Venice Timeline

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 The Venetian Republic was called �Serenissima Repubblica� (The Most Serene Republic).
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)

421        Mar 25, Venice was founded on a Friday at 12 PM.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

828        Venetian merchants stole the relics of Saint Mark from a Coptic church in Alexandria and brought them home in triumph.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.125)

992        Constantinople granted Venetian goods lower tariffs than other merchandise.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1085        Oct 8, San Marcos monastery in Venice started.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1094        Oct 8, St. Mark�s Basilica in Venice was dedicated. Remains believed to have belonged to St Mark, the Evangelist, were buried there.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Marco_di_Venezia)

1094        Gondoliering began in Venice as a strictly male profession.
    (www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/04/02/wvenice02.xml)

1107-1205    Enrico Dandolo, ruler of Venice. He was blind and spearheaded the 4th Crusade. He funded an army to capture Constantinople and after the "rape of Constantinople" pocketed some of the city's riches. He stole 4 bronze horses and placed them over the entry to the Cathedral of San Marco.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1157        The Bank of Venice issued the first government bonds to raise funds for was with Constantinople.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1186        Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia), previously part of the Venetian republic, rebelled against Venice and allied itself with Hungary, posing competition to Venice�s maritime trade.
    (HNQ, 1/23/01)

1192        Enrico Dandolo was elected doge of Venice.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1200-1300    Bronze horses were brought to Venice from Constantinople. Their replicas are over the entrance to St. Mark�s.
    (WSJ, 7/24/97, p.A1)

1204        Apr 9, The Venetians began their assault on Constantinople.
    (www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/fathers/pears-constantinople-1204.asp)

1204        Apr 12, The Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople. Constantinople fell to a combined force of Franks and Venetians. The 4th Crusade failed to reach Palestine but sacked the Byzantine Christian capital of Constantinople.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.)(NH, 9/96, p.22)(HN, 4/12/98)

1204         Venice won control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regained control of the southern portion and established the Despotate of Epirus.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1204        The rule of Venice over Crete dates to this year, when the Republic was awarded 3/8 of the Eastern Roman Empire for its role in supporting the Fourth Crusade.
    (http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Creta.html)

1250        Nicolo and Mafeo Polo embarked on their own cargo ship for Constantinople.
    (TMPV, P.4)(This date is questionable and is given as 1260 in other versions)

1254-1324    Marco Polo was born in Venice.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.169)

1269-1271    The Polo brothers waited two years in Venice for a new pope and then departed for Acre and then to Jerusalem with the young Marco Polo. The Polos continue their journey and reach Armenia. The legate of Jerusalem was elected Pope and assumed the name Gregory X.
    (TMPV, P.12)

1291        A law made by the Doge ordered that all glass furnaces be moved from Venice to Murano.
    (www.henokiens.com/index_barovier_gb.php)

1295        Marco Polo narrated his travels to master Rustigielo, a citizen of Pisa, from a prison in Genoa.
    (TMPV, P.4)

1295        Jacobellus Barovier, founder of a glass-making family, was born. His sons, Antonio and Bartolomeo in 1348 registered as "fioliare" (glassmakers) in Murano, across the lagoon from Venice, Italy. The Barovier firm merged with the Murano-based Toso firm in the 1930s.
    (www.henokiens.com/index_barovier_gb.php)(www.artglas.org/html/body_barovier.html)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.73)

1324        Jan 8, Marco Polo, Venetian explorer, governor of Nanking, died.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1400-1500    Giovanni Spinetti of Venice built the first small piano called the spinet.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)

1417        Feb 23, Pietro Barbo, later Pope Paul II (1464-1471), was born in Venice.
    (PTA, 1980, p.418)

1450-1650    The Venetians occupied the capital city of Crete, Iraklion. The forests of Crete provided the Venetians with cedars and firs for their fleets.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T10)

1454        Apr 9, The city states of Venice, Milan and Florence signed a peace agreement at Lodi, Italy.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

1474        By this year Venice passed a patent statute that included many of the elements of modern patent laws.
    (www.crf-usa.org/bill-of-rights-in-action/bria-23-4-a-the-origins-of-patent-and-copyright-law.html)

