sectors from textiles to electronics, before its collapse. In 2010 Nadir's lawyers indicated he would be willing to come back and face trial if he was granted bail.
    (AFP, 7/30/10)
1993        Research by Robin Dunbar, an Oxford anthropologist, gave rise to Dunbar’s number of 150 as a natural limit to the human friendship circle.
    (WSJ, 11/16/07, p.B1)

1993        Bulgaria banned dancing bears, but performances continued through 2002. In 2000 Four Paws, a Vienna animal rights group, opened a bear sanctuary at Belitsa.
    (SFC, 7/8/02, p.A3)

1993        In Burundi Pierre Buyoya paved the way for elections and handed the presidency to Melchior Ndadaye, a Hutu.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.A9)

1993        "The Music of Cambodia" was recorded by David and Kay Parsons as a 3-CD box that included Royal Court music and a nine-gong ensemble.
    (NH, 9/97, p.75)
1993        Cambodia held free elections under UN supervision. The communist Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) under Hun Sen lost the elections and formed a coalition government with the elected Funcinpec under Prince Ranariddh, son of King Sihanouk. The Khmer Rouge boycotted the elections. The communists maintained control over the defense and interior ministries. Ranariddh and Hun Sen ran the country as co-premiers.
    (WSJ, 5/3/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 6/19/97, p.A13)(WSJ, 7/9/99, p.A12)
1993        Cambodian law prohibited the removal of cultural artifacts without government permission.
    (AP, 6/11/13)
1993        The Int'l. Coordination Committee was created to channel aid to Cambodia's Angkor Wat zone.
    (SFC, 2/4/04, p.D10)
1993        In Cambodia an armed group robbed the Angkor storage depot at Siem Reap and took 22 pieces including several important stone sculptures.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.60)
1993        Somaly Mam (b.~1970-71) escaped Cambodia following years of forced prostitution. She moved to Paris and later returned to Cambodia to help women caught in similar situations. In 2006 she was honored as one of Glamour magazine's women of the year. In 2007 she published her autobiography: "The Road of Lost Innocence." In 2008 she was the co-winner of the $150,000 World's Children's Prize for the Rights of the Child, awarded by the Swedish Children's World Association to recognize those who defend the rights of children. In 2014 she resigned from the New York-based foundation she helped found after reports alleged that she had distorted aspects of her personal history.
    (AP, 5/29/14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somaly_Mam)

1993        Canada’s former PM Mulroney began accepting cash from Karlheinz Schreiber, a lobbyist for Airbus and Thyssen. This was only made public in 2003. Public hearings in the matter began in 2009. Schreiber said he handed over C$300,000 ($256,000) in cash to Mulroney in separate hotel meetings so that Mulroney could help promote establishment of a factory to build light armored vehicles.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.44)(Reuters, 5/12/09)
1993        In Canada Karla Homolka pleaded guilty in the sex slayings of two southern Ontario teenagers Leslie Mahaffy and Kristen French. She was sentenced to 12 years in prison and was set for release in 2005. Her husband Paul Bernardo, eventually convicted of raping 13 Ontario women or girls, committed many of the assaults during the first three years of his relationship with Homolka.
    (AP, 6/3/05)
1993        In Canada diamond prospectors found nickel deposits in Labrador’s Voisey Bay. Vale of Brazil opened a mine there in 2005.
    (Econ, 4/12/14, p.27)

1993        Former Central African Republic ruler Jean-Bedel Bokassa was released from prison by President Andre Kolingba, who had overthrown David Dacko. Bokassa ended his days as a recluse in his villa in Bangui and died of a heart attack in 1996.
    (AFP, 12/1/10)

1993        In Chile capital controls were reduced to a minimum permanence period of 1 year for foreign money.
    (WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A17)
1993        Chile passed its first law offering protection, formal recognition and development aid to indigenous groups. 5 of its original native tribes were already lost. In 2006 the Kawesqar were down to just 15 full-blooded members. The Mapuche numbered some 600,000.
    (SSFC, 10/8/06, p.A25)

