Timeline Afghanistan A thru 2004

Afghan A = thru 2004
Afghan B 2005-2007
Afghan C 2008-2010
Afghan D 2011-2013
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Afghan Online Press: http://www.aopnews.com/
Revol. Women's Assoc.:
http://www.rawa.org/
Wikipedia:
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afghanistan_timeline

Afghanistan was also known as Ariana or Bactria in ancient times and as Khorasan in the Middle Ages. Pathans, a Pashto-speaking people, make up half the population of the country and a large part of Pakistan's population. Pashto is the native language.
    (WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A1)
The Hazara people are centered in Bamiyan province, east of Kabul. They are the remnants of a 13th century Mongol invasion and are at the bottom of the social hierarchy. They are Shiite Muslims and opposed to the Taliban.
    (SFC, 3/18/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A1)
Afghanistan has had three principal names each of which has lasted for centuries. The three principal names: Aryana in antiquity, Khurasan in the medieval era, and Afghanistan in modern times, have distinguished this land throughout  its  history. At times Herat, Bactria, and Kabul have had kingdoms of their own.
 (www.afghan, 5/25/98)
  The main languages are Dari and Pashtu. The population is 16,500,000. Its area is 251,773 sq. mi.
 (NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p. 66)
Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s Helmand province is about the size of West Virginia.
    (Econ, 7/1/06, p.23)

40Mil BC    The entire Tibetan Plateau underwent major uplifting. Vast ranges rose from the Himalayas on the east to Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s Hindu Kush and Iran~ez_rsquo~s Elburz mountains on the west.
    (SFC, 5/19/06, p.B7)

50000BC-20000BC    Archaeologists have identified evidence of stone age technology in Aq Kupruk, and Hazar Sum. Plant remains at the foothill of the Hindu Kush mountains indicate, that North Afghanistan was one of the earliest places to domestic plants and animals.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

3000BC-2000BC     Bronze might have been invented in ancient Afghanistan around this time. True urban centers rose in two main sites in Afghanistan--Mundigak, and Deh Morasi Ghundai. Mundigak (near modern day Kandahar) had an economic base of wheat, barley, sheep and goats. Also, evidence indicates that Mudigak could have been a provincial capital of the Indus valley civilization. Ancient Afghanistan was a crossroads between Mesopotamia, and other Civilizations.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

c2500BC    Aryan followers of King Yama crossed the Oxus River from Central Asia into Tajikistan and created a new calendar with the new year (Now Roz, Now-Ruz) marked by spring.
    (SSFC, 3/31/02, p.A22)

2000BC-500BC    Aryan tribes lived in Aryana (Ancient Afghanistan). The City of Kabul is thought to have been established during this time. Rig Veda may have been created in Afghanistan around this time. Evidence of early nomadic iron age in Aq Kapruk IV.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

c1500BC-1200BCE    The Persian prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra) founded the religion known as Zoroastrianism. The principal beliefs included the existence of a supreme deity called Ahura Mazda and a cosmic struggle between the spirit of good, Spenta Mainyu, and the spirit of evil, Angra Mainyu. Later adherents to Zoroastrianism are represented by the Parsees of India and the Gabars of Iran.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.35)(www.livius.org/za-zn/zarathustra/zarathustra.htm)

c1000BCE    A Pashtun legend later held that about this time King Saul~ez_rsquo~s son, Jeremiah, had a daughter named Afghana whose descendants made their way to Central Asia.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A10)

c600BCE     Zoroaster introduced a new religion in Bactria (Balkh), also known as ancient Afghanistan. Zoroastrianism is a Monotheistic religion. [see 1500-1200BCE]
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)   

c522BCE    Zoroaster died during nomadic invasion near Balkh.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

522-486 BC     Darius the Great expanded the Achaemenid (Persian) empire to its peak, when it took most of Afghanistan, including Aria (Herat), Bactriana (Balk, and present-day Mazar-i-Shariff), Margiana (Merv), Gandhara (Kabul, Jalalabad and Peshawar), Sattagydia (Ghazni to the Indus river), Arachosia (Kandahar, and Quetta), and Drangiana (Sistan). The Persian empire was plagued by constant bitter and bloody tribal revolts from Afghans living in Arachosia (Kandahar, and Quetta).
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)

329BC-326BCE     After conquering Persia, Alexander the Great invaded Afghanistan. He conquered Afghanistan, but failed to really subdue its people. Constant revolts plagued Alexander.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

326BC-325BCE    Revolts plagued Alexander and he left little more behind than a city with his Afghan name, Kandahar.
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)

323BCE    Greeks ruled Bactria (Northern Afghanistan)
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

170BC-160BCE     The Bactrian-Parthian era of Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

37        Some 20,000 pieces of jewelry and other objects were buried about this time with a warrior-prince and 5 women in northern Afghanistan. In 1978-79 a team led by Russian archeologist Viktor Sarianidi discovered their 6 sealed tombs at a site called Tillya Tepe (hill of gold). The findings became known as the ~ez_ldquo~Golden Hoard of Bactria."
    (WSJ, 11/19/08, p.D7)

50         Kushan ruled over Afghanistan under King Kanishka. Graeco-Buddhist Gandharan culture reach its height.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

200-400    A giant statue of Buddha was made at Bamiyan (Bamian) some 100 miles west of Kabul. It was destroyed by the Taliban in 2001.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ~ez_lsquo~97 p.19)(SFC, 2/12/02, p.A16)

220         Kushan empire fragmented into petty dynasties.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

250-300    The smaller Buddha at Bamiyan (Bamian), 114 feet high, dated to about this time. It was a gigantic magnification of a Gandhara image. It was destroyed by the Taliban in 2001.
    (WSJ, 3/5/00, p.A22)(SFC, 2/12/02, p.A16)

400        Invasion of the White Huns. They destroyed the Buddhist culture, and left most of the country in ruins.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

c400-600    The large Buddha at Bamiyan, 170 feet tall, was constructed. It was an enlargement of an Indian Buddha of the Gupta period.
    (WSJ, 3/5/00, p.A22)

425-550     Independent Yaftalee ruled in Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

550          Persians reasserted control over all of what is now Afghanistan. Revolts by various Afghan tribes followed.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

629        A Chinese pilgrim reported seeing a 1000-foot reclining Buddha at Bamiyan, Afghanistan. By 2004 the sleeping Buddha had not been seen for several hundred years. [see 632]
    (SFC, 8/31/04, p.A2)

632         Hiuan-tsang, an Chinese pilgrim, visited the great Buddhas of Bamiyan.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)

652          Arabs introduced Islam.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

727         Houei-tch~ez_rsquo~ao, a Korean pilgrim, visited the great Buddhas of Bamiyan.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)

781        Yakib ben Laith, a Saffarid prince from an eastern Iranian dynasty, stripped the sanctuaries of Bamiyan of their metal idols.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)

962-1030     Islamic era was established with the Ghaznavid Dynasty.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

962-1140    Under the Ghaznavid Dynasty Afghanistan became the center of Islamic power and civilization.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

971-1030    Machmud of Ghazni, ruler of Afghanistan. He made annual invasions to northern India where he pillaged temples, captured slaves, and transported his goods back by elephant. His library had a large collection of erotic manuscripts and he shared his palace with 400 poets.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

980        Ibn Sina (Afghan scientist) was born in Balkh.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1019        Machmud of Ghazni, a kingdom in central Asia, invaded India and took so many captives that the prices of slaves plummeted for several years. He invade India annually for 25 years.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1030        Mahmud Ghazni died. Conflicts between various Ghaznavid rulers arose and as a result the empire started to crumple.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1140        Ghorid leaders from central Afghanistan captured and burned Ghazni, then moved on to conquer India.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1193        The Nalanda Buddhist learning center in Bihar state was sacked by Turkic Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khalji, a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. Khalji was a member of the Muslim Turkic Khilji, or the Khalaj tribe as it is known in Iran and Afghanistan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nalanda)(www.spiritus-temporis.com/bakhtiyar-khalji/)

1207        Sep 30, Jalal ud-din Rumi (Jelaluddin Rumi, d.1273), Persian poet and mystic was born in the area of Balkh, Afghanistan. He later fled the Mongol invasions with his family to Konya (Iconium), Anatolia. His work ~ez_ldquo~Mathwani" (Spiritual Couplets) filled 6 volumes and had a great impact on Islamic civilization. He founded the Mevlevi order of Sufis, later known as the ~ez_ldquo~whirling dervishes." In 1998 a film was made about the Sufi poet~ez_rsquo~s influence on the 20th century. In 1998 Kabir Helminski edited ~ez_ldquo~The Rumi Collection" with translation by Robert Bly and others. His work also included the ~ez_ldquo~Shams I-Tabriz" in which he dismissed the terminology of Jew, Christian and Muslim as ~ez_ldquo~false distinctions." The poet Rumi was also known as Mowlana.
    (SFC, 7/9/96, p.B5)(SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.50)(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A14)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.B7)(SSFC, 4/1/07, p.E3)

1219-1221     Genghis Khan invaded Afghanistan. Destruction of irrigation systems by Genghis Khan turned fertile soil into permanent deserts.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1221        Genghis Khan razed the city of Bamiyan and exterminated its inhabitants.
    (WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1273         Marco Polo crossed Afghan Turkistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1332-1370     Descendants of earlier Ghorid rulers reasserted control over Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1369-1405    Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or Tamerlane, so-named because of a lame leg) ruled from Samarkand.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1451)

1370-1404     Timour-i-Lang (Tamerlane) ruled over Afghanistan. Afghan resistance was active.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1394        Tamerlane conquered all of Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1451        An Afghan named Buhlul invaded Delhi, and seized the throne. He founded  the Lodi dynasty.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1504        Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, captured Kabul in Afghanistan and maintained control to 1519.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1520-1579     Bayazid Roshan, an Afghan intellectual, lived. He revolted against the power of the Moghul government.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1526        Apr 21, Mongol Emperor Babur annihilated Indian Army of Ibrahim Lodi. Babar, King of Kabul, established in this year the Mughal dynasty at Delhi.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 4/21/98)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)

1540        May 17, Afghan chief Sher Khan defeated Mongol Emperor Humayun at Kanauj.
    (HN, 5/17/98)

1579        Roshan was killed in a battle with the Moghuls, but his struggle for independence continued.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1581        Akbar, Mughal Emperor of India, conquered Afghanistan.
    (TL-MB, p.23)

1613         Khushhal Khan Khattak (d.1690), Afghan warrior-poet, was born. He initiated a national uprising against the foreign Moghul government.
    (www.afghan-network.net/biographies/khattak.html)

1622        Safavid Persia ruled Kandahar.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1678-1707    Aurangzeb was the 1st Muslim ruler to fire his cannon at the giant Buddhas at Bamiyan.
    (WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1690        Khushal Khan Khattak (b.1613), Pushtun poet, died. He wrote in Pashtu during the reign of the Mongol emperors in the seventeenth century. He lived in the foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains. He was a renowned fighter who became known as the Afghan Warrior Poet.
    (www.afghan-network.net/biographies/khattak.html)

1708         Mir Wais, a forerunner of Afghan independence, made Kandahar independent of Safavid Persia that had ruled it since 1622.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1715        Mir Wais died peacefully, and lies in a mausoleum  outside of Kandahar.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1721        Abdul Qadir Bedil (b.1644), Afghanistan Sufi poet, died. In 2000 Afghan cab drivers in Washington DC began meeting to discuss his work in a program called ~ez_ldquo~An Evening of Sufism."
    (WSJ, 7/10/06, p.A1)(http://devoted.to/bedil)

1722        Mar 8, Afghan monarch Mir Mahmud occupied Persia.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1722        Oct 12, Shah Sultan Husayn surrendered the Persian capital of Isfahan to Afghan rebels after a seven month siege. Mir Wais' son, Mir Mahmud of Afghanistan, had invaded Persia and occupied Isfahan. At the same time, the Durranis revolted, and terminated the Persian occupation of Herat.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(HN, 10/12/98)

1725        Apr 25, Mir Mahmud was mysteriously killed after going mad. Afghans started to lose control of  Persia.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1736        Nadir Shah (head of Persia) occupied southwest Afghanistan, and southeast Persia.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1738        Nadir Shah (head of Persia)  took Kandahar.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1747        Nadir Shah (head of Persia) was assassinated, and the Afghans rose once again. Afghans, under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Durrani) retook Kandahar, and established modern  Afghanistan.
    (NG, 10/1993, p. 66)(www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1747        Ahmad Shah Abdali (d.1773) consolidated and enlarged Afghanistan. He defeated the Moghuls in the west of the Indus, and he took Herat away from the Persians. Ahmad Shah Durrani's empire extended from Central Asia to Delhi, from Kashmir to the Arabian sea. It became the greatest Muslim empire in the second half of the 18th century.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1750         Khurasan [was renamed] Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1757        Jan 28, Ahmed Shah, the first King of Afghanistan, occupied Delhi and annexed the Punjab.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1773-1793     Rule of Timur Shah. The capital of Afghanistan was transferred from Kandahar to Kabul because of tribal opposition. Constant internal revolts occurred.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1793-1801     Rule of  Zaman Shah. Constant internal revolts continued.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)       

1795        Persians invaded Khurasan (province).
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)*

1801-1803     Rule of  Mahmood. Constant internal revolts continued.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1803-1809     Rule of  Shah Shujah.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1805        Persian attack on Herat failed. Internal fighting continued.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1809-1818     Mahmood returned to the throne. War with Persia--indecisive victory. Internal fighting continued.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1819-1826     Sons of Timur Shah struggle for the throne--Civil War--anarchy. Afghans lost Sind permanently.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1824        William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived in Peshawar, Afghanistan, while enroute to Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses.
    (ON, 1/02, p.5)

1825        Aug 27, William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, died near Balkh, Afghanistan, while returning to India following his trip to Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses. In 1985 Garry Alder authored ~ez_ldquo~Beyond Bukhara: The Life of William Moorcroft, Asian Explorer and Veterinary Surgeon."
    (ON, 1/02, p.6)

1826        Dost Mohammad Khan took Kabul, and established control.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1832-1833     Persia moved into Khurasan (province), and threatened Herat. Afghans defend Herat successfully.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1834        May, Afghans lost Peshawar to the Sikhs; later they crushed  the Sikhs under the leadership of Akbar Khan, who defeated the Sikhs near Jamrud, and killed the great Sikh general Hari Singh. However, they failed to retake Peshawar  due to disunity and bad judgment on the part of Dost Mohammad Khan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1836         Dost Mohammad Khan was proclaimed as Amir al-mu' Minin, commander of the faithful. He was well on the road toward reunifying the whole of Afghanistan when the British, in collaboration with an ex-king (Shah Shuja),  invaded Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1838        Oct 1, Lord Auckland, British governor general in India, issued the Simla Manifesto, setting forth the necessary reasons for British intervention in Afghanistan. This led to the 1st Anglo-Afghan War.
    (Econ, 10/7/06, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Anglo-Afghan_War)

1838        Dec, India~ez_rsquo~s British governor general dispatched to Kabul the Army of the Indus to protect British interests from growing Russian influence.
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Anglo-Afghan_War)

1839        A British army marched to Kabul and replaced Dost Mohammad, the amir of Afghanistan, with a more docile ruler. Britain had decided that Persian and Russian intrigues posed a threat to their control of India.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1839-1842     First Anglo-Afghan War. After some resistance, Amir Dost Mohammad Khan surrendered to the British and was deported to India. In 1990 John H. Waller (1923-2004) authored ~ez_ldquo~Beyond the Khyber Pass: The Road to British Disaster in the First Afghan War."
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(SSFC, 11/7/04, p.A23)
1839-1842    Shah Shuja, a deposed king, was installed as Afghan "puppet king" by the British. Shuja had been living in exile in India for three decades. In 2013 William Dalrymple authored ~ez_ldquo~The Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan, 1839-42."
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(Econ, 1/26/12, p.73)

1840        May 14, English Lt. Richmond Shakespear left Herat on a mission to Khiva (later Uzbekistan) to persuade the ruling Khan to free all his Russian slaves.
    (ON, 4/00, p.7)

1840        Aug 15, English Lt. Richmond Shakespear began a 500-mile trek with 416 freed Russian slaves from Khiva to the Russian Fort Alexandrovsk on the Caspian Sea.
    (ON, 4/00, p.8)

1840        Nov 5, Afghanistan surrendered to the British.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1841          Nov 2, Following the British occupation of Kabul during the 1st Afghan War (1839-1842), Afghans revolted and murdered British envoy, Lt. Col. Sir Alexander Burnes (1805-1841) and some 23 others. By Jan 1842 the British army decided to withdraw with its 4,500 Anglo-Indian troops and 10,000 camp followers. The column was wiped out by Ghilzai tribesmen with their long-barreled rifles called jezails.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(HN, 11/2/98)(www.indhistory.com/afghan-war-1.html)

1842        Jan 1, Maj. Gen. William G.K. Elphinstone ordered a 90-mile retreat from Kabul through the snowy passes to Jalalabad.
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)

1842        Jan 2-1842 Jan12, Akbar Khan, Afghan hero, was victorious against the British. Out of 4,500 (16,500) soldiers and 12,000 dependents only one survivor, of a mixed British-Indian garrison, reached the fort in Jalalabad, on a stumbling pony. The British retreated from Kabul to Jalalabad. The incident is the backdrop for George MacDonald Fraser~ez_rsquo~s novel ~ez_ldquo~Flashman." [see Jan 13]
    (WSJ, 4/10/95, A-16)(www.afghan-web.com/history/)(WSJ, 9/20/01, p.A12)

1842        Jan 13, Dr. William Brydon, badly wounded, reached Jalalabad as the only survivor of a 16,000 person retreat from Kabul. In the 1st British-Afghan War British troops retreating from Kabul were ambushed and nearly all slaughtered at the Khyber Pass, even though the Afghans had promised them safe passage during their withdrawal from the Afghan capital. [see Jan 2-12]
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)(MC, 1/13/02)

1842        Apr, Shah Shuja was killed by Afghans. Afghans passionately  continued their struggle against the British.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1842        The British forced their way through the Khyber Pass. They recaptured Kabul and burned down the Great Bazaar in retribution before marching back to India.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1843         After the annihilation of British troops, Afghanistan once again became independent, and the exiled Amir, Dost Mohammad Khan came back and occupied the royal throne.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1843-1863    Dost Mohammad Khan occupied the royal throne.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1845        Afghan hero,  Akbar Khan died.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1849        Britain annexed the Punjab, the vast territories of what later became known as eastern Pakistan and northern western India. This put them on the edge of the tribal territories, mostly claimed by Afghanistan, and forced them to launch military campaigns almost every year for the next half century to keep the tribes at bay.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.18)

1855         Dost Mohammad Khan signed a peace treaty with India.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1859        British took Baluchistan, and Afghanistan became completely landlocked.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1863-1866     Sher Ali, Dost Mohammad Khan's son, succeeded to the throne.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1865        Russia  took  Bukhara, Tashkent, and Samerkand.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1866-1867     Mohammad Afzal occupied Kabul and proclaimed himself Amir.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1867        Oct, Mohammad Afzal died.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1867-1868     Mohammad Azam succeeded to the throne.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1868        Mohammad Azam fled to Persia.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1868-1879    Sher Ali reasserted control.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1873         Russia established a fixed boundary between Afghanistan and it's new territories. Russia promised to respect Afghanistan's territorial integrity.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1878        The new amir, Dost Mohammad~ez_rsquo~s son, signed a treaty of friendship with Russia. British Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Frederick ~ez_ldquo~Little Bobs" Roberts was sent with an army to force Afghanistan into a treaty ceding foreign policy to the British. The treaty was concluded but the British envoy was murdered.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1878         Start of second Anglo-Afghan War. The British invaded and the Afghans quickly  put up a strong resistance.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1879        Oct 12, British troops occupied Kabul, Afghanistan.
    (MC, 10/12/01)   

1879         Sher Ali died in Mazar-i-Shariff, and Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan took over until October 1879. Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan gave up the following Afghan territories to the British: Kurram, Khyber, Michni, Pishin, and Sibi. Afghans lost these territories permanently.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1879        Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Roberts returned to Kabul to hang some Afghans in punishment for the murder of a British envoy. Roberts was besieged and another British force in southern Afghanistan was almost annihilated. Roberts retreated in a march from Kabul to Kandahar.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1880         Jul, In the Battle of Maiwand an Afghan woman named Malalai carried the Afghan flag forward after the soldiers carrying the flag were killed by the British. She becomes a heroine for her show of courage and valor. The 1892 Kipling poem ~ez_ldquo~Barracks Room Ballads" recalled the Battle of Maiwand.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)

1880        Aug 1, Sir Frederick Roberts freed the British Afghanistan garrison of Kandahar from Afghan rebels.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1880        In the 2nd Anglo-Afghan War an Anglo-Indian force of 2,500 lost 1,000 dead and fled from a rebel army of some 25,000.
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)

1880        The British, shortly after the accession of the new Amir, withdrew from Afghanistan, although they retained the right to handle Afghanistan's foreign relations.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1880        Abdur Rahman established fixed borders and he lost a lot of Afghan land.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1880        Nuristan converted to Islam.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1880-1901    Abdur Rahman, backed by the British, took the throne of Afghanistan as Emir and ruled to 1901. During his reign, Afghanistan was sandwiched between the British colonial rulers of India, which then encompassed modern-day Pakistan, and the Russian empire that extended into Caucasus areas of Central Asia. As the British and the Russians built tracks that went right up to his border, Rahman Khan responded with a decree that no railroad would be allowed to enter Afghan territory, reasoning that without them, it would be difficult for invading troops to cross the mountainous frontier.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.12)(AP, 3/10/12)

1885        Mar 30, Russian troops inflicted a crushing defeat on Afghan forces Ak Teppe despite orders not to fight.
    (HN, 3/30/99)

1885        The Panjdeh Incident. Russian forces seize the Panjdeh Oasis, a piece of Afghan territory north of the Oxus River. Afghans tried to retake it, but were finally forced to allow the Russians to keep Panjdeh, and the Russians promised to honor Afghan territorial integrity in the future.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1888        In Afghanistan a royal decree granted Pashtun Sunnis rights to graze their herds in the central highlands, land occupied by the Hazara people.
    (SFC, 10/21/08, p.A12)

1893         The Durand line, drawn by British diplomat Sir Mortimer Durand, fixed the borders of Afghanistan with British India, splitting Pushtun tribal areas and leaving half of these Afghans in what is now Pakistan. The agreement was first signed by Sir Mortimer Durand and Abdur Rahman Khan, the ruler of Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(Econ, 7/22/06, p.44)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.34)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.18)

1894        Mullah Powindah, an Afghan-backed Mehsud, led an attack on a British team demarcating the frontier between India and Afghanistan. Powindah took the title Badshah-Taliban (King of the Taliban) and became a 2-decade-long headache for the British.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.19)

1895         Afghanistan's northern border was fixed and guaranteed by Russia.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1896        Emir Abdul Rachman converted the eastern kafirs to Islam by force.
    (WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1901        Abdur Rahman died and his son Habibullah succeeded him.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1907        Russia and Great Britain signed the convention of St. Petersburg, in which Afghanistan was declared outside Russia's sphere of influence.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1911        Oct, Mahmud Tarzi (1865-1933), Afghan intellectual, began publishing the Seraj-al-Akhbar newspaper. The bi-weekly continued to January 1919.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmud_Tarzi)

1914        Mohammad Zahir Shah, later king, was born. He was crowned at age 19, ousted in 1963 and deposed in 1973.
    (SFC, 4/19/02, p.A11)

