1993 Dec 1, US
Navy Ensign George Smith shot and killed his ex-fiancée and a friend
and then himself. In Oct. he had passed a Navy screening test to
gauge his psychological fitness for nuclear submarine duty.
(SFC, 5/27/96, p.A2)
1993 Dec 1, Eighteen people
were killed when a Northwest Airlink commuter plane crashed in
1993 Dec 2, Alan Winterbournem,
an unemployed computer engineer, opened fire at a California
unemployment agency in Oxnard, killing three workers; he killed a
police officer during a chase that ended in Ventura, where he
himself was gunned down.
1993 Dec 2, The space shuttle
Endeavour blasted off on a mission to fix the Hubble Space
1993 Dec 2, Colombian drug lord
Pablo Escobar (b.1949), number 1 man in drug trafficking, was shot
to death by police Col. Hugo Aguilar in Medellin. Escobar's wife and
children vanished from Colombia in 1995 and were arrested in
Argentina in 1999 for money laundering. In 2001 Mark Bowden authored
“Killing Pablo" a chronicle of the hunt for Escobar. In 2003 Aguilar
ran for governor of Santander province.
(SFC, 7/6/96, p.A10)(AP, 12/2/98)(SFC, 11/17/99,
p.A18)(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.M3)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C1)
1993 Dec 3, Britain's Princess
Diana, saying she was fed up with media's intrusions, announced she
would be limiting her public appearances.
1993 Dec 3, Georgia became a
member of Russia's Commonwealth of Independent States; Russia, in
return, backed Shevardnadze against Abkhaz rebels.
1993 Dec 4,
Astronauts aboard space shuttle Endeavour captured the near-sighted
Hubble Space Telescope for repairs.
1993 Dec 4, Authorities found
the body of 12-year-old kidnap victim Polly Klaas in a wooded area
of Cloverdale, Calif.
1993 Dec 4, Frank Zappa (52),
rock musician and composer, died in Los Angeles. In 2004 Barry Miles
authored “Frank Zappa: A Biography."
(AP, 12/4/98)(SFC, 12/25/04, p.E2)
1993 Dec 5, Astronauts began
the repair of Hubble telescope in space.
1993 Dec 5, A Palestinian
boarded a bus and opened fire with an assault rifle in the first
major attack in Israel since the signing of a peace pact with the
PLO; the gunman killed a reservist before being gunned down.
1993 Dec 6, A judge in New
Bedford, Mass., sentenced former priest James R. Porter, who'd
admitted molesting 28 children in the 1960s, to 18 to 20 years in
prison for sexual assault.
1993 Dec 6, Don Ameche (85),
actor (Cocoon), died in Scottsdale, Ariz., of prostate cancer.
1993 Dec 6, In South Africa
crimes committed up to this date became eligible for amnesty as set
up by special constitutional legislation that set up the Truth and
Reconciliation Commission. A 1996 extension was requested to move
the deadline to May 10, 1994.
(SFC, 10/19/96, A10)
1993 Dec 7, US Energy Secretary
Hazel O'Leary revealed that the government had conducted more than
200 nuclear weapons tests in secret.
1993 Dec 7, Surgeon General
Joycelyn Elders suggested that the government study the impact of
1993 Dec 7, A gunman opened
fire on a Long Island Rail Road commuter train, killing six people
and wounding 17.
1993 Dec 7, In the Ivory Coast
Felix Houphouet-Boigny (b.1905), Ivory Coast founder and ruler since
1960, died. Pres. Henri Konan Bedie took power.
1993 Dec 8, President Clinton
signed into U.S. law the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA), which went into effect at the start of 1994.
1993 Dec 8, A French-flag
container ship, the Sherbro, bound for Nigeria from Rotterdam, lost
containers of the chemical Apron-Plus (by Ciba-Geigy). This chemical
was packed in sachets and purchased by the Nigerian state of Osun
with funds from the World Bank development fund. The chemical was
intended to be used to fight the ‘downy-mildew’ fungus that was
seriously afflicting the maize crop. Four days later the packets
began to wash up on the beaches of France in Normandy.
(WSJ 6/21/95, p.A-22)
1993 Dec 8, Carlotta Monti
(86), lover of WC Fields, died.
1993 Dec 9, The US Air Force
destroyed the first of 500 Minuteman II missile silos marked for
elimination under an arms control treaty.
1993 Dec 9, Astronauts aboard
the space shuttle Endeavour completed repairs to the Hubble Space
1993 Dec 10, The crew of the
space shuttle Endeavour deployed the repaired Hubble Space Telescope
into Earth orbit.
1993 Dec 10, Mansour Rashid
El-Kikhia, former Libyan ambassador to the UN, was kidnapped in
Cairo. The US CIA later reported that he was taken to Libya and
executed in early 1994.
(SSFC, 5/21/06, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/lnqr5)
1993 Dec 10, South African
President F.W. de Klerk and African National Congress leader Nelson
Mandela accepted their Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway.
1993 Dec 11, President Clinton,
in his weekly radio address, said the nation must fight "violence
with values" and praised radio stations that refused to play songs
advocating violent crime or showing contempt for women.
1993 Dec 11, Eduardo Frei
(b.1942) was elected president of Chile.
1993 Dec 12, Russia adopted a
new democratic constitution and began the war with Chechnya.
(SFC, 12/27/96, p.B2)
1993 Dec 13, The U.S. Supreme
Court ruled, 5-4, that people were entitled to a hearing before real
property linked to illegal drug sales could be seized.
1993 Dec 13, The space shuttle
Endeavour returned from its mission to repair the Hubble Space
1993 Dec 13, Myrna Loy (88),
actress (Thin Man, Vanity Fair), died. [see Dec 14]
1993 Dec 14, A Colorado judge
struck down the state's voter-approved Amendment Two prohibiting gay
rights laws, calling it unconstitutional.
1993 Dec 14, The United Mine
Workers approved a five-year contract, ending a strike that had
reached seven US states and involved some of the nation's biggest
1993 Dec 14, The United States
and European Community set aside a bitter fight over films,
unlocking the door to the world's biggest-ever trade reform package.
1993 Dec 14, Actress Myrna Loy
(88) died in NYC.
1993 Dec 14, In Algeria a large
group of armed terrorists attacked a work camp of a hydro-electric
project in Tamezguida. Fourteen Croatian citizens were taken out of
the camp. Twelve were murdered by having their throats slit, but two
others escaped with injuries.
1993 Dec 15, US Defense
Secretary Les Aspin announced his resignation, citing "personal
1993 Dec 15, Britain and
Ireland issued a "framework for peace."
(SFC, 6/18/96, p.A8)
1993 Dec 15, In Geneva, 117
countries completed the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade, agreeing on a reform package intended to
jump-start the global economy.
1993 Dec 16, President Clinton
announced the nomination of Bobby Ray Inman to succeed Les Aspin as
defense secretary. Inman, however, later withdrew.
1993 Dec 16, Sen. Bob Packwood
(R-Ore.), accused by more than two dozen women of sexual harassment,
turned over his tape-recorded personal diaries to a federal judge.
1993 Dec 17, Fox Television
outbid CBS for the National Football Conference TV package.
1993 Dec 17, So-called "suicide
doctor" Jack Kevorkian was released from jail in Oakland County,
Mich., after promising not to help anyone end their lives for the
1993 Dec 18, The United States
and Germany pledged close cooperation to help Boris Yeltsin through
Russia's political and economic crises in a meeting in Oggersheim
between Vice President Al Gore and Chancellor Helmut Kohl.
1993 Dec 19, Israeli Foreign
Minister Shimon Peres and senior PLO officials ended two days of
closed-door talks in Oslo, Norway, in which they sought to break a
deadlock over Palestinian self-rule in the occupied territories.
1993 Dec 20, Real estate
developer Donald Trump married Marla Maples in a brief ceremony in
the grand ballroom of Trump's Plaza Hotel in New York. The couple
separated in 1997.
1993 Dec 20, Alina Fernandez
Revuelta, a daughter of Cuban President Fidel Castro, flew to Spain,
where she was granted political asylum by the U.S. Embassy.
1993 Dec 21, First lady Hillary
Rodham Clinton, in an interview with The Associated Press, said her
husband, President Clinton, had solicited her advice on major
issues; but, she added, her powers were limited.
1993 Dec 22, Singer Michael
Jackson, fighting back against child molestation allegations, issued
a video statement in which he said he was "totally innocent of any
1993 Dec 23, President Clinton,
under intense political pressure, instructed his attorney to give
the Justice Department all records of his investment in an Arkansas
real estate partnership linked to a failed savings and loan company.
1993 Dec 24, In Nebraska
Brandon Teena (21), a female (born as Teena Brandon) passing as a
male, was raped and beaten by John Lotter and Tom Nissen. A week
later they shot and killed Teena for pressing charges. In 1996 the
book "All She Wanted" was based on Brandon. The 1997 novel ""The
Illusionist" was also based on Brandon. A 1999 documentary film,
"The Brandon Teena Story," was made by Susan Muska and Greta
Olafsdottir. Kimberly Pierce made her 1999 film "Boys Don't Cry"
based on Brandon Teena. In 2001 the state supreme Court ruled that
the sheriff was negligent in protecting Brandon and awarded her
family $80,000 plus damages for emotional suffering.
(SFC, 2/19/99, p.D3)(SFC, 10/20/99, p.D1)(SFC,
1993 Dec 24, The Rev. Norman
Vincent Peale, who had blended Christian and psychiatric principles
into a message of "positive thinking," died in Pawling, N.Y., at age
1993 Dec 25, The Cirque du
Soleil production opened its doors at Steve Wynn’s Treasure Island
Casino/Hotel in Las Vegas.
(Hem., 2/96, p.96)
1993 Dec 25, Fernando Mateo’s
son suggested over dinner that people ought to trade their guns for
toys. This led him to start the Goods for Guns program in New York
that soon spread internationally.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, A9)
1993 Dec 25, Full-fledged
Christmas celebrations returned to Bethlehem for the first time
since the Palestinian uprising began six years earlier.
1993 Dec 25, In London, an
unidentified 59-year-old woman who'd been implanted with donated
eggs gave birth to twins in a case that sparked controversy.
1993 Dec 26, In Russia a 4-day
drama ended as four masked kidnappers, who had abducted 11
teen-agers, landed their explosives-packed helicopter, freed their
last hostages and fled with $10 million in ransom. The four men were
captured the next morning.
1993 Dec 27, U.S. officials
said that Strobe Talbott, who had served as the Clinton
administration's chief Russia policy architect, would take over the
number-two spot at the State Department.
1993 Dec 27, In Egypt, a gun
and bomb attack on a tourist bus in old Cairo wounded 8 Austrians
and 8 Egyptians. The militant group Gama’a al-Islamiya claimed
(WSJ, 10/11/04, p.A17)
1993 Dec 28, US Energy
Secretary Hazel O'Leary told CNN that people wrongfully exposed to
radiation through federally funded experiments more than 40 years
ago deserved to be compensated.
1993 Dec 28, Journalist William
Shirer, author of "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich," died in
Boston at age 89.
1993 Dec 30, Hollywood agent
Irving "Swifty" Lazar died in Beverly Hills, Calif., at age 86.
1993 Dec 30, Israel and the
Vatican agreed to recognize one another. Pope John Paul II
normalized relations between the Vatican and Israel.
