Littles: MISC. COUNTRIES, ENTITIES PEOPLES AND PLACES

Return to home
Acadia

The former name of a French colony that settled in eastern Canada around Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Exiles from Acadia later settled in southern Louisiana.
    (AHD, 1971, p.1)

Acadia History:
    http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/lwjones/acadhist.htm

1713        The French colony of Acadia, now Nova Scotia, was ceded to Great Britain. The Acadians had come from western France to fish and farm. Those who would not swear allegiance to the crown were deported. Many of these deportees went to the bayou country of Louisiana.
    (WUD, 1994, p.7)(WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A12)

Aden

The City of Aden draws its vitality from the Port of Aden. The story of Aden as a trading centre stretches back over 3000 years. Marco Polo and Ibn Batuta visited it in the 11th and 12th Centuries.    

Port of Aden: http://www.portofaden.com/History.htm

1524        Aden became a tributary of Portugal.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)
1937               Apr 1,  Aden became a British colony.
    (OTD)
1963        Aden (South Yemen) was amalgamated with the British protectorate to form the Federation of South Arabia which resulted in rioting.
    (www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/yemen.htm)
1964        Jun, It was agreed that the Federation of South Arabia (Aden-South Yemen) would gain independence from Britain in 1968.
    (www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/yemen.htm)
1967        Nov 28, Yemen gained independence from Britain. British troops withdrew and the People's Republic of Yemen was declared with Qahtan ash-Sha'abi as the country's first President.
    (www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/yemen.htm)
1978        Jun 26, There was a coup in Southern Yemen (formerly Aden). Pres. Salem Rubaye Ali was ousted, tried and shot. He was succeeded by Ali Nasir Muhammad.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)

Akkad

The dynasty of Akkad (later Iraq) consisted of 5 rulers in Mesopotamia from about 2350BC to 2230.

2334-2279    Sargon I (2371BC-2315BC) founded and ruled the city-state of Akkad, after he left the city of Kish where he was an important official. He was the first ruler to maintain a standing army. His empire lasted less than 200 years.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f)
2320BC    Sargon conquered the independent city-states of Sumer and instituted a central government.
    (http://eawc, p.2)
2315BC-2306BC    Rimush, son of Sargon, ruled Akkad. He was assassinated.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f)
2306BC-2291BC    Manishtusu, another son of Sargon, took power over Akkad. He died in a palace revolt.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f)
2300BC    Akkadian armies conquered Nagar about this time.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.13)
2291BC-2254BC    Naram-Sin ruled Akkad. He defeated a rebel coalition in Sumer and re-established Akkadian power. He re-conquered Syria, Lebanon, and the Taurus mountains, destroying Aleppo and Mari in the process.  During his reign the Gutians sacked the city of Agade and eventually destroyed all of Sumer (southern Iraq). During his reign Naram-Sin campaigned against the region of Magan (Oman).
    (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f)
2254BC-2230BC    Shar-Kali-Sharri, son of Naram-Sin, ruled Akkad. He fought to preserve the realm but it disintegrated under rebellion and invasion.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f)
2230BC-2118BC    Gutians, a tribe from the Zagros region of Iran, gained power in Mesopotamia and Gutian kings dominated the area.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f)
1000BC    A clay tablet, described as an Akkadian-language letter, dating to about this time was placed on display in 2011 in Jerusalem. The letter was from the Canaanite King Abdi-Heba to the king of Egypt. It was found in excavations of a site from the First Temple period.
    (SFC, 6/21/11, p.A6)

Alawites

        A religious group that broke away from Shiite Islam in Syria. They number about 1.7 million and comprise 12% of Syria’s population. Hafez Assad is a member of the sect.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A8)

Alderney

    http://states.alderney.net/
     One of the Channel Islands

Amorites

2100BC    Byblos ( Pre-Phoenician city)  was burned to the ground probably by the Amorites.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, S.W. Matthews, p.156)
2000-1600BC    In Mesopotamia the Old Babylonian period began after the collapse of Sumer, probably due to an increase in the salt content of the soil that made farming difficult. Weakened by poor crops and lack of surplus goods, the Sumerians were conquered by the Amorites, situated in Babylon. The center of civility shifted north. The Amorites preserved much of the Sumerian culture but introduced their own Semitic language, an early ancestor to Hebrew, into the region.
    (http://eawc, p.2)
1500-1200BC    The Amorites in the time of Moses came from northeast Syria.
    (MT, Spg. ‘97, p.11)

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    The aboriginal people in these 572 islands off the coast of India in the Bay of Bengal included the Great Andamanese, Onge, Jarawa and Sentinelese.
    (SSFC, 8/17/03, p.M3)(Econ, 9/13/14, p.46)
    Port Blair is the capital of the Indian-owned Andaman and Nicobar islands. The islands stretched for 750km above the entrance to the Malacca Strait.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.46)

1858        The British colonized the Andaman Islands home to 10 tribes of the Great Andamanese comprising some 5,000 people. Most were killed or died of diseases brought by the colonizers. In 2010 the last speaker of Bo, one of the ten dialects used by the tribes, died.
    (Reuters, 2/6/10)
1942        Mar 23, The Japanese occupied the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean.
    (HN, 3/23/98)
2003        Madhusree Mukerjee authored "The Land of the Naked People: Encounters With Stone Age Islanders."
    (SSFC, 8/17/03, p.M3)
2012        Jan 11, India's Tribal Affairs Minister V. Kishore Chandra Deo said an investigation had been ordered as rights campaigners and politicians condemned a video showing women from a protected and primitive tribe dancing for tourists reportedly in exchange for food on India's Andaman Islands.
    (AFP, 1/11/12)
2014        The population of the India-owned Andaman Islands was about 400,000.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.48)

Andorra
        A republic in the E. Pyranees between France and Spain, once under the joint suzerainty of France and the Spanish Bishop of Urgel. Its size is 191 sq mls. The capital is Andorra la Vella.
    (WUD, 1994, p. )(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(Hem., 3/97, p.74)

839        The first official mention of Andorra was recorded in the records of the cathedral at Seu d’Urgell in Spain.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.74)
1278        The co-principality was created after long-running ownership disputes between the Bishops of Seu and the Counts of Foix. They agreed to recognize each other as co-princes of Andorra.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.74)
1939        Sep 25, Andorra and Germany finally signed an official treaty ending WW I. The 1919 Versailles Peace Treaty failed to include Andorra.
    (MC, 9/25/01)
1993        Andorra ended as a co-principality and became legally independent. The parliament chamber had 28 seats, 4 representatives for each of its 7 parishes.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.74)(SSFC, 6/24/07, p.G3)
1996        Andorra was still technically at war with Germany for not having signed the Peace at Westphalia in 1648. Its population stood at about 65,000.
    (SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)
2007        Sep 1, Life expectancy in Andorra was reported to be longer than in any other world country, while the same in Swaziland was reported to be the shortest.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.14)
2007        Andorra’s population numbered about 80,000.
    (SSFC, 6/24/07, p.G3)
2015        Mar 13, In Andorra Joan Pau Miquel Prats of Banca Privada d'Andorra (BPA) was arrested on suspicion of money laundering following US allegations that funds were laundered for groups from China, Russia and Venezuela.
    (AP, 3/14/15)
2015        Mar 16, Andorra imposed withdrawal limits for clients of Banca Privada d'Andorra (BPA), a bank accused of money laundering. Spain's central bank said that Banco de Madrid SA, a unit of the Andorran bank, needs bankruptcy protection granted by a judge following a "sharp deterioration" of its finances with large withdrawals of clients' funds.
    (AP, 3/16/15)

Anguilla

    An island in the British West Indies. Its population in 2013 was about 15,000.
    (Google)(Econ, 3/23/13, p.39)

2013        Anguilla was the smallest of the 209 members of FIFA, the governing body of soccer. Its national team ranked 206th.
    (Econ, 3/23/13, p.39)
2013        Jun 15, Britain clinched a deal with its major offshore tax havens on Saturday that will see 10 British overseas territories and crown dependencies sign up to international protocols on information sharing. Those included were Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Anguilla, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man.
    (Reuters, 6/15/13)  

Antilles

        ABC Islands: Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao of the Netherland Antilles are located off of Venezuela. [see Netherland Antilles]
    (Hem., 12/96, p.28)
        Barbados is an island in the East Lesser Antilles in the East West Indies.
    (WUD, 1994, p.118)

60 Mil BC    The Antilles Islands [of the West Indies] broke off from the Mesoamerican mainland about 60 million years ago. The islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica and Puerto Rico comprise the Greater Antilles, and a group of smaller islands comprise the Lesser Antilles.
    (Nat. Hist. 3/96, p.15)(WUD, 1994, p.65)
1493        Nov 11, The island of St. Martin was sighted and named by Columbus, though the explorer never landed there. The Dutch and French agreed to divide control of the island in 1648, but often clashed over where the border should be until a final pact in 1817.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Martin)(AP, 9/18/10)
1493        Nov 13, Columbus sighted Saba, North Leeward Islands (Netherland Antilles).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saba)
1642        Curacao became a colony of the Netherlands.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)
1648        The island of St. Martin in the Lesser Antilles was divided between the French and Dutch. The southern half went to the Dutch as Sint Maarten, while the northern half, Saint Martin, became part of the French department of Guadeloupe. Legend has it that a Dutchman and a Frenchman stood back to back at the center of the island and paced of their shares. The Dutchman stopped often to drink beer and was left with the smaller share.
    (NH, 10/96, p.60) (SFEC, 2/16/96, p.T6)
1759        Apr 23, British seized Basse-Terre and Guadeloupe in the Antilies from France.
    (AP, 4/23/98)
1759        May 1, British fleet occupied Guadeloupe, in the West Indies. [see Apr 23]
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1795        Aug 25, Curacao slaves opponents returns to St Christopher.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)
1804        Jan 31, British vice-admiral William Bligh (of HMS Bounty infamy) fleet reached Curacao (Antilles).
    (MC, 1/31/02)
1804        Feb 26, Vice-Admiral William Bligh ended the siege of Fort Amsterdam, Willemstad (Curacao, SW Indies).
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1832        Dec 25, Charles Darwin celebrated Christmas in St. Martin at Cape Receiver.
    (MC, 12/25/01)
1914        The discovery of oil in Venezuela prompted Royal Dutch/Shell to build an oil refinery on Curacao.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)
1942        Feb 16, German submarines attacked an Aruba oil refinery and sank the tanker Pedernales.
    (MC, 2/16/02)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C11)
1954        Dec 15, With the proclamation of the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles attained equal status with the Netherlands proper and Suriname in the overarching Kingdom of the Netherlands.
    (SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cura%C3%A7ao_and_Dependencies)
1969        Jul 8, Thor Heyerdahl and his crew sailed their reed raft Ra for 8 weeks days from Morocco and abandoned their trip 1 week shy of Barbados. Heyerdahl sailed across the Atlantic in his Egyptian reed boat, Ra, and reported on garbage floating everywhere in the sea.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.343)(MC, 7/8/02)
1970        May 17, Thor Heyerdahl (d.2002), Norwegian anthropologist, left Morocco aboard Ra II, a papyrus reed boat, and sailed 3,270 nautical miles across the Atlantic to Barbados in 57 days. [see Jul 12]
    (SFC, 4/19/02, p.A2)(MC, 5/17/02)
1970        Jul 12, Thor Heyerdahl crossed the Atlantic Ocean in "Ra" and docked in Barbados.
    (MC, 7/12/02)
1971        Bonaire, Netherland Antilles, outlawed spearfishing off the island.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T8)(www.geographia.com/bonaire/bondiv01.htm)
1996        Jul 7-28, Hurricane Cesar caused 51 deaths in Caribbean and Central America. The storm hit Costa Rica, Curacao, Aruba, San Andres and Nicaragua.
    (AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)
1998        Aug 3, US researchers announced the discovery of a number of new species on the island of Navassa, a US territory of 2 sq. miles in the Greater Antilles, 40 miles west of Haiti.
    (SFC, 8/4/98, p.A3)
2001        Mar 15, A St. Maarten registered boat carrying illegal migrants sank near St. Martin and at least 20 people were killed.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A16)
2001        Mar 24, An Air Caraibes Twin Otter plane with mostly French tourists from St. Maarten crashed on the Caribbean island of St. Barthelemy and killed all 19 aboard and one person in the house.
    (WSJ, 3/26/01, p.A1)(AP, 3/24/02)
2003        May 23, The Democratic Party in the Dutch Caribbean territory of St. Maarten won legislative elections, winning support for its platform of working with the regional government before seeking independence from the Netherlands.
    (AP, 5/24/03)
2006        Jan 27, Five Caribbean islands held their last parliamentary elections as members of a unified Netherlands Antilles. Curacao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, Saba and St. Eustatius have set a target date of July 1, 2007 for breaking off to form their own governments.
    (AP, 1/27/06)
2006        Nov 2, In St. Maarten 4 French nationals were convicted of beating two gay American tourists in this Dutch Caribbean island and were sentenced to between six months and six years in prison.
    (AP, 11/2/06)
2007        Sep 3, Hurricane Felix, having passed the Dutch islands of Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire with little damage, rapidly strengthened into a dangerous Category 5 storm and churned toward Central America, where forecasters said it could arrive as a "potentially catastrophic" storm.
    (AP, 9/3/07)(SFC, 9/3/07, p.A17)
2010        Sep 17, In St. Maarten two major parties expected to dominate the election of 15 parliamentary representatives who will lead the Dutch territory when it becomes an autonomous country next month. St. Maarten and Curacao will become countries within the Dutch kingdom when the Netherlands Antilles are dissolved Oct. 10. The islands of Saba, St. Eustatius and Bonaire will become special Dutch municipalities and respond directly to the Dutch government.
    (AP, 9/17/10)
2010        Oct 10, The former Dutch Caribbean colonies of Curacao and St. Maarten became autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in a change of constitutional status dissolving the Netherlands Antilles.
    (Reuters, 10/10/10)
2010        Dec 6, A motorboat overloaded with mostly Haitian migrants slammed into a reef off the British Virgin Islands and capsized as it tried to evade authorities. At least 8 people were killed, including two infants. 25 people were rescued. Police in St. Maarten arrested three Haitians and said they will be charged with human smuggling in the case.
    (AP, 12/7/10)(AP, 12/8/10)
2010        St. Maarten has about 40,000 citizens on its 13 square mile (34 square km) territory, the southern third of an island shared with French-ruled St. Martin. It is the smallest land mass in the world to be divided between two sovereign nations.
    (AP, 9/18/10)

Arara

        A South American tribe. They used to cut off the heads of their enemies, skin them, decorate the craniums with feathers and trinkets, and display them as trophies.
    (NH, 6/97, p.14)

Aral Sea

1936        The USSR began using Vozrozhdeniye Island in the Aral Sea to test deadly germs. In 1988 anthrax from Sverdlovsk was shipped in and buried there.
    (SFC, 3/24/03, p.A5)
1950        Between Uzbekistan and Kazakstan the surface area of the Aral Sea was 67,000 sq. km. and shrinking
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A18)
1988        Spring, Soviet germ scientists transferred hundreds of tons of anthrax bacteria into canisters with bleach and sent them for storage to Vozrozhdeniye Island (Renaissance Island) in the Aral Sea, shared by Kazakstan and Uzbekistan. Western estimates had 100-200 tons buried at 5-8 feet. In 2002 Pentagon engineers dug up the site and neutralized the anthrax.
    (SFC, 6/2/99, p.A10,11)(SFC, 3/24/03, p.A5)
1991        Vozrozhdeniye Island (Renaissance Island) in the Aral Sea became the property of Kazakstan and Uzbekistan.
    (SFC, 3/24/03, p.A5)
1997        Between Uzbekistan and Kazakstan the surface area of the Aral Sea was 30,000 sq. km. and shrinking
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A18)
2015        Between Uzbekistan and Kazakstan the surface area of the Aral Sea was projected to be down to13,000 sq. km..
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A18)

Ascension

    British Island in the south Atlantic.

1Mil BC    Ascension Island, the top of a volcano, broke through the surface of the Atlantic Ocean about this time. Since then the island has grown to about 100 square km.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.159)
1501        May 20, Portuguese explorer Joao da Nova Castelia (1460-1509) discovered the Ascension Islands on Ascension Day.
    (www.eoearth.org/article/Ascension_scrub_and_grasslands)
1815        Oct 22, Ascension Island was garrisoned by the British Admiralty. For administrative purposes it was treated as a ship, the HMS Ascension. Some 20 million birds are believed to have lived on the island. By 2000 the number of birds was down to a few hundred thousand due to cats.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascension_Island)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.160)(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.9)
1836        Jul 20, Charles Darwin climbed Green Hill on Ascension.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1899        A telegraph cable connecting Britain to Cape Town came ashore on Ascension Island.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.160)
1922        Britain decommissioned the HMS Ascension and the island became a dependency of St. Helena. Ascension Island issued its first postage stamps.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.160)(www.britlink.org/ascension.html)
2013        Sep 9, Chilean press reported that the US has spied on communications from Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay from the island of Ascension according to documents leaked by Edward Snowden.
    (SSFC, 9/15/13, p.A6)

Ashanti

1824        The Ashanti tribe in West Africa defeated the troops under Sir Charles MacCarthy. His polished skull then became a prized feature of the annual yam festival.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)

Assyrians

1300-612BC    The Assyrians, a Semitic people, established an empire that spread out from Assur in northern Mesopotamia.
    (http://eawc, p.4)
1250BC    By this time the Assyrians committed themselves to conquering the Kassite Empire to the south.
    (http://eawc, p.4)
1225BC    The Assyrian ruler, Tukulti-Ninurta, captured Babylon and the region of southern Mesopotamia, but their control did not last long.
    (http://eawc, p.5)
1114-1076    Tiglath-Pileser I ruled the Assyrian empire.
    (http://eawc, p.5)
722-705BC    Sargon II, king of Assyria. [see 721BC]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1269)
721-705BC    Sargon II, king of Assyria. [see 722BC]
    (AM, 7/01, p.33)

Asturias

842        Mar 20, Alfonso II the Chaste, king of Asturia (791-842), died. Asturias was a kingdom in NW Spain.
    (MC, 3/20/02)(WUD, 1994 p.92)

Avars

626        Aug 7, Battle at Constantinople: Slavs, Persians and Avars were defeated. Emp. Heraclius repelled the attacks. The attacks began in 625.
    (PCh, 1992, p.60)(MC, 8/7/02)

Aymara

400-500AD    The Aymara people lived on the shores of Lake Titicaca between Bolivia and Peru since the 5th century. Their ancient capital was Tiahuanaco. Their world is described in “Valley of the Spirits" (1996) by Alan L. Kolata.
    (NH, 8/96, p.14)

Azores

        A chain of nine islands, 740 miles off the coast of Portugal, make up the Azores. The 3rd island is named Terceira.
    SFEC, 5/24/98, p.A10)

1493        Feb 18, Columbus landed on the island of Santa Maria, the southernmost island of the Portuguese-controlled Azores.
    (ON, 8/09, p.3)
1580-1640    The Azores was occupied by Spain and bullfighting was introduced.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, p.A10)
1891-1975    Domingos Rebelo, artist and sculptor. His work included “The Emigrants" (1929), the picture of a couple on a quay at Ponta Delgada, waiting to embark to America.
    (WSJ, 8/28/00, p.A25)
1968        May 22, The nuclear-powered U.S. submarine Scorpion, with 99 men aboard, sank in the Atlantic Ocean. The remains of the sub were later found on the ocean floor 400 miles southwest of the Azores.
    (AP, 5/22/07)
1989        Feb 8, In the Azores 144 people were killed when an American-chartered Boeing 707 filled with Italian tourists slammed into fog-covered Santa Maria mountain.
    (AP, 2/8/99)
1998        A 5.8 earthquake hit the Azores Islands and killed 10 people and injured about a 100. Some 1000 were left homeless.
    (SFC, 7/10/98, p.A18)
1999        Dec 11, In the Azores a SATA airline ATP turboprop crashed on Sao Jorge island and all 35 people aboard were killed.
    (SFEC, 12/12/99, p.D1)
2003        Mar 16, Pres. Bush met with PM Tony Blair and Spain’s PM Jose Maria Aznar in the Azores and made it clear they were ready to go to war with or without UN endorsement. Bush said “Tomorrow is a moment of truth for the world."
    (SFC, 3/17/03, p.A1)

Aztecs

Speak the Nahuatl language and used a spear thrower called an "Atlatl."
    (WSJ, 10/24/95, p.A-1)
Their ritual calendar had a 260-day cycle and used 20 day signs in combination with the numbers 1-13. Tochtli (rabbit) was the 8th of the 20 signs.
    (NH, 4/97, p.24)
An Aztec legend states that the hummingbird god told ancient Aztecs to build their city at the spot where they find an eagle eating a snake on a cactus. The site at Lake Texcoco met the requirement and there Mexico City was found.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.E3)

14th-15th C.    A human skull was sculpted out of shimmering rock crystal.
    (NH, 10/96, p.34)
1502        Ahuizotl, ruler of the Aztecs, was likely cremated on a funeral pyre about this time. In 2007 Mexican archeologists found underground chambers in Mexico City they believed to contain his remains.
    (AP, 8/4/07)
1502        Montezuma Xocoyotl (Montezuma II), an Aztec prince, inherited the Aztec throne.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(ON, 10/00, p.1)
1500s        The Aztecs played ollamalitzli. The game placed a rubber ball through a stone ring and the loser was often beheaded.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1517        An Aztec chronicler described a comet as a “flaming ear of corn."
    (NG, 12/97, p.97)
1519         Nov 8, The Aztec and their leader, Moctezuma, welcomed Hernando Cortez and his 650 explorers to their capital at Tenochtitlan. Spanish adventurer Hernando Cortez and his force of about 300 Spanish soldiers, 18 horses and thousands of Mexico's native inhabitants who had grown resentful of Aztec rule marched unmolested into Tenochtitlán, the capital city of the Aztec empire. The Aztec ruler Montezuma, believing that Cortez could be the white-skinned deity Quetzalcoatl, whose return had been foretold for centuries, greeted the arrival of these strange visitors with courtesy--at least until it became clear that the Spaniards were all too human and bent on conquest. Cortez and his men, dazzled by the Aztec riches and horrified by the human sacrifice central to their religion, began to systematically plunder Tenochtitlán and tear down the bloody temples. Montezuma's warriors attacked the Spaniards but with the aid of Indian allies, Spanish reinforcements, superior weapons and disease, Cortez defeated an empire of approximately 25 million people by August 13, 1521.
    (ATC, p.16)(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)(HNPD, 11/8/98)
1520        A smallpox epidemic raged in Vera Cruz, Mexico. The 16th century smallpox epidemic in Mexico and Central America killed about half of the Aztecs.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)
1541        The "Codex Mendoza" was an Aztec pictorial manuscript of this time. It showed tribute received by the Aztecs from people like the Mixtec with turquoise shields and beads. It also showed 3 young people being stoned to death for drunkenness.
    (NH, 4/97, p.24)(Arch, 1/05, p.29)
1999        Gary Jennings, author of historical novels, died at age 70. His novels included "Aztec," about the Aztec war with the Spanish conquistadors.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.E2)

Bactria

An ancient country in west Asia between the Oxus River and the Hindu Kush Mountains.
    (WUD, 1994, p.110)

333BC        The Achaemenid King of Persia, Darius III, died in Bactria. Bessus, the satrap of Bactria had him murdered.   
    (AHD, 1971, p.10)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty29.html)
333BC        Alexander the Great (353BC-323BC), married a barbarian (Sogdian) princess, Roxana, the daughter of the Bactrian chief Oxyartes. Alexander also married the daughter of Darius, whom he defeated in 333, while staying firmly attached to his comrade, Hephaistion.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.68)(Hem., 2/97, p.116)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W11)
37        Some 20,000 pieces of jewelry and other objects were buried about this time with a warrior-prince and 5 women in northern Afghanistan. In 1978-79 a team led by Russian archeologist Viktor Sarianidi discovered their 6 sealed tombs at a site called Tillya Tepe (hill of gold). The findings became known as the “Golden Hoard of Bactria."
    (WSJ, 11/19/08, p.D7)

Balkar

Independent Muslim warriors who live in the Caucasus Mountains between the Black and Caspian seas. During WW II Stalin shipped most of them to Siberia.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T2)

1827        Balkaria, a Caucasus region later known as known as Kabardino-Balkari, was annexed by Russia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Kabardino-Balkaria)

1956        The Balkars were allowed to return home.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T2)

Bantu

1000 AD    By this time the whole of East and Central Africa was occupied by the Bantu people. Older inhabitants such as the Hottentots and Bushmen were either absorbed or pushed into less desirable places such as the Kalahari.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)
1000-1300AD        Bantu people called the Shona build the Great Zimbabwe, which means “Houses of Stone." This grand city becomes Zimbabwe’s capital and trade center.
    (ATC, p.135)

Bashkortostan

http://www.bashedu.ru/bashkortostan/bash_e.htm


Bayaka

        Pygmy people from the rain forests of central Africa.