1918        Mahmud Tarzi (Afghan Intellectual) introduced modern Journalism into Afghanistan with the creation of several newspapers.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1919        Aug 19, Afghanistan established independence from the UK with the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi.
    (AFP, 8/19/10)

1919        The first museum in Afghanistan was instituted at Baghe Bala.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)
1919        Afghanistan was recognized as a sovereign nation.
    (WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A1)
1919        The Emir of Afghanistan declared jihad against Britain~ez_rsquo~s forces in the North-West Frontier Province. In response Britain shipped a single Handley Page biplane bomber to Karachi. It flew over Kabul and dropped four 20-pound bombs. The emir sued for peace shortly thereafter.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.20)
1919        In Afghanistan Habibullah was assassinated, and succeeded by his son Amanullah (The reform King).
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1919-1921    The 3rd Anglo-Afghan war began. The British were defeated, and Afghanistan gained full control of her foreign affairs.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1921        May 27, Afghanistan achieved sovereignty after 84 years of British control.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1921        Treaty of Ranalpindi.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1921        Afghanistan signed a Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union.
    (WSJ, 9/20/01, p.A12)

1921        Amanullah Khan initiates a series of ambitious efforts at social and political modernization.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1923        Amanullah Khan changed his title from Amir to Padshah (King).
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1926        Oct 16, Mohammed Nadir Khan began a coup in Afghanistan and 1200 were killed.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1929        Jan 17, In Afghanistan Habibullah Kalakani (1891-1929), popularly known as "Bache Saqaw," became emir after deposing Amanullah Khan, the grandson of Rahman Khan, with the help of various Afghan tribes who opposed modernization. Khan had built 5-mile (8-km) track with steam locomotives running between Kabul and his European-style palace of Darulaman. But his plans for a wider network met with opposition. The line fell into disrepair after he was overthrown.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habibull%C4%81h_Kalak%C4%81ni)(AP, 3/10/12)

1929        Oct 15, Nadir Khan (1983-1933) took the throne of Afghanistan after a 3-way power struggle. His tribal Wazir army looted government buildings and houses of wealthy citizens because the treasury was empty. Habibullah Kalakani, along with his supporters, and a few supporters of Amanullah Khan were killed by Nadir Khan and Khan established full control.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammed_Nadir_Shah)(WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A6)

1929        Nov 1, Afghan emir Habibullah Kalakani (b.1891), popularly known as "Bache Saqaw," was executed by firing squad along with his brother and 10 other rebel leaders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habibull%C4%81h_Kalak%C4%81ni)

1929        Mahmud Tarzi (1865-1933), one of Afghanistan's greatest intellectuals, sought asylum in Turkey after the fall of Amanullah Khan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmud_Tarzi)
1929        In Afghanistan Queen Soraya (1899-1968), wife of King Amanullah Khan, was forced into exile following the abdication of King Amanullah. Soraya Tarzi had a modern approach to women~ez_rsquo~s issues and refused to wear a veil.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soraya_Tarzi)(SFC, 5/28/15, p.A3)

1930         May, Pro-Amanullah Khan uprising was put down by Nadir Khan. Nadir Khan abolished reforms set forth by Amanullah Khan to modernize Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1931        Jun 24, The Soviet Union and Afghanistan signed a treaty of neutrality.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

1933        Nadir Khan was assassinated by a college student, and his son, Zahir, inherited the throne.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1933        King Zahir Shah (1914-2007) began his rule as king of Afghanistan. He kept the country in feudal backwardness until he was overthrown in 1973. His uncles served as prime ministers and advisors until 1953.
    (SFC, 9/23/96, A9)(www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1933        Mahmud Tarzi, Afghan intellectual, died in Turkey at the age of 68. He is known as the father of Afghan journalism.
    (www.afghan-web.com/bios/yest/tarzi.html)

1934        The United States of America formally recognized Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1938        Da Afghanistan Bank (State Bank of Afghanistan) was incorporated.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1939        Jan15, Minor pro-Amanullah Khan uprising.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1939        In Afghanistan the state-run Karkar coal mine began production in Baghlan province.
    (Econ, 11/25/06, p.64)

1940        Zahir Shah proclaimed Afghanistan as neutral during WW2.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1947        Britain withdrew from India. Pakistan was carved out of Indian and Afghan lands.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)
1947        A force of Wazirs and Mehsuds was dispatched to seize Kashmir for the newly formed Islamic republic of Pakistan, sparking the first Indo-Pakistan war.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.17)

1949        Afghanistan's Parliament denounced the Durand Treaty and refused to recognize the Durand line as a legal boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1949        Pashtuns in Pashtunistan (Occupied Afghan Land) proclaim an independent Pashtunistan, but their proclamation went unacknowledged by the world community.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1953        Prince Mohammad Daoud becomes Prime Minister.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1954        The U.S. rejects Afghanistan's request to buy military equipment to modernize the army.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1955        Daoud turned to the Soviet Union (Russia) for military aid.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1955        The Pashtunistan (occupied Afghan land) issue flared up.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1955        The Afghan Aryana Airline was founded.
    (SFC, 12/14/01, p.E6)

1956        Jun 9, Heavy earthquake struck Afghanistan and 400 were killed.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1956        Khrushchev and Bulgaria agree to help Afghanistan. Close ties between Afghanistan and USSR.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1959        May 10, Soviet forces arrived in Afghanistan.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1959        In Afghanistan the Purdah was made optional under King Zahir Shah. Women began to enroll in the university, which had become co-educational, and they began to enter the workforce, as well as the government.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(Econ, 7/28/07, p.88)

1961        Pakistan and Afghanistan come close to war over Pashtunistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1963        James Michener (d.1997 at 90) wrote his novel "Caravans," the fruit of wide-ranging trips to Afghanistan in the mid-1950s.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)(WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W8)

1963-1964    Zahir Shah demanded Daoud's resignation. Dr. Mohammad Yusof became Prime Minister.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1964        Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s first constitution banned all royals, except the king, from taking part in politics. This was specifically aimed at King Zahir Shah~ez_rsquo~s cousin Daoud, who staged a coup in 1973.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.88)

1964        Soviet Union engineers completed the 2.6 miles Salang tunnel connecting Kabul, Afghanistan, to Central Asia. At 11,034 feet it was the world~ez_rsquo~s highest tunnel until 1973, when the US built the Eisenhower Memorial Tunnel in the Rocky Mountains.
    (SFC, 12/13/01, p.A10)(SFC, 2/7/02, p.A20)(Econ, 8/3/13, p.34)(http://tinyurl.com/ngughx2)

1965        Jan, The Afghan Communist Party, the People~ez_rsquo~s Democratic Party of Afghanistan, was secretly formed. Babrak Karmal was one of the founders.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(WSJ, 9/20/01, p.A12)

1965        Sep, The first nationwide elections under the new constitution. Karmal was elected to the Parliament, later instigates riots. Zahir and Yussof formed a second government.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1965        Zahir Shah introduced parliamentary democracy.
    (WSJ, 9/28/01, p.A14)

1966-1973    Robert Neumann (d.1999 at 83), an Austrian born scholar, served as the US ambassador to Afghanistan. He was then assigned to Morocco.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A25)

1969        In Afghanistan Gulbuddin Hekmatyar founded the Hezb-e-Islami party.
    (SSFC, 11/29/15, p.A22)
1969        In Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s second nationwide elections Babrak and Hafizullah Amin were elected.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1972        Mohammad Moussa became Prime Minister of Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1973        Jul 17, Zahir Shah (1914-2007) was on vacation in Europe, when his government was overthrown in a military coup headed by his relative Daoud Khan and PDPA (Afghan Communist Party). Zahir Shah fled to Italy where he lived until his return in 2002. Daoud Khan abolished the monarchy and declared himself President of the Republic of Afghanistan.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(SFC, 9/22/01, p.A7)(AP, 7/23/07)

1973        Timothy Leary (d.1996) was captured in Afghanistan and returned to jail in California. He was pardoned by Gov. Brown in 1976.
    (SFC, 2/9/02, p.A22)

1974        UNESCO named Herat as one of the first cities to be designated as a part of the worlds cultural heritage.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1975-1977     In Afghanistan Daoud Khan during this period presented a new constitution. Women's rights were confirmed. Daoud starts to oust suspected opponents from his government.
    (www.languages.umd.edu/persian/afghanhistory.php)
 
1977        In Afghanistan a loya jirga (grand assembly) convened to establish a democratic state.
    (SSFC, 12/16/01, p.A3)

1978        Apr 27, The Afghanistan revolution began. There was a leftist coup. Afghanistan armed forces seized power. Pres. Mohammed Daud Khan was killed and Nur Mohammad Tarakai was installed as president. Babrak Karmal became his deputy Prime Minister. It was the first country in South Asia to fall while under communist rule. Assadulah Sarawary became the secret police chief under the Tarakai regime. In 2006 he faced war crime charges. In 2008 Afghan authorities announced they had found mass graves containing the remains of ex-president Mohammad Daud Khan and 17 family members and associates. In 2009 Daud Khan was reburied along with family members on a hillside overlooking the mountains that surround Kabul.
    (HN, 4/27/98)(WSJ, 9/20/01, p.A12)(Econ, 1/21/06, p.42)(AP, 8/17/08)(AP, 12/4/08)(AP, 3/17/09)

1978        Jun, The Afghan guerrilla (Mujahideen) movement was born.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/chron/index4.html)

1978        Aug 17, Afghanistan announced that defense minister Gen. Abdul Qadir, one of the Apr 27 coup leaders, has been arrested after the discovery of an alleged plot to overthrow the government. Qadir also belonged to the Parcham faction.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1978_in_Afghanistan)

1978        Oct 19, The Afghan flag was changed. The national flag, also used as state and war flag, was a 1:2 red flag with a yellow Soviet-like emblem in the canton. Red symbolized the fight against imperialism, feudality and all other kinds of oppression.
    (www.crwflags.com/FOTW/flags/af1978o.html)

1978        Dec 5, Afghan Pres. Nur Mohammad Tarakai, head of People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(www.eedi.org.ua/eem/7eng.html)

1978        Norman Hammond co-authored ~ez_ldquo~The Archeology of Afghanistan."
    (WSJ, 3/5/00, p.A22)
1978        In Afghanistan Kabul Mayor Ghulam Sakhi Noorzad began enacting a master plan for the city developed by top European engineers. He went into exile with the Soviet invasion, returned in 2001 and resumed work on the master plan.
    (WSJ, 3/3/05, p.A1)
1978        In Afghanistan fighting began between the government and a shifting array of rebel groups. Hafizullah Amin led socialist activists to overtake Kabul. They received aid from Moscow but not total backing. Mass arrests, tortures, and arrests took place.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)(SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1979        Feb 14, Adolph Dubs, the U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan, was kidnapped in Kabul by Muslim extremists and killed in a shootout between his abductors and police.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(AP, 2/14/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolph_Dubs)

1979        Mar, Ismail Khan, a Persian speaking Sunni Tajik and Major in Afghan army, led a mutiny/insurrection against the Taraki regime's Sawr (or April) Revolution (Taraki's inspired Afghan societal liberalization and land reform). Khan's revolt resulted in the slaughter of Soviet Afghan advisors and their families. This insurrection was met by a brutal Afghan and Soviet response that killed an estimated 24,000 Heratis in a single week and destroyed much of the famous Central Asian crossroad city.
    (www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/2004/jul/johnsonJul04.asp)

1979        Apr 1, Assadullah Sarwari (b.1941), former air force commander under Pres. Khan, became head of Afghan secret police (AGSA). He was later arrested for involvement in the arbitrary arrest, torture and mass killing of hundreds of opponents and spent 13 years in jail before his trial began on Dec 26, 2005.
    (www.trial-ch.org/en/trial-watch/profile/db/facts/assadullah_sarwari_452.html)

1979        Jun 13, Ahmed Zahir (b.1946), Afghanistan pop star, was killed in a car crash. His death is believed to have been arranged by Hafizullah Amin.
    (Econ, 12/6/03, p.38)(www.ahmadzahir.com/biography.php)

1979        Sep 16, Hafizullah Amin took the presidency of Afghanistan following the killing of Nur Muhammad Taraki. Amin was later executed and replaced with Babrak Karmal.
    (www.onwar.com/aced/nation/all/afghan/fafghan1979a.htm)

1979        Dec 25, Large numbers of Soviet airborne forces joined stationed ground troops and began to land in Kabul, Afghanistan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_war_in_Afghanistan)

1979        Dec 27, Soviet forces seized control of Afghanistan after a 2nd leftist coup. The Soviet backed coup ousted leftists and put a more pro-Moscow regime in power in Kabul. Babrak Karmal (1929-1996) became the new puppet leader and Soviet troops bolstered his rule against Muslim resistance fighters. Hafizullah Amin, who was overthrown, was executed and replaced by Babrak Karmal. Some 15,000 Soviet soldiers reportedly died along with 1 million Afghans.
    (SFC, 9/23/96, A9)(SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 12/6/96, p.A1)(WA, 1997, p.737)(AP, 12/27/97)(http://web.mit.edu/cascon/cases/case_afg.html)

1979        Afghanistan conducted a census.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, p.46)
1979        Osama bin Laden left Saudi Arabia to fight against the Soviets in Afghanistan, where he laid the groundwork for his al Qaeda network.
    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)

1979-1989    The Afghan resistance fought off Soviet troops. It was backed by intelligence services of the US and Saudi Arabia and nearly $6 billion worth of weapons.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.A8)

1979-1992    Habibullah Jalalzoy (b.1946) served as the head of the interrogations unit within the Afghan military intelligence under the communist regime. In 2005 Dutch prosecutors demanded a sentence of 9 years in prison for war crimes and torture.
    (http://tinyurl.com/l4w8jqs)(AP, 9/26/05)
1979-1992    This period in Afghanistan was later covered in Nelofer Pazira~ez_rsquo~s 2005 memoir ~ez_ldquo~A Bed of Red Flowers: In Search of My Afghanistan."
    (SSFC, 9/11/05, p.F1)

1980        Jan 2, President Carter asked the Senate to delay the arms treaty ratification in response to Soviet action in Afghanistan.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1980        Jan 13, The United States offered Pakistan a two-year aid plan to counter the Soviet threat in Afghanistan.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1980        Jan 14, UN voted 104-18 to deplore the Soviet Afghan acts.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1980        Jan 24, In an action obviously designed as another in a series of very strong reactions to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, US officials announce that America is ready to sell military equipment (excluding weapons) to communist China. The surprise statement was part of the US effort to build a closer relationship with the People's Republic of China for use as leverage against possible Soviet aggression.
    (http://tinyurl.com/8sx9u)

1980        Feb 22, Afghanistan declared martial law following a major uprising in Kabul.
    (http://tinyurl.com/34hky9)

1980        Jun 22, The Soviet Union announced a partial withdrawal of its forces from Afghanistan.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1980        In Afghanistan Dr. Najibullah (1947-1996) was brought back from USSR to run the secret police. He later served as president (1986-1992).
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammad_Najibullah)

1980        The Nazoo Anna School was founded in Peshawar, Pakistan, for girls from Afghan refugee camps by Nazaneen Jabarkhel Majeed. It was named after a female Afghan freedom fighter.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.A10)

1980-1989    During the 1980s the US purchased millions of Type 56 rifles from China to arm the Afghan Mujahedeen in their war against the Soviet army. The rifles were copycats of the AK-47s used by Russian soldiers. The US gave an average of $500 million in military aid annually to the Mujahedeen. The US also purchased Chinese and Polish AK-47s to supply the Contra guerillas in Nicaragua.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A9)(SFC, 9/23/96, A9)

1981-1988    Pakistan~ez_rsquo~s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and the US CIA carried out massive covert operations against Soviet forces in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A6)

1982        Mar 8, The U.S. accused the Soviets of killing 3,000 Afghans with poison gas.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1982        Nov 3, In Afghanistan a Soviet tank engine exploded in the Salang Tunnel and 178 Soviet soldiers were killed along with as many as 800 Afghans.
    (SFC, 12/13/01, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salang_tunnel_fire)

1982        The Friendship Bridge over the Amu Darya River, connecting Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, was built by the Soviets during the Soviet occupation of that country. The bridge was closed in May 1997 when the Taliban forces took control of the city of Mazari Sharif, forcing Uzbek rebels to retreat back to Uzbekistan. It reopened on December 9, 2001.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2qbrbd)(WSJ, 11/21/01, p.A11)

1982-1992    An estimated 35,000 Muslim fighters from 43 countries arrived to fight in the Afghan resistance and to train for fighting in Kashmir.
    (WSJ, 10/12/01, p.A6)

1983        May 23, Radio Moscow announcer Vladimir Danchev praised Afghanistan Muslims standing up to Russia. He was removed from the air.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1983        Dec 30, A 7.2 earthquake killed 26 people in Afghanistan (14) and Pakistan (12).
    (SFC, 3/5/02, p.A10)

1983-1991    Heshamuddin Hesam served as the head of Afghan military intelligence. In 2005 Dutch prosecutors demanded a sentence of 12 years in prison for war crimes and torture.
    (AP, 9/26/05)

1984        UN sent investigators to Afghanistan to examine reported human rights violations.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1985        A photo by Steve McCurry titled ~ez_ldquo~Afghan Girl" appeared on the cover of National Geographic. In 2012 it sold at auction for $147,000.
    (SSFC, 12/9/12, p.A1)

1985-1986      In Afghanistan Soviet soldiers failed to subdue the rebels. An alliance of 7 factions received US arms. Moscow installed a new leader, Dr. Najibullah.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)

1986        The Soviets built a half-mile concrete span, the Friendship Bridge, connecting Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
    (SFC, 12/10/01, p.A12)

1986        Osama bin Laden began building a tunnel complex under mountains in Afghanistan near Pakistan as part of a CIA-funded project.
    (SSFC, 5/9/04, p.M6)

1986        Babrak Karmal was replaced by Dr. Najibullah.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1987        Najibullah proposed a cease-fire, but the Mujahideen refused to deal with a "puppet government".
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1987        Mujahideen made great gains, and the defeat of the Soviets was eminent.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1988        Jan 6, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze was quoted by the Afghan news agency as saying the Kremlin wanted to pull an estimated 115,000 soldiers from Afghanistan in the coming year.
    (AP, 1/6/98)

1988        Feb 15, The Soviet Union was defeated by Afghanistan, and a total withdrawal by the Soviets occurred. In 2003 George Crile authored "Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the largest Covert Operation in History."
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(SSFC, 5/25/03, p.M1)

1988        Apr 7, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev and Afghan leader Najibullah met in the Soviet Central Asian city of Tashkent. They later issued a joint statement announcing an end to the civil war in Afghanistan and withdrawal Soviet troops.
    (AP, 4/7/97)

1988        Apr 14, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the United States and the Soviet Union signed agreements providing for the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan and creation of a nonaligned Afghan state. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev announced the withdrawal of Soviet troops. The Soviets pulled out of Afghanistan after nine years of fighting. Afghan rebels rejected the pact and continued fighting.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(WA, 1997, p.737)(TMC, 1994, p.1988)(AP, 4/14/98)

1988        May 15, The Soviet Union began the process of withdrawing its 115,000 troops from Afghanistan, more than eight years after Soviet forces had entered the country.
    (AP, 5/15/98)(HN, 5/15/98)

1988        May 18, A cheering crowd in the Soviet town of Termez greeted the first Soviet soldiers as they withdrew from Afghanistan. Experts agree that at least 40,000-50,000 Soviets lost their lives in action, besides the wounded, suicides, and murders. Mujahideen continued to fight against Najibullah's regime. Some 130,000 Red Army troops fought in Afghanistan and 15,000 were lost.
    (AP, 5/18/98)(www.afghan-web.com/history/)(SFC, 10/18/01, p.A3)

1988        Staff members of Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s National Museum moved most of its artifacts into storage as the Soviet occupation ended. An inventory in 2004 showed that most of the stored items survived the civil war and the Taliban years.
    (SFC, 11/18/04, p.A16)

1989        Feb 5, The Soviet Union announced that all but a small rear-guard contingent of its troops had left Afghanistan.
    (AP, 2/5/99)

1989        Feb 15, The Soviet Union announced that the last of its troops had left Afghanistan, after more than nine years of military intervention.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(AP, 2/15/98)

1989        May, Afghan guerrillas elect Sibhhatullah Mojadidi as head of their government-in-exile.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1989        In Afghanistan Osama bin Laden formed al Qaeda.
    (SSFC, 5/9/04, p.M6)

1989        Javed Hussain Shah completed 6 months of training in Afghanistan and led a Kashmiri insurgent group later dubbed the Jihad Force. He fought along with al-Qaida members and later became a Kashmiri legislator.
    (SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A13)

1990        Artyom Borovik authored ~ez_ldquo~The Hidden War," an account of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W8)

1990        Lashkar-e-Taiba (Army of the Pure) was formed in Afghanistan by Hafiz Mohammed Saeed. It made its name challenging India~ez_rsquo~s claims over Kashmir.
    (WSJ, 12/8/08, p.A6)

1991        Feb 1, Afghanistan and Pakistan were hit by an earthquake and 1,200 died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/dsnjk)

1991        Sudanese intelligence approached Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan and invited him to move to Khartoum, which he did.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A20)

1992        Apr 15, On April 15-16 the Mujahedeen overthrew the Communist government led by Pres. Najibullah in Kabul. The Mujahideen took Kabul and liberated Afghanistan, Najibullah was protected by the UN. The Mujahideen formed an Islamic State, Islamic Jihad Council, and scheduled elections.
    (SFC, 9/23/96, A9)(SFC, 9/27/96, p.A12)(www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1992        Apr 25, Islamic forces in Afghanistan took control of most of the capital of Kabul following the collapse of the Communist government.
    (AP, 4/25/97)

1992        Jun 28, Rebel leader Burhanuddin Rabbani became president, but factional fighting continued. Iranian and Pakistani interference increased, and more fighting followed.
    (WA, 1997, p.737)(www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1993        Feb 11, In Afghanistan some 800 Hazzara civilians were massacred in the Afshar district of West Kabul.
    (Econ, 2/17/07, p.45)(http://tinyurl.com/34h7bu)

1993        May, The Kabul Museum was partially destroyed by a shell and was left unprotected in the suburb of Darulaman. It was looted for many months.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A14)

1993        Jun 17, In Afghanistan Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (b.1947) began serving his first term as Prime Minister and continued to 1994. His 2nd term covered 1996-1997.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulbuddin_Hekmatyar)(SFC, 9/23/96, A12)

1994        Jan, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar left as PM of Afghanistan and led forces of the Islamic Party (Hezb-i-Islami) against Pres. Burhanuddin Rabbani. Dostum and Hekmatyar continued to clash against Rabbani's government, and as a result Kabul was reduced to rubble.
    (SFC, 9/23/96, A12)(www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1994        Feb 20, Three armed Afghans seized a school bus in Islamabad with some 70 passengers including Pakistani children.
    (http://lists.asu.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind9402c&L=pakistan&T=0&F=&S=&P=452)

1994        Apr, In Afghanistan about this time Mohammed Omar (b.1959), former guerrilla commander against Soviet forces, gathered a group of former guerrillas in the village of Singesar and hung the mujahedeen responsible for the rape of 2 local girls. He soon led the Taliban (The Students) as Amir-ul-Momineen (Commander of the Faithful). The Taliban militia advanced rapidly against the Islamic government.
    (SFC, 1/1/97, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taliban)