(SFC, 12/25/97, p.A14)(AP, 12/30/97)
1993 Dec 31, Entertainer Barbra
Streisand performed her first paid concert in 22 years, singing to a
sellout crowd at the MGM Grand Garden in Las Vegas.
1993 Dec 31, Scott Douglas (38)
beat his wife, Anne Scripps Douglas (b.1946), with a claw hammer in
their Bronxville home. She went into a coma and died Jan 6, 1994.
Anne Scripps Douglas was the great-great-granddaughter of Detroit
News founder James Scripps. Douglas disappeared, though his car was
found on the off the Tappan Zee Bridge. His body was found washed up
in the Bronx on March 30, 1994. In 2009 Anne Morell Petrillo (38),
the daughter of Anne Scripps Douglas from a previous marriage,
committed suicide off the Tappan Zee Bridge.
1993 Dec 31, Former IBM
chairman Thomas J. Watson died in Greenwich, Conn., at age 79.
1993 Dec 31, Samuel Morris
Steward (b.1909), also known by the pen name Phil Andros, died. He
was a novelist and tattoo artist later based in Oakland, California.
His “Stud File" ran to more than 4,600 encounters with over 800 men.
In 2010 Justin Spring authored “Secret Historian: The Life and Times
of Samuel Steward, Professor, Tattoo Artist, and Sexual Renegade."
8/22/10, p.F1)(Econ, 8/14/10, p.70)
1993 Dec 31, Former Georgian
President Zviad Gamsakhurdia (b.1939) died on New Year’s Eve. He had
returned to lead an uprising in western Georgia, but the fighting
was quickly put down and Gamsakhurdia was surrounded. His body was
then taken to Chechnya. In 2007 His body was returned for burial in
1993 Dec, Engineers and
scientists worked frantically to complete the first phase of the
DUMAND project. The Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector was
being set up 22 miles off the coast of Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. It was
built as a kind of telescope that would provide information on the
Earth's interior, on life in the deep sea, on black holes in space,
as well as info on subatomic particles. It resembles a massive
inverted jellyfish pinned to the seafloor. It is hoped that some
high energy neutrinos will interact with matter and be transformed
into a muon that will produce a blue-green light known as a
Cherenkov Radiation that can be detected.
(PacDis, Spring/'94, p.40)
1993 Dec, The Tokamak Fusion
Test Reactor at Princeton Univ. produced 6 million watts for about
one second during a fusion experiment.
1993 Dec, A U-2 pilot was
killed on takeoff from Beale Air Force Base southeast of Oroville,
Calif., on a routine training mission.
(SFC, 8/8/96, p.A11)
1993 Dec, Vienna Mayor Helmut
Zilk (1927-2008), lost part of his hand to a letter bomb.
Authorities later tried and convicted right-wing extremist Franz
Fuchs of sending pipe and letter bombs targeting refugees and
minorities, and officials like Zilk who supported them. Fuchs,
dubbed "the Austrian Unabomber," after the American mail-bomber
Theodore Kaczynksi, hanged himself in his prison cell in 2000 while
serving a life sentence for the string of attacks.
1993 Dec, Wars were in Serbia,
Algeria, S. Africa, Morocco, Haiti, Israel, and elsewhere.
1993 Dec, In Hungary Ameritech
Corp. and Deutsche Telekom AG teamed up to by a 30% stake in Matav
Rt., the state telephone system. By 1995 their stake was 67%. The
government permitted Matav to maintain a monopoly status for 8
(WSJ, 6/25/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/27/97, p.A8)
1993 Dec, From Mexico Mario
Ruiz Massieu, deputy attorney general from 1993-1994, opened an
account at the Texas Commerce Bank and began to deposit cash that
eventually totaled some $9 million.
(SFEC, 3/16/97, p.A14)
1993 Masami Teraoka (b.1936),
Japanese-American artist, made his etching "Longing Samurai."
(SFEM, 10/19/97, DB
artist-photographer Jeff Wall made his large (8x12) photo: "A Sudden
Gust of Wind (After Hokusai)."
(SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)
1993 Charles Adams authored
"For Good and Evil: The Impact of Taxes on the Course of
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R47)
1993 A.R. Ammons (d.2001 at
75), poet and Cornell professor, authored his National Book Award
winning work: "Garbage."
(SFC, 2/27/01, p.D2)
1993 The book "Never Again for
Bolivia" by Jesuit author Federico Aguilo documented the human
rights violations of the military regimes from 1965-1981.
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A11)
1993 Karen Armstrong authored
"A History of God," which described the "vicissitudes of God's
career of the last 4,000 years." In 2000 she authored the follow up
work "The Battle for God," which focused on the last 500 years. In
1981 Armstrong authored volume 1 of her autobiography “Through the
Narrow Gate." Vol 2: The Spiral Staircase: My Climb Out of
Darkness," came out in 2004.
(WSJ, 3/8/00, p.A20)(Econ, 3/20/04, p.92)
1993 Karen Axelrod co-authored
"Watch It Made in the USA," a guidebook to corporate museums.
(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A1)
1993 Herbert L. Block (d.2001
at 91), cartoonist, authored "Herblock: A Cartoonist’s Life."
(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A20)
1993 Jose Antonio Burciaga
(1940-1996), poet and artist, wrote "Drink Cultura," described as an
engaging look at Chicanismo. His mural The "Last Supper," installed
in Stanford’s Stern Hall, depicts Che Guevara as a Christ figure. He
was involved in the comedy group Culture Clash and also wrote
"Weedee Peepo," a collection of journalistic pieces about El Paso.
(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A21)
1993 Ron Chernow wrote "The
Warburgs," a biography of the bankers.
(WSJ, 8/8/97, p.A11)
1993 Adel Darwish (b.1945),
Egypt-born British writer, authored “Water Wars: Coming conflicts in
the Middle East."
1993 Gregory Elliott authored
“Labourism and the English Genius: The Strange Death of Labour
1993 William Gibson authored
his essay “Disneyland with the Death Penalty" in which he depicted
the Lion City as a soulless, consumerist and authoritarian
(Econ, 3/12/15, p.77)
1993 Michael Hammer wrote
"Reengineering the Corporation: A manifesto for Business
Revolution." He later admitted that his work did not fully consider
the human dimension in the reorganization process.
(WSJ, 11/26/96, p.A1,16)
1993 James Hanken and Brian K.
Hall wrote "The Skull," a 3-volume scientific reference work.
(NH, 10/96, p.6)
1993 Paul Hawken wrote "The
Ecology of Commerce." He emphasized controlling the creation of
harmful wastes instead of their disposal.
(WSJ, 7/11/97, p.B1)
1993 John Heidenry wrote
"Theirs Was the Kingdom," a history of Reader’s Digest Magazine.
(SFC, 12/25/96, p.A22)
1993 Elmer W. Johnson
(1932-2008), former GM executive, authored “Avoiding the Collision
of Cities and Cars."
(WSJ, 3/15/08, p.A6)
1993 Stuart A. Kauffman
published "The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in
1993 John Keegan published "A
History of Warfare."
(WSJ, 6/17/99, p.A24)
1993 Steven Landsburg authored
“Armchair Economist: Economics and Everyday Life."
1993 Benjamin Libet
(1916-2007), UCSF neurophysiologist and pioneer in studies of free
will, edited “Neurophysiology of Consciousness."
(SFC, 8/18/07, p.B5)
1993 Leslie Lipson (d.2000 at
88), UC Berkeley prof. of political science, authored "The Ethical
Crises of Civilization: Moral Meltdown or Advance?" He examined the
humanist values of Islamic, Chinese, Indian and Western cultures.
(SFC, 8/15/00, p.A23)
1993 Alan Lomax, folklorist,
published his memoir "The Land Where the Blues Began."
(BS, 5/3/98, p.7E)
1993 Kanan Makiya, an
Iraqi-American academic, authored “Cruelty and Silence: War,
Tyranny, Uprising and the Arab World." It was awarded The Lionel
Gelber Prize for the best book on international relations published
in English in 1993.
1993 David Meltzer (1937-2016),
poet and musician, authored “Reading Jazz".
(SFC, 1/3/17, p.A4)
1993 James Michener wrote
"Creatures of the Kingdom."
(SFC, 10/17/97, p.A17)
1993 Jill Nelson wrote
"Volunteer Slavery," an account of her tenure as the first black
female staff writer at the Washington Post Sunday Magazine.
(SFEC, 8/24/97, BR p.4)
1993 Dr. Sherwin Nuland
authored “How We Die."
(Econ, 9/5/09, p.41)
1993 Beijing Publishing House
published "The Abandoned Capital" by Jia Pingwa. It was advertised
as the raciest novel since the Ming Dynasty. The author self-edited
the most salacious parts leaving blank spaces. The novel was banned
after several months. The novel continued selling over the black
(SFC, 4/17/98, p.A12)
1993 Thomas Powers authored
"Heisenberg’s War," which argued that Heisenberg destroyed the
German atomic project from within. Niels Bohr later countered the
argument with personal documentation.
(SFC, 2/7/02, p.A2)
1993 Sister Helen Prejean wrote
"Dead Man Walking." It described her pen pal relationship with a man
on death row. In 1995 it was made into a movie. In 2000 it premiered
in SF as an opera.
(SFEC, 12/1/96, zone 1 p.3)(WSJ, 10/12/00, p.A24)
1993 Feminist poet Adrienne
Rich published "What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and
(SFC, 7/10/97, p.A10)
1993 David Rusk wrote "Cities
Without Suburbs," in which he promoted the idea of regional
(WSJ, 4/7/99, p.A20)
1993 Prof. Peter Dale Scott
wrote "Deep Politics and the Death of JFK."
(SFC, 11/18/96, p.B7)
1993 Sarah Delany (d.1999 at
109) and her sister wrote "Having Our Say: The Delany Sisters' First
100 Years" with journalist Amy Hill Hearth. The book was turned into
a Broadway play in 1995.
(SFC, 1/27/99, p.A15)
1993 Barry Hannah wrote his
novel "Out of Hell."
(WSJ, 10/25/96, p.A15)
1993 T.D. Jakes, a West
Virginia preacher who ran a Pentecostal church in Dallas, published
"The Lady, Her Lover and Her Lord." It was a self-help guide
peppered with scripture. In 1998 the title was followed up with a
gospel-pop album of the same name as "sacred music for married
(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A1)
1993 Robert Kaplan published
"Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History."
(WSJ, 8/3/99, p.A20)
1993 The best-selling
nonfiction hardback book was "See, I Told You So," by Rush Limbaugh.
(WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R10)
1993 Mario Vargas Llosa
published his book "Death in the Andes in Peru." The English version
was published in 1996. It is a fictionalized account of some of the
worst atrocities committed by and in reaction to Peru’s Sendero
Luminoso (Shining path) guerrillas.
(WSJ, 2/16/96, p.A-8)
1993 Abdel Wahab al Miseri,
author of an encyclopedia on Zionism, authored "Secret Societies of
the World: the Protocols, Masonism, and Bahaism," in which he
debunked "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion."
(SFC, 10/31/02, p.A10)
1993 Rory Nugent wrote "Drums
Along the Congo: On the Trail of Mokele-Mbembe, the Last Living
Dinosaur." It was an account of his trip to the Republic of Congo.
