Timeline 1993 C: December 1 - Undated

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1993        Dec 1, US Navy Ensign George Smith shot and killed his ex-fiancée and a friend and then himself. In Oct. he had passed a Navy screening test to gauge his psychological fitness for nuclear submarine duty.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A2)
1993        Dec 1, Eighteen people were killed when a Northwest Airlink commuter plane crashed in Minnesota.
    (AP, 12/1/98)

1993        Dec 2, Alan Winterbournem, an unemployed computer engineer, opened fire at a California unemployment agency in Oxnard, killing three workers; he killed a police officer during a chase that ended in Ventura, where he himself was gunned down.
    (AP, 12/2/03)
1993        Dec 2, The space shuttle Endeavour blasted off on a mission to fix the Hubble Space Telescope.
    (AP, 12/2/98)
1993        Dec 2, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar (b.1949), number 1 man in drug trafficking, was shot to death by police Col. Hugo Aguilar in Medellin. Escobar's wife and children vanished from Colombia in 1995 and were arrested in Argentina in 1999 for money laundering. In 2001 Mark Bowden authored “Killing Pablo" a chronicle of the hunt for Escobar. In 2003 Aguilar ran for governor of Santander province.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.A10)(AP, 12/2/98)(SFC, 11/17/99, p.A18)(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.M3)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C1)

1993        Dec 3, Britain's Princess Diana, saying she was fed up with media's intrusions, announced she would be limiting her public appearances.
    (AP, 12/3/98)
1993        Dec 3, Georgia became a member of Russia's Commonwealth of Independent States; Russia, in return, backed Shevardnadze against Abkhaz rebels.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Independent_States)

1993        Dec 4,     Astronauts aboard space shuttle Endeavour captured the near-sighted Hubble Space Telescope for repairs.
    (AP, 12/4/98)
1993        Dec 4, Authorities found the body of 12-year-old kidnap victim Polly Klaas in a wooded area of Cloverdale, Calif.
    (AP, 12/4/04)
1993        Dec 4, Frank Zappa (52), rock musician and composer, died in Los Angeles. In 2004 Barry Miles authored “Frank Zappa: A Biography."
    (AP, 12/4/98)(SFC, 12/25/04, p.E2)

1993        Dec 5, Astronauts began the repair of Hubble telescope in space.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-61)
1993        Dec 5, A Palestinian boarded a bus and opened fire with an assault rifle in the first major attack in Israel since the signing of a peace pact with the PLO; the gunman killed a reservist before being gunned down.
    (AP, 12/5/98)

1993        Dec 6, A judge in New Bedford, Mass., sentenced former priest James R. Porter, who'd admitted molesting 28 children in the 1960s, to 18 to 20 years in prison for sexual assault.
    (AP, 12/6/98)
1993        Dec 6, Don Ameche (85), actor (Cocoon), died in Scottsdale, Ariz., of prostate cancer.
    (AP, 12/6/98)
1993        Dec 6, In South Africa crimes committed up to this date became eligible for amnesty as set up by special constitutional legislation that set up the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. A 1996 extension was requested to move the deadline to May 10, 1994.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, A10)

1993        Dec 7, US Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary revealed that the government had conducted more than 200 nuclear weapons tests in secret.
    (AP, 12/7/98)
1993        Dec 7, Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders suggested that the government study the impact of drug legalization.
    (AP, 12/7/98)
1993        Dec 7, A gunman opened fire on a Long Island Rail Road commuter train, killing six people and wounding 17.
    (AP, 12/7/98)
1993        Dec 7, In the Ivory Coast Felix Houphouet-Boigny (b.1905), Ivory Coast founder and ruler since 1960, died. Pres. Henri Konan Bedie took power.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A9lix_Houphou%C3%ABt-Boigny)

1993        Dec 8, President Clinton signed into U.S. law the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which went into effect at the start of 1994.
    (AP, 12/8/98)
1993        Dec 8, A French-flag container ship, the Sherbro, bound for Nigeria from Rotterdam, lost containers of the chemical Apron-Plus (by Ciba-Geigy). This chemical was packed in sachets and purchased by the Nigerian state of Osun with funds from the World Bank development fund. The chemical was intended to be used to fight the ‘downy-mildew’ fungus that was seriously afflicting the maize crop. Four days later the packets began to wash up on the beaches of France in Normandy.
    (WSJ 6/21/95, p.A-22)
1993        Dec 8, Carlotta Monti (86), lover of WC Fields, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlotta_Monti)

1993        Dec 9, The US Air Force destroyed the first of 500 Minuteman II missile silos marked for elimination under an arms control treaty.
    (AP, 12/9/98)
1993        Dec 9, Astronauts aboard the space shuttle Endeavour completed repairs to the Hubble Space Telescope.
    (AP, 12/9/98)

1993        Dec 10, The crew of the space shuttle Endeavour deployed the repaired Hubble Space Telescope into Earth orbit.
    (AP, 12/10/98)
1993        Dec 10, Mansour Rashid El-Kikhia, former Libyan ambassador to the UN, was kidnapped in Cairo. The US CIA later reported that he was taken to Libya and executed in early 1994.
    (SSFC, 5/21/06, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/lnqr5)
1993        Dec 10, South African President F.W. de Klerk and African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela accepted their Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway.
    (AP, 12/10/98)

1993        Dec 11, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, said the nation must fight "violence with values" and praised radio stations that refused to play songs advocating violent crime or showing contempt for women.
    (AP, 12/11/98)
1993        Dec 11, Eduardo Frei (b.1942) was elected president of Chile.
    (www.hrw.org/reports/1995/WR95/AMERICAS-02.htm)

1993        Dec 12, Russia adopted a new democratic constitution and began the war with Chechnya.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.B2)

1993        Dec 13, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled, 5-4, that people were entitled to a hearing before real property linked to illegal drug sales could be seized.
    (AP, 12/13/03)
1993        Dec 13, The space shuttle Endeavour returned from its mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.
    (AP, 12/13/98)
1993        Dec 13, Myrna Loy (88), actress (Thin Man, Vanity Fair), died. [see Dec 14]
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1993        Dec 14, A Colorado judge struck down the state's voter-approved Amendment Two prohibiting gay rights laws, calling it unconstitutional.
    (AP, 12/14/98)
1993        Dec 14, The United Mine Workers approved a five-year contract, ending a strike that had reached seven US states and involved some of the nation's biggest coal operators.
    (AP, 12/14/98)
1993        Dec 14, The United States and European Community set aside a bitter fight over films, unlocking the door to the world's biggest-ever trade reform package.
    (AP, 12/14/02)
1993        Dec 14, Actress Myrna Loy (88) died in NYC.
    (AP, 12/14/98)
1993        Dec 14, In Algeria a large group of armed terrorists attacked a work camp of a hydro-electric project in Tamezguida. Fourteen Croatian citizens were taken out of the camp. Twelve were murdered by having their throats slit, but two others escaped with injuries.
    (www.milnet.com/state/chrono93.htm)

1993        Dec 15, US Defense Secretary Les Aspin announced his resignation, citing "personal reasons."
    (AP, 12/15/98)
1993        Dec 15, Britain and Ireland issued a "framework for peace."
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.A8)
1993        Dec 15, In Geneva, 117 countries completed the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, agreeing on a reform package intended to jump-start the global economy.
    (AP, 12/15/98)

1993        Dec 16, President Clinton announced the nomination of Bobby Ray Inman to succeed Les Aspin as defense secretary. Inman, however, later withdrew.
    (AP, 12/16/98)
1993        Dec 16, Sen. Bob Packwood (R-Ore.), accused by more than two dozen women of sexual harassment, turned over his tape-recorded personal diaries to a federal judge.
    (AP, 12/16/03)

1993        Dec 17, Fox Television outbid CBS for the National Football Conference TV package.
    (AP, 12/17/98)
1993        Dec 17, So-called "suicide doctor" Jack Kevorkian was released from jail in Oakland County, Mich., after promising not to help anyone end their lives for the time being.
    (AP, 12/17/98)

1993        Dec 18, The United States and Germany pledged close cooperation to help Boris Yeltsin through Russia's political and economic crises in a meeting in Oggersheim between Vice President Al Gore and Chancellor Helmut Kohl.
    (AP, 12/18/98)

1993        Dec 19, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and senior PLO officials ended two days of closed-door talks in Oslo, Norway, in which they sought to break a deadlock over Palestinian self-rule in the occupied territories.
    (AP, 12/19/98)

1993        Dec 20, Real estate developer Donald Trump married Marla Maples in a brief ceremony in the grand ballroom of Trump's Plaza Hotel in New York. The couple separated in 1997.
    (AP, 12/20/98)
1993        Dec 20, Alina Fernandez Revuelta, a daughter of Cuban President Fidel Castro, flew to Spain, where she was granted political asylum by the U.S. Embassy.
    (AP, 12/20/98)

1993        Dec 21, First lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, in an interview with The Associated Press, said her husband, President Clinton, had solicited her advice on major issues; but, she added, her powers were limited.
    (AP, 12/21/98)

1993        Dec 22, Singer Michael Jackson, fighting back against child molestation allegations, issued a video statement in which he said he was "totally innocent of any wrongdoing."
    (AP, 12/22/98)

1993        Dec 23, President Clinton, under intense political pressure, instructed his attorney to give the Justice Department all records of his investment in an Arkansas real estate partnership linked to a failed savings and loan company.
    (AP, 12/23/98)

1993        Dec 24, In Nebraska Brandon Teena (21), a female (born as Teena Brandon) passing as a male, was raped and beaten by John Lotter and Tom Nissen. A week later they shot and killed Teena for pressing charges. In 1996 the book "All She Wanted" was based on Brandon. The 1997 novel ""The Illusionist" was also based on Brandon. A 1999 documentary film, "The Brandon Teena Story," was made by Susan Muska and Greta Olafsdottir. Kimberly Pierce made her 1999 film "Boys Don't Cry" based on Brandon Teena. In 2001 the state supreme Court ruled that the sheriff was negligent in protecting Brandon and awarded her family $80,000 plus damages for emotional suffering.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.D3)(SFC, 10/20/99, p.D1)(SFC, 4/21/01, p.A3)
1993        Dec 24, The Rev. Norman Vincent Peale, who had blended Christian and psychiatric principles into a message of "positive thinking," died in Pawling, N.Y., at age 95.
    (AP, 12/24/98)

1993        Dec 25, The Cirque du Soleil production opened its doors at Steve Wynn's  Treasure Island Casino/Hotel in Las Vegas.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.96)
1993        Dec 25, Fernando Mateo’s son suggested over dinner that people ought to trade their guns for toys. This led him to start the Goods for Guns program in New York that soon spread internationally.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, A9)
1993        Dec 25, Full-fledged Christmas celebrations returned to Bethlehem for the first time since the Palestinian uprising began six years earlier.
    (AP, 12/25/98)
1993        Dec 25, In London, an unidentified 59-year-old woman who'd been implanted with donated eggs gave birth to twins in a case that sparked controversy.
    (AP, 12/25/98)