1994        Sep, The Taliban was formed in southern Afghanistan. Its fighters were initially trained by the Frontier Constabulary, a paramilitary force of Pakistan~ez_rsquo~s Interior Ministry (ISI). Taliban forces captured the southern town of Kandahar. 800 truckloads of arms and ammunition were gained from a Soviet cache. They continued to gain land over the next 2 years. The Taliban took Kabul in 1996.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(SFC, 1/1/97, p.C3)(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A10)    (WSJ, 9/14/01, p.A6)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.44)

1994        Sep, Naseerullah Baber, Pakistan~ez_rsquo~s interior minister, arranged a peace convoy to run rice, clothing and other gifts through Afghanistan to Turkmenistan.
    (SFC, 1/1/97, p.C3)

1994         Nov 20, The most heavily mined country in the world is Afghanistan, with between 10 and 15 million deadly mines.
    (UNICEFF Mailer, 11/94)

1994        King Shah suggested that a traditional council of tribal leaders, ~ez_ldquo~loya jirga," be convened to appoint a head of state and set up a transitional government. He was unable to gain sufficient support for the idea.
    (SFC, 9/22/01, p.A7)

1995        Aug, The Afghan Taliban militia forced down a Russian Ilyushin-76 cargo plane with 7 Russian airmen at Kandahar.
    (SFC, 8/15/96, p.C3)

1995        Nov 26, Rebel jets bombed Kabul, the Afghan capital, killing 35 people and wounding 140 others.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1995        The Afghan national cricket team was founded after the withdrawal of the Soviet army.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.40)

1995        Massive gains were made by the Taliban. Increased Pakistani and Iranian interference followed.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1995        The Taliban regained Herat and Tajik commander Ismail Khan fled for exile in Iran. Khan returned in 1997 and was captured by the Taliban and imprisoned for nearly 3 years.
    (SFC, 11/13/01, p.A2)

1995        Rebel jets bombed Kabul. Blame was placed on the Islamic Tailbone Militia, which was fighting to oust President Rabbani.
    (WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-1)

1995        In Bamiyan 45 Tajik fighters were tortured to death in an attempt to conquer the province.
    (SFC, 2/12/02, p.A1)

1995        More than 1,000 people died in fighting during this year.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)

1996        Feb, Ammunition exploded at the presidential palace in Kabul and killed as many as 60 people. The blast was blamed on an accidental fire.
    (WSJ, 2/16/96, p.A-1)

1996        Apr 4, Mohammed Omar (aka Mullah Muhammad Omar) unsealed a shrine in Kandahar that held a cloak believed to have belonged to the prophet Mohammed. He placed the cloak over his shoulders and declared himself the commander of the faithful and leader of all Islam.
    (SFC, 12/7/01, p.A16)(Econ, 8/8/15, p.78)

1996        May 24, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, the leader of the rebel faction that fought to topple the government, signed an accord with Pres. Burhanuddin Rabbani and ended 4 years of hostilities. The civil war may continue because the Taliban rebels, who control more than half of the country, were not included in the alliance.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.A10)

1996        May 29, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar became the new PM of Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.A10)

1996        May, Osama bin Laden was driven out of Sudan under pressure from the Clinton administration. His horse, ~ez_ldquo~Swift Like the Wind," was left behind. Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, a Saudi Arabian-backed jihadist leader, invited bin Laden back to Afghanistan and bin Laden returned.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.A2)(SFC, 12/17/04, p.W4)(Econ, 9/17/05, p.40)

1996        Jun 16, A bomb exploded in a Jalalabad market and killed 4 people and wounded more than 20.
    (SFC, 6/15/96, p.A10)

1996        Jun 26, In Afghanistan guerrilla leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, head of Hezbi-Islami, having been eliminated as a military power, signed a peace pact with Rabbani, and returned to Kabul to rule as prime minister. Hekmatyar was a member of the dominant Pashtun group, unlike Rabanni and military commander Ahmad Shah Massoud who belong to the Tajik ethnic group. The Taliban militia launched an assault that killed 54 and wounded 118 people. Pakistan~ez_rsquo~s spy service (ISI) had helped form the Taliban movement.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(WSJ, 6/27/96, p.A1)(SFC, 9/23/96, A12) (Econ, 2/9/13, p.44)


1996        Jul 14, Hekmatyar closed movie theaters and banned music on tv and radio, claiming that they were repugnant to Islam.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A11)

1996        Sep 22, The Taliban guerrillas swept through 3 southeastern provinces over the last 2 weeks and controlled about 2/3 of the country.
    (SFC, 9/23/96, A9)

1996        Sep 26, Former Pres. Najibullah (1986-1990) and his brother, former security chief Shahpur Ahmedzi, were executed and hung when the Taliban fighters moved into Kabul. They had been in hiding since being overthrown 4 years ago. Officials hoped that the former king, Zahir Shah, would return to lead the country.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.A12)

1996        Sep 27, The Taliban militia, a band of former seminary students, forced President Burhanuddin Rabbani and his government out of Kabul.
    (AP, 9/27/97)(www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1996        Oct 2, Mullah Turabi headed the supreme council of the Taliban which took over Kabul.
    (SFC, 10/2/96, p.A7)

1996        Oct 10, Three military commanders formed a pact against the Taliban. Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Rashid Dostum, Ahmad Shah Massoud and Abdul Karim Khalily held 10 northern provinces against 19 held by the Taliban.
    (SFC, 10/11/96, p.A16)

1996        An alliance between Government, Hezbi Wahdat, and Dostum was formed.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1996        Oppression of women by the Taliban. Women must be fully veiled, no longer allowed to work, go out alone or even wear white socks. Men were forced to grow beards.  Buzkashi, the Afghan national sport was outlawed.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1996        The Taliban closed public bathhouses for women in Kabul.
    (SFC, 8/14/00, p.A13)

1996        Tensions rose as Afghan government accused Pakistan of aiding the Taliban.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1996        Osama bin Laden established training camps for Kashmir fighters in Khost.
    (WSJ, 10/12/01, p.A6)

1996        Massive human rights violations by the Taliban.
    (www.afghan-web.com/history/)

1996        The Northern Alliance blew up the 2.5 mile Salang Tunnel entrances, which connected Kabul to the Panjshir Valley.
    (WSJ, 10/26/01, p.A12)

1996        The United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan recognized the Taliban after they seized the Afghan capital Kabul. All three countries cut ties with the Taliban after it sheltered al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden following the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the US.
    (AP, 2/24/06)

1997        Jan 5, An air raid killed 4 and wounded 32. A bomb in central Kabul killed 3 and wounded 37.
    (WSJ, 1/6/97, p.A1)

1997        Mar 27, An avalanche buried at least 100 people near the Salang tunnel north of Kabul.
    (WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A1)

1997        Mar, Reports said that Osama bin Laden, an exiled Saudi billionaire, bankrolled the Jun 25, 1996, bombing of the US base in Saudi Arabia that killed 19 US servicemen. He is an advocate of strict Islamic rule and has said that he would campaign to overthrow the Saudi royal family. He lived in the Sudan for 2 years and recently moved to Afghanistan and was accepted by the Taliban.
    (SFC, 3/7/97, p.A17)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A18)(SFEC, 8/23/98, p.A15)

1997        May 21, Faction leader Gen. Abdurrashid Dostum, an ethnic-Uzbek, was up against mutineers in 6 of his 8 northern provinces.
    (SFC, 5/22/97, p.C2)(SFC, 10/10/01, p.A3)

1997        May 23, Warlord Rashid Dostum fled to Tashkent in Uzbekistan.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.A10)

1997        May 24, Forces of the Taliban swept into Mazar-E-Sharif, the last opposition stronghold. The Taliban was invited in by Malik Pahlawan, an adversary of Rashid Dostum.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.A10)(SFC, 11/18/97, p.B2)

1997        May 28, The Taliban was forced out of Mazar-e-Sharif by Uzbek forces. Many Taliban fighters were killed as they were forced out of Mazar-e-Sharif. Rashid Dostum later was reported to have witnessed the graves of some 700 Taliban fighters and another 1,300 dead at other sites. Later reports put the Taliban dead at 2-3,000. Uzbek Gen. Malik Pahlawan killed some 1,250 Taliban by leaving them in closed container trucks in the desert sun.
    (SFC, 5/29/97, p.A10)(SFC, 11/18/97, p.B2)(SFC, 11/6/98, p.A16)(NW, 8/26/02, p.26)

1997        Jul 25, Police units of the Pashtun ethnic group raided minority neighborhoods as opposition forces gathered 12 miles outside Kabul.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)

1997        Jul 27, It was reported that the Taliban had recently reopened the Pul-i-Charki fortress, a notorious prison, just outside Kabul, and that several thousand men were being held.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.D3)

1997        Aug 21, Leaders of the alliance fighting the Taliban army were killed in an air crash aboard an Antonov 32 about 90 miles NW of Kabul.
    (SFC, 8/22/97, p.A15)

1997        Sep 15, It was reported that the Taliban has prohibited the cultivation of opium poppies. Some 200,000 families produced a record 2,800 tons of opium in 1997, a 25% increase over 1996.
    (SFC, 9/15/97, p.A14)

1997        Oct 24, A UN director said that the Taliban has agreed to enforce a ban on poppy production.
    (SFC, 10/24/97, p.A10)

1997        Nov 8, It was reported that thieves had stolen over 2,250 tons of the World Food Program~ez_rsquo~s emergency wheat supply in Hairatan since an alliance opposed to the ruling Taliban gained control of the town.
    (SFC, 11/8/97, p.A12)

1997        Dec 24, The Taliban launched an offensive at Kotel Toopkhana in Badakhshan province and by the next day claimed to have driven out the soldiers of Ahmed Shah Massoud.
    (SFC, 12/26/97, p.B4)

1997        Ayman Al-Zawahiri, emir of the Islamic Jihad, joined Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 2/22/00, p.A8)

1997        Uzbekistan closed the Friendship Bridge and sealed its border with Afghanistan when Gen. Abdul Rashid Dostum fled in as the Taliban swept into Mazar-e-Sharif.
    (SFC, 11/15/01, p.A7)(SFC, 12/10/01, p.A12)

1997        The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program was initiated. The 8-member group included Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
    (www.adb.org/CAREC/default.asp)

1998        Jan 7, It was reported that some 600 civilians were dragged from their homes and shot by the Taliban army in the northwest, prompting thousands to flee the area. Most of the victims were said to be Uzbeks.
    (SFC, 1/8/98, p.B3)

1998        Jan 13, An Afghan Russian-made cargo plane crashed in southwestern Pakistan with as many as 90 Taliban militia and all were killed.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, p.C2)

1998        Feb 4, A 5.9 earthquake hit the province of Takhar in the northeast at the junction of the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountain ranges where hills collapsed into each other making a huge crater. The number dead was later reported to be 2,300 with 8,000 left homeless.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.A10)(SFC, 6/1/98, p.A1)(AP, 2/4/99)(SFC, 3/27/02, p.A14)

1998        Feb 8, New tremors killed up to 250 more people as relief workers struggled to reach the disaster scene.
    (SFC, 2/9/98, p.B2)

1998        Feb 16, Following the Feb 4 earthquake 27 people died of the cold. Some 30,000 earthquake survivors were sent 24 truckloads of aid by the Taliban.
    (WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Feb 23, In Afghanistan Osama bin Laden declared a holy war on the US. Bin Laden announced the formation of the World Islamic Front for Jihad against Jews and Crusaders. It called on Muslims worldwide to attack Americans. The Al Quds Al-Arabi newspaper published a statement that announced an alliance between Dr. Zawahri, head of the Egyptian Jihad, and Osama bin Laden. "We~ez_mdash~with God~ez_rsquo~s help~ez_mdash~call on every Muslim~ez_hellip~to comply with God~ez_rsquo~s order to kill Americans."
    (WSJ, 4/2/02, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.A8)(SFC, 2/22/00, p.A8)

1998        Mar 8, In northern Afghanistan an avalanche crushed the village of Darbandi and killed 70 people.
    (SFC, 3/7/98, p.A11)

1998        Mar 19, A Boeing 727 operated by Ariana state airline crashed 12 miles south of Kabul and killed all 22 people on board.
    (SFC, 3/20/98, p.A16)

1998        Mar 24, The UN announced a pullout after the governor of Kandahar slapped the face of a UN employee.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, p.C14)

1998        Mar 27, Two Afghans convicted of murder had their throats cut in front of 30,000 spectators in Kabul~ez_rsquo~s sports stadium.
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A9)

1998        Apr 27, Afghanistan peace talks between the Taliban and its opponents were scheduled to begin in Pakistan.
    (SFC, 4/18/98, p.A10)

1998        May 10, Opposition forces launched a counterattack against the Taliban at Ishkamish, 120 miles north of Kabul.
    (SFC, 5/11/98, p.A10)

1998        May 17, Taliban jet fighters bombed a crowded market and killed at least 30 people and wounded 50 in Taloqan, the capital of Takhar province.
    (SFC, 5/18/98, p.A12)

1998        May 19, Taliban officials withdrew from the peace plan citing the refusal of the opposition to cooperate.
    (SFC, 5/20/98, p.C2)

1998        May 30, An estimated 6.9 earthquake hit northern Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Shari Basurkh was hit hardest and some estimates put the death toll up to 3,000. The estimated deaths later reached 5,000.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A2)(SFC, 6/1/98, p.A1)(AP, 6/22/02)
1998        May 30, Pakistan set off a nuclear bomb, the 6th test in 3 days.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A15)

1998        Jun 16, The Taliban ordered the closing of over 100 private schools that had been educating girls. Schools would not be allowed to teach girls older than 8 and lessons were to be limited to the Koran.
    (SFC, 6/17/98, p.C16)

1998        Jun, A US federal grand jury indicted Osama bin Laden on terrorist conspiracy charges. Prince Turki al Faisal of Saudi Arabia, chief of Saudi intelligence, negotiated with the Taliban in Kandahar, Afghanistan, for the ouster or custody for trial in Saudi Arabia of Osama bin Laden. Negotiations broke down after the Aug 7 US embassy bombings in Africa.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A15)(SSFC, 9/30/01, p.A14)

1998        Jul 8, The Taliban decreed that television was corrupting Afghan society and issued an edict that banned televisions, videocassette recorders, videos and satellite dishes.
    (SFC, 7/9/98, p.A11)

1998        Jul 12, Taliban forces captured Maimana, the provincial capital of the Faryab province from forces under Gen~ez_rsquo~l. Rashid Dostum.
    (SFC, 7/13/98, p.A8)

1998        Jul 27, It was reported that Russia and Iran were supporting The Northern Alliance of rebel groups fighting against the Taliban.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A9)

1998        Aug 2, The Taliban captured the base of Rashid Dostum.
    (WSJ, 8/3/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 7, In Pakistan Sadik Howaida (34) was detained at the Karachi airport. He reportedly later confessed to participating in the bombing in Nairobi. He said that he and 2 co-conspirators had left Nairobi and planned to enter Afghanistan a few days before the bombing. He later acknowledged that the team was recruited and financed by Osama bin Laden who was ensconced in a fortress-style hideout in Kandahar.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A17)(SFC, 8/17/98, p.12, 17)

1998        Aug 8, In Afghanistan the Taliban overran Mazar-i-Sharif and killed 9 of 11 diplomats from Iran. 8 of the dead were diplomats, the 9th was a journalist. Later reports indicated that the Taliban killed as many as 4,000 civilians, mostly Hazaras, in a campaign partly designed to wipe out the Shiite Muslim minority. Hazara residents were given 3 choices: convert to Sunni Islam, leave for Shiite Iran, or die.
    (SFC, 9/11/98, p.D4)(SFC, 9/18/98, p.D8)(SFC, 2/19/01, p.A9)(SFC, 2/12/02, p.A16)

1998        Aug 9, Victory in the battle for Mazar-i-Sharif was claimed by both sides.
    (WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 10, It appeared that the Taliban were in control of Mazar-e-Sharif.
    (WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 19, Mullah Mohamed Omar, supreme Taliban ruler, said that: ~ez_ldquo~Even if all the countries of the world unite, we would defend Osama with our blood."
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A4)

1998        Aug 20, Pres. Clinton ordered cruise missile attacks on Sudan and Afghanistan. About 50 missiles were fired at Zhawar Kili Al-Badr, the training camps of Osama Bin Laden and some 25 missiles against a suspected chemical plant in Khartoum. The US Operation Infinite Reach began in Afghanistan and Sudan and cost over $50 million.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/21/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)

1998        Sep 2, A $415 million deal was signed with the Taliban government for telecommunications by Gary Breshinsky of Telephone Systems Int~ez_rsquo~l.
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.A10)

1998        Sep 13, Taliban forces captured the last major opposition stronghold of Bamiyan.
    (SFC, 9/14/98, p.A12)

1998        Sep 20, Russian-made opposition missiles were shot into Kabul and 180 people were killed or wounded.
    (SFC, 9/21/98, p.A14)

1998        Sep 21, A 2nd day of rocket barrages killed at least 10 people in Kabul.
    (WSJ, 9/22/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 8, Iran border troops claimed a victory and said it inflicted heavy casualties over Taliban militia. The Taliban denied any fighting.
    (USAT, 10/9/98, p.14A)

1998        Oct 11, The Taliban battled opposition forces for the 2nd day in the northeast Takhar province.
    (SFC, 10/12/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 26, The Taliban ordered an investigation of Osama bin Laden.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.B2)

1998        Nov 2, Mohammed Hashim Bakhtiari, the brother-in-law of former slain Afghan President Najibullah, was shot and killed in northwest Pakistan. Bakhtiari was returning to his home in a posh suburb of Peshawar when assailants opened fire with automatic rifles, police said. No one took responsibility for the killing.
    (SFC, 11/3/98, p.C12)(AP, 11/2/98)

1998        Dec 12, A 5.4 earthquake hit Kabul and killed at least 5 people.
    (SFEC, 12/13/98, p.A36)

1998        Dec 13, Kabul, Afghanistan, was hit by a barrage of rockets that killed 17 and wounded 80 people. The launch site appeared to come from an area controlled by an ousted defense chief.
    (WSJ, 12/14/98, p.A1)

1998        The Northern Alliance and Taliban agreed to set up an Afghanistan Museum in Switzerland to protect articles of cultural heritage. In 2000 a property in Bubendorf was renovated.
    (AM, 5/01, p.18)

1998        The CIA began to send teams of American officers to northern Afghanistan to convince Ahmed Shah Masood to capture and perhaps kill Osama bin Laden.
    (SSFC, 9/30/01, p.A14)

1999        Jan 18, The end of Ramadan was marked by prisoner releases in Egypt, Palestine and Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 1/18/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 10, Taliban officials exchanged fire with bodyguards of Osama bin Laden in Kandahar.
    (SFC, 3/4/99, p.A12)

1999        Feb 12, A 5.5 earthquake hit Afghanistan and at least 60 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 13, The Taliban leadership replaced Osama bin Laden's bodyguards with members of their intelligence service and Foreign Ministry.
    (SFC, 3/4/99, p.A12)

1999        Mar 14, In Turkmenistan the warring factions of Afghanistan agreed in principle to a peace deal.
    (SFC, 3/15/99, p.A8)

1999        Mar 18, Fighting continued for a 2nd day and 12 people were reported killed by Taliban bombing in Parwan province.
    (SFC, 3/19/99, p.A14)

1999        May 28, A family of 12 was killed by a Taliban air strike on Taloqan.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A15)

1999        Jul 6, Pres. Clinton signed Executive Order 13129 to impose sanctions against the ruling Taliban militia in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 7/7/99, p.A8)(SFC, 5/3/00, p.A12)

1999        Jul 28, Taliban fighters launched an offensive to crush warlord Ahmed Shah Massood following weeks of preparations.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 2, The Taliban captured the capital of northern Parwan province, the last stronghold of Sheik Massood. Thousands fled their homes.
    (SFC, 8/3/99, p.A9)
    (AP, 8/2/99)

1999        Aug 5, Rebel forces of Ahmad Shah Massood counter-attacked the Taliban and recaptured key towns and the Bagram air base.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.A16)

1999        Aug 25, In Kabul a truck bomb exploded near the residence of Mullah Mohammed Omar, leader of the Taliban, and 7 people were killed.
    (SFC, 8/26/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug, The US imposed sanctions against flights by the Taliban-controlled Ariana Afghan airline.
    (SFC, 10/7/99, p.A15)

1999        Sep 3, The Taliban dropped cluster bombs on Taloqan and 9 people were reported killed.
    (SFC, 9/4/99, p.A13)

1999        Sep 6, Opposition fighters attacked the Taliban in Baghlan province and seized 7 military posts.
    (SFC, 9/7/99, p.C1)

1999        Sep 10, The UN reported that the production of opium doubled to 5,060 tons from 2,310 last year.
    (SFC, 9/11/99, p.A9)

1999        Sep 25, The Taliban bombed Taloqan and 16 people were killed. At least 40 Taliban soldiers and 8 opposition soldiers were killed in a battle for Dasht-e-Archi.
    (SFC, 9/27/99, p.A18)

1999        Sep 26, The Taliban bombed Taloqan for a 2nd day and 11 people, most of them children were killed.
    (SFC, 9/27/99, p.A18)

1999        Sep 27, Afghanistan's rulers protested a UN decision to reseat the former Rabbani government, which was driven from Kabul in 1996.
    (WSJ, 9/28/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 28, 30 people were killed a 35 others injured as a truck carrying refugees skidded off a road and plunged into a river. The refugees were fleeing the Taliban bombing at Taloqan.
    (SFC, 9/29/99, p.C14)

1999        Oct 6, The US introduced a resolution to the UN Security Council calling for the seizure of assets of the Taliban militia and grounding all int'l. flights from Afghanistan until Osama bin Laden is turned over.
    (SFC, 10/7/99, p.A15)

1999        Oct 12, In Pakistan Gen'l. Pervaiz Musharraf led a military coup after Prime Minister Shariff tried to fire him and replace him with Gen'l. Zia Uddin. Musharraf avoided martial law and left the parliament intact. Sharif refused to let a passenger plane land in Karachi with 198 people aboard that included Gen. Musharraf. The coup cut short a Pakistani commando operation set up by the CIA to get Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/14/99, p.A21)(SFC, 4/6/00, p.A12)(SFC, 10/3/01, p.A10)

1999        Oct 16, The Taliban rejected the UN ultimatum to surrender Osama bin Laden and castigated the UN for threatening sanctions.
    (SFEC, 10/17/99, p.A22)

1999        Oct 18, It was reported that the Taliban summer offensive put an estimated 130,000 refugees concentrated into the Panjshir Valley.
    (SFC, 10/18/99, p.A11)

1999        Oct 27, Opposition soldiers advanced on Mazar-e-Sharif following the desertion of a Taliban commander and 500 men.
    (SFC, 10/28/99, p.D14)

1999        Nov 14, UN sanctions against Afghanistan went into effect following the Taliban refusal to turn over Osama bin Laden. Int'l. flights were banned and overseas assets were frozen.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A14)

1999        Nov 15, Protestors burned a UN office to the ground in anger over sanctions.
    (SFC, 11/16/99, p.A12)

1999        Nov 18, Taliban fighter planes bombed the opposition held Panjshir Valley and at least 13 people were killed and 64 wounded.
    (SFC, 11/19/99, p.D2)

1999        Nov 21, Afghanistan and Iran resumed trade following recently imposed UN restrictions on Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 11/22/99, p.A14)