1993        The 1st dam on the Mekong River was completed at Man Wan, China.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)
1993        China amended its Constitution.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A22)
1993        China set up a Preliminary Working Committee (PWC) to shape the post-1997 Hong Kong administration.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)
1993        China curbed satellite dish sales and ownership after Rupert Murdoch, who had just bought Star TV, said that satellite broadcasting threatened totalitarian regimes by enabling viewers to bypass state controlled media.
    (WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-15)(SFC, 5/8/99, p.C1)(Econ, 9/24/05, p.80)
1993        The Unirule Institute of Economics, an independent Chinese think tank, was founded in Beijing. In 2017 the government shut down two of its websites as well as all of its social media accounts and those of its researchers.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.37)
1993        China and the Tibet Autonomous Region established the Chang Tang Reserve setting aside at least 109,000 sq. mls. Added to the smaller, contiguous Arjin Shan Region, the total preserved area is now almost as a large as Germany.
    (NH, 5/96, p.52)
1993        Michael Yu and his wife founded New Oriental’s 1st school to teach English to Chinese students. In 2006 New Oriental raised $129.4 million in an initial public offering on the NYSE.
    (WSJ, 11/27/06, p.B3)
1993        Feng Jun founded Aigo, the trade name of Beijing Huaqi Information Digital Technology Company, to sell keyboards. In 2008 Mr. Feng carried the Olympic torch in Athens.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, SR p.8)
1993        In China Chen Feng led a coalition of private investors and the government of Hainan to launch Hainan Airlines. In 2016 it recorded revenues of $90 billion.
    (Econ, 4/15/17, p.56)
1993        China banned the use of rhino horn and demand fell sharply.
    (Econ 5/6/17, p.69)

1993        Colombia granted collective title rights to black and indigenous groups.
    (Econ, 11/8/14, p.40)
1993        Colombia privatized the Port of Cartagena. By 2014 it was the 4th largest container hub in South America.
    (Econ, 5/17/14, p.33)

1993        Congo’s Pres. Mobutu removed Etienne Tshisekedi, the first Zairean to graduate from law school, from office as prime minister.
    (SFC, 3/21/97, p.A19)
1993        In Congo riots killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
    (SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)
1993        In Zaire ethnic cleansing occurred in the Kasai Province.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)
1993        In Zaire Mahele Lieko Bokoungo put down army-led looting in Kinshasa when he gave orders for loyal troops to fire on looters. Riots killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)(SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)

1993        Cuba allowed limited freedom for small private businesses in 157 spheres of activity.
    (Econ, 10/16/04, p.33)
1993        In Cuba the dollar stores were opened in large part to fight a growing black market in which goods were traded in dollars without passing through the state's hands.
    (AP, 5/11/04)

1993        In Cyprus Glafcos Clerides (1919-2013) was elected president. He had lost presidential elections in 1983 and 1988.
    (AP, 11/15/13)

1993        The Danish chapter of the Bandidos motorcycle gang started out as the 666 club, changed its name to the Morticians, then the Undertakers, and then affiliated in 1993 with the Texas-based Bandidos.
    (WSJ, 5/24/96, p.A-4)

1993        In El Salvador along with the peace accord Pres. Alfredo Cristiani reprivatized the banks and set himself and a tight circle of friends, secretly called "The Apostles," in control of the biggest institutions.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.A1,7)
1993        A broad amnesty was given to all combatants of the 1980-1992 El Salvador civil war. The Salvadoran war raged over 12 years and left around 75,000 people dead.
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A12)(AP, 5/30/11)
1993        In El Salvador a high-interest pyramid scheme bilked some $35 million from thousands of middle-class investors. The ARENA government of Pres. Cristiani did not stop it or prosecute those responsible.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.A7)

1993        Estonia adopted a land tax.
    (Econ., 4/4/15, p.23)
1993        Aleksander Einseln returned to Estonia from the Bay Area and became commander of the military. He planned to run for parliament in 1999.
    (BN, 10/98, p.6)

