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Saturn's Rings: http://www.solarviews.com/eng/saturnbg.htm
The planet is the 6th from the Sun and is named for the father of Jupiter in Roman mythology. Its day is 10 hours and 39 minutes, and its year is 29.5 Earth years. The gaseous planet revolves at 22,000 miles per hour at its equator.
(NH, 3/97, p.70)(SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.4)
If the Sun were a pumpkin one foot in diameter, Saturn would be a peach about 1025 feet away.
(SFEC, 4/30/00, Par p.9)
1345 Mar 20, A conjunction of Saturn, Jupiter and Mars was thought to be the "cause of plague epidemic."
1610 Galileo observed Saturn and noted
that it appeared to be triple-bodied.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.28)
1625 Gian Domenico Cassini was born in Italy. He was an astrologer and then became an astronomer and was known in France as Jean-Dominique
Cassini. At the Paris observatory he discovered the wide gap in the rings of Saturn now called the Cassini division, as well as four of the planet’s moons.
(SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.4)
1655 Mar 25,
Christiaan Huygens, Dutch inventor and astronomer, discovered Titan, Saturn's largest satellite.
1656 Christiaan Huygens interpreted Saturn’s “ears” as a simple
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)
1659 Christiaan Huygens published “Systema Saturnium,” his observations on Saturn.
1676 Jean-Domenique Cassini, director of the Paris Observatory, reported that there were 2 rings around Saturn separated by a gap that came to be called the Cassini Division.
1848 Sep 19, Hyperion, a moon of Saturn, was discovered by Bond (US) & Lassell (England).
1856 James Maxwell deduced that the Saturn rings cannot be solid and must be made of "an indefinite number of unconnected particles".
1899 Mar 18, Phoebe, a moon of Saturn, was discovered by Pickering.
1962 Feb 5, Sun, Moon, Mercury,
Venus, Mars, Jupiter & Saturn aligned within a 16 degree arc.
1977 Aug 20, The United States launched Voyager 2, an unmanned spacecraft carrying a 12-inch copper phonograph record
containing greetings in dozens of languages, samples of music and sounds of nature. It was scheduled to pass Jupiter and Saturn.
(V.D.-H.K.p.388)(MofE, 1978, p.41)(AP, 8/20/97)(SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)
Sep 1, Pioneer 11 made the 1st fly-by of Saturn and discovered new moon rings. Ring F of Saturn was discovered by Lonny Baker at NASA's Ames Research Center from data sent by Pioneer 11.
(Ind, 7/27/99, p.1A)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_11)
1980 Nov 12, The US space probe Voyager 1 came within 77,000 miles of Saturn.
1981 Aug 25, The US spacecraft Voyager 2 came within 63,000 miles of Saturn's cloud cover, sending back pictures and data about the ringed planet and its moons.
1989 Nov 12, A triple conjunction of Neptune and Saturn took place.
Oct 13, The Cassini spacecraft was scheduled to be launched aboard a Titan rocket from Cape Canaveral for a trip to end in 2004 at Saturn. It will carry the Huygens probe to be deployed on the Saturn moon Titan.
(SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.1)
1997 Oct 15, NASA's plutonium-powered Cassini spacecraft rocketed flawlessly toward Saturn. The $3.3 billion Cassini-Huygens Mission was scheduled to arrive on July 1, 2004.
(SFC,10/16/97, p.A3)(AP, 10/15/98)(SSFC, 6/27/04,
1998 Apr 8, It was reported that Europe’s Infrared Space Observatory discovered water around stars and planets. Water vapor in the atmosphere of Titan was reported.
2004 Jun 30, The Cassini probe entered Saturn’s orbit for 4 years of explorations. Its 4-year mission included a close approach to Saturn’s 3rd moon Iapetus.
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.83)(WSJ, 7/1/04,
2004 Jul 1, The Cassini spacecraft sent back photographs of Saturn's shimmering rings.
2004 Aug 16, Astronomers reported the discovery of 2 additional moons orbiting Saturn, bringing the total to 33.
(SFC, 8/17/04, p.A8)
2004 Oct 26, Spacecraft
Cassini flew within 745 miles of Titan providing scientists with new images of the Saturn largest moon.
(SFC, 10/27/04, p.A4)
2004 Nov 6, The Cassini spacecraft was scheduled to launch its Huygens
probe onto Titan. [see Dec 24]
(SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.4)
2004 Dec 24, The Huygens space probe was fired from the international Cassini spacecraft into a successful free fall from Saturn’s orbit to its
(SFC, 12/25/04, p.A1)(AP, 12/24/05)
2005 Jan 13, The European-built space probe Huygens entered the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon,
2005 Jan 14, The European space probe Huygens landed on Saturn's moon Titan, sending back images of what scientists were calling the strangest landscape in the solar system.
Pictures showed a pale orange surface covered by a thin haze of methane and what appears to be a methane sea complete with islands and a mist-shrouded coastline.
2007 Mar 1, NASA said the Cassini spacecraft has snapped never-before-seen images of Saturn showing the planet from perspectives above and below its ring system.
2008 Mar 26, Scientists said the basic ingredients for life: warmth, water and organic chemicals, are in place on Saturn's small moon Enceladus, in detailing the content of huge plumes erupting off its surface.
2009 Jun 25, Scientists reported new evidence that one of Saturn's moons, Enceladus, has an ocean beneath its surface.
2009 Oct 6, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) said the Spitzer Space Telescope has discovered the biggest but never-before-seen ring around the planet Saturn. The diffuse ring doesn't reflect much visible light and is so huge it would take 1 billion Earths to fill
2009 Oct 7, Pedro Elias Zadunaisky (b.1917), Argentine astronomer and mathematician, died. His calculations helped determine the orbit of Saturn's outermost moon, Phoebe, as well as
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Subject = Saturn