1996        CD Bayaka: The Extraordinary Music of the BaBezele Pygmies was produced. It featured an hour of yodels and songs... with the delicate  tone of the mondume. It was made with a 96-page booklet.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.144)

Bedouins

c0AD        Some inscriptions in a pre-Islamic Arabic language called Safaitic show that Bedouins followed the custom of exiling any person who made trouble with his own tribe to the territory of another tribe until he solved his problem and appeased the complaining member.
    (MT, Spg. ‘97, p.11)

Berbers
   
    A Muslim people numbering 15 million in Algeria and Morocco.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A8)
    Mauritania is named after the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania, which later became a province of the Roman Empire, even though the modern state covers a territory far to the southwest of the old kingdom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mauritania)

Bessarabia

    A region in Moldavia northeast of Romania and southwest of the Dniester River.
    (WUD, 1994, p.142)

1812        Russia acquired Bessarabia, the north eastern part of the original principality of Moldavia, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1806-1812).
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.43)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bessarabia)
1853        Jul, Supported by Britain, the Turks took a firm stand against the Russians, who occupied the Danubian principalities (modern Romania) on the Russo-Turkish border. The Crimean War got under way in October. It was fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between the Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman Turkish, with support, from January 1855, by the army of Sardinia-Piedmont. The war aligned Anglican England and Roman Catholic France with Islam’s sultan-caliphs against the tsars, who saw themselves as the world’s last truly Christian emperors.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.89)
1856        Mar 30, Russia signed the Treaty of Paris ending the Crimean War. It guaranteed the integrity of Ottoman Turkey and obliged Russia to surrender southern Bessarabia, at the mouth of the Danube. The Black Sea was neutralized, and the Danube River was opened to the shipping of all nations. In 2010 Allen Lane authored “Crimea: The Last Crusade."
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.89)
1939        Aug 23, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav M. Molotov signed a Treaty of Non-Aggression, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact freeing Hitler to invade Poland and Stalin to invade Finland. Secret protocols, made public years later, were added that assigned Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia to be within the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland was partitioned along the rivers Narev, Vistula and San. Germany retained Lithuania enlarged by the inclusion of Vilnius. Just days after the signing, Germany invaded Poland, and by the end of September, both powers had claimed sections of Poland.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(AP, 8/23/97) (HNPD, 8/22/98)(HN, 8/23/98)
1940        Jun 26, The Soviet Union delivered an ultimatum to Romania and 2 days later occupied Bessarabia and North Bukovina.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupation_of_Bessarabia_by_the_Soviet_Union)

Biafra

    A secessionist state of southeast Nigeria.
    (WUD, 1994, p.144)

1967        May 29, Lt. Col. Emeka Ojukwu declared the independence of Biafra from Nigeria.
    (http://flagspot.net/flags/ng-biaf.html)
1967        Jul 6, The Biafran War erupted. The war, which lasted more than two years, claimed some 600,000 lives.
    (AP, 7/6/97)
1968        Sep 15, The Organization of African Unity condemned the secession of Biafra.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)

Bismarck Archipelago

        A group of islands in the South Pacific, NE of New Guinea.
    (WUD, 1994, p.962)

1700        Feb 27, The Pacific Island of New Britain was discovered.
    (HN, 2/27/98)
1942        Jan 20, There was a Japanese air raid on Rabaul, New Britain.
    (MC, 1/20/02)
1943        Oct 12, The US bombed Rabaul, New Britain (S. Pacific, Bismarck Archipelago).
    (WUD, 1994 p.962)(MC, 10/12/01)

Borneo
        See Indonesia.

        The island of Borneo, the 3rd largest in the world, was divided among the sultanate of Brunei, Indonesia, and the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah, whose capital is Kota Kinabalu.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, p.T10)

British Guyana
    See Guyana

Burgundy


524        Jun 21, Battle at Vezerone: Burgundy beat France.
    (MC, 6/21/02)
1178        Jul 30, Frederick I (Barbarossa), Holy Roman Emperor, was crowned King of Burgundy
    (MC, 7/30/02)
1306        Pierre Dubois, a counselor for the Duke of Burgundy, called for a European federation.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.39)
1396        Jul 31, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Limburg, count, was born.
    (MC, 7/31/02)
1454        Feb 17, At a grand feast, Philip the Good of Burgundy took the "vow of the pheasant," by which he swore to fight the Turks.
    (HN, 2/17/99)
1467        Jun 15, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died.
    (HT, 6/15/00)
1504        May 5, Anton of Burgundy (~82), the Great Bastard, knight, died.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

Cabinda

        Portuguese territory and enclave of Angola on the west coast of Africa.
    (WUD, 1994, p.206)

Canaanites

c1500BC    Linguistic evidence shows that the Canaanites (now more commonly known as the Phoenicians) were non-Jewish Semites whose language was almost identical with Hebrew.
    (MT, Spg. ‘97, p.12)(L.C.-W.P.p.87-89)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)
1490-1436BC     Tuthmosis III, ruled as Pharaoh of Egypt. In the 15th cent. BC Thutmose III led his army from Egypt to Megiddo and outflanked the chariots of the Canaanite forces that had revolted against him.
    (L.C.-W.P.p.87-89)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)

Cape Verde

Africanet: http://www.africanet.com/countries/capeverde.htm#HISTORY
History: http://users.erols.com/kauberdi/CVHistory.htm
Links: http://users.erols.com/kauberdi/index.html

c1450        The Portuguese brought slaves to the uninhabited Cape Verde Island.
    (SFC, 8/5/98, p.A8)
1487        Bartolomeo Dias, Portuguese explorer, set out from Lisbon in August, and sailed south to the Cape Verde Islands and past Cape Cross. Storms forced him out to sea and when the winds moderated he continued east but found nothing. He turned north and then sighted land.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.173)
1974        Mario Soares, the foreign minister of Portugal, helped negotiate a cease-fire that led to independence.
    (SFC, 4/19/00, p.A10)
1975        Jul 5, The Cape Verde Islands officially became independent after 500 years of Portuguese rule.
    (SFC, 8/5/9, p.A8)(AP, 7/5/00)   
1992        Singer Cesaria Evora recorded her album "Miss Perfumado." She was discovered by producer Jose Da Silva who established her in Paris.
    (SFC, 9/13/99, p.)
2006        Dec 21, Cape Verde PM Jose Maria das Neves said Africa must stop blaming its colonial past for its problems and instead point the finger at the continent's leaders.
    (AFP, 12/21/06)
2007        Feb 8, In Cape Verde 3 Italian women, aged 17-33, were brutally attacked while vacationing, dragged into the woods, pelted with stones and left for dead at the bottom of a hole. One woman survived. 3 local men were arrested.
    (AP, 2/10/07)
2009        Aug 14, Hillary Clinton ended her whirlwind seven-nation African trip at Cape Verde, with a tough love message that Africans must tackle their own problems.
    (AFP, 8/14/09)
2009        Aug 17, Russian media reported that the Arctic Sea has been found near Cape Verde and that the ship's 15-man Russian crew has been taken aboard a Russian naval vessel.
    (AP, 8/17/09)
2009        Sep 27, In Venezuela Pres. Hugo Chavez proposed that South American and African nations unite to create a cross-continental mining corporation to keep control of their resources. Chavez made diplomatic inroads in Africa at a summit of South American and African leaders where he offered Venezuela's help in oil projects, mining and financial assistance. Venezuela signed agreements to work together on oil projects with South Africa, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan and Cape Verde.
    (Reuters, 9/27/09)(AP, 9/28/09)
2010        Dec 28, West African leaders Boni Yayi of Benin, Sierra Leone's Ernest Bai Koroma and Pedro Pires of Cape Verde met with incumbent Ivory Coast leader Laurent Gbagbo to deliver an ultimatum from the ECOWAS regional bloc to step down or face removal by force. But Gbagbo's government signaled he was unlikely to agree to cede power to Alassane Ouattara.
    (Reuters, 12/28/10)(SFC, 12/29/10, p.A4)
2011        Aug 7, Cape Verde islanders voted for a new president as Pedro Pires wrapped up two terms at the helm of a nation hailed for its stable democracy. His ruling party faced a split vote. A run-off was scheduled for August 21.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)
2011        Aug 21, In Cape Verde, one of Africa's most stable and prosperous nations, liberal opposition candidate Jorge Carlos Fonseca unseated the party which held the presidency for a decade. Fonseca, a former foreign minister, won 54.90 percent of the vote, besting his socialist rival Manuel Inocencio Sousa, who garnered 45.91 percent of the vote.
    (AFP, 8/22/11)

Caroline Islands
The largest islands are Palau (Belau), Yap, Chuuk (Truk), Pohnpei (Ponape), and Kosrae.

1686        A Spaniard by the name of Francisco Lazcano named a group of about 500 small coral islands east of the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, after King Charles II of Spain who funded the expedition.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_Islands)
1899        Germany bought the Caroline Islands, a group of about 500 small coral islands east of the Philippines, from Spain for 25 million pesetas.
    (Econ, 11/19/11, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_Islands)
1914        Japan occupied the Caroline Islands and received a League of Nations mandate over them in 1920.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_Islands)
1945        After WW II the Caroline Islands became trust territories of the United States, eventually gaining independence as Micronesia in 1986 and Palau in 1994.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_Islands)
   
Carpatho-Rusyns

        The ethnic group of Andy Warhol’s parents.
    (WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-1)

Ceylon: See Sri Lanka

Chagos Islands
        A 65-island archipelago in the Indian Ocean.

1967-1973    The entire population of the Chagos archipelago, which lies 2,200 miles east of Africa and around 1,000 miles southwest of India, was relocated by this year. Britain leased Diego Garcia, the main island, to the US and barred anyone from entering the archipelago except by permit.
    (AP, 10/9/03)
1968        The British government expelled nearly 2,000 inhabitants to make way for a strategic US military base on Diego Garcia Island.   
    (SFC, 11/4/00, p.A12)
1971        An immigration order banned the Ilois islanders from their native lands.
    (SFC, 11/4/00, p.A12)
2000        The 1971 immigration ban was ruled illegal. Some 4,500 exiles living in Mauritius and the Seychelles had the right to return.
    (SFC, 11/4/00, p.A12)
2003         Oct 9, A British judge ruled that former residents of the Chagos archipelago have no right to return home or get compensation. Britain had leased Diego Garcia, the main island, to the US in the late 1960s and barred anyone from entering the archipelago except by permit.
    (AP, 10/9/03)
2007        May 23, The High Court in London upheld a ruling letting families return to their Indian Ocean island homes, from where they were forced out 30 years ago to make way for a US military base.  The Court of Appeal backed a High Court ruling in May last year that allowed the families to return to the Chagos Islands, except for Diego Garcia, a launchpad for US military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 5/23/07)
2008        Oct 22, The British government won its appeal to the highest court against previous rulings allowing displaced Indian Ocean Chagos islanders to return home. The resettlement of the Chagossians in the 1960s and1970s allowed Britain to lease the main island, Diego Garcia, to the United States military for 50 years.
    (AFP, 10/22/08)
2010        Apr 1, Britain said it will create the world's largest marine reserve by banning fishing around the Chagos Islands, a U.K.-owned archipelago in the Indian Ocean. The cluster of 55 islands is spread across about a quarter of a million square miles of ocean.
    (AP, 4/1/10)

Chaldeans

1,000BC    Chaldians traced their origins to about this time in Babylon.
    (SFC, 9/30/00, p.A12)
614BC        The Babylonians (particularly, the Chaldeans) with the help of the Medes, who occupied what is today Iran, began a campaign to destroy the Assyrians.
    (http://eawc, p.8)
612BC        Ninevah (Mesopotamia) fell to the Babylonians. The Chaldeans, a Semitic people, then ruled the entire region thereby issuing in the New Babylonian period that lasted to 539BC.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)
546BC        The Persians destroyed Egypt’s alliance with the Chaldeans, Lydia and Sparta by first capturing Lydia then the Chaldaeans.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty26.html)
539BC        Babylon, under Chaldean rule since 612BC, fell to the Persians. Cyrus the Persian captured Babylon after the New Babylonian leader, Belshazaar, failed to read “the handwriting on the wall." The Persian Empire under Cyrus lasted to 331BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. Cyrus returned some of the exiled Jews to Palestine, while other Jews preferred to stay and establish a 2nd Jewish center, the first being in Jerusalem.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, S.W. Matthews, p.174)(http://eawc, p.8,9)
431        The Assyrians and Chaldeans broke from what was to become the Roman Catholic Church over a theological dispute.
    (WSJ, 3/12/00, p.A10)
1551        Pope Eugenius IV brought some of the Middle-Eastern Christians back into the Western Christian fold when he established the Chaldean rite of the Catholic Church.
    (WSJ, 3/12/00, p.A10)
2000        Sep, Hundreds of Chaldeans sought refuge in the US via immigration through Mexico. Some 120,000 Chaldeans lived in the Detroit area.
    (SFC, 9/30/00, p.A10)

Chonos
        A tribe of sea-faring nomads who worked the Chonos Islands off the coast of Chile. They hunted fish and seals by hurling harpoons from plank canoes.
    (SFC, 5/19/96, Zone 1, p.4)

Chuvashia

http://www.nupi.no/cgi-win/Russland/a_enhet.exe/CHUVASHIA


Cilicia
   
    Cilicia was an ancient country and later a Roman province in Asia Minor.
    (WUD, 1994, p.266)

Cimmerians

700-600BCE      A migration of the Cimmerians and Scythians took place in the seventh century BC. These were nomadic tribes from the Russian steppes, who made their way round the eastern end of the Caucasus, burst through into the Moghan plains and the basin of Lake Urmia, and terrorized Western Asia for several generations, till they were broken by the power of the Medes and absorbed in the native population. It was they who made an end of the Kingdom of Urartu, and the language they brought with them was probably an Indo-European dialect answering to the basic element in modern Armenian.
    (http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce2.htm)

Circassia

Circassia, also known as Cherkessia in Russian, is a region in Caucasia. Historically it comprised the southern half of the current Krasnodar Territory and most of the interior of the current Stavropol Territory, but now only refers to a portion of the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic, Adyghe Republic and Kabardino-Balkaria Republic of the Russian Federation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circassia)

1763-1864    The Circassians, residents of the northwest Caucasus, fought against the Russians in the Russian-Circassian War only succumbing to a scorched earth campaign initiated in 1862 under General Yevdokimov. Afterwards, large numbers of Circassians fled and were deported to the Ottoman Empire, others were resettled in Russia far from their home territories.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circassians)

1942        Nov, In Balkaria, Central Asia, a valley-full of women and children were hunted down in several villages and butchered by the joint NKVD and Red Army task force under the command of captain Nakin. This became known as the Cherek massacre.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.86)(http://tinyurl.com/y7b5tse)

1944        Mar 8, The Soviet government celebrated International Women's Day by forcibly deporting almost the entire Balkar population to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Omsk Oblast in Siberia. Starting on 8 March and finishing the following day, the NKVD loaded 37,713 Balkars onto 14 train echelons bound for Central Asia and Siberia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkars)

2010        Oliver Bullough authored “Let Our Fame Be Great: Journeys Among the Defiant People of the Caucasus."
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.86)

Cocos Islands

1886        The Clunies-Ross family was granted the Cocos Islands in the Indian Ocean, about 2,700 kilometers (1,680 miles) northwest of Perth, by Queen Victoria. Captain John Clunies-Ross, a Scottish trader, had landed there in 1825.
    (AFP, 1/21/08)
1978        Control of the Cocos Islands was ceded to Australia by a descendent of the Clunies-Ross family, which settled the Indian Ocean coral atolls in 1827.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.84)

Cofan

        A native Indian group of the Ecuadorian Amazon.
    (NH, 5/96, p.8)

Congo-Brazzaville
        See Republic of Congo
       
Copts       

        A Christian group in Egypt. They number about 10 million.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A8)

Corsica

535BC        Control of Corsica heralded the greatest extent of Etruscan influence.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.710)
1768        May 15, By the Treaty of Versailles, France purchased Corsica from Genoa.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.A1)(HN, 5/15/99)
1769        Aug 15, Napoleon Bonaparte (d.1821), ruler of France and continental Europe, was born on the island of Corsica.
    (AP, 8/15/97)(WUD, 1994, p.950)(HN, 8/15/98)
1794        Jul 12, British Admiral Lord Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of Calvi, in Corsica.
    (HN, 7/12/98)
1794        Aug 21, France surrendered the island of Corsica to the British.
    (HN, 8/21/98)
1998        Feb 6, In Corsica Claude Erignac, the French governor, was shot a killed by 2 gunmen. In 2003 French police arrested Yvan Colonna for the murder.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.A11)(SSFC, 7/6/03, p.A3)
1999        May 4, Prime Minister Jospin dissolved an antiterrorist squad linked to the firebombing of a restaurant in Corsica frequented by nationalists.
    (WSJ, 5/5/99, p.A1)
2003        Jul 6, Corsicans voted in a historic referendum to give local officials more say in running the Mediterranean island, an attempt to end years of attacks by separatists fighting French rule.
    (AP, 7/6/03)
2003        Jul 7, In Corsica explosions rocked vacation homes owned by mainland French in new nationalist violence a day after Corsicans rejected a plan designed to set up a single executive body to run Corsican affairs.
    (AP, 7/7/03)

Curacao

ABC Islands: Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao of the Netherland Antilles are located off of Venezuela. [see Netherland Antilles]
    (Hem., 12/96, p.28)
Curacao, just north of Venezuela is the largest of the ABC Islands. Willemstad is the capital.
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.38)

1499        Alonso de Ojeda, a Columbus Spanish lieutenant, and Amerigo Vespucci landed at Curacao.
    (SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C3)(http://www.curacao-travelguide.com/history/)
1642        Curacao became a colony of the Netherlands.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)
1795        Aug 25, Curacao slaves opponents returns to St Christopher.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)
1804        Jan 31, British vice-admiral William Bligh (of HMS Bounty infamy) fleet reached Curacao (Antilles).
    (MC, 1/31/02)
1804        Feb 26, Vice-Admiral William Bligh ended the siege of Fort Amsterdam, Willemstad (Curacao, SW Indies).
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1914        The discovery of oil in Venezuela prompted Royal Dutch/Shell to build an oil refinery on Curacao.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)
1940            Jul, Jan Zwartendijk, a Dutch diplomat, and Chiune Sugihara, a Japanese diplomat, worked together to save some 2,000 thousand Polish Jews, who had fled to Lithuania by issuing them visas for Japan, China and the Dutch colonies in South America. Zwartendijk wrote out the so called Curacao visas, while Sugihara issued the transit visas. The Sugihara family was later captured by the Russians and placed in a concentration camp for 1 1/2 years.
    (www.remember.org/witness/righteous.html)(SFC, 9/7/96, p.A13)(SFC, 9/9/96, p.A16)
1954        Dec 15, With the proclamation of the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles attained equal status with the Netherlands proper and Suriname in the overarching Kingdom of the Netherlands.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cura%C3%A7ao_and_Dependencies)(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C3)
1954        The 5 islands of the Netherlands Antilles were federated. These included Bonaire, Curacao, St. Maarten, Saba and St. Eustatius.
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.38)
1969        May 30, Refinery workers on Curacao set fires in Willemstad. Marines from the Netherlands restored order.
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.38)
1996        Jul 7-28, Hurricane Cesar caused 51 deaths in Caribbean and Central America. The storm hit Costa Rica, Curacao, Aruba, San Andres and Nicaragua.
    (AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)
2002        Aug 31, The justice minister of the Netherlands Antilles said Colombian assassins are behind a series of execution-style slayings in Curacao, which has seen drug seizures soar in recent years. There have been 28 killings since the beginning of the year.
    (AP, 8/31/02)
2004        Apr 5, The governing coalition of Curacao, a Dutch Caribbean territory, collapsed over allegations that the justice minister gave favors to a political donor convicted of corruption.
    (AP, 4/6/04)
2006        Jan 27, Five Caribbean islands held their last parliamentary elections as members of a unified Netherlands Antilles. Curacao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, Saba and St. Eustatius have set a target date of July 1, 2007 for breaking off to form their own governments.
    (AP, 1/27/06)
2009        Sep 25, On the Dutch Caribbean island of Curacao James Hogan (49), a US diplomat, was reported missing by his wife. On Oct 1 authorities confirmed that DNA on bloody clothes found along Baya Beach matched with Hogan. Curacao, the headquarters of the Netherlands Antilles government, lies about 40 miles (65km) off Venezuela's coast.
    (AP, 10/2/09)
2010        Oct 10, Curacao, St Maarten, Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius were scheduled to go their own ways. The former Dutch Caribbean colonies of Curacao and St. Maarten became autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in a change of constitutional status dissolving the Netherlands Antilles.
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.38)(Reuters, 10/10/10)
2011        Jul 22, In Curacao Moustapha Khalesa (20), a Dubai-born Canadian citizen, stabbed 24-year-old Kan Mei Chan of the US to death in a medical university dorm as she rushed to help a professor who Khalesa had also stabbed.
    (AP, 7/26/11)
2012        Aug 27, Curacao conservationists and residents said an extensive fuel spill has fouled a stretch of shoreline and oiled pink flamingos and other wildlife in a nature preserve on the tiny Dutch Caribbean island.
    (AP, 8/28/12)
2012        Nov 30, In Curacao masked men in jackets emblazoned with the word "police" boarded a fishing boat and stole 70 gold bars worth an estimated $11.5 million. The captain and three crew members were from Guyana.
    (AP, 11/30/12)
               
Curonians

        A tribe of people on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea west of the Lithuanians.