1993        Dec 26, In Russia a 4-day drama ended as four masked kidnappers, who had abducted 11 teen-agers, landed their explosives-packed helicopter, freed their last hostages and fled with $10 million in ransom. The four men were captured the next morning.
    (AP, 12/26/98)

1993        Dec 27, U.S. officials said that Strobe Talbott, who had served as the Clinton administration's chief Russia policy architect, would take over the number-two spot at the State Department.
    (AP, 12/27/98)
1993        Dec 27, In Egypt, a gun and bomb attack on a tourist bus in old Cairo wounded 8 Austrians and 8 Egyptians. The militant group Gama’a al-Islamiya claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 10/11/04, p.A17)

1993        Dec 28, US Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary told CNN that people wrongfully exposed to radiation through federally funded experiments more than 40 years ago deserved to be compensated.
    (HN, 12/28/98)
1993        Dec 28, Journalist William Shirer, author of "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich," died in Boston at age 89.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1993        Dec 30, Hollywood agent Irving "Swifty" Lazar died in Beverly Hills, Calif., at age 86.
    (AP, 12/30/98)
1993        Dec 30, Israel and the Vatican agreed to recognize one another. Pope John Paul II normalized relations between the Vatican and Israel.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A14)(AP, 12/30/97)

1993        Dec 31, Entertainer Barbra Streisand performed her first paid concert in 22 years, singing to a sellout crowd at the MGM Grand Garden in Las Vegas.
    (AP, 12/31/98)
1993        Dec 31, Scott Douglas (38) beat his wife, Anne Scripps Douglas (b.1946), with a claw hammer in their Bronxville home. She went into a coma and died Jan 6, 1994. Anne Scripps Douglas was the great-great-granddaughter of Detroit News founder James Scripps. Douglas disappeared, though his car was found on the off the Tappan Zee Bridge. His body was found washed up in the Bronx on March 30, 1994. In 2009 Anne Morell Petrillo (38), the daughter of Anne Scripps Douglas from a previous marriage, committed suicide off the Tappan Zee Bridge. 
    (SFC, 9/29/09, p.A9)(http://acollectionofarticlesannscripps.blogspot.com/)
1993        Dec 31, Former IBM chairman Thomas J. Watson died in Greenwich, Conn., at age 79.
    (AP, 12/31/98)
1993        Dec 31, Samuel Morris Steward (b.1909), also known by the pen name Phil Andros, died. He was a novelist and tattoo artist later based in Oakland, California. His “Stud File" ran to more than 4,600 encounters with over 800 men. In 2010 Justin Spring authored “Secret Historian: The Life and Times of Samuel Steward, Professor, Tattoo Artist, and Sexual Renegade."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phil_Andros)(SSFC, 8/22/10, p.F1)(Econ, 8/14/10, p.70)
1993        Dec 31, Former Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia (b.1939) died on New Year’s Eve. He had returned to lead an uprising in western Georgia, but the fighting was quickly put down and Gamsakhurdia was surrounded. His body was then taken to Chechnya. In 2007 His body was returned for burial in Georgia.
    (AP, 3/28/07)

1993        Dec, Engineers and scientists worked frantically to complete the first phase of the DUMAND project. The Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector was being set up 22 miles off the coast of Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. It was  built as a kind of telescope that would provide information on the Earth's interior, on life in the deep sea, on black holes in space, as well as info on subatomic particles. It resembles a massive inverted jellyfish pinned to the seafloor. It is hoped that some high energy neutrinos will interact with matter and be transformed into a muon that will produce a blue-green light known as a Cherenkov Radiation that can be detected.
    (PacDis, Spring/'94, p.40)
1993        Dec, The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Princeton Univ. produced 6 million watts for about one second during a fusion experiment.
    (http://sci-phys-plasma.caeds.eng.uml.edu/1994/08-94-06.htm)

1993        Dec, A U-2 pilot was killed on takeoff from Beale Air Force Base southeast of Oroville, Calif., on a routine training mission.
    (SFC, 8/8/96, p.A11)
1993        Dec, Vienna Mayor Helmut Zilk (1927-2008), lost part of his hand to a letter bomb. Authorities later tried and convicted right-wing extremist Franz Fuchs of sending pipe and letter bombs targeting refugees and minorities, and officials like Zilk who supported them. Fuchs, dubbed "the Austrian Unabomber," after the American mail-bomber Theodore Kaczynksi, hanged himself in his prison cell in 2000 while serving a life sentence for the string of attacks.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
1993        Dec,  Wars were in Serbia, Algeria, S. Africa, Morocco, Haiti, Israel, and elsewhere.
    (CNN)
1993        Dec, In Hungary Ameritech Corp. and Deutsche Telekom AG teamed up to by a 30% stake in Matav Rt., the state telephone system. By 1995 their stake was 67%. The government permitted Matav to maintain a monopoly status for 8 years.
    (WSJ, 6/25/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/27/97, p.A8)
1993        Dec, From Mexico Mario Ruiz Massieu, deputy attorney general from 1993-1994, opened an account at the Texas Commerce Bank and began to deposit cash that eventually totaled some $9 million.
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, p.A14)

1993        Masami Teraoka (b.1936), Japanese-American artist, made his etching "Longing Samurai."
    (SFEM,10/19/97, DB p.58)(www.artelino.com/articles/masami_teraoka.asp)

1993        Canadian artist-photographer Jeff Wall made his large (8x12) photo: "A Sudden Gust of Wind (After Hokusai)."
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)

1993        Charles Adams authored "For Good and Evil: The Impact of Taxes on the Course of Civilization."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R47)

1993        A.R. Ammons (d.2001 at 75), poet and Cornell professor, authored his National Book Award winning work: "Garbage."
    (SFC, 2/27/01, p.D2)

1993        The book "Never Again for Bolivia" by Jesuit author Federico Aguilo documented the human rights violations of the military regimes from 1965-1981.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A11)

1993        Karen Armstrong authored "A History of God," which described the "vicissitudes of God's career of the last 4,000 years." In 2000 she authored the follow up work "The Battle for God," which focused on the last 500 years. In 1981 Armstrong authored volume 1 of her autobiography “Through the Narrow Gate." Vol 2: The Spiral Staircase: My Climb Out of Darkness," came out in 2004.
    (WSJ, 3/8/00, p.A20)(Econ, 3/20/04, p.92)

1993        Karen Axelrod co-authored "Watch It Made in the USA," a guidebook to corporate museums.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A1)

1993        Herbert L. Block (d.2001 at 91), cartoonist, authored "Herblock: A Cartoonist’s Life."
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A20)

1993        Jose Antonio Burciaga (1940-1996), poet and artist, wrote "Drink Cultura," described as an engaging look at Chicanismo. His mural The "Last Supper," installed in Stanford’s Stern Hall, depicts Che Guevara as a Christ figure. He was involved in the comedy group Culture Clash and also wrote "Weedee Peepo," a collection of journalistic pieces about El Paso.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A21)

1993        Ron Chernow wrote "The Warburgs, " a biography of the bankers.
    (WSJ, 8/8/97, p.A11)

1993        Adel Darwish (b.1945), Egypt-born British writer, authored “Water Wars: Coming conflicts in the Middle East."
    (SFC, 9/19/02, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adel_Darwish)

1993        Michael Hammer wrote "Reengineering the Corporation: A manifesto for Business Revolution." He later admitted that his work did not fully consider the human dimension in the reorganization process.
    (WSJ, 11/26/96, p.A1,16)

1993        James Hanken and Brian K. Hall wrote "The Skull," a 3-volume scientific reference work.
    (NH, 10/96, p.6)

1993        Paul Hawken wrote "The Ecology of Commerce." He emphasized controlling the creation of harmful wastes instead of their disposal.
    (WSJ, 7/11/97, p.B1)

1993        John Heidenry wrote "Theirs Was the Kingdom," a history of Reader’s Digest Magazine.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A22)

1993        Elmer W. Johnson (1932-2008), former GM executive, authored “Avoiding the Collision of Cities and Cars."
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.A6)

1993        Stuart A. Kauffman published "The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution."
    (http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/~susan/bib/nf/k/kauffman.htm#ooo)

1993        John Keegan published "A History of Warfare."
    (WSJ, 6/17/99, p.A24)

1993        Steven Landsburg authored “Armchair Economist: Economics and Everyday Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Armchair_Economist)

1993        Benjamin Libet (1916-2007), UCSF neurophysiologist and pioneer in studies of free will, edited “Neurophysiology of Consciousness."
    (SFC, 8/18/07, p.B5)

1993        Leslie Lipson (d.2000 at 88), UC Berkeley prof. of political science, authored "The Ethical Crises of Civilization: Moral Meltdown or Advance?" He examined the humanist values of Islamic, Chinese, Indian and Western cultures.
    (SFC, 8/15/00, p.A23)

1993        Alan Lomax, folklorist, published his memoir "The Land Where the Blues Began."
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.7E)

1993        Kanan Makiya, an Iraqi-American academic, authored “Cruelty and Silence: War, Tyranny, Uprising and the Arab World." It was awarded The Lionel Gelber Prize for the best book on international relations published in English in 1993.
    (Econ, 6/30/07, p.56)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanan_Makiya)

1993        James Michener wrote "Creatures of the Kingdom."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)

1993        Jill Nelson wrote "Volunteer Slavery," an account of her tenure as the first black female staff writer at the Washington Post Sunday Magazine.
    (SFEC, 8/24/97, BR p.4)

1993        Dr. Sherwin Nuland authored “How We Die."
    (Econ, 9/5/09, p.41)

1993        Beijing Publishing House published "The Abandoned Capital" by Jia Pingwa. It was advertised as the raciest novel since the Ming Dynasty. The author self-edited the most salacious parts leaving blank spaces. The novel was banned after several months. The novel continued selling over the black market.
    (SFC, 4/17/98, p.A12)

1993        Thomas Powers authored "Heisenberg’s War," which argued that Heisenberg destroyed the German atomic project from within. Niels Bohr later countered the argument with personal documentation.
    (SFC, 2/7/02, p.A2)

1993        Sister Helen Prejean wrote "Dead Man Walking." It described her pen pal relationship with a man on death row. In 1995 it was made into a movie. In 2000 it premiered in SF as an opera.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, zone 1 p.3)(WSJ, 10/12/00, p.A24)

1993        Feminist poet Adrienne Rich published "What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics."
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A10)

1993        David Rusk wrote "Cities Without Suburbs," in which he promoted the idea of regional governments.
    (WSJ, 4/7/99, p.A20)

1993        Prof. Peter Dale Scott wrote "Deep Politics and the Death of JFK."
    (SFC, 11/18/96, p.B7)

1993        Sarah Delany (d.1999 at 109) and her sister wrote "Having Our Say: The Delany Sisters' First 100 Years" with journalist Amy Hill Hearth. The book was turned into a Broadway play in 1995.
    (SFC, 1/27/99, p.A15)