1479        Venice signed a peace treaty with Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (1432-1481) ending 16 years of war.
    (WSJ, 3/16/06, p.D8)(www.fsmitha.com/h3/h13zt.htm)

1490        In Venice the Aldine Press opened and went on to publish the first pocket editions of poetry and Greek classics.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1494        Luca Pacioli�s textbook �Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalit�,� was published in Venice and used as a textbook for schools of Northern Italy. It was notable for including the first published description of the method of bookkeeping that Venetian merchants used during the Italian Renaissance, known as the double-entry accounting system.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luca_Pacioli)

1499        Aug 25, Battle at Sapienza: An Ottoman fleet beat Venetians.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1500        The Vatican established a permanent nunciture (diplomatic service) in Venice.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.59)

1507        Feb 23, Gentile Bellini, Venetian artist, died.
    (www.boglewood.com/cornaro/xgentilebellini.html)

1509        Apr 27, Pope Julius II excommunicated the republic of Venice. The pope lifted the ban in February 1510.
    (AP, 4/27/07)

1509        May 14, In the Battle of Agnadello, the French defeat the Venetians in Northern Italy.
    (HN, 5/14/98)

1509        Andrea Calmo (d.1571, Venetian playwright, was born about this time. He became a pioneer in comedia dell�arte.
    (www.italica.rai.it/rinascimento/saggi/commedia_cinquecento/capitoli/lezion17.html)

1511        Portuguese traders reached the Banda Islands, including Run, and broke the Venetian monopoly over nutmeg. Over the next century the Dutch muscled in an almost cornered the nutmeg market. The history of the nutmeg trade was documented in 1999 by Giles Milton in his: "Nathaniel's Nutmeg."
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1515        Sep 13, King Francis of France defeated the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy. Switzerland was last involved in a war. French armies defeated the Swiss and Venetians at the Battle of Marignano and Milan fell to the French. Francis  I conquered Lombardy in northern Italy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)(HN, 9/13/98)

1516        Mar 29, The Jewish Ghetto of Venice, the first ghetto in Europe, was established on 29th of March 1516 by the government of Venetian Serenissima Republic.
    (www.elitehotel.it/en/the_ancient_jewish_ghetto_in_venice_13en1341en.htm)

1516        Titian began �The Assumption of the Virgin,� a monumental altarpiece in the Church of the Frari, Venice.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1518        Forks were used at a banquet in Venice (for the first time?).
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1525        Jacob Ben-Hayim published an overhaul of the Hebrew Bible, the Mikraot Gedolot, or Great Scriptures, in Venice. His version unified the religion's varying texts and commentaries under a single umbrella and remained the standard for generations. In 2012 Menachem Cohen completed an updated 21-volume set, with the final chapter set to be published in 2013.
    (AP, 8/8/12)

1526        Vittore Carpaccio (b.~1465), an Italian painter of the Venetian school, died about this time. In 2014 Jan Morris authored �Ciao, Carpaccio: An Infatuation.�
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vittore_Carpaccio)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.77)

1552        Aug 14, Fra Paolo Sarpi, [Paulus Venetus], expert, philosopher, was born in Venice.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1562        The Sumptuary Laws, which placed strict limits on lavish displays of wealth, required that all gondolas be painted black.
    (http://weirdvenice.blogspot.com/2005_03_01_archive.html)

1567        El Greco (1541-1614) arrived in Venice as a painter if icons in the hieratic, late-Byzantine style.
    (WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1570        Jul 3, The Turks began their attack on Nicosia, Cyprus, after Venice refused to surrender the island.
    (http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)

1570        Sep 23, The Turks began their attack on Famagusta, Cyprus, which was fortified by Venetian commander Marcantonio Bragadino (1523-1571).
    (http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1571        May 20, Venice, Spain & Pope Pius formed an anti-Turkish Saint League.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1571        Sep 1, Famagusta, Cyprus, surrendered to Mustafa Pasha commander of the Turkish forces after nearly a one year siege. The terms of surrender appeared agreeable to Venetian Gov. Marcantonio Bragadino (b.1523), but Mustafa Pasha turned on Bragadino and had him violently tortured and finally flayed alive. 
    (http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)