1993        The Afar Revolutionary Democratic Unity Front was launched in the land of the Afars, over territory that straddled Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti. The Afars numbered some 2 million and their territory had previously been called the French Territory of Afars and Issas.
    (Econ, 3/10/07, p.44)

1993        Amin Maalouf (b.1949), Lebanese writer, won France’s Prix Goncourt for his novel “The Rock of Tanios."
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.91)
1993        French Pres. Mitterrand moved the offices of the Ministry of Finance out of the Louvre’s Richelieu Wing to free 245,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space.
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)
1993        France forbade polygamy as it tightened immigration laws to stop husbands from bringing extra wives into the country.
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.55)
1993        France scrapped its saint-strewn list of acceptable names.
    (Econ, 1/14/12, p.59)
1993        Sanofi-Aventis of France introduced its Ambien sleeping pill to the US.
    (SFC, 3/3/06, p.D1)

1993        In Gabon Pres. Bongo suppressed protests on his re-election victory that was described as an "electoral coup d’etat."
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)

1993        Will Tremper, German journalist, screenwriter and film director, published his autobiography “My Wild Years."
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C11)
1993        The documentary film “The Wonderful, Horrible Life of Leni Riefenstahl" was made by German director Ray Muller.
    (SFC, 1/19/99, p.B1)
1993        Swiss architect Peter Zumthor won the “Topography of Terror" design competition for the Wilhelmstrasse government district, former headquarters of the Nazi police forces. By 2000 the $13 million project had escalated to $35 million and was put on hold.
    (SFC, 5/8/00, p.A12)
1993        Peter Eigen (b.1938) founded the Advisory Council Transparency International, a Berlin-based global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption.
    (www.transparency.org/about_us)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Eigen)
1993        Germany passed a 30% withholding tax on investment income. It caused billions of marks to flow out of Germany and into Luxembourg.
    (WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A10)
1993        Germany passed a law that limited last names to two in an effort to prevent clunky name chains.
    (AP, 5/5/09)
1993        In Germany the naturalization law of 1913 was modified to allow citizenship after 15 years of residency. A 1999 bill proposed to reduce the waiting time to 8 years.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.D2)
1993        In Germany the Reinheitsgebot law of 1516 was relaxed to allow foreign brewers to sell their beer in Germany.
    (WSJ, 5/27/98, p.A1)
1993        In Germany Neo-Nazi Silvio Kackowski was arrested for setting fire to a resort complex that was to become housing for foreign asylum seekers. In 1997 it was learned that villagers paid the arsonists and supplied them with materials for the fires.
    (SFC, 2/13/97, p.C3)
1993        The German Red Army Faction (RAF) called an end to its armed struggle.
    (WSJ, 1/11/00, p.A8)
1993        In Germany Edmund Stoiber was elected premier of Bavaria. He announced his resignation in 2007.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.62)
1993        Ferdinand Piech left Audi and took over operations at Volkswagen, where he turned losses into profits. He was the grandson of founder Ferdinand Porsche and the son of the company’s wartime chief, Anton Piech. In 2002 he was succeeded by Bernd Pischetsrieder. Piech (65) became chairman of Volkswagen’s supervisory board.
    (WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A17)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.70)
1993        Daimler-Benz acquired the Dutch plane-maker NV Fokker.
    (WSJ, 1/26/96, A-6)

1993        The World Bank pumped $4 billion into Ghana and called it an "African economic star."
    (WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A18)

1993        In Greece the border with Albania broke open and hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants, mainly Albanian Muslims, poured into the country. A video tape was recorded that depicted officers of a Greek anti-terrorist squad assaulting an apparent Albanian immigrant.
    (SFC, 11/13/97, p.A12)

1993        In Guatemala rightist civil patrols killed peasants in Colotenango. 12 members of the paramilitary unit were later arrested, tried and sentenced in 1999 to 25 years in prison. They were sprung from jail a day after being sentenced.
    (SFC, 4/30/99, p.B1)

1993        In Guinea Lansana Conte formed a political party and won the country's first multiparty presidential election.
    (AP, 9/29/09)