1993        Barry Hannah wrote his novel "Out of Hell."
    (WSJ, 10/25/96, p.A15)

1993        T.D. Jakes, a West Virginia preacher who ran a Pentecostal church in Dallas, published "The Lady, Her Lover and Her Lord." It was a self-help guide peppered with scripture. In 1998 the title was followed up with a gospel-pop album of the same name as "sacred music for married couple."
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A1)

1993        Robert Kaplan published "Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History."
    (WSJ, 8/3/99, p.A20)

1993        The best-selling nonfiction hardback book was "See, I Told You So," by Rush Limbaugh.
    (WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R10)

1993        Mario Vargas Llosa published his book "Death in the Andes in Peru." The English version was published in 1996. It is a fictionalized account of some of the worst atrocities committed by and in reaction to Peru’s Sendero Luminoso (Shining path) guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 2/16/96, p.A-8)

1993        Abdel Wahab al Miseri, author of an encyclopedia on Zionism, authored "Secret Societies of the World: the Protocols, Masonism, and Bahaism," in which he debunked "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion."
    (SFC, 10/31/02, p.A10)

1993        Rory Nugent wrote "Drums Along the Congo: On the Trail of Mokele-Mbembe, the Last Living Dinosaur." It was an account of his trip to the Republic of Congo.
    (WSJ, 6/23/97, p.A12)

1993        In Peru Magno Sosa wrote "The Sin of Being a Journalist" after spending 6 months wrongly imprisoned on terrorism charges after reporting on human rights violations.
    (SFEC, 3/3/97, p.A14)

1993        Vikram Seth authored "A Suitable Boy."
    (WSJ, 10/28/98, p.A20)

1993        Robert James Waller published "The Bridges of Madison County," the best-selling hardcover fiction work of the year.
    (WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R10)

1993        Edmund White published "Jean Genet: A Life."
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.3)

1993        The Int’l. Parliament of Writers was formed following Iranian death threats to Salmon Rushdie.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A10)

1993        The musical "Kiss of the Spider Woman" was written by Terrence McNally with songs by Kander and Ebb. It won 7 Toni awards. It was based on a book by Manuel Puig.
    (SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.11)(SFC,11/3/97, p.E1)

1993        Ushio Amagatsu choreographed the dance work "Yuragi," commissioned by the Theatre de la Ville de Paris, and premiered the work in Paris.
    (SFC, 10/14/96, p.B2)

1993        Bibi Besch (1940-1996) was nominated for an Emmy for her work in the TV series "Northern Exposure."
    (SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)

1993        The kids show Mighty Morphin Power Rangers premiered with a girl superhero, the Pink Ranger.
    (NW, 11/11/02, p.57)

1993        Captain Kangaroo (b.1955) ended with almost 40 years on TV. The show featured Bob Keeshan as the Captain.
    (WSJ, 3/6/97, p.B1)

1993        The X-Files began on TV. The lead FBI characters, Mulder and Scully (David Duchovny and Gillian Anderson), smacked their first kiss in late 1999.
    (SFC, 11/27/99, p.D10)

1993        Antonio de Almeida (1928-1997) became the conductor and musical director of the Moscow Symphony.
    (SFC, 2/22/96, p.A21)

1993        Ron Carter, jazz bass player, recorded his album "Friends" that included works by Rachmaninoff and Chopin.
    (WSJ, 2/26/97, p.A16)

1993        Bob Dylan released his "World Gone Wrong" album.
    (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

1993        Francisco Ulloa, Dominican merengue accordionist, recorded his album  "UltraMerengue."
    (BAAC, 1/97, p.7)

1993        The Spanish flamenco duo Los del Rio, Antonio Romero and Rafael Ruiz,  wrote the song "Macarena" that became a world-wide dance hit. The English version by the Bayside Boys was #1 in the US in 1996. the lyrics tell of a fickle girl whose boyfriend goes into the army. While he’s gone she plays around with his friends.
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.B1)(SFC, 8/30/96, p.A10)

1993        Dolly Parton, Loretta Lynn and Tammy Wynette produced their album "Honky Tonk Angels."
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, DB p.69)

1993        Don Henley used funds from the album: "Common Thread: The Songs of the Eagles" for the Walden Woods Project, which bought up acreage around Walden Pond for protection from development.
    SFC, 12/26/96, p.C6)

1993        Lou Harrison composed "Grand Duo." Mark Morris adopted the music to a dance performance.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A16)

1993        The ska music style was featured in the 4-disk set "Tougher Than Tough: The Story of Jamaican Music" on the Mango label.
    (SFC,11/11/97, p.A17)

1993        Composer John Williams retired from the Boston Pops. He composed the music for the Star Wars films.
    (WSJ, 5/13/99, p.A28)

1993        In Las Vegas the Luxor, Treasure Island, and MGM Grand casino-hotels  were completed.
    (WSJ, 1/21/97, p.A18)

1993        Pope John Paul II put forth his encyclical "Veritatis Splendor," on the nature of moral truth in a relativistic world.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)

1993        The Evangelical Lutheran Church drafted a statement on sexuality that condoned masturbation.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A7)

1993        The Rev. Mac Charles Jones (d.1997 at 47), pastor of St. Stephens Baptist Church in Kansas City, organized a summit on urban violence known as "The Gang Summit."
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)

1993        The Progress and Freedom Foundation was founded. It was a think tank with close ties to Newt Gingrich. It produced a white paper titled the Telecom Revolution that outlined the state-of-the-art conservative thinking on communications policy.
    (Wired, Dec. '95, p.228)

1993        Chefs Collaborative 2000 was founded at a meeting of the Oldways Preservation & Exchange Society.
    (WSJ, 12/2/99, p.A20)

1993        In Oakland, Ca., Black Panther member David Hilliard founded the Newton Foundation to carry on the social programs of the Black Panthers.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A21)
1993        Ted Hayes founded Dome Village in Los Angeles as a cooperative for 30 homeless people. In 2006 the project was dismantled and the domes were auctioned off online.
    (SFC, 9/1/06, p.B12)

1993        The American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M) was founded in Chicago.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Par p.20)

1993        In Clermont, Georgia, Mat Garretson sponsored an int’l. Viognier wine tasting through his marketing group, the Viognier Guild, a first for the variety. He is persuaded to move to California and sponsor the next event there.
    (SSFC, 7/22/12, p.G7)

1993        The US National Postal Museum opened as part of the Smithsonian Institute near Union Station in Washington DC.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)

1993        The first Bicycle Messenger Championship was held in Berlin, Germany.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.D1)

1993        The Baltimore Orioles were sold for $173 million.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.E1)

1993        Garry Kasparov, considered the world’s best chess player, founded the breakaway Professional Chess Assoc.
    (SFC, 1/10/98, p.A4)

1993        Professional football in the US first allowed unrestricted free-agency.
    (WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A1)

1993        The Kentucky Derby was won by Sea Hero.
    (WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A16)

1993        The American Akebono was promoted to yokozuna, the 1st rank of sumo wrestling.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.A25)

1993        The Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) came to the US. It was called the "bloodiest, most barbaric show in history."
    (SSFC, 3/18/01, p.A12)

1993        Novelist E. Annie Proulx won the National Book Award for "The Shipping News."
    (USAT, 11/19/97, p.22A)

1993        Dutch novelist Cees Nooteboom won the European Literary Prize for best novel for his work: "The Following Story."
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A3)

1993        The Booker Prize for Fiction was won by Roddy Doyle for: "Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha."
    (WSJ, 10/15/97, p.A21)

1993        The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Kary B. Mullis for developing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identifying fragments of DNA.
    (SFC, 7/18/00, p.A8)
1993        The Nobel Prize in economics was awarded to Robert W. Fogel for "having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change." Douglas C. North of Stanford’s Hoover Inst. also shared in the prize.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
1993        The Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded to Richard J. Roberts of Britain and Philip A. Sharp of the US for discovery of split genes that changed how scientists look at evolution and advanced research on hereditary diseases, including some cancers.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)
1993        Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the first binary pulsar and for subsequent studies leading to a verification of the theory of general relativity for a system outside our solar system. In 1974 they recorded an indirect sighting of gravitational waves when they showed a pair of stars spiraling towards each other was radiating energy in the form of gravitational waves at exactly the same rate predicted by Einstein.
    (Econ, 6/24/06, p.94)(www.aip.org/pnu/1993/split/pnu147-1.htm)
1993        Toni Morrison (b.1931, American novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Her novels are known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue, and richly detailed black characters. Among her best known novels are “The Bluest Eye," “Song of Solomon," and “Beloved," which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1988.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toni_Morrison)

1993        The US imposed limited sanctions on China following the sale of some M-11 missile components to Pakistan.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A4)

1993          Pres. Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act. It granted workers 24 hours a year of unpaid leave to handle family matters. In 2003 the US Supreme Court allowed state employees to sue for denial of unpaid family leave.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A1)(SFC, 5/28/03, p.B1)

1993        Linda Tripp, a Pentagon aide, later reported to Newsweek Magazine that Kathleen Willey told her of a sexual encounter she had in the Oval Office with Pres. Clinton.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.A3)

1993        James Riady, Indonesian billionaire, began to be a guest at the Clinton White House. His family ran the Lippo Group, a financial conglomerate out of Jakarta. By 1996 he had made 15-20 visits.
    (SFC, 11/5/96, p.A1)

1993        Agricultural Secretary Mike Espy accepted gratuities from Richard Douglas, a VP of Sun-Diamond Growers in California. Espy was indicted in 1997 for soliciting gifts from companies he was supposed to be regulating. Douglas was convicted in 1997 for offering gratuities.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p. A8)(SFC, 6/16/96, p.B2)(SFC,11/26/97, p.A7)

1993        The Naval Base at Alameda, Ca., was ordered shut down as part of the federal government base closure program.
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, p.D4)

1993        The US Congress abolished mandatory retirement in academia.
    (WSJ, 11/24/97, p.A1)

1993        A US law capped deductions for executive pay and firms reacted by giving out more stock options.
    (WSJ, 12/27/06, p.A6)

1993        The Solomon amendment empowered the US government to cut off federal money to any school that blocks military recruiters from having the same kind of access to campuses and to students that is provided to any other employer.
    (SFC, 12/7/05, p.A3)

1993        The National Ignition Facility (NIF) was begun in Livermore, Ca. It was designed to be the 40 times as powerful as any laser ever built.
    (WSJ, 12/20/99, p.A1)

1993        The US FDA approved Risperdal, made by Johnson & Johnson, to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in adults. In 2006 approval was expanded to help treat autism in children.
    (WSJ, 10/7/06, p.A14)

1993        The khat plant was made illegal as a Schedule I narcotic in the US.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.35)