1571        Oct 7, Spanish, Genoese and Venetian ships of the Christian League defeated an Ottoman fleet in the naval Battle of Lepanto, Greece. In the last great clash of galleys, the Ottoman navy lost 117 ships to a Christian naval coalition under the overall command of Spain's Don Juan de Austria.
    (AP, 10/7/07)(www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/1760264/posts)

1576        Aug 27, The Venetian painter Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), born about 1488, died of the plague. His handling of color and mastery of new oil techniques made him one of the greatest painters of the Renaissance. In 2012 Sheila Hale authored �Titian: His Life.�
    (Reuters, 8/28/01)(www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tita/hd_tita.htm)(Econ, 7/28/12, p.72)

1576        An epidemic of plague Venice. In 2006 a well-preserved skeleton was found on the Lazzaretto Nuovo island, north of the lagoon city, amid other corpses buried in a mass grave.  Experts said the remains of a woman with a brick stuck between her jaws indicated that she was believed to be a vampire.
    (AP, 3/14/09)

1583        Veronica Franco, a courtesan, was later described in a 1992 dissertation titled �The Honest Courtesan: Veronica Franco, Citizen & Writer in 16th Century Venice� by Margaret F. Rosenthal. In 1997 it was made into the film  �Dangerous Beauty� with Catherine McCormick. The film was set in Venice of this year during the annual courtesan festival.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, DB. p.38)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.C8)(WSJ, 11/18/97, p.B1)

1606        Venice expelled the Jesuits as part of a larger jurisdictional dispute with the Vatican.
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1609        Aug 25, Galileo demonstrated his 1st telescope to Venetian lawmakers. Galileo Galilei had improved the newly invented telescope and pointed it at the moon.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.200)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.12)

1630        Nov 1-1630 Nov 30, In Italy 12,000 inhabitants of Venice died of plague. 80,000 people died over a period of 17 months.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.D14)(www.turismovenezia.it/eng/dynalay.asp?PAGINA=913)

1657        Venice re-admitted the Jesuits ushering in a period of cultural conservatism that marked the end of the �Renaissance project.�
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1669        Aug 24, Alessandro Marcello (d.1747), composer, was born in Venice.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1669        Sep 26, The island of Crete fell to the Ottoman Turks after 465 years as a colony of Venice.
    (WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

c1675-1741    Antonio Vivaldi, Italian violinist and composer. [see 1678]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1598)

1678        Mar 4, Antonio Vivaldi (d.1741), Italian Baroque composer (4 Seasons) and violinist, was born in Venice. [see 1675]
    (HN, 3/4/01)(SC, 3/4/02)

1685        The Venetians returned to the Peloponnesus.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1686        Jul 24, Benedetto Marcello, composer, was born. [see Aug 1]
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1686        Aug 1, Benedetto Marcello, Italian author, composer (Lettera Famigliare), was born in Venice, Italy. [see Jul 24]
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1687        Sep 26, The Venetian army attacked the Acropolis in Athens while trying to eject Turks. Marauding Venetians sent a mortar through a gable window of the Parthenon and ignited a Turkish store of gunpowder. This damaged the northern colonnade of the Parthenon. The Parthenon was destroyed in the war between Turks and Venetians.
    (SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A26)(MC, 9/26/01)

1687        Sep 28, Venetians took Athens from the Turks.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1696        Mar 5, Giambattista Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (d.1770), Venetian Rococo painter (Isaac's Sacrifice), was born. He painted for the Dolfin family in the 1720s. His work included: �The Annunciation� (c1765-1770), �Apelles Painting a Portrait of Campaspe,� �Martyrdom of St. Agatha,� �Sacrifice of Isaac,� �The Finding of Moses,� �Nobility and Virtue� (1743), �Satyress with a Putto,� �Satyress With Two Putti and a Tambourine,� and �Halberdier in a Landscape.� His contemporaries included Francesco Fontebasso, Allesandro Longhi, and Louis-Joseph Le Lorrain. [see Apr 4]
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1483)(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)(SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)(MC, 3/5/02)
        During the time of Tiepolo, the Republic of Venice was in a steep decline from eminence as a maritime hub of European trade.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.E3)