925        In the Icelandic “Egils-saga" there is an account of how Thorolf and Egil harried in Curonia about this time. Details in the life of a Curonian feudal lord are revealed.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)
1045-1066    King Harold Hardready reigned in Norway. During this time Snorre Sturleson wrote the “Heimskringla." In his Ynglingasaga he said that in 1049 under King Svein and in 1051 under King Magnus, a special sermon against Curonian pirates was introduced in the Danish churches.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

Cypress

1300BC    A Levantine city-state of the era.
    (MT, 3/96, p.3)

Dacia

        An ancient kingdom and later a Roman province in southern Europe between the Carpathian Mountains and the Danube corresponding generally to modern Rumania and adjacent regions.
    (WUD, 1994, p.363)

650 BC    These Transylvanian people are first known from their contacts with the Greeks about this time.
    (WSJ, 6/18/97, p.A20)
103-105AD    Apolodorus of Damascus built a bridge over the Danube for Emperor Trajan. It connected the Roman provinces of Moesia Superior and Dacia (the Yugoslavian and Romanian banks respectively).
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.26)
105AD        Flavius Cerialis, prefect of Cohort IX of Batavians at Vindolanda in northern England, was transferred to the Danube to join Trajan’s forces gathering for the Second Dacian War.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.17)

Dahomey (see Benin)

Dutch Guiana (see Surinam)

Eastern Slavonia

    An area of northeastern Croatia bordering on Serbia whose capital is Vukovar. Before the Bosnian war its ethnic population was relatively balanced.
    (SFC, 4/11/97, p.A12)

1991        Serbs captured eastern Slavonia and most of its 68,000 Croat residents were displaced to other parts of Croatia.
    (SFC, 4/11/97, p.A12)

Etruscans

c600BC    The Etruscans, believed to be natives of Asia Minor, established cities that stretched from northern to central Italy. They developed the arch and the vault, gladiatorial combat for entertainment, and the study of animals to predict future events.
    (http://eawc, p.8)
484-420BC    Herodotus claimed that the Etruscans were Lydians who had immigrated to Italy from Asia Minor. But modern scholars believe the Etruscans evolved from an indigenous population of Iron Age farmers of the Villanovan culture.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.710)
484-420BC    The Greeks always called the Etruscans the Tyrrhenians, after the prince Tyrrhenus who, according to Herodotus, led them to the shores of Etruria.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.718)
474BC        The Etruscans were routed by the Greeks of Syracuse in a sea battle off Cumae near Naples.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.739)
396BC        Sacking of Veio (Etruscan city), after a ten-year siege, ended the city’s long conflict with Rome.     (NG, 6/1988, p.711)
295BC        The Battle of Sentinum. Etruria was defeated by Rome and the Etruscan decline continued for more than 200 years.     (NG, 6/1988, p.739)

French Equatorial Africa

        A federation of French territories in Central Africa that included Chad, Gabon, Middle Congo and Ubanga-Shari. Each became autonomous in 1958.
    (WUD, 1994, p.567)   

1875        Jan 14, Dr. Albert Schweitzer, French theologian who set up a native hospital in French Equatorial Africa in 1913, was born.
    (HN, 1/14/99)
1910        French Equatorial Africa was a former administrative grouping of four French territories in west central Africa. It was first formed by the federation of 3 French imperial colonies: Gabon, Middle Congo, and Ubangi-Shari-Chad. It comprised a total area of 969,112 square miles (2,500,000 sq km). Chad was separated from Ubangi-Shari in 1920 to form a fourth colony.
    (www.discoverfrance.net)
1934        French Equatorial Africa was transformed into a unified territory of France, but in 1946 it was re-divided into four separate overseas territories.
    (www.discoverfrance.net)
1958        Nov 28, The Middle Congo province of French Equatorial Africa voted to proclaim itself independent as the Congo Republic (Brazzaville).
    (DT internet 11/28/97)
1958        Nov 28, The African nation of Chad became an autonomous republic within the French community.
    (AP, 11/28/97)

French Guiana (French Guyana)

A Dept. of France on the NE coast of South America.
    (WUD, 1994, p.567)

1749        Jean Godin, French geographer, left Peru in an attempt to leave the continent by an eastern route and became stranded in French Guiana for over 20 years. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored “The Mapmaker’s Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon." It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), French mapmaker, and his Peruvian wife.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)
1852        France established its penal colony at Devil’s Island, French Guiana. It was one of 3 islands called the Iles du Salut (Islands of Salvation). Some 70,000 convicts were sent there until 1946. The penal colony operated until 1951.
    (SSFC, 12/15/02, p.L5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Guiana)
1895        Jan 5, French Capt. Alfred Dreyfus, convicted of treason, was publicly stripped of his rank. He was ultimately vindicated. Dreyfus, a Jew falsely accused of spying for the Germans, was imprisoned alone on Devil’s Island until 1899.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(SSFC, 12/15/02, p.L5)
1899        Sep 19, French Capt. Alfred Dreyfus won a pardon after a retrial was forced by public opinion. He was soon released from Devil's Island in French Guiana.
    (PCh, 1992, p.628)(www.spiritus-temporis.com/alfred-dreyfus/)
1953        Aug 22, France closed the penal colony on Devil's Island.
    (MC, 8/22/02)
1968        Kourou, French Guiana, launched its 1st commercial satellite. A space center opened there in 1970.
    (AP, 8/27/02)
1996        Jun, The 1st Ariana 5 test rocket crashed on launch at Kourou.
    (WSJ, 10/22/98, p.B2)
1996        In the capital of Cayenne high school students demonstrated against French control of the school system.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.T9)
1997        Oct, The 2nd Ariana 5 test rocket was launched at Kourou and experienced a spin problem.
    (WSJ, 10/22/98, p.B2)
1998        Oct 21, The 3rd Ariana 5 test rocket was launched at Kourou. It successfully simulated the launch of a mockup satellite.
    (WSJ, 10/22/98, p.B2)
2003        Sep 27, Europe's first mission to the moon blasted off aboard a European Ariane rocket from French Guiana. The SMART-1 probe made it to within 3,100 miles of the moon on Nov 15, 2004, and proceeded to move into an elliptical orbit. The spacecraft ended its mission Sep 3, 2006, when it crashed into the lunar surface.
    (AP, 9/28/03)(SFC, 11/17/04, p.A3)(SSFC, 9/3/06, p.A5)
2004        Jul 17, An Ariane 5 rocket took off from French Guyana (Guiana) carrying the heaviest commercial telecom satellite ever.
    (WSJ, 7/19/04, p.A1)
2009        May 14, A French rocket carrying the largest space telescope ever was launched into space on a mission that European scientists hope will help unravel the mystery of the universe's creation. The Ariane-5 rocket was loaded with the Herschel space telescope and the Planck spacecraft, carrying a payload of 5.3 tons (4.81 metric tons) when it launched from the city of Kourou near the jungles of French Guiana.
    (AP, 5/15/09)
2010        Jan 10, Voters in French Guiana overwhelmingly rejected a proposal to give local government more autonomy while remaining a part of France. 70% voted "no," with 48% turnout.
    (AP, 1/10/10)
2011        Sep 9, Anglo Dutch Shell announced that it had discovered oil in deep waters around 150 km (90 miles) off the coast of French Guiana following a joint venture drilling project with venture energy partners Total, Tullow and Northpet.
    (AFP, 9/9/11)
2011        Oct 21, A Russian rocket launched the first 2 satellites of the EU’s Galileo navigation system from French Guiana, in an ambitious bid to rival the American GPS network.
    (SFC, 10/22/11, p.A2)
2011        Dec 16, A Soyuz rocket carrying six satellites launched from French Guiana in the Russian-built rocket model's second mission this year. It was to first release a French Earth observation satellite, Pleiades 1. Next to come would be four French micro-satellites and a Chilean Earth observation satellite was to be released last.
    (AP, 12/16/11)
2012        May 16, In French Guiana an Ariane 5 rocket successfully launched two Asian telecoms satellites into orbit from the Kourou space center. It placed into orbit two geostationary satellites, the JCSAT-13 for the Japanese SKY Perfect JSAT Corporation, and the VINASAT-2 of the Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)
2014        Apr 3, The European Space Agency launched its Sentinel 1A satellite on a Russian Soyuz rocket from French Guiana. It was the first of six satellites for a new system designed to better monitor climate change, environmental disasters and catastrophes like floods, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
    (AP, 4/3/14)(SFC, 4/5/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 10, Arianespace launched a rocket from French Guiana carrying four satellites that will help provide Internet and mobile connectivity to people in nearly 180 countries.
    (AP, 7/11/14)

French Polynesia

    A South Pacific territory of France. A group of 5 archipelagos, included are the Society Islands, the Marquesas, the Tuamotu Archipelago (which is also called the Low Archipelago or the Paumotu Archipelago) and other scattered groups. Formerly French Oceania. Also Bora Bora, Tahiti and Maupiti.
    (WUD, 1994, p.567,1522)(SFC,11/27/97, p.B5)(SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T1)

1767        The English found their way to Tahiti.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T12)
1769        Jun 3, British navigator, Captain James Cook, British astronomer Charles Green and Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander observed and recorded a transit of Venus across the sun on the island of Tahiti during Cook's first voyage around the world.
    (http://transitofvenus.nl/wp/past-transits/1769-june-3/)
1777        Dec 8, Captain Cook left the Society Islands (French Polynesia).
    (MC, 12/8/01)
1789        Sep, Fletcher Henderson left Tahiti with the Bounty with a light crew. 16 men were left abandoned.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)
1791        May 8, Capt. Edward Edwards set sail from Tahiti in the Pandora with the Bounty mutineers abandoned by Fletcher Henderson.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)
1880        Jun 29, France annexed Tahiti.
    (HN, 6/29/98)
1835        Nov 15, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached Tahiti.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
1880        The French colonized Polynesia.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T12)
1891        Apr 1, Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), French painter, abandoned his wife and 5 children and left Marseille for Tahiti.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T12)(MC, 4/1/02)(SSFC, 5/11/03, p.C7)
1891        Jun 9, Painter Paul Gauguin arrived in Papeete, Tahiti.
    (MC, 6/9/02)
1891        Painter Paul Gauguin painted his landscape “Haere Mai," which means “Come here!" in Tahitian.
    (SSFC, 10/23/11, p.M5)(http://tinyurl.com/3qex6r3)
1892         French artist Paul Gauguin painted a picture of two Tahitian gilrs titled “Nafea Faa Ipoipo {When Will You Marry?). In 2015 it sold at auction to a Qatari buyer for close to $300 million.
    (SFC, 2/6/15, p.A2)
1896        Paul Gauguin made his sculpture “Tahitian Girl."
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.62)
1901        Paul Gauguin left Tahiti for the Marquesas and arrived at Hiva Oa.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T1,6)
1905        Feb 8, A cyclone hit Tahiti and adjacent islands killing some 10,000 people.
    (MC, 2/8/02)
1970        Feb 20, Cheyenne Brando (d.1995), daughter of Marlon, was born in Papeete, Tahiti.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheyenne_Brando)
1971        Australia joined with New Zealand and 14 independent of self-governing island nations to form the South Pacific Forum. The name was changed in 2000 to Pacific Islands Forum. Member states include: Australia, the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Since 2006, associate members territories are New Caledonia and French Polynesia.
    (Econ, 10/20/07, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islands_Forum)
1972        David McTaggart (d.2001), one of the founders of Greenpeace Int’l., sailed his small boat into the French nuclear-testing site at Mururoa atoll in the South Pacific.
    (SFC, 3/24/01, p.A22)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.A31)
1976        May 1, Kawika Kapahulehua (d.2007 at 76), leading a 15-man crew on a double-hulled canoe with sails, departed Hawaii to Tahiti. Organizer and anthropologist Ben Finney wanted to prove the trip was possible. They reached Tahiti after 34 days despite issues of ethnicity raised by part of the crew. Mau Piailug (1932-2010), Micronesian master navigator, steered the Hokule’a (Star of Gladness) by the stars, the feel of the wind and the look of the sea. 
    (SFC, 5/28/07, p.D3)(Econ, 7/24/10, p.84)
1977        Francis Sanford (1912-1996) helped write a statute in the French National Assembly that provided autonomy in daily affairs to the territory.
    (SFC, 12/23/96, p.A16)
1977        Roman Polanski, film director, was accused of drugging and raping a 13-year-old model at the home of Jack Nicholson. He pleaded guilty to unlawful sexual intercourse with a minor and left the country on bail to film "Hurricane" in Tahiti, and then fled to Paris.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.E3)
1978        Oct 9, Jacques Brel, Belgian cabaret singer, died at 49. He was buried at Atuona on the Marquesas Island of Hiva Oa.
    (MC, 10/9/01)(SSFC, 10/11/03, p.C9)
1984        The French granted Polynesia internal autonomy.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T12)
1990        Jul 4, France performed nuclear test at Muruora Island.
    (www.seismo.ethz.ch/bsv/nuclear_explosions/undergr/france.html)
2002        Sep 12, Tahitian authorities found a 55-foot catamaran, the Hakuna Matata, that belonged to former NBA star Bison Dele (b.1969 as Brian Carson Williams). His brother, Kevin Williams (Miles Dabord) was seen docking the catamaran on July 16 in Taravao, Tahiti. Williams met his girlfriend on July 8 in Papeete and described a scuffle that left 3 people dead. He was last seen Sept. 5 in Phoenix, when he tried to pick up an order for $500,000 in American Double Eagle coins using his brother’s passport. A comatose Williams was arrested Sep 19 at a San Diego hospital and died Sep 27.
    (SFC, 9/14/02, p.A15)(SFC, 9/17/02, p.A1)(SFC, 9/19/02, p.A7)(SFC, 9/20/02, p.A1)(SFC, 9/21/02, p.A1)(SFC, 9/28/02, p.A5)
2004        May, In Tahiti the Union for Democracy coalition of Oscar Temaru won elections with a 1-seat majority, dislodging Gaston Flosse from a long incumbency.
    (Econ, 11/13/04, p.48)
2004        Oct 9, In Tahiti a defection led to new elections that ousted the government of Oscar Temaru in favor of Gaston Flosse by 1 seat. Temaru refused to leave the presidential premises.
    (Econ, 11/13/04, p.48)
2007        Aug 8, Researchers from the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill reported that coral coverage in the Indo-Pacific, an area stretching from Indonesia's Sumatra island to French Polynesia, had dropped 20 percent in the past two decades. They said the decline was driven by climate change, disease and coastal development.
    (AP, 8/8/07)
2007        Aug 9, A small airplane plunged into the sea moments after taking off from the French Polynesian resort island of Moorea, apparently killing all 20 people aboard in the territory's worst-ever plane crash.
    (AP, 8/10/07)
2011        Oct 9, In French Polynesia German tourist Stefan Ramin (40) was murdered while visiting Nuku Hiva island. Haiti, a 31-year-old local guide, said Ramin was injured and then attempted to sexually assault Ramin’s girlfriend Heike Dorsch (37). Human remains were found in a charred pit on the island on Oct 12.
    (AFP, 10/18/11)
2012        Dec 6, French Polynesia created a 1.5 million square mile shark sanctuary.
    (SFC, 12/19/12, p.A5)

Friesland (Frisia)

    Friesland is currently the northernmost province of the Netherlands. Its population is 600,000, and the capital is Leeuwarden.

1-100AD    A Teutonic tribe known as the Frisians (or Friesians) settled in what is now the Netherlands in the first century A.D.
    (HNQ, 3/5/00)
600-700    In the seventh century the Frisians clashed with the Franks and resisted Christianity, but succumbed to Frankish rule and accepted Christianity a century later. Citizens of the Netherlands’s province of Friesland are still called Frisians and the Frisian language is still spoken there.
    (HNQ, 3/5/00)
754        Jun 5, Friezen murdered bishop Boniface [Winfrid], English saint, archbishop of Dokkum, and over 50 companions.
    (MC, 6/5/02)
988        May 6, Dirk II, West Frisian count of Holland, died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1345        The Frisian victory over the Dutch on the beach at Warns was their last before the Dutch took over.
    (WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)
1512        Nov 16, Jemme Herjuwsma, Fries rebel, was beheaded.
    (MC, 11/16/01)
1512        Nov 17, Kempo Roeper, Frisian rebel, was quartered.
    (MC, 11/17/01)
1538        Feb 26, Worp van Thabor, Frisian abbot of Thabor (Chronicon Frisiae), died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1549        May 27, Lijsbeth Dirksdr, Friesian Anabaptist, drowned.
    (MC, 5/27/02)
1555        May 25, Gemma Frisius (46), Frisian geographer, astronomer, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1579        Mar 23, Friesland joined the Union of Utrecht.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1888        Apr 16, Drentse and Friese peat cutters went on strike.
    (MC, 4/16/02)
1912        Nov 25, Johannes D. De Jong, Frisian poet and photographer (Kar £t twa), was born.
    (MC, 11/25/01)
1998        Ernst Langhout, a singer-songwriter, increased his sales when he began singing in his native Frisian language.
    (WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)

Galapagos Islands

        The volcanic archipelago has 13 big islands, 6 small ones and 107 islets and rocks.
    (SFEC, 11/19/00, p.T8)

1535        Mar 10, Bishop Tomas de Berlanga discovered the Galapagos Islands.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1790s        Floreana Island began serving as a mail drop for whalers and seal hunters.
    (SFEC, 11/19/00, p.T8)
1813        Apr, Captain David Porter of the U.S. Navy sailed the USS Essex into the Galapagos Archipelago after a six month journey around Cape Horn, eager to find a way to help his country in their powder-keg relations with Great Britain. Capt. Porter made his first landfall at a place called Post Office Bay, on Charles Island, and raided the barrel there that served as the informal but effective communications link between whaling ships and the outside world. The primitive post box, a barrel system of drop-off and pick-up, had been established some 20 years earlier, but its efficiency had become well-known. Inside of half a year, Capt. Porter and the Essex had captured 12 British whalers and devastated the whale British industry in the Pacific, forcing a reallocation of Royal Navy ships to a distant region far from the “home front" in North America.
    (Terraquest, http://www.terraquest.com/assignment/assignment.html)
1835        Sep 15, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached the Galapagos Islands, a scattering of 19 small islands and scores of islets.
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p. T-5)(MC, 9/15/01)
1835        Sep 17, Charles Darwin landed on Chatham in the Galapagos archipelago.
    (MC, 9/17/01)
1835        Sep 23, HMS Beagle sailed to Charles Island in the Galapagos archipelago.
    (MC, 9/23/01)
1835        Oct 8, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached James Island, Galapagos archipelago.
    (MC, 10/8/01)
1835        Oct 20, HMS Beagle left the Galapagos Archipelago and sailed to Tahiti.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1964        Nathan W. Cohen (d.1997 at 78) organized the Galapagos Int’l. Scientific Expedition. 65 scientists spent 2 months of research there and dedicated the Darwin Research Station there.
    (SFC, 6/26/97, p.A22)
1977        Robert Ballard and John B. Corliss dived 9,000 feet into the Galapagos Rift Zone and found previously unknown creatures thriving on bacteria from that depended on sulfur from volcanic vents.
    (SFC, 7/31/98, p.A3,13)
1998        Sep 15, The Cerro Azul volcano on Isabela Island began erupting and threatened turtle colonies.
    (SFC, 9/18/98, p.D8)

Gandhara

~100-200AD    A report from London on 6/27/96 said that the British Library had acquired Buddhist texts that date back as early as the 2nd cent AD. The texts were believed to be part of the canon of the Sarvastivadin sect, which dominated Gandhara, now north Pakistan and east Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.A12)

Garifuna

    Legend held that indigenous Arawak-speaking peoples of Northern Brazil arrived on the island of St. Vincent long before the Europeans. They later took in ship wrecked Africans.
    (SFC, 7/25/07, p.E1)

1793        The British took over the island of St. Vincent and a series of wars ensued against the black Caribs.
    (SFC, 7/25/07, p.E2)
1795        The British won a battle against the local Garifuna on St. Vincent.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)
1797        Some 5,000 black Carib Indians, also known as Garifuna or Garinagu, were exiled from St. Vincent  Island to Roatan Island off of Honduras. The Garifuna defined themselves not by country or territory but by language and culture.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A6)
1998        It was reported that over 100,000 Garifuna, perhaps 50% of their entire people, had migrated to the US, mostly to Los Angeles, New York and Chicago.
    (SFC, 4/27/98, p.A6)
2001        UNESCO proclaimed the Garifuna language, music and dance Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible heritage of Humanity.
    (SFC, 7/25/07, p.E2)

Gilbert and Ellice Islands

    A widely scattered island group in the central Pacific under British control. They included Christmas Island under Australia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.597,263)

1643        Dec 25, Captain William Mynors of the Royal Mary, a British East India Company vessel, named Christmas Island when he sailed past it on Christmas Day. Sovereignty of the island was transferred to Australia in 1957.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_Island)
1942        Feb 1, Planes of the U.S. Pacific fleet attacked Japanese bases in the Marshall and Gilbert Islands.
    (HN, 2/1/99)
1942        Aug 17, Marine Raiders attacked Makin Island in the Gilbert Islands from two submarines.
    (HN, 8/17/98)
1942        Aug 19, 19 US Marines died during a commando raid on Makin atoll in the Gilbert Islands. The raid was 2,000 miles behind enemy lines and 9 Marines were left behind. The 1943 movie, “Gung Ho," was based on the raid and  starred Randolph Scott as Lt. Col. Evans Carlson, leader of the raid. In 2001 the bodies of 13 Marines, who died on Makin, were reburied at Arlington National Cemetery.
    (SFC, 12/26/00, p.A1)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.A3)
1943        Nov 20, US Marines began landing on Tarawa and Makin atolls in the Gilbert Islands, encountering fierce resistance from Japanese forces but emerging victorious three days later. The US 2nd marine division invaded the tiny isle of Betio on Tarawa Atoll in the Gilberts. It was the first seriously opposed landing experienced by the Americans in WWII. After 3 days 1,027 US Marine and Navy personnel were killed. Of some 4,800 Japanese and Korean laborers on Betio, 146 survived, including 17 Japanese troops. In 2006 John Wukovits authored “One Square Mile Of Hell."
    (AP, 11/20/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tarawa)(AH, 6/07, p.72)
1943        Nov 22, US troops landed on Abemada, Gilbert Island.
    (MC, 11/22/01)
1943        Nov 23, During World War II, U.S. forces seized control of the Tarawa and Makin atolls from the Japanese. [part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands] Makin Atoll was the first central Pacific island to be reconquered by the Allies.
    (AP, 11/23/97)(SFC, 1/26/98, p.A17)
1957         May 15, The 1st British hydrogen bomb destroyed Christmas Island in South Pacific. The 200 - 300 kilotons yield was less than expected.
    (www.atomicarchive.com/Timeline/Time1950.shtml)
1962        Apr 25,    Operation Dominic began with a test blast on Christmas Island. The operation was a series of 105 nuclear test explosions conducted in 1962 and 1963 by the United States. Those conducted in the Pacific are sometimes called Dominic I. The blasts in Nevada are known as Dominic II.
    (www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Operation_Dominic_I_and_II)
1962        May 25, US performed fizzled nuclear test at Christmas Island. The Tanana blast was part of Operation Dominic.
    (www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Operation_Dominic_I_and_II)
1999        Mar 27, On Christmas Island the crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, was reported to be decimating the local crab population. The ant was introduced by west African traders about 50 years earlier.
    (SFC, 3/27/99, p.C1)

Gitskan

1993         The Delgamuukw Decision gave the Gitskan Indians of British Columbia unextinguished but non-exclusive rights to their traditional territory, 58,000 sq. miles near Smithers, BC. The Indians appealed and argued that their rights were absolute and exclusive.
    (G&M, 2/2/96, p.A-2)
1994        The Gitskan and the BC government agreed to try to reach a negotiated settlement over their differences.
    (G&M, 2/2/96, p.A-2)
1996         Feb. The BC government abandoned land-claims negotiations with the Gitskan Indians.
    (G&M, 2/2/96, p.A-2)

Gold Coast

        Former British territory in West Africa that became part of Ghana
    (WUD, 1994 p.607)
1954        Jun 15, The Convention People’s Party, led by Kwame Nkrumah, won the Gold Coast elections (later part of Ghana).
    (HT, 6/15/00)

Guadeloupe

1493        Nov 4, Christopher Columbus discovered Guadeloupe during his second expedition.
    (HN, 11/4/98)
1635        Jun 28, The French colony of Guadeloupe was established in the Caribbean.
    (HN, 6/28/98)
1648        The island of St. Martin in the Lesser Antilles was divided between the French and Dutch. The southern half went to the Dutch as Sint Maarten, while the northern half, Saint Martin, became part of the French department of Guadeloupe. Legend has it that a Dutchman and a Frenchman stood back to back at the center of the island and paced of their shares. The Dutchman stopped often to drink beer and was left with the smaller share.
    (NH, 10/96, p.60) (SFEC, 2/16/96, p.T6)
1737        French Captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu (d.1774) was appointed governor of Martinique and the neighboring island of Guadeloupe.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.12)
1739        Dec 25, Chevalier de Saint-Georges (d.1799) was born on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. He was the first African American musician to achieve international renown as a classical composer, violinist and conductor.
    (http://ChevalierDeSaintGeorges.Homestead.com/Page1.html)
1759        Apr 23, British seized Basse-Terre and Guadeloupe in the Antilies from France.
    (HN, 4/23/99)
1759        May 1, British fleet occupied Guadeloupe, in the West Indies. [see Apr 23]
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1763        Feb 10, Britain, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the French-Indian War. France ceded Canada to England and gave up all her territories in the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands. France retained the sugar colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe.
    (HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/08)(SSFC, 7/6/14, p.L5)
1804        Jul 21, Victor Schoelcher, abolished French slavery, was born in Guadeloupe.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1976        Jul 8, A volcano erupted on Guadeloupe and frightened the capital, Basse-Terre. A phreatic eruption of the Soufriere volcano cracked open the summit dome
    (www.ipgp.jussieu.fr/~beaudu/soufriere/smithsonian76.html#sean_0109)
2003        Dec 7, Voters on the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique rejected reforms to their legislatures that opponents had criticized as a step toward independence from France.
    (AP, 12/8/03)
2004        Mar 28, Guadeloupe's leader conceded defeat in regional elections that pushed her conservative party out of power for the first time in 12 years, a loss seen as public backlash toward moves to win greater autonomy from Paris.
    (AP, 3/29/04)
2005        Nov 25, In Guadeloupe youths set up flaming tire barricades and threw rocks at police in clashes sparked by a motorcycle crash at a police checkpoint.
    (AP, 11/25/05)
2005         Guadeloupe’s population was 420,000. The unemployment rate was 39%.
    (AP, 11/26/05)
2006        Sep 30, André Schwarz-Bart (b.1928), French novelist of Polish-Jewish origins, died in Guadeloupe. His books included the novel “The Last of the Just" (1960), based on the Jewish teaching that the fate of the world lies with 36 just men.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andre_Schwarz-Bart)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)
2006        Nov 2, In St. Maarten 4 French nationals were convicted of beating two gay American tourists on Guadelupe and were sentenced to between six months and six years in prison.
    (AP, 11/2/06)
2009        Feb 16, On the French island of Guadeloupe police detained about 50 people after coming under a barrage of stones as they tried to take down barricades. On Martinique as many as 10,000 demonstrators marched through the narrow streets of the capital to protest spiraling food prices and denounce the business elite.
    (AP, 2/16/09)
2009        Feb 18, In Guadeloupe rioters manning barricades fatally shot Jacques Bino, tax agent and union member, in a housing project in Pointe-a-Pitre, as he returned home from protests. This was the first death in unrest that has convulsed France's Caribbean islands for weeks.
    (AP, 2/18/09)
2009        Feb 19, France bowed to demands for wage increases in Guadeloupe in the hope of ending a month-long strike that has plunged the French Caribbean island into rioting.
    (AP, 2/19/09)
2009        Feb 27, Unions in Guadeloupe scored a victory in getting a deal to raise some workers' salaries, but said they will not end a general strike now concluding its sixth week.
    (AP, 2/27/09)
2009        Mar 4, Union leaders on the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe agreed to suspend a 44-day-old general strike as most of their demands continue to be met.
    (AP, 3/4/09)
2014        Jan 15, It was reported that some 200 cases of chikungunya, a debilitating sickness due to a mosquito-borne virus, have been diagnosed in St. Martin, and that the virus has spread to St. Maarten. New cases were also confirmed in Martinique, Guadeloupe and St. Barthelemy.
    (SFC, 1/15/14, p.A2)

Guam

    A 210 square mile island of the Marianas.   
See Marianas (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands).