1993        Alabama Governor Guy Hunt, halfway through his 2nd term, was convicted and forced to resign. He was sentenced to 5 years probation, 1,000 hours of community service, and a $212,000 fine. In 1997 a parole board, partly appointed by Hunt, voted to pardon him.
    (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A2)
1993        Alabama Governor James E. Folsom Jr. (b.1948) led an offer to Mercedes-Benz of $253 million in incentives to build its 1st auto plant in Vance.
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)(http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/folsom.html)

1993        Charles Keating, Arizona land developer, was found guilty by a federal jury on 73 counts of racketeering, fraud, and conspiracy and sentenced to 12 years. His son was also convicted on 64 counts that alleged many of the same crimes. Federal charges were overturned in 1996.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)
1993        An international competition rated Phoenix, Az., and Christchurch, New Zealand, as the world’s best governed cities.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.32)

1993        Rev. Eugene Lumpkin, a member of the SF Human Rights Commission, spoke against the homosexual lifestyle and quoted scripture that it was abomination against God. He later stated in a TV interview he agreed with a biblical statement that "a man who sleeps with a man should be put to death." Mayor Jordan quickly fire Rev. Lumpkin from the HRC. Lumpkin filed suit on the basis of freedom of speech and religion but his case was lost.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A16)
1993        In SF a free medical clinic for teenagers was established at Mission High School. In 1998 Superintendent Bill Rojas blocked approval of a $50,000 grant for the clinic to continue.
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.A19)
1993        In SF the Ferry Plaza Farmers Market opened.
    (SSFC, 5/5/13, p.G1)
1993        In SF The Yerba Buena Gardens opened across from the Moscone Center.
    (SFC, 11/9/99, p.D1)
1993        The St. Francis of Assisi church in North Beach, built in 1860, was one of 9 churches closed by the Archdiocese of San Francisco. In 1997 it was reborn as a national shrine to St. Francis, the only sanctioned shrine outside his Italian hometown.
    (SSFC, 11/20/05, p.B3)
1993        Channel 54 began operating as the independent nonprofit SF Community Television Corp.
    (SFC, 9/28/99, p.A17)
1993        In SF Rev. Max Christensen (d.1998), rector of St. James Episcopal Church, published his book "Turning Points." In 1997 he published "Heroes and Saints."
    (SFC, 7/15/98, p.A20)
1993        In SF Ken Romines was assigned to Edison Elementary School in Noe Valley, described as the worst in the city. He spent 2 years trying to turn it around, after which it was "reconstituted." He wrote the 1997 "A Principal’s Story" to describe the events.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, BR p.8)
1993        SF voters approved Prop. AA, a policy declaration saying that all city employees should ride MUNI to work at least twice a week.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.A22)
1993        SF raised cable car prices to $2.00 each way.
    (SFC, 3/2/05, p.B7)
1993        SF police officer Joanne Welsh filed a suit against police-chief Anthony Ribera for sexual harassment. In 12/95 Ribera was acquitted by a federal jury but the jury found the city guilty for not returning her to her job. She was awarded $288,606 in damages, attorneys fees and back pay.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A15)
1993        Police officer Bob Geary successfully defended his right to use his dummy puppet "O’Smarty" while on patrol. The defense cost him $11,465 and was denied as a tax deduction.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, p.D1)
1993        SF Gate of Chronicle Publ. opened for business on the Internet.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8)
1993        Management of the SF Zoo shifted from the city to the Zoological Society.
    (SFC, 7/30/04, p.E15)
1993        The Dolores St. Baptist Church experienced a devastating fire.
    (SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)
1993        John B. Fortunio (45) was robbed and stabbed to death by Juan Arballu (28). Fortunio left his estate by will to the city of SF and in 1998 it was valued at about $782,193.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.A23)
1993        Angel Lopez, prostitute, was slain in SF.
    (SFC, 3/13/04, p.B6)
1993        There were 117 deaths and 436 injuries due to handguns this year in SF. 132 killings were reported for the year.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A19)(SFC,12/9/97, p.A18)

1993        The last section of I-105 was completed in Los Angeles. This completed the US highway system begun in 1956.
    (Econ, 2/16/08, p.32)
1993        Tom Bradley, mayor of Los Angeles, retired. He was succeeded by Richard Riordan.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, p.A13)
1993        In California Arturo Rodriguez succeeded Cesar Chavez as president of the United Farm Workers.
    (WSJ, 8/5/98, p.CA4)

1993        The federal government and South Carolina state paid the Catawba Indians $50 million for lands taken in 1840.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.A10)

1993        Dennis Archer succeeded Coleman Young as mayor of Detroit.
    (WSJ, 5/28/98, p.A20)

1993        Rudolph Giuliani defeated New York’s first black mayor, David Dinkins. He became the first Republican mayor in 2 decades and the city’s 107th.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A3)(SFC, 1/2/98, p.A3)

1993        Carlos Enrique Cervantes de Gortari was convicted with 4 others in federal court in Newark for selling 90 kg of cocaine to an undercover agent. He is a cousin of Mexico’s former president Carlos Salinas.
    (WSJ, 4/15/97, p.A15)

1993        Nevada rancher Cliven Bundy quit paying grazing fees on government land after the government designated the Gold Butte area as protected habitat for the endangered desert tortoise and cut his allotment of cows. The BLM cancelled his grazing permit and ordered him to remove his cows. Federal judges later upheld the action.
    (SSFC, 4/20/14, p.A11)

1993        Rhode Island repealed its nautical taxes and became something of a nautical tax haven.
    (SFC, 7/24/10, p.A6)

1993        The American Stock Exchange introduced the Standard & Poor’s Depository Receipts, known as SPDRs and pronounced "spiders." They traded at one-tenth the value of the S&P.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.B1)
1993        The first exchange-traded funds (ETFS) were introduced. They consisted of a basket of shares designed to track a benchmark.
    (Econ, 3/1/08, SR p.8)

1993        The Boston Globe was purchased by the New York Times for $1.07 billion.
    (WSJ, 8/9/99, p.B9)

1993        Mercedes-Benz announced plans to build cars in the US.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1993        Alex Trotman became the chairman and CEO for Ford.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1993        Ferdinand Piech took over Volkswagen. He was the grandson of founder Ferdinand Porsche and the son of the companies wartime chief, Anton Piech.
    (WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A17)

1993        Dr. Stephen Fodor founded Affymetrix, a spin-off from Affymax Research Institute in Palo Alto, Ca. the company specialized in developing commercial DNA arrays.
    (Econ, 12/2/06, TQ p.25)

1993        ATT bought McCaw Cellular Communications for $11.5 bil. The transaction was completed in 1994. McCaw then founded Nextlink, a provider of phone services to businesses. McCaw’s  story was told in 2000 by O. Casey Cor in "Money From Thin Air."
    (WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A24)(www.forbes.com/1998/06/22/feat.html)

1993        Privately held Amstar Corp., a holding company for Milwaukee Electric Tool, merged with Essex Industries, a lock and door company, to form Esstar Corp.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1993        Apple Chairman John Sculley introduced the Newton MessagePad, the first personal digital assistant. The device was terminated in 1998.
    (SFC, 2/28/98, p.D1)

1993        Applied Biosystems was acquired by Perkin-Elmer, which held the rights to polymerase chain reaction technology (PCR).
    (SFEC, 7/23/00, p.C7)

1993        Barnes & Noble, the bookstore people, went public with an IPO.
    (WSJ, 9/3/96, p.A6)

1993        Jim Koch, founder of Boston Beer co., the maker of Samuel Adams beer, set a new bar by creating Triple Bock, a beverage with 17.5% alcohol by volume. In the early 2000s, Dogfish Head responded with beverages of their own that went to 22%. In 2009 Boston Beer released an updated version of its biennial beer Utopias, to date the highest alcohol content beer on the market. It was 27% alcohol by volume and $150 a bottle.
    (AP, 11/30/09)

1993        Coca-Cola established a memorandum of understanding with Beijing for expansion in China and obligations to the domestic soft-drink industry. 10 new joint-venture bottling plants were allowed.
    (WSJ, 5/31/96, p.B3B)

1993        The Dart Corp. brothers Kenneth and Robert renounced their US citizenship to avoid US income taxes and set up shop in the Cayman Islands.
    (WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A1)

1993        Enron Corp. started building electric power plants on barges with a  project in Guatemala.
    (WSJ, 5/22/96, p.B-1)

1993        Ford’s European division launched the Mondeo, a car that reflected Ford’s new approach to improved dynamics.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.73)

1993        Goldman Sachs & Co. invented a new security called Monthly Income Preferred Shares (MIPS) that resembled both a loan and an equity. It allowed companies to mask the size of their debt while cutting their federal tax bill.
    (WSJ, 2/1/02, p.A1)

1993        Hearst New Media and Technology was created to guide interests in new media. Hearst also started Country Living Gardener magazine and acquired the San Antonio Express-News.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1993        Guillermo Gaede, an Intel engineer, used his computer to tap into plans for the Pentium & 486 chip manufacturing process and video taped the information. He sent the info his former employer Advanced Micro Devices who notified federal authorities. He claimed to have been double-crossed by the FBI and also to have passed info from AMD to Cuba, China, North Korea and Iran. He was arrested in Phoenix on Sep 23, 1995.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A23)

1993        The Mondavi Wine Co. went public.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.D4)

1993        Omega 7 Inc. was founded by Alonzo Washington. It was focused on establishing Omega Man as a black comic book superhero. It later branched in to the toy market.
    (SFC, 2/2/98, p.B2)

1993        Quantum Chemical Corp. was acquired by Britain’s Hanson PLC. It had begun in 1890 as the Distilling & Cattle Feeding Co.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1993        Steven Burd, a member of the KKR team that took Safeway private in a large leveraged buyout, became the CEO of Safeway.
    (WSJ, 3/25/04, p.A3)

1993        Rayovac introduced a rechargeable alkaline battery system that extended the charge on reusable alkaline manganese batteries. The charge held 3x longer the NiCad batteries.
    (SFEC, 2/21/99, p.B5)

1993        Sears Corp. stopped publishing the Sears catalog.
    (WSJ, 7/28/97, p.A18)

1993        Triarc Corp. (Arby’s, RC Cola and propane interests) was acquired by Nelson Pelz from Victor Posner. Pelz received shareholder approval in 1994 to work for a $1 salary for 6 years plus enormous stock options. In 1996 he collected 2 million in bonus money, not directly approved by stockholders.
    (WSJ, 6/12/97, p.C1)

1993        Doctors at Duke, Mass. Gen’l. Hosp. and Northwestern Univ. announced that they had isolated the gene that causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Par, p.15)

1993        Depo-Provera, an injectable drug for birth control, was released in the US.
    (SFC, 7/21/99, p.A9)

1993        Sanofi-Aventis of France introduced its Ambien sleeping pill to the US.
    (SFC, 3/3/06, p.D1)

1993        The information highway joined the lexicon.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1993)

1993        Ward Cunningham (b.1949) founded the 1st Wiki site, The Portland Repository." The site was developed so that multiple users could revise and update information. He joined Microsoft in 2003.
    (WSJ, 7/29/04, p.B1)(www.en.wikipedia.org)