1696        Apr 4, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (d.1770), painter, was born. [see Mar 5]
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1697        May 12, The fall of the Venetian Republic.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)

1718        Jul 21, The Turkish threat to Europe was eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1723        Dominicus Montagnana made a viola, later acquired by the Chicago Symphony, valued at $1 million. He was one of the greatest Venetian violin makers.
    (SFC, 6/23/98, p.A3)

1729        Mar 21, John Law, Scottish gambler and financier (57 or 58), died in Venice. An inventory of his wealth included 488 paintings with works by Titian, Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. His story was told in 2000 by Cynthia Crossen in �The Rich and How They got That Way.�
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)(MC, 3/21/02)

1750        Oct 5, Carlo Goldoni's "Il Teatro Comica," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1768        Apr 19, Canaletto (b.1697), Venetian printmaker and landscape painter, died.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaletto)

1790        La Fenice opera house in Venice was designed. It burned down for the 1st time in 1836.
    (WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)

1793        Jan 1, Francesco Guardi (b.1712), Venetian painter, died.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Guardi)

1797        Venice, the city-state that liked to call itself La Serenissima, lost its independence and its empire. Ludovico Manin, the 120th doge of Venice, surrendered to Napoleon. A few months later Napoleon traded Venice to Austria which ruled it until 1866.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.T1)(WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)
1797        The Jewish ghetto in Venice was destroyed following the Napoleon�s invasion of Italy. This began the gradual liberation of the country�s ghettos.
    (SFC, 12/2/08, p.E1)

1813        The Rossini opera �L�Italiana in Algeri� had its premier in Venice.
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.E1)

1819        J.M.W. Turner (44), English artist (1775-1851), visited Venice for the 1st time. He returned in 1833 and 1840. His 1st oil painting with a Venetian setting was done in 1833.
    (WSJ, 3/17/04, p.D4)

1823        Feb 2, Rossini's opera "Semiramide" premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1824        Mar 7, Meyerbeer's opera "Il Crociati in Egitto," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1830        Mar 4, V. Bellini's opera "I Capuleti e i Montecchi" premiered in Venice.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)(SC, 3/4/02)

1833        J.M.W. Turner completed his 1st oil painting "Bridge of Sighs and the Ducal Palace," his 1st exhibited painting of Venice.
    (WSJ, 3/17/04, p.D4)

1836        La Fenice opera house in Venice burned down for the 1st time.
    (WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)

1848        Venice staged an uprising against Austrian rule.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)

1849        Aug 28, Venice, under Daniele Manin, surrendered to Austrians under Count Radetsky, following a siege since July 20 after proclaiming independence.
    (HTNet, 8/28/99)(MC, 8/28/01)

1853        Mar 6, Giuseppe Verdi's Opera, "La Traviata," premiered in Venice.
    (AP, 3/6/98)(MC, 3/6/02)

1866        Venice joined the new Kingdom of Italy.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)

1879        Sep, James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), artist, arrived in Venice following a lawsuit against critic John Ruskin that awarded him a single farthing.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.D5)

1881        Nov 25, Pope John the 23rd was born Angelo Roncalli near Bergamo, Italy.
    (AP internet, 11/25/97)

1895        The Venice Biennale was launched as a display for decorative arts.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.84)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venice_Biennale)

1902        The Campanile in the Piazza San Marco in Venice collapsed.
    (HT, 5/97, p.24)

1903        Aug 4, Cardinal Giuseppe Sarto of Venice was elected Pope Pius X.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

c1903        The Venice Biennale festival began.
    (SFC, 6/14/99, p.E3)

1908        Claude Monet made his last trip abroad to Venice with his wife Alice and made a number of paintings.
    (WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1920        Apr 21, Bruno Maderna, conductor, composer, Hyperion), was born in Venice, Italy.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1946        Nov 2, Giuseppe Sinopoli, conductor, was born in Venice, Italy.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1951        Sep 11, Stravinsky's opera "Rake's Progress," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1956        Sep 13, Stravinsky's "Canticum Sacrum," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1958        Oct 28, The Roman Catholic patriarch of Venice, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, was elected Pope, taking the name John XXIII.
    (AP internet, 10/28/97)