Haida

    A native tribe of the northwest coast of the American continent.
    (NH, 3/97, p.42)

Hatti

1300BC    A middle-east empire of this time.
    (MT, 3/96, p.3)

Hispaniola

        An island in the West Indies comprising Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
    (WUD, 1994, p.673)

1496        Mar 10, Christopher Columbus concluded his second visit to the Western Hemisphere as he left Hispaniola for Spain.
    (AP, 3/10/98)
1515        By this year the Taino Indians were practically annihilated in clashes with the Spanish.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)   

Hmong

        The Hmong are one of 54 ethnic groups in Viet Nam.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.9)

2300BC    The Hmong people lived on the central plains of China. They gradually moved to the mountains of Indochina and Burma and then to Laos and Thailand.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, DB p.2)
1950s        The Hmong had no written language until Christian missionaries began to show them increased attention.
    (MT, Sum. ‘98, p.7)
1960s        The CIA recruited these tribal people, farmers from the highlands of Laos, to help fight the Viet Cong.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, p.C-8)
1975-1980    A third of the Hmong people were killed when the US withdrew from Laos.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, DB p.2)
1992        The Hmong began living at the Tham Krabok Buddhist monastery after monk traveled into the mountains to free 2,000 Hmong from opium addiction.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A10)
1995        Thailand announced that it would close all of its refugee camps. This would force the 4,500 Hmong remaining in those camps to either go to the US or return to Laos.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, p.C-8)
1996        May 26, About 3,000 Hmong from refugee camps in Thailand are expected to arrive to the San Joaquin Valley in California where 65,000 are already living.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, p.C-8)
1996        Jun, Dia Cha wrote “Dia’s Story Cloth: The Hmong People’s Journey to Freedom."
    (SFC, 6/9/96, DB p.2)
1997        Jun, In this year 25,000 Hmong lived in Laos, 18,000 in Thailand and 140,000 in the US with some 48,500 in the San Joaquin Valley of Calif. A clan of 15,000 lived at the Tham Krabok Buddhist monastery north of Bangkok.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A8)
1997        Anne Fadiman wrote “The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures." It was about the Hmong in Merced, Ca.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.4)

Hottentots

1905        Oct 29, Hottentot chief Hendrik Witbooi was fatally injured.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

Huastecs

        A native Mexican tribe that lived north of the Aztecs. Their fertility goddess was named Tlazolteotl, and was adopted by the Aztecs.
    (NH, 4/97, p.25)

Huns

434-453    Attila the Hun was known in western Europe as the "Scourge of God." Attila was the king of the Huns from 434 to 453 and one of the greatest of the barbarian rulers to assail the Roman Empire.
    (HNQ, 12/19/98)
451AD        Jun 20, Roman and Barbarian warriors halted Attila’s army at the Catalaunian Plains in eastern France. Attila the Hun was defeated by a combined Roman and Visigothic army. The Huns moved south into Italy but were defeated again.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.88) (HN, 6/20/98)
451        Apr 7, Attila's Huns plundered Metz.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
452AD        Jun 8, Italy was invaded by Attila the Hun.
    (HN, 6/8/98)
452AD        Attila the Hun died.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.88)

Igbo
        At Ebo landing on St. Simons Island off the coast of Georgia, it is rumored that the ghosts of Igbo tribesman captured in West Africa and transported there to become plantation slaves still roam the shores.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-7)   

Inuit   

1948        James Houston, Canadian author, flew into the Arctic Circle and spent 14 years with Inuit people. In 1996 he published “Confessions of an Igloo Dweller, Memories of the Old Arctic."
    (SFC, 9/1/96, BR p.4)
1995         Oct. These people of Northern Quebec have about 4,300 eligible voters to voice their opinion on whether to remain a part of Canada.
    (WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-16)
1999         April 1, In recognition of Inuit land claims, a huge chunk of the Canadian Northwest Territories' Central Keewatin and Baffin Region will become Nunavut Territory.
    (CAM, Nov.Dec. '95, p.28)

Isle of Man

Known in its Celtic language of Manx as Ellan Vannin. The island in the middle of the Irish Sea is 220 sq. miles with a population of 70,000. It is not part of the United Kingdom but the queen of England is the feudal Lord of Man.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.T3)

979        The Isle of Man parliament, the Tynwald Court, was established.
    (SSFC, 8/13/06, p.G5)
1907        On the Isle of Man the motorbike race for the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy, was started.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.T13)
1973        Aug 3, A flash fire killed 51 at amusement park on the Isle of Man, UK.
    (SC, 8/3/02)
1974        Ned Mandrell, the last native speaker of Manx, died. The Goidelic language, similar to Irish and Scots Gaelic, was once spoken on the Isle of Man.
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.72)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manx_language)
2013        Jun 15, Britain clinched a deal with its major offshore tax havens on Saturday that will see 10 British overseas territories and crown dependencies sign up to international protocols on information sharing. Those included were Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Anguilla, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man.
    (Reuters, 6/15/13)

Jersey and Guernsey

Jersey is a 45-square-mile (118-square-km) British Crown dependency, off the coast of France. Its capital is St Heliare.
    (AP, 8/15/11)

1600-1603    Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) governed Jersey, a British Channel Island.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.59)
1813        Thomas De La Rue (1793-1866) launched a newspaper in Guernsey. He moved to London in 1821 and established a printing firm. It grew to become the world’s largest commercial banknote printer.
    (Econ, 8/11/12, p.50)(http://lunaticg.blogspot.com/2010/03/who-is-thomas-de-la-rue.html)
1940        The German occupiers of Jersey set a maximum tax rate of 20%. The low tax rate later attracted the bank deposits of British expatriates.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, SR p.5)
1969        Oct 1, The Channel Islands of Guernsey & Jersey begin issuing their own postage stamps.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regional_postage_in_Great_Britain)
1986        On the Channel Island of Jersey the Haut de la Garenne children's home closed down.
    (Econ, 3/1/08, p.58)
2004        On the Channel Island of Jersey a 19-year-old man originally from Northern Ireland tried to rape, then kicked to death, a 35-year-old nurse outside her home. It was the first murder here since the 1970s.
    (AP, 8/15/11)
2008        Feb 23, Police on the Channel Island of Jersey found a child's buried remains at Haut de la Garenne, a former children's home. They soon widened their search for bodies to six more sites in and around the home.
    (AFP, 2/25/08)(Econ, 3/1/08, p.58)
2009        Sep 21, Gordon Wateridge (78), a carer at the former Haut de la Garenne children’s home during the 1970s on the Channel island of Jersey, was jailed for two years for sexually assaulting teenage girls there.
    (AFP, 9/21/09)
2009        The population of Britain’s Channel Island of Jersey was about 92,000, with 13,000 people employed in financial services.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.59)
2011        Aug 14, In Jersey a Polish man (30) 6 people in a frenzied stabbing spree, the deadliest crime in memory on the Channel Island. Damian Rzeszowski stabbed to death his wife Izabela Rzeszowska (30) their two children, Kinga (5) and Kacper (2) in a flat in the capital St Helier. He also killed his wife's father Marek Garstka (56) and her friend Marta Dominika De La Haye (34) and five-year-old daughter Julia Frances. On Aug 24, 2012, Rzeszowski was convicted of manslaughter. On Oct 29, 2012, he was sentenced to 30 years in prison for each murder with the sentences to run concurrently.
    (AP, 8/15/11)(AFP, 8/25/11)(AP, 8/28/12)(AP, 10/29/12)
2012        The population of Jersey, a British Crown dependency off the coast of France, was about 98,000.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, p.70)
2013        Jun 15, Britain clinched a deal with its major offshore tax havens on Saturday that will see 10 British overseas territories and crown dependencies sign up to international protocols on information sharing. Those included were Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Anguilla, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man.
    (Reuters, 6/15/13)

Jurchens

c1000        A group of Asian people neighboring to China.
    (NH, 9/97, p.14)

Kaliningrad, aka Koenigsberg, Königsberg

1712        King Frederick I of Prussia presented his amber room, made as a gift by German artisans in 1701, to Peter the Great [1716]. Catherine the Great later added four marble panels from Florence, that were inlaid with precious stones. It was moved to Konigsberg in 1945 and then lost during WW II. One of the marble panels turned up in Bremen in 1997.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E6)(WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A20)
1716         Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I gave the Czar of Russia an elaborately carved amber chamber. In exchange, he received his wish: 55 very tall Russian soldiers. German troops dismantled it in 1941 and took it to Koenigsburg where it disappeared. In 1979 the Soviet government initiated a reconstruction, which was unveiled in 2003. [see 1701, 1712]
    (AP, 5/13/03)
1941        The amber room in St. Petersburg was dismantled by German officers and shipped to Konigsberg for safekeeping. The Allied bombing in 1945 was thought to have destroyed the work.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A16)
1945        Jan 30, Nazi SS guards shot down an estimated 4,000 Jewish prisoners on the Baltic coast at Palmnicken, Kaliningrad. The town was later renamed by the Russians to Yantarny. Some 7,000 prisoners had been marched 25 miles from Koenigsberg to a vacant lock factory at Palmnicken where they were mowed down with machine guns. The prisoners had been vacated from a network of 30 camps that made up Poland's Stutthoff concentration camp. 90% of the Jews were women from Lithuania and Hungary.
    (SFC, 1/31/00, p.C1)
1945        The Red Army took Koenigsberg, dynamited the city and killed or expelled the German population. They renamed it Kaliningrad after Mikhail Kalinin, the Soviet figurehead president.
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.7S)
2001        Jan 4, It was reported that Russia had moved nuclear warheads into storage areas at its Kaliningrad naval base over the past year. Russia called the charges a dangerous joke.
    (SFC, 1/4/01, p.A8)(SFC, 1/5/01, p.A20)
2002        Jul 10, In the Russian Baltic enclave of Kaliningrad a man was killed when a sign with an offensive slogan exploded as he tried to remove it from a park.
    (AP, 7/10/02)

Kalmykia

1993        Residents of the Kalmykia Region elected Kirsan Ilyumzhinov after her promised every citizen $100 if he won.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A10)
1994        The single independent newspaper of Kalmykia, Sovyetskaya Kalmykia, was shut down
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A12)
1998        Jun 8, Larisa Yudina (53), an independent journalist in Kalmykia, was found dead in a pond with a fractured skull and multiple stab wounds. She had pursued investigations of corruption of Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, the president of Kalmykia. The murder was called a political killing. Two aides of Ilyumzhinov were later arrested by the police and confessed to the killing.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A10)(SFC, 6/17/98, p.C2)
1998        Sep, Kalmykia hosted the 33rd Chess Olympiad in its newly built $30 million Chess city. Although some players refused to go over a 1000 showed up. The semi-autonomous republic of Russia had a population of 320,000 and is located on the Caspian Sea. Its capital was Elista and its president was Kirsan Ilyumzhinov
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A1)
2002        Oct 20, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, incumbent president of the Russian region of Kalmykia since 1993, led all vote-getters in a re-election bid. Ilyumzhinov, a millionaire and president of the international chess federation FIDE, led the field of 11 candidates with 47.6 percent of the vote. 
    (AP, 10/21/02)

Karelia

3.0-1.9 Billion BP    The Saamo-Karelian structural zone in the north-east of the Baltic shield evolved in this time and contains highly metamorphosed rocks and granites.
    (DD-EVTT, p.144)
1937-1938    Several hundred Americans were arrested in Karelia, near the Finnish border during the Stalin purges. Several thousand Americans and Canadians had moved there to help develop the Soviet timber industry.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 7/17/97, p.A10)(SFEC,11/9/97, p.A12)

Kassites

1600BC    The Kassites, a non-Semitic people, conquered most of Mesopotamia with the help of light chariot warfare.
    (http://eawc, p.3)
1595BC    The Hittites captured Babylon and retreated. They left the city open to Kassite domination which lasted about 300 years. The Kassites maintained the Sumerian/Babylonian culture without innovations of their own.
    (http://eawc, p.4)
1250BC    By this time the Assyrians committed themselves to conquering the Kassite Empire to the south.
    (http://eawc, p.4)

Khazaria

1395        Tamerlane burnt Astrakhan to the ground. Astrakhan is situated in the Volga Delta, a fertile area that formerly contained the capitals of Khazaria and the Golden Horde. Astrakhan itself was first mentioned by travelers in the early 13th century as Xacitarxan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrakhan)
1500-1600    The Kalmyk people, descendants from the Golden Horde of Genghis Khan, settled in the lowlands between the Volga and Don rivers (Khazaria) with their livestock.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A12)

Khitans

c1000        A group of Asian people neighboring to China.
    (NH, 9/97, p.14)

Kiwayu

        One of the spice islands off the coast of Kenya. The other is Lamu.
    (USA Today, 5/14/96, p.6D)

Koguryo

37BCE-448CE The Koguryo kingdom straddled what is now North Korea and part of South Korea and the northeastern Chinese region of Manchuria. It spread Buddhism throughout the region.
    (AP, 2/1/04)

Kongo

1400s        Kongo’s king, the Mani-Kongo, ruled six provinces and about two million people. The capital of the Kongo is Mbanza, built on a fertile plateau 100 miles east of the coast and 50 miles south of the Congo River in southwest Africa.
    (ATC, p.150)
1482        Captain Diego Cao sailed south along the African coast and landed at the mouth of the Zaire (Congo) River. He left four servants and took four Africans hostage back to his king, John, in Portugal. This was the first European encounter with the vast kingdom of the Kongo.
    (ATC, p.149)

Kosovo (see Serbia)

        A province of Serbia, capital is Pristina, with a population of nearly 2 million people who are mostly Albanian Muslims. The province was granted independent status by Tito.

1989        Milosevic of Serbia revoked the independent status of Kosovo.
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A13)

Kuban

1932-1933    Stalin imposed terror and famine on the Ukraine, Kuban and Kazakhstan that was carried out be Lazar Kaganovich.
    (WSJ, 2/14/96, p.A-15)

Kurile Islands

        A chain of island in the northwest Pacific between Hokaido and the Kamchatka Peninsula.
    (SFC, 1/19/99, p.A8)

1875        Russia recognized Japan's control over the 4 southernmost Kurile Islands.
    (SFC, 1/19/99, p.A8)
1998        Nov, Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi of Japan in a summit with Pres. Yeltsin agreed to give Russia close to $1 billion with $100 earmarked for the Kuriles.
    (SFC, 1/19/99, p.A8)

Kush

1500BC    By this time the kingdom of Kush was established south of Egypt. The Kushites were dark-complexioned Negroids.
    (http://eawc, p.4)

Ladakh

        A country west of Bhutan that was absorbed into British India during colonial times.
    (WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A1)

1820        Sep, William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived in Ladakh, while enroute to Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses. He spent 2 years here before continuing his journey.
    (ON, 1/02, p.5)

Lamu
        One of the spice islands off the coast of Kenya. The other is Kiwayu. It has the feel of a medieval Arabic trading village.
    (USA Today, 5/14/96, p.6D)

Liguria   

1797        A republic in NW Italy that was set up by Napoleon.
    (WUD, 1994, p.830)
1805        Liguria was incorporated into France.
    (WUD, 1994, p.830)
1814        The Kingdom of Sardinia was united with the Kingdom of Liguria.
    (WUD, 1994, p.830)
1849        Mar 23, Battle of Novara (King Charles Albert of Sardinia vs. Italian republic). Austria’s Gen. Radetzky (83) crushed the Piedmontese forces. Charles Albert abdicated and was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel II, who reigned until 1861.
    (PCh, 1992, p.449)(SS, 3/23/02)

Lombardy

        A region and former kingdom of northern Italy initially settled by an ancient Germanic tribe.
    (WUD, 1994, p.843)

1524        Chevalier Bayard, commander of French forces in Lombardy, was killed and the French were driven out.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

Lord Howe Island

    450 miles east of Sidney Australia.
    www.compuserve.com.au/lordhowe/island.htm

1833        The first settlers came to Lord Howe Island.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.69)
1875        All land on Lord Howe was declared Crown Land. No ownership was allowed but leases were granted in perpetuity.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.69)
1982        UNESCO declared Lord Howe Island a World Heritage Site.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.69)

Lusitania
        In Roman times the area of Portugal was a Roman province named Lusitania.
    (WUD, 1994, p.854)

Lycia

540BC        The population of Xanthos in Lycia (later Turkey) committed mass suicide rather than face slavery under invading armies.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, p.T5)

Lydia

2,000BC    The Hittites lived around what is now Cappadocia, Turkey. They mixed with the already-settled Hatti and were followed by the Lydians, Phrygians, Byzantines, Romans and Greeks.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T14)
640BC        The 1st coins were minted in Lydia (later part of Turkey) about this time, and featured face to face heads of a bull and lion.
    (SSFC, 12/3/00, WB p.2)(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)
585BC        May 25, The first known prediction of a solar eclipse was made [by Thales]. A historically registered eclipse occurred during the savage war between the Lydians and the Medians. The event caused both sides to stop military action and sign  for peace. The date of the eclipse coincides with the date in Oppolzer’s tables published in 1887.
    (SCTS, p.27)(HN, 5/25/98)
585BC        May 28, A solar eclipse, predicted by Thales of Miletus, interrupted a battle [a Persian-Lydian battle] outside of Sardis in western Turkey between the Medes and Lydians. The battle ended in a draw. [see May 25]
    (HN, 5/28/98)(HN, 5/28/99)
560-546BC    The rule of Croesus. The first coins were produced in Lydia under the rule of Croesus. It was a kingdom in western Turkey. Croesus made a treaty with the Spartans and attacked Persia and was defeated.
    (SFEC, 1/19/96, Parade p.5)(WUD, 1994, p.345)(WSJ, 11/11/99, p.A24)
546BC        The Persians destroyed Egypt’s alliance with the Chaldeans, Lydia and Sparta by first capturing Lydia then the Chaldaeans.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty26.html)
484-420BC    Herodotus claimed that the Etruscans were Lydians who had immigrated to Italy from Asia Minor. But modern scholars believe the Etruscans evolved from an indigenous population of Iron Age farmers of the Villanovan culture.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.710)
420BC        Pissuthnes, satrap of Lydia, revolted against the Persian king Darius II. The Persian soldier and statesman Tissaphernes a grandson of Hydarnes, was sent by Darius II to Lydia to arrest and execute Pissuthnes. Tissaphernes became satrap of Lydia in 415 BC and continue to fight Amorges, son of Pissuthnes.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lydia_%28satrapy%29)

Macao

1834        Jul 15, Lord Napier of England arrived at Macao, China as the first chief superintendent of trade.
    (HN, 7/15/98)
1849        Aug 22, The Portuguese governor of Macao, China, was assassinated because of his anti-Chinese policies.
    (HN, 8/22/98)
1866        Nov 12, Sun Yat-Sen (d.1925), Chinese statesman and revolutionary leader, was born (trad) to a Christian peasant near Macao. He attended an Anglican grammar school in Hawaii, and went on to graduate from Hong Kong School of Medicine in 1892.
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(AP, 6/22/97)(HNQ, 6/3/98)
1987        Apr 13, Portugal signed an agreement to return Macau to China in 1999.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

Macquarie Island

    Macquarie Island lies in the southwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, about half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macquarie_Island)

1810        Jul 11, The Australian-Briton Frederick Hasselborough discovered the uninhabited Macquarie island, half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica, accidentally when looking for new sealing grounds. The island took its name after Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macquarie_Island)
1820        Cats were introduce to Macquarie Island, located half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica. Rabbits were introduced in 1878. The eradication of cats led to an epidemic of rabbits, which devastated the native vegetation.   
    (Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.10)
1978        Macquarie Island, located half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica, became a Tasmanian State Reserve.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macquarie_Island)
1997        Macquarie Island, located half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica, became a World Heritage Site.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macquarie_Island)


Maoris

1350        Maori ancestors arrived at New Zealand on seven legendary canoes from Hawaiki, the mother-island of the east Polynesians.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, C. McCarry, p.196)

Maronites

        A group of people in Lebanon. They number about 1.3 million. Their declining numbers and civil war ended a long time political and economic dominance.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A8)

Marquesas Islands

        Ten rugged French Polynesian islands 3,500 from the US coast. Of the 12 islands of the Marquesan archipelago, only 6 were inhabited in 2000.
    (WSJ, 4/6/00, p.A20)

1596        The Marquesas Islands were visited by a Spanish ship.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T5)
1774        Captain Cook dropped anchor at the islands.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1791        The Islands were officially discovered. Over a 30 year period western diseases ravaged the populace and only about 2,000 of 100,000 people survived.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1842        France claimed the Marquesas Islands.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1898        Missionaries forbade the natives to tattoo their bodies.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1901        Paul Gauguin left Tahiti for the Marquesas and arrived at Hiva Oa.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T1,6)
1903        May 8, Paul Gauguin (b.1848), French born painter, died at his home on the Marquesas Islands. He was buried at Atuona on Hiva Oa Island.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C9)
1978        Oct 9, Jacques Brel, Belgian cabaret singer, died at 49. He was buried at Atuona on the Marquesas Island of Hiva Oa.
    (MC, 10/9/01)(SSFC, 10/11/03, p.C9)
1999        Dec 28, Many tourists showed up for the 5th  of the Marquesas Arts Festivals. The Aranui cargo ship made stops at the Marquesas.
    (WSJ, 4/6/00, p.A20)
2002        Survivor 4 was filmed on Nuku Hiva, the largest of the 12 Marquesa Islands.
    (SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C9)

Mauretania

Mauretania is a part of the historical Ancient Libyan land in North Africa. It corresponds to present day Morocco and a part of western Algeria.
Mauritania is named after the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania, which later became a province of the Roman Empire, even though the modern state covers a territory far to the southwest of the old kingdom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mauritania)

49BC        Mauretania (now northern Morocco and Algeria) became a client kingdom of Rome.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.22)
40AD        Mauretania was divided into the provinces of Tingitana and Caesariensis.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.22)
439AD        The Vandals took Carthage and quickly conquered all the coastal lands of Algeria and Tunisia. Egypt and the Libyan coast remained in Roman hands.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)
c439        In Mauretania (now northern Morocco and Algeria) Roman rule ceased in the mid 5th century when barbarian incursions forced the legions to withdraw.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.)