1993        In Hungary voluntary pension funds operated by private financial institutions became available.
    (WSJ, 10/21/97, p.A18)

1993        Bjorgolfur Bjorgolfsson (26) left Iceland and started a soft-drink company in St. Petersburg, Russia. He later expanded into brewing, banking, telecommunications and discount pharmaceuticals. By 2006 his stake in the Iceland-based Actavis Group was valued at $1 billion, making him Iceland’s first billionaire.
    (SFC, 4/1/06, p.C3)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.80)

1993        The Tibet Transit School near Dharamsala, India, was founded for arrivals from Tibet aged 18-30.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.57)
1993        India passed legislation that banned “manual scavenging," the practice of cleaning feces from houses that lacked flushing toilets. It also forbade the unplumbed toilets that necessitated the practice.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.54)

1993        In Iran new laws withdrew food coupons and subsidized health insurance from families after the birth of a 3rd child.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D2)

1993        Ireland this year decriminalized homosexuality and suicide.
    (Econ, 6/27/15, p.17)(Econ 6/10/17, p.55)

1993        In Israel Benjamin Netanyahu won the leadership of the Likud party. He appointed his aid, Avigdor Lieberman, to manage Likud.
    (SFC, 11/25/97, p.A8)
1993        In Israel Yoram Skolnick fired 9 bullets and killed a captured and bound Arab militant, Moussa Abu Sabha (21), who had been caught stabbing a Jewish settler. Skolnick was sentenced to life in prison but was released in 2001.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A10)
1993        Erel Margalit (32) founded Jerusalem Venture Partners (JVP), an Israeli venture capital firm.
    (Econ, 7/8/06, p.60)
1993        A new Jewish Museum opened in Vienna.
    (USAT, 9/24/04, p.3D)
1993        Tel Aviv began hosting an annual gay pride parade.
    (SFC, 6/8/02, p.A12)

1993        Italy abolished parliamentary immunity, however members of parliament could only be jailed with parliamentary authorization. In 2008 Silvio Berlusconi restored immunity for himself and three other office holders.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.63)(Econ, 12/3/16, p.16)
1993        Silvio Berlusconi created his Forza Italia! party.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.57)
1993        Antonio Basolino was elected mayor of Naples. Before his election the post was appointed by local party leaders. The city had been mired in corruption for decades and the new mayor began to clean it up.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.A1, 12)
1993        In Italy a federal law granted people in illegal dwellings the right to use public utilities but warned that illegal structures would be demolished. Demolitions began in 1998.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.A10)
1993        Antonio Fazio became governor of the Bank of Italy.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.58)
1993        Italy’s Fiat Auto SpA bought Maserati.
    (WSJ, 9/24/04, p.B1)
1993        Maurizio Gucci sold his remaining stake in Gucci to Investcorp, a Bahraini firm.
    (WSJ, 11/5/03, p.A1)

1993        In Jamaica the Blue Mountains John Crow National park was established.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, T5)

1993        Japan’s government lifted a four-year moratorium on capital punishment.
    (AP, 9/16/05)
1993        The government of Japan approved 7 foreign access zones to promote imports and foreign investments.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.B-13)
1993        Japan’s “Kono Statement" was its first apology for incidents of sexual slavery during WWII. Yohei Kono was Chief Cabinet Secretary at the time.
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.38)(AP, 6/1/13)
1993        In Japan Shuji Nakamura, an employee of Nichia Corp., invented the blue light-emitting diode (LED). In 2001 Nakamura sued Nichia in a patent dispute that later settled for $7 million.
    (Econ, 2/7/04, p.60)(Econ, 9/23/06, TQ p.27)

1993         Jordan lifted press restrictions.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

1993        The Serengeti plain in northern Tanzania and south-western Kenya experienced a devastating drought.
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.88)

1993        In Libya Moammar Ghadafi uncovered a coup attempt and plot to assassinate him by 55 Warfala army officers. For years afterward Bani Walid, 90 miles (140 km) southeast of Tripoli, was in official disfavor.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A17)(AP, 9/2/11)