1962        Claire Falkenstein (1908-1997), sculptor and painter, created the gates for Peggy Guggenheim�s palazzo in Venice.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A22)

1964        Robert Rauschenberg won the grand prize at the Venice Biennale. This established him in the art world with his idea that art is reality reshuffled.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.E1)

1966        Nov 4, A devastating flood swamped the city, damaged monuments and covered the city in mud. 5,000 people were made homeless.
    (SFC, 12/11/98, p.D4)(WSJ, 3/8/02, p.AW9)

1987        Jun 10, The leaders of seven major industrial nations ended a three-day summit in Venice, proposing no new major economic initiatives, but calling for closer coordination of their economies and a stabilizing of foreign currency rates.
    (AP internet, 6/10/97)

1990        The Venice Commission was created by 18 member states to advise the Council of Europe on constitutional matters after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Its official name is the European Commission for Democracy through Law. By 2012 it included 47 members.
    (www.venice.coe.int/site/main/Presentation_E.asp)

1996        Jan 29, The La Fenice opera house in Venice was destroyed by fire. It was scheduled to be reconstructed and finished by Sep 27, 1999. In 2005 John Berendt authored �The City of Falling Angels,� which centered on the burning of La Fenice.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.E4)(AP, 1/29/01)(WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)

1996        Flooding of 32 inches or more hit Venice a record 101 times in this year.
    (SFC, 12/11/98, p.D4)

1997        May 9, Eight Venetian separatists took over the bell tower at St. Mark�s Square. They were overpowered by police after 7 1/2 hours.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)

1999        Sep 1, The Venice Film Festival opened.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, DB p.48)

1999        Ljubica Gunj became the first woman in Venice, Italy, permitted to wait on customers at tables on St. Mark�s Square.
    (SFC, 5/14/07, p.A11)

2002        John Keahey authored �Venice Against the Sea.�
    (WSJ, 3/8/02, p.W9)

2003        May 14, In Italy Premier Silvio Berlusconi inaugurated the ambitious $4 billion "Moses" project to ease the flooding in Venice. Construction soon began on a breakwater for Venice to prevent high tides from entering its lagoon.
    (AP, 5/15/03)(Econ, 9/27/03, p.80)

2003        Sep 7, The Russian drama "The Return" won the Venice Film Festival's Golden Lion for best picture. Vladimir Girin (15), star of the film, drowned shortly after the film was shot.
    (SFC, 9/8/03, p.D5)

2003        Dec 14, Venice threw itself a party to celebrate the rebirth of the La Fenice, following a $90 million restoration, with a gala concert that drew the Italian president, European royalty and Italy's glitterati.
    (AP, 12/15/03)(SFC, 12/15/03, p.A2)

2005        Sep 28, Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi said a $5.2 billion project to build flood barriers to save Venice from its high tides will go forward.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2007        Apr, A court in Venice, Italy, allowed Alexandra Hai (40), a German of Algerian descent, to operate a gondola, but only for the residents of one of the city�s hotels. Her permit was opposed by the city�s male gondoliers.
    (SFC, 5/14/07, p.A11)

2007        Aug 29, The 11-day Venice Film Festival opened for its 75th anniversary edition.
    (SFC, 8/30/07, p.E5)

2008        Jul 15, In Italy a judge in Venice indicted Saber Fadhil Hussien for plotting a terrorist attack on US bases in Iraq using ultra-light aircraft.
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.A9)

2008        Dec 1, In Italy the worst flooding in Venice in more than 20 years forced residents and tourists to wade through knee-high water.
    (AP, 12/1/08)

2009        Dec 23, In Italy an unusually high tide flooded most of Venice, forcing tourists and residents to wade through knee-high waters or take to improvised, elevated boardwalks set up in St. Mark's Square and other landmarks.
    (AP, 12/23/09)

2013        Aug 28, The 70th edition of the Venice Film Festival opened with "Gravity," a 3-D techno-drama set in outer space.
    (AP, 8/28/13)

2014        R.J.B. Bosworth authored �Italian Venice: A History.�
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.77)

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