1999        Dec 24, In Nepal 5 Sikh men, members of the Kashmir Harakut ul-Mujahedin, hijacked an Indian Airlines A-300 Airbus with 189 people onboard. After 3 stops for refueling it landed in Kandahar, Afghanistan, where it was surrounded by Taliban militia. 26 passengers were released in Dubai. They called for the release of Maulana Massood Azhar, a Pakistani religious leader and other Kashmiri militants. They later raised their demands to $200 million, the release of 35 jailed guerrillas and the exhumation of a dead comrade buried in India. [see Dec 29]
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/27/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.A9)(SFC, 12/29/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/14/01, p.A5)

1999        Dec 25, Erik de Mul, the UN Afghan coordinator reached Kandahar and began negotiations with Sikh hijackers.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.A1)

1999        Dec 29, The Indian Airlines hijackers dropped their demands for a $200 million ransom and the body of a Kashmiri militant but haggled over the number of militants to be released.
    (SFC, 12/30/99, p.A1)

1999        Dec 31, The hijackers of an Indian airline Flight 814 (see Dec 24) released all 150 hostages after India released 3 jailed militants: Maulana Masood Azhar, leader of the Harkat-ul-Ansar rebel group, Omar Sheikh and Mushtaq Zargat, an Indian Kashmiri. 4 hijackers came off the plane and left one dead hijacker behind. The Taliban gave them 10 hours to leave the country.
    (SFC, 1/1/00, p.A19)(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.A25)

1999        Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Iranian director, shot his film ~ez_ldquo~Kandahar" inside Afghanistan despite death threats. The film premiered in 2001.
    (NW, 12/10/01, p.10)

1999        Afghanistan under the Taliban produced a record 4,600 tons of opium.
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.46)

1999        A Taliban massacre took place near Adreskan south of Herat following a short-lived revolt. In 2002 a mass grave was found with 72 bodies.
    (SFC, 1/11/02, p.A13)

2000        Feb 6, In Afghanistan an Ariana Airlines Boeing 727 was hijacked with 186 people. It flew from Kabul to Uzbekistan, Kazakstan and Russia before landing in Stansted near London the next day with 179 hostages.
    (SFC, 2/7/00, p.A12)(AP, 2/6/01)

2000        Feb 10, At Stansted, England, 9 hijackers surrendered and released all hostages of the Afghan jetliner.
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A1)

2000        Feb 13, In Kandahar, Afghanistan, a 10-year-old boy executed a man convicted of murdering his father. A man convicted of highway robbery was also ordered to have his right hand and left foot amputated according to Islamic law.
    (SFC, 2/14/00, p.A12)

2000        Feb 14, Seventy three passengers from the hijacked jet returned to Afghanistan, while 74 remained in Britain seeking asylum. The passengers reported that 9 men had taken over their flight and appeared to be relatives of many passengers.
    (SFC, 2/15/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A1)

2000        Apr 4, In Pakistan Arif Khan (45), the governor of Kunduz province in Afghanistan, was shot and killed along with his bodyguard by 2 gunmen in Peshawar.
    (SFC, 4/5/00, p.A11)

2000        Apr, The Taliban arrested 3 men that they claimed were spying for America and Israel. Abdul Rahim Janko (22) of Syria gave information that led to the arrest of an American and an Iraqi named Arkan (24). Janko was later interviewed and a video was made available.
    (SFC, 5/5/00, p.A15)

2000        May 1, In Afghanistan fighting was halted from May 1 to 5 to allow UN workers to immunize some 4.5 million children under age 5 against polio.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.C1)

2000        May, Kochis nomads of the Rigestan desert faced famine as a yearlong drought worsened.
    (SFC, 5/9/00, p.A11)

2000        May 22, Russia asserted that Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s Taliban had signed an agreement with Chechen rebels and that it might launch air strikes against Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 5/23/00, p.A10)

2000        Jul 9, Mary MacMakin was arrested for violating the Taliban ban on employing women. She led the NGO: ~ez_ldquo~Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Support for Afghanistan," (PARSA). MacMakin was released 3 days later ordered to leave the country with accusations of spying and trying to convert Muslims to Christianity.
    (SFC, 7/10/00, p.A8)(SFC, 7/13/00, p.A13)

2000        Jul 12, The Taliban rescinded a new edict barring women from working for int~ez_rsquo~l. relief agencies.
    (SFC, 7/13/00, p.A13)

2000        Jul 28, Rulers ordered a complete ban on growing poppies. Defiers of the ban were threatened with jail.
    (SFC, 7/29/00, p.A11)(SFC, 11/18/00, p.A13)

2000        Aug 5, In Afghanistan gunmen killed 12 people including 7 Afghans working for the United Nations~ez_rsquo~ mine clearing agency in western Herat.
    (SFC, 8/7/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 12, The Taliban closed public bathhouses in Kabul, saying that Islam forbids men to display their bodies publicly.
    (SFC, 8/14/00, p.A13)

2000        Aug 16, The Taliban shut down 25 bakeries run by widows saying that Islam forbids women to work.
    (SFC, 8/17/00, p.A16)

2000        Aug 17, The Taliban reversed its decision against women working in bakeries.
    (SFC, 8/18/00, p.D6)

2000        Sep 1, The mine-clearing operations were scheduled to be cut by 50% after the UN reported lack of funds. 300 people were reported injured by mines every month. Estimates of mines varied from 5-10 million.
    (SFC, 9/2/00, p.C16)

2000        Sep 6, The Taliban captured Taloqan, 160 miles north of Kabul. The Taliban lost about 500 soldiers, while the opposition lost about 300.
    (SFC, 9/7/00, p.A12)(SFC, 9/8/00, p.D2)

2000        Oct 22, Opposition forces captured a mountain pass near Taloqan and killed at least 42 Taliban soldiers.
    (SFC, 10/23/00, p.A11)

2000        Nov 3, UN officials brokered a deal between the rebels and the Taliban to begin talks to end the civil war.
    (SFC, 11/4/00, p.A14)

2000        Dec 20, The Taliban ordered UN offices closed and pledged to boycott peace talks. New sanctions were imposed in response to the Taliban~ez_rsquo~s refusal to surrender Osama bin Laden.
    (SFC, 12/21/00, p.A20)

2000        Ahmed Rashid authored ~ez_ldquo~Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia."
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, BR p.4)

2000        Russian border guards reported that the Northern Alliance used precious stone, opium and heroin to pay for arms.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.A1)

2000        Taliban planes bombed Dasht-e-Qaleh, a city of some 50,000, and some 400 residents were killed.
    (SFC, 10/31/01, p.A1)

2000        Mullah Qudratullah Jamal, the Taliban minister of information and culture and Aqajan Motaseb, minister of finance, lead a wrecking crew through the National Museum. They destroyed a significant portion of the country~ez_rsquo~s cultural heritage.
    (SFC, 11/22/01, p.A11)

2001        Jan 2, Opposition troops captured Ghalmin in central Ghor province.
    (SFC, 1/3/01, p.A12)

2001        Jan 8, In Afghanistan the Taliban ordered the death penalty for anyone who converts from Islam to a different religion.
    (WSJ, 1/09/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 8, The Taliban massacred some 150-300 unarmed Hazaras, a Shiite Muslim minority group, in Yakalang. The Taliban spent 3 days rounding up and killing Shiites of the central Hazarajat region.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A9)(SFC, 11/10/01, p.A4)(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A16)

2001        Jan 10, It was reported that some 18,000 Afghan refugees had crossed the border into Pakistan in recent weeks.
    (SFC, 1/10/01, p.A8)

2001        Jan 19, In Afghanistan UN sanctions began following a 30-day deadline for the handover of Osama bin Laden. The sanctions coincided with the worst drought in 30 years.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A13)

2001        Jan 29, At least 110 Afghan refugees froze to death in camps near Herat.
    (WSJ, 2/1/01, p.A1)(SFC, 2/2/01, p.D4)

2001        Feb 14, The Taliban confirmed that opposition troops had captured Bamiyan.
    (SFC, 2/15/01, p.A16)

2001        Feb 15, A UN team confirmed that the Taliban had nearly wiped out opium production in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 2/16/01, p.A17)

2001        Feb 26, Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar ordered the destruction of all statues including the Buddha statues carved into the stone cliffs of Bamiyan. He called on the Ministry for the promotion of Virtue and the Repression of Vice as well as the Ministry of Culture to destroy all pre-Islamic statues and sanctuaries.
    (SFC, 2/27/01, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A14)

2001        Mar 2, In Afghanistan the Taliban began the destruction of the giant Buddha of Bamiyan despite int~ez_rsquo~l. protests.
    (SSFC, 3/4/01, p.A1)(SFC, 12/30/01, p.D3)

2001        Mar 8, The giant Buddha at Bamiyan was destroyed.
    (SFC, 3/12/01, p.A12)

2001        Mar 9, The smaller giant Buddha at Bamiyan was destroyed.
    (SFC, 3/12/01, p.A12)

2001        Apr 16, Mullah Mohammed Rabbani, the 2nd most powerful man of the Taliban militia, died of cancer.
    (SFC, 4/17/01, p.A8)

2001        May 4, A bomb killed at least 8 people at a Sunni Muslim mosque in Herat. Hundreds of people soon set fire to Shiite mosques and marched on the Iranian Consulate.
    (SFC, 5/5/01, p.D1)

2001        May 13, Pakistan refused to give refugee status to tens of thousands of Afghans living in the northwest part of the country. An estimated 50,000 Afghans were on the move inside Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 5/14/01, p.A12)

2001        May 17, The US pledged $43 million in aid to Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 5/18/01, p.A14)

2001        May 22, The Taliban decreed an edict that would require non-Muslims to wear distinguishing clothing.
    (WSJ, 5/22/01, p.A1)(SFC, 5/23/01, p.A1)

2001        May 31, The Taliban barred female foreign-aid workers from driving. The virtue ministry said the activity is harmful for society.
    (WSJ, 6/1/01, p.A1)

2001        May, Canadian journalist Kathy Gannon came across a book in Afghanistan titled ~ez_ldquo~Encyclopedia of Jihad" and passed it on to the CIA.
    (SSFC, 9/11/05, p.F4)

2001        Jun 5, The Taliban ordered foreigners to obey strict Muslim laws or face expulsion.
    (SFC, 6/6/01, p.C2)

2001        Jun 16, Most UN bread production for some 282,000 poor in Kabul ceased due to disagreements on who should compile the list of people eligible for the bread.
    (SFC, 6/15/01, p.D6)(SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A20)

2001        Jun 17, The Taliban agreed to let the World Food Program select, hire and train local women to survey the food needs of vulnerable households.
    (SFC, 6/19/01, p.A9)

2001        Jul 1, US air strikes at Kakrak, Afghanistan, killed 54 civilians.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A14)

2001        Jul 13, It was reported that record droughts persisted in Afghanistan northern China, North Korea, Mongolia and Tajikistan.
    (SFC, 7/13/01, p.D4)

2001        Aug 5, The Taliban closed a US relief organization office and arrested 24 of its workers for propagating Christianity.
    (SFC, 8/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug, Pakistani nuclear scientists, Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood and Abdul Majid, talked with Osama bin Laden in Kabul about nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A19)

2001        Sep 6, The Taliban jailed 35 more people working for a Christian aid organization.
    (SFC, 9/10/01, p.B2)

2001        Sep 8, In Afghanistan 8 foreigners, arrested for preaching Christianity, appeared in an Islamic court for the 1st time.
    (SSFC, 9/9/01, p.A14)

2001        Sep 9, In Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Masood (b.1953), the opposition leader (Lion of Panjshir), was injured and a close aide killed from an explosion triggered by agents posing as journalists. Massood (Massoud) died shortly after the explosion.
    (SFC, 9/10/01, p.B2)(SFC, 9/11/01, p.B1)
2001        Sep 9, Najwa bin laden left her husband, Osama bin Laden, in Afghanistan and returned to her native Syria, taking with her a son and her two youngest daughters. Eman, Omar's sister, was left behind with her father and siblings. Omar bin Laden (20) had left the family and Afghanistan earlier in the year.
    (AP, 1/6/10)

2001        Sep 11, Explosions resounded north of Kabul near the airport just hours following terrorist attacks in the US.
    (SFC, 9/12/01, p.A15)

2001        Sep 12, Mohammad Omar, the Taliban leader, went into hiding. The Taliban military repositioned weaponry in anticipation of a US strike.
    (SFC, 9/13/01, p.A12)

2001        Sep 13, The US requested that Pakistan grant air and land space for military actions in Afghanistan. US Special Forces arrived in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 9/14/01, p.A1)(NW, 8/26/02, p.38)

2001        Sep 15, As many as 300,000 Afghans reportedly had fled Kandahar in fear of US air strikes.
    (SFC, 9/17/01, p.A8)
2001        Sep 15, Iran ordered its security forces to seal off its 560-mile border with Afghanistan.
    (SSFC, 9/16/01, p.A7)
2001        Sep 15, Pakistan agreed to close its border with Afghanistan and pledged full support to combat int~ez_rsquo~l. terrorism.
    (SSFC, 9/16/01, p.A7)

2001        Sep 16, Pakistan told Afghanistan to surrender Osama bin Laden within 3 days or face almost certain military action.
    (SFC, 9/17/01, p.A8)

2001        Sep 17, In Afghanistan Islamic clerics demanded proof from the US that Osama bin Laden was responsible for the Sep 11 terrorist attacks. They also requested that the Organization of Islamic Conference, a group of over 50 Muslim countries, make a formal demand for bin Laden~ez_rsquo~s handover.
    (SFC, 9/18/01, p.A1)
2001        Sep 17, Pakistan virtually shut down its 1,560-mile border with Afghanistan. Some 1.2 million Afghan refugees in the North-West Frontier Province were confined to dozens of camps in the region.
    (SFC, 9/18/01, p.A8)

2001        Sep 19, Pres. Bush warned Afghanistan that he would not negotiate to take custody of Osama bin Laden. The Pentagon began deploying troops, ships and planes to the Persian Gulf under code name ~ez_ldquo~Operation Infinite Justice."
    (SFC, 9/20/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 20, Muslim clerics issued an edict that suggested Osama bin Laden be persuaded to leave the country.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.A5)

2001        Sep 21, The ruling Taliban rejected Pres. Bush~ez_rsquo~s ultimatum and to give up Osama bin Laden. The Taliban also threatened to hang Afghan aid workers if they communicate with their int~ez_rsquo~l. counterparts.
    (SFC, 9/22/01, p.A7)(SFC, 9/25/01, p.A1)
2001        Sep 21, A US unmanned reconnaissance plane was downed in Afghanistan. 
    (SSFC, 9/23/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 9/24/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 22, There was heavy fighting in the northern provinces of Balkh and Samangan. 39 Taliban were reported killed along with 2 opposition fighters.
    (SSFC, 9/23/01, p.A14)
2001        Sep 22, Pakistan confirmed that it had pulled its senior diplomats out of Afghanistan.
    (SSFC, 9/23/01, p.A14)
2001        Sep 22, The United Arab Emirates (UAR) cut relations with Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s Taliban government.
    (SSFC, 9/23/01, p.A14)

2001        Sep 23, Osama bin Laden issued a statement that called for Muslim brothers to resist the ~ez_ldquo~Christian-Jewish crusade led by the big crusader Bush under the flag of the Cross~ez_hellip~"
    (SFC, 9/25/01, p.A6)

2001        Sep 24, Taliban officials said they were dispatching 300,000 fighters to defend their borders. Analysts estimated Taliban strength at 45,000 fighters with 20,000 in action against the Northern Alliance.
    (SFC, 9/25/01, p.A5)
2001        Sep 24, The Taliban occupied the offices of the UN World food Program and seized 1,400 metric tons of food.
    (SFC, 9/25/01, p.A1)
2001        Sep 24, The US received from Russia an essential go-ahead to use 3 former republics as bases for attacks on Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 9/25/01, p.A1,6)
2001        Sep 24, Kazakstan offered air and military bases to the US for attacks on Afghanistan. Tajikistan and Uzbekistan were said to be negotiating use of their territory by the US.
    (SFC, 9/25/01, p.A6)

2001        Sep 25, Naseer Ahmed Mujahed, Osama bin Laden~ez_rsquo~s military chief, faxed a statement to news agencies that said: ~ez_ldquo~Wherever there are Americans and Jews, they will be targeted."
    (SFC, 9/26/01, p.A7)
2001        Sep 25, Saudi Arabia withdrew diplomatic recognition of the Afghan Taliban government.
    (SFC, 9/26/01, p.A1)
2001        Sep 25, Interpol issued a bulletin for the arrest of Ayman al-Zawahiri (50), an Egyptian surgeon believed to be Osama bin Laden~ez_rsquo~s closest al Qaeda associate in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.A8)

2001        Sep 26, Protesters turned a Taliban march into an attack on the mothballed US Embassy in Kabul.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.A8)

2001        Sep 27, The Taliban said it had delivered an official request for Osama bin Laden to leave the country.
    (WSJ, 9/28/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 28, Mohammed Omar told a 9-member Pakistani delegation that the Taliban would be willing to fight to the death to protect Osama bin Laden from US military forces.
    (SFC, 9/29/01, p.A1)
2001        Sep 28, A Bush administration official said that small groups of US and British special forces had entered Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 9/29/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 29, Pres. Bush in his weekly radio address condemned the Taliban for sheltering terrorists and said: ~ez_ldquo~We did not seek this conflict, but we will win it."
    (SSFC, 9/30/01, p.A4)

2001        Sep 30, Pres. Bush authorized $100 million in new relief aid to Afghan refugees.
    (SFC, 10/1/01, p.A1)
2001        Sep 30, Leaders of the Taliban said they had Osama bin Laden ~ez_ldquo~under our control," but would release him to the US only if shown proof that he plotted the Sep 11 attacks. Pres. Bush said he would not negotiate.
    (SFC, 10/1/01, p.A1)
2001        Sep 30, Northern Alliance leader Younis Qanooni said he was optimistic about meeting with King Zahir Shah (86).
    (SFC, 10/1/01, p.A3)
2001        Sep 30, Pashtun chiefs from both sides of the Afghan-Pakistan border met in Quetta to discuss the crisis brought on by the Sep 11 attacks on the US. The groups included the Kuchi, Zadran, Ghilzai and Buzdar and were crucial in the Taliban~ez_rsquo~s rise to power.
    (SFC, 10/2/01, p.A6)

2001        Oct 1, The opposition Northern Alliance of Afghanistan met in Rome with ex-king Zahir Shah and agreed to form a broad-based government open to cooperation with the West
    (SFC, 10/2/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 4, The US pledged $320 million in aid to Afghanistan refugees.
    (SFC, 10/5/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 4, The British government released a 16-page document over the Internet that presented details on Osama bin Laden~ez_rsquo~s responsibility for the Sep 11 terrorist attacks.
    (SFC, 10/5/01, p.A16)
2001        Oct 4, Pakistan announced that it sees sufficient grounds for an indictment against Osama bin Laden.
    (WSJ, 10/5/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 6, Pres. Bush warned Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s rulers that time is running out. The Taliban said it would release 8 aid workers if the US ~ez_ldquo~stops issuing threats" of military action.
    (SSFC, 10/7/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 6, The Northern Alliance was building an airport outside Golbahar to allow a US-led coalition to funnel in military supplies.
    (SSFC, 10/7/01, p.A5)

2001        Oct 7, US and British forces struck 31 targets in Afghanistan. 40 warplanes, 50 Tomahawk cruise missiles, B-2 Stealth bombers, B-1 lancers, B-52s, F-14 Tomcats and F/A-18 Hornet fighter jets were used against air defenses, communication nodes and other large fixed target sites. Airdrops of food were also made. The Taliban later claimed that 8-20 civilians were killed in the attacks.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 7, In Afghanistan the Northern Alliance moved its front line artillery and infantry units against the Taliban.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A5)
2001        Oct 7, The Al-Jazeera TV network from Qatar showed video footage of Osama bin Laden praising Allah for the Sep 11 terrorist attacks.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.G1)
2001        Oct 7, Sulaiman Bhughaith, a Kuwaiti Islamist, emerged in Afghanistan as a spokesman for Osama bin Laden.
    (WSJ, 10/24/01, p.A16)

2001        Oct 8, US forces hit Afghanistan with a 2nd wave of attacks. 40 Taliban commanders along with 1,200 men switched sides and handed over control of a provincial road north of Kabul. 4 UN civilian workers were later confirmed as casualties of the bombing; Abdul Saboor, Safiullah, Najibullah and Nasir Ahmad worked for a mine clearing agency. The Taliban ambassador to Pakistan reported 200 civilian casualties.
    (SFC, 10/9/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/10/01, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/10/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/10/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 12/4/01, p.A20)

2001        Oct 9, The US declared air supremacy over Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 10/10/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 9, Qatar~ez_rsquo~s Al-Jazeera broadcast a taped video of Sulaiman Abu Ghaith, an al Qaeda spokesman, who called on Muslims to attack US interests worldwide.
    (SFC, 10/10/01, p.A10)

2001        Oct 10, US warplanes struck an ammunition dump at the edge of Kandahar and secondary explosions left some civilian casualties.
    (SFC, 10/15/01, p.A3)

2001        Oct 11, Abdul Salam Zaeem, Afghan ambassador to Pakistan, said US bombing in Afghanistan killed some 100 non-combatants in the Torghar region near Jalalabad. The total civilian casualties since Oct 7 was estimated at 170.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A13)
2001        Oct 11, In Afghanistan that Northern Alliance claimed to have taken the central province of Gur and the provincial capital Chaghcharan. American bombing reportedly killed as many as 200 civilians in Karam and Jalalabad.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A13)(SFC, 10/13/01, p.A1,9)

2001        Oct 12, Taliban leaders withdrew over $6 million from the Kabul Da Afghanistan Bank.
    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A11)

2001        Oct 13, The US confirmed that an errant 2,000-pound bomb hit residential buildings in Kabul and that 4 people were killed.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/4/01, p.A20)

2001        Oct 14, Pres. Bush rejected a Taliban offer to release Osama bin Laden to an unnamed 3rd country if the air strikes are halted.
    (SFC, 10/15/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 14, US warplanes hit Afghanistan targets around Kabul and knocked out the overseas telephone exchange. Bombs also hit the cities of Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar, Jalalabad and Herat. Abu Baseer al-Masri, al Qaeda fighter and Egyptian militant, was killed near Jalalabad.
    (SFC, 10/15/01, p.A8)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A3)

2001        Oct 15, US warplanes carried out their heaviest bombings in 9 days over Afghanistan. The Pentagon called in the slow moving AC-130 Spectre gunships to targets around Kandahar.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 16, Over 100 aircraft struck targets in Afghanistan and 2 gunships fired on Taliban and al Qaeda troops. U.S. bombs struck the Red Cross compound in Afghanistan, injuring a guard.
    (WSJ, 10/17/01, p.A1)(AP, 10/16/02)
2001        Oct 16, It was reported that the US strategy in the bombing of Afghanistan was failing because it contradicted a Pashtun code of honor known as Pashtunwali. Central to the code is nang, where death is taught to be preferable to a life without honor. A 2nd tenet called badal, revenge, taught that only way to redeem honor is to avenge it. A 3rd tenet called melmastiya, hospitality, was exploited by Osama bin Laden as a guest in the country.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.A17)

2001        Oct 17, Some 100 US land and sea-base planes hit targets that included Kandahar and Mazar-e-Sharif.
    (SFC, 10/18/01, p.A3)
2001        Oct 17, Taliban forces seized UN food warehouses in Kabul and Kandahar.
    (SFC, 10/18/01, p.A3)