Media

    An ancient country in W. Asia, south of the Caspian Sea, that now corresponds with NW Iran. Its capital was Ecbatana.
    (WUD, 1994, p.890)

3,0000BCE    Urartu existed in eastern Anatolia starting about his time until it was defeated and destroyed by the Medes.
    (http://www.atmg.org/ArmenianFAQ.html#q6)
700-600BCE      A migration of the Cimmerians and Scythians took place in the seventh century BC. These were nomadic tribes from the Russian steppes, who made their way round the eastern end of the Caucasus, burst through into the Moghan plains and the basin of Lake Urmia, and terrorized Western Asia for several generations, till they were broken by the power of the Medes and absorbed in the native population. It was they who made an end of the Kingdom of Urartu, and the language they brought with them was probably an Indo-European dialect answering to the basic element in modern Armenian.
    (http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce2.htm)
614BC        The Babylonians (particularly, the Chaldeans) with the help of the Medes, who occupied what is today Iran, began a campaign to destroy the Assyrians.
    (http://eawc, p.8)
585BC        May 25, The first known prediction of a solar eclipse was made [by Thales]. A historically registered eclipse occurred during the savage war between the Lydians and the Medians. The event caused both sides to stop military action and sign  for peace. The date of the eclipse coincides with the date in Oppolzer’s tables published in 1887.
    (SCTS, p.27)(HN, 5/25/98)
410BC        Darius II, ruler of Persia, quelled a revolt in Media but lost control of Egypt.
    (http://cojs.org/cojswiki/Darius_II_Nothus,_423-404_BCE)

MENA   

1995        Middle East / North Africa economic region. It represents a proposed trading
    block that stretches from Morocco to Oman.
    (WSJ, 10/27/95, p.A-1)

Mercosur

        A South American Common market.
    (WSJ, 2/14/97, p.A9)

1991        Brazil implemented a  common external tariff with its Mercosur partners, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay.
    (USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.5)
1994        The Mercosur Customs Union was created among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
    (WSJ, 12/20/95, p.A-10)
1996        Bolivia joined Mercosur, the Southern Cone Common Market, as an associated member.
    (WSJ, 2/14/97, p.A9)

Midianites

c1200BC    The father-in-law of Moses was a Midianite.
    (MT, Spg. ‘97, p.11)

Midway Islands

1867        Aug 28, The US occupied the Midway Islands in Pacific.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, Z1 p.8)(MC, 8/28/01)
1899        Jan 17, US took possession of Wake Island in Pacific.
    (MC, 1/17/02)
1903        Jul 3, The first cable across the Pacific Ocean was spliced between Honolulu, Midway, Guam and Manila. Teddy Roosevelt placed the atoll of Midway Island under Navy supervision. The Commercial Pacific Cable Co. (later AT&T) set cable across the Pacific via Midway Island and the first around the world message was sent. The message took 9 minutes to circle the globe.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.T5)(HN, 7/3/98)
1906        The Commercial Pacific Cable Co. (later AT&T) planted ironwood trees on Midway Island after setting cable across the Pacific.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.T5)
1934        A hotel was built on Midway Island to service the Pan Am Clipper.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.T5)
1935        Mar 27, The steamer North Haven departed San Francisco with 2 prefabricated hotels and other supplies to establish bases on Wake and Guam Islands in the Marianas to support Pan Am flights.
    (SFEM, 2/13/00, p.32)
1941        Dec 14, U.S. Marines made a stand in battle for Wake Island.
    (AP, 12/14/02)
1941        Dec 23, US Marines and Navy defenders on Wake Island capitulated to a second Japanese invasion. In 1995 Brig. Gen. John F. Kinney co-wrote “Wake Island Pilot: A World War II Memoir."
    (AP, 12/23/97)(HN, 12/23/00)(SFC, 7/11/06, p.B5)
1942        May 2, Admiral Chester J. Nimitz, convinced that the Japanese would attack Midway Island, visited the island to review its readiness.
    (HN, 5/2/99)
1942        Jun 2, The American aircraft carriers Enterprise, Hornet and Yorktown moved into their battle positions for the Battle of Midway.
    (HN, 6/2/99)
1942        Jun 4, The Battle of Midway began. It was Japan’s first major defeat in World War II. Four Japanese carriers were lost. The carrier USS Yorktown was hit by 3 Japanese bombs and put on tow to Pearl Harbor. It was torpedoed three days later and sank in waters 16,650 deep. The Yorktown was found in 1998 by a team led by oceanographer Robert Ballard, who had also found the Titanic and the Bismarck. The story of the Battle of Midway was told by Walter Lord in "Incredible Victory." In 2005 Alvin Kernan authored “The Unknown Battle of Midway."
    (AP, 6/4/97)(HN, 6/4/98)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A3)(SFEC, 6/4/00, p.C1)(WSJ, 11/29/05, p.D8)
1969        Jun 8, Pres. Nixon held a clandestine meeting with South Vietnam Pres. Thieu at Midway Island in an effort to end the war.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.T5)(http://nixon.archives.gov/virtuallibrary/gallery.php)

Minaro
        A people who speak Tibetan and live on the Dansar plain, a high plateau between India and Pakistan. They still preserve some stone-age customs.
    (SFC, 11/25/96, p.A3)

Mixtec

        An indigenous Indian people from the area around Oaxaca, Mexico. Every March 1 they observe the Viko Ndute, or Festival of Water, wherein they serve food and drink to the Earth so that she will produce.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-11)

1000AD    The Mixtecs took over the area around Monte Alban in the now Mexican state of Oaxaca.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-8)

Minoans

2200-1600    The Minoans built Akrotiri. The town had 2-3 story houses with toilets and had a central drainage system.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T6)
2000-1600BC    The Middle Minoan period. Middle Minoan I finds polychrome decoration in pottery with elaborate geometrical patterns; we also discover interesting attempts to picture natural forms, such as goats and beetles. There then follows some great catastrophe. Middle Minoan II includes the period of the great palace of Phaestos and the first palace of Knossos. This period also includes the magnificent polychrome pottery called Kamares ware. Another catastrophe occurs. The second great palace of Knossos was built and begins the Middle Minoan III. It was distinguished by an intense realism in art, speaking clearly of a rapid deterioration in taste. Pictographic writing was clearly developed, with a hieratic or cursive script derived from it, adapted for writing with pen and ink.
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.17)
2000-1500BC    The Minoan civilization, named after the Cretan ruler Minos, reached its height with central power in Knossos on the isle of Crete. The culture was apparently more female-oriented and peaceful than others of the time.
    (http://eawc, p.2)
1700BC    Knossos was first destroyed by an earthquake.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A8)
c1520        The volcanic island of Thera, later known as Santorini, blew up. [[see 1645BC, 1500BC, 1470BC and 1400-1300 for alternate dates]
1500        The explosion of Thira (Santorini) released energy equal to 200,000 H-bombs. [see 1645BC and 1470BC]
    (NH, 5/96, p.3)
1500BC    Akrotiri on Santorini was flooded and covered by pumice and volcanic ash. The 30,000 inhabitants probably had advanced warning because no skeletons have been found.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T6)
1470BC    The volcano Thera, or Santorini, erupted in the Mediterranean. It may correspond to the ninth plague of Egypt recorded in Exodus as the “darkness over Egypt." [see 1645BC and 1500BC for alternate date]
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.129)
c1450BC    The eruption of the volcano on Santorini Island triggered earthquakes and tidal waves that may have destroyed most of the Minoan cities and palaces. [see 1470BC]
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T11)
1899        Sir Arthur Evans discovered the center of Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. He erected a house overlooking the excavations and named it Villa Ariadne after the daughter of King Minos. As he unearthed a mound at Knossos he rebuilt parts of a 3,500 year-old palace in modernist style. In 2009 Cathy Gere authored “Knossos and the Prophets of Modernism."
    (WSJ, 6/26/98, p.W9)(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.AW9)(Econ, 5/16/09, p.91)


Moldavia

    Bessarabia is a region in Moldavia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.)

1546        The Turks occupied Moldavia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1546-1568    Alexandru Lapuseanu, ruler of Moldavia, outlawed divorce and imposed the death penalty on anyone who started such legal proceedings.
    (SFC, 6/2/96, Zone 1p.2)
1723        Dimitrie Cantemir (b.1673), 2-time Prince of Moldavia (1693 & 1710-1711), died near Kharkov, Ukraine. He was born in what is now Romania and became a prolific man of letters with talents as a philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer. Between 1687 and 1710 he lived in forced exile in Istanbul, where he learned Turkish and studied the history of the Ottoman Empire at the Patriarchate's Greek Academy, where he also composed music.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimitrie_Cantemir)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)
1939        Aug 23, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav M. Molotov signed a Treaty of Non-Aggression, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Secret protocols, made public years later, were added that assigned Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia (a region in Moldavia) to be within the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland was partitioned along the rivers Narev, Vistula and San. Germany retained Lithuania enlarged by the inclusion of Vilnius. Just days after the signing, Germany invaded Poland, and by the end of September, both powers had claimed sections of Poland. World War II and Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union were just around the corner.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(DrEE, 9/28/96, p.3)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(AP, 8/23/97)(HNPD, 8/22/98)
1991        Aug 27, Moldavia declared independence from USSR.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

Molucca Islands (Spice Islands)

31,000BC    In the northern Moluccas humans were visiting the coastal caves of Golo and Wetef on Gebe Island at this time.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.21)

1512        Portuguese explorers discovered the Celebes and found nutmeg trees in the Moluccas. This began an 84-year monopoly of the nutmeg and mace trades.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1942        Feb 9, Japanese troops landed near Makassar, South Celebes.
    (MC, 2/9/02)
1975        Dec 14, Six South Moluccan extremists surrendered after holding 23 hostages for 12 days on a train near the Dutch town of Beilen.
    (AP, 12/14/00)
1977        Jun 11, A 20-day hostage drama in the Netherlands ended as Dutch marines stormed a train and a school held by South Moluccan extremists. Six gunmen and two hostages on the train were killed.
    (AP, 6/11/97)
1999        Dec 2-4, In Indonesia 3-days of violence in the Maluku Islands (Moluccas) left 31 people dead. Violence that began a year ago had left 700 dead.
    (SFC, 12/6/99, p.A14)
2000        Jun 19, In Indonesia sectarian fighting killed as many as 161 people in the Maluku Islands, also known as the Moluccas or Spice Islands. Thousands of Muslims attacked Christians in the village of Duma.
    (WSJ, 6/20/00, p.A1)(SFC, 6/21/00, p.A13)

Moravia

        A region in the East Czech Republic. A former province of Austria. Moravians formed a Christian denomination that descended from the Bohemian Brethren  that held that the Scriptures are the only rule of faith and practice. Moravian is also a dialect of Czech spoken in Moravia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.930)

1528        Jacob Hutter (d.1536), Anabaptist evangelist from South Tyrol, founded a "community of love," whose members shared everything. They settled in Moravia due to the religious tolerance there.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_Hutter)
1592-1670    The Moravian prelate Jan Komensky wrote in Latin and German and was offered the presidency of Harvard.
    (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)
1772        Dec 22, A Moravian missionary constructed the 1st schoolhouse west of Allegheny.
    (MC, 12/22/01)
1774        Dec 18, Empress Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Prague, Bohemia and Moravia.
    (MC, 12/18/01)
1906        Apr 28, Kurt Gödel (d.1978), Austrian mathematician, was born in the Moravian city of Brno. Godel later developed his incompleteness theorem showing that within any logical system, no matter how rigidly structured, there are always questions that cannot be answered with certainty, contradictions that may be discovered, and errors that may lurk.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.340)(SFC, 6/14/05, p.D2)
       
Mycenae

1300        A Levantine city-state.
    (MT, 3/96, p.3)

Navarre

        A former kingdom in SW France and Northern Spain.
    (WUD, 1994, p.953)

1540        Ruffs as accordion-style collars was a fashion brought to Europe from India and popularized by the queen of Navarre.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

Netherlands Antilles

The Netherlands Antilles, previously known as the Netherlands West Indies or Dutch Antilles/West Indies, is part of the Lesser Antilles and consists of two groups of islands in the Caribbean Sea: Curaçao and Bonaire, just off the Venezuelan coast, and Sint Eustatius, Saba and Sint Maarten, located southeast of the Virgin Islands.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands_Antilles)
The Dutch island of Bonaire is 50 miles off the coast of Venezuela. It has a lush band of reef surrounding the island. The capital is Kralendijk. The Dutch side of St. Martin, called St. Maarten, is part of the Netherland Antilles.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T8)(SFEC, 2/16/96, p.T6)
Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao of the Netherland Antilles are located off of Venezuela. ABC Islands.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.28)

1493        Nov 11, The island of St. Martin was sighted and named by Columbus, though the explorer never landed there. The Dutch and French agreed to divide control of the island in 1648, but often clashed over where the border should be until a final pact in 1817.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Martin)(AP, 9/18/10)
1493        Nov 13, Columbus sighted Saba, North Leeward Islands (Netherland Antilles).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saba)
1648        The island of St. Martin in the Lesser Antilles was divided between the French and Dutch. The southern half went to the Dutch as Sint Maarten, while the northern half, Saint Martin, became part of the French department of Guadeloupe. Legend has it that a Dutchman and a Frenchman stood back to back at the center of the island and paced of their shares. The Dutchman stopped often to drink beer and was left with the smaller share.
    (NH, 10/96, p.60) (SFEC, 2/16/96, p.T6)
1793        The courthouse at the St. Maarten Dutch capital of Philipsburg was built.
    (SFEC, 2/16/96, p.T7)
1795        Aug 25, Curacao slaves opponents returned to St Christopher.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)
1804        Jan 31, British vice-admiral William Bligh (of HMS Bounty infamy) fleet reached Curacao (Antilles).
    (MC, 1/31/02)
1832        Dec 25, Charles Darwin celebrated Christmas in St. Martin at Cape Receiver.
    (MC, 12/25/01)
1937        Mar 1, Governor Wouters inaugurated a radio station on the Dutch Antilles.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1942        Feb 16, German submarines attacked an Aruba oil refinery and sank the tanker Pedernales.
    (MC, 2/16/02)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C11)
1952        May 29, A 2nd Round Conference between Dutch Antilles and Suriname ended.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1954        Dec 15, With the proclamation of the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles attained equal status with the Netherlands proper and Suriname in the overarching Kingdom of the Netherlands.
    (SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cura%C3%A7ao_and_Dependencies)
1960s    Turtles became legally protected in the mid 60s.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T8)
1971        Bonaire, Netherland Antilles, outlawed spearfishing off the island.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T8)(www.geographia.com/bonaire/bondiv01.htm)
1979        A Marine Park was legislated to protect everything living or dead from the high tide mark to a depth of 200 feet.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T8)
1984        The Hilma Hooker, a 235 ton freighter, sank off the coast.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T8)
1992        The Marine Park established an annual $10 park entrance fee to make it self-supporting.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T8)
2002        Aug 31, The justice minister of the Netherlands Antilles said Colombian assassins are behind a series of execution-style slayings in Curacao, which has seen drug seizures soar in recent years. There have been 28 killings since the beginning of the year.
    (AP, 8/31/02)
2003        May 23, The Democratic Party in the Dutch Caribbean territory of St. Maarten won legislative elections, winning support for its platform of working with the regional government before seeking independence from the Netherlands.
    (AP, 5/24/03)
2006        Jan 27, Five Caribbean islands held their last parliamentary elections as members of a unified Netherlands Antilles. Curacao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, Saba and St. Eustatius have set a target date of July 1, 2007 for breaking off to form their own governments.
    (AP, 1/27/06)
2006        Nov 2, In St. Maarten 4 French nationals were convicted of beating two gay American tourists on Guadelupe and were sentenced to between six months and six years in prison.
    (AP, 11/2/06)
2007        Jul 20, On the Caribbean island of St. Maarten Georgia state athletes Randy Newton and Bryan Kilgore were killed. Michael Registe was later accused of the murders and faced extradition.
    (SSFC, 7/19/09, p.A6)
2009        Jan 19, Some 25 people, most of them Haitians, were aboard an overloaded boat that was illegally traveling the 100-mile (160-kilometer) passage from the Dutch territory of St. Maarten to the British Virgin Islands. They were apparently island-hopping in hopes of eventually reaching US shores when the boat hit a reef, pitching passengers into the ocean. 13 migrants were rescued by a passing fishing boat. In September 4 men, two Sri Lankans and two residents of St. Kitts, were convicted and sentenced to prison terms ranging up to 2 1/2 years for organizing the doomed sea voyage from St. Maarten.
    (AP, 1/21/09)(AP, 9/22/09)
2009        Sep 25, On the Dutch Caribbean island of Curacao James Hogan (49), a US diplomat, was reported missing by his wife. On Oct 1 authorities confirmed that DNA on bloody clothes found along Baya Beach matched with Hogan. Curacao, the headquarters of the Netherlands Antilles government, lies about 40 miles (65km) off Venezuela's coast.
    (AP, 10/2/09)
2009        Nov 2, The Netherlands Antilles launched an amnesty program that would provide residence and working papers for thousands of illegal immigrants. An estimated 70,000 immigrants lived in the 5 Dutch islands without valid papers or work permits.
    (SFC, 11/5/09, p.A2)
2010        Sep 17, In St. Maarten two major parties expected to dominate the election of 15 parliamentary representatives who will lead the Dutch territory when it becomes an autonomous country next month. St. Maarten and Curacao will become countries within the Dutch kingdom when the Netherlands Antilles are dissolved Oct. 10. The islands of Saba, St. Eustatius and Bonaire will become special Dutch municipalities and respond directly to the Dutch government.
    (AP, 9/17/10)
2010        Oct 10, Curacao, St Maarten, Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius were scheduled to go their own ways. The former Dutch Caribbean colonies of Curacao and St. Maarten became autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in a change of constitutional status dissolving the Netherlands Antilles.
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.38)(Reuters, 10/10/10)
2010        St. Maarten has about 40,000 citizens on its 13 square mile (34 square km) territory, the southern third of an island shared with French-ruled St. Martin. It is the smallest land mass in the world to be divided between two sovereign nations.
    (AP, 9/18/10)
2012        Jan 21, Dutch sailor Laura Dekker (16) set foot aboard a dock in St. Maarten, ending a yearlong voyage aboard a sailboat named "Guppy" that apparently made her the youngest person ever to sail alone around the globe. She had set out from St. Maarten on Jan. 20, 2011.
    (AP, 1/21/12)
2013        Dec, Chikungunya fever, a mosquito-born virus common in Africa and Asia, was first detected in the Caribbean region on St. Martin and soon spread across across the region and onto South and Central America.
    (Econ, 5/10/14, p.35)
2014        Jan 15, It was reported that some 200 cases of chikungunya, a debilitating sickness due to a mosquito-borne virus, have been diagnosed in St. Martin, and that the virus has spread to St. Maarten. New cases were also confirmed in Martinique, Guadeloupe and St. Barthelemy.
    (SFC, 1/15/14, p.A2)

New Guinea see Papua

Nieu
    A Polynesian island.

1971        Australia joined with New Zealand and 14 independent of self-governing island nations to form the South Pacific Forum. The name was changed in 2000 to Pacific Islands Forum. Member states include: Australia, the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Since 2006, associate members territories are New Caledonia and French Polynesia.
    (Econ, 10/20/07, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islands_Forum)
1997        Nov, Nieu began to register internet domain web sites with its country-code letters .nu after Tonga’s success.
    (WSJ, 12/8/97, p.B21E)
1998        Nov 15, Nauru and Niue registered to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (WSJ, 11/16/98, p.B7C)
2011        Apr 5, The Pacific nation of Niue has printed unusual commemorative stamps for Britain's royal wedding: an image of Prince William and Kate Middleton with perforations that split the couple down the middle.
    (AP, 4/5/11)
2013        Nov 7, China’s Vice Premier Wang Yang said China will provide a concessionary loan of up to $1 billion to Pacific island nations to support construction projects in a part of the world where Beijing and Taiwan compete for influence. He made the announcement at a forum with Pacific island nations in Guangzhou at a meeting attended by representatives from Micronesia, Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Cook Islands, Tonga, Niue and Fiji.
    (Reuters, 11/8/13)

Norfolk Island

        A 3 by 5 mile volcanic outcrop halfway between New Caledonia and New Zealand.
    www.australia.com

1774        Captain Cook discovered Norfolk Island and dubbed it "paradise" in his log. The British later turned it into a penal colony and resettled the inhabitants of Pitcairn island there in 1856.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.66)
1856        Jun 8, The British resettled 194 people from Pitcairn Island onto Norfolk Island.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.66)
1979        Norfolk Island, settled in 1856 by the descendants of Fletcher Christian and other Bounty mutineers, began governing itself.
    (AFP, 3/19/15)
2002        Mar 31, On Norfolk Island Glenn McNeill (24) of New Zealand hit Janelle Patton (29) with his car and later stabbed her "just to make sure she was dead." McNeill was arrested in 2006 based on DNA evidence. In 2007 McNeill told police he had been smoking cannabis when he hit Patton.
    (AFP, 2/7/07)
2015        Mar 19, Australia said it would introduce legislation next week to scrap the parliament of Norfolk Island, which was effectively bankrupt, and temporarily replace it by an advisory council before local government elections in 2016.
    (AFP, 3/19/15)


Numidia
    see Algeria

Nung

        A people that originated in China’s Guangxi province bordering on Vietnam. They were first recruited by the French to fight Ho Chi Minh’s Communist guerrillas during the first Indochina War. After the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu they moved south and settled around Binh Thuan province.   
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A10)

1964        American Green Beret units in Vietnam formed several all-Nung units.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A10)
1973        Many of the Nung joined the South Vietnamese army after American ground forces were withdrawn.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A10)
1990-91    The Nung made their way to Hong Kong as boat people.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A10)

Nyasaland    [see Malawi]

Orange
    A small principality of western Europe

1564        Dec 31, Willem of Orange demanded freedom of conscience and religion.
    (MC, 12/31/01)
1577        Sep 23, William of Orange made his triumphant entry into Brussels, Belgium.
    (HN, 9/23/98)
1585        Elizabeth extended her protection to The Netherlands against Spain to avenge the murder of William of Orange.
    (TL-MB, p.24)
1650        Nov 4, William III, Prince of Orange and King of England, was born. [see Nov 14]
    (HN, 11/4/98)
1660-1731    Daniel Defoe, English novelist and political journalist. He was born as Daniel Foe and became a successful merchant in woolen goods. For a time he was jailed due to his debts. He became a supporter of William of Orange and wrote over 500 publications on his behalf. Some regard him as the father of modern journalism. Among other works he wrote "Robinson Crusoe," "Moll Flanders," "General Histories of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates," "A Tour of the Whole Island of Great Britain," and  “Journal of the Plague Year." In 1999 Richard West published "Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures."
    (WUD, 1994, p.379)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)
1667        Jun 18, The Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames and threatened London. They burned 3 ships and captured the English flagship in what came to be called the Glorious Revolution, in which William of Orange replaced James Stuart.
    (HN, 6/18/98)(WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)
1677        Nov 4, William and Mary were married in England. William of Orange married his cousin Mary (daughter to James, Duke of York and the same James II who fled in 1688).
    (HN, 11/4/98)(HNQ, 12/28/00)
1688        Dec 10, King James II fled London as "Glorious Revolution" replaced him with King William (of Orange) and Queen Mary. [see Dec 11]
    (MC, 12/10/01)
1688        Dec 11, James II abdicated the throne because of William of Orange landing in England.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

Ostrogoths

493        Mar 3, Ostrogothen King Theodorik the Great beat Odoacer.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
526        Aug 30, Theodorik the Great (72), King of Ostrogoths, died of dysentery. He was succeeded by his grandson Athalaric (10), who reigned until 534 with his mother Amalasuntha as regent.
    (PC, 1992, p.54)
535        Apr 30, Amalaswintha, queen of Ostrogothen, was murdered.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

Palmyra Atoll

        A cluster of coral islets 1,052 miles south of Hawaii.
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A9)

1802        An American captain of the ship Palmyra blew ashore and named the atoll Palmyra after his ship.
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A9)
1862        Two New Zealanders, who married Hawaiian women, obtained a deed to Palmyra Atoll from King Kamehameha V.
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A9)
1898        Palmyra was excluded from the annexation of Hawaii to the US.
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A9)
1922        A family of Honolulu roofing contractors, the Fullard-Leos, purchased Palmyra for $70,000.
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A9)
1938        A feud began between the Fullard-Leos and the US Navy, which built an airstrip on Palmyra and used it as a base during WW II.
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A9)
2000        May, The Nature Conservancy agreed to buy Palmyra Atoll for use as a nature preserve
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A9)

Olmec

1200-400BC    The Olmecs built impressive cities and established trade routes throughout Mesoamerica, that included settlements at La Venta and Tres Zapotes.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)
1400-400BC    The earliest known civilization of Mesoamerica. It profoundly influenced the subsequent civilizations of the Maya and Aztec. They inhabited the Gulf Coast region of what is now Mexico and Central America. Objects of their culture are being exhibited at Princeton Univ. and will move to Houston in April.
    (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)
1200-300BC    The Olmec people ruled southern Mexico and northern Central America.
    (WSJ, 7/2/96, p.A12)

Palau

    A former US trust territory of 8 inhabited islands.