1993        Id Software’s "Doom" featured a 3-D shooter and was launched on the Internet.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E3)

1993        The computer game "Mortal Combat" sparked a controversy in Congress over video game violence.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)

1993        The computer game "Myst" swept the US with its eerie puzzle plot.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)

1993        The fantasy card game “Magic: The Gathering" was created.
    (SFC, 9/1/04, p.B1)

1993        Mattel introduced its “Earing Magic Ken" doll, which gave him a pierced left ear.
    (ST, 7/29/04, p.C8)

1993        The graphics chip company nVidea (Nvidia) was founded in Santa Clara, Ca.
    (WSJ, 3/17/03, p.B1)(SFC, 12/2/06, p.C2)
1993        In California Richard M. Diamond (1924-2007), nuclear chemist, and lab partner Frank Stephens developed and built the original Gammasphere at Berkeley’s 88-inch cyclotron. It analyzed gamma rays emitted from atoms bombarded in high-energy nuclear accelerators.
    (SFC, 10/20/07, p.B5)

1993        A US project to build a 23-km particle accelerator near Waxahachie, Texas, was cancelled after nearly $2 billion had been spent.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.84)

1993        The NASA $1 billion Mars Observer probe failed just before entry into orbit around Mars.
    (SFC, 11/7/96, p.B1)

1993        The Pew Foundation established the Pew Center for Civic Journalism with a 3-year grant that was renewed.
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A6)

1993        Father Timothy Scully founded the Alliance for Catholic Education at Notre Dame in an effort to help staff the inner-city parochial schools.
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W15)

1993        Lobbyists in Washington were paid an average of $47,679 each, while the average American worker earned $19,429.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, p.A18)

1993        Southeast Asia accounted for 1.4% of the world’s agricultural land and 3.6% of global pesticide imports by value. The highest use was in Thailand.
    (WSJ, 10/3/96, p.B11B)

1993        The ozone hole over the Antarctic was measured to be three times the size of the United States. "If the release of  CFC'S (chlorofluorocarbons) is ceased instantly, it would take nearly 100 years for the ozone to recover. (Prof. James Terri)"
    (LSA., D. Gilbert, p. 29.)

1993        An E. coli outbreak made hundreds ill and several children died. It was traced to hamburgers at Jack in the Box restaurants. The bacteria was identified as E. coli 0157:H7, a renegade strain of the normally harmless group.
    (WSJ, 7/15/96, p.B1)(SFC, 11/1/96, p.A4)

1993        The hantavirus was discovered in the American Southwest and killed at least 26 people.
    (SFC, 2/3/00, p.A6)

1993        Paintings that dated back 2000 years, made on rock surfaces in the central mountain ranges of the Baha Peninsula by unknown native Indians, were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. In 1997 Harry W. Crosby published "Cave Paintings of Baha California."
    (WSJ, 3/5/98, p.A20)

1993        The Univ. of Michigan began publishing its American Consumer Satisfaction Index. George Katona began the consumer surveys began in 1946.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.79)(http://tinyurl.com/33oozk)

1993        The national marine Fisheries Services announced that of 157 commercially valuable fish species in the US, 36% were over fished and 44% were fished at the maximum level.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, A12)

1993        The Fortean Times, a British journal of strange and uncanny phenomena, began compiling its weirdness index based on the number of stories printed in various categories over the previous year.
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, p.A23)

1993        Little Rock, Ark., hit a record 76 murders for the year.
    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.F6)

1993        Texas executed 17 inmates.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A17)

1993        The Forest Service cut logging by two-thirds to protect the spotted owl in northern California.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)

1993        Timothy Synnott helped create the Forest Stewardship Council, which aimed at cutting logging abuse around the world.
    (WSJ, 9/26/00, p.A1)

1993        Shark finning was banned in the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico by the US Sec. of Commerce due to serious overfishing.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A10)

1993        Princess Cruises began its Planet Princess environmental conservation and training program.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T9)

1993        The US nuclear-powered submarine Grayling collided in the Barents Sea with a Russian Delta-3 class, nuclear-powered submarine. Both vessels were able to return to base.
    (SFC, 8/15/00, p.A15)

1993        In San Diego a gang shootout over the distribution of methamphetamines left 26 people dead.
    (SFC, 2/10/97, p.A9)

1993        In the US Deputy White House Counsel Vincent Foster committed suicide.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)

1993        In Maryland Mildred Horn and nurse Janice Saunders were shot and killed in Silver Spring. Trevor (8), Horn's quadriplegic son, died after his breathing tube was disconnected. Lawrence T. Horn, Trevor's father and Mildred's ex-husband, was sentenced to life in prison for hiring James Edward Perry of Detroit to commit the slayings. At Perry's trial prosecutors argued that he followed tips outlined in the book "Hit Man: A Technical Manual for the Independent Contractor." In 1999 Paladin Press agreed to settle a multimillion federal civil suit, to make contributions to 2 charities chosen by the plaintiffs and to turn over 700 remaining copies of the book.
    (SFC, 5/22/99, p.A3)

1993        Kobo Abe, Japanese writer, died. He wrote "Woman in the Dunes." In 1996 his last novel "Kangaroo Notebook" was published.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, BR, p.4)

1993        Maeve Brennan (b.1916), Irish-born short story writer, died. She was a longtime contributor to the New Yorker. In 2000 the posthumous collection "The Rose Garden" was published.
    (WSJ, 2/3/00, p.A24)

1993        James H. Doolittle, head of the 1942 US air raid on Tokyo, died.
    (SSFC, 3/30/03, p.A3)

1993        Daniel Fuchs (84), writer, died. His books included a series of novels about Jewish life in Brooklyn: "Summer in Williamsburg," "Homage to Blenholt," and "Low Company."
    (www.nysun.com/article/13669)

1993        Joseph Paul Jernigan, a convicted murderer, was executed in Huntsville, Texas. He donated his body to medical research and it was quick frozen, sliced, photographed and computer enhanced and used to make the 1997 CD Body Voyage.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, BR. p.9)

1993        Dizzy Gillespie, jazz trumpet player, died at age 75.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, DB p.34)

1993        Lillian Gish, Hollywood actress, died. The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize was created from interest on a trust fund following her death.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.E3)

1993        Actor Brandon Lee was accidentally killed during the filming of "The Crow."
    (SFEM, 1/12/97,  Par p.18)

1993        Reginald F. Lewis, businessman, CEO of TLC Beatrice Holdings Inc., died of brain cancer. His biography was co-written with Blair S. Walker.
    (WSJ, 1/12/95, A-14)

1993        Alexander Mackendrick (81), film director, died. His work included "The Ladykillers" (1955) and "Sweet Smell of Success."
    (WSJ, 3/25/02, p.A16)

1993        John H. Martin, oceanographer at California’s Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, died. He proposed that enriching the ocean with iron particles would spur plankton production and cause absorption of atmospheric CO2. A 1996 experiment proved him right.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A2)

1993        Richard Salant, lawyer, died. He ran CBS news for 16 years after being put in charge by CBS Pres. Frank Stanton. His memoirs were compiled, edited and published in 1998 by Susan and Bill Buzenburg: "Salant, CBS, and the Battle for the Soul of Broadcast Journalism."
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, BR p.8)

1993        The G-7 Summit was held in Tokyo.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)

1993        Algeria stopped applying death sentences.
    (AP, 1/29/11)
1993        The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) first emerged and became most active around Algiers.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.A10)
1993        In Algeria Karima Belhadj was the first woman killed in a rebel attack.
    (SFC, 3/9/99, p.B10)

1993        Andorra ended as a co-principality and became legally independent. The parliament chamber had 28 seats, 4 representatives for each of its 7 parishes.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.74)(SSFC, 6/24/07, p.G3)

1993        In Angola arms and an oil embargo was imposed on the UNITA rebels by the UN but it had little effect.
    (SFC,10/30/97, p.A13)

1993        Argentina’s Pres. Menem made a deal with congress known as the Olivos Pact. The congressional opposition allowed him to run for re-election and changed the constitution to make lawful decrees that he had issued in exchange for a term reduction from 6 years to 4 along with a reduction in influence over other branches of government.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.29)
1993        In Argentina Gen’l. Lanusse was place under house arrest for after he accused Pres. Carlos Menem of being "frivolous" and a "womanizer."
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)   
1993        In Argentina Father Julio Grassi became widely known after starting the "Happy the Children" Foundation, opening several homes for poor children and doing other charitable work.
    (AP, 6/11/09)
1993        In Argentina Santa Cruz province, under Gov. Nestor Kirchner, acquired shares in YPF, a privatized oil company, in lieu of unpaid royalties. The shares were sold for a big profit in 1999 and the proceeds were held abroad. Some of the money returned to the province but Mr. Kirchner has not revealed what happened to the rest.
    (Econ, 2/27/10, p.28)

1993        In Australia the Daintree Eco Lodge and Spa opened in the rain forest of North Queensland.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C7)
1993        In Australia, a developer bought a 260-acre site in Cardwell, Queensland, across from Hichinbrook Island, the world’s largest island national park. His $100 million plans to develop the site faced major opposition in 1998 even after 12 million was invested.
    (SFC, 1/16/98, p.B4)

1993        The war in the Balkans continued with the new term Ethnic Cleansing.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1993)

1993        Islamic fundamentalists imposed a sentence of death on Bangladesh writer Taslima Nasreen for her 1992 novel "Shame." [see Nasrin 1998]
    (WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A20)

1993        Belgium adopted a law that empowered judges to hear war crimes and genocide cases regardless of where the alleged crimes occurred or who committed them. In 2002 the Int’l. Court of Justice cited diplomatic immunity and ruled that Belgium cannot try former and current world leaders. In 2003 an amendment to invalidate high profile cases was passed.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.A8)(AP, 4/5/03)

1993        A Bolivian court convicted Arce Gomez in absentia of a series of crimes including armed insurrection and genocide. He was sentenced to 30 years without parole. Gomez was in the US serving time following a conviction for drug trafficking.
    (AP, 7/10/09)

1993        A Bosnian Croat, Zlatko Aleksovski, was one of six men charged in 1996 with killing Muslims in the central Lasva Valley in this year.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, C16)

1993        Fikret Abdic declared Bihac an autonomous province. He and his followers fled to Croatia in 1995. He was indicted in 1999 for inhumane treatment of civilians and prisoners of war.
    (SFC, 1/11/99, p.A10)

1993        A Bosnian Croat state, Herzeg-Bosnia, was declared by Croat nationalists during fighting between Muslims and Croats. In Croat controlled parts of Bosnia it collects taxes, runs schools and allows use of Croatia’s currency.
    (SFC, 6/15/96, p.A10)