2001        Oct 18, The city of Kandahar was reported to have collapsed to ~ez_ldquo~pre-Taliban lawlessness."
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A5)

2001        Oct 18, In Afghanistan the city of Kandahar was reported to have collapsed to ~ez_ldquo~pre-Taliban lawlessness." The first US Special Forces were reported to have begun operating on the ground in southern Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A5)

2001        Oct 19, US commandoes attacked a Taliban stronghold in Kandahar in the 1st known ground action involving US troops.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 19, Some 3,500 refugees arrived near the Pakistani border town of Chaman, the largest number to date. The number had averaged about 2,000.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A6)

2001        Oct 20, US commandos struck 2 targets in Afghanistan that included an airfield and a command complex near Kandahar. Two 500-pound bombs hit a residential center area northwest of Kabul.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/24/01, p.A12)
2001        Oct 20, It was reported that the US was using a 40-year-old EC C-130 plane called ~ez_ldquo~Commando Solo" to broadcast messages and music over Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A10
2001        Oct 20, Pakistan confirmed that it was holding talks with a senior Taliban commander, Mullah Jalaluddin Haqqani, on the makeup of a future Afghan government.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.A18)

2001        Oct 21, US warplanes hit Taliban frontline troops north of Kabul in the fiercest hits to date. A 1000-pound bomb hit near a senior citizens home in Herat. US air strikes at Thorai killed 21 civilians.
    (SFC, 10/22/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/24/01, p.A12)(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A14)
2001        Oct 21, A Taliban official reported that 5 of their men had been executed as spies.
    (SFC, 10/22/01, p.A5)

2001        Oct 22, The Pentagon flew restricted attacks over Afghanistan using mostly carrier-based aircraft. Def. Sec. Donald Rumsfeld denied that US and British planes bombed a hospital in Herat where the Taliban claimed 100 people were killed. One Pentagon official did say that a US missile had gone astray near Herat and might have struck a non-military target.
    (SFC, 10/23/01, p.A1,4)
2001        Oct 22, US AC-130 gunships descended on a farm at Chowkar-Karez outside Kandahar and killed 19 civilians.
    (SFC, 2/9/02, p.A12)
2001        Oct 22, Pakistan reached an agreement with the Taliban to accept the return of thousands of refugees. The Taliban agreed to set up 2 refugee camps inside Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 10/24/01, p.A12)

2001        Oct 23, US bombs in Kabul, Afghanistan, reportedly killed 22 Harkat ul-Mujahedin fighters from Pakistan.
    (SFC, 10/25/01, p.A3)

2001        Oct 24, In Afghanistan US jets attacked frontline Taliban positions for a 4th day. The Pentagon accused the Taliban regime of planning to poison relief food supplies and to blame the US for resulting deaths.
    (SFC, 10/25/01, p.A3, A4)
2001        Oct 24, Some 1500 Afghanistan leaders met in Pakistan for a 2-day Assembly for Peace and National Unity in Afghanistan. Pir Sayed Ahmed Gailani, a religious leader, presided.
    (SFC, 10/24/01, p.A12)(SFC, 10/25/01, p.A5)
2001        Oct 24, It was reported that Abdul Haq, a Pashtun opposition leader, had entered southern Afghanistan with some 100 men to open an ethnic-Pashtun front against the Taliban.
    (WSJ, 10/24/01, p.A16)

2001        Oct 25, American warplanes dropped cluster bombs for the 1st time on Taliban front lines.
    (SFC, 10/26/01, p.A18)

2001        Oct 26, US warplanes hit Red Cross warehouses in Kabul a 2nd time by accident. Afghan officials said 3 children were killed in overnight raids. A human rights group said that as many as 35 civilians were killed in Chowkar-Karez, near Kandahar from US air strikes. The Taliban captured and executed Abdul Haq, a prominent opposition leader, who was attempting to arrange defections.
    (SFC, 10/27/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/4/01, p.A20)

2001        Oct 27, US warplanes hit frontline Taliban positions in the heaviest attacks to date. 10 people were reported killed from an errant bomb in the village of Ghanikhel in Kapisa province.
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.A3)
2001        Oct 27, Over 5000 volunteers headed into Afghanistan from Temergarah, Pakistan, to help fight a holy war against the US.
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.A14)
2001        Oct 27, Ruue Lubbers, the UN refugee chief, said some 150,000 Afghans had crossed into Pakistan in recent weeks.
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.A8)

2001        Oct 28, The US expanded air strikes over Afghanistan and hit targets in Kabul, Mazar-e-Sharif, Herat, Jalalabad, Kandahar and near the Tajik border. 13 civilians, including 4 children, were reported killed in Kabul.
    (SFC, 10/29/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 30, The Pentagon reported that a small number of US ground forces were operating in northern Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 10/31/01, p.A3)

2001        Oct 31, US bombing in Afghanistan was reported to be the heaviest in the 4-week campaign.
    (SFC, 11/1/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct, Oybek Jabbarov, his pregnant wife and infant son were living as refugees near the Afghan-Uzbek border when he accepted a lift in a car with soldiers of the National Alliance, an Afghan military faction long at war with the Taliban. He says the soldiers kidnapped him, falsely branded him a Taliban fighter, and delivered him to US troops to collect an easy bounty. He was transferred to Guantanamo in 2002 and cleared for release in February 2007, but kept in custody until 2009, when he was transferred to Ireland.
    (AP, 9/27/09)

2001        Nov 1, US planes made their heaviest assaults to date in northern Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 11/2/01, p.A3)
2001        Nov 1, In Pakistan a statement attributed to bin Laden accused the government of supporting a Christian crusade and urged people to defend their faith.
    (SFC, 11/2/01, p.A3)

2001        Nov 2, A US helicopter crashed due to weather in northern Afghanistan. 4 crew members were injured and retrieved by another helicopter.
    (SFC, 11/3/01, p.A6)

2001        Nov 3, US planes staged continuous bombing against Taliban positions in Samangan province and the Northern Alliance pressed toward Mazar-e-Sharif.
    (SSFC, 11/4/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 4, The US moved more special operations forces into Afghanistan and continued air strikes on the Taliban front lines. The Air Force dropped a 15,000 pound fuel-air explosion bomb called a Daisy Cutter that was last used in the Vietnam War. Thousands of foreign volunteers were reported moving to the Taliban front lines.
    (SFC, 11/5/01, p.A1,3)(SFC, 11/6/01, p.A3)

2001        Nov 5, US bombing continued to hit Taliban front lines and attacks concentrated on caves and tunnels. About 2 dozen US commandos were reported to be in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 11/6/01, p.A3)(WSJ, 11/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 6, US bombs killed a number of civilians in Kabul. The UN later reported that erroneous bombing killed 30 civilians in Kabul over the 1st 37 days of bombing.
    (SFC, 11/24/01, p.A5)
2001        Nov 6, The Northern Alliance took Aq Kupak and Keshendeh.
    (SFC, 11/14/01, p.A3)
2001        Nov 6, German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said he would activate 3,900 troops for action in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 11/7/01, p.A5)

2001        Nov 7, The Northern Alliance advanced into Shulgareh.
    (SFC, 11/14/01, p.A3)
2001        Nov 7, Small numbers of US forces prepared to enter southern Afghanistan for special missions.
    (SFC, 11/8/01, p.A3)
2001        Nov 7, A special unit of Afghan and Arab ~ez_ldquo~fidaiyan" fighters, was reported to be ready for suicide attacks.
    (SFC, 11/8/01, p.A3)
2001        Nov 7, Italy pledged an aircraft carrier and 2,700 troops to help the American campaign in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 11/8/01, p.A6)
2001        Nov 7, Pakistan halted the news conferences of Afghan ambassador Abdul Salam Zaeef, who used the event to announce civilian casualties caused by US bombings.
    (SFC, 11/8/01, p.A4)

2001        Nov 8, The Northern Alliance approached Mazar-e-Sharif and Chushma-i-Shaf.
    (SFC, 11/8/01, p.A3)(SFC, 11/14/01, p.A3)

2001        Nov 9, Northern Alliance forces under Gen. Rashid Dostum claimed the capture of Mazar-e-Sharif. Looting and killings were reported.
    (SFC, 11/10/01, p.A1)(SFC, 11/12/01, p.A3)(SFC, 11/14/01, p.A7)
2001        Nov 9, Jordan~ez_rsquo~s King Abdullah II said his country would consider sending troops to Afghanistan to help the anti-terrorism coalition.
    (SFC, 11/10/01, p.A3)

2001        Nov 10, In day 35 of US attacks in Afghanistan the Northern alliance claimed the capture of the provincial capitals of Shibarghan, Meimanah, and Aybal. Taliban forces were surrounded near Taloqan and Kunduz.
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.A3)

2001        Nov 11, In Afghanistan Northern Alliance forces with help from US warplanes and advisers captured Taloqan and some 200 Taliban were reported killed. Local warlords accepted a payment to change allegiance.
    (SFC, 11/10/01, p.A1)(SFC, 11/12/01, p.A3)(SFC, 11/14/01, p.A3)
2001        Nov 11, Two French radio reporters and a German magazine journalist were killed when they came under Taliban fire in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 11/11/02)

2001        Nov 12, In Afghanistan Taliban forces abandoned Kabul and Northern Alliance forces moved in to the capital. The Taliban took with them 8 foreign aid workers. There were reports of looting and summary executions. 3 European journalists died in the fighting.
    (SFC, 11/13/01, p.A1,2,15)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 13, US warplanes hit Taliban convoys leaving Kabul. The Al Jazeera office in Kabul was bombed. Kabul residents rejoiced at the departure of the Taliban. The Northern Alliance retreated at Kunduz when a suspected surrender turned into an attack. Some $5.3 million vanished from the Central Bank Mille in Kabul.
    (SFC, 11/14/01, p.A1,2,3)(WSJ, 12/4/01, p.A15)

2001        Nov 14, In Afghanistan the Northern Alliance pushed toward Kunduz and Kandahar. 8 Western relief workers were rescued including 2 Americans. Mohammed Atef, a top al Qaeda military strategist, was believed killed by a bomb near Kabul. US air strikes at Gardez killed 23 civilians.
    (SFC, 11/15/01, p.A1)(SFC, 11/17/01, p.A3)(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A14)
2001        Nov 14, The UN Security Council approved a resolution to fill the political vacuum in Afghanistan and to provide security in areas freed by anti-Taliban forces.
    (SFC, 11/15/01, p.A5)
2001        Nov 14, Britain pledged 5,000 more troops to Afghanistan in addition to 4,500 already in the war zone.
    (SFC, 11/15/01, p.A9)

2001        Nov 15, Day 40 of the attack on Afghanistan: Osama bin Laden~ez_rsquo~s Brigade 055 dispersed into the mountains of Afghanistan. US planes struck Taliban positions outside Kunduz, where as many as 20,000 Taliban fighters gathered. Kandahar went under siege by opposition forces. Jalalabad was reported to be under Yunis Khalis of the Northern Alliance. Mullah Omar in a BBC radio interview warned of a larger strategy: the ~ez_ldquo~destruction of America."
    (SFC, 11/16/01, p.A1,9)(SFC, 11/17/01, p.A4)
2001        Nov 15, On about this day 2 al-Qaeda computers were acquired by a Wall Street journalist in Kabul for $1,100 following US bombing. They were found to contain over 1,750 text and video files of al Qaeda activities including weapons programs. One file contained the names of 170 al Qaeda members.
    (SFC, 1/1/02, p.A10)(WSJ, 1/16/02, p.A1)

2001        Nov 16, In Afghanistan US air strikes killed 20 civilians at Zani Khel and at least 65 at Khost. US bombing began at Tora Bora.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A14)(NW, 8/26/02, p.38)
2001        Nov 16, The Taliban was reported ready to abandon Kandahar. The Northern Alliance took over Radio Kabul and other key city offices.
    (SFC, 11/17/01, p.A1,3)

2001        Nov 18, Northern Alliance leaders agreed to join UN sponsored talks to form a new government. Haji Qadir formed a new alliance to govern Jalalabad. US planes continued strikes around Kunduz and Kandahar. US strikes on a Taliban convoy were later considered as a marking point for the downfall of the Taliban.
    (SFC, 11/19/01, p.A1,3)(SFC, 1/2/02, p.A6)

2001        Nov 19, Some Taliban began secret negotiations for the surrender of Kandahar. They said outside forces had taken over their movement and named: the int~ez_rsquo~l. drug mafia, int~ez_rsquo~l. terrorists, the puritanical Wahabi school of Sunni Islam, and Pakistan intelligence.
    (SSFC, 11/25/01, p.A3)
2001        Nov 19, It was reported that 400 Afghan Taliban soldiers were killed while trying to defect last week. Gen. Dostum led Northern Alliance troops in the area. Defectors continued to stream out of Kunduz as US war planes continued to bomb Taliban positions.
    (SFC, 11/19/01, p.A1)(SFC, 5/1/02, p.A12)
2001        Nov 19, Four foreign journalists and their Afghan guide were killed in an ambush between Jalalabad and Kabul: Harry Burton of Australia (Reuters), Azizullah Haidari, Afghan photographer (Reuters), Julio Fuentes of Spain (El Mundo, Madrid), and Maria Grazia Cutuli of Italy (Corriere della Sera, Milan). In 2004 Afghan judges sentenced Reza Khan to death for his role in the ambush. Khan said he was under orders from militia commander Mohammed Agha.
    (SFC, 11/20/01, p.A3)(SSFC, 11/21/04, p.A10)

2001        Nov 20, In Afghanistan the Northern Alliance gave the Taliban in Kunduz 3 days to give up. The alliance controlling Afghanistan's capital and much of its countryside agreed to attend power-sharing talks in Germany the following week.
    (WSJ, 11/21/01, p.A1)(AP, 11/20/02)

2001        Nov 22, The Northern Alliance engaged the Taliban in heavy fighting outside Kunduz. A Kunduz surrender deal was in jeopardy.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/23/01, p.A1)
2001        Nov 22, Pakistan ordered the Taliban to close its embassy in Islamabad.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A16)

2001        Nov 23, Taliban troop contingents were reported to have dug in at 2 bases near Jalalabad including an estimated 1,200 at Tora Bora. It was also reported that Pakistani airplanes were being used to evacuate pro-Taliban Pakistani fighters in Kunduz.
    (SFC, 11/24/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 24, Thousands of Taliban fighters surrendered at Kunduz. A few turned out to be suicide bombers, who killed 5-6 Northern Alliance commanders. Afghan troops captured Salim Ahmen Hamdan in southern Afghanistan in a car with four other alleged al-Qaida associates who exchanged fire with the Afghan troops. Three of the other men in the car, including a son-in-law of Osama bin Laden, were killed. Hamdan, who was sent to Guantanamo, admitted working as bin Laden's driver in Afghanistan.
    (SSFC, 11/25/01, p.A1)(NW, 8/26/02, p.22)(AP, 12/5/07)

2001        Nov 25, Taliban troops near Mazar-e-Sharif staged a prison revolt and hundreds were reported killed. US marines landed near Kandahar marking the 1st major use of US ground troops in Afghanistan. 5 Americans were injured by an American bomb and 1 CIA agent, Johnny Michael Spann (32), was reportedly killed.
    (SFC, 11/26/01, p.A1)(SFC, 11/27/01, p.A8)(SFC, 11/29/01, p.A1)(NW, 12/10/01, p.31)

2001        Nov 26, The Taliban surrendered the border town of Spinbaldak as US Marines directed air attacks on a column of enemy vehicles. Fighting continued with prisoners at Qala Jangi and most were reported killed along with 40-50 Northern Alliance soldiers.
    (SFC, 11/27/01, p.A1,10)

2001        Nov 27, Afghan factions met in Bonn, Germany, and agreed to give former King Mohammad Zahir Shah a role in a new Afghan government. 4 factions included 11 delegates from the Northern Alliance, 11 from the Rome Group, 3 from exiles in Cyprus, and 3 from exiles in Pakistan.
    (SFC, 11/28/01, p.A1)
2001        Nov 27, Olaf Stromberg, a Swedish TV journalist, was killed while sleeping in northern Afghanistan during a suspected robbery attempt. He was the 8th journalist slain in the conflict.
    (SFC, 11/27/01, p.A10)(SFC, 11/28/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 28, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman (35), a top al Qaeda operative and son of the blind sheik linked to the 1993 WTC bombing, was captured by anti-Taliban forces. The Taliban said some 600 people including 450 prisoners were killed in the uprising at Qala Jangi. US bombing continued with intermittent strikes.
    (SFC, 11/29/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/29/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/30/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 28, From Nov 28-30 thousands of Taliban fighters, who had surrendered at Kunduz were shipped by container truck to prison camps at Sheberghan. Up to 960 died enroute, mostly from asphyxiation.
    (SSFC, 11/25/01, p.A1)(NW, 8/26/02, p.22)

2001        Nov, Burhanuddin Rabbani, political leader of the Northern Alliance, issued an amnesty to all Taliban except for non-Afghans.
    (SFC, 12/4/01, p.A11)
2001        Nov, A treatise by Ayman al Zawahiri was smuggled out of Afghanistan. It was published in Dec by an Arabic language newspaper in London.
    (SFC, 1/1/02, p.A10)
2001        Nov, Juma Namangani, al-Qaeda member and co-founder of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), died following critical injuries from US bombing in Kunduz, Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 12/7/01, p.F1)

2001        Dec 1, In Afghanistan Farida Afzali (21) became the 1st woman in 5 years to enroll at Kabul Univ. Day 56: US bombing continued around Kandahar and over Tora Bora near Kabul, where 3 villages were hit and a number of civilians killed and injured. Air strikes at Khan-I-Merjahuddin killed 48 civilians. Air strikes at Madoo killed 48 civilians.
    (SSFC, 12/2/01, p.A2)(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A14)
2001        Dec 1, In Germany 4 Afghan factions continued to work on a 20-member ~ez_ldquo~interim authority."
    (SSFC, 12/2/01, p.A3)

2001        Dec 2, US bombers hit Taliban defenses around Kandahar. US strikes at Tora Bora reportedly killed at least 8 civilians.
    (SFC, 12/3/01, p.A9)

2001        Dec 3, Some 3,000 Taliban surrendered at Char Dara, 6 miles west of Kunduz. Pashtuns battled Taliban forces at Kandahar~ez_rsquo~s airport. The UN evacuated staff at Mazar-e-Sharif due to Northern Alliance infighting.
    (SFC, 12/4/01, p.A11)(WSJ, 12/4/01, p.A1,15)

2001        Dec 4, US bombing continued at Kandahar and Tora Bora. Baglan and Balkh were noted as a pockets of resistance with up to 3,500 Taliban militiamen. An interim government was scheduled to take power Dec 22.
    (SFC, 12/5/01, p.A14)

2001        Dec 5, A 2000-pound US bomb killed 3 American Green Berets near Kandahar along with 18 Afghan fighters. 20 Americans were injured along with 18 Afghan fighters including newly appointed Afghan leader Hamid Karzai.
    (SFC, 12/6/01, p.A1,15)(WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 5, Afghan delegates in Koenigswinter, Germany, signed an agreement for an interim post-Taliban government to begin Dec 22.
    (SFC, 12/6/01, p.A1)(AP, 12/5/02)

2001        Dec 6, Mullah Mohammed Omar, the Taliban leader, vowed to surrender Kandahar.
    (SFC, 12/7/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 7, In Afghanistan Taliban soldiers fled Kandahar and left the city in chaos. Day 62: Assaults continued around Tora Bora where up to 2,000 bin Laden loyalists were positioned at a mountain redoubt. Aryana Airline made its 1st domestic flight since Oct 7 with a flight from Herat to Kabul.
    (SFC, 12/8/01, p.A1,14)(SFC, 12/14/01, p.E6)

2001        Dec 8, John Walker Lindh, a Taliban soldier from Marin County, Ca., was held at Camp Rhino near Kandahar as a battlefield detainee. He was captured a week earlier following the prison revolt at Mazar-e-Sharif.
    (SSFC, 12/9/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 9, US B-52s continued strikes over Tora Bora. A Northern Alliance helicopter crashed and 18 people were killed including 2 Pashtun commanders. The last province under Taliban control, Zabul, was handed over to tribal leaders.
    (SFC, 12/10/01, p.A12)
2001        Dec 9, The Friendship Bridge linking Afghanistan and Uzbekistan was opened for aid transport.
    (SFC, 12/10/01, p.A12)

2001        Dec 10, US air strikes continued at Bora Bora and Afghan fighters moved in on al Qaeda defenders in fortified caves.
    (SFC, 12/11/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 10, It was reported that at least 43 Taliban prisoners had died in shipping containers during a 2-3 day transit from Kunduz to Shibirghan.
    (SFC, 12/11/01, p.A17)

2001        Dec 11, US bombers continued to hit sites at Tora Bora, Afghanistan, as a deadline for al Qaeda surrender passed.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 11, Australia reported that an Australian citizen, David Hicks (26), who had trained with the al Qaeda, had been captured in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A19)(SFC, 12/15/01, p.A16)

2001        Dec 13, The US Defense Dept. released a videotape of Osama bin Laden talking about the Sep 11 attacks. The tape clearly indicated his advance knowledge of the suicide attacks. The tape was found weeks ago in Jalalabad.
    (SFC, 12/13/01, p.A7)(SFC, 12/14/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 13, The US military sent in special operations forces into the Tora Bora area to look for al Qaeda leaders.
    (SFC, 12/14/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 14, American and British commandos behind a screen of local Afghan fighters contained the last remnants of al Qaeda forces in the White Mountains of Tora Bora. American Marines occupied Kandahar airport.
    (SFC, 12/15/01, p.A1,16)
2001        Dec 14, European leaders agreed to send 4,000 troops to Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 12/15/01, p.A16)

2001        Dec 16, In Afghanistan 25 bin Laden soldiers were captured and 200 were killed in the Tora Bora region. After 9 weeks of fighting, Afghan militia leaders claimed control of the last mountain bastion of Osama bin Laden's al-Qaida fighters. There was no sign of bin Laden.
    (SFC, 12/17/01, p.A1)(AP, 12/16/02)

2001        Dec 17, US Marines raised the Stars and Stripes over the long-abandoned American Embassy in Kabul, inaugurating what U.S. envoy James F. Dobbins promised would be a long commitment to the rebuilding.
    (AP, 12/17/02)
2001        Dec 17, In Afghanistan US Delta forces pursued some 300 al Qaeda fighters in the White Mountains. Mullah Omar was reported to have retreated to the mountains near Baghran.
    (SFC, 12/18/01, p.A1,14)

2001        Dec 18, Hundreds of al Qaeda and Taliban fighters were reported to have slipped into Pakistan from Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 12/19/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 19, Britain advised the UN that it would lead a security force in Afghanistan and contribute 1,500 soldiers to a force of 5,000.
    (SFC, 12/19/01, p.A14)

2001        Dec 20, In Afghanistan the 1st int~ez_rsquo~l. peacekeeping forces arrived from Britain as the U.N. Security Council authorized a multinational force for Afghanistan. A grenade attack in Mazar-e-Sharif market wounded some 35-100 people. US air strikes at Asmani and Pokharai killed about 50 civilians.
    (SFC, 12/21/01, p.A24)(WSJ, 12/21/01, p.A1)(AP, 12/20/02)