1993        Vevcani, Macedonia, nestled on the forested slopes of the Jablanica mountain about 190 km (120 miles) southwest of the capital Skopje, held its own referendum on independence, in a move tinged with nationalism after members of the country's ethnic Albanian minority living nearby did the same. 96% percent voted in favor of independence, and the 'Republic of Vevcani' was born. Mirte Aluloski drafted the new republic's constitution.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

1993        In Madagascar Albert Zafy defeated Didier Ratsiraka to become president. He was impeached three years later amid accusations of corruption. Zafy ran again in November 1996, losing this time to Ratsiraka.
    (AP, 12/9/06)

1993        In Malawi Vera Chriwa was released from prison and took up working in legal and human rights education.
    (SFEC, 1/19/96, Par p.5)

1993        Mexico created its Federal Competition Commission (CFC), an antitrust agency.
    (WSJ, 4/21/02, p.A12)
1993        In Mexico Rogelio Montemayor was elected governor of Coahuila state.
    (WSJ, 6/16/99, p.A1)
1993        In Mexico Gen’l. Jose Francisco Gallardo called for the creation of a human rights ombudsman within the military. He was jailed in 1993 and court-martialed in 1998 on charges of corruption, destroying files and using army funds for personal use. he was sentenced to an additional 14 years in prison for illegal enrichment after failing to demonstrate the origin of 1.2 million pesos in his bank accounts. Gallardo was freed by Pres. Fox in 2002.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B3)(SFC, 4/13/98, p.A14)(SFC, 2/8/02, p.A12)
1993        Mexico’s PRI held a secret meeting with 30 major industrialists who committed a total of $750 million to finance the presidential campaign in 1994.
    (WSJ, 4/19/96, p.A-11)
1993        In Mexico Joaquin Guzman Loera (aka "El Chapo"), head of the Sinaloa cartel, was arrested. In 2001 he escaped from the maximum-security prison in Jalisco state.
    (Econ, 9/18/10, p.105)
1993        In Mexico Raul Salinas and Jose Madariaga cashed out of their $4.4 million investment in Mexicana de Autobuses SA for $36 million.
    (WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)
1993        In Mexico El Barzon, which means "The Yoke," began as a farm movement opposed to high interest rates on loans. It was founded by Maximiano Barbosa.
    (AP, 8/28/09)
1993        Mexico’s Carlos Peralta closed a 1.04 billion deal for a 42% investment from Bell Atlantic Corp. of the US.
    (WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-11)(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)
1993        In Mexico’s Baja the San Ignacio Lagoon and Laguna Ojo de Liebre were deemed a Natural World Heritage Site. The area was a spawning site for gray whales.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.8)

1993        Morocco’s King Hassan II set up a commission to review the legal status of women.
    (WSJ, 8/10/04, p.B1)

1993        In Myanmar the Mong Tai Army took up arms against the government.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)
1993        In Myanmar the pro-junta Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) was formed.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.28)

1993        In Kathmandu, Nepal, there was a ban on the sale of diesel-run three wheelers due to the smog. The ban led to the development of a fleet of electric three-wheelers.
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.B1)

1993        A family in the Netherlands was found to have an abnormally high number of violent criminals. The criminal members were found to have a faulty gene that caused the absence of the enzyme monoamine oxidase A, an enzyme that regulates a group of neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine. Both of these were important for emotional responses.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, Survey p.6)

1993        Shell Oil stopped pumping oil in the Ogoni Province, but continued to use pipelines that pass through it. The Ogonis are a 500,000-strong community in southwestern Nigeria. They maintain that oil production has polluted their land, destroying their livelihoods of fishing and farming. Shell canceled several community development projects. It had earlier agreed to spend $29 million per year on such projects. In 2011 a UN report said it could take 30 years and at least $1 billion to rid the poisoned mangroves of a black carpet of crude.
    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.46)

1993        In Norway Labor's Gro Harlem Brundtland won re-election.
    (AP, 9/15/09)
1993        Norway legalized gay marriages.
    (SFC, 6/28/96, p.A14)
1993        Norway resumed the hunting of minke whales after a six-year self-imposed moratorium.
    (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A7)