1993        In Brazil Pres. Itamar Franco named Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Finance Minister, the 4th in 18 months. Cardoso enacted the Plano Real economic program and slashed inflation from 2,700% to 2% in 1998. This success enabled Cardoso to win elections for president in 1994.
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-13)(SFC, 2/26/99, p.E2)
1993        In Brazil Castor de Andrade (d.1997 at 71), a Rio "godfather," was arrested with 13 other suspected gaming bosses and convicted of criminal association and forming armed gangs. Police evidence revealed multi-million payoffs to congressmen, police chiefs, judges, businessmen, police officers and the former President Fernando Collor de Mello.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)
1993        In Brazil at Carandiru Prison riot troopers killed 111 inmates in their efforts to quell a rebellion.
    (SFC, 1/1/98, p.A14)
1993        In Brazil the Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC) was founded at Taubate jail in Sao Paulo state to fight for prisoner’s rights and avenge the massacre by police of more than 100 prisoners at Carandiru. The PCC grew to become the country’s most powerful gang.
    (Economist, 9/22/12, p.45)

1993        The Church of England decided to permit female priests.
    (SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-16)
1993        The British Council Tax, a levy based loosely on house prices, was instituted.
    (Econ, 1/24/04, p.51)
1993        Britain set up the Child Support Agency (CSA) to calculate and collect maintenance payments from one parent to another when families split up and support payments are due. In late 2006 plans were made public for a new body, the Child Maintenance and Enforcement Commission, to replace the CSA.
    (Econ, 12/3/05, p.53)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.58)
1993        James Dyson, British former art student turned inventor, set up a plant in Wiltshire to produce his vacuum cleaners. Production was later transferred to Malaysia.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.8)
1993        The British brothers David and Frederick Barclay paid $3.5 million for the Brecqhou, and Channel Island considered as part of the fiefdom of Sark.
    (WSJ, 10/11/05, p.A1)
1993        Asil Nadir (52), a Turkish Cypriot, went to northern Cyprus after being charged with 66 counts of theft involving 34 million pounds. He ran Polly Peck, one of Britain's biggest companies with interests in sectors from textiles to electronics, before its collapse. In 2010 Nadir's lawyers indicated he would be willing to come back and face trial if he was granted bail.
    (AFP, 7/30/10)
1993        Research by Robin Dunbar, an Oxford anthropologist, gave rise to Dunbar’s number of 150 as a natural limit to the human friendship circle.
    (WSJ, 11/16/07, p.B1)

1993        Bulgaria banned dancing bears, but performances continued through 2002. In 2000 Four Paws, a Vienna animal rights group, opened a bear sanctuary at Belitsa.
    (SFC, 7/8/02, p.A3)

1993        In Burundi Pierre Buyoya paved the way for elections and handed the presidency to Melchior Ndadaye, a Hutu.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.A9)

1993        "The Music of Cambodia" was recorded by David and Kay Parsons as a 3-CD box that included Royal Court music and a nine-gong ensemble.
    (NH, 9/97, p.75)
1993        Cambodia held free elections under UN supervision. The communist Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) under Hun Sen lost the elections and formed a coalition government with the elected Funcinpec under Prince Ranariddh, son of King Sihanouk. The Khmer Rouge boycotted the elections. The communists maintained control over the defense and interior ministries. Ranariddh and Hun Sen ran the country as co-premiers.
    (WSJ, 5/3/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 6/19/97, p.A13)(WSJ, 7/9/99, p.A12)
1993        Cambodian law prohibited the removal of cultural artifacts without government permission.
    (AP, 6/11/13)
1993        The Int'l. Coordination Committee was created to channel aid to Cambodia's Angkor Wat zone.
    (SFC, 2/4/04, p.D10)
1993        In Cambodia an armed group robbed the Angkor storage depot at Siem Reap and took 22 pieces including several important stone sculptures.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.60)
1993        Somaly Mam (b.~1970-71) escaped Cambodia following years of forced prostitution. She moved to Paris and later returned to Cambodia to help women caught in similar situations. In 2006 she was honored as one of Glamour magazine's women of the year. In 2007 she published her autobiography: "The Road of Lost Innocence." In 2008 she was the co-winner of the $150,000 World's Children's Prize for the Rights of the Child, awarded by the Swedish Children's World Association to recognize those who defend the rights of children. In 2014 she resigned from the New York-based foundation she helped found after reports alleged that she had distorted aspects of her personal history.
    (AP, 5/29/14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somaly_Mam)

1993        Canada’s former PM Mulroney began accepting cash from Karlheinz Schreiber, a lobbyist for Airbus and Thyssen. This was only made public in 2003. Public hearings in the matter began in 2009. Schreiber said he handed over C$300,000 ($256,000) in cash to Mulroney in separate hotel meetings so that Mulroney could help promote establishment of a factory to build light armored vehicles.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.44)(Reuters, 5/12/09)
1993        In Canada Karla Homolka pleaded guilty in the sex slayings of two southern Ontario teenagers Leslie Mahaffy and Kristen French. She was sentenced to 12 years in prison and was set for release in 2005. Her husband Paul Bernardo, eventually convicted of raping 13 Ontario women or girls, committed many of the assaults during the first three years of his relationship with Homolka.
    (AP, 6/3/05)
1993        In Canada diamond prospectors found nickel deposits in Labrador’s Voisey Bay. Vale of Brazil opened a mine there in 2005.
    (Econ, 4/12/14, p.27)

1993        Former Central African Republic ruler Jean-Bedel Bokassa was released from prison by President Andre Kolingba, who had overthrown David Dacko. Bokassa ended his days as a recluse in his villa in Bangui and died of a heart attack in 1996.
    (AFP, 12/1/10)

1993        In Chile capital controls were reduced to a minimum permanence period of 1 year for foreign money.
    (WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A17)
1993        Chile passed its first law offering protection, formal recognition and development aid to indigenous groups. 5 of its original native tribes were already lost. In 2006 the Kawesqar were down to just 15 full-blooded members. The Mapuche numbered some 600,000.
    (SSFC, 10/8/06, p.A25)

1993        The 1st dam on the Mekong River was completed at Man Wan, China.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)
1993        China amended its Constitution.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A22)
1993        China set up a Preliminary Working Committee (PWC) to shape the post-1997 Hong Kong administration.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)
1993        China curbed satellite dish sales and ownership after Rupert Murdoch, who had just bought Star TV, said that satellite broadcasting threatened totalitarian regimes by enabling viewers to bypass state controlled media.
    (WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-15)(SFC, 5/8/99, p.C1)(Econ, 9/24/05, p.80)
1993        China and the Tibet Autonomous Region established the Chang Tang Reserve setting aside at least 109,000 sq. mls. Added to the smaller, contiguous Arjin Shan Region, the total preserved area is now almost as a large as Germany.
    (NH, 5/96, p.52)
1993        Michael Yu and his wife founded New Oriental’s 1st school to teach English to Chinese students. In 2006 New Oriental raised $129.4 million in an initial public offering on the NYSE.
    (WSJ, 11/27/06, p.B3)
1993        Feng Jun founded Aigo, the trade name of Beijing Huaqi Information Digital Technology Company, to sell keyboards. In 2008 Mr. Feng carried the Olympic torch in Athens.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, SR p.8)

1993        Colombia granted collective title rights to black and indigenous groups.
    (Econ, 11/8/14, p.40)
1993        Colombia privatized the Port of Cartagena. By 2014 it was the 4th largest container hub in South America.
    (Econ, 5/17/14, p.33)

1993        Congo’s Pres. Mobutu removed Etienne Tshisekedi, the first Zairean to graduate from law school, from office as prime minister.
    (SFC, 3/21/97, p.A19)
1993        In Congo riots killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
    (SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)
1993        In Zaire ethnic cleansing occurred in the Kasai Province.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)
1993        In Zaire Mahele Lieko Bokoungo put down army-led looting in Kinshasa when he gave orders for loyal troops to fire on looters. Riots killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)(SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)

1993        Cuba allowed limited freedom for small private businesses in 157 spheres of activity.
    (Econ, 10/16/04, p.33)
1993        In Cuba the dollar stores were opened in large part to fight a growing black market in which goods were traded in dollars without passing through the state's hands.
    (AP, 5/11/04)

1993        In Cyprus Glafcos Clerides (1919-2013) was elected president. He had lost presidential elections in 1983 and 1988.
    (AP, 11/15/13)

1993        The Danish chapter of the Bandidos motorcycle gang started out as the 666 club, changed its name to the Morticians, then the Undertakers, and then affiliated in 1993 with the Texas-based Bandidos.
    (WSJ, 5/24/96, p.A-4)

1993        In El Salvador along with the peace accord Pres. Alfredo Cristiani reprivatized the banks and set himself and a tight circle of friends, secretly called "The Apostles," in control of the biggest institutions.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.A1,7)
1993        A broad amnesty was given to all combatants of the 1980-1992 El Salvador civil war. The Salvadoran war raged over 12 years and left around 75,000 people dead.
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A12)(AP, 5/30/11)
1993        In El Salvador a high-interest pyramid scheme bilked some $35 million from thousands of middle-class investors. The ARENA government of Pres. Cristiani did not stop it or prosecute those responsible.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.A7)

1993        The Afar Revolutionary Democratic Unity Front was launched in the land of the Afars, over territory that straddled Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti. The Afars numbered some 2 million and their territory had previously been called the French Territory of Afars and Issas.
    (Econ, 3/10/07, p.44)

1993        Amin Maalouf (b.1949), Lebanese writer, won France’s Prix Goncourt for his novel “The Rock of Tanios."
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.91)
1993        French Pres. Mitterrand moved the offices of the Ministry of Finance out of the Louvre’s Richelieu Wing to free 245,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space.
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)
1993        France forbade polygamy as it tightened immigration laws to stop husbands from bringing extra wives into the country.
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.55)
1993        France scrapped its saint-strewn list of acceptable names.
    (Econ, 1/14/12, p.59)
1993        Sanofi-Aventis of France introduced its Ambien sleeping pill to the US.
    (SFC, 3/3/06, p.D1)

1993        In Gabon Pres. Bongo suppressed protests on his re-election victory that was described as an "electoral coup d’etat."
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)