(WSJ, 6/23/97, p.A12)
1993 In Peru Magno Sosa wrote
"The Sin of Being a Journalist" after spending 6 months wrongly
imprisoned on terrorism charges after reporting on human rights
(SFEC, 3/3/97, p.A14)
1993 Vikram Seth authored "A
(WSJ, 10/28/98, p.A20)
1993 Robert James Waller
published "The Bridges of Madison County," the best-selling
hardcover fiction work of the year.
(WSJ, 5/24/99, p.R10)
1993 Edmund White published
"Jean Genet: A Life."
(SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.3)
1993 The Int’l. Parliament of
Writers was formed following Iranian death threats to Salmon
(SFC, 10/12/00, p.A10)
1993 The musical "Kiss of the
Spider Woman" was written by Terrence McNally with songs by Kander
and Ebb. It won 7 Toni awards. It was based on a book by Manuel
(SFEC, 10/26/97, DB p.11)(SFC, 11/3/97, p.E1)
1993 Ushio Amagatsu
choreographed the dance work "Yuragi," commissioned by the Theatre
de la Ville de Paris, and premiered the work in Paris.
(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B2)
1993 Bibi Besch (1940-1996) was
nominated for an Emmy for her work in the TV series "Northern
(SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)
1993 The kids show Mighty
Morphin Power Rangers premiered with a girl superhero, the Pink
(NW, 11/11/02, p.57)
1993 Captain Kangaroo (b.1955)
ended with almost 40 years on TV. The show featured Bob Keeshan as
(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.B1)
1993 The X-Files began on TV.
The lead FBI characters, Mulder and Scully (David Duchovny and
Gillian Anderson), smacked their first kiss in late 1999.
(SFC, 11/27/99, p.D10)
1993 Antonio de Almeida
(1928-1997) became the conductor and musical director of the Moscow
(SFC, 2/22/96, p.A21)
1993 Ron Carter, jazz bass
player, recorded his album "Friends" that included works by
Rachmaninoff and Chopin.
(WSJ, 2/26/97, p.A16)
1993 Bob Dylan released his
"World Gone Wrong" album.
(WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)
1993 Francisco Ulloa, Dominican
merengue accordionist, recorded his album “UltraMerengue."
(BAAC, 1/97, p.7)
1993 The Spanish flamenco duo
Los del Rio, Antonio Romero and Rafael Ruiz, wrote the song
"Macarena" that became a world-wide dance hit. The English version
by the Bayside Boys was #1 in the US in 1996. the lyrics tell of a
fickle girl whose boyfriend goes into the army. While he’s gone she
plays around with his friends.
(SFC, 8/27/96, p.B1)(SFC, 8/30/96, p.A10)
1993 Dolly Parton, Loretta Lynn
and Tammy Wynette produced their album "Honky Tonk Angels."
(SFEC, 12/22/96, DB p.69)
1993 Don Henley used funds from
the album: "Common Thread: The Songs of the Eagles" for the Walden
Woods Project, which bought up acreage around Walden Pond for
protection from development.
SFC, 12/26/96, p.C6)
1993 Lou Harrison composed
"Grand Duo." Mark Morris adopted the music to a dance performance.
(WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A16)
1993 The ska music style was
featured in the 4-disk set "Tougher Than Tough: The Story of
Jamaican Music" on the Mango label.
(SFC, 11/11/97, p.A17)
1993 Composer John Williams
retired from the Boston Pops. He composed the music for the Star
(WSJ, 5/13/99, p.A28)
1993 In Las Vegas the Luxor,
Treasure Island, and MGM Grand casino-hotels were completed.
(WSJ, 1/21/97, p.A18)
1993 Pope John Paul II put
forth his encyclical "Veritatis Splendor," on the nature of moral
truth in a relativistic world.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)
1993 The Evangelical Lutheran
Church drafted a statement on sexuality that condoned masturbation.
(WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A7)
1993 The Rev. Mac Charles Jones
(d.1997 at 47), pastor of St. Stephens Baptist Church in Kansas
City, organized a summit on urban violence known as "The Gang
(SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)
1993 The Progress and Freedom
Foundation was founded. It was a think tank with close ties to Newt
Gingrich. It produced a white paper titled the Telecom Revolution
that outlined the state-of-the-art conservative thinking on
(Wired, Dec. '95, p.228)
1993 Chefs Collaborative 2000
was founded at a meeting of the Oldways Preservation & Exchange
(WSJ, 12/2/99, p.A20)
1993 In Oakland, Ca., Black
Panther member David Hilliard founded the Newton Foundation to carry
on the social programs of the Black Panthers.
(SFC, 10/24/97, p.A21)
1993 Ted Hayes founded Dome
Village in Los Angeles as a cooperative for 30 homeless people. In
2006 the project was dismantled and the domes were auctioned off
(SFC, 9/1/06, p.B12)
1993 The American Academy of
Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M) was founded in Chicago.
(SFEC, 4/20/97, Par p.20)
1993 In Clermont, Georgia, Mat
Garretson sponsored an int’l. Viognier wine tasting through his
marketing group, the Viognier Guild, a first for the variety. He is
persuaded to move to California and sponsor the next event there.
(SSFC, 7/22/12, p.G7)
1993 The US National Postal
Museum opened as part of the Smithsonian Institute near Union
Station in Washington DC.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1993 The first Bicycle
Messenger Championship was held in Berlin, Germany.
(SFC, 9/1/96, p.D1)
1993 The Baltimore Orioles were
sold for $173 million.
(SFC, 1/7/97, p.E1)
1993 Garry Kasparov, considered
the world’s best chess player, founded the breakaway Professional
(SFC, 1/10/98, p.A4)
1993 Professional football in
the US first allowed unrestricted free-agency.
(WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A1)
1993 The Kentucky Derby was won
by Sea Hero.
(WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A16)
1993 The American Akebono was
promoted to yokozuna, the 1st rank of sumo wrestling.
(SFEC, 11/23/97, p.A25)
1993 The Ultimate Fighting
Championship (UFC) came to the US. It was called the "bloodiest,
most barbaric show in history."
(SSFC, 3/18/01, p.A12)
1993 Novelist E. Annie Proulx
won the National Book Award for "The Shipping News."
(USAT, 11/19/97, p.22A)
1993 Dutch novelist Cees
Nooteboom won the European Literary Prize for best novel for his
work: "The Following Story."
(SFC, 4/25/97, p.A3)
1993 The Booker Prize for
Fiction was won by Roddy Doyle for: "Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha."
(WSJ, 10/15/97, p.A21)
1993 The Nobel Prize in
Chemistry was awarded to Kary B. Mullis for developing the
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identifying fragments of DNA.
(SFC, 7/18/00, p.A8)
1993 The Nobel Prize in
Economics was awarded to Robert W. Fogel for "having renewed
research in economic history by applying economic theory and
quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional
change." Douglas C. North (1920-2015) of Stanford’s Hoover Inst.
also shared in the prize.
(WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(SFC,
10/8/01, p.A17)(SFC, 11/26/15, p.D6)
1993 The Nobel Prize in
medicine was awarded to Richard J. Roberts of Britain and Philip A.
Sharp of the US for discovery of split genes that changed how
scientists look at evolution and advanced research on hereditary
diseases, including some cancers.
(SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)
1993 Russell Hulse and Joseph
Taylor won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the
first binary pulsar and for subsequent studies leading to a
verification of the theory of general relativity for a system
outside our solar system. In 1974 they recorded an indirect sighting
of gravitational waves when they showed a pair of stars spiraling
towards each other was radiating energy in the form of gravitational
waves at exactly the same rate predicted by Einstein.
1993 Toni Morrison (b.1931,
American novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Her novels are
known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue, and richly detailed
black characters. Among her best known novels are “The Bluest Eye,"
“Song of Solomon," and “Beloved," which won the Pulitzer Prize for
Fiction in 1988.
1993 The US imposed limited
sanctions on China following the sale of some M-11 missile
components to Pakistan.
(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A4)
1993 Pres. Clinton
signed the Family and Medical Leave Act. It granted workers 24 hours
a year of unpaid leave to handle family matters. In 2003 the US
Supreme Court allowed state employees to sue for denial of unpaid
(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A1)(SFC, 5/28/03, p.B1)
1993 Linda Tripp, a Pentagon
aide, later reported to Newsweek Magazine that Kathleen Willey told
her of a sexual encounter she had in the Oval Office with Pres.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.A3)
1993 John B. Taylor (b.1946)
authored a paper in the Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on
Public Policy. Here he proposed that a simple and effective central
bank policy would manipulate short-term interest rates, raising
rates to cool the economy whenever inflation or output growth
becomes excessive, and lowering rates when either one falls too low.
Taylor's interest rate equation has come to be known as the Taylor
rule, and it is now widely accepted as an effective formula for
monetary decision making.
1993 James Riady, Indonesian
billionaire, began to be a guest at the Clinton White House. His
family ran the Lippo Group, a financial conglomerate out of Jakarta.
By 1996 he had made 15-20 visits.
(SFC, 11/5/96, p.A1)
1993 Agricultural Secretary
Mike Espy accepted gratuities from Richard Douglas, a VP of
Sun-Diamond Growers in California. Espy was indicted in 1997 for
soliciting gifts from companies he was supposed to be regulating.
Douglas was convicted in 1997 for offering gratuities.
(SFC, 6/14/96, p. A8)(SFC, 6/16/96, p.B2)(SFC,
1993 The Naval Base at Alameda,
Ca., was ordered shut down as part of the federal government base
(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.D4)
1993 The US Congress abolished
mandatory retirement in academia.
(WSJ, 11/24/97, p.A1)
1993 A US law capped deductions
for executive pay and firms reacted by giving out more stock
(WSJ, 12/27/06, p.A6)
1993 The Solomon amendment
empowered the US government to cut off federal money to any school
that blocks military recruiters from having the same kind of access
to campuses and to students that is provided to any other employer.
(SFC, 12/7/05, p.A3)
1993 The National Ignition
Facility (NIF) was begun in Livermore, Ca. It was designed to be the
40 times as powerful as any laser ever built.
(WSJ, 12/20/99, p.A1)
1993 The US FDA approved
Risperdal, made by Johnson & Johnson, to treat schizophrenia and
bipolar disorder in adults. In 2006 approval was expanded to help
treat autism in children.
(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.A14)
1993 The khat plant was made
illegal as a Schedule I narcotic in the US.
(NW, 9/30/02, p.35)
1993 Alabama Governor Guy Hunt,
halfway through his 2nd term, was convicted and forced to resign. He
was sentenced to 5 years probation, 1,000 hours of community
service, and a $212,000 fine. In 1997 a parole board, partly
appointed by Hunt, voted to pardon him.
(SFC, 6/12/97, p.A2)
1993 Alabama Governor James E.
Folsom Jr. (b.1948) led an offer to Mercedes-Benz of $253 million in
incentives to build its 1st auto plant in Vance.
1993 Charles Keating, Arizona
land developer, was found guilty by a federal jury on 73 counts of
racketeering, fraud, and conspiracy and sentenced to 12 years. His
son was also convicted on 64 counts that alleged many of the same
crimes. Federal charges were overturned in 1996.
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)
1993 An international
competition rated Phoenix, Az., and Christchurch, New Zealand, as
the world’s best governed cities.
(Econ, 7/28/07, p.32)
1993 Rev. Eugene Lumpkin, a
member of the SF Human Rights Commission, spoke against the
homosexual lifestyle and quoted scripture that it was abomination
against God. He later stated in a TV interview he agreed with a
biblical statement that "a man who sleeps with a man should be put
to death." Mayor Jordan quickly fire Rev. Lumpkin from the HRC.