1944        Mar 30, The U.S. fleet attacked Palau, near the Philippines.
    (HN, 3/30/98)
1994        Palau became an independent nation.
    (WSJ, 7/31/97, p.A1)

Parthia

        An ancient country in west Asia southeast of the Caspian Sea.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1051)

250BC        A finely burnished red pottery was introduced by the Parthians into northern Oman.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.53)
226AD        The Iranians conquered the Parthians.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1051)

Phoenicians

c1500BC    Linguistic evidence shows that the Canaanites (now more commonly known as the Phoenicians) were non-Jewish Semites whose language was almost identical with Hebrew.
    (MT, Spg. ‘97, p.12)(L.C.-W.P.p.87-89)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)
900BC-700BC     In 2008 archeologists found pottery in Tyre, Lebanon, that was used by Phoenicians during this period.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Oct 30, Scientists reported that 1 in 17 men living on the coasts of North Africa and southern europe may have a Phoenician direct male line ancestor. Evidence was based on Y-chromosomes collected in Cyprus, Malta, Morocco, the West Bank, Syria and Tunisia.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.A14)

Philistines

Called the Peleset by the Egyptians, the Philistines ruled over a five city-state federation known as the Pentapolis. They ruled as a military aristocracy over a predominately Canaanite population. The five capitals were Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Gath and Ekron.
    (HNQ, 5/6/99)

Phrygia

        An ancient country in central and NW Asia Minor, later Turkey.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1086)
        The classic myth of Cybele, goddess of fertility, and her love for the young mortal, Atys, formed the basis for the 18th century opera by Lully and Quinault. The myth was set in Phrygia. According to classical myths, priests of the cult of Cybele were required to perform self-castration.
    (PNM, 1/25/98, p.5)

2,000BC    The Hittites lived around what is now Cappadocia, Turkey. They mixed with the already-settled Hatti and were followed by the Lydians, Phrygians, Byzantines, Romans and Greeks.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T14)
738-696    King Midas ruled over this period according to Eusebios.
    (AM, 7/01, p.33)
c700BC    Nomadic Kimmerians attacked Phrygia. Strabo later reported that Midas committed suicide at the time of the Kimmerian invasion.
    (AM, 7/01, p.33)
c700BC    A Phrygian king, possibly Midas, ruled into his 60s and was buried in what came to be called the Tumulus Midas Mound at Gordion (later central Turkey). Midas was linked with the worship of the goddess Matar.
    (AM, 7/01, p.27)
301 BC    The generals of Alexander the Great fought the Battle of Ipsus in Phrygia that resulted in the division of the Greek Empire into 4 divisions ruled by Seleucus, Lysimachus, Cassander and Ptolemy. Greek cities revolted against Macedonian rule but to no avail.
    (http://eawc, p.13)
156CE        Montanus of Phrygia (central Asia Minor) pronounced himself to be the incarnation of the Holy Spirit and that the New Jerusalem was about to come crashing down and land in Phrygia. His followers were called Montanists.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.34)

Picts
        They drank a heather ale and fought the Romans in Scotland.
    (Hem., 8/96, p.113)

Pitcairn Island

Part of the Cook Islands

1790        Fletcher Christian and the mutineers of the HMS Bounty settled at Pitcairn Island.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1097)(SFC, 6/12/97, p.A14)
1808        The American whaling ship Topaz found one of the bounty mutineers living on Pitcairn Island among many women and children. The other men had all died mostly in conflict over the Tahitian women.
    (ON, 3/04, p.11)
1856        Jun 8, The British resettled 194 people from Pitcairn Island onto Norfolk Island.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.66)
2004        Oct 24, Six men on Pitcairn Island were convicted of charges ranging from rape to indecent assault following trials that exposed a culture of sexual abuse.
    (AP, 10/25/04)
2006        Oct 30, In London 6 men from remote Pitcairn Island lost their final appeal against their convictions for a string of sex attacks dating back 40 years.
    (AP, 10/30/06)
2013        The Pitcairn Islands, home to 65 descendants of the Bounty mutineers, hoped to establish a marine protected area of some 830,000 square km in its exclusive economic zone.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.50)

Polynesia (See French Polynesia)

    One of 3 principal divisions of Oceania, comprising those island groups in the Pacific lying E. of Melanesia and Micronesia and extending from the Hawaiian Islands S. to New Zealand.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1115)

1905        Feb 8, A cyclone hit Tahiti and adjacent islands killing some 10,000 people.
    (MC, 2/8/02)
1947         Aug 7, The balsa wood raft Kon-Tiki, which had carried a six-man crew 4,300 miles across the Pacific Ocean, crashed into a reef in a Polynesian archipelago. [see Apr 28]
    (AP, 8/7/97)
1976        May 1, Kawika Kapahulehua (d.2007 at 76), leading a 15-man crew on a double-hulled canoe with sails, departed Hawaii to Tahiti. Organizer and anthropologist Ben Finney wanted to prove the trip was possible. They reached Tahiti after 34 days despite issues of ethnicity raised by part of the crew. Mau Piailug (1932-2010), Micronesian master navigator, steered the Hokule’a (Star of Gladness) by the stars, the feel of the wind and the look of the sea. 
    (SFC, 5/28/07, p.D3)(Econ, 7/24/10, p.84)

Pontus

80sBC        Mithridates, ruler of Pontus in the north of Asia Minor, made war on Rome and overran much of Asia Minor and parts of Greece. The Athenians joined Mithridates and was consequently besieged by the Roman Gen’l. Sulla.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)

Quebec
        Lucien Bouchard, a separatist leader, sought the job of Premier of the Province.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-1,7)

Rangiroa
        The largest atoll in the Polynesian chain of atolls called the Tuamotu Islands near Tahiti. It means “extended sky" and the entire island of Tahiti would fit inside its central lagoon, whose entry pass has astonishing snorkeling.
    (USA Today, 5/14/96, p.6D)

Reunion
   
A French island in the Indian Ocean.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)
    http://www.africanet.com/africanet/country/reunion/home.htm

1999        Jul, The Piton de la Fournaise (Fiery Peak) volcano erupted.   
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.A8)
2007        Apr 2, Piton de la Fournaise (French: "Peak of the Furnace"), a shield volcano on the eastern side of Reunion island (a French territory) in the Indian Ocean, began an 11-day eruption. Hundreds of deep water fish were found dead following the eruptions.
    (SFC, 4/14/07, p.B6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piton_de_la_Fournaise)
2007        May 12, Waves reaching 36 feet high thrashed France's Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean, leaving two fishermen missing and flooding homes and hotels.
    (AP, 5/13/07)
2008        Mar 28, Mohamed Bacar, the rebel leader of the Comoros island of Anjouan, arrived in Reunion to an uncertain future, two days after his ouster by Comoran and African Union forces.
    (AP, 3/28/08)
2009        Mar 5, Protests spread from two French possessions in the Caribbean to the island of Reunion in the Indian Ocean, where about 15,000 people demonstrated in different cities against high prices.
    (AP, 3/5/09)
2010        Aug 2, UNESCO added 6 sites located in Brazil, China, Mexico, France's Reunion Island and the South Pacific nation of Kiribati to World Heritage status.
    (AP, 8/2/10)
2012        Aug 2, It was reported that France planned to offer financial incentives to French fishermen for hunting bull sharks, a threatened shark species, following recent attacks on people off the coast of Reunion.
    (SFC, 8/2/12, p.A4)

Ruthenia

        A former province in East Slovakia whose people speak a dialect of Ukrainian. The Ruthenians are a group of people spread out over the Carpathian Mountains of Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia, Romania, and Hungary. The rare metallic element ruthenium was named after the region where it was discovered.
    (NH, 12/96, p.71)

1596        Ruthenian members of an Orthodox religious group entered into communion with the Roman Catholic Church and became the Uniate Church of the Little Russians.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1256)
1997        About 140,000 Ruthenians currently live in Slovakia.
    (NH, 12/96, p.71)

Saarland

1925        Jan 10, France-Saarland formed.
    (MC, 1/10/02)
1935        Mar 7, Saar was incorporated into Germany.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

Saba
        A volcanic spec in the Netherland Antilles. It has a marine park and four tiny villages.
    (USA Today, 5/14/96, p.6D)

1493        Nov 13, Columbus sighted Saba, North Leeward Islands (Netherland Antilles).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saba)

Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

1889        Aug 24, Auguste Neal, a convicted murderer, was executed in Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, becoming the first and only person to be executed by guillotine in North America. The device was specially shipped from Martinique for the execution.
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.E5)

Saipan

1999        Jan 13, Lawyers filed suit against major garment retailers for inhumane working conditions for thousands of Asian women on Saipan, a US commonwealth island.
    (SFC, 1/14/99, p.A1)
2002        Mar 2, Gap Inc. was reported in opposition to a proposed $8.75 settlement on conditions in the garment industry of Saipan.
    (SFC, 3/2/02, p.B1)
2002        Sep 26, Gap Inc, 6 other US firms and 23 local manufacturers settled a class-action lawsuit over alleged sweatshop abuses on Saipan. The deal created a $20 million fund for back wages and a monitoring system.
    (SFC, 9/27/02, p.A1)

Sakhalin Island

        The island belongs to Russia and is just northwest of the Japanese Islands.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-11)

1974        Since 1974 the Japanese have been exploring energy deposits here.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-11)
1996        May 16, Three consortia formed in the past decade are poised to begin drilling here. Estimates say the potential is for 2 billion barrels of oil and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-11)

Samnites

600-290BCE    The Samnites, an Oscan-speaking people, controlled the area of south central Italy during this period.
    (AM, 3/04, p.36)

Sanjak

        A province of Yugoslavia between Serbia and Bosnia northwest of Kosova. It has 350,000 people of whom most are Muslim. It was historically part of the Ottoman Empire

19th cent    Late, Sanjak was occupied by Austro-Hungarian troops.
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A13)
1996        Aug 5, The Muslim National Council of Sanjak desired recognition as an autonomous region within the Yugoslav federation.
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A13)

San Marino

A small republic in East Italy and the oldest independent country in Europe. It measures 24 square miles.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C4)(WSJ, 1/16/06, p.A1)

301        San Marino traced its roots to this time and later claimed to be the world’s oldest republic. It was founded by stonecutter Marinus of Arbe.
    (WSJ, 1/16/06, p.A1)(SSFC, 12/19/10, p.M2)
1849        Jul 31, Garibaldi asked San Marino for asylum from Austrian forces. San Marino brokered for Garibaldi’s surrender to Austrian forces. Garibaldi and his wife escaped, and made their way to Ravenna. Anita Garibaldi died enroute. Garibaldi managed to reach safety in the Kingdom of Sardinia.
    (ON, 10/06, p.7)
1978        Jul 17, In San Marino a Communist-Socialist coalition became Western Europe’s only communist led government.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)
2004        Dec 19, Renata Tebaldi (82), opera singer, died in San Marino.
    (AP, 12/19/05)
2005        Jun, San Marino set up a central bank with supervisory powers.
    (Econ, 3/10/07, p.74)
2006        Sep, San Marino approved new regulations on fund management.
    (Econ, 3/10/07, p.74)
2010        The population of San Marino was about 30,000.
    (SSFC, 12/19/10, p.M2)

Sark Island

    One of the Channel Islands between Britain and France. The island of Brecqhou is governed by Sark.

1565        Sark, one of the Channel Islands, was colonized. The hereditary ruler of Sark was granted the 5 square miles of land by Queen Elizabeth I.
    (SFC, 11/26/99, p.B8)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.60)
1993        The British brothers David and Frederick Barclay paid $3.5 million for the Brecqhou, and Channel Island considered as part of the fiefdom of Sark.
    (WSJ, 10/11/05, p.A1)
1999        The Chief Pleas, 52 unelected rulers of Sark, voted to change the law governing the transfer of property to permit women to inherit land.
    (SFC, 11/26/99, p.B8)
2006        Mar 8, Legislators of Sark, a tiny self-governing island in the English Channel, voted to swap its feudal government for democracy. After around 450 years of rule almost exclusively by landowners, the smallest independent state in the British commonwealth will allow each of the 600 residents to stand for election.
    (AP, 3/8/06)
2007        Jul 4, Sark ended its feudal era as the Chief Pleas agreed to limit land owners to 12 seats and raised commoners’ share to 16 seats.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.60)
2008        Apr 10, The West's last remaining feudal system came to an end after the Privy Council endorsed a vote by locals on the tiny Channel Island of Sark to change the way they are governed.
    (Reuters, 4/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, Sark, the English Channel Island that let only landowners vote for 450 years, held the first parliamentary election in its history.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 12, Sir David Barclay and his twin brother, Sir Frederick Barclay, abruptly closed their businesses on the Channel Island of Sark and shut off the flow of investment after their candidates for the island's first elected parliament were largely rejected by voters. Only two of the nine candidates backed by the brothers won seats in the legislature. Nine of the 12 candidates they had denounced as "dangerous to Sark's future" were elected.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

Sarmatians

600-200BC    A nomadic tribe that occupied a homeland that stretched from Russia’s Don and Volga rivers east to the Ural mountain foothills. The held a sun-worshipping belief system and buried useful objects with their dead for the journey in the unknown afterlife.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A5)
400BC        By this time the Sarmatians were occupying outposts of the Roman empire in the Balkans.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A5)
100-0BC    A Roman fortified citadel was built about this time in Moldova. It may have protected a town occupied by a late-era Sarmatian king.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A5)

Saulteaux
        A native American Indian tribe. In Saskatchewan, Canada, a new system is being tried on Indian prison inmates. The Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge is being used as a culture based court and prison program for native peoples.
    (SFC, 5/14/96, A-10)

Savoy

        Region in southeast France adjacent to the Swiss-Italian border.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1272)

1323        Oct 16, Amadeus V the Great, count of Flanders and Savoy, died at 74.
    (MC, 10/16/01)
1683        Sep 12, A combined Austrian and Polish army defeated the Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg and lifted the siege on Vienna, Austria. Prince Eugene of Savoy helped repel an invasion of Vienna, Austria, by Turkish forces. Marco d'Aviano, sent by Pope Innocent XI to unite the outnumbered Christian troops, spurred them to victory. The Turks left behind sacks of coffee which the Christians found too bitter, so they sweetened it with honey and milk and named the drink cappuccino after the Capuchin order of monks to which d'Aviano belonged. An Austrian baker created a crescent-shaped roll, the Kipfel, to celebrate the victory. Empress Maria Theresa later took it to France where it became the croissant. In 2006 John Stoye authored “The Siege of Vienna."
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(HN, 9/12/98)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1)(Reuters, 4/28/03)(WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5) (WSJ, 12/6/06, p.D12)
1720        Sardinia was handed over to Piedmont's Savoy Kingdom.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T5)
1743        Sep 13, England, Austria & Savoye-Sardinia signed the Treaty of Worms.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1860        Savoy was ceded to France.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1272)

Saxony

919        May 12, Duke Henry of Saxon became King Henry I of Eastern Europe.
    (MC, 5/12/02)
991        Aug 11, Danes under Olaf Tryggvesson killed Ealdorman Brihtnoth and defeated the Saxons at Maldon.
    (HN, 8/10/98)
1016        Oct 18, Danes defeated the Saxons at Battle of Assandun (Ashingdon).
    (MC, 10/18/01)
1066        Oct 14, King Harold and his Anglo-Saxon army locked into a massive shield wall and faced Duke William, William the Conqueror, and his mounted knights near the town of Hastings, Battle of Hastings. Duke William planned a three point attack plan that included a)heavy archery b)attack by foot soldiers c)attack by mounted knights at any weak point of defense. The bloody battle gave the name Sen Lac Hill to the battle site. The Normans won out after Harold was killed by a fluke arrow.
    (TLC, Battles That Changed the World, 6/25/95)(AP, 10/14/97)
1066        Edith Svanneshals was the beautiful mistress of the ill-starred Harold Godwinsson, king of the Anglo-Saxons and loser at Hastings. No picture of her exists, but her last name means "swan's throat."
    (EHC, 5/12/98)
1316-1390    Albert of Saxony (aka Albertuccio or little Al), German Scholastic philosopher and physicist.
    (NH, 5/97, p.59)
1370        Apr 11,  Frederick I the Warlike, elector of Saxony, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)
1500s        Holland and Saxony began to protect the rights of inventors to their creations.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1521        Apr 17, Under the protection of Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Luther first appeared before Charles V and the Imperial Diet. Martin Luther was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.
    (NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 4/17/98)
1526        Feb 27, Saxony and Hesse formed the League of Gotha, a league of Protestant princes.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1554        Mar 3, Johan Frederik de Greatmoedige (50), ruler of Saxon (1532-47), died.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1588        A volume of funeral orations for Duke August of Saxony and his wife was published.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.93)
1632        Apr 15, Swedish and Saxon army beat Earl Tilly.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1638        Mar 3, Duke Bernard van Saksen-Weimar occupied Rheinfelden.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1670        May 12, August II (d.1733), the Strong One, King of Poland (355 children) and elector of Saxony, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)
1700          Feb 22, Augustus II with the help of the Saxon army attacked Swedish controlled Riga. This began the Northern War (1700-1721).
    (LHC, 2/22/03)
1709        Augustus the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, had ordered alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger to re-create the formula for oriental porcelain. Bottger was imprisoned and joined physicist Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus in a search for the formula. Tschirnhaus died but Bottger discovered the formula in this year. within 2 years a factory was established in Meissen’s Albrechtsburg and Meissenware became Europe’s first hard-paste porcelain.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.111)(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)
1745        Jun 4, Frederick the Great of Prussia defeated the Austrians & Saxons.
    (MC, 6/4/02)
1756-1763    The Seven Years War. France and Great Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000 "Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while her manpower was occupied in America.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)
1797        May 18, Frederik Augustus II, King of Saxon (1836-54), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1865        May 25, Frederick Augustus III, King of Saxon (1904-18), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

Scythians

         A tribe that roamed the Black Sea area at the time of the Greeks. They drank mare's milk, seemed lawless, had no polis, but were able to defeat the Persians. They are described in a book by Neal Ascherson: “Black Sea." In the Gluck opera “Iphigenie en Tauride," savage Scythian captors force Iphigenie and her followers to perform human sacrifice.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-8)(WSJ, 10/22/97, p.A20)
        Scythian tombs lie near Chersonesos, now on the edge of Sevastopol.
    (SFC,12/19/97, p.F6)

800-300BCE    The Scythians dominated the vast lands stretching from Siberia to the Black Sea. Those who roamed what later became Kazakstan and southern Siberia were known as the Saka.
    (AM, 5/01, p.32)
700-600BCE      A migration of the Cimmerians and Scythians took place in the seventh century BC. These were nomadic tribes from the Russian steppes, who made their way round the eastern end of the Caucasus, burst through into the Moghan plains and the basin of Lake Urmia, and terrorized Western Asia for several generations, till they were broken by the power of the Medes and absorbed in the native population. It was they who made an end of the Kingdom of Urartu, and the language they brought with them was probably an Indo-European dialect answering to the basic element in modern Armenian.
    (http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce2.htm)
600-500BC    The nomadic Scythians bordered the Hallstatt Culture in the East. They introduced to the Celts the custom of wearing trousers.
    (NGM, 5/77)
521-486    The Persians under Darius fought the Scythians in a series of battles.
    (AM, 5/01, p.33)
519BC     Darius of Persia attacked the Scythians east of the Caspian Sea and a few years later conquered the Indus Valley.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty27.html)
513BC        Darius, after subduing eastern Thrace and the Getae, crossed the Danube River into European Scythia, but the Scythian nomads devastated the country as they retreated from him, and he was forced, for lack of supplies, to abandon the campaign.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty27.html)
486BC-465BC        Xerxes the Great  (b.519BC), king of Persia, ruled Egypt as the 3rd king of the 27th Dynasty. His rule extended from India to the lands below the Caspian and Black seas, to the east coast of the Mediterranean including Egypt and Thrace. Persia’s great cities Sardis, Ninevah, Babylon, and Susa were joined by the Royal Road. East of Susa was Persopolis, a vast religious monument. To the north of Persia were the Scythians.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.49)(eawc, p.11)(http://tinyurl.com/d2gayf)
c480BCE    Herodotus said marijuana was cultivated in Scythia and Thrace, where inhabitants intoxicated themselves by breathing the vapors given off when the plant was roasted on white-hot stones.
    (WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)
450BC        Herodotus journeyed to the Scythian lands north of the Black Sea and heard tales of women who were fierce killers of men. He named these women “Amazons," from a Greek word meaning without one breast. Legend had it that one breast was removed in order to carry quivers of arrows more conveniently.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A1,5)
400-300BC    The Greek writer Ephorus referred to the Celts, Scythians, Persians and Libyans as the four great barbarian peoples in the known world.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.11)
c556AD    Dionysius Exiguus, Scythian monk, died. He devised the current system of reckoning the Christian era.
    (WUD, 1994, p.405)

Sealand
   
1968        Roy Bates, retired British army major, landed on the island of Sealand, a WW II military fortress 6 miles off the coast of England, and declared it a sovereign nation, the Principality of Sealand.
    (SFEC, 6/4/00, p.A4)
2000        Jun 5, Computer rebels planned to launch a data haven, an independent colony in cyberspace, based on the island of Sealand, a WW II military fortress 6 miles off the coast of England. Their Havenco Co. was incorporated in Anguilla.
    (SFEC, 6/4/00, p.A4)

Seborga

    The 5-square mile principality is located in northwest Italy, twenty minutes from the Mediterranean north of Bordighera.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T1)

954        The Count of Ventimiglia ceded Seborga to the monks who elected their abbot as sovereign prince.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T5)
1118        Seborga became the provenance of nine Knight Templars returning from the crusades.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T7)
1729        Seborga was consolidated by sale within the Principality of Piedmont.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T7)
1995        Aug 20, A plebiscite declared the independence of Seborga by a vote of 304 to 4. Giorgio Carbone was elected as Prince-for-Life Georgio I.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T6)