1993        Will Tremper, German journalist, screenwriter and film director, published his autobiography “My Wild Years."
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C11)
1993        The documentary film “The Wonderful, Horrible Life of Leni Riefenstahl" was made by German director Ray Muller.
    (SFC, 1/19/99, p.B1)
1993        Swiss architect Peter Zumthor won the “Topography of Terror" design competition for the Wilhelmstrasse government district, former headquarters of the Nazi police forces. By 2000 the $13 million project had escalated to $35 million and was put on hold.
    (SFC, 5/8/00, p.A12)
1993        Peter Eigen (b.1938) founded the Advisory Council Transparency International, a Berlin-based global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption.
    (www.transparency.org/about_us)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Eigen)
1993        Germany passed a 30% withholding tax on investment income. It caused billions of marks to flow out of Germany and into Luxembourg.
    (WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A10)
1993        Germany passed a law that limited last names to two in an effort to prevent clunky name chains.
    (AP, 5/5/09)
1993        In Germany the naturalization law of 1913 was modified to allow citizenship after 15 years of residency. A 1999 bill proposed to reduce the waiting time to 8 years.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.D2)
1993        In Germany the Reinheitsgebot law of 1516 was relaxed to allow foreign brewers to sell their beer in Germany.
    (WSJ, 5/27/98, p.A1)
1993        In Germany Neo-Nazi Silvio Kackowski was arrested for setting fire to a resort complex that was to become housing for foreign asylum seekers. In 1997 it was learned that villagers paid the arsonists and supplied them with materials for the fires.
    (SFC, 2/13/97, p.C3)
1993        The German Red Army Faction (RAF) called an end to its armed struggle.
    (WSJ, 1/11/00, p.A8)
1993        In Germany Edmund Stoiber was elected premier of Bavaria. He announced his resignation in 2007.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.62)
1993        Ferdinand Piech left Audi and took over operations at Volkswagen, where he turned losses into profits. He was the grandson of founder Ferdinand Porsche and the son of the companies wartime chief, Anton Piech. In 2002 he was succeeded by Bernd Pischetsrieder. Piech (65) became chairman of Volkswagen’s supervisory board.
    (WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A17)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.70)
1993        Daimler-Benz acquired the Dutch plane-maker NV Fokker.
    (WSJ, 1/26/96, A-6)

1993        The World Bank pumped $4 billion into Ghana and called it an "African economic star."
    (WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A18)

1993        In Greece the border with Albania broke open and hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants, mainly Albanian Muslims, poured into the country. A video tape was recorded that depicted officers of a Greek anti-terrorist squad assaulting an apparent Albanian immigrant.
    (SFC,11/13/97, p.A12)

1993        In Guatemala rightist civil patrols killed peasants in Colotenango. 12 members of the paramilitary unit were later arrested, tried and sentenced in 1999 to 25 years in prison. They were sprung from jail a day after being sentenced.
    (SFC, 4/30/99, p.B1)

1993        In Guinea Lansana Conte formed a political party and won the country's first multiparty presidential election.
    (AP, 9/29/09)

1993        In Hungary voluntary pension funds operated by private financial institutions became available.
    (WSJ, 10/21/97, p.A18)

1993        Bjorgolfur Bjorgolfsson (26) left Iceland and started a soft-drink company in St. Petersburg, Russia. He later expanded into brewing, banking, telecommunications and discount pharmaceuticals. By 2006 his stake in the Iceland-based Actavis Group was valued at $1 billion, making him Iceland’s first billionaire.
    (SFC, 4/1/06, p.C3)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.80)

1993        The Tibet Transit School near Dharamsala, India, was founded for arrivals from Tibet aged 18-30.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.57)
1993        India passed legislation that banned “manual scavenging," the practice of cleaning feces from houses that lacked flushing toilets. It also forbade the unplumbed toilets that necessitated the practice.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.54)

1993        In Iran new laws withdrew food coupons and subsidized health insurance from families after the birth of a 3rd child.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D2)

1993        In Israel Benjamin Netanyahu won the leadership of the Likud party. He appointed his aid, Avigdor Lieberman, to manage Likud.
    (SFC,11/25/97, p.A8)
1993        In Israel Yoram Skolnick fired 9 bullets and killed a captured and bound Arab militant, Moussa Abu Sabha (21), who had been caught stabbing a Jewish settler. Skolnick was sentenced to life in prison but was released in 2001.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A10)
1993        Erel Margalit (32) founded Jerusalem Venture Partners (JVP), an Israeli venture capital firm.
    (Econ, 7/8/06, p.60)
1993        A new Jewish Museum opened in Vienna.
    (USAT, 9/24/04, p.3D)
1993        Tel Aviv began hosting an annual gay pride parade.
    (SFC, 6/8/02, p.A12)

1993        Italy abolished parliamentary immunity. In 2008 Silvio Berlusconi restored it for himself and three other office holders.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.63)
1993        Silvio Berlusconi created his Forza Italia! party.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.57)
1993        Antonio Basolino was elected mayor of Naples. Before his election the post was appointed by local party leaders. The city had been mired in corruption for decades and the new mayor began to clean it up.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.A1,12)
1993        In Italy a federal law granted people in illegal dwellings the right to use public utilities but warned that illegal structures would be demolished. Demolitions began in 1998.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.A10)
1993        Antonio Fazio became governor of the Bank of Italy.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.58)
1993        Italy’s Fiat Auto SpA bought Maserati.
    (WSJ, 9/24/04, p.B1)
1993        Maurizio Gucci sold his remaining stake in Gucci to Investcorp, a Bahraini firm.
    (WSJ, 11/5/03, p.A1)

1993        In Jamaica the Blue Mountains John Crow National park was established.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, T5)

1993        Japan’s government lifted a four-year moratorium on capital punishment.
    (AP, 9/16/05)
1993        The government of Japan approved 7 foreign access zones to promote imports and foreign investments.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.B-13)
1993        Japan’s “Kono Statement" was its first apology for incidents of sexual slavery during WWII. Yohei Kono was Chief Cabinet Secretary at the time.
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.38)(AP, 6/1/13)
1993        In Japan Shuji Nakamura, an employee of Nichia Corp., invented the blue light-emitting diode (LED). In 2001 Nakamura sued Nichia in a patent dispute that later settled for $7 million.
    (Econ, 2/7/04, p.60)(Econ, 9/23/06, TQ p.27)

1993         Jordan lifted press restrictions.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

1993        The Serengeti plain in northern Tanzania and south-western Kenya experienced a devastating drought.
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.88)

1993        In Libya Moammar Ghadafi uncovered a coup attempt and plot to assassinate him by 55 Warfala army officers. For years afterward Bani Walid, 90 miles (140 km) southeast of Tripoli, was in official disfavor.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A17)(AP, 9/2/11)

1993        Vevcani, Macedonia, nestled on the forested slopes of the Jablanica mountain about 190 km (120 miles) southwest of the capital Skopje, held its own referendum on independence, in a move tinged with nationalism after members of the country's ethnic Albanian minority living nearby did the same. 96% percent voted in favor of independence, and the 'Republic of Vevcani' was born. Mirte Aluloski drafted the new republic's constitution.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

1993        In Madagascar Albert Zafy defeated Didier Ratsiraka to become president. He was impeached three years later amid accusations of corruption. Zafy ran again in November 1996, losing this time to Ratsiraka.
    (AP, 12/9/06)

1993        In Malawi Vera Chriwa was released from prison and took up working in legal and human rights education.
    (SFEC, 1/19/96, Par p.5)

1993        Mexico created its Federal Competition Commission (CFC), an antitrust agency.
    (WSJ, 4/21/02, p.A12)
1993        In Mexico Rogelio Montemayor was elected governor of Coahuila state.
    (WSJ, 6/16/99, p.A1)
1993        In Mexico Gen’l. Jose Francisco Gallardo called for the creation of a human rights ombudsman within the military. He was jailed in 1993 and court-martialed in 1998 on charges of corruption, destroying files and using army funds for personal use. he was sentenced to an additional 14 years in prison for illegal enrichment after failing to demonstrate the origin of 1.2 million pesos in his bank accounts. Gallardo was freed by Pres. Fox in 2002.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B3)(SFC, 4/13/98, p.A14)(SFC, 2/8/02, p.A12)
1993        Mexico’s PRI held a secret meeting with 30 major industrialists who committed a total of $750 million to finance the presidential campaign in 1994.
    (WSJ, 4/19/96, p.A-11)
1993        In Mexico Joaquin Guzman Loera (aka "El Chapo"), head of the Sinaloa cartel, was arrested. In 2001 he escaped from the maximum-security prison in Jalisco state.
    (Econ, 9/18/10, p.105)
1993        In Mexico Raul Salinas and Jose Madariaga cashed out of their $4.4 million investment in Mexicana de Autobuses SA for $36 million.
    (WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)
1993        In Mexico El Barzon, which means "The Yoke," began as a farm movement opposed to high interest rates on loans. It was founded by Maximiano Barbosa.
    (AP, 8/28/09)
1993        Mexico’s Carlos Peralta closed a 1.04 billion deal for a 42% investment from Bell Atlantic Corp. of the US.
    (WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-11)(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)
1993        In Mexico’s Baja the San Ignacio Lagoon and Laguna Ojo de Liebre were deemed a Natural World Heritage Site. The area was a spawning site for gray whales.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.8)

1993        Morocco’s King Hassan II set up a commission to review the legal status of women.
    (WSJ, 8/10/04, p.B1)

1993        In Myanmar the Mong Tai Army took up arms against the government.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)
1993        In Myanmar the pro-junta Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) was formed.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.28)

1993        In Kathmandu, Nepal, there was a ban on the sale of diesel-run three wheelers due to the smog. The ban led to the development of a fleet of electric three-wheelers.
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.B1)

1993        A family in the Netherlands was found to have an abnormally high number of violent criminals. The criminal members were found to have a faulty gene that caused the absence of the enzyme monoamine oxidase A, an enzyme that regulates a group of neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine. Both of these were important for emotional responses.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, Survey p.6)

1993        Shell Oil stopped pumping oil in the Ogoni Province, but continued to use pipelines that pass through it. The Ogonis are a 500,000-strong community in southwestern Nigeria. They maintain that oil production has polluted their land, destroying their livelihoods of fishing and farming. Shell canceled several community development projects. It had earlier agreed to spend $29 million per year on such projects. In 2011 a UN report said it could take 30 years and at least $1 billion to rid the poisoned mangroves of a black carpet of crude.
    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.46)

1993        In Norway Labor's Gro Harlem Brundtland won re-election.
    (AP, 9/15/09)
1993        Norway legalized gay marriages.
    (SFC, 6/28/96, p.A14)
1993        Norway resumed the hunting of minke whales after a six-year self-imposed moratorium.
    (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A7)

1993        Pakistan halted the repatriation process of Urdu speakers from Bangladesh, saying it did not have the money or land to house them. This left some 250,000 refugees and their descendants to languish in 70 government-run camps across Bangladesh.
    (AP, 6/14/14)
1993        Greg Mortenson of Bozeman, Montana, first visited Pakistan to climb K2, the world’s 2nd highest peak. He failed in climbing the mountain but became interested in the region. In 1996  he built a school in Korphe, Pakistan, the first many. By 2008 he had built 55 schools and authored the memoir: “Three Cups of Tea: One Man’s Extraordinary Journey to promote Peace… One School at a Time" (2006). In 2011 a 60 Minute TV report said most of his story appears to have been fabricated.
    (http://tinyurl.com/42ffko2)(SSFC, 4/6/03, Par p.5)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.92)