Lumpkin filed suit on the basis of freedom of speech and religion
but his case was lost.
(SFC, 12/2/97, p.A16)
1993 In SF a free medical
clinic for teenagers was established at Mission High School. In 1998
Superintendent Bill Rojas blocked approval of a $50,000 grant for
the clinic to continue.
(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A19)
1993 In SF the Ferry Plaza
Farmers Market opened.
(SSFC, 5/5/13, p.G1)
1993 In SF The Yerba Buena
Gardens opened across from the Moscone Center.
(SFC, 11/9/99, p.D1)
1993 The St. Francis of Assisi
church in North Beach, built in 1860, was one of 9 churches closed
by the Archdiocese of San Francisco. In 1997 it was reborn as a
national shrine to St. Francis, the only sanctioned shrine outside
his Italian hometown.
(SSFC, 11/20/05, p.B3)
1993 Channel 54 began operating
as the independent nonprofit SF Community Television Corp.
(SFC, 9/28/99, p.A17)
1993 In SF Rev. Max Christensen
(d.1998), rector of St. James Episcopal Church, published his book
"Turning Points." In 1997 he published "Heroes and Saints."
(SFC, 7/15/98, p.A20)
1993 In SF Ken Romines was
assigned to Edison Elementary School in Noe Valley, described as the
worst in the city. He spent 2 years trying to turn it around, after
which it was "reconstituted." He wrote the 1997 "A Principal’s
Story" to describe the events.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, BR p.8)
1993 SF voters approved Prop.
AA, a policy declaration saying that all city employees should ride
MUNI to work at least twice a week.
(SFC, 10/2/98, p.A22)
1993 SF raised cable car prices
to $2.00 each way.
(SFC, 3/2/05, p.B7)
1993 SF police officer Joanne
Welsh filed a suit against police-chief Anthony Ribera for sexual
harassment. In 12/95 Ribera was acquitted by a federal jury but the
jury found the city guilty for not returning her to her job. She was
awarded $288,606 in damages, attorneys fees and back pay.
(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A15)
1993 Police officer Bob Geary
successfully defended his right to use his dummy puppet "O’Smarty"
while on patrol. The defense cost him $11,465 and was denied as a
(SFEC, 2/22/98, p.D1)
1993 SF Gate of Chronicle Publ.
opened for business on the Internet.
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8)
1993 Management of the SF Zoo
shifted from the city to the Zoological Society.
(SFC, 7/30/04, p.E15)
1993 The Dolores St. Baptist
Church experienced a devastating fire.
(SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)
1993 John B. Fortunio (45) was
robbed and stabbed to death by Juan Arballu (28). Fortunio left his
estate by will to the city of SF and in 1998 it was valued at about
(SFC, 2/13/98, p.A23)
1993 Angel Lopez, prostitute,
was slain in SF.
(SFC, 3/13/04, p.B6)
1993 There were 117 deaths and
436 injuries due to handguns this year in SF. 132 killings were
reported for the year.
(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A19)(SFC,12/9/97, p.A18)
1993 The last section of I-105
was completed in Los Angeles. This completed the US highway system
begun in 1956.
(Econ, 2/16/08, p.32)
1993 Tom Bradley, mayor of Los
Angeles, retired. He was succeeded by Richard Riordan.
(SFC, 9/30/98, p.A13)
1993 In California Arturo
Rodriguez succeeded Cesar Chavez as president of the United Farm
(WSJ, 8/5/98, p.CA4)
1993 The federal government and
South Carolina state paid the Catawba Indians $50 million for lands
taken in 1840.
(SFC, 7/4/97, p.A10)
1993 Dennis Archer succeeded
Coleman Young as mayor of Detroit.
(WSJ, 5/28/98, p.A20)
1993 Rudolph Giuliani defeated
New York’s first black mayor, David Dinkins. He became the first
Republican mayor in 2 decades and the city’s 107th.
(SFC, 8/15/97, p.A3)(SFC, 1/2/98, p.A3)
1993 Carlos Enrique Cervantes
de Gortari was convicted with 4 others in federal court in Newark
for selling 90 kg of cocaine to an undercover agent. He is a cousin
of Mexico’s former president Carlos Salinas.
(WSJ, 4/15/97, p.A15)
1993 Nevada rancher Cliven
Bundy quit paying grazing fees on government land after the
government designated the Gold Butte area as protected habitat for
the endangered desert tortoise and cut his allotment of cows. The
BLM cancelled his grazing permit and ordered him to remove his cows.
Federal judges later upheld the action.
(SSFC, 4/20/14, p.A11)
1993 Rhode Island repealed its
nautical taxes and became something of a nautical tax haven.
(SFC, 7/24/10, p.A6)
1993 The American Stock
Exchange introduced the Standard & Poor’s Depository Receipts,
known as SPDRs and pronounced "spiders." They traded at one-tenth
the value of the S&P.
(SFC, 5/26/97, p.B1)
1993 The first exchange-traded
funds (ETFS) were introduced. They consisted of a basket of shares
designed to track a benchmark.
(Econ, 3/1/08, SR p.8)
1993 The Boston Globe was
purchased by the New York Times for $1.07 billion.
(WSJ, 8/9/99, p.B9)
1993 Mercedes-Benz announced
plans to build cars in the US.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1993 Alex Trotman became the
chairman and CEO for Ford.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1993 Ferdinand Piech took over
Volkswagen. He was the grandson of founder Ferdinand Porsche and the
son of the company’s wartime chief, Anton Piech.
(WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A17)
1993 Dr. Stephen Fodor founded
Affymetrix, a spin-off from Affymax Research Institute in Palo Alto,
Ca. the company specialized in developing commercial DNA arrays.
(Econ, 12/2/06, TQ p.25)
1993 ATT bought McCaw Cellular
Communications for $11.5 bil. The transaction was completed in 1994.
McCaw then founded Nextlink, a provider of phone services to
businesses. McCaw’s story was told in 2000 by O. Casey Cor in "Money
From Thin Air."
1993 Privately held Amstar
Corp., a holding company for Milwaukee Electric Tool, merged with
Essex Industries, a lock and door company, to form Esstar Corp.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1993 Apple Chairman John
Sculley introduced the Newton MessagePad, the first personal digital
assistant. The device was terminated in 1998.
(SFC, 2/28/98, p.D1)
1993 Applied Biosystems was
acquired by Perkin-Elmer, which held the rights to polymerase chain
reaction technology (PCR).
(SFEC, 7/23/00, p.C7)
1993 Barnes & Noble, the
bookstore people, went public with an IPO.
(WSJ, 9/3/96, p.A6)
1993 Jim Koch, founder of
Boston Beer co., the maker of Samuel Adams beer, set a new bar by
creating Triple Bock, a beverage with 17.5% alcohol by volume. In
the early 2000s, Dogfish Head responded with beverages of their own
that went to 22%. In 2009 Boston Beer released an updated version of
its biennial beer Utopias, to date the highest alcohol content beer
on the market. It was 27% alcohol by volume and $150 a bottle.
1993 Coca-Cola established a
memorandum of understanding with Beijing for expansion in China and
obligations to the domestic soft-drink industry. 10 new
joint-venture bottling plants were allowed.
(WSJ, 5/31/96, p.B3B)
1993 The Dart Corp. brothers
Kenneth and Robert renounced their US citizenship to avoid US income
taxes and set up shop in the Cayman Islands.
(WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A1)
1993 Enron Corp. started
building electric power plants on barges with a project in
(WSJ, 5/22/96, p.B-1)
1993 Ford’s European division
launched the Mondeo, a car that reflected Ford’s new approach to
(Econ, 3/8/08, p.73)
1993 Goldman Sachs & Co.
invented a new security called Monthly Income Preferred Shares
(MIPS) that resembled both a loan and an equity. It allowed
companies to mask the size of their debt while cutting their federal
(WSJ, 2/1/02, p.A1)
1993 Hearst New Media and
Technology was created to guide interests in new media. Hearst also
started Country Living Gardener magazine and acquired the San
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)
1993 Guillermo Gaede, an Intel
engineer, used his computer to tap into plans for the Pentium &
486 chip manufacturing process and video taped the information. He
sent the info his former employer Advanced Micro Devices who
notified federal authorities. He claimed to have been double-crossed
by the FBI and also to have passed info from AMD to Cuba, China,
North Korea and Iran. He was arrested in Phoenix on Sep 23, 1995.
(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A23)
1993 The Mondavi Wine Co. went
(SFC, 7/21/96, p.D4)
1993 Omega 7 Inc. was founded
by Alonzo Washington. It was focused on establishing Omega Man as a
black comic book superhero. It later branched in to the toy market.
(SFC, 2/2/98, p.B2)
1993 Quantum Chemical Corp. was
acquired by Britain’s Hanson PLC. It had begun in 1890 as the
Distilling & Cattle Feeding Co.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1993 Steven Burd, a member of
the KKR team that took Safeway private in a large leveraged buyout,
became the CEO of Safeway.
(WSJ, 3/25/04, p.A3)
1993 Rayovac introduced a
rechargeable alkaline battery system that extended the charge on
reusable alkaline manganese batteries. The charge held 3x longer the
(SFEC, 2/21/99, p.B5)
1993 Triarc Corp. (Arby’s, RC
Cola and propane interests) was acquired by Nelson Pelz from Victor
Posner. Pelz received shareholder approval in 1994 to work for a $1
salary for 6 years plus enormous stock options. In 1996 he collected
2 million in bonus money, not directly approved by stockholders.
(WSJ, 6/12/97, p.C1)
1993 Doctors at Duke, Mass.
Gen’l. Hosp. and Northwestern Univ. announced that they had isolated
the gene that causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, or Lou
(SFC, 6/9/96, Par, p.15)
1993 Depo-Provera, an
injectable drug for birth control, was released in the US.
(SFC, 7/21/99, p.A9)
1993 Sanofi-Aventis of France
introduced its Ambien sleeping pill to the US.
(SFC, 3/3/06, p.D1)
1993 The information highway
joined the lexicon.
(TMC, 1994, p.1993)
1993 Ward Cunningham (b.1949)
founded the 1st Wiki site, The Portland Repository." The site was
developed so that multiple users could revise and update
information. He joined Microsoft in 2003.
(WSJ, 7/29/04, p.B1)(www.en.wikipedia.org)
1993 Id Software’s "Doom"
featured a 3-D shooter and was launched on the Internet.
(SFC, 7/5/97, p.E3)
1993 The computer game "Mortal
Combat" sparked a controversy in Congress over video game violence.
(SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)
1993 The computer game "Myst"
swept the US with its eerie puzzle plot.
(SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)
1993 The fantasy card game
“Magic: The Gathering" was created.
(SFC, 9/1/04, p.B1)
1993 Mattel introduced its
“Earing Magic Ken" doll, which gave him a pierced left ear.
(ST, 7/29/04, p.C8)
1993 The graphics chip company
nVidea (Nvidia) was founded in Santa Clara, Ca.
(WSJ, 3/17/03, p.B1)(SFC, 12/2/06, p.C2)
1993 In California Richard M.
Diamond (1924-2007), nuclear chemist, and lab partner Frank Stephens
developed and built the original Gammasphere at Berkeley’s 88-inch
cyclotron. It analyzed gamma rays emitted from atoms bombarded in
high-energy nuclear accelerators.