2001        Dec 21, US warplanes attacked a convoy of trucks heading for the Pakistan border and 65 people were reported killed. 12 were killed in the convoy and 15 in nearby villages. The convoy was said to be heading for Kabul.
    (SFC, 12/22/01, p.A19)(SFC, 12/29/01, p.A16)
2001        Dec 21, In Kabul, Afghanistan, power was officially transferred from Pres. Rabbani to Hamid Karzai.
    (SFC, 12/22/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 22, Hamid Karzai was sworn in as prime minister of Afghanistan.
    (AP, 12/22/02)

2001        Dec 23, It was reported that Hazrat Ali, an Afghanistan eastern alliance commander, had negotiated a deal to release al Qaeda troops in the Tora Bora region. The new cabinet met in Kabul for the 1st time.
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.A20)(SFC, 12/24/01, p.A10)

2001        Dec 24, In Afghanistan Hamid Karzai and Defense Minister Mohammed Fahim named Gen. Rashid Dostum as deputy defense minister.
    (SFC, 12/25/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 27, The US announced plans to hold Taliban and al Qaeda prisoners at the Guantanamo Bay naval base in Cuba.
    (SFC, 12/28/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 27, US warplanes destroyed a compound in eastern Afghanistan believed used by a Taliban intelligence chief. Local villagers said as many as 40 civilians were killed. Qari Ahmadullah (40), former Taliban chief of intelligence, was killed while fleeing US bombardment near Naka village in Paktia province.
    (SFC, 12/28/01, p.A22)(SFC, 1/3/02, p.A1)

2001        Dec 28, Gen. Mohammad Fahim, Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s new defense minister, called for an end to US bombing. Meanwhile al Qaeda remnants in the Tora Bora region fired missiles at a joint Afghan-American command base.
    (SFC, 12/29/01, p.A16)

2001        Dec 29, US airstrikes in Paktia province were later reported to have killed up to 100 villagers.
    (SFC, 1/2/02, p.A6)

2001        Dec 30, Four Afghan soldiers were killed near Herat as they stacked boxes of ammunition.
    (SFC, 12/31/01, p.A6)

2001        Dec 31, The US planned to deploy elements of the 101st Airborne Division to replace Marines near Kandahar. US troops moved by helicopter to Helmand province, the region where Mohammed Omar was suspected to be.
    (WSJ, 12/31/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec, In Afghanistan US air strikes in late Dec. at Niazi Qala killed 52 civilians.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A14)

2001        Jason Elliot authored ~ez_ldquo~An Unexpected Light: Travels in Afghanistan."
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, BR p.10)
2001        Larry Goodson authored ~ez_ldquo~Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics and the Rise of the Taliban."
    (WSJ, 10/15/01, p.A22)
2001        US amicable relations with the Haqqani network, an Afghan militant group, ended. The group, with bases in Pakistan~ez_rsquo~s North Waziristan, had US ties that dated back to the anti-Soviet campaign in the 1980s.
    (Economist, 9/15/12, p.38)

2002        Jan 2, The new Afghan government confirmed that American bombs had killed the Taliban's intelligence chief, Qari Ahmadullah.
    (AP, 1/2/03)

2002        Jan 3, US warplanes hit an al Qaeda compound in the Khost region south of Tora Bora and Islamic fighters near Baghran were reported to be in negotiations.
    (SFC, 1/4/02, p.A19)(WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A1)
2002        Jan 3, Afghan troops beat back refugees seeking food at a  Red Crescent compound in Jalalabad. There were numerous reports of stolen wheat and relief supplies attributed to members of the Eastern Shura.
    (SFC, 1/4/02, p.A1)

2002        Jan 4, US Army Special Forces Sgt. Ross Chapman (31) was killed by enemy fire near Khost, Afghanistan. He became the 1st US soldier to die their by enemy fire.
    (SFC, 1/5/02, p.A1)

2002        Jan 5, Canada reported plans to send 900 troops to assist with peacekeeping in Afghanistan.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A9)

2002        Jan 6, Anti-Taliban troops in Afghanistan planned to starve out 7 al Qaeda members holed up in a Kandahar hospital.
    (SFC, 1/7/02, p.A8)

2002        Jan 7, US planes bombed cave complexes in Afghanistan as Tony Blair arrived in Kabul. He said the West would not abandon Afghanistan. 9 US senators also visited the area.
    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A11)(WSJ, 1/8/02, p.A1)
2002        Jan 7, In Kandahar 7 Taliban officials surrendered and were released by the governor. None of the released were on US wanted lists.
    (SFC, 1/10/02, p.A1)(SFC, 1/11/02, p.A13)
2002        Jan 7, Canada announced plans to send 750 soldiers to join US combat operations in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A11)

2002        Jan 8, US soldiers captured 14 suspected fighters at the Zhawar Kili cave and bunker complex near Khost. An al Qaeda fighter blew himself up with a grenade during an escape attempt at a Kandahar hospital. 2 senior al Qaeda leaders were reported caught with documents and laptops, while fleeing bombing in eastern Afghanistan. An intensified search was reported to be in progress for Abu Zubeida (Zain al-Abidin Muhammad Husain), the director of external affairs for al Qaeda.
    (SFC, 1/9/02, p.A8)

2002        Jan 10, In Afghanistan gunmen attacked the Kandahar airport as a US military transport took off carrying al Qaeda and Taliban prisoners to the US Guantanamo Bay naval base in Cuba.
    (SFC, 1/11/02, p.A5)

2002        Jan 12, The United States intensified its anti-terror campaign in eastern Afghanistan, dropping bombs on suspected al-Qaida and Taliban hideouts.
    (SSFC, 1/13/02, p.A8)(AP, 1/12/03)
2002        Jan 12, The World Food Program halted aid shipments in Afghanistan about this time due to theft and looting by bandits and warlords.
    (SSFC, 1/13/02, p.A10)

2002        Jan 14, US warplanes began to seal caves near Khost, Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 1/15/02, p.A1)

2002        Jan 15, It was reported that an American, Clark Russell Bowers (37), had been taken hostage in Afghanistan with ransom at $25k.
    (SFC, 1/15/02, p.A10)

2002        Jan 16, Hamid Karzai issued a decree that banned the cultivation of opium poppies.
    (SFC, 1/17/02, p.A12)

2002        Jan 17, US Sec. of State Powell visited Afghanistan and pledged that the US would not abandon the country.
    (SFC, 1/18/02, p.A20)

2002        Jan 18, Estimates of civilian deaths from US bombing were set at 1,000 to 1,300 by the Mass. think tank, Project on Defense Alternatives.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A6)

2002        Jan 20, A US CH-53E Super Stallion helicopter crashed in Afghanistan after take off from Bagram air base. Marines Dwight Morgan and Walter Cohee III were killed.
    (AP, 1/20/03)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A14)(SFC, 1/21/02, p.A1)

2002        Jan 21, Sec. of State Colin Powell said the US would contribute $297 million for Afghan reconstruction over the coming year during a conference on Afghan reconstruction in Tokyo. Int~ez_rsquo~l. donors pledged over $4.5 billion over 5 years.
    (SFC, 1/21/02, p.A1)(SFC, 1/22/02, p.A12)

2002        Jan 22, US officials reported that Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, a former head of al Qaeda training in Afghanistan, had provided information on an alleged plot to blow up the US Embassy in Yemen a week earlier.
    (SFC, 1/23/02, p.A9)

2002        Jan 23-2002 Jan24, US soldiers captured 27 Taliban fighters in Hazar Qadam, north of Kandahar. Gov. Jan Muhammad Khan later said that 60 people were killed and denied that any were Taliban or al Qaeda fighters. US military later acknowledged that some of the dead may have been allies. The captives were released Feb 6 and reported that they had been beaten and abused. The Pentagon acknowledged Feb 21 that 16 villagers were mistakenly killed.
    (SFC, 1/25/02, p.A18)(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.A8)(SFC, 2/2/02, p.A10)(SFC, 2/7/02, p.A19)(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.A18)(SFC, 2/11/02, p.A1)(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A16)

2002        Jan 25, Afghan leaders called for an increase in peacekeeping troops as warlords competed for power outside of Kabul.
    (SFC, 1/26/02, p.A14)

2002        Jan 27, Hamid Karzai, interim Afghan leader, began a visit to the US and asked Afghan Americans to return and help with reconstruction.
    (SFC, 1/28/02, p.A1)

2002        Jan 28, US forces and Afghan militiamen attacked and killed 6 al Qaeda gunmen, who had been holed up at the Mir Wais Hospital in Kandahar.
    (SFC, 1/28/02, p.A9)(SFC, 1/29/02, p.A10)(NW, 8/26/02, p.39)

2002        Jan 31, Warlord Saifullah defeated troops under Padsha Khan Zadran in Gardez and some 50 people were killed.
    (SFC, 2/1/02, p.A24)

2002        Feb 4, The CIA believed that it killed a top al Qaeda official with a Hellfire missile, Predator aerial drone, near Zawar Kili, Afghanistan. 7 al Qaeda members were killed. At least some of those killed were innocent villagers. At Zhawara 3 local villagers were killed while looking for scrap metal.
    (WSJ, 2/7/02, p.A1)(SFC, 2/8/02, p.A18)(SFC, 2/11/02, p.A10)(SFC, 2/12/02, p.A16)(SSFC, 2/17/02, p.A18)(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A14)
2002        Feb 4, In Afghanistan northern militia factions agreed to withdraw from Mazar-e-Sharif and create a new joint security force.
    (SFC, 2/5/02, p.A8)

2002        Feb 8, In Afghanistan Mullah Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil, Taliban foreign minister, surrendered in Kandahar and was turned over to US military.
    (SFC, 2/9/02, p.A14)
2002        Feb 8, Interim leader Hamid Karzai met with Pakistan Pres. Musharraf in Islamabad and they agreed to bury past misunderstandings.
    (SFC, 2/9/02, p.A14)

2002        Feb 9, The government released 320 captured Taliban fighters and gave each soldier the equivalent of $15 as a gesture of reconciliation.
    (SSFC, 2/10/02, p.A18)

2002        Feb 11, In Kandahar opium vendors shut down under US military orders.
    (SFC, 2/12/02, p.A14)

2002        Feb 12, It was reported that AP estimated 600 civilians killed in the Afghan campaign.
    (WSJ, 2/12/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 14, Abdul Rahman, the Air Transportation Minister, was reported killed by a mob of Muslim pilgrims at Kabul Airport seeking transport to Mecca. Hamid Karzai later said senior officials were responsible and blamed the killing on a personal vendetta. Gen. Tawhidi and Gen. Beg were among the accused. Foreign Minister Abdullah Abdullah later said the attack was not premeditated.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.A20)(SFC, 2/16/02, p.A3)(SFC, 2/21/02, p.A16)

2002        Feb 15, It was reported that thousands of civilians in Balkh province had been terrorized by soldiers of Gen. Dostum since the fall of the Taliban.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 16, Afghanistan British peacekeepers came under fire at an observation post in Kabul.
    (SSFC, 2/17/02, p.A18)
2002        Feb 16-17, In Afghanistan US forces made bombing raids aimed at controlling clashes among militia forces. Pentagon officials later said the attacks were against suspected al Qaeda fighters.
    (SFC, 2/19/02, p.A9)(SFC, 2/20/02, p.A14)

2002        Feb 23, The US government said it had clues that Osama bin Laden was still alive in Afghanistan.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A16)

2002        Mar 2, US and Afghan forces attacked hundreds of suspected al Qaeda and Taliban fighters in eastern Afghanistan in Operation Anaconda. US soldier Stanley Harriman (34) was killed and friendly fire was later suspected.
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.A1)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A12)(SFC, 3/30/02, p.A10)

2002        Mar 3, A 7.2 earthquake was centered in northeast Afghanistan and at least 100 people were killed.
    (SFC, 3/5/02, p.A10)
2002        Mar 3, US military forces and 6 allied nations made air and ground assaults against al Qaeda and Taliban fighters in the Afghan Shah-e-Kot mountains of eastern Paktia province.
    (SFC, 3/4/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 4, At least 7 US soldiers were killed while trying to drop off reconnaissance teams in fighting in Paktia province. 6 of the soldiers were killed in an effort to try to rescue a 7th during Operation Anaconda.
    (SFC, 3/5/02, p.A1)(SFC, 3/6/02, p.A1,12)

2002        Mar 6, US commanders in Afghanistan committed an additional 300 troops to the battle zone in the Shah-I-Kot mountains. Taliban and al-Qaeda forces were reported to have swollen by as many as 500 fighters. US jets killed 14 people in the area including women and children.
    (SFC, 3/7/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/13/02, p.A1)
2002        Mar 6, In Kabul 3 Danish and 2 German peacekeeping soldiers were killed while defusing a soviet era missile.
    (WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 14, In Pakistan Pres. Musharraf said the war in Afghanistan is over. The 12 day Operation Anaconda left as many as 800 enemy fighters dead.
    (SFC, 3/15/02, p.A14)

2002        Mar 17, US troops killed 16 al Qaeda fighters in the Gardez region.
    (WSJ, 3/19/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 18, Britain planned to send 1,700 troops to Afghanistan to join the 6,300 US forces.
    (WSJ, 3/19/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 20, Militants attacked the Khost airport and another base north of the city and killed 3 Afghans. Coalition troops called in air strikes.
    (SFC, 3/21/02, p.A13)

2002        Mar 23, The return of King Zahir Shah was postponed for a few weeks by the Italian government due to security reasons.
    (SSFC, 3/24/02, p.A18)

2002        Mar 25, In Afghanistan a 5.8-6.1 earthquake was centered 105 miles north of Kabul and early reports of deaths reached to 1,800. The city of Nahrin was reported destroyed. Deaths in Baghlan province were reduced to 600-800 with 100,000 left homeless.
    (SFC, 3/26/02, p.A6)(SFC, 3/27/02, p.A1)(SFC, 3/29/02, p.A9)(SFC, 3/30/02, p.A10)(AP, 6/22/02)

2002        Mar 28, Matthew J. Bourgeois (35), a Navy Seal from Tallahassee, was killed by a land mine in Kandahar.
    (SFC, 3/29/02, p.A9)

2002        Apr 3, Pakistan~ez_rsquo~s Gen. Musharraf visited Afghanistan and presented Hamid Karzai with a $10 million donation.
    (SFC, 4/3/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 3, Afghan security officials reported the arrests of hundreds of political opponents who planned a conspiracy and bombing campaign that was linked to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. 140 men were released the next day, while 160 remained under detention.
    (SFC, 4/4/02, p.A8)(SFC, 4/5/02, p.A9)

2002        Apr 4, Afghan officials reported that poppy farmers would be offered $500 per acre to destroy their crops. Refusal would still result in crop destruction.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 8, In Kabul a bomb exploded near the convoy of Defense Minister Mohammed Fahim and at least 5 people were killed including 2 children.
    (SFC, 4/9/02, p.A7)

2002        Apr 9, Some 20 thousand refugees, attempting to return from Pakistan refugee camps, were blocked by poppy growers. Rival warlords hindered the return of another 2 million.
    (SFC, 4/10/02, p.A9)

2002        Apr 12, An earthquake hit northern Afghanistan and at least 59 people were killed, mostly in Doabi.
    (SFC, 4/13/02, p.A10)(SFC, 4/20/02, p.A24)

2002        Apr 15, In Afghanistan 4 American soldiers were killed near Kandahar while disarming a rocket.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 18, Afghanistan's former king, Mohammad Zaher Shah (87), returned to his country after 29 years in exile.
    (SFC, 4/19/02, p.A11)(AP, 4/18/03)
2002        Apr 18, A US fighter jet accidentally dropped a laser-guided bomb on Canadian forces near Kandahar, Afghanistan, and 4 soldiers were killed. On Sep 12 two U.S. F-16 fighter pilots were charged with manslaughter and assault in the "friendly fire" bombing of Canadian troops that killed four soldiers and injured eight. In 2004 USAF pilot Maj. Harry Schmidt was found guilty of dereliction of duty. He received a reprimand and was docked a month~ez_rsquo~s pay.
    (SFC, 4/18/02, p.A10)(SFC, 6/19/02, p.A8)(Reuters, 9/13/02)(SFC, 7/7/04, p.A6)

2002        Apr 27, In Afghanistan 25 people were killed in Gardez from rockets fired by Padsha Khan Zadran in a bid to take the provincial capital. The attack came just before Sec. of Defense Rumsfeld landed at Bagram Air Base.
    (SSFC, 4/28/02, p.A17)(WSJ, 4/29/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 29, US forces in Afghanistan engaged al Qaeda fighters near the Pakistan border and killed 4.
    (SFC, 4/30/02, p.A14)
2002        Apr 29, Britain decided to treat al Qaeda and Taliban fighters as prisoners of war and turn them over to the interim Afghan government.
    (SFC, 4/30/02, p.A15)
2002        Apr 29, Turkey officially agreed to take command of the peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 4/30/02, p.A15)

2002        May 1, Some 560-614 prisoners were released from the northern Shibirghan prison controlled by Gen. Dostum. Some 2,300 prisoners remained.
    (SFC, 5/3/02, p.A12)

2002        May 6, The CIA fired a missile from a Predator in an attempt to kill Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, head of Hezb-e-Islami, and his top aides outside Kabul.
    (SFC, 5/10/02, p.A22)

2002        May 12, US forces in Afghanistan killed 5 enemy fighters and captured 32 during a raid at Deh Rawod, north of Kandahar. US air strikes at Char Chine, killed 5 civilians.
    (SFC, 5/14/02, p.A8)(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A14)

2002        May 16, In Afghanistan coalition forces came under fire in eastern Paktia province. Some enemy fighters were reported killed. Fire from an AC-130 gunship killed about 10 people, possibly local tribe members.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A11)(SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A4)

2002        May 17, Coalition forces battled enemy forces in Operation Condor in the Khost region. A pan-Arab newspaper quoted Mullah Mohammed Omar as saying Osama bin Laden is alive and that the future of the US in Afghanistan is ~ez_ldquo~fire, hell and total defeat."
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A10)

2002        May 19, Sgt. Gene Arden Vance (38), an American special forces soldier, was killed in Afghanistan, when his unit came into contact with enemy forces. Operation Mountain Lion began in an attempt to seal off the border.
    (SFC, 5/20/02, p.A14)(NW, 8/26/02, p.39)

2002        May 23, The UN voted to extend the mandate for an int~ez_rsquo~l. force in Afghanistan for 6 months but with no expansion of troops or presence beyond Kabul.
    (SFC, 5/24/02, p.A13)

2002        May 24, Coalition forces near Kandahar captured 50 people from a compound that was said to be a refuge for senior Taliban and al Qaeda leaders.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A12)

2002         May 31, US troops mistakenly killed 3 Afghans in a raid near Gardez.
    (WSJ, 6/3/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 4, Turkish peacekeepers arrived in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 6/5/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 8, A bus filled with Afghan families returning from Pakistan plunged into the Kabul River near Sarobi and 67 people were killed.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.A18)

2002        Jun 11, Afghanistan's former king attended a long-awaited Loya Jirga, accompanied by leaders of Hamid Karzai's interim government in a show of unity for a tribal assembly. The assembly was delayed by 1 day as Zahir Shah renounced any potential post.
    (Reuters, 6/11/02)(SFC, 6/11/02, p.A1)(SFC, 6/12/02, p.A10)

2002        Jun 12, A U.S. military transport plane, Air Force MC-130, carrying 10 people crashed on takeoff in Afghanistan, killing three Americans, military officials said. Seven escaped with minor injuries.
    (AP, 6/12/02)(SFC, 6/13/02, p.A24)

2002        Jun 13, Afghanistan's interim leader Hamid Karzai won endorsement from about two-thirds of delegates at the Loya Jirga grand assembly, making him the most likely candidate to win the presidency.
    (Reuters, 6/13/02)(SFC, 6/14/02, p.A10)

2002        Jun 14, Pres. Hamid Karzai outlined a list of national priorities that included building a national army and police force, improving schools and health care and creating jobs.
    (SFC, 6/15/02, p.A3)

2002        Jun 19, In Afghanistan the 9-day grand council ended with the inauguration of Hamid Karzai as president and the approval of his new Cabinet.
    (SFC, 6/20/02, p.A6)

2002        Jun 20, Turkey took over control of the 19-member peacekeeping force in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 6/21/02, p.A10)

2002        Jun 27-2002 Jun 28, In Afghanistan an arsenal exploded at Spinbaldak and 19 people were killed. A 1st blast was called both a controlled explosion and the result of a rocket attack.
    (SFC, 6/29/02, p.A12)(SSFC, 6/30/02, p.A15)

2002        Jul 1, In Afghanistan US Air Force gunship killed 44-48 members of a wedding party in Kakarak, Uruzgan province, during a major operation to track down Taliban leader Mullah Mohammad Omar.
    (Reuters, 7/2/02)(SFC, 7/2/02, p.A1)(SFC, 7/4/02, p.A9)(AP, 7/1/03)

2002        Jul 6, Gunmen assassinated Afghan Vice President Haji Abdul Qadir (48) and his driver in broad daylight in the capital Kabul. Qadir was a prominent Pashtun businessman and was suspected of being involved in the opium trade.
    (Reuters, 7/6/02)(SSFC, 7/7/02, p.A1)(SFC, 7/8/02, p.A3)

2002        Jul 7, Afghanistan's vice president, Abdul Qadir, was buried with full military honors one day after being assassinated.
    (AP, 7/7/07)

2002        Jul 22, At least 12 people have been killed in clashes between rival Afghan factions fighting for control of the Sheen Dend district in the western province of Herat.
    (Reuters, 7/23/02)

2002        Jul 27, Five US soldiers were wounded during a joint recon patrol east of Khost. 2 allied Afghan militiamen were killed. On Aug 7 Sgt. Christopher James Speer (28) of Albuquerque died from his wounds. Omar Khadr (15) was arrested for throwing the grenade that mortally wounded Speer and sent to Guantanamo. Khadr was born in Canada to a family with deep ties to al-Qaida. In 2007 a military judge dismissed charges against Khadr.
    (SFC, 8/13/02, p.A6)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.A4)(AP, 6/4/07)

2002        Jul 29, In Afghanistan, a man identified by authorities as a would-be suicide bomber with more than a half-ton of explosives in his car was stopped by a chance traffic accident just 300 yards from the U.S. Embassy.
    (AP, 7/29/03)

2002        Aug 7, In Afghanistan at least 15 people were killed south of Kabul in a shootout between police and recently escaped Pakistani members of al Qaeda.
    (Reuters, 8/7/02)(SFC, 8/9/02, p.A14)

2002        Aug 9, In eastern Afghanistan a powerful explosion ripped through an Afghan construction firm's building in the city of Jalalabad, killing 21 people and injuring 85 others.
    (AP, 8/9/02)(SFC, 8/10/02, p.A8)

2002        Aug 15, In Afghanistan Ghulam Sakhi Bashi, deputy head of Gen. Dostum's 70th division, was shot and killed during his son~ez_rsquo~s wedding ceremony in Charbolak, about 30 kilometers to the west of Mazar-I-Sharif.
    (Reuters, 8/18/02)

2002        Sep 4, In Afghanistan Pres. Karzai announced a new currency to replace the array of inflated banknotes issued by the Taliban and regional warlords. Warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, a former US ally, called for a jihad against US forces.
    (SFC, 9/5/02, p.A11)(WSJ, 9/5/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 5, Afghan President Hamid Karzai survived an assassination attempt in the southern city of Kandahar. The attack, by a man dressed in military uniform, occurred shortly after a powerful car bomb in the capital killed at least 26 people and wounded 150.
    (Reuters, 9/6/02)(SFC, 9/6/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 10, It was reported that US forces in Afghanistan had launched Operation Champion Strike in the Bermel Valley aimed at re-entering al Qaeda.
    (SFC, 9/10/02, p.A5)