1993        In Peru a new constitution was narrowly approved that allowed Fujimori to seek a 2nd 5-year term. It prohibited a 3rd term but 3 years later legislation was passed that excluded Fujimori from the restriction because his term began before the document was written.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.B2)
1993        Peru ratified the Int’l. Labor Organization’s convention on indigenous peoples.
    (Econ, 9/3/11, p.36)
1993        In Peru General Rodolfo Robles accused intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos of heading a government backed depth squad. The investigation was stone-walled by the government-loyal Congress.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A11)

1993        In the Republic of Congo Pres. Lissouba signed a $150 million oil agreement with Occidental Petroleum. He was convicted in 2001 in absentia for selling oil at low prices and in part for personal gain.
    (SFC, 12/29/01, p.A6)

1993        Russia signed the Chemical Weapons Convention and ratified it in 1996.
    (SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)
1993        Russia annulled an agreement obliging it to come to the aid of North Korea in case of attack.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-9)
1993        In Russia the state legislature of Primorye appointed Yevgeny Nazdratenko to govern the territory. He was then a director of an ore-processing factory and a member of the Supreme Soviet. His corruption later became legendary.
    (SFC, 9/25/97, p.A11)
1993        In Russia some 30 journalists broke from the Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper and formed Novaya Gazeta. Early success came with support from Mikhail Gorbachev, but lack of funds forced the paper to close briefly in 1995.
    (WSJ, 12/8/06, p.A1)
1993        Gleb Yakunin (d.2014), a dissident Russian Orthodox priest, was defrocked for ignoring a ban on priests running for elections in the post-Soviet Russian parliament. He served for two years. Four years later, he was excommunicated for unspecified reasons.
    (AP, 12/30/14)

1993        Saudi wheat production, part of a self-sufficiency program, grew from a few thousand tons on the mid 1970s to 4.5 million tons. The production was having a negative impact on water reserves and production was cut.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)

1993        In Serbia Vuk Draskovich was branded as a traitor by Bosnian Serbs when he rejected the war and was jailed and badly beaten by Milosevic’s security forces.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A14)
1993        Gen. Zivota Panic (d.2003 at 70), Serbian Army chief of staff, was removed from his post and retired following corruption reports.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.A22)

1993        In Slovakia Michal Kovac was elected president.
    (SFC, 5/29/97, p.A13)
1993        The Slovak people never voted on the 1993 split with the Czechs.
    (WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-1)

1993        In Somalia Osama Bin Laden was suspected of supplying weapons to shoot down American helicopters.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A12)
1993        In Somaliland clan leaders chose Mohamed Ibrahim Egal as President.
    (SFC, 8/16/96, p.A18)

1993        South Africa renounced its biological weapons program.
    (SSFC, 4/20/03, p.A16)
1993        In South Africa Wouter Basson was forced to resign from the army after a government report linked him with making poisons and chemical bombs for the army. In 1998 it was revealed that an army project plotted to poison Nelson Mandela with Thallium to induce brain damage.
    (SFC, 6/11/98, p.A11)
1993        In South Africa Petrus Matthews testified in 1998 how he and 8 members of the neo-Nazi Afrikaner Resistance Movement erected a bogus roadblock to kill ANC supporters. The pulled over 2 carloads of blacks and shot the victims in a ditch.
    (SFC, 6/1/98, p.A9)
1993        In South Africa an attack on St. James Church in Capetown by the ultra-radical Azanian People’s Liberation Army under commander Daniel Mofokeng left 11 people dead. Mofokeng in 1997 refused to either regret or apologize for the killings before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
    (SFC, 10/8/97, p.A10)

1993        In South Korea Chung Ju Yung, founder of Hyundai Group, was prosecuted and found guilty of violating election laws. His 3-year sentence was suspended.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A11)

1993        A national hydrological plan was proposed by Spain’s Socialist government.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.45)

1993        Fredrik Reinfeldt (28) authored “The Sleeping People," in which he said that Swedes were mentally handicapped and indoctrinated to believe that politicians can create and guarantee welfare. In 2006 he led a 4-party center right alliance to oust the Social Democrats.
    (Econ, 9/23/06, p.61)
1993        Sweden privatized Posten AB, its postal network.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.76)

1993        Taiwan began to allow tourists to visit the Kinmen, a small island nestled  against the Chinese coast. Chinese tourists were excluded. The island was ringed with minefields and occupied by 10,000 Taiwanese troops.
    (Econ, 1/15/05, Survey p.8)

1993        In Tanzania the government invited Ocelot and TransCanada Pipelines to transport natural gas from the Indian Ocean island of Songo Songo. It was to be completed in 1998.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A6)
1993        In Tanzania in a privatization drive part of the government stake in Safari beer was sold to a South African company.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A1)

1993        In Tanzania Monique A. Maddy (31) launched her African Communications Group. The plan was to establish a voice-mail only communications system using wireless hardware. By 1998 the operation grew to 1,000 wireless phones and 55 employees with plans for expansion to Ghana and Sri Lanka.
    (WSJ, 9/25/98, p.B1)

1993        In East Timor Konis Santana (d.1998) took over leadership of the guerrilla Fretilin Party after the arrest and jailing of Xanana Gusmao.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B3)

1993        In Togo Pres. Gnassinghe Eyadema conducted an election that was so riddled with fraud that the opposition refused to compete.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)
1993        European donors suspended most aid to Togo.
    (Econ, 2/12/05, p.48)

1993        The London-based Privy Council ruled that executions cannot take place move than 5 years after sentencing. For Trinidad and Tobago to overrule this required a constitutional amendment, which in turn required a three-quarters majority in parliament.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.46)

1993        Tansu Ciller, a US trained economist, was elected as the Prime Minister of Turkey.
    (WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-1)
1993        Turkey sealed its land frontier with Armenia after it seized the province of Nagorno-Karabakh from their Azeri cousins. Direct air travel was still allowed.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.53)
1993        In Turkey in the Anatolian city of Sivas, a fire, set by a mob shouting Islamic slogans, killed 37 secular writers. In 1997 33 people sere sentenced to death for their roles in the mob attack.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.C2)

1993        Ronald Muwenda Mutebi returned to Buganda, Uganda, as titular King.
    (WSJ, 12/19/94, A-1,6)

1993        UN members made a declaration that the promotion and protection of human rights is a legitimate concern of the int’l. community.
    (SFC,10/15/97, p.C2)
1993        The UN International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) began a database to count incidents of nuclear trafficking.
    (Econ, 10/04/08, p.65)

1993        Rafael Caldera was elected president of Venezuela and promised not to increase fuel costs.
    (WSJ, 4/15/96, p.A-14)

1993        Vietnam gave many farmers 20-year usage rights on farmland. By 2013 many local officials were seizing farmland for development projects.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.42)
1993        Vietnamese border crossings with China were opened for trade.
    (SFC, 12/14/98, p.A12)
1993        In Vietnam Jimmy Tran was sentenced to 20 years in prison for plotting to explode bombs in Ho Chi Minh City. He was released in a 1998 amnesty.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, p.A9)

1993        The Welsh Language Act established a Board having the function of promoting and facilitating the use of the Welsh language.
    (www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1993/38/introduction)

1993        In Yemen the first elections after the 1990 unification were held.
    (WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A1)

1993-1993    Kim Campbell, Progressive Conservative, served as the 19th Prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, '96, p.81)

1993-1994    Sep-Feb, In the US White House officials, Craig Livingstone and Anthony Marceca, obtained 407 sensitive FBI files on prominent Republicans. Livingstone was the appointed director of the White House Office of Personnel Security, and Marceca was on loan from the Pentagon as an Army civilian investigator. The number of files was later increased to over 700.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A3)(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)(USAT, 6/27/96, p.10A)

1993-1994    Jim Campbell created his work "Shadow (for Heisenberg)." The image of a bronze Buddha, enclosed in a glass cube, appeared to change as the viewer moved in and out.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.B10)

1993-1994    Home Improvement was the top ranking network show on television with a ranking of 21.9%
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)

1993-1994    Members of the Canadian 12th Armored Regiment were assigned to protect the Bakovici mental hospital in Bosnia. Later 57 members were accused of various abuses that included sex, drinking, and patient abuse.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A8)
1993-1994    Mladen Naletilic commanded a gang of convicts who terrorized Muslims in southwestern Bosnia. In 2000 Croatia handed over Naletilic, a Bosnian Croat indicted in 1998 on 17 counts of war crimes, to the UN tribunal.
    (SFC, 3/22/00, p.A12)
1993-1993    In China investments grew at an annual rate of 60%, GDP peaked at over 15%, and inflation hit 28%.
    (Econ, 4/17/04, p.71)

1993-1995    R. James Woolsey served as head of the US CIA.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)

1993-1996    In 1996 Turkey’s former PM Tansu Ciller was accused of enriching herself by $50 million through links with criminal gangs over this time.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A10)

1993-1996    Turkey spent $50 million on drug dealers and assassins to kill a Kurdish rebel leader and others considered threats to the state. Abdullah Ocalan, a Kurdish rebel leader in Syria, was targeted as was Dursun Karatas, a leftist terrorist in Europe.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A8)

1993-1996    In Cambodia the Khmer Rouge remained active in the countryside. They killed 100 Vietnamese settlers, abducted villagers for forces labor and kidnapped westerners.
    (SFC, 6/14/97, p.A15)

1993-1999    Attila Ambrus, Romanian-born hockey player, robbed 29 banks in Hungary. In 2004 Julian Rubinstein authored “Ballad of the Whiskey Robber: A True Story of Bank Heists, Ice Hockey, Transylvanian Pelt Smuggling, Moonlighting Detectives and Broken Hearts."
    (SSFC, 10/3/04, p.M6)
1993-1999    Ong Teng Cheong (d.2002 at 66) of the people’s Action Party served as president of Singapore.
    (SFC, 2/9/02, p.A22)

1993-2000    Bill Clinton became the 42nd President of the US and Al Gore his Vice-President.
    (Memory)

1993-2001    An estimated 300 sex killings of young women took place in the Juarez area along the US border, across from El Paso. In 2002 Lourdes Portillo, filmmaker, completed a documentary on the killings: "Senorita Extraviada" (Missing Young Women).
    (SFC, 3/11/99, p.A12)

1993-2002    Paul Martin served as Canada’s finance minister.
    (Econ, 1/1/05, p.39)

1993-2004    In Greece the socialist Pasok political party held power.
    (Econ, 9/13/08, p.60)
1993-2004    The proportion of Vietnam’s population that the government deemed poor fell from 58% in 1993 to 20% in 2004.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.49)

1993-2005    In India pollution on the Yamuna River doubled and continued to rise. The river extended 855 miles from the Himalaya Mountains to the Ganges. New Delhi with 15 million inhabitants dumped 57% of its waste into the Yamuna.
    (SFC, 7/27/07, p.A17)

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