Shetland Islands


Sikkim
        A state in NE India between Nepal and Bhutan 2,745 sq km. The capital is Gangtok.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1326)   
1644        The beginning of a 330 year dynasty.
    (WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A1)
1974        Sikkim lost its Buddhist ruler and was annexed by India. This ended a 330 year dynasty.
    (WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A1)

Silesia
        Region in Central Europe between Czechoslovakia, Germany and Poland.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1326)
1267        Feb 9, Synod of Breslau ordered Jews of Silesia to wear special caps.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

Sogdiana

    Sogdiana was a province of ancient Persia between the Oxus and Jaxartes Rivers, later known as Uzbekistan. The extinct Iranian language of Sogdiana was spoken.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1264,1353)

355[356]BC    Birth of Alexander the Great (d.323BC). Alexander III married a barbarian princess, Roxana, the daughter of the Bactrian chief Oxyartes. Alexander also married the daughter of Darius, whom he defeated in 333, and a Sogdian princess while staying firmly attached to his comrade, Hephaistion.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.68)(Hem., 2/97, p.116)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W11)

Songhai
1464        Under the guidance of Sunni Ali, the Songhai begin conquering their neighbors and expand their kingdom. Goa becomes the capital of the Songhai empire. When Sunni Ali died rule was passed to his son, a non-Muslim.
    (ATC, p.121)
~1490s    Muslims of the Songhai Empire in West Africa supported Askia Muhammad-mad, who overthrew Sunni Ali’s son, and declared Islam the state religion. Songhai grew and expanded to become the greatest trade empire of West Africa.
    (ATC, p.121)
c1580        The Songhai controlled West Africa’s wealthiest empire.
    (ATC, p.122 )

North Ossetia

1992        A bloody conflict took place between Ingushetia and North Ossetia that left hundreds dead and forced 30,000 Ingush to flee their homes.
    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.A3)
1999        Mar 19, In Russia at least 56 people were killed in an explosion in Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia, at an outdoor bazaar. This was 2 days following a blast in neighboring Ingushetia that destroyed 2 homes. The Federal Security Service put the death toll at 63 with 104 injured.
    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.A3)(SFEC, 3/21/99, p.A20)(AP, 3/19/02)
1999        Sep 28, In Chechnya 8 people were killed when a schoolhouse was bombed on the 6th day of Russian air attacks. Some 60,000 people had reportedly fled to the neighboring regions of Ingushetia, Dagestan, North Ossetia and Stavropol.
    (SFC, 9/29/99, p.A12)
2000        Jul 9, A bomb attack at a food market in Vladikavkaz in North Ossetia left 5 people dead. Another bomb in a department store at the port of Rostov-on-Don on the Black Sea left 2 people dead.
    (SFC, 7/10/00, p.A9)
2002        Sep 20, In southern Russia a collapsing glacier triggered an avalanche of ice and mud, burying the village of Nizhny Karmadon in the southern republic of North Ossetia, and killing as many as 100 people.
    (AP, 9/21/02)
2004        Sep 1, In Beslan, Russia, more than a dozen militants wearing suicide-bomb belts seized a school in North Ossetia, a region bordering Chechnya, taking hostage over 1100 people, many of them children. They threatening to blow up the building if police storm it and at least eight people were killed.
    (AP, 9/1/04)(SFC, 9/2/04, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beslan_school_hostage_crisis)
2004        Sep 2, In Beslan, Russia, camouflage-clad commandos carried crying babies away from a school where gunmen holding hundreds of hostages freed at least 26 women and children.
    (AP, 9/2/04)
2004        Sep 3, Commandos stormed a school in southern Russia and battled Chechen separatist rebels holding hundreds of hostages, as crying children, some naked and covered in blood, fled through explosions and gunfire. Ultimately 334 people, including 186 children, were killed in the violence that ended a hostage standoff with militants in Beslan, Russia. 31 of 32 hostage takers were killed. 6 Chechens and 4 Ingush were identified among the hostage takers. In 2006 a woman died from her injuries in Beslan bringing the total deaths to 334.
    (SFC, 9/4/04, p.A1)(SFC, 9/7/04, p.A3)(WSJ, 9/10/04, p.A1)(AP, 12/9/07)
2005        Nov 29, A panel in North Ossetia investigating last year's bloody school hostage siege in the southern Russian town of Beslan blamed the authorities for botching the rescue efforts and urged them to punish the culprits.
    (AP, 11/29/05)
2006        Feb 13, In North Ossetia 6 women whose relatives were victims of the 2004 Beslan school hostage seizure were on hunger strike for a fifth day, protesting what they say are efforts by authorities to prematurely end the trial of the only alleged remaining attacker.
    (AP, 2/13/06)
2006        Sep 11, In southern Russia a military helicopter crashed on the outskirts of Vladikavkaz, the provincial capital of the republic of North Ossetia, killing at least 10 servicemen and injuring another four.
    (AP, 9/11/06)
2006        A Georgian undercover agent made contact with a Russian seller of uranium in North Ossetia. The seller was arrested when they met in Tbilisi with 3.5 ounces of enriched uranium, which made it weapons grade material.
    (SFC, 1/25/07, p.A18)
2007        Nov 22, A passenger bus caught fire and exploded in southern Russia, killing at least five people and wounding 12. Investigators in North Ossetia said terrorism was the likely cause.
    (AP, 11/23/07)
2008        Nov 6, An suspected suicide explosion hit a minibus unloading passengers in Vladikavkaz, the capital of Russia's North Ossetia province, killing 12 people.
    (AP, 11/6/08)(Reuters, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 26, In North Ossetia Vitaly Karayev, the mayor of Vladikavkaz, was shot and killed in the latest violence to hit a region. The next day An obscure Islamic group claimed responsibility for the assassination of a mayor in Russia's troubled North Caucasus, saying he had sanctioned persecution of Islamic women.
    (AP, 11/26/08)(AP, 11/27/08)

Southern Africa Development Committee
        A 12-member regional group.
    (SFC, 2/10/97, p.A8)

Spratly Islands
        A group of 60-200 reefs and islets in the South China Sea that are claimed in whole or in part by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei.
    (SFC, 9/20/96, p.A16)(SFC, 1/16/99, p.A11)
1999        Jan 15, China asserted its sovereignty over the potentially oil-rich Spratly Islands and rejected a Philippine proposal to discuss the disputed islands.
    (SFC, 1/16/99, p.A11)

St. Helena

1806        Oct 17, Napoleon Bonaparte arrived at the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic, where he had been banished by the Allies. [Napoleon did not go to St. Helena until 1815]
    (HN, 10/17/98)
1815        Mar 20, Napoleon Bonaparte entered Paris, beginning his "Hundred Days" rule. He had escaped from his imprisonment on the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany. He gathered his veterans and marched on Paris. At Waterloo, Belgium, he met the Duke of Wellington, commander of the allied anti-French forces and was resoundingly defeated. Napoleon was then imprisoned on the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic. In 1997 Gregor Dallas published: “The Final Act: The Roads to Waterloo." The book includes a good account of the Congress of Vienna.
    (AP, 3/20/97)(V.D.-H.K.p.232)(SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10) (HN, 3/20/98)
1815        Aug 8, Napoleon Bonaparte set sail for St. Helena, in the South Atlantic, to spend the remainder of his days in exile.
    (AP, 8/8/97)
1815        Oct 17, Napoleon arrived in St. Helena.
    (MC, 10/17/01)
1821        May 5, Napoleon Bonaparte died in exile on the island of St. Helena. They poisoned him by putting arsenic in his food. Napoleon died by slow poisoning at the hands of his companion Charles Tristan de Montholon on the island of St. Helena. Scottish pathologist Dr. Hamilton Smith later used Napoleon’s hair to determine that arsenic had been administered about 40 times from 1820-1821.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.232)(AP, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)(SFEC, 8/16/98, Z1 p.8)

St. Kilda, Scotland
        An island more than 100 miles west of the Scottish Highlands. It was inhabited for more than a 1000 years by a hardy race of Scots.
1930        The island was evacuated. Only the birds stayed behind: puffins, gannets, fulmars, guillemots, kittiwakes, razorbills, gulls, and great skuas. The Soay sheep also remained, a type that was kept by Bronze-age farmers.
    (WSJ, 9/11/96, p.A20)

St. Martin (St Maarten)
    See Netherland Antilles

Sulawesi
        An Indonesian island west of Borneo, famed for its indigenous cultural life with a Dutch colonial overlay.
    (USA Today, 5/14/96, p.6D)
        The Toadja of Sulawesi use ancestral bones for talismans.
    (NH, 6/97, p.14)

Sunda Islands

        The Greater Sundas are in the Malay Archipelago and include Borneo, Sumatra, Java and the Celebes.
        The lesser Sundas extend east from Java to Timor. The 75-sq. ml. Komodo Island is part of the Lesser Sundas and home of the Komodo dragon. A sultan from Bima on Sumbawa Island first sent prisoners and families to Komodo about a century ago.
    (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1815        April, Mount Tambora, Indonesia, in the Java Sea erupted. One-third of the 13,000 foot mountain was blasted into the air. 100,000 people were killed and the whole planet was shrouded in a debris of sulfuric droplets. Mt. Tambora on Sumbawa Island erupted.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.41)(WUD, 1994, p.1423)
1942         Mar 1, Japanese troops landed on Java in the Pacific.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

Tahiti
See French Polynesia, Cook Islands

1769        Jun 3, British navigator, Captain James Cook, British astronomer Charles Green and Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander observed and recorded a transit of Venus across the sun on the island of Tahiti during Cook's first voyage around the world.
    (http://transitofvenus.nl/wp/past-transits/1769-june-3/)
1789        Sep, Fletcher Henderson left Tahiti with the Bounty with a light crew. 16 men were left abandoned.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)
1880        Jun 29, France annexed Tahiti.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

Taino Indians

        Native Indians of Hispaniola which now includes Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
    (WUD, 1994, p.673)
1515        By this year the Taino Indians were practically annihilated in clashes with the Spanish.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)   

Tanguts

c1000        A group of Asian people neighboring to China.
    (NH, 9/97, p.14)

Tarahumara
        An Indian tribe inhabiting the Copper Canyon region in northwestern Mexico. They number about 45,000.
    (SFC, 5/19/96, T-1)

Tasmania

41000BC    The skull of a giant kangaroo dating to this time was found in a cave in the thick rainforest of the rugged northwest of Tasmania in 2000. Scientists used the skull to argue that that man likely hunted to death the giant kangaroo and other very large animals on the southern island of Tasmania.
    (AP, 8/12/08)
38,000BCE-1996    Scientists in Australia said that they found a shrub in Tasmania that began growing 40,000 years ago. Dubbed "King’s Holly," the plant clones itself and now covers 2 secluded river gullies in the remote southwest.
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.A17)
1642        Nov 24, Abel Janszoon Tasman (d.1659) discovered Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania).
    (MC, 11/24/01)
1659        Oct 10, Able Janszoon Tasman, navigator, died at about 56. He discovered Tasmania.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1455)(MC, 10/10/01)
1804        Feb 20, Hobart, Tasmania, was founded as a penal colony.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hobart)
1804        Australian soldiers fired on an aboriginal hunting party on Tasmania and killed some 50 people. Some were salted down and sent to Sydney as anthropological curiosities.
    (WSJ, 8/2100, p.A1)
1830-1877    Some 12,500 convicts were locked in Tasmania during this period.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E6)
1836        Feb 17, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin left Tasmania.
    (MC, 2/17/02)
1856        Australia's Van Dieman's Island was renamed Tasmania.
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.37)
1941        Tasmania enacted a law to protect the Tasmanian devil.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E6)
1979        John Chapman and John Siseman published their 1st edition of “Cradle Mountain Lake St. Clair," a hiking guide of Tasmania’s Overland Track.
    (www.john.chapman.name/pub-cr.html)
1996        Apr 28, A lone gunman, Martin Bryant, killed 35 tourists visiting a colonial prison on the Australian island of Tasmania. He was later sentenced to 35 life terms in prison.
    (WSJ, 4/29/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A22)
1997        The Tasmanian parliament repealed its anti-gay laws.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E6)
2002        Dec 20,  Grote Reber (90), a pioneer of radio astronomy died in Tasmania. He followed up Karl Jansky's 1933 announcement of the discovery of radio waves from space and in his spare time in 1937 built a 30-foot antenna dish, the 1st radio telescope, in his back yard in Wheaton, Ill., and managed to pick up signals two years later.
    (AP, 12/25/02)
2003        Jim Bacon, head of the Labor Party government of Tasmania, appointed Richard Butler, former UN arms inspector, as governor.
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.37)
2004        Nicholas Shakespeare authored “In Tasmania," a look at characters in the last 200 years of Tasmania.
    (Econ, 11/27/04, p.86)
2005        Jun 22, It was reported that bee keepers in Tasmania were in conflict with loggers due to the loss of leatherwood trees.
    (WSJ, 6/22/05, p.A1)
2006        Oct 18, Australia’s Tasmania state unveiled an historic five million dollar (3.8 million dollars US) compensation package for Aborigines forcibly taken from their families as children.
    (AFP, 10/18/06)
2006        Nicholas Shakespeare authored “In Tasmania," an account of his life there since 1999.
    (WSJ, 8/5/06, p.P8)
2007        Oct 4, The Australian government approved plans for a controversial multi-billion-dollar pulp mill in Tasmania despite objections it could ruin one of the country's most pristine environments.
    (AFP, 10/4/07)
2008        May 19, In Australia the Tasmania state government said the Tasmanian devil will be listed as an endangered species this week as a result of a deadly and disfiguring cancer outbreak. Animal rights activists said Australian authorities have started the controversial killing of about 400 kangaroos on the outskirts of Australia's capital of Canberra.
    (AFP, 5/19/08)(AP, 5/19/08)
2009        Mar 2, In southern Australia rescuers used jet skis, backhoes and human muscle to save dozens of whales and dolphins stranded on Naracoopa Beach on Tasmania state's King Island. Rescuers refloated 54 whales and five bottlenose dolphins. A total of 194 pilot whales and seven dolphins became stranded the previous evening. 
    (AP, 3/2/09)(AP, 3/3/09)
2009        Jun 30, In Australia 2 men were charged with the murder of a female student from China who went missing June 25 after a night out in Tasmania. Stavros Papadopoulos and Daniel Joseph Williams, both 21 and from Hobart, were remanded in custody after a brief appearance before a magistrate. Accountancy student Zhang Yu (26) was last seen alive outside a Hobart city center pub. Police later found her body in the Tyenna river west of Hobart. In 2010 Papadopoulos was sentenced to life in prison. Accomplice Daniel Jo Williams was sentenced to 10 years in jail on a charge of manslaughter.
    (AP, 6/30/09)(AFP, 6/30/10)
2009        Oct 20, Australian officials said a leech found at a crime scene in 2001 led police to a man who admitted robbing an elderly woman. The leech dropped off Peter Cannon as he and an accomplice tied a 71-year-old woman to a chair in her remote home in the Tasmanian woods on Sept. 28, 2001.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2010        Jan 1, It was reported that Australian researchers have cracked the genetic origin of the deadly cancer that is threatening to wipe out Tasmanian devils, raising hopes that the animal's future is safe.
    (AFP, 1/1/10)
2010        Sep 16, Australian scientists said they had made a breakthrough in the fight to save the cancer-hit Tasmanian devil by mapping the species' genome for the first time.
    (AFP, 9/16/10)
2011        Jan 24, Lara Giddings took over as premier Australia’s island state of Tasmania.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.49)
2011        Mar 17, In Australia a pod of long-finned pilot whales beached themselves at Bruny Island, south of the Tasmanian state capital Hobart. 21 whales died but 11 were saved.
    (AP, 3/18/11)
2011        Nov 12, In Australia 22 sperm whales and 2 minke whales died after getting stranded near Ocean Beach, Tasmania. Rescuers over the next 2 days saved two huge sperm whales stranded at Macquarie Harbor. Another died and a 4th remained stranded as weather worsened.
    (AFP, 11/14/11)(AP, 11/15/11)
2012        Aug 3, In Australia Tasmania Zoo owner Dick Warren said 9 birds, including an endangered swift parrot, had their heads smashed in or ripped off and more than 60 animals were missing after vandals went on the rampage.
    (AFP, 8/4/12)
2012        In Tasmania loggers and environmentalists signed the Tasmanian Forests Agreement, following a 30-year war, that secured timber supplies and protected native forests.
    (Econ, 3/22/14, p.43)
2013        Jan 7, In Australia officials searched for bodies among the charred ruins of more than 100 homes and other buildings destroyed by wildfires in the island state of Tasmania. Around 100 residents remained unaccounted for, three days after the fires broke out.
    (AP, 1/7/13)
2013        Nov 1, In Tasmania int’l. negotiations ended after China, Russia and Ukraine scuttled plans to create the world's largest ocean sanctuary in Antarctica. The sanctuary plans were led by the Antarctic Ocean Alliance which campaigns for protecting the Antarctic seas. For the sanctuary proposals to pass, they needed backing from all 200 delegates from 25 member countries, many of which have conflicting interests.
    (Reuters, 11/1/13)(SFC, 11/2/13, p.A2)

Thrace

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Aegean/9659/welcome.htm

The Thracians lived in what is now Bulgaria and parts of modern Greece, Romania, Macedonia, and Turkey between 4,000 B.C. and the 8th century A.D., when they were assimilated by the invading Slavs.
    (AP, 7/16/07)
According to Herodotus the Thracians worshipped Artemis, Dionysus, Ares, and Hermes.
    (SFEM, 8/9/98, p.45)

5000BC    The Thracian village of Nebet Tepe, later Plovdid, Bulgaria, dated to about this time. It was redeveloped by the Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Bulgars and Turks.
    (SSFC, 7/16/06, p.G4)
4000BC    Skilled goldsmiths [proto-Thracians] lived in the area of Varna on the Black Sea [later Bulgaria].
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T3)(SFEC, 8/2/98, DB p.22)
2100BC-2000BC    Some 15,000 tiny Golden rings, estimated at 4,100 to 4,200 years old, were found in 2005 near Dabene, Bulgaria. They were attributed to proto-Thracians, ancestors of the Thracians, who lived in the area until they were assimilated by invading Slavs in the 8th century.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.A2)
513BC        Darius, after subduing eastern Thrace and the Getae, crossed the Danube River into European Scythia, but the Scythian nomads devastated the country as they retreated from him, and he was forced, for lack of supplies, to abandon the campaign.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty27.html)
486-465BC    Xerxes I ruled over Persia from India to the lands below the Caspian and Black seas, to the east coast of the Mediterranean including Egypt and Thrace. Its great cities Sardis, Ninevah, Babylon, and Susa were joined by the Royal Road. East of Susa was Persopolis, a vast religious monument. To the north of Persia were the Scythians. [2nd source says 485-465]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.49)(http://eawc, p.11)
c480BC    Herodotus said marijuana was cultivated in Scythia and Thrace, where inhabitants intoxicated themselves by breathing the vapors given off when the plant was roasted on white-hot stones.
    (WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)
400BC        In 2007 a 2,400-year-old golden mask that once belonged to a Thracian king was unearthed in a timber-lined tomb in southeastern Bulgaria.
    (AP, 7/17/07)
279BC        The Celts plundered the shrine at Delphi and then retreated north to Thrace. The Thracians later routed the intruders.
    (NGM, 5/77)
457        Feb 7, A Thracian officer by the name of Leo was proclaimed as emperor of the East by the army general, Aspar, on the death of the Emperor Marcian.
    (HN, 2/7/99)
700-800    Invading Slavs assimilated the Thracians in the area of modern Bulgaria and parts of Greece, Romania, Macedonia and Turkey.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.A2)
1913        Jun 24, Greece and Serbia annulled their alliance with Bulgaria following border disputes over Macedonia and Thrace.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

Tocharians

c1000BC    An Indo-European group of people moved east to live in what later became Xinjiang province of western China. They left well-preserved Caucasian mummies of this age and 1,300 year old texts written in an unknown Indo European tongue. Some evidence showed that they had come from the steppes north of the Black and Caspian seas as the area filled with Iranian immigrants. They settled in the Tarim Basin on the edges of the Taklimakan Desert. They area has also been named Inner Asia, Chinese Turkestan and East Turkestan. The Uighers of Xinjiang sometimes show physical features that reflects Tocharian blood.
    (SFC, 2/27/98, p.A2)

Tokelau

2010        Apr 14, The 3-island territory of Tokelau declared itself a whale sanctuary, adding a huge patch of sea to the total protected area of more than 7 million square miles that is off limits to hunting in the Pacific Ocean. About 1,500 people live in Tokelau, a UN protectorate that remains a colony of New Zealand and lies about 300 miles (500 km) north of Samoa.
    (AP, 4/14/10)
2011        Oct 5, The US coast Guard said it is bringing 36,000 gallons of drinking water to Tokelau 1,500 residents, who were suffering from a severe drought.
    (SFC, 10/6/11, p.A2)
2011        Tuvalu experienced severe drought as La Nina settled over the region depriving the area of substantial rainfall for 6 months. Tuvalu and Tokelau declared a state of emergency.
    (SFC, 10/15/11, p.A4)

Transjordan

        See Jordan

1923        May 25, Britain recognized Transjordan with Abdullah as its leader.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1946        Mar 22, The British mandate in Transjordan came to an end. Britain signed a treaty granting independence to Jordan.
    (AP, 3/22/97)(HN, 3/22/97)
1946        May 25, Transjordan (now Jordan) became a kingdom as it proclaimed its new monarch, King Abdullah Ibn Ul-Hussein.
    (AP, 5/25/97)
1948        May 15, Hours after declaring its independence, the new state of Israel was attacked by Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon. The first president of the State of Israel, Chaim Weizmann, took office with the founding of the nation. David Ben-Gurion was Israel’s first prime minister. Weizmann, born in Russia in 1874, taught chemistry in England and as a leading Zionist influenced Britain’s Balfour Declaration of 1917 favoring a Jewish homeland in Palestine.  Weizmann settled in Palestine in 1934 and served as president of Israel from 1948 until his death in 1952.
    (AP, 5/15/97)(HNQ, 6/19/99)
1948        May 24, Ariel Sharon, then called Arik Scheinerman, was wounded at the battle of Latrun while securing Jerusalem for Jews in the 1st Arab-Israeli War.
    (WSJ, 10/13/00, p.A15)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.85)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latrun)
1948-1968    The old city of East Jerusalem was under Jordanian control. Transjordan was given to a client Arab family, the Hashenites (led by King Hussein’s grandfather), and was run out of Mecca by the Saudis.
    (WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A14)

Transvaal

1883        Apr 16, Paul Kruger was chosen president of Transvaal.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

Tripoli

        Tripoli was a Barbary State of North Africa and then a province of Turkey before it became part of Libya.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1516)

1289        Apr 29, Qala'un, the Sultan of Egypt, captured Tripoli.
    (HN, 4/29/98)
1798        Nov 4, Congress agreed to pay a yearly tribute to Tripoli, considering it the only way to protect U.S. shipping.
    (HN, 11/4/98)
1801        Jun 10, The North African state of Tripoli declared war on the United States in a dispute over safe passage of merchant vessels through the Mediterranean. Tripoli declared war on the U.S. for refusing to pay tribute.
    (AP, 6/10/97)(HN, 6/10/98)
1804        Feb 16, Lt. Stephen Decatur attacked the Tripoli pirates who burned the USS Philadelphia. Captain Stephen Decatur, commanding the USS United States, had dismasted the 35-gun Macedonian off the Canary Islands and, after spending two weeks restoring the prize to sailing condition, brought her back to New York after a return voyage of nearly 4,000 miles.
    (AP, 2/16/98)(HN, 2/16/98)
1805        Apr 27, A force led by U.S. Marines captured the city of Derna, on the shores of Tripoli.
    (AP, 4/27/97)
1805        Jun 4, Tripoli was forced to conclude peace with U.S. after conflict over tribute.
    (HN, 6/4/98)