2002        Oct 7, In Afghanistan new notes replaced the old multiple currencies.
    (ADN, 10/8/02, p.A4)

2002        Oct 29, Gul Rahman, suspected of links to al-Qaida, was picked up from a home in Islamabad and taken with four other people to a CIA black site called the Salt Pit near the Kabul Airport. He was stripped naked, doused in cold water and then left to die in the CIA-run prison. Rahman died Nov. 20, 2002, but his identity was not known until revealed by an Associated Press investigation in March 2010.
    (AP, 1/5/11)

2002        Nov 3, In Afghanistan Pres. Karzai fired over 15 provincial officials for abuse of authority, corruption and narcotics trafficking.
    (SFC, 11/4/02, p.A10)

2002        Nov 11, In Afghanistan police shot and killed at least 2 students during protests over poor housing conditions at a dormitory in Kabul.
    (SFC, 11/12/02, p.A11)(SFC, 11/12/02, p.A16)

2002        Dec 19, In Afghanistan a grenade attack in Kabul injured 4 people including 2 French citizens. 2 Afghan interpreters died from their wounds the next day.
    (SFC, 12/21/02, p.A9)

2002        Dec 21, In Afghanistan 6 people in a German military helicopter and up to eight on the ground were killed when the aircraft crashed before landing at an airport near the capital Kabul.
    (Reuters, 12/21/02)

2002        Dec 22, Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s 6 neighbors (Iran, Pakistan, China, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) agreed to halt meddling and signed a non-intervention agreement in Kabul.
    (SFC, 12/23/02, p.A3)

2002        Dec, In Afghanistan two inmates died one week apart at the Bagram prison near Kabul. They were officially said to have died of natural causes but an enquiry later revealed that they had been beaten, deprived of sleep and kept constantly chained.
    (AFP, 1/9/10)

2002        US soldiers at Bagram air base roughed up an Afghan prisoner named Dilawar, who died shortly after a 5-day beating. In 2005 an Army interrogator pleaded guilty to assault and was demoted. Several other soldiers faced charges. In 2005 an Ohio-based Army reservist was reduced to private for the beating.
    (SFC, 8/4/05, p.A5)(SFC, 8/19/05, p.A3)

2003        Jan 11, Afghan warlord Abdul Rashid Dostum released 50 members of the Taliban militia captured during fighting more than a year ago.
    (AP, 1/12/03)

2003        Jan 28, US and Afghan forces battled rebels aligned with renegade leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar in the largest-scale fighting in 10 months. 18 enemy fighters were killed in 2 days of fighting. Norwegian F-16s participated in bombing enemy targets.
    (AP, 1/28/03)(WSJ, 1/29/03, p.A1)(SFC, 1/29/03, p.A8)

2003        Jan 29, US troops took Haji Shahzada (50) from his rural Afghan home in the early hours of the morning and sent him on a bizarre journey to prison in Cuba. Shahzada spent 4 years in jail before being returned home with a letter of innocence.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahzada_%28Guantanamo_Bay_detainee_952%29)(AFP, 1/9/12)
2003        Jan 29, Russia's Border Guard Service said the US led anti-terror operation in Afghanistan has done nothing to reduce the flow of illegal drugs from that country.
    (AP, 1/29/03)

2003        Jan 30, In Afghanistan 4 American soldiers were killed when special operations UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter went down seven miles east of the Bagram Air Base while on a training mission.
    (AP, 1/31/03)(SFC, 1/31/03, p.A11)
2003        Jan 30, Sweden said it will contribute $5.9 million to help Afghanistan repay debts to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
    (AP, 1/30/03)

2003        Jan 31, In Afghanistan, a bomb destroyed the Rambasi Bridge near Kandahar, and killed at least 15 people traveling by bus. Police blamed Taliban and al-Qaida fugitives.
    (AP, 1/31/03)(SFC, 1/31/03, p.A11)

2003        Feb 10, Afghanistan became the 89th nation to join the International Criminal Court.
    (AP, 2/11/03)
2003        Feb 10, In Kabul, Afghanistan, Germany and the Netherlands took control of the 22-nation peacekeeping force charged with keeping order, replacing Turkey.
    (AP, 2/10/03)

2003        Feb 11, Afghan officials said 17 civilians were killed in American-led bombing over the last 2 days.
    (SFC, 2/12/03, p.A8)

2003          Feb 22, In northern Afghanistan at least six civilians were killed when factional fighting broke out between 2 rival warlords in Faryab province.
    (AP, 2/23/03)
2003          Feb 22, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkmenistan invited India to join their $3.2-billion natural gas pipeline project, indicating the plan would not be economically viable without New Delhi~ez_rsquo~s participation.
    (AP, 2/22/03)

2003          Feb 24, Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s minister of mines and industry died along with seven other people when their plane crashed in the Arabian Sea shortly after takeoff from the southern Pakistan port city of Karachi.
    (AP, 2/24/03)

2003          Feb 25, In southwestern Afghanistan assailants gunned down Habibullah Jan, a district administrator in Nimroz province, as he left a mosque in Dilaram.
    (AP, 2/26/03)

2003        Mar 12, In Afghanistan an ambush on a US convoy prompted aircraft fire that killed 5 enemy fighters.
    (SFC, 3/14/03, p.A9)

2003        Mar 20, Some 600 US and Romanian ground troops in Afghanistan began Operation Valiant Strike, an intensified search for Taliban, al Qaeda and loyalists to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.
    (SSFC, 3/23/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 22, U.S. forces reported seizing a large weapons cache in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 3/22/04)

2003        Mar 23, US and allied Afghan forces clashed with militiamen loyal to a renegade warlord in a battle that left up to 10 rebels dead. A US Air Force helicopter on a mercy mission to help 2 injured Afghan children crashed in southeastern Afghanistan, killing all 6 people on board.
    (AP, 3/24/03)
2003        Mar 23, In northern Afghanistan flooding and heavy rains killed at least 11 people and damaged hundreds of houses.
    (AP, 3/27/03)

2003        Mar 26, In Afghanistan suspected Taliban rebels attacked a government checkpoint and 13 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 3/27/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 27, In Afghanistan Ricardo Munguia (39), a Red Cross water engineer from El Salvador, was killed by Taliban gunmen.
    (SFC, 4/8/03, p.A5)(Reuters 3/28/03)

2003        Mar 28, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the UN assistance mission in Afghanistan for a year.
    (AP, 3/28/03)

2003        Mar 29, Two US special forces soldiers were killed and another wounded in an ambush in southern Afghanistan. Fighting there killed four Taliban with 6 captured.
    (AP, 3/29/03)

2003        Apr 3, Afghan militia soldiers and 2-day blistering airstrikes by US-led coalition planes killed eight suspected Taliban fighters in the southern mountains.
    (AP, 4/4/03)

2003        Apr 6, Afghan officials announced a plan to disarm, demobilize and reintegrate an estimated 100,000 fighters over the next 3 years.
    (SFC, 4/7/03, p.A3)

2003        Apr 8, An American warplane mistakenly bombed a house, killing 11 civilians near Afghanistan's eastern border with Pakistan.
    (AP, 4/9/03)(SFC, 4/9/03, p.A1)(SFC, 4/9/03, p.A1)

2003        Apr 10, Aid workers fled a north Afghan town after factional fighting killed at least 13 people.
    (WSJ, 4/11/03, p.A1)

2003        Apr 12, In eastern Afghanistan a car packed with explosives exploded, killing four people who apparently were planning a terrorist attack.
    (AP, 4/13/03)

2003        Apr 16, NATO agreed to take command of the UN peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan. The NATO stabilization force soon started in Kabul and then spread across the country.
    (AP, 4/16/03)(Econ, 3/28/09, p.69)
2003        Apr 16, In Afghanistan Romanian troops found a large stash of weapons. Two caves there were stuffed with thousands of rockets and more than 1.25 million rounds of ammunition.
    (AP, 4/18/03)

2003        Apr 23, In southern Afghanistan Taliban fighters attacked a government office with rockets and automatic weapons, setting off a four-hour shootout that left two Afghan soldiers and three assailants dead.
    (AP, 4/24/03)

2003        May 1, Sec. of Defense Rumsfeld visited Afghanistan and declared most of the nation secure. He said the 9,000 US soldiers there were engaged mainly in reconstruction.
    (WSJ, 5/2/03, p.A1)

2003        May 7, In Afghanistan Habibullah, a Muslim cleric close to U.S.-backed President Hamid Karzai, was killed outside a mosque in the village of Kalacha.
    (AP, 5/11/03)

2003        May 20, Afghan governors signed an agreement with President Hamid Karzai to pay vital customs revenues to the central government. Karzai had threatened to resign due to lack of revenue payments.
    (AP, 5/20/03)(WSJ, 5/20/03, p.A1)

2003        May 21, American troops guarding the US Embassy in Kabul shot and killed four Afghan soldiers, apparently mistaking them for assailants.
    (AP, 5/21/03)

2003        Jun 4, In Afghanistan 40 Taliban suspects were killed in one of the deadliest exchanges between Taliban and government troops since the hardline religious regime was overthrown in late 2001. 7 government soldiers also died in the nine hours of fighting in three villages north of Spinboldak, near the border with Pakistan.
    (AP, 6/5/03)

2003        Jun 7, In Afghanistan a car packed with explosives pulled up to a bus carrying German peacekeepers in Kabul and detonated, killing four and a teenage Afghan bystander. More than two dozen were wounded in the first fatal attack on the international force.
    (AP, 6/7/04)

2003        Jun 21, In Afghanistan Abdul Wali (28), a detainee held at a US base, died following 2 days of interrogation. In 2004 David A. Passaro, former Army Ranger, was charged with assault in connection to Wali~ez_rsquo~s death. In 2006 Passaro, a former CIA contractor, was convicted in North Carolina of assaulting Abdul Wali with a metal flashlight. In 2007 Passaro was sentenced to 8 years in prison.
    (SFC, 6/18/04, p.A1)(SFC, 8/18/06, p.A5)(SFC, 2/14/07, p.A3)

2003        Jul 17, Afghan President Hamid Karzai announced the creation of a 500-member grand council, or loya jirga, to approve a new constitution for the country this year.
    (AP, 7/17/03)

2003        Jul 18, Eight Afghan soldiers were killed when their vehicle was blown apart by a remote controlled mine.
    (AP, 7/18/03)

2003        Jul 19, In Spinboldak, Afghanistan, US forces, backed by helicopter gunships, killed up to 24 suspected Taliban insurgents after their convoy came under attack.
    (AP, 7/21/03)

2003        Jul 21, About 1,000 soldiers of Afghanistan's new national army launched their first major operation, sweeping for insurgents in the east of the country.
    (AP, 7/24/03)

2003        Aug 2, Afghan troops backed by U.S. warplanes killed as many as 70 militants in a daylong battle near the Pakistani border.
    (AP, 8/3/03)

2003        Aug 4, In northern Afghanistan a soldier of warlord Abdul Rashid Dostum mishandled a mortar and the shell exploded, killing 13 troops and injuring nine others.
    (AP, 8/5/03)

2003        Aug 7, In Afghanistan some 40 suspected Taliban fighters killed 6 Afghan soldiers and a driver for a US aid organization.
    (SFC, 8/8/03, p.A7)

2003        Aug 11, In Afghanistan NATO took command of the 5,000-strong international peacekeeping force in Kabul, its 1st deployment outside Europe.
    (AP, 8/11/03)

2003        Aug 12, At least 20 combatants died in a gunbattle between suspected Taliban fighters and Afghan government soldiers.
    (AP, 8/13/03)

2003        Aug 13, In southern Afghanistan a bomb ripped through a bus in Lashkargah, killing 15 people, including six children. Officials blamed al-Qaida and remnants of the Taliban militia for the bombing, the deadliest in nearly a year. Heavy fighting erupted between government soldiers and Taliban remnants. 43 deaths were reported in the fighting.
    (AP, 8/13/03)(AP, 8/14/03)

2003        Aug 17, In southeastern Afghanistan insurgents attacked a police headquarters sparking a battle that killed at least 15 fighters and seven Afghan police.
    (AP, 8/17/03)

2003        Aug 18, Suspected Taliban insurgents killed at least nine policemen in an ambush in Logar province's Kharwar village, about 55 miles south of Kabul.
    (AP, 8/19/03)

2003        Aug 19, Afghanistan celebrated its Independence Day. An explosion ripped through the home of the brother of President Hamid Karzai.
    (AP, 8/19/03)

2003        Aug 22, In central Afghanistan government forces fought hundreds of suspected Taliban insurgents, killing four guerrillas and arresting 13. At least four government soldiers died.
    (AP, 8/23/03)

2003        Aug 23, Taliban fighters ambushed a truck full of government soldiers in the southern province of Zabul. Gov. Hafizullah Khan said five soldiers and three Taliban were killed.
    (AP, 8/24/03)

2003        Aug 24, Public power went out in Kabul, Afghanistan, due to lack of water in the local reservoirs. Return of power was not expected until Dec.
    (Econ, 8/30/03, p.30)

2003        Aug 25, In southeastern Afghanistan US jets hit a Taliban hideout and at least 14 insurgents were killed.
    (SFC, 8/26/03, p.A7)

2003        Aug 27, American and Afghan forces killed about a dozen insurgents and recaptured a mountain pass in southeastern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 8/27/03)
2003        Aug 27, Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said that Germany was committed to deploying troops to northern Afghanistan to support reconstruction efforts.
    (AP, 8/28/03)

2003        Aug 31, In Afghanistan 2 US soldiers were killed in Paktika province.
    (SFC, 9/1/03, p.A3)

2003        Sep 1, Suspected Taliban fighters attacked a government checkpoint and ambushed another group of Afghan soldiers along the main road linking the south with the capital, killing at least eight soldiers over the last 2 days.
    (AP, 9/1/03)

2003        Sep 5, Afghan forces in the southern province of Zabul captured five fugitive Taliban militants, including an insurgent leader, after a battle that killed scores of rebels. Coalition forces killed Mullah Abdul Razzaq Hafees, a Taliban commander, and 19 other militants in fighting in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 9/6/03)(AP, 10/6/03)

2003        Sep 7, The top American commander in Afghanistan said Taliban fighters, paid and trained by al-Qaida, were pouring into Afghanistan from Pakistan.
    (AP, 9/8/03)

2003        Sep 8, In Afghanistan suspected Taliban rebels stopped a car carrying Afghans working for a Danish aid organization, tied them up, then shot four of them to death.
    (AP, 9/10/03)

2003        Sep 14, Hafiz Abdul Rahim, a top commander of the former Taliban regime who allegedly led rebel fighters in southern Afghanistan, was killed along with 14 other fighters in a shootout with Afghan forces.
    (AP, 9/16/03)

2003        Sep 18, In Afghanistan US forces killed at least 11 Taliban in fighting over the last 3 days as part of operation "Mountain Viper," which has been going on for more than two weeks. US helicopters attacked a tent in southern Afghanistan, killing two Taliban militants and 10 nomadic tribesmen after the Taliban sought shelter there. Local Taliban commander, Mullah Mohammed Gul Niazi, was among the dead.
    (AP, 9/18/03)(AP, 9/20/03)
2003        Sep 18, In Afghanistan US helicopter fire left 5 women and four children dead and six people wounded in the Nuabahar district.
    (AP, 9/25/03)

2003        Oct 2, Two Canadian peacekeepers were killed and three were injured in a land-mine blast in the Afghan capital Kabul.
    (Reuters, 10/2/03)
2003        Oct 2, Pakistan's army launched its largest offensive against al-Qaida and other militants in a rugged tribal region bordering Afghanistan, killing at least 12 suspects.
    (AP, 10/2/03)

2003        Oct 3, Afghan civilians accidentally set off an explosive inside a home near Bagram Air Base American military headquarters, killing seven people and wounding six others.
    (AP, 10/3/03)

2003        Oct 9, Rival warlords in northern Afghanistan said that they had reached a truce after fighting killed dozens of people.
    (AP, 10/9/03)

2003        Oct 10, In southern Afghanistan 41 Taliban militants escaped from prison by digging a 30-foot-long tunnel with apparent help from officials.
    (AP, 10/11/03)

2003        Oct 13, Hundreds of Afghan troops backed by U.S. soldiers and helicopters attacked a suspected Taliban hide-out, killing at least 4 rebels and capturing 8 others.
    (AP, 10/14/03)

2003        Oct 14, Afghan soldiers backed by U.S. troops and helicopters killed 7 Taliban and captured 12 others during a 2-day raid in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/15/03)

2003        Oct 17, In eastern Afghanistan a bomb blew up a pickup truck on a dirt road, killing four people, and two Afghan soldiers were killed in a land mine explosion in the country's south.
    (AP, 10/19/03)

2003        Oct 19, Afghan movie "Osama" by director Siddiq Barmak won the top prize at Montreal's New Movie and New Media Festival, one of the first features produced in Afghanistan and nominated since the fall of the Taliban.
    (Reuters, 10/19/03)

2003        Oct 23, In northern Afghan attackers fired rockets at a pickup truck ferrying passengers, killing 10 people, including two children.
    (AP, 10/24/03)

2003        Oct 25, A US-led coalition troops and Afghan militia killed 18 rebel fighters in a six-hour firefight in eastern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/28/03)
2003        Oct 25, In Afghanistan CIA operatives William Carlson, 43, of Southern Pines, N.C., and Christopher Glenn Mueller, 32, of San Diego were ambushed and killed near the village in Shkin in Paktika province while "tracking terrorists."
    (AP, 10/29/03)

2003        Oct 29, The Afghan Supreme Court issued a condemnation against Vida Samadzai (33) for competing as Miss Afghanistan in the Miss Earth competition in Manila.
    (USAT, 10/30/03, p.13A)

2003        Oct 31, Fighting between Afghan soldiers and police in a tense province in southern Afghanistan killed two military commanders and up to eight policemen.
    (AP, 11/1/03)

2003        Nov 3, Afghanistan unveiled a post-Taliban draft constitution.
    (AP, 11/3/03)

2003        Nov 11, An Afghan soldier fired on a coalition convoy at a checkpoint in southern Afghanistan, killing 1 Romanian soldier and wounding a convoy member before escaping.
    (AP, 11/12/03)

2003        Nov 16, In Afghanistan Bettina Goislard, a French UN worker, was shot and killed by a man on a motorcycle who opened fire on her car. In 2004 Zia Ahmad and Abdul Nabi were sentenced to death for the murder.
    (AP, 11/16/03)(SFC, 2/11/04, p.A3)

2003        Nov 18, Some 30 Taliban guerrillas attacked a road checkpoint in southern Afghanistan, killing three militiamen and wounding two others. The UN refugee agency began pulling foreign staff out of Afghanistan after the killing of French worker.
    (AP, 11/19/03)(AP, 11/18/04)

2003        Nov 21, In northern Afghanistan at least 60 suspected Taliban and Taliban sympathizers were released from Shibergan jail in Jawzjan province.
    (AP, 11/22/03)

2003        Nov 23, In Afghanistan a transport helicopter carrying US troops that crashed just north of Kabul, killing five Americans and injuring seven.
    (AP, 11/24/03)

2003        Dec 2, In northern Afghanistan, Abdul Rashid Dostum and Atta Mohammed, 2 main feuding warlords, handed over tanks and cannons to the fledgling national army.
    (AP, 12/2/03)(SFC, 12/3/03, p.A3)

2003        Dec 5, In eastern Afghanistan 6 children were crushed to death by a collapsing wall during an assault by U.S. forces on a weapons compound.
    (AP, 12/10/03)

2003        Dec 6, In Kandahar, Afghanistan, a bomb exploded in a bazaar, wounding about 20 people, at least three seriously, in an attack that a Taliban spokesman said targeted, but missed, American soldiers who shop there.
    (AP, 12/6/03)
2003        Dec 6, In eastern Afghanistan a US air strike apparently killed 9 children and a suspected militant near the village of Hutala.
    (AP, 12/7/03)(SFC, 12/8/03, p.A12)

2003        Dec 14, In Afghanistan a landmark constitutional convention began with solemn prayers.
    (AP, 12/14/03)

2003        Dec 16, In Afghanistan several dozen delegates broke away from a crucial constitutional assembly to celebrate the inauguration of the Kabul-Kandahar highway, a vital artery linking the capital with the lawless and poverty-stricken south.
    (AP, 12/16/03)

2003        Dec 17, In Afghanistan Malalai Joya (25) created an uproar at the constitutional assembly when she questioned why her peers tolerated the presence of criminals, a reference to the sacrosanct mujahedeen who fought the Soviet Union and became warlords.
    (SFC, 12/18/03, p.A3)

2003        Dec 20,  Lt. Gen. David W. Barno, the new U.S. commander in Afghanistan said he will use his forces to open up the lawless south and east to development aid, in a tactical switch to beat a stubborn insurgency threatening next year's elections.
    (AP, 12/20/03)

2003        Dec 27, In Afghanistan suspected al Qaeda fighters ambushed Afghan security forces near the Pakistani border. A senior Afghan intelligence official was killed along with 6 attackers.
    (SSFC, 12/28/03, p.A14)

2003        Dec 28, Five Afghan security officials were killed in Kabul when a suicide bomber they had detained blew himself up.
    (Reuters, 12/28/03)

2003        Dec 31, Security forces boarded a bus in Macedonia and snatched a German citizen named Khaled el-Masri (b.1963). For the next five months, el-Masri was a ghost. Only a select group of CIA officers knew he had been whisked to a secret prison for interrogation in Afghanistan. He was the wrong guy. El-Masri was dumped in Albania in a remote hillside on May 28, 2004, without explanation or apology. Five months later Germany withdrew warrants for the arrest of 13 CIA agents.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalid_El-Masri)(AP, 2/9/11)(SSFC, 3/6/11, p.F6)

2003        Norman Friedman authored "Terrorism, Afghanistan and America's New Way of War."
    (WSJ, 8/12/03, p.D8)

2003        Afghanistan's opium farmers and traffickers earned $2.3 billion, 50% of the GDP. Habitual drug users reached about 4% of the population.
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.35)

2003        Afghanistan 1st private airline, Kam Air, was launched.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.35)

2004        Jan 1, Afghanistan's constitutional convention came off the rails, as panicked officials adjourned the gathering in the face of a boycott by opponents of President Hamid Karzai. Tajik and Uzbek delegates mounted a boycott demanding that minority rights be guarded.
    (AP, 1/1/04)(WSJ, 1/2/04, p.A1)

2004        Jan 4,  Rival Afghan factions agreed to a new national constitution. 502 delegates accepted a system with a strong president and a weaker parliament.
    (AP, 1/4/04)(SFC, 1/5/04, p.A1)

2004        Jan 6, In Afghanistan a time bomb in an apple cart blast killed at least 17 people, including 8 children, in the southern city of Kandahar. 12 civilians were executed in Helmand Province.
    (SFC, 1/7/04, p.A10)(SFC, 1/9/04, p.A12)(AP, 1/6/05)

2004        Jan 12, In Afghanistan dozens of suspected Taliban fighters armed with assault rifles attacked a police checkpoint and killed four policemen.
    (AP, 1/12/04)

2004        Jan 17, A Taliban ambush near Kandahar left 5 Afghans dead.
    (WSJ, 1/19/04, p.A1)
2004        Jan 17, A U.S. helicopter attacked a house in Saghatho village in southern Afghanistan, killing 11 people, four of them children. The US military said that only 5 militants were killed. President Hamid Karzai later said 10 Afghan civilians were killed in the US strike.
    (AP, 1/19/04)(SFC, 1/20/04, p.A3)(AP, 1/31/04)