1993        Pakistan halted the repatriation process of Urdu speakers from Bangladesh, saying it did not have the money or land to house them. This left some 250,000 refugees and their descendants to languish in 70 government-run camps across Bangladesh.
    (AP, 6/14/14)
1993        Greg Mortenson of Bozeman, Montana, first visited Pakistan to climb K2, the world’s 2nd highest peak. He failed in climbing the mountain but became interested in the region. In 1996 he built a school in Korphe, Pakistan, the first many. By 2008 he had built 55 schools and authored the memoir: “Three Cups of Tea: One Man’s Extraordinary Journey to promote Peace… One School at a Time" (2006). In 2011 a 60 Minute TV report said most of his story appears to have been fabricated.
    (http://tinyurl.com/42ffko2)(SSFC, 4/6/03, Par p.5)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.92)

1993        In Peru a new constitution was narrowly approved that allowed Fujimori to seek a 2nd 5-year term. It prohibited a 3rd term but 3 years later legislation was passed that excluded Fujimori from the restriction because his term began before the document was written.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.B2)
1993        Peru ratified the Int’l. Labor Organization’s convention on indigenous peoples.
    (Econ, 9/3/11, p.36)
1993        In Peru General Rodolfo Robles accused intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos of heading a government backed depth squad. The investigation was stone-walled by the government-loyal Congress.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A11)

1993        In the Republic of Congo Pres. Lissouba signed a $150 million oil agreement with Occidental Petroleum. He was convicted in 2001 in absentia for selling oil at low prices and in part for personal gain.
    (SFC, 12/29/01, p.A6)

1993        Russia signed the Chemical Weapons Convention and ratified it in 1996.
    (SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)
1993        Russia annulled an agreement obliging it to come to the aid of North Korea in case of attack.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-9)
1993        In Russia the state legislature of Primorye appointed Yevgeny Nazdratenko to govern the territory. He was then a director of an ore-processing factory and a member of the Supreme Soviet. His corruption later became legendary.
    (SFC, 9/25/97, p.A11)
1993        In Russia some 30 journalists broke from the Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper and formed Novaya Gazeta. Early success came with support from Mikhail Gorbachev, but lack of funds forced the paper to close briefly in 1995.
    (WSJ, 12/8/06, p.A1)
1993        Gleb Yakunin (d.2014), a dissident Russian Orthodox priest, was defrocked for ignoring a ban on priests running for elections in the post-Soviet Russian parliament. He served for two years. Four years later, he was excommunicated for unspecified reasons.
    (AP, 12/30/14)

1993        Saudi wheat production, part of a self-sufficiency program, grew from a few thousand tons on the mid 1970s to 4.5 million tons. The production was having a negative impact on water reserves and production was cut.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)

1993        In Serbia Vuk Draskovich was branded as a traitor by Bosnian Serbs when he rejected the war and was jailed and badly beaten by Milosevic’s security forces.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A14)
1993        Gen. Zivota Panic (d.2003 at 70), Serbian Army chief of staff, was removed from his post and retired following corruption reports.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.A22)

1993        In Slovakia Michal Kovac was elected president.
    (SFC, 5/29/97, p.A13)
1993        The Slovak people never voted on the 1993 split with the Czechs.
    (WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-1)

1993        In Somalia Osama Bin Laden was suspected of supplying weapons to shoot down American helicopters.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A12)
1993        In Somaliland clan leaders chose Mohamed Ibrahim Egal as President.
    (SFC, 8/16/96, p.A18)