(SFC, 10/20/07, p.B5)
1993 A US project to build a
23-km particle accelerator near Waxahachie, Texas, was cancelled
after nearly $2 billion had been spent.
(Econ, 4/29/06, p.84)
1993 The NASA $1 billion Mars
Observer probe failed just before entry into orbit around Mars.
(SFC, 11/7/96, p.B1)
1993 A NASA study said: “While
no single food can supply all the essential life-sustaining
nutrients, quinoa comes as close as any other in the plant or animal
(Econ, 5/21/16, p.65)
1993 The Pew Foundation
established the Pew Center for Civic Journalism with a 3-year grant
that was renewed.
(WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A6)
1993 Father Timothy Scully
founded the Alliance for Catholic Education at Notre Dame in an
effort to help staff the inner-city parochial schools.
(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W15)
1993 The Holocene calendar was
first proposed by Italian-American scientist Cesare Emiliani
(1922-1995). It is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000
years to the currently dominant AD (or CE) numbering scheme, placing
its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch
and the Neolithic Revolution.
1993 Lobbyists in Washington
were paid an average of $47,679 each, while the average American
worker earned $19,429.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, p.A18)
1993 Southeast Asia accounted
for 1.4% of the world’s agricultural land and 3.6% of global
pesticide imports by value. The highest use was in Thailand.
(WSJ, 10/3/96, p.B11B)
1993 The ozone hole over the
Antarctic was measured to be three times the size of the United
States. "If the release of CFC’S (chlorofluorocarbons) is ceased
instantly, it would take nearly 100 years for the ozone to recover.
(Prof. James Terri)"
(LSA., D. Gilbert, p. 29.)
1993 An E. coli outbreak made
hundreds ill and several children died. It was traced to hamburgers
at Jack in the Box restaurants. The bacteria was identified as E.
coli 0157:H7, a renegade strain of the normally harmless group.
(WSJ, 7/15/96, p.B1)(SFC, 11/1/96, p.A4)
1993 The hantavirus was
discovered in the American Southwest and killed at least 26 people.
(SFC, 2/3/00, p.A6)
1993 Paintings that dated back
2000 years, made on rock surfaces in the central mountain ranges of
the Baha Peninsula by unknown native Indians, were declared a World
Heritage Site by UNESCO. In 1997 Harry W. Crosby published "Cave
Paintings of Baha California."
(WSJ, 3/5/98, p.A20)
1993 The Univ. of Michigan
began publishing its American Consumer Satisfaction Index. George
Katona began the consumer surveys began in 1946.
(Econ, 5/5/07, p.79)(http://tinyurl.com/33oozk)
1993 The national marine
Fisheries Services announced that of 157 commercially valuable fish
species in the US, 36% were over fished and 44% were fished at the
(SFEC, 10/20/96, A12)
1993 The Fortean Times, a
British journal of strange and uncanny phenomena, began compiling
its weirdness index based on the number of stories printed in
various categories over the previous year.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, p.A23)
1993 Little Rock, Ark., hit a
record 76 murders for the year.
(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.F6)
1993 The Forest Service cut
logging by two-thirds to protect the spotted owl in northern
(SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)
1993 Timothy Synnott helped
create the Forest Stewardship Council, which aimed at cutting
logging abuse around the world.
(WSJ, 9/26/00, p.A1)
1993 Shark finning was banned
in the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico by the US Sec. of
Commerce due to serious overfishing.
(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A10)
1993 Princess Cruises began its
Planet Princess environmental conservation and training program.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T9)
1993 The US nuclear-powered
submarine Grayling collided in the Barents Sea with a Russian
Delta-3 class, nuclear-powered submarine. Both vessels were able to
return to base.
(SFC, 8/15/00, p.A15)
1993 In San Diego a gang
shootout over the distribution of methamphetamines left 26 people
(SFC, 2/10/97, p.A9)
1993 In the US Deputy White
House Counsel Vincent Foster committed suicide.
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)
1993 In Maryland Mildred Horn
and nurse Janice Saunders were shot and killed in Silver Spring.
Trevor (8), Horn's quadriplegic son, died after his breathing tube
was disconnected. Lawrence T. Horn, Trevor's father and Mildred's
ex-husband, was sentenced to life in prison for hiring James Edward
Perry of Detroit to commit the slayings. At Perry's trial
prosecutors argued that he followed tips outlined in the book "Hit
Man: A Technical Manual for the Independent Contractor." In 1999
Paladin Press agreed to settle a multimillion federal civil suit, to
make contributions to 2 charities chosen by the plaintiffs and to
turn over 700 remaining copies of the book.
(SFC, 5/22/99, p.A3)
1993 Kobo Abe, Japanese writer,
died. He wrote "Woman in the Dunes." In 1996 his last novel
"Kangaroo Notebook" was published.
(SFC, 6/23/96, BR, p.4)
1993 Maeve Brennan (b.1916),
Irish-born short story writer, died. She was a longtime contributor
to the New Yorker. In 2000 the posthumous collection "The Rose
Garden" was published.
(WSJ, 2/3/00, p.A24)
1993 James H. Doolittle, head
of the 1942 US air raid on Tokyo, died.
(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.A3)
1993 Daniel Fuchs (84), writer,
died. His books included a series of novels about Jewish life in
Brooklyn: "Summer in Williamsburg," "Homage to Blenholt," and "Low
1993 Joseph Paul Jernigan, a
convicted murderer, was executed in Huntsville, Texas. He donated
his body to medical research and it was quick frozen, sliced,
photographed and computer enhanced and used to make the 1997 CD Body
(SFEC, 3/30/97, BR. p.9)
1993 Dizzy Gillespie, jazz
trumpet player, died at age 75.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, DB p.34)
1993 Lillian Gish, Hollywood
actress, died. The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize was created from
interest on a trust fund following her death.
(SFC, 10/11/97, p.E3)
1993 Actor Brandon Lee was
accidentally killed during the filming of "The Crow."
(SFEM, 1/12/97, Par p.18)
1993 Reginald F. Lewis,
businessman, CEO of TLC Beatrice Holdings Inc., died of brain
cancer. His biography was co-written with Blair S. Walker.
(WSJ, 1/12/95, A-14)
1993 Alexander Mackendrick
(81), film director, died. His work included "The Ladykillers"
(1955) and "Sweet Smell of Success."
(WSJ, 3/25/02, p.A16)
1993 John H. Martin,
oceanographer at California’s Moss Landing Marine Laboratories,
died. He proposed that enriching the ocean with iron particles would
spur plankton production and cause absorption of atmospheric CO2. A
1996 experiment proved him right.
(SFC, 10/10/96, p.A2)
1993 Richard Salant, lawyer,
died. He ran CBS news for 16 years after being put in charge by CBS
Pres. Frank Stanton. His memoirs were compiled, edited and published
in 1998 by Susan and Bill Buzenburg: "Salant, CBS, and the Battle
for the Soul of Broadcast Journalism."
(SFEC, 11/29/98, BR p.8)
1993 The G-7 Summit was held in
(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)
1993 Algeria stopped applying
1993 The Armed Islamic Group
(GIA) first emerged and became most active around Algiers.
(SFC, 9/27/97, p.A10)
1993 In Algeria Karima Belhadj
was the first woman killed in a rebel attack.
(SFC, 3/9/99, p.B10)
1993 Andorra ended as a
co-principality and became legally independent. The parliament
chamber had 28 seats, 4 representatives for each of its 7 parishes.
(Hem., 3/97, p.74)(SSFC, 6/24/07, p.G3)
1993 In Angola arms and an oil
embargo was imposed on the UNITA rebels by the UN but it had little
(SFC, 10/30/97, p.A13)
1993 Argentina’s Pres. Menem
made a deal with congress known as the Olivos Pact. The
congressional opposition allowed him to run for re-election and
changed the constitution to make lawful decrees that he had issued
in exchange for a term reduction from 6 years to 4 along with a
reduction in influence over other branches of government.
(Econ, 8/12/06, p.29)
1993 In Argentina Gen’l.
Lanusse was place under house arrest for after he accused Pres.
Carlos Menem of being "frivolous" and a "womanizer."
(SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)
1993 In Argentina Father Julio
Grassi became widely known after starting the "Happy the Children"
Foundation, opening several homes for poor children and doing other
1993 In Argentina Santa Cruz
province, under Gov. Nestor Kirchner, acquired shares in YPF, a
privatized oil company, in lieu of unpaid royalties. The shares were
sold for a big profit in 1999 and the proceeds were held abroad.
Some of the money returned to the province but Mr. Kirchner has not
revealed what happened to the rest.
(Econ, 2/27/10, p.28)
1993 In Australia the Daintree
Eco Lodge and Spa opened in the rain forest of North Queensland.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C7)
1993 In Australia, a developer
bought a 260-acre site in Cardwell, Queensland, across from
Hichinbrook Island, the world’s largest island national park. His
$100 million plans to develop the site faced major opposition in
1998 even after 12 million was invested.
(SFC, 1/16/98, p.B4)
1993 The war in the Balkans
continued with the new term Ethnic Cleansing.
(TMC, 1994, p.1993)
1993 Islamic fundamentalists
imposed a sentence of death on Bangladesh writer Taslima Nasreen for
her 1992 novel "Shame." [see Nasrin 1998]
(WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A20)
1993 Belgium adopted a law that
empowered judges to hear war crimes and genocide cases regardless of
where the alleged crimes occurred or who committed them. In 2002 the
Int’l. Court of Justice cited diplomatic immunity and ruled that
Belgium cannot try former and current world leaders. In 2003 an
amendment to invalidate high profile cases was passed.
(SFC, 2/15/02, p.A8)(AP, 4/5/03)
1993 A Bolivian court convicted
Arce Gomez in absentia of a series of crimes including armed
insurrection and genocide. He was sentenced to 30 years without
parole. Gomez was in the US serving time following a conviction for
1993 A Bosnian Croat, Zlatko
Aleksovski, was one of six men charged in 1996 with killing Muslims
in the central Lasva Valley in this year.
(SFC, 6/10/96, C16)
1993 Fikret Abdic declared
Bihac an autonomous province. He and his followers fled to Croatia
in 1995. He was indicted in 1999 for inhumane treatment of civilians
and prisoners of war.
(SFC, 1/11/99, p.A10)
1993 A Bosnian Croat state,
Herzeg-Bosnia, was declared by Croat nationalists during fighting
between Muslims and Croats. In Croat controlled parts of Bosnia it
collects taxes, runs schools and allows use of Croatia’s currency.
(SFC, 6/15/96, p.A10)
1993 In Brazil Pres. Itamar
Franco named Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Finance Minister, the 4th
in 18 months. Cardoso enacted the Plano Real economic program and
slashed inflation from 2,700% to 2% in 1998. This success enabled
Cardoso to win elections for president in 1994.
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-13)(SFC, 2/26/99, p.E2)
1993 In Brazil Castor de
Andrade (d.1997 at 71), a Rio "godfather," was arrested with 13
other suspected gaming bosses and convicted of criminal association
and forming armed gangs. Police evidence revealed multi-million
payoffs to congressmen, police chiefs, judges, businessmen, police
officers and the former President Fernando Collor de Mello.
(SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)
1993 At Brazil’s Carandiru
Prison riot troopers killed 111 inmates in their efforts to quell a
rebellion. The Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC) was founded at
Taubate jail in Sao Paulo state to fight for prisoner’s rights and
avenge the massacre by police of more than 100 prisoners at
Carandiru. The PCC grew to become the country’s most powerful gang.
(SFC, 1/1/98, p.A14)(Economist, 9/22/12, p.45)
1993 The Church of England
decided to permit female priests.
(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-16)
1993 The British Council Tax, a
levy based loosely on house prices, was instituted.
(Econ, 1/24/04, p.51)
1993 Britain set up the Child
Support Agency (CSA) to calculate and collect maintenance payments
from one parent to another when families split up and support
payments are due. In late 2006 plans were made public for a new
body, the Child Maintenance and Enforcement Commission, to replace
(Econ, 12/3/05, p.53)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.58)
1993 James Dyson, British
former art student turned inventor, set up a plant in Wiltshire to
produce his vacuum cleaners. Production was later transferred to
(Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.8)
1993 The British brothers David
and Frederick Barclay paid $3.5 million for the Brecqhou, and
Channel Island considered as part of the fiefdom of Sark.
(WSJ, 10/11/05, p.A1)
1993 Asil Nadir (52), a Turkish
Cypriot, went to northern Cyprus after being charged with 66 counts
of theft involving 34 million pounds. He ran Polly Peck, one of
Britain's biggest companies with interests in sectors from textiles
to electronics, before its collapse. In 2010 Nadir's lawyers
indicated he would be willing to come back and face trial if he was
1993 Research by Robin Dunbar,
an Oxford anthropologist, gave rise to Dunbar’s number of 150 as a
natural limit to the human friendship circle.
(WSJ, 11/16/07, p.B1)
1993 Bulgaria banned dancing
bears, but performances continued through 2002. In 2000 Four Paws, a
Vienna animal rights group, opened a bear sanctuary at Belitsa.
(SFC, 7/8/02, p.A3)
1993 In Burundi Pierre Buyoya
paved the way for elections and handed the presidency to Melchior
Ndadaye, a Hutu.
(SFC, 9/25/96, p.A9)
1993 "The Music of Cambodia"
was recorded by David and Kay Parsons as a 3-CD box that included
Royal Court music and a nine-gong ensemble.
(NH, 9/97, p.75)
1993 Cambodia held free
elections under UN supervision. The communist Cambodian People’s
Party (CPP) under Hun Sen lost the elections and formed a coalition
government with the elected Funcinpec under Prince Ranariddh, son of
King Sihanouk. The Khmer Rouge boycotted the elections. The
communists maintained control over the defense and interior
ministries. Ranariddh and Hun Sen ran the country as co-premiers.
(WSJ, 5/3/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 6/19/97, p.A13)(WSJ,
1993 Cambodian law prohibited
the removal of cultural artifacts without government permission.
1993 The Int'l. Coordination
Committee was created to channel aid to Cambodia's Angkor Wat zone.
(SFC, 2/4/04, p.D10)
1993 In Cambodia an armed group
robbed the Angkor storage depot at Siem Reap and took 22 pieces
including several important stone sculptures.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.60)
1993 Somaly Mam (b.~1970-71)
escaped Cambodia following years of forced prostitution. She moved
to Paris and later returned to Cambodia to help women caught in
similar situations. In 2006 she was honored as one of Glamour
magazine's women of the year. In 2007 she published her
autobiography: "The Road of Lost Innocence." In 2008 she was the
co-winner of the $150,000 World's Children's Prize for the Rights of
the Child, awarded by the Swedish Children's World Association to
recognize those who defend the rights of children. In 2014 she
resigned from the New York-based foundation she helped found after
reports alleged that she had distorted aspects of her personal
1993 Canada’s former PM
Mulroney began accepting cash from Karlheinz Schreiber, a lobbyist
for Airbus and Thyssen. This was only made public in 2003. Public
hearings in the matter began in 2009. Schreiber said he handed over
C$300,000 ($256,000) in cash to Mulroney in separate hotel meetings
so that Mulroney could help promote establishment of a factory to
build light armored vehicles.
(Econ, 4/4/09, p.44)(Reuters, 5/12/09)
1993 In Canada Karla Homolka
pleaded guilty in the sex slayings of two southern Ontario teenagers
Leslie Mahaffy and Kristen French. She was sentenced to 12 years in
prison and was set for release in 2005. Her husband Paul Bernardo,
eventually convicted of raping 13 Ontario women or girls, committed
many of the assaults during the first three years of his
relationship with Homolka.
1993 In Canada diamond
prospectors found nickel deposits in Labrador’s Voisey Bay. Vale of
Brazil opened a mine there in 2005.
(Econ, 4/12/14, p.27)
1993 Former Central African
Republic ruler Jean-Bedel Bokassa was released from prison by
President Andre Kolingba, who had overthrown David Dacko. Bokassa
ended his days as a recluse in his villa in Bangui and died of a
heart attack in 1996.
1993 In Chile capital controls
were reduced to a minimum permanence period of 1 year for foreign
(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A17)
1993 Chile passed its first law
offering protection, formal recognition and development aid to
indigenous groups. 5 of its original native tribes were already
lost. In 2006 the Kawesqar were down to just 15 full-blooded
members. The Mapuche numbered some 600,000.
(SSFC, 10/8/06, p.A25)
1993 The 1st dam on the Mekong
River was completed at Man Wan, China.
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)
1993 China amended its
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A22)
1993 China set up a Preliminary
Working Committee (PWC) to shape the post-1997 Hong Kong
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)
1993 China curbed satellite
dish sales and ownership after Rupert Murdoch, who had just bought
Star TV, said that satellite broadcasting threatened totalitarian
regimes by enabling viewers to bypass state controlled media.
(WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-15)(SFC, 5/8/99, p.C1)(Econ,
1993 The Unirule Institute of
Economics, an independent Chinese think tank, was founded in
Beijing. In 2017 the government shut down two of its websites as
well as all of its social media accounts and those of its
(Econ, 2/18/17, p.37)
1993 China and the Tibet
Autonomous Region established the Chang Tang Reserve setting aside
at least 109,000 sq. mls. Added to the smaller, contiguous Arjin
Shan Region, the total preserved area is now almost as a large as
(NH, 5/96, p.52)
1993 Michael Yu and his wife
founded New Oriental’s 1st school to teach English to Chinese
students. In 2006 New Oriental raised $129.4 million in an initial
public offering on the NYSE.
(WSJ, 11/27/06, p.B3)
1993 Feng Jun founded Aigo, the
trade name of Beijing Huaqi Information Digital Technology Company,
to sell keyboards. In 2008 Mr. Feng carried the Olympic torch in
(Econ, 8/2/08, SR p.8)
1993 In China Chen Feng led a
coalition of private investors and the government of Hainan to
launch Hainan Airlines. In 2016 it recorded revenues of $90 billion.
(Econ, 4/15/17, p.56)
1993 China banned the use of
rhino horn and demand fell sharply.
(Econ 5/6/17, p.69)
1993 Colombia granted
collective title rights to black and indigenous groups.
(Econ, 11/8/14, p.40)
1993 Colombia privatized the
Port of Cartagena. By 2014 it was the 4th largest container hub in
(Econ, 5/17/14, p.33)
1993 Congo’s Pres. Mobutu
removed Etienne Tshisekedi, the first Zairean to graduate from law
school, from office as prime minister.
(SFC, 3/21/97, p.A19)
1993 In Congo riots killed
hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
(SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)
1993 In Zaire ethnic cleansing
occurred in the Kasai Province.
(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)
1993 In Zaire Mahele Lieko
Bokoungo put down army-led looting in Kinshasa when he gave orders
for loyal troops to fire on looters. Riots killed hundreds of people
and destroyed many businesses.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)(SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)
1993 Cuba allowed limited
freedom for small private businesses in 157 spheres of activity.
(Econ, 10/16/04, p.33)
1993 In Cuba the dollar stores
were opened in large part to fight a growing black market in which
goods were traded in dollars without passing through the state's
1993 In Cyprus Glafcos Clerides
(1919-2013) was elected president. He had lost presidential
elections in 1983 and 1988.
1993 The Danish chapter of the
Bandidos motorcycle gang started out as the 666 club, changed its
name to the Morticians, then the Undertakers, and then affiliated in
1993 with the Texas-based Bandidos.
(WSJ, 5/24/96, p.A-4)
1993 In El Salvador along with
the peace accord Pres. Alfredo Cristiani reprivatized the banks and
set himself and a tight circle of friends, secretly called "The
Apostles," in control of the biggest institutions.
(SFC, 8/9/97, p.A1,7)
1993 A broad amnesty was given
to all combatants of the 1980-1992 El Salvador civil war. The
Salvadoran war raged over 12 years and left around 75,000 people
(SFC, 7/24/02, p.A12)(AP, 5/30/11)
1993 In El Salvador a
high-interest pyramid scheme bilked some $35 million from thousands
of middle-class investors. The ARENA government of Pres. Cristiani
did not stop it or prosecute those responsible.
(SFC, 8/9/97, p.A7)
1993 Estonia adopted a land
(Econ., 4/4/15, p.23)
1993 Aleksander Einseln
returned to Estonia from the Bay Area and became commander of the
military. He planned to run for parliament in 1999.
(BN, 10/98, p.6)
1993 The Afar Revolutionary
Democratic Unity Front was launched in the land of the Afars, over
territory that straddled Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti. The Afars
numbered some 2 million and their territory had previously been
called the French Territory of Afars and Issas.
(Econ, 3/10/07, p.44)
1993 Amin Maalouf (b.1949),
Lebanese writer, won France’s Prix Goncourt for his novel “The Rock
(Econ, 7/5/08, p.91)
1993 French Pres. Mitterrand
moved the offices of the Ministry of Finance out of the Louvre’s
Richelieu Wing to free 245,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space.
(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)
1993 France forbade polygamy as
it tightened immigration laws to stop husbands from bringing extra
wives into the country.
(Econ, 5/8/10, p.55)
1993 France scrapped its
saint-strewn list of acceptable names.
(Econ, 1/14/12, p.59)
1993 Sanofi-Aventis of France
introduced its Ambien sleeping pill to the US.
(SFC, 3/3/06, p.D1)
1993 In Gabon Pres. Bongo
suppressed protests on his re-election victory that was described as
an "electoral coup d’etat."
(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)
1993 Will Tremper, German
journalist, screenwriter and film director, published his
autobiography “My Wild Years."
(SFC, 12/17/98, p.C11)
1993 The documentary film “The
Wonderful, Horrible Life of Leni Riefenstahl" was made by German
director Ray Muller.
(SFC, 1/19/99, p.B1)
1993 Swiss architect Peter
Zumthor won the “Topography of Terror" design competition for the
Wilhelmstrasse government district, former headquarters of the Nazi
police forces. By 2000 the $13 million project had escalated to $35
million and was put on hold.
(SFC, 5/8/00, p.A12)
1993 Peter Eigen (b.1938)
founded the Advisory Council Transparency International, a
Berlin-based global civil society organization leading the fight
1993 Germany passed a 30%
withholding tax on investment income. It caused billions of marks to
flow out of Germany and into Luxembourg.
(WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A10)
1993 Germany passed a law that
limited last names to two in an effort to prevent clunky name
1993 In Germany the
naturalization law of 1913 was modified to allow citizenship after
15 years of residency. A 1999 bill proposed to reduce the waiting
time to 8 years.