Tristan da Cunha
       
A group of 3 volcanic islands in the S. Pacific belonging to Great Britain
    (WUD, 1994 p.1516)       

1816        Aug 14, Great Britain annexed Tristan da Cunha.
    (MC, 8/14/02)
1961        Oct 1, A believed extinct volcano erupted in Tristan da Cunha.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1961        Oct 9, Volcano eruptions continued on Tristan de Cunha in the South Atlantic. [see Oct 1]
    (MC, 10/9/01)
2008        The population of Tristan da Cunha, the most remote settlement in the world, stood at 269. Access to the outside world required a 6-7 day ocean voyage.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, TQ p.28)
2011        Mar 16, The Malta-registered MS Olivia was grounded on Nightingale Island in the Tristan da Cunha chain. All 22 crew were rescued by 17th March. The ship broke in two and some 20,000 penguins became coated in oil. There was a risk rats from the ship could come ashore and eat the chicks and eggs of native seabirds.
    (AP, 3/22/11)(www.tristandc.com/newsmsoliva.php)

Troy

2500BCE    Troy II, the second oldest discernible settlement on the site of the mound of Hissarlik in northwest Turkey, a good 1200 years before the estimated date of the Trojan War.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49)
2450BCE    The Troy treasure discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1873 was dated to a Bronze Age Troy of about this time.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)
1700-1250    Troy VI, the bronze age settlement of the site of the Trojan War. The inhabitants probably spoke Luvian, an Indo-European language related to Hittite.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49-50)
1250-1000BCE    Troy VIIa, another discernible era on the site of the Trojan War. Evidence shows that Troy V was destroyed by fire and that Troy VI saw the establishment of an entirely new principality. An earthquake hit the thriving city of 5-6 thousand people, but after the crisis, the same people returned and repaired the city. The renovated Troy VIIa lasted some seventy years and was then destroyed by a conflagration.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49-50)
1225-1175    Earthquakes during this period toppled some city-states and centers of trade and scholarship in the Middle East. Jericho, Jerusalem, Knossos and Troy were all hit.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A8)(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A19)
1200BCE    Homer’s Troy dates to around this time.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)
1184 BCE    Jun 11, Greeks finally captured Troy. [see 1150BCE]
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1150BCE    Troy fell. Estimated date for the beginning of the Aeneid. [see 1275-1240BCE]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.60)
c1000BCE    Troy at Hissarlik in northwest Turkey was destroyed by fire and abandoned.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.50)

Tuaregs
        Berber nomads of the Sahara. They are camel breeders, desert guides, toll collectors, bandits and opportunists. A community of some 1.5 million people, the Tuaregs have traditionally lived in Niger, Mali, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso. The Tuareg rebellions shook Mali and Niger in the 1990s and early 2000s, with a resurgence between 2006 and 2009, which caused tens of thousands of Tuaregs to take refuge in Libya.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, BR p.5)

2011        Aug 26, Mali's most radical Tuareg rebel chief Ibrahim Ag Bahanga, who never agreed to disarm, died in an accident.
    (AFP, 8/27/11)
2011        Aug 28, Security sources said hundreds of armed Tuaregs from Mali and Niger who fought for toppled Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi have started to return to their home nations.
    (AFP, 8/28/11)
2011        Sep 5, In Libya rebels reportedly arrested Khalid Kaim, Gadhafi's deputy foreign minister in Tripoli. A large convoy of Gadhafi loyalists rolled into the central Niger town of Agadez. At the head of the convoy was Tuareg rebel leader Rissa ag Boula.
    (AP, 9/6/11)
       
Tuva   

A republic of the  Russian Federation whose capital is Kyzyl. It is just north of Mongolia. It has about 300,000 people, a quarter of whom are nomads. Tuva is about the size of North Dakota.
    (WSJ, 4/1/06, p.A5)

1921-1944    The Soviets allowed Tuva to call itself independent. Tuvan stamps are issued by Moscow in odds shapes and they became collector's items.
    (WSJ, 4/1/06, p.A5)
1944        The Soviet Union annexed Tuva and closed the region to the outside world.
    (WSJ, 4/1/06, p.A5)
1993        The Constitution begins by declaring Tuva's right to secede from the Russian Federation.
    (WSJ, 11/29/95, p.A-1,4)
1995        The Russian Republic of Tuva is noted for its considerable natural resources of gold, mercury, lead-zinc, nickel-cobalt, and coal reserves. There are also 8000 rivers and streams for potential hydro-electric power.
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-19)
1995        The American club Friends of Tuva helped to take Paul Pena, a blind blues musician and self-taught throat-singer, to Tuva for a singing contest. The trip was later chronicled in the 1999 film, Genghis Blues.
    (WSJ, 4/1/06, p.A5)
1996        The Tuvan ensemble, Huun-Huur-Tu, toured the US and demonstrated their art of throat singing.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.9)
1999        The film "Genghis Blues" premiered at Sundance. It won the audience award for best documentary. It was directed by Roko and Adrian Belic and was about Paul Pena (1950-2005), a blind bluesman, who journeyed to Tuva in 1995 to compete in a throat-singing competition.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, DB p.35)(SFC, 10/4/05, p.B5)
2006        Theodore Levin authored “Where Rivers and Mountains Sing," a look at the music of Tuva and how throat-singing has infiltrated popular culture around the world.
    (WSJ, 4/1/06, p.A5)

Tuvalu

1971        Australia joined with New Zealand and 14 independent of self-governing island nations to form the South Pacific Forum. The name was changed in 2000 to Pacific Islands Forum. Member states include: Australia, the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Since 2006, associate members territories are New Caledonia and French Polynesia.
    (Econ, 10/20/07, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islands_Forum)

Uighurs (Uygurs)

    The Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China comprises one-sixth of China in area. The Uighurs of the region are Turkic-speaking descendants of the Huns.
    (SFC, 1/18/00, p.A8)

2,000BC    For as many as 4,000 years, the salty sand of the Taklimakan Desert in China held well-preserved mummies wearing colorful robes, boots, stockings and hats. The people were Caucasian not Asian. The bodies have been exhumed from the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang province since the late 1970s.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.C-1)(NG, 3/96)
356-323BC    The Uighur people have a myth that Alexander the Great during his conquests ordered his 11 doctors to create a remedy for all sick people and that as a result pilaf was invented.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, zz-1 p.2)
800-900    The Uygur, a Turkic people, fled the Mongolian steppe and settled in Xinjiang.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.12)
1000-1100    From Kashgar, China, Mahmud of Kashgar recorded a similar story but substituted tutmach (noodles) for pilaf.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, zz-1 p.2)
1933        The short-lived Republic of East Turkestan was proclaimed in Kashgar.
    (SFC, 1/18/00, p.A8,9)
1944        The short-lived Republic of East Turkestan was proclaimed to exist in Ili in northern Kashgar.
    (SFC, 1/18/00, p.A8,9)
1944-1949    The Uighers held the free Republic of East Turkestan until Chinese Communists seized power.
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.5A)
1980        A mummy titled the “Beauty of Kiruran," was found in the Taklimakan Desert in China. The Uighurs have been the majority population of this area for centuries and speak a Turkic language.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.C-1)
1997        Feb 5-6, The Uighers rioted in the province of Xinjiang and reports of deaths varied from 4-300. The fighting was said to have begun after the public execution of 30 young Muslims. Residents said Muslims attacked and killed ethnic Chinese before police quashed the revolt.
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.5A) (USAT, 2/12/97, p.8A) (WSJ, 2/11/96, p.A1)
1997        Feb 25, In Urumqi, capital of Xinjiang province, Muslim Uigher separatists set bombs that killed 2 and wounded 27.
    (SFC, 2/26/97, p.A8)
2004        Apr, Uighurs met at a conference in Germany to unite behind Erkin Alptekin, son of a pre-1949 president of independent Xinjiang.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.38)
2008        Apr 10, In China a police spokesman said authorities have detained 45 East Turkestan "terrorist" suspects (Uighurs), and foiled plots to carry out suicide bomb attacks and kidnap athletes to disrupt the Beijing Olympics.
    (Reuters, 4/10/08)

United Arab Republic (UAR)

1219        Nov 5, The port of Damietta (in the Nile delta of Egypt) fell to the Crusaders after a siege.
    (WUD, 1994, p.365)(HN, 11/5/98)
1958        Feb 1, Syria and Egypt formed the United Arab Republic. Most Syrians resented the merger, which was led by the radical Baath (Arab Socialist Resurrection) party.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1555)(HNQ, 6/5/98)
1961        Syria withdrew from the UAR following a coup.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1555)(HNQ, 6/5/98)
1961-1971    UAR was the official name of Egypt over this period.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1555)

Vandals

406        Dec 31, Godagisel, king of the Vandals, died in battle as some 80,000 Vandals attacked over the Rhine at Mainz.
    (MC, 12/31/01)
439        The Vandals took Carthage and quickly conquered all the coastal lands of Algeria and Tunisia. Egypt and the Libyan coast remained in Roman hands.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)
523        May 6, Thrasamunde, king of Vandals (496-523), died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)(http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15268b.htm)

Vanuatu

A South Pacific nation of 65 islands formerly known as the New Hebrides.
    (SSFC, 3/22/15, p.A6)
The capital is Port-Vila.
    (SSFC, 3/22/15, p.A6)

1300BC    The Lapita people took once again to the open seas about this time, pushing east past the Solomon Islands to the Bismarck archipelago and beyond to Vanuatu, Fiji and Samoa. Theses Southeast Asian peoples had headed south from Taiwan to Papua New Guinea and as far as the main Solomon islands, where they stopped some 40,000 years ago.
    (AFP, 11/9/10)
1000BC    A cemetery containing the remains of 25 Lapita people in Teouma, Vanuatu, dated to about this time.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.11)
1774        Jul 17, Capt Cook arrived at New Hebrides (Vanuatu).
    (MC, 7/17/02)(Sm, 2/06, p.73)
1938-1939    John Frum, a ghostly American, promised in the late 1930s to bring planeloads of cargo from the US to Tanna Island in Vanuatu. Natives of Tanna, in a classic example of a “cargo cult," later celebrated Feb 15 as John Frum Day.
    (Sm, 2/06, p.75)
1971        Australia joined with New Zealand and 14 independent of self-governing island nations to form the South Pacific Forum. The name was changed in 2000 to Pacific Islands Forum. Member states include: Australia, the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Since 2006, associate members territories are New Caledonia and French Polynesia.
    (Econ, 10/20/07, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islands_Forum)
1980        Jul 30, The Pacific island of Vanuatu gained independence from Britain.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(www.worldstatesmen.org/Vanuatu.html)
1996        Sep 30, Parliament passed a vote of no confidence in prime Minister Maxime Carlot.
    (SFC, 10/1/96, p.A14)
1999        Nov 27, In Vanuatu a tsunami generated by a 7.1 earthquake killed 8 people on Pentecost Island. 2 people were missing and thousands feared injured and homeless. The quake was centered 54 miles north of the capital Port Vila.
    (SFC, 11/27/99, p.A15)(SFEC, 11/28/99, p.A12)
2004        Nov 10, The Pacific island of Vanuatu withdrew a Nov 3 communique signed in Taipei to establish ties with Taiwan, handing Beijing a diplomatic victory over its arch rival.
    (AP, 11/11/04)
2005        Dec 8, An erupting volcano on the remote South Pacific island of Vanuatu burst into spectacular life shooting steam and toxic gases 9,845 feet into the sky.
    (AP, 12/08/05)
2006        Jul 11, The tiny nation of Vanuatu, one of the "happy isles of Oceania," has topped a new index, the UK-based New Economics Foundation (NEF), that measures quality of life against environmental impact, with industrial countries, perhaps unsurprisingly, faring badly.
    (Reuters, 7/11/06)
2010        Dec 2, Vanuatu PM Edward Natapei was replaced by deputy premier Sato Kilman following a vote of no confidence in the nation’s Parliament.
    (SFC, 12/3/10, p.A2)
2012        Apr 27, In Australia Clarence Marae, the private secretary of Vanuatu’s PM Kilman, was arrested at Sydney airport while traveling with PM Kilman, en route to Israel for a state visit. The arrest was linked to an alleged international tax scam.
    (AFP, 5/10/12)
2012        May 10, Vanuatu expelled the 12-member police contingent from Australia in retaliation for the April 27 arrest of PM Kilman’s private secretary while in transit to Israel.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.49)
2013        Nov 7, China’s Vice Premier Wang Yang said China will provide a concessionary loan of up to $1 billion to Pacific island nations to support construction projects in a part of the world where Beijing and Taiwan compete for influence. He made the announcement at a forum with Pacific island nations in Guangzhou at a meeting attended by representatives from Micronesia, Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Cook Islands, Tonga, Niue and Fiji.
    (Reuters, 11/8/13)
2015        Mar 14, Residents in Vanuatu hunkered in emergency shelters for a second straight night after venturing out to find their homes damaged or blown away by Cyclone Pam. 24 people were later confirmed killed with 3,300 left homeless. The cyclone had already caused damage to other Pacific islands, including Kiribati and the Solomon Islands.
    (AP, 3/14/15)(SFC, 3/16/15, p.A2)(Reuters, 3/17/15)(CSM, 3/18/15)
2015        The population of Vanuatu was about 267,000 spread over 65 islands.
    (SFC, 3/16/15, p.A2)

Vikings

700-800    Vikings began arriving to the Orkney Islands.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)
793        Jun 8, Vikings raided the Northumbrian coast in England. Corfe served as a center of West Saxon resistance to Viking invaders.
    (HN, 6/8/98)
795        Vikings first raided Ireland.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)
800-900    In France monks moved inland from the Loire valley to escape the depredations of the Vikings and revived the making of Chablis wine with Chardonnay grapes.
    (SFC, 7/16/97, Z1 p.4)
800-900    The Vikings brought ponies to Iceland.
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A9)
802        Vikings stage their 1st raid of Iona (Scotland).
    (AM, 7/01, p.50)
804        Vikings returned to Iona and killed 68 of the monastic community.
    (AM, 7/01, p.50)
840        Vikings settled in Ireland.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)
842        Vikings attacked the Irish monastery at Clonmacnoise from bases in Ireland.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)
c853        The Baltic shoreline Curonians repulsed Danish Viking attempts at subjugation. King Olaf led Swedish Vikings in retaliation and overcame the towns of Seeburg and Apuole (Apulia).
    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anskar.html#lifeans
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)
874        Vikings from Norway began to survey Iceland. The monks withdrew to Ireland. The 40,000-square-mile island situated 500 miles northwest of Scotland was first settled by Norwegians.
    (NH, 6/96, p.53)(HNQ, 4/28/00)
995-1030    Olaf Haraldsson, aka Saint Olaf, the patron saint of Norway. He was king from 1016-1029. He and a crew of Vikings attacked London and pulled down the London Bridge with ropes. This is remembered in the nursery rhyme “London Bridge is falling down..."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1002)(SFC, 8/23/97, p.E3)

Volcano Islands

    Iwo Jima is one of the 2 Volcano Islands in the North Pacific, south of Japan.

1944        Jul 4, The Japanese made their first kamikaze (god wind) attack on a US fleet near Iwo Jima. There is little evidence that these hits were more than accidental collisions or last-minute decisions by pilots in doomed aircraft, of the kind likely to happen in intense sea-air battles [see Oct 21].
    (Maggio)(WSJ, 9/10/02, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamikaze)
1944        Dec 8, The U.S. conducted the longest most effective air raid of the Pacific island of Iwo Jima.
    (HN, 12/8/98)
1945        Feb 19, About 60,000 [75,000] US marines went ashore at Iwo Jima, an 8-sq. mile island of rock, volcanic ash and black sand. During World War II, some 30,000 U.S. Marines landed on Iwo Jima, where they began a month-long battle to seize control of the island from Japanese forces. The 36-day battle took the lives of 7,000 Americans and about 20,000 of 22,000 Japanese defenders.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, p.A20)(HN, 2/19/98)(AP, 2/19/98)(SFC, 9/21/00, p.C6)
1945        Feb 23, During World War II, U.S. Marines on Iwo Jima captured Mount Suribachi, where they raised the American flag. The carnage on the 8-sq.-mile island continued for another 31 days.
    (AP, 2/23/98)(SFC, 9/21/00, p.C6)
1945        Mar 16, During World War II, the island of Iwo Jima in the Pacific Ocean was declared secured by the Allies. The U.S. defeated Japan at Iwo Jima. Small pockets of Japanese resistance still exist.
    (AP, 3/16/97)(HN, 3/16/99)
1945        Mar 26, Japanese resistance ended on Iwo Jima.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1945        Mar 27, Iwo Jima was occupied, after 22,000 Japanese and 6,000 US killed.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

Wake Island
See Midway Island

1898        Jul 4, A US flag was hoisted over Wake Island during the Spanish-American War.
    (Maggio, 98)
1899        Jan 17, US took possession of Wake Island in Pacific.
    (MC, 1/17/02)
1941        Dec 11, A Japanese invasion fleet attacked Wake Island, which was defended by 439 US marines, 75 sailors and 6 soldiers. The defenders sank 4 Japanese ships, damaged 8 and destroyed a submarine.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A2)
1941        Dec 23, During World War II, U.S. Marines and Navy defenders on Wake Island capitulated to a second Japanese invasion.
    (AP, 12/23/97)(HN, 12/23/00)
1943        Oct 7, Approximately 100 U.S. prisoners of war remaining on Wake Island were executed by the Japanese.
    (HN, 10/7/98)
1945        Sep 4, US regained possession of Wake Island from Japan. The American flag was raised on Wake Island after surrender ceremonies there.
    (HN, 9/4/98)(MC, 9/4/01)
1950        Oct 15, President Harry Truman met with General Douglas MacArthur at Wake Island to discuss U.N. progress in the Korean War.
    (HN, 10/15/98)

Wallachia

        A former principality in SE Europe, north of the Danube.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1606)

1400-1500    In Romania Vlad Tepes, aka Vlad the Impaler, the son of Vlad Dracul (Vlad the Dragon), was a 15th century gruesome Wallachian nobleman. Dracula means son of the dragon. He punished disobedient subjects and “unchaste" women by impaling them on sharpened logs, often dining amid the victims as they died. The family name changed to Kretzulesco and grew in stature with members upgraded to princes and princesses.
    (WSJ, 10/30/97, p.A20)
1861        Wallachia united with Moldavia to form Rumania whose capital is Bucharest.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1606)

Wallis and Futuna Islands

1842        The French declared a protectorate over the Wallis and Futuna Islands. They had been discovered by the Dutch and the British in the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1959, the inhabitants of the islands voted to become a French overseas territory.
    (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/wf.html)
1959        Lavalua Tomasi Kulimoetoke (41) became king of Wallis and Futuna Islands. The 2 Pacific islands between Hawaii and New Zealand, are about 2,800 miles southwest of Honolulu. The islands have a total area about 1 1/2 times the size of Washington D.C. and a population of about 15,000.
    (AP, 9/23/05)
1961        Jul, A French law guaranteed populations in France's overseas territories free exercise of their religion and respect for their beliefs and customs as long as they are not contrary to general principles of law.
    (AP, 9/23/05)
2005        Reformers on Wallis and Futuna Islands sought to put a new king in place.
    (AP, 9/23/05)

West Indies

    An archipelago in the North Atlantic between North and South America comprising the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Bahamas.

1627        Barbados was uninhabited as the first English settlers arrived. Sugarcane fields later began to cover the island, a 14 x 21 mile stack of coral terraces.
    (NH, 12/96, p.35)(Econ, 6/16/12, p.91)(http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/Barbados/history/)
1629        Oct 13, Dutch West Indies Co. granted religious freedom in West Indies.
    (MC, 10/13/01)
1780        A deadly hurricane hit the Windward and Leeward Islands and 20-22,000 people were killed.
    (SFC, 11/30/98, p.A2)
1793        Dec 23, Thomas Jefferson warned of slave revolts in West Indies.
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1833        Aug 23, The British Parliament ordered the abolition of slavery in its colonies by Aug 1, 1834. This would free some 700,000 slaves, including those in the West Indies. The Imperial Emancipation Act also allowed blacks to enjoy greater equality under the law in Canada as opposed to the US. Some 46,000 people were paid a total of 20 million pounds in compensation for freeing their slaves.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.276)(MT, 3/96, p.14)(PC, 1992, p.412)(AH, 10/02, p.54)(SFC, 2/28/13, p.A2)
1834        Aug 1, In the West Indies slaves were emancipated.
    (NH, 7/98, p.29)
1958         Jan 3, The British created the West Indies Federation with Lord Hailes as governor general. The federation lasted to 1962. It included Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad, Tobago and the Windward and Leeward Islands.
    (HN, 1/3/99)(WUD, 1994, p.1623)
1958-1962    The West Indies Federation was comprised of British territorial islands in the West Indies that included Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad, Tobago, along with the Windward and Leeward Island colonies.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1623)
1967-1981    The group of territorial islands in the West Indies in association with the United Kingdom. The original members included Antigua, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and adjacent islands. All the member islands became independent except Anguilla.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1623)
1975        Jun 21, The West Indies, captained by Clive Lloyd won the first World Cup Cricket series, beating Australia by 17 runs at Lords.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1975_Cricket_World_Cup)
1992        Oct 8, Derek Walcott (1930-2013), West Indies born poet (Saint Lucia), was named winner of the Nobel Prize in literature. In 1997 his collection of poems "The Bounty" was published. In 2014 an anthology of his poetry was published.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, BR p.1)(AP, 10/8/97)(Econ, 3/20/10, p.94)(Econ, 4/26/14, p.81)

West Irian

1963        The western part of the island of New Guinea became a province of Indonesia. It was formerly a Dutch territory called West New Guinea, Dutch New Guinea or Netherlands New Guinea.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1623)

World Trade Organization

1994        Founded as the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, a relatively weak regulator of int’l. trade. Under the system a complaint is referred to a panel of experts who debate it and render a decision. The losing nation must then change its practices or offer compensation to the injured nations. Members who refuse to comply can be subjected to trade retaliation, such as tariffs to their exports.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A9)
1996        Oct 16, The EU began its campaign against the US Helms-Burton Act by asking the WTO to set up a panel to resolve differences over the law.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A9)

Yanomani

    A native tribe of the Amazon forest of Venezuela and Brazil. Some 22,000 Yanomani live in about 300 villages spread over 70,000 sq. miles.
    (NH, 3/97, p.44)(SFC, 11/16/00, p.A19)

c1947        The first contact with outsiders occurred.
    (NH, 3/97, p.46)
1967        At least 30 Indians died from a measles epidemic that hit Yanomani villages at least one year before researchers administered the Edmonston B vaccine.
    (SFC, 11/16/00, p.A19)
1968        In Venezuela researchers, Napoleon Chagnon and James V. Neel, reportedly inoculated thousands of Yanomami Indians with a measles vaccine. In 2000 the controversial book “Darkness in El Dorado" Patrick Tierney  blamed the researchers for a major epidemic that killed hundreds of Indians. [see 1967]
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A4)
1970s-1998    Brazilian Gold miners worked in the Yanomani reservation near Venezuela and introduced disease that cut the Indian population by more than half.
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)
1996        “Spirit of the Rainforest: A Yanamama Shaman’s Story" by Mark A. Ritchie was published.
    (NH, 3/97, p.67)
1997        Nov, The Brazilian government began to force gold miners to leave the Yanomani Indian reservation where the population was much reduced by disease.
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)
1998        Mar 17, It was reported that a 3-month-old fire was raging out of control in the state of Roraima, home of the Yanomani Indians.
    (SFC, 3/17/98, p.B2)

Yoruba

        A West African people who speak the Kwa language. Yorubaland was a former kingdom in West Africa, now a region of southwest Nigeria.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1656)

1875?-1958    Yoruba sculptor Olowe. He carved a lintel in a sacrifice motif of grisly elegance: birds plucking the eyes from human faces.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)

Zaire
    See Congo

Zanzibar see Tanzania
   
Zapotecs

1000AD    The Zapotecs founded and ruled the archeological site of Monte Alban in the Mexican state of Oaxaca for more than a millennium until about this time when the Mixtecs took over.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-8)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com

privacy policy