1993        In South Africa a group of Black entrepreneurs founded the BASA Educational Institute Trust to establish and run formal independent primary and secondary schools.
    (www.basatutorial.co.za/basa_trust.html)
1993        South Africa renounced its biological weapons program.
    (SSFC, 4/20/03, p.A16)
1993        In South Africa Wouter Basson was forced to resign from the army after a government report linked him with making poisons and chemical bombs for the army. In 1998 it was revealed that an army project plotted to poison Nelson Mandela with Thallium to induce brain damage.
    (SFC, 6/11/98, p.A11)
1993        In South Africa Petrus Matthews testified in 1998 how he and 8 members of the neo-Nazi Afrikaner Resistance Movement erected a bogus roadblock to kill ANC supporters. The pulled over 2 carloads of blacks and shot the victims in a ditch.
    (SFC, 6/1/98, p.A9)
1993        In South Africa an attack on St. James Church in Capetown by the ultra-radical Azanian People’s Liberation Army under commander Daniel Mofokeng left 11 people dead. Mofokeng in 1997 refused to either regret or apologize for the killings before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
    (SFC, 10/8/97, p.A10)

1993        In South Korea Chung Ju Yung, founder of Hyundai Group, was prosecuted and found guilty of violating election laws. His 3-year sentence was suspended.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A11)

1993        A national hydrological plan was proposed by Spain’s Socialist government.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.45)

1993        Fredrik Reinfeldt (28) authored “The Sleeping People," in which he said that Swedes were mentally handicapped and indoctrinated to believe that politicians can create and guarantee welfare. In 2006 he led a 4-party center right alliance to oust the Social Democrats.
    (Econ, 9/23/06, p.61)
1993        Sweden privatized Posten AB, its postal network.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.76)

1993        Taiwan began to allow tourists to visit the Kinmen, a small island nestled against the Chinese coast. Chinese tourists were excluded. The island was ringed with minefields and occupied by 10,000 Taiwanese troops.
    (Econ, 1/15/05, Survey p.8)

1993        In Tanzania the government invited Ocelot and TransCanada Pipelines to transport natural gas from the Indian Ocean island of Songo Songo. It was to be completed in 1998.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A6)
1993        In Tanzania in a privatization drive part of the government stake in Safari beer was sold to a South African company.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A1)

1993        In Tanzania Monique A. Maddy (31) launched her African Communications Group. The plan was to establish a voice-mail only communications system using wireless hardware. By 1998 the operation grew to 1,000 wireless phones and 55 employees with plans for expansion to Ghana and Sri Lanka.
    (WSJ, 9/25/98, p.B1)

1993        In East Timor Konis Santana (d.1998) took over leadership of the guerrilla Fretilin Party after the arrest and jailing of Xanana Gusmao.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B3)

1993        In Togo Pres. Gnassinghe Eyadema conducted an election that was so riddled with fraud that the opposition refused to compete.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)
1993        European donors suspended most aid to Togo.
    (Econ, 2/12/05, p.48)

1993        The London-based Privy Council ruled that executions cannot take place move than 5 years after sentencing. For Trinidad and Tobago to overrule this required a constitutional amendment, which in turn required a three-quarters majority in parliament.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.46)

1993        Tansu Ciller, a US trained economist, was elected as the Prime Minister of Turkey.
    (WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-1)
1993        Turkey sealed its land frontier with Armenia after it seized the province of Nagorno-Karabakh from their Azeri cousins. Direct air travel was still allowed.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.53)
1993        In Turkey in the Anatolian city of Sivas, a fire, set by a mob shouting Islamic slogans, killed 37 secular writers. In 1997 33 people sere sentenced to death for their roles in the mob attack.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.C2)

1993        Ronald Muwenda Mutebi returned to Buganda, Uganda, as titular King.
    (WSJ, 12/19/94, A-1,6)

1993        UN members made a declaration that the promotion and protection of human rights is a legitimate concern of the int’l. community.
    (SFC, 10/15/97, p.C2)
1993        The UN International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) began a database to count incidents of nuclear trafficking.
    (Econ, 10/04/08, p.65)

1993        Rafael Caldera was elected president of Venezuela and promised not to increase fuel costs.
    (WSJ, 4/15/96, p.A-14)

1993        Vietnam gave many farmers 20-year usage rights on farmland. By 2013 many local officials were seizing farmland for development projects.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.42)
1993        Vietnamese border crossings with China were opened for trade.
    (SFC, 12/14/98, p.A12)
1993        In Vietnam Jimmy Tran was sentenced to 20 years in prison for plotting to explode bombs in Ho Chi Minh City. He was released in a 1998 amnesty.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, p.A9)