(SFC, 5/7/99, p.D2)
1993 In Germany the
Reinheitsgebot law of 1516 was relaxed to allow foreign brewers to
sell their beer in Germany.
(WSJ, 5/27/98, p.A1)
1993 In Germany Neo-Nazi Silvio
Kackowski was arrested for setting fire to a resort complex that was
to become housing for foreign asylum seekers. In 1997 it was learned
that villagers paid the arsonists and supplied them with materials
for the fires.
(SFC, 2/13/97, p.C3)
1993 The German Red Army
Faction (RAF) called an end to its armed struggle.
(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.A8)
1993 In Germany Edmund Stoiber
was elected premier of Bavaria. He announced his resignation in
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.62)
1993 Ferdinand Piech left Audi
and took over operations at Volkswagen, where he turned losses into
profits. He was the grandson of founder Ferdinand Porsche and the
son of the company’s wartime chief, Anton Piech. In 2002 he was
succeeded by Bernd Pischetsrieder. Piech (65) became chairman of
Volkswagen’s supervisory board.
(WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A17)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.70)
1993 Daimler-Benz acquired the
Dutch plane-maker NV Fokker.
(WSJ, 1/26/96, A-6)
1993 The World Bank pumped $4
billion into Ghana and called it an "African economic star."
(WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A18)
1993 In Greece the border with
Albania broke open and hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants,
mainly Albanian Muslims, poured into the country. A video tape was
recorded that depicted officers of a Greek anti-terrorist squad
assaulting an apparent Albanian immigrant.
(SFC, 11/13/97, p.A12)
1993 In Guatemala rightist
civil patrols killed peasants in Colotenango. 12 members of the
paramilitary unit were later arrested, tried and sentenced in 1999
to 25 years in prison. They were sprung from jail a day after being
(SFC, 4/30/99, p.B1)
1993 In Guinea Lansana Conte
formed a political party and won the country's first multiparty
1993 In Hungary voluntary
pension funds operated by private financial institutions became
(WSJ, 10/21/97, p.A18)
1993 Bjorgolfur Bjorgolfsson
(26) left Iceland and started a soft-drink company in St.
Petersburg, Russia. He later expanded into brewing, banking,
telecommunications and discount pharmaceuticals. By 2006 his stake
in the Iceland-based Actavis Group was valued at $1 billion, making
him Iceland’s first billionaire.
(SFC, 4/1/06, p.C3)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.80)
1993 The Tibet Transit School
near Dharamsala, India, was founded for arrivals from Tibet aged
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.57)
1993 India passed legislation
that banned “manual scavenging," the practice of cleaning feces from
houses that lacked flushing toilets. It also forbade the unplumbed
toilets that necessitated the practice.
(Econ, 7/12/08, p.54)
1993 In Iran new laws withdrew
food coupons and subsidized health insurance from families after the
birth of a 3rd child.
(SFC, 5/15/98, p.D2)
1993 Ireland this year
decriminalized homosexuality and suicide.
(Econ, 6/27/15, p.17)(Econ 6/10/17, p.55)
1993 In Israel Benjamin
Netanyahu won the leadership of the Likud party. He appointed his
aid, Avigdor Lieberman, to manage Likud.
(SFC, 11/25/97, p.A8)
1993 In Israel Yoram Skolnick
fired 9 bullets and killed a captured and bound Arab militant,
Moussa Abu Sabha (21), who had been caught stabbing a Jewish
settler. Skolnick was sentenced to life in prison but was released
(SFC, 2/19/01, p.A10)
1993 Erel Margalit (32) founded
Jerusalem Venture Partners (JVP), an Israeli venture capital firm.
(Econ, 7/8/06, p.60)
1993 A new Jewish Museum opened
(USAT, 9/24/04, p.3D)
1993 Tel Aviv began hosting an
annual gay pride parade.
(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A12)
1993 Italy abolished
parliamentary immunity, however members of parliament could only be
jailed with parliamentary authorization. In 2008 Silvio Berlusconi
restored immunity for himself and three other office holders.
(Econ, 10/24/09, p.63)(Econ, 12/3/16, p.16)
1993 Silvio Berlusconi created
his Forza Italia! party.
(Econ, 11/24/07, p.57)
1993 Antonio Basolino was
elected mayor of Naples. Before his election the post was appointed
by local party leaders. The city had been mired in corruption for
decades and the new mayor began to clean it up.
(SFC, 2/13/98, p.A1, 12)
1993 In Italy a federal law
granted people in illegal dwellings the right to use public
utilities but warned that illegal structures would be demolished.
Demolitions began in 1998.
(SFC, 7/22/00, p.A10)
1993 Antonio Fazio became
governor of the Bank of Italy.
(Econ, 8/6/05, p.58)
1993 Italy’s Fiat Auto SpA
(WSJ, 9/24/04, p.B1)
1993 Maurizio Gucci sold his
remaining stake in Gucci to Investcorp, a Bahraini firm.
(WSJ, 11/5/03, p.A1)
1993 In Jamaica the Blue
Mountains John Crow National park was established.
(SFC, 9/1/96, T5)
1993 Japan’s government lifted
a four-year moratorium on capital punishment.
1993 The government of Japan
approved 7 foreign access zones to promote imports and foreign
(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.B-13)
1993 Japan’s “Kono Statement"
was its first apology for incidents of sexual slavery during WWII.
Yohei Kono was Chief Cabinet Secretary at the time.
(Economist, 9/8/12, p.38)(AP, 6/1/13)
1993 In Japan Shuji Nakamura,
an employee of Nichia Corp., invented the blue light-emitting diode
(LED). In 2001 Nakamura sued Nichia in a patent dispute that later
settled for $7 million.
(Econ, 2/7/04, p.60)(Econ, 9/23/06, TQ p.27)
1993 Jordan lifted press
1993 The Serengeti plain in
northern Tanzania and south-western Kenya experienced a devastating
(Econ, 12/1/12, p.88)
1993 In Libya Moammar Ghadafi
uncovered a coup attempt and plot to assassinate him by 55 Warfala
army officers. For years afterward Bani Walid, 90 miles (140 km)
southeast of Tripoli, was in official disfavor.
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A17)(AP, 9/2/11)
1993 Vevcani, Macedonia,
nestled on the forested slopes of the Jablanica mountain about 190
km (120 miles) southwest of the capital Skopje, held its own
referendum on independence, in a move tinged with nationalism after
members of the country's ethnic Albanian minority living nearby did
the same. 96% percent voted in favor of independence, and the
'Republic of Vevcani' was born. Mirte Aluloski drafted the new
1993 In Madagascar Albert Zafy
defeated Didier Ratsiraka to become president. He was impeached
three years later amid accusations of corruption. Zafy ran again in
November 1996, losing this time to Ratsiraka.
1993 In Malawi Vera Chriwa was
released from prison and took up working in legal and human rights
(SFEC, 1/19/96, Par p.5)
1993 Mexico created its Federal
Competition Commission (CFC), an antitrust agency.
(WSJ, 4/21/02, p.A12)
1993 In Mexico Rogelio
Montemayor was elected governor of Coahuila state.
(WSJ, 6/16/99, p.A1)
1993 In Mexico Gen’l. Jose
Francisco Gallardo called for the creation of a human rights
ombudsman within the military. He was jailed in 1993 and
court-martialed in 1998 on charges of corruption, destroying files
and using army funds for personal use. he was sentenced to an
additional 14 years in prison for illegal enrichment after failing
to demonstrate the origin of 1.2 million pesos in his bank accounts.
Gallardo was freed by Pres. Fox in 2002.
(SFC, 3/31/98, p.B3)(SFC, 4/13/98, p.A14)(SFC,
1993 Mexico’s PRI held a secret
meeting with 30 major industrialists who committed a total of $750
million to finance the presidential campaign in 1994.
(WSJ, 4/19/96, p.A-11)
1993 In Mexico Joaquin Guzman
Loera (aka "El Chapo"), head of the Sinaloa cartel, was arrested. In
2001 he escaped from the maximum-security prison in Jalisco state.
(Econ, 9/18/10, p.105)
1993 In Mexico Raul Salinas and
Jose Madariaga cashed out of their $4.4 million investment in
Mexicana de Autobuses SA for $36 million.
(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)
1993 In Mexico El Barzon, which
means "The Yoke," began as a farm movement opposed to high interest
rates on loans. It was founded by Maximiano Barbosa.
1993 Mexico’s Carlos Peralta
closed a 1.04 billion deal for a 42% investment from Bell Atlantic
Corp. of the US.
(WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-11)(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)
1993 In Mexico’s Baja the San
Ignacio Lagoon and Laguna Ojo de Liebre were deemed a Natural World
Heritage Site. The area was a spawning site for gray whales.
(SFEM, 5/7/00, p.8)
1993 Morocco’s King Hassan II
set up a commission to review the legal status of women.
(WSJ, 8/10/04, p.B1)
1993 In Myanmar the Mong Tai
Army took up arms against the government.
(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)
1993 In Myanmar the pro-junta
Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) was formed.
(Econ, 4/12/08, p.28)
1993 In Kathmandu, Nepal, there
was a ban on the sale of diesel-run three wheelers due to the smog.
The ban led to the development of a fleet of electric
(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.B1)
1993 A family in the
Netherlands was found to have an abnormally high number of violent
criminals. The criminal members were found to have a faulty gene
that caused the absence of the enzyme monoamine oxidase A, an enzyme
that regulates a group of neurotransmitters including serotonin and
dopamine. Both of these were important for emotional responses.
(Econ, 12/23/06, Survey p.6)
1993 Shell Oil stopped pumping
oil in the Ogoni Province, but continued to use pipelines that pass
through it. The Ogonis are a 500,000-strong community in
southwestern Nigeria. They maintain that oil production has polluted
their land, destroying their livelihoods of fishing and farming.
Shell canceled several community development projects. It had
earlier agreed to spend $29 million per year on such projects. In
2011 a UN report said it could take 30 years and at least $1 billion
to rid the poisoned mangroves of a black carpet of crude.
(WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)(WSJ, 11/15/95,
p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.46)
1993 In Norway Labor's Gro
Harlem Brundtland won re-election.
1993 Norway legalized gay
(SFC, 6/28/96, p.A14)
1993 Norway resumed the hunting
of minke whales after a six-year self-imposed moratorium.
(SFC, 5/9/98, p.A7)
1993 Pakistan halted the
repatriation process of Urdu speakers from Bangladesh, saying it did
not have the money or land to house them. This left some 250,000
refugees and their descendants to languish in 70 government-run
camps across Bangladesh.
1993 Greg Mortenson of Bozeman,
Montana, first visited Pakistan to climb K2, the world’s 2nd highest
peak. He failed in climbing the mountain but became interested in
the region. In 1996 he built a school in Korphe, Pakistan, the first
many. By 2008 he had built 55 schools and authored the memoir:
“Three Cups of Tea: One Man’s Extraordinary Journey to promote
Peace… One School at a Time" (2006). In 2011 a 60 Minute TV report
said most of his story appears to have been fabricated.
(http://tinyurl.com/42ffko2)(SSFC, 4/6/03, Par
p.5)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.92)
1993 In Peru a new constitution
was narrowly approved that allowed Fujimori to seek a 2nd 5-year
term. It prohibited a 3rd term but 3 years later legislation was
passed that excluded Fujimori from the restriction because his term
began before the document was written.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.B2)
1993 Peru ratified the Int’l.
Labor Organization’s convention on indigenous peoples.