2004        Jan 26, President Hamid Karzai signed Afghanistan's new constitution into law, putting into force a charter meant to reunite his war-shattered nation and help defeat a virulent Taliban insurgency.
    (AP, 1/26/04)

2004        Jan 27, In Afghanistan a Taliban suicide bomber struck a convoy of the NATO-led security force in the capital, killing a Canadian soldier and an Afghan civilian.
    (AP, 1/27/04)

2004        Jan 28, In Afghanistan a suicide car bomber blew himself up in a taxi next to British peacekeepers patrolling the Kabul, killing one soldier and wounding four.
    (AP, 1/28/04)

2004        Jan 29, The US freed 3 juvenile Afghan detainees (13-15) from Guantanamo, Cuba.
    (WSJ, 1/30/04, p.A1)
2004        Jan 29,  In Afghanistan an arms dump blast killed 8 American soldiers in a what was likely an accident.
    (SFC, 1/30/04, p.A3)(AP, 1/31/04)

2004        Jan 31, In Deh Rawood, Afghanistan, a remote-controlled bomb, thought to have been planted by Taliban or al-Qaida fighters, exploded as a southern Afghan mayor and his family drove by, killing him and seven relatives.
    (AP, 2/1/04)

2004        Feb 5, In northeastern Afghanistan rival armed factions clashed and a state television report said 20 people were killed.
    (AP, 2/7/04)

2004        Feb 8, In northeastern Afghanistan 4 days of fighting between rival warlords over control of the drug trade left 7 dead and 8 wounded.
    (SFC, 2/9/04, p.A3)

2004        Feb 11, In eastern Afghanistan a suicide attacker fatally shot a senior intelligence official in Khost, then blew himself up as guards tried to arrest him.
    (AP, 2/11/04)(WSJ, 2/12/04, p.A1)

2004        Feb 25, In Afghanistan gunmen opened fire on a vehicle carrying Afghan aid workers east of the capital, killing five and wounding two others.
    (AP, 2/26/04)

2004        Mar 5, U.S. special operations forces killed nine suspected Taliban rebels in a firefight in eastern Afghanistan after the militants tried to sneak by their position.
    (AP, 3/6/04)
2004        Mar 5, Suspected Taliban gunmen killed a Turkish engineer and an Afghan soldier after stopping their car along a main road linking the capital with the turbulent south.
    (AP, 3/5/04)

2004        Mar 13, In Afghanistan Taliban armed with rockets and heavy machine guns attacked a government office near the Afghan-Pakistan border, sparking a firefight that killed one Afghan soldier and three Taliban.
    (AP, 3/14/04)

2004        Mar 14, In southeastern Afghanistan U.S.-led troops surprised eight enemy fighters in a cave complex, prompting a gunbattle, which left 3 militiamen killed and 5 others wounded.
    (AP, 3/15/04)

2004        Mar 19, In central Afghanistan U.S. warplanes and ground forces killed five suspected Taliban fighters at a compound in Uruzgan province.
    (AP, 3/21/04)

2004        Mar 20, It was reported that at least 56 people, virtually all young married or soon-to-be married women, had set themselves ablaze in Herat, Afghanistan, over the past year.
    (Econ, 3/20/04, p.44)

2004        Mar 21, Afghan aviation minister Mirwais Sadiq was assassinated in the western city of Herat.
    (AP, 3/21/04)

2004        Mar 22, Afghan soldiers deployed to the western city of Herat after some of the fiercest factional fighting since the 2001 fall of the Taliban killed a Cabinet minister and as many as 100 others.
    (AP, 3/22/04)

2004        Apr 1, Afghanistan and its neighbors agreed to cooperate in stemming the country's drug exports after donors pledged $8.2 billion in new reconstruction aid.
    (AP, 4/1/04)

2004        Apr 8, In Afghanistan troops loyal to ethnic Uzbek warlord Abdul Rashid Dostum overran Maymana, the center of Faryab province. In the south, clashes left at least 7 people dead, including two Afghan soldiers, and two police officers killed in an attack by suspected Taliban
    (AP, 4/8/04)(SFC, 4/9/04, p.A3)

2004        Apr 14, In Afghanistan killed a district police chief and eight Afghan soldiers in an ambush in southern Zabul province.
    (AP, 4/15/04)

2004        Apr 16, In Afghanistan suspected Taliban rebels fired rockets and machine-guns at a checkpoint in a remote southwestern region, killing 8 Afghan soldiers in a night time attack.
    (AP, 4/18/04)

2004        Apr 20, Afghanistan carried out its first execution since the fall of the hardline Taliban, putting a bullet to the head of a former military commander convicted of more than 20 murders. "During his detention, Abdullah Shah reportedly revealed first hand evidence against several regional commanders currently in positions of power against whom no charges have been brought."
    (AP, 4/27/04)

2004        Apr 21, U.S. forces battled Taliban holdouts in a forbidding mountain range in southern Afghanistan, killing two fighters and arresting two others.
    (AP, 4/22/04)

2004        Apr 22, Pat Tillman, former safety for the Arizona Cardinals, was killed in an ambush in Afghanistan. He had walked away from millions of dollars to join the Army Rangers and serve his country. In late May the Army said that Tillman was likely killed by friendly fire. In 2005 a new Army report said top officials held back information that Tillman was killed by ~ez_ldquo~friendly fire." In 2007 a Pentagon report found no plot to conceal evidence, but recommended that officers be held accountable for making misleading statements about Tillman~ez_rsquo~s death. A general was censured on July 31, 2007. In 2009 Jon Krakauer authored ~ez_ldquo~Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman."
    (AP, 4/24/04)(AP, 5/29/04)(SFC, 5/4/05, p.A9)(SFC, 3/27/07, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/1/07, p.A1)(SSFC, 9/20/09, p.B1)

2004        May 2, In Afghanistan a fuel-truck explosion killed at least 50 people in western Herat.
    (WSJ, 5/3/04, p.A1)(AP, 5/3/04)

2004        May 4, In Afghanistan 2 foreign contractors helping the UN prepare for landmark elections and their Afghan driver were killed in an attack in a remote eastern province. The bullet-ridden bodies of 10 government soldiers were found in southern Afghanistan, hours after the men were abducted in two raids by suspected Taliban militants.
    (AP, 5/5/04)

2004        May 11, Taliban guerrillas killed two Afghan soldiers on a U.S.-funded highway in a troubled southeastern province where American troops continue to arrest suspected militants.
    (AP, 5/12/04)

2004        May 15, Suspected insurgents attacked a coalition combat patrol in southern Afghanistan, killing one American soldier and wounding two others. At least 122 U.S. troops have died, 53 killed in action, since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom in 2001 to topple the Taliban regime for harboring al-Qaida.
    (AP, 5/16/04)

2004        May 18, In Afghanistan U.S. forces killed 3 Taliban commanders and arrested five more members of the hardline militia.
    (AP, 5/21/04)

2004        May 19, In Afghanistan clashes left at least 4 Taliban dead.
    (WSJ, 5/20/04, p.A1)

2004        May 20, In Afghanistan 3 suspected militants were killed and 23 people detained after 4 U.S. soldiers were shot and wounded during raids against militia forces in Tani district. Residents claimed a case of mistaken identities.
    (AP, 5/21/04)

2004        May 25, U.S. warplanes helped Afghan forces pound Taliban militants in the mountains of southern Afghanistan, killing some 20 suspected insurgents at a recently discovered camp.
    (AP, 5/26/04)

2004        May 29, In southern Afghanistan 4 members of the American special forces were killed in action in Zabul province, a stronghold of Taliban militants.
    (AP, 5/29/04)
2004        May 29, Taliban guerrillas riding in a fleet of vehicles shot up a government office in southern Afghanistan, killing four Afghan soldiers.
    (AP, 5/30/04)

2004        Jun 1, In eastern Afghanistan a bomb planted under the chair of a city police chief exploded, killing him and wounding two government officials.
    (AP, 6/1/04)

2004        Jun 2, U.S. and Afghan troops backed by American warplanes fought Taliban militants in the mountains of southern Afghanistan, killing 17 insurgents and arresting eight. In northwestern Afghanistan 3 foreign medical workers associated with Doctors Without Borders and 2 Afghans were killed when their car was ambushed.
    (AP, 6/3/04)(SFC, 6/3/04, A10)(SFC, 6/5/04, A8)

2004        Jun 4, In southern Afghanistan U.S. troops and warplanes attacked Taliban rebels besieging a remote checkpoint. Eight militants were killed.
    (AP, 6/5/04)

2004        Jun 8, U.S.-led troops backed by jet fighters and helicopters killed 21 Taliban militants, after rebels attacked a convoy in the mountains of southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 6/9/04)

2004        Jun 9, An Afghan commander said that Afghan and U.S. forces killed more than 70 Taliban rebels in a seven-day operation in a mountainous southern district, including at least 20 militants who died in a single clash.
    (AP, 6/9/04)

2004        Jun 10, In northern Afghanistan gunmen stormed a camp of sleeping Chinese road workers in Kunduz province, killing at least 11.
    (AP, 6/10/04)(WSJ, 6/10/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 15, Afghanistan~ez_rsquo~s Pres. Karzai met with Pres. Bush and spoke before the US Congress thanking Americans for removing the Taliban. He also noted that opium production now made up over 40% of the country~ez_rsquo~s gross domestic product.
    (SFC, 6/16/04, p.A3)

2004        Jun 16, In northern Afghanistan a remote-controlled bomb hit a convoy of German peacekeepers, killing an Afghan driver and three civilians.
    (AP, 6/16/04)

2004        Jun 17, In Afghanistan fighters loyal to several regional warlords stormed Chagcharan, a provincial capital of western Ghor province, and forced the governor to flee.
    (AP, 6/18/04)

2004        Jun 18, In southern Afghanistan Taliban insurgents attacked a government office in Mizan, sparking a gunfight with Afghan troops that killed seven people.
    (AP, 6/19/04)

2004        Jun 24, In eastern Afghanistan 2 U.S. Marines were killed and another was wounded in an attack at Kunar province.
    (AP, 6/25/04)

2004        Jun 25, In southern Afghanistan suspected Taliban gunmen sprayed a van with bullets after finding that occupants had registered to vote. some 10-16 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/28/04, p.A6)(AP, 6/25/05)

2004        Jun 26, Taliban remnants claimed responsibility for the bomb attack that killed two Afghani United Nations election workers in eastern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 6/26/04)

2004        Jun 28, Seven Afghan policemen were killed as NATO agreed to boost its troop contingent there to 10,000 ahead of September elections.
    (WSJ, 6/29/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun, Haji Bashir Noorzai was named as the top heroin dealer in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 11/19/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 1, Historic Afghan elections scheduled for September were delayed because of wrangling among officials and political parties.
    (AP, 7/1/04)

2004        Jul 4, Afghan President Hamid Karzai issued a decree ordering death penalty for criminals who remove body parts from kidnapped children.
    (Reuters, 7/4/04)

2004        Jul 11, It was reported that Jonathan Keith Idema (1956-2012), former US special operations soldier, was recently arrested along with Brent Bennet and Edward Caraballo for running a vigilante anti-terrorism campaign in Kabul. They had posed as government officials and imprisoned innocent Afghan men. Caraballo was released April 30, 2006, after serving 21 months of a 2-year sentence. Idema and Bennet continued to serve their 5 and 3 year sentences.
    (SSFC, 7/11/04, p.A10)(SFC, 5/1/06, p.A8)(Econ, 2/4/12, p.98)
2004        Jul 11, A bomb exploded on a bustling street of Herat, Afghanistan, killing five people, and injuring 29.
    (AP, 7/11/04)

2004        Jul 13, American troops in Afghanistan numbered about 17,000 with some 140,000 serving in Iraq.
    (WSJ, 7/13/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 20, In Afghanistan US forces killed one militant and captured 5 others including a brother of Taliban leader Mullah Omar.
    (SFC, 7/21/04, p.A9)
2004        Jul 20, Pakistani officials acknowledged the closing and bulldozing of 2 refugee camps Zarinoor 1 & 2 in South Waziristan. The government had decided to dismantle all camps within 3 miles of the Afghan border.
    (SFC, 7/21/04, p.A9)

2004        Jul 21, In Afghanistan 10 militant fighters were killed and 5 wounded and captured when they attacked a US-led force near Kandahar.
    (SFC, 7/22/04, p.A3)

2004        Jul 26, Afghan President Hamid Karzai formally filed his candidacy for October presidential elections and chose a brother of late resistance hero Ahmad Shah Masoud as his running mate for vice president.
    (AP, 7/26/04)

2004        Jul 28, A bomb exploded in a mosque where Afghans were registering for upcoming elections, killing six people including two U.N. staffers.
    (AP, 7/28/04)

2004        Jul 31, In southern Afghanistan gunmen killed a local government leader and four of his bodyguards in an ambush.
    (AP, 7/31/04)

2004        Aug 4, It was reported that LeapFrog Enterprises would donate 20,000 interactive women~ez_rsquo~s health books to Afghan women under a $1.25 million development and distribution grant from the US Dept. of health and Human Services.
    (SFC, 8/4/04, p.C1)

2004        Aug 6, In Afghanistan gunmen ambushed a convoy carrying election workers into a remote Taliban stronghold, killing two of them.
    (AP, 8/7/04)

2004        Aug 8, The US military said 2 American soldiers and their Afghan interpreter died when a bomb hit their Humvee.
    (AP, 8/8/04)

2004        Aug 14, In western Afghanistan rival militias clashed, reportedly killing 21 people. Eight militiamen, including two commanders, were killed when fighting erupted between two rival warlords over control of a western district.
    (AP, 8/14/04)

2004        Aug 18, Afghan President Hamid Karzai's 17 rivals in the presidential race threatened to boycott landmark October 9 elections unless he stepped down before the vote.
    (AP, 8/18/04)

2004        Aug 21, In Afghanistan US soldiers opened fire on a pickup truck that failed to stop at a checkpoint in central Ghazni province, killing a man and two women.
    (AP, 8/22/04)

2004        Aug 23, Afghan Pres. Hamid Karzai arrived in Pakistan for talks with his Pres. Pervez Musharraf on eradicating Al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters from their common border.
    (AP, 8/23/04)

2004        Aug 28, An explosion ripped through a school in southeastern Afghanistan, killing nine youngsters and one adult.
    (AP, 8/29/04)

2004        Aug 29, In Afghanistan an explosion tore through the office of DynCorp., an American defense contractor, in the heart of Kabul, killing 12 people, including 3 Americans.
    (AP, 8/29/04)(SFC, 8/31/04, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/31/04, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/31/04, p.A1)

2004        Aug 30, US warplanes bombed Weradesh village in eastern Afghanistan, killing 8 people and destroying the camp of a Danish relief group after assailants rocketed a nearby government office.
    (AP, 8/31/04)

2004        Sep 11, In Afghanistan Pres. Karzai appointed Sayeed Mohammed Khairkhwa as governor of Herat and offered Gov. Ismail Khan a post as minister of mines and industry. Khan, the ~ez_ldquo~Lion of Heart," accepted the cabinet job in Kabul.
    (SFC, 9/13/04, p.A3)(WSJ, 3/14/05, p.A1)

2004        Sep 12, In Herat, Afghanistan, mobs loyal to Gov. Khan burned a half dozen int~ez_rsquo~l. aid compounds and as many as 7 people were killed.
    (SFC, 9/13/04, p.A3)(WSJ, 9/13/04, p.A1)
2004        Sep 12, In southern Afghanistan US forces backed by helicopter gunships killed 22 insurgents, including 3 Arab fighters.
    (AP, 9/13/04)(SFC, 9/14/04, p.A7)

2004        Sep 15, Three Americans accused of torturing Afghans in a private jail were found guilty in a Kabul court after a trial denounced by the defense as failing to meet basic international standards of fairness.
    (AP, 9/15/04)

2004        Sep 17, In Afghanistan suspected Taliban rebels killed two tribal elders who were encouraging participation in elections.
    (AP, 9/18/04)

2004        Sep 18, In Afghanistan 4 gunmen riding two motorcycles ambushed the car of a militia commander in Helmand province, killing him and wounding two of his guards.
    (AP, 9/18/04)

2004        Sep 20, In southeastern Afghan province 2 US soldiers were killed in a firefight with insurgents.
    (AP, 9/20/04)

2004        Sep 21, US forces killed 6 Afghan guerrillas following a rocket attack on a helicopter.
    (WSJ, 9/22/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 25, Afghan security forces killed a senior Taliban commander and two of his comrades in southern Afghanistan. Maulvi Abdul Ghaffar, a former inmate at the US prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, died in the gunbattle. 
    (AP, 9/26/04)

2004        Sep 28, The Pentagon notified Congress of plans to build five bases in Afghanistan for the Afghan National Army at a cost of up to one billion dollars.
    (AP, 9/28/04)

2004        Sep 30, Taliban guerrillas killed at least 12 Afghan soldiers in the southern province of Zabul.
    (WSJ, 10/1/04, p.A1)

2004        Oct 2, Afghan intelligence agents backed by international peacekeepers arrested 25 people allegedly linked to the Taliban and al-Qaida in an early morning raid in eastern Kabul.
    (AP, 10/2/04)

2004        Oct 9, Afghanistan's first direct presidential election was thrust into turmoil hours after it started when all 15 candidates challenging interim leader Hamid Karzai alleged fraud over the ink meant to ensure people voted only once and vowed to boycott the results.
    (AP, 10/9/04)(SSFC, 10/10/04, p.A1)
2004        Oct 9, An exit poll conducted by an American non-profit group found that interim Afghan president Hamid Karzai won the first-ever presidential election with the outright majority needed to avoid a second round.
    (AP, 10/11/04)
2004        Oct 9, US forces in Afghanistan fought militants on the ground and aircraft bombed them in a clash that left 25 rebels dead before the nation's landmark elections.
    (AP, 10/9/04)

2004        Oct 11, The main opposition candidate in Afghanistan's first-ever presidential election backed off a boycott of the vote, saying he would accept the formation of an independent commission to look into alleged cheating.
    (AP, 10/11/04)

2004        Oct 14, The US Army announced that up to 28 U.S. soldiers face possible criminal charges in connection with the deaths of two prisoners at an American-run prison in Afghanistan two years ago.
    (AP, 10/14/04)

2004        Oct 14, In southern Afghanistan a homemade bomb killed 2 American soldiers and wounded 3 others.
    (AP, 10/16/04)

2004        Oct 15, In an eastern Afghan province killed at least three children and a policeman on the first day of the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.
    (AP, 10/16/04)

2004        Oct 18, In southeastern Afghanistan 5 people were killed when an explosive device hit a vehicle being used by election staff. Hamid Karzai~ez_rsquo~s chief rival Yunus Qanooni accused organizers of "robbing the people's vote."
    (AP, 10/18/04)

2004        Oct 23, A purported Taliban militant set off grenades strapped to his body on a bustling Kabul street, killing Jamie Michalsky (23), an American woman, and an Afghan girl.
    (AP, 10/24/04)(SSFC, 10/24/04, p.A3)

2004        Oct 25, Hamid Karzai was assured of a majority in Afghanistan's election to become its first democratically chosen president. A close to final tally soon gave Karzai 55.4% of the vote.
    (AP, 10/25/04)(SFC, 10/28/04, p.A12)

2004        Oct 26, The final vote count in the Afghan presidential election gave a sounding victory to interim leader Hamid Karzai.
    (AP, 10/26/05)

2004        Oct 28, A breakaway Taliban group abducted three foreign UN workers from Kabul because they assisted Afghanistan's "fake election" and threatened to kill them if a rescue mission was launched.
    (AP, 10/29/04)

2004        Nov 2, Afghan fighting killed at least 11 as troops tried to disarm southern militias.
    (WSJ, 11/3/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 3, Hamid Karzai was officially declared the winner of Afghanistan's first-ever presidential election after a 3-week probe into vote fraud found no grounds to invalidate his triumph.
    (AP, 11/3/05)

2004        Nov 5, In Afghanistan Islamic militants holding 3 UN workers hostage set a new, fifth deadline for their execution.
    (AFP, 11/5/04)

2004        Nov 18, A UN report said opium and heroin production in Afghanistan had rocketed to near record levels. It accounted for over 60% of Afghan GDP and 87% of world supply.
    (SFC, 11/19/04, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 21, US led troops mounted overnight raids on suspected al-Qaida compounds in eastern Afghanistan, killing four people and detaining several others.
    (AP, 11/21/04)

2004        Nov 23, In Afghanistan 3 UN workers kidnapped 4 weeks ago were released unharmed.
    (AP, 11/23/04)

2004        Nov 24, In southern Afghanistan a bomb exploded near a US patrol, killing two American soldiers and wounding another.
    (AP, 11/24/04)

2004        Nov 27, In Afghanistan 6 Americans died when a private plane used by the US Air Force crashed in snow-covered mountains. Search teams later recovered the bodies.
    (AP, 12/1/04)(WSJ, 12/1/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov, The US announced an additional $780m for drug control efforts in Afghanistan.
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.46)

2004        Dec 7, Hamid Karzai was sworn in as Afghanistan's first popularly elected president.
    (AP, 12/7/04)

2004        Dec 8, Some 18,000 US troops in Afghanistan began Operation Lightning Freedom, a new offensive to hunt Taliban and al-Qaida militants through the country's harsh winter.
    (AP, 12/11/04)

2004        Dec 13, Afghan intelligence agents arrested two senior Taliban military commanders, including a former security chief of the hardline regime's leader Mullah Omar.
    (AP, 12/14/04)

2004        Dec 15, In eastern Afghanistan the body of a kidnapped Turkish engineer was found, a day after he was snatched with his driver and interpreter by a band of armed men.
    (AP, 12/15/04)

2004        Dec 17, Afghan forces retook control of Pul-e-Charkhi, the country's largest jail, following a day-long standoff. 4 inmates and 4 guards were killed in the violence.
    (AP, 12/17/04)(SFC, 12/18/04, p.A8)

2004        Dec 19, A vehicle carrying a group of suspected Taliban fighters attacked a military checkpoint in southern Afghanistan, sparking a firefight that left six dead.
    (AP, 12/20/04)

2004        Dec 23, Afghan Pres. Hamid Karzai chose a new Cabinet, heeding calls to sideline warlords from top positions, including the defense minister, and creating a new post to oversee the fight against opium production.
    (AP, 12/23/04)

2004        Dec 29, In Afghanistan masked gunmen killed Pashtun politician Shah Alam Khan, a close ally of Pres. Karzai.
    (WSJ, 12/30/04, p.A1)

2004        In Afghanistan Nizar Habibi served as Kabul~ez_rsquo~s chief price controller. Prices were limited by 5% profits in order to ensure that the poor could afford to eat.
    (WSJ, 10/8/04, p.A15)
2004        In Afghanistan Ahmed Wali Karzai, the brother of Pres. Karzai, was implicated in an enormous cache of heroin found hidden beneath concrete blocks in a tractor-trailer outside Kandahar. Security forces released the vehicle and the drugs following a call from Ahmed Wali Karzai, later chief of the Kandahar Provincial Council.
    (SSFC, 10/5/08, p.A23)
2004        In Afghanistan Radio Watanda began broadcasting from a basement in a suburb of Kabul. Listeners soon discovered that they could use it as a platform to harangue the authorities.
    (Econ, 6/16/07, p.50)

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