1993        The Welsh Language Act established a Board having the function of promoting and facilitating the use of the Welsh language.
    (www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1993/38/introduction)

1993        In Yemen the first elections after the 1990 unification were held.
    (WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A1)

1993-1993    Kim Campbell, Progressive Conservative, served as the 19th Prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, '96, p.81)

1993-1994    Sep-Feb, In the US White House officials, Craig Livingstone and Anthony Marceca, obtained 407 sensitive FBI files on prominent Republicans. Livingstone was the appointed director of the White House Office of Personnel Security, and Marceca was on loan from the Pentagon as an Army civilian investigator. The number of files was later increased to over 700.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A3)(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)(USAT, 6/27/96, p.10A)

1993-1994    Jim Campbell created his work "Shadow (for Heisenberg)." The image of a bronze Buddha, enclosed in a glass cube, appeared to change as the viewer moved in and out.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.B10)

1993-1994    Home Improvement was the top ranking network show on television with a ranking of 21.9%
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)

1993-1994    Members of the Canadian 12th Armored Regiment were assigned to protect the Bakovici mental hospital in Bosnia. Later 57 members were accused of various abuses that included sex, drinking, and patient abuse.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A8)
1993-1994    Mladen Naletilic commanded a gang of convicts who terrorized Muslims in southwestern Bosnia. In 2000 Croatia handed over Naletilic, a Bosnian Croat indicted in 1998 on 17 counts of war crimes, to the UN tribunal.
    (SFC, 3/22/00, p.A12)
1993-1993    In China investments grew at an annual rate of 60%, GDP peaked at over 15%, and inflation hit 28%.
    (Econ, 4/17/04, p.71)

1993-1995    R. James Woolsey served as head of the US CIA.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)

1993-1996    In 1996 Turkey’s former PM Tansu Ciller was accused of enriching herself by $50 million through links with criminal gangs over this time.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A10)

1993-1996    Turkey spent $50 million on drug dealers and assassins to kill a Kurdish rebel leader and others considered threats to the state. Abdullah Ocalan, a Kurdish rebel leader in Syria, was targeted as was Dursun Karatas, a leftist terrorist in Europe.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A8)

1993-1996    In Cambodia the Khmer Rouge remained active in the countryside. They killed 100 Vietnamese settlers, abducted villagers for forces labor and kidnapped westerners.
    (SFC, 6/14/97, p.A15)

1993-1999    Attila Ambrus, Romanian-born hockey player, robbed 29 banks in Hungary. In 2004 Julian Rubinstein authored “Ballad of the Whiskey Robber: A True Story of Bank Heists, Ice Hockey, Transylvanian Pelt Smuggling, Moonlighting Detectives and Broken Hearts."
    (SSFC, 10/3/04, p.M6)
1993-1999    Ong Teng Cheong (d.2002 at 66) of the people’s Action Party served as president of Singapore.
    (SFC, 2/9/02, p.A22)

1993-2000    Bill Clinton became the 42nd President of the US and Al Gore his Vice-President.
    (Memory)

1993-2001    An estimated 300 sex killings of young women took place in the Juarez area along the US border, across from El Paso. In 2002 Lourdes Portillo, filmmaker, completed a documentary on the killings: "Senorita Extraviada" (Missing Young Women).
    (SFC, 3/11/99, p.A12)

1993-2002    Paul Martin served as Canada’s finance minister.
    (Econ, 1/1/05, p.39)

1993-2004    In Greece the socialist Pasok political party held power.
    (Econ, 9/13/08, p.60)
1993-2004    The proportion of Vietnam’s population that the government deemed poor fell from 58% in 1993 to 20% in 2004.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.49)

1993-2005    In India pollution on the Yamuna River doubled and continued to rise. The river extended 855 miles from the Himalaya Mountains to the Ganges. New Delhi with 15 million inhabitants dumped 57% of its waste into the Yamuna.
    (SFC, 7/27/07, p.A17)

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