(Econ, 9/3/11, p.36)
1993 In Peru General Rodolfo
Robles accused intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos of heading a
government backed depth squad. The investigation was stone-walled by
the government-loyal Congress.
(SFC, 9/17/96, p.A11)
1993 In the Republic of Congo
Pres. Lissouba signed a $150 million oil agreement with Occidental
Petroleum. He was convicted in 2001 in absentia for selling oil at
low prices and in part for personal gain.
(SFC, 12/29/01, p.A6)
1993 Russia signed the Chemical
Weapons Convention and ratified it in 1996.
(SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)
1993 Russia annulled an
agreement obliging it to come to the aid of North Korea in case of
(SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-9)
1993 In Russia the state
legislature of Primorye appointed Yevgeny Nazdratenko to govern the
territory. He was then a director of an ore-processing factory and a
member of the Supreme Soviet. His corruption later became legendary.
(SFC, 9/25/97, p.A11)
1993 In Russia some 30
journalists broke from the Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper and formed
Novaya Gazeta. Early success came with support from Mikhail
Gorbachev, but lack of funds forced the paper to close briefly in
(WSJ, 12/8/06, p.A1)
1993 Gleb Yakunin (d.2014), a
dissident Russian Orthodox priest, was defrocked for ignoring a ban
on priests running for elections in the post-Soviet Russian
parliament. He served for two years. Four years later, he was
excommunicated for unspecified reasons.
1993 Saudi wheat production,
part of a self-sufficiency program, grew from a few thousand tons on
the mid 1970s to 4.5 million tons. The production was having a
negative impact on water reserves and production was cut.
(SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)
1993 In Serbia Vuk Draskovich
was branded as a traitor by Bosnian Serbs when he rejected the war
and was jailed and badly beaten by Milosevic’s security forces.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A14)
1993 Gen. Zivota Panic (d.2003
at 70), Serbian Army chief of staff, was removed from his post and
retired following corruption reports.
(SFC, 11/21/03, p.A22)
1993 In Slovakia Michal Kovac
was elected president.
(SFC, 5/29/97, p.A13)
1993 The Slovak people never
voted on the 1993 split with the Czechs.
(WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-1)
1993 In Somalia Osama Bin Laden
was suspected of supplying weapons to shoot down American
(SFC, 8/17/98, p.A12)
1993 In Somaliland clan leaders
chose Mohamed Ibrahim Egal as President.
(SFC, 8/16/96, p.A18)
1993 In South Africa a group of
Black entrepreneurs founded the BASA Educational Institute Trust to
establish and run formal independent primary and secondary schools.
1993 South Africa renounced its
biological weapons program.
(SSFC, 4/20/03, p.A16)
1993 In South Africa Wouter
Basson was forced to resign from the army after a government report
linked him with making poisons and chemical bombs for the army. In
1998 it was revealed that an army project plotted to poison Nelson
Mandela with Thallium to induce brain damage.
(SFC, 6/11/98, p.A11)
1993 In South Africa Petrus
Matthews testified in 1998 how he and 8 members of the neo-Nazi
Afrikaner Resistance Movement erected a bogus roadblock to kill ANC
supporters. The pulled over 2 carloads of blacks and shot the
victims in a ditch.
(SFC, 6/1/98, p.A9)
1993 In South Africa an attack
on St. James Church in Capetown by the ultra-radical Azanian
People’s Liberation Army under commander Daniel Mofokeng left 11
people dead. Mofokeng in 1997 refused to either regret or apologize
for the killings before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
(SFC, 10/8/97, p.A10)
1993 In South Korea Chung Ju
Yung, founder of Hyundai Group, was prosecuted and found guilty of
violating election laws. His 3-year sentence was suspended.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A11)
1993 A national hydrological
plan was proposed by Spain’s Socialist government.
(Econ, 1/10/04, p.45)
1993 Fredrik Reinfeldt (28)
authored “The Sleeping People," in which he said that Swedes were
mentally handicapped and indoctrinated to believe that politicians
can create and guarantee welfare. In 2006 he led a 4-party center
right alliance to oust the Social Democrats.
(Econ, 9/23/06, p.61)
1993 Sweden privatized Posten
AB, its postal network.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.76)
1993 Taiwan began to allow
tourists to visit the Kinmen, a small island nestled against the
Chinese coast. Chinese tourists were excluded. The island was ringed
with minefields and occupied by 10,000 Taiwanese troops.
(Econ, 1/15/05, Survey p.8)
1993 In Tanzania the government
invited Ocelot and TransCanada Pipelines to transport natural gas
from the Indian Ocean island of Songo Songo. It was to be completed
(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A6)
1993 In Tanzania in a
privatization drive part of the government stake in Safari beer was
sold to a South African company.
(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A1)
1993 In Tanzania Monique A.
Maddy (31) launched her African Communications Group. The plan was
to establish a voice-mail only communications system using wireless
hardware. By 1998 the operation grew to 1,000 wireless phones and 55
employees with plans for expansion to Ghana and Sri Lanka.
(WSJ, 9/25/98, p.B1)
1993 In East Timor Konis
Santana (d.1998) took over leadership of the guerrilla Fretilin
Party after the arrest and jailing of Xanana Gusmao.
(SFC, 3/31/98, p.B3)
1993 In Togo Pres. Gnassinghe
Eyadema conducted an election that was so riddled with fraud that
the opposition refused to compete.
(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)
1993 European donors suspended
most aid to Togo.
(Econ, 2/12/05, p.48)
1993 The London-based Privy
Council ruled that executions cannot take place move than 5 years
after sentencing. For Trinidad and Tobago to overrule this required
a constitutional amendment, which in turn required a three-quarters
majority in parliament.
(Econ, 2/12/11, p.46)
1993 Tansu Ciller, a US trained
economist, was elected as the Prime Minister of Turkey.
(WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-1)
1993 Turkey sealed its land
frontier with Armenia after it seized the province of
Nagorno-Karabakh from their Azeri cousins. Direct air travel was
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.53)
1993 In Turkey in the Anatolian
city of Sivas, a fire, set by a mob shouting Islamic slogans, killed
37 secular writers. In 1997 33 people sere sentenced to death for
their roles in the mob attack.
(SFC, 7/3/97, p.C2)
1993 Ronald Muwenda Mutebi
returned to Buganda, Uganda, as titular King.
(WSJ, 12/19/94, A-1,6)
1993 UN members made a
declaration that the promotion and protection of human rights is a
legitimate concern of the int’l. community.
(SFC, 10/15/97, p.C2)
1993 The UN International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) began a database to count incidents of
(Econ, 10/04/08, p.65)
1993 Rafael Caldera was elected
president of Venezuela and promised not to increase fuel costs.
(WSJ, 4/15/96, p.A-14)
1993 Vietnam gave many farmers
20-year usage rights on farmland. By 2013 many local officials were
seizing farmland for development projects.
(Econ, 3/16/13, p.42)
1993 Vietnamese border
crossings with China were opened for trade.
(SFC, 12/14/98, p.A12)
1993 In Vietnam Jimmy Tran was
sentenced to 20 years in prison for plotting to explode bombs in Ho
Chi Minh City. He was released in a 1998 amnesty.
(SFC, 9/2/98, p.A9)
1993 The Welsh Language Act
established a Board having the function of promoting and
facilitating the use of the Welsh language.
1993 In Yemen the first
elections after the 1990 unification were held.
(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A1)
1993-1993 Kim Campbell, Progressive Conservative,
served as the 19th Prime Minister of Canada.
(CFA, '96, p.81)
1993-1994 Sep-Feb, In the US White House
officials, Craig Livingstone and Anthony Marceca, obtained 407
sensitive FBI files on prominent Republicans. Livingstone was the
appointed director of the White House Office of Personnel Security,
and Marceca was on loan from the Pentagon as an Army civilian
investigator. The number of files was later increased to over 700.
(SFC, 6/21/96, p.A3)(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A3)(USAT,
1993-1994 Jim Campbell created his work "Shadow
(for Heisenberg)." The image of a bronze Buddha, enclosed in a glass
cube, appeared to change as the viewer moved in and out.
(SFC, 7/11/98, p.B10)
1993-1994 Home Improvement was the top ranking
network show on television with a ranking of 21.9%
(WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)
1993-1994 Members of the Canadian 12th Armored
Regiment were assigned to protect the Bakovici mental hospital in
Bosnia. Later 57 members were accused of various abuses that
included sex, drinking, and patient abuse.
(SFC, 1/18/96, p.A8)
1993-1994 Mladen Naletilic commanded a gang of
convicts who terrorized Muslims in southwestern Bosnia. In 2000
Croatia handed over Naletilic, a Bosnian Croat indicted in 1998 on
17 counts of war crimes, to the UN tribunal.
(SFC, 3/22/00, p.A12)
1993-1993 In China investments grew at an annual
rate of 60%, GDP peaked at over 15%, and inflation hit 28%.
(Econ, 4/17/04, p.71)
1993-1995 R. James Woolsey served as head of the
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)
1993-1996 In 1996 Turkey’s former PM Tansu Ciller
was accused of enriching herself by $50 million through links with
criminal gangs over this time.
(SFC, 1/18/96, p.A10)
1993-1996 Turkey spent $50 million on drug dealers
and assassins to kill a Kurdish rebel leader and others considered
threats to the state. Abdullah Ocalan, a Kurdish rebel leader in
Syria, was targeted as was Dursun Karatas, a leftist terrorist in
(SFC, 1/24/98, p.A8)
1993-1996 In Cambodia the Khmer Rouge remained
active in the countryside. They killed 100 Vietnamese settlers,
abducted villagers for forces labor and kidnapped westerners.
(SFC, 6/14/97, p.A15)
1993-1999 Attila Ambrus, Romanian-born hockey
player, robbed 29 banks in Hungary. In 2004 Julian Rubinstein
authored “Ballad of the Whiskey Robber: A True Story of Bank Heists,
Ice Hockey, Transylvanian Pelt Smuggling, Moonlighting Detectives
and Broken Hearts."
(SSFC, 10/3/04, p.M6)
1993-1999 Ong Teng Cheong (d.2002 at 66) of the
people’s Action Party served as president of Singapore.
(SFC, 2/9/02, p.A22)
1993-2000 Bill Clinton became the 42nd President
of the US and Al Gore his Vice-President.
1993-2001 An estimated 300 sex killings of young
women took place in the Juarez area along the US border, across from
El Paso. In 2002 Lourdes Portillo, filmmaker, completed a
documentary on the killings: "Senorita Extraviada" (Missing Young
(SFC, 3/11/99, p.A12)
1993-2002 Paul Martin served as Canada’s finance
(Econ, 1/1/05, p.39)
1993-2004 In Greece the socialist Pasok political
party held power.
(Econ, 9/13/08, p.60)
1993-2004 The proportion of Vietnam’s population
that the government deemed poor fell from 58% in 1993 to 20% in
(Econ, 11/26/05, p.49)
1993-2005 In India pollution on the Yamuna River
doubled and continued to rise. The river extended 855 miles from the
Himalaya Mountains to the Ganges. New Delhi with 15 million
inhabitants dumped 57% of its waste into the Yamuna.
(SFC, 7/27/07